3D Metallic Lattices for Accelerator Applications
Shapiro, Michael A; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R; Temkin, Richard J
2005-01-01
We present the results of research on 3D metallic lattices operating at microwave frequencies for application in (1) accelerator structures with higher order mode suppression, (2) Smith-Purcell radiation beam diagnostics, and (3) polaritonic materials for laser acceleration. Electromagnetic waves in a 3D simple cubic lattice formed by metal wires are calculated using HFSS. The bulk modes in the lattice are determined using single cell calculations with different phase advances in all three directions. The Brillouin diagram for the bulk modes is presented and indicates the absence of band gaps in simple lattices except the band below the cutoff. Lattices with thin wires as well as with thick wires have been analyzed. The Brillouin diagram also indicates the presence of low frequency 3D plasmon mode as well as the two degenerate photon modes analogous to those in a 2D lattice. Surface modes for a semi-infinite cubic lattice are modeled as a stack of cells with different phase advances in the two directions alon...
Topological chiral phonons in center-stacked bilayer triangle lattices
Xu, Xifang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Lifa
2018-06-01
Since chiral phonons were found in an asymmetric two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, there has been growing interest in the study of phonon chirality, which were experimentally verified very recently in monolayer tungsten diselenide (2018 Science 359 579). In this work, we find chiral phonons with nontrivial topology in center-stacked bilayer triangle lattices. At the Brillouin-zone corners, (), circularly polarized phonons and nonzero phonon Berry curvature are observed. Moreover, we find that the phonon chirality remain robust with changing sublattice mass ratio and interlayer coupling. The chiral phonons at the valleys are demonstrated in doubler-layer sodium chloride along the [1 1 1] direction. We believe that the findings on topological chiral phonons in triangle lattices will give guidance in the study of chiral phonons in real materials and promote the phononic applications.
Nanostructured Anodic Multilayer Dielectric Stacked Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors.
Karthik, R; Kannadassan, D; Baghini, Maryam Shojaei; Mallick, P S
2015-12-01
This paper presents the fabrication of Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3 metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor using anodization technique. High capacitance density of > 3.5 fF/μm2, low quadratic voltage coefficient of capacitance of dielectric stack required for high performance MIM capacitor.
Lattice Location of Transition Metals in Semiconductors
2002-01-01
%IS366 %title\\\\ \\\\Transition metals (TMs) in semiconductors have been the subject of considerable research for nearly 40 years. This is due both to their role as important model impurities for deep centers in semiconductors, and to their technological impact as widespread contaminants in Si processing, where the miniaturization of devices requires to keep their sheet concentration below 10$^{10}$ cm$^{-2}$. As a consequence of the low TM solubility, conventional ion beam methods for direct lattice location have failed completely in identifying the lattice sites of isolated transition metals. Although electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has yielded valuable information on a variety of TM centers, it has been unable to detect certain defects considered by theory, e.g., isolated interstitial or substitutional Cu in Si. The proposed identity of other EPR centers such as substitutional Fe in Si, still needs confirmation by additional experimental methods. As a consequence, the knowledge on the structural propert...
Calculated stacking-fault energies of elemental metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosengaard, N. M.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt
1993-01-01
-sphere approximations. The results are in excellent agreement with recent layer Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's-function calculations where stacking-fault energies for Ni, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, and Au were found by means of the the so-called force theorem. We find that the self-consistent fault energies for all the metals...
Band engineering in transition metal dichalcogenides: Stacked versus lateral heterostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John
2016-01-01
We calculate a large difference in the band alignments for transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterojunctions when arranged in the stacked layer or lateral (in-plane) geometries, using direct supercell calculations. The stacked case follows the unpinned limit of the electron affinity rule, whereas the lateral geometry follows the strongly pinned limit of alignment of charge neutrality levels. TMDs therefore provide one of the few clear tests of band alignment models, whereas three-dimensional semiconductors give less stringent tests because of accidental chemical trends in their properties.
The lattice distortion around the divacancy in cubic metals using the method of lattice statics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshioki, S.
1976-01-01
The lattice distortion produced by a divacancy in FCC metals (Al, Cu, Ag and Au) and in BCC metals (Fe, Mo and V) has been calculated using the method of lattice statics. The model assumes non-equilibrium pairwise interactions extending out to second nearest neighbours. Roughly speaking, the relaxation volumes associated with the divacancy are twice the values for the isolated vacancy. (author)
Ab initio lattice dynamics of metal surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heid, R.; Bohnen, K.-P.
2003-01-01
Dynamical properties of atoms on surfaces depend sensitively on their bonding environment and thus provide valuable insight into the local geometry and chemical binding at the boundary of a solid. Density-functional theory provides a unified approach to the calculation of structural and dynamical properties from first principles. Its high accuracy and predictive power for lattice dynamical properties of semiconductor surfaces has been demonstrated in a previous article by Fritsch and Schroeder (Phys. Rep. 309 (1999) 209). In this report, we review the state-of-the-art of these ab initio approaches to surface dynamical properties of metal surfaces. We give a brief introduction to the conceptual framework with focus on recent advances in computational procedures for the ab initio linear-response approach, which have been a prerequisite for an efficient treatment of surface dynamics of noble and transition metals. The discussed applications to clean and adsorbate-covered surfaces demonstrate the high accuracy and reliability of this approach in predicting detailed microscopic properties of the phonon dynamics for a wide range of metallic surfaces
Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.
2012-03-09
It is shown that the well-known negative flatband voltage (VFB) shift, induced by rare-earth oxide capping in metal gate stacks, can be completely reversed in the absence of the silicon overlayer. Using TaN metal gates and Gd2O3-doped dielectric, we measure a ∼350 mV negative shift with the Si overlayer present and a ∼110 mV positive shift with the Si overlayer removed. This effect is correlated to a positive change in the average electrostatic potential at the TaN/dielectric interface which originates from an interfacial dipole. The dipole is created by the replacement of interfacial oxygen atoms in the HfO2 lattice with nitrogen atoms from TaN.
On calculation of lattice parameters of refractory metal solid solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barsukov, A.D.; Zhuravleva, A.D.; Pedos, A.A.
1995-01-01
Technique for calculating lattice periods of solid solutions is suggested. Experimental and calculation values of lattice periods of some solid solutions on the basis of refractory metals (V-Cr, Nb-Zr, Mo-W and other) are presented. Calculation error was correlated with experimental one. 7 refs.; 2 tabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Borovský Michal
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The population annealing algorithm is a novel approach to study systems with rough free-energy landscapes, such as spin glasses. It combines the power of simulated annealing, Boltzmann weighted differential reproduction and sequential Monte Carlo process to bring the population of replicas to the equilibrium even in the low-temperature region. Moreover, it provides a very good estimate of the free energy. The fact that population annealing algorithm is performed over a large number of replicas with many spin updates, makes it a good candidate for massive parallelism. We chose the GPU programming using a CUDA implementation to create a highly optimized simulation. It has been previously shown for the frustrated Ising antiferromagnet on the stacked triangular lattice with a ferromagnetic interlayer coupling, that standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations fail to equilibrate at low temperatures due to the effect of kinetic freezing of the ferromagnetically ordered chains. We applied the population annealing to study the case with the isotropic intra- and interlayer antiferromagnetic coupling (J2/|J1| = −1. The reached ground states correspond to non-magnetic degenerate states, where chains are antiferromagnetically ordered, but there is no long-range ordering between them, which is analogical with Wannier phase of the 2D triangular Ising antiferromagnet.
Size and shape dependent lattice parameters of metallic nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi, W. H.; Wang, M. P.
2005-01-01
A model is developed to account for the size and shape dependent lattice parameters of metallic nanoparticles, where the particle shape difference is considered by introducing a shape factor. It is predicted that the lattice parameters of nanoparticles in several nanometers decrease with decreasing of the particle size, which is consistent with the corresponding experimental results. Furthermore, it is found that the particle shape can lead to 10% of the total lattice variation. The model is a continuous media model and can deal with the nanoparticles larger than 1 nm. Since the shape factor approaches to infinity for nanowires and nanofilms, therefore, the model cannot be generalized to the systems of nanowires and nanofilms. For the input parameters are physical constants of bulk materials, therefore, the present model may be used to predict the lattice variation of different metallic nanoparticles with different lattice structures
Slip systems, dislocation boundaries and lattice rotations in deformed metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winther, Grethe
2009-01-01
Metals are polycrystals and consist of grains, which are subdivided on a finer scale upon plastic deformation due to formation of dislocation boundaries. The crystallographic alignment of planar dislocation boundaries in face centred cubic metals, like aluminium and copper, deformed to moderate...... of the mechanical anisotropy of rolled sheets. The rotation of the crystallographic lattice in each grain during deformation also exhibits grain orientation dependence, originating from the slip systems. A combined analysis of dislocation boundaries and lattice rotations concludes that the two phenomena are coupled...
Hyart, T.; Ojajärvi, R.; Heikkilä, T. T.
2018-04-01
Three-dimensional topological semimetals can support band crossings along one-dimensional curves in the momentum space (nodal lines or Dirac lines) protected by structural symmetries and topology. We consider rhombohedrally (ABC) stacked honeycomb lattices supporting Dirac lines protected by time-reversal, inversion and spin rotation symmetries. For typical band structure parameters there exists a pair of nodal lines in the momentum space extending through the whole Brillouin zone in the stacking direction. We show that these Dirac lines are topologically distinct from the usual Dirac lines which form closed loops inside the Brillouin zone. In particular, an energy gap can be opened only by first merging the Dirac lines going through the Brillouin zone in a pairwise manner so that they turn into closed loops inside the Brillouin zone, and then by shrinking these loops into points. We show that this kind of topological phase transition can occur in rhombohedrally stacked honeycomb lattices by tuning the ratio of the tunneling amplitudes in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the layers. We also discuss the properties of the surface states in the different phases of the model.
Comprehensive first-principles study of stable stacking faults in hcp metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yin, Binglun; Wu, Zhaoxuan; Curtin, W.A.
2017-01-01
The plastic deformation in hcp metals is complex, with the associated dislocation core structures and properties not well understood on many slip planes in most hcp metals. A first step in establishing the dislocation properties is to examine the stable stacking fault energy and its structure on relevant slip planes. However, this has been perplexing in the hcp structure due to additional in-plane displacements on both sides of the slip plane. Here, density functional theory guided by crystal symmetry analysis is used to study all relevant stable stacking faults in 6 hcp metals (Mg, Ti, Zr, Re, Zn, Cd). Specially, the stable stacking fault energy, position, and structure on the Basal, Prism I and II, Pyramidal I and II planes are determined using all-periodic supercells with full atomic relaxation. All metals show similar stacking fault position and structure as dictated by crystal symmetry, but the associated stacking fault energy, being governed by the atomic bonding, differs significantly among them. Stacking faults on all the slip planes except the Basal plane show substantial out-of-plane displacements while stacking faults on the Prism II, Pyramidal I and II planes show additional in-plane displacements, all extending to multiple atom layers. The in-plane displacements are not captured in the standard computational approach for stacking faults, and significant differences are shown in the energies of such stacking faults between the standard approach and fully-relaxed case. The existence of well-defined stable stacking fault on the Pyramidal planes suggests zonal dislocations are unlikely. Calculations on the equilibrium partial separation further suggests 〈c + a〉 dissociation into three partials on the Pyramidal I plane is unlikely and 〈c〉 dissociation on Prism planes is unlikely to be stable against climb-dissociation onto the Basal planes in these metals.
Method for estimating the lattice thermal conductivity of metallic alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yarbrough, D.W.; Williams, R.K.
1978-08-01
A method is described for calculating the lattice thermal conductivity of alloys as a function of temperature and composition for temperatures above theta/sub D//2 using readily available information about the atomic species present in the alloy. The calculation takes into account phonon interactions with point defects, electrons and other phonons. Comparisons between experimental thermal conductivities (resistivities) and calculated values are discussed for binary alloys of semiconductors, alkali halides and metals. A discussion of the theoretical background is followed by sufficient numerical work to facilitate the calculation of lattice thermal conductivity of an alloy for which no conductivity data exist
Stacking faults and microstructural parameters in non-mulberry silk ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
rameters like crystal size (〈N〉), lattice strain (g) and stacking faults in polymer materials ... metal oxide compounds, but may be inadequate for describing diffraction patterns .... Further, with these model parameters for individual Bragg reflec-.
All-Metallic Vertical Transistors Based on Stacked Dirac Materials
Wang, Yangyang; Ni, Zeyuan; Liu, Qihang; Quhe, Ruge; Zheng, Jiaxin; Ye, Meng; Yu, Dapeng; Shi, Junjie; Yang, Jinbo; Lu, Jing
2014-01-01
It is an ongoing pursuit to use metal as a channel material in a field effect transistor. All metallic transistor can be fabricated from pristine semimetallic Dirac materials (such as graphene, silicene, and germanene), but the on/off current ratio is very low. In a vertical heterostructure composed by two Dirac materials, the Dirac cones of the two materials survive the weak interlayer van der Waals interaction based on density functional theory method, and electron transport from the Dirac ...
Liquid metal liner implosion systems with blade lattice for fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Yasuyuki; Fujiie, Yoichi
1980-01-01
In this paper, the liquid liner implosion systems with the blade lattice is proposed for the rotational stabilization of the liner inner surface which is facing a plasma in a fusion reactor. The blades are electrically conducting and inclined to the radial direction. Its major function is either acceleration or deceleration of the liner in the azimuthal direction. This system enables us to exclude the rotary mechanism for the liner rotation. In this system, the liner is formed as an annular flow of a liquid metal (the waterfall concept). Results show that there is no significant difference of the energy cost for the stabilization compared with the earlier proposed system where a liner is rotated rigidly before implosion. Furthermore, the application of the rotating blade lattice makes it possible to reduce the rotational kinetic energy required for the stabilization at turnaround, where the lattice acts as an impeller in the initial liner rotation. There is an optimum blade angle to maximize the compressed magnetic field energy inside the liner for a given driving energy. (author)
Lubnin, A. N.; Dorofeev, G. A.; Nikonova, R. M.; Mukhgalin, V. V.; Lad'yanov, V. I.
2017-11-01
The evolution of the structure and substructure of metals Ti and Mg with hexagonal close-packed (hcp) lattice is studied during their mechanical activation in a planetary ball mill in liquid hydrocarbons (toluene, n-heptane) and with additions of carbon materials (graphite, fullerite, nanotubes) by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical analysis. The temperature behavior and hydrogen-accumulating properties of mechanocomposites are studied. During mechanical activation of Ti and Mg, liquid hydrocarbons decay, metastable nanocrystalline titanium carbohydride Ti(C,H) x and magnesium hydride β-MgH2 are formed, respectively. The Ti(C,H) x and MgH2 formation mechanisms during mechanical activation are deformation ones and are associated with stacking faults accumulation, and the formation of face-centered cubic (fcc) packing of atoms. Metastable Ti(C,H)x decays at a temperature of 550°C, the partial reverse transformation fcc → hcp occurs. The crystalline defect accumulation (nanograin boundaries, stacking faults), hydrocarbon destruction, and mechanocomposite formation leads to the enhancement of subsequent magnesium hydrogenation in the Sieverts reactor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Z.G.; Smith, D.L.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.
1997-01-01
The electronic transmission across metal/conjugated-oligomer/metal structures in the presence of lattice fluctuations is studied for short oligomer chains. The lattice fluctuations are approximated by static white noise disorder. Resonant transmission occurs when the energy of an incoming electron coincides with a discrete electronic level of the oligomer. The corresponding transmission peak diminishes in intensity with increasing disorder strength. Because of disorder there is an enhancement of the electronic transmission for energies that lie within the electronic gap of the oligomer. If fluctuations are sufficiently strong, a transmission peak within the gap is found at the midgap energy E=0 for degenerate conjugated oligomers (e.g., trans-polyacetylene) and E≠0 for AB-type degenerate oligomers. These results can be interpreted in terms of soliton-antisoliton states created by lattice fluctuations. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Low-power DRAM-compatible Replacement Gate High-k/Metal Gate Stacks
Ritzenthaler, R.; Schram, T.; Bury, E.; Spessot, A.; Caillat, C.; Srividya, V.; Sebaai, F.; Mitard, J.; Ragnarsson, L.-Å.; Groeseneken, G.; Horiguchi, N.; Fazan, P.; Thean, A.
2013-06-01
In this work, the possibility of integration of High-k/Metal Gate (HKMG), Replacement Metal Gate (RMG) gate stacks for low power DRAM compatible transistors is studied. First, it is shown that RMG gate stacks used for Logic applications need to be seriously reconsidered, because of the additional anneal(s) needed in a DRAM process. New solutions are therefore developed. A PMOS stack HfO2/TiN with TiN deposited in three times combined with Work Function metal oxidations is demonstrated, featuring a very good Work Function of 4.95 eV. On the other hand, the NMOS side is shown to be a thornier problem to solve: a new solution based on the use of oxidized Ta as a diffusion barrier is proposed, and a HfO2/TiN/TaOX/TiAl/TiN/TiN gate stack featuring an aggressive Work Function of 4.35 eV (allowing a Work Function separation of 600 mV between NMOS and PMOS) is demonstrated. This work paves the way toward the integration of gate-last options for DRAM periphery transistors.
Lattice model of ionic liquid confined by metal electrodes
Girotto, Matheus; Malossi, Rodrigo M.; dos Santos, Alexandre P.; Levin, Yan
2018-05-01
We study, using Monte Carlo simulations, the density profiles and differential capacitance of ionic liquids confined by metal electrodes. To compute the electrostatic energy, we use the recently developed approach based on periodic Green's functions. The method also allows us to easily calculate the induced charge on the electrodes permitting an efficient implementation of simulations in a constant electrostatic potential ensemble. To speed up the simulations further, we model the ionic liquid as a lattice Coulomb gas and precalculate the interaction potential between the ions. We show that the lattice model captures the transition between camel-shaped and bell-shaped capacitance curves—the latter characteristic of ionic liquids (strong coupling limit) and the former of electrolytes (weak coupling). We observe the appearance of a second peak in the differential capacitance at ≈0.5 V for 2:1 ionic liquids, as the packing fraction is increased. Finally, we show that ionic size asymmetry decreases substantially the capacitance maximum, when all other parameters are kept fixed.
Plasmon polaritons in cubic lattices of spherical metallic nanoparticles
Lamowski, Simon; Mann, Charlie-Ray; Hellbach, Felicitas; Mariani, Eros; Weick, Guillaume; Pauly, Fabian
2018-03-01
We theoretically investigate plasmon polaritons in cubic lattices of spherical metallic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles, each supporting triply-degenerate localized surface plasmons, couple through the Coulomb dipole-dipole interaction, giving rise to collective plasmons that extend over the whole metamaterial. The latter hybridize with photons forming plasmon polaritons, which are the hybrid light-matter eigenmodes of the system. We derive general analytical expressions to evaluate both plasmon and plasmon-polariton dispersions and the corresponding eigenstates. These are obtained within a Hamiltonian formalism, which takes into account retardation effects in the dipolar interaction between the nanoparticles and considers the dielectric properties of the nanoparticles as well as their surrounding. Within this model we predict polaritonic splittings in the near-infrared to the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum that depend on polarization, lattice symmetry, and wave-vector direction. Finally, we show that the predictions of our model are in excellent quantitative agreement with conventional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations, but with the advantages of analytical insight and significantly reduced computational cost.
Stacking faults on (001) in transition-metal disilicides with the C11b structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, K.; Nakamoto, T.; Inui, H.; Yamaguchi, M.
1997-01-01
Stacking faults on (001) in MoSi 2 and WSi 2 with the C11 b structure have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using their single crystals grown by the floating-zone method. Although WSi 2 contains a high density of stacking faults, only several faults are observed in MoSi 2 . For both crystals, (001) faults are characterized to be of the Frank-type in which two successive (001) Si layers are removed from the lattice, giving rise to a displacement vector parallel to [001]. When the displacement vector of faults is expressed in the form of R = 1/n[001], however, their n values are slightly deviated from the exact value of 3, because of dilatation of the lattice in the direction perpendicular to the fault, which is caused by the repulsive interaction between Mo (W) layers above and below the fault. Matching of experimental high-resolution TEM images with calculated ones indicates n values to be 3.12 ± 0.10 and 3.34 ± 0.10 for MoSi 2 and WSi 2 , respectively
Development of Robust Metal-Supported SOFCs and Stack Components in EU METSAPP Consortium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Nielsen, Jimmi; Persson, Åsa Helen
2017-01-01
METSAPP project has been executed with an overall aim of developing advanced metal-supported cells and stacks based on a robust, reliable and up-scalable technology. During the project, oxidation resistant nanostructured anodes based on modified SrTiO3 were developed and integrated into MS...... and best performance and stability combination was observed with doped SrTiO3 based anode designs. Furthermore, numerical models to understand the corrosion behavior of the MS-SOFCs were developed and validated. Finally, the cost effective concept of coated metal interconnects was developed, which resulted...... in 90% reduction in Cr evaporation, three times lower Cr2O3 scale thickness and increased lifetime. The possibility of assembling these cells into two radically different stack designs was demonstrated....
Basic criteria for formation of growth twins in high stacking fault energy metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, K. Y.; Zhang, X.; Bufford, D.; Chen, Y.; Liu, Y.; Wang, H.
2013-01-01
Nanotwinned metals received significant interest lately as twin boundaries may enable simultaneous enhancement of strength, ductility, thermal stability, and radiation tolerance. However, nanotwins have been the privilege of metals with low-to-intermediate stacking fault energy (SFE). Recent scattered studies show that nanotwins could be introduced into high SFE metals, such as Al. In this paper, we examine several sputter-deposited, (111) textured Ag/Al, Cu/Ni, and Cu/Fe multilayers, wherein growth twins were observed in Al, Ni, and face-centered cubic (fcc) Fe. The comparisons lead to two important design criteria that dictate the introduction of growth twins in high SFE metals. The validity of these criteria was then examined in Ag/Ni multilayers. Furthermore, another twin formation mechanism in high SFE metals was discovered in Ag/Ni system
Development of Robust Metal-Supported SOFCs and Stack Components in EU METSAPP Consortium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Nielsen, Jimmi; Persson, Åsa Helen
2017-01-01
-SOFCs to enhance their robustness. In addition, the manufacturing of metal-supported cells with different geometries, scalability of the manufacturing process was demonstrated and more than 200 cells with an area of ∼150 cm2 were produced. The electrochemical performance of different cell generations was evaluated...... in 90% reduction in Cr evaporation, three times lower Cr2O3 scale thickness and increased lifetime. The possibility of assembling these cells into two radically different stack designs was demonstrated....
Fabricating large-area metallic woodpile photonic crystals using stacking and rolling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibbotson, Lindsey A; Baumberg, Jeremy J
2013-01-01
Stacking thin polymer films supporting metal nanowire gratings provides a simple route, demonstrated here, to producing large-area metallic woodpile structures with high throughput. Under appropriate conditions the grating films can spontaneously roll up, giving a rapid and controllable method of creating multilayers. The resulting three-dimensional (3D) wire structures are flexible and potentially stretchable. Since this process can be extended to include a wide variety of functional materials, it opens up the manufacture of many tailored 3D optical metamaterials. (paper)
Wu, Kuo-Tsai; Hwang, Sheng-Jye; Lee, Huei-Huang
2017-05-02
Image sensors are the core components of computer, communication, and consumer electronic products. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have become the mainstay of image-sensing developments, but are prone to leakage current. In this study, we simulate the CMOS image sensor (CIS) film stacking process by finite element analysis. To elucidate the relationship between the leakage current and stack architecture, we compare the simulated and measured leakage currents in the elements. Based on the analysis results, we further improve the performance by optimizing the architecture of the film stacks or changing the thin-film material. The material parameters are then corrected to improve the accuracy of the simulation results. The simulated and experimental results confirm a positive correlation between measured leakage current and stress. This trend is attributed to the structural defects induced by high stress, which generate leakage. Using this relationship, we can change the structure of the thin-film stack to reduce the leakage current and thereby improve the component life and reliability of the CIS components.
Stacking metal nano-patterns and fabrication of moth-eye structure
Taniguchi, Jun
2018-01-01
Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) can be used as a tool for three-dimensional nanoscale fabrication. In particular, complex metal pattern structures in polymer material are demanded as plasmonic effect devices and metamaterials. To fabricate of metallic color filter, we used silver ink and NIL techniques. Metallic color filter was composed of stacking of nanoscale silver disc patterns and polymer layers, thus, controlling of polymer layer thickness is necessary. To control of thickness of polymer layer, we used spin-coating of UV-curable polymer and NIL. As a result, ten stacking layers with 1000 nm layer thickness was obtained and red color was observed. Ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) is the most effective technique for mass fabrication of antireflection structure (ARS) films. For the use of ARS films in mobile phones and tablet PCs, which are touch-screen devices, it is important to protect the films from fingerprints and dust. In addition, as the nanoscale ARS that is touched by the hand is fragile, it is very important to obtain a high abrasion resistance. To solve these problems, a UV-curable epoxy resin has been developed that exhibits antifouling properties and high hardness. The high abrasion resistance ARS films are shown to withstand a load of 250 g/cm2 in the steel wool scratch test, and the reflectance is less than 0.4%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasil'ev, A.P.; Krepkij, A.S.; Lukin, A.V.; Mikhal'kova, A.G.; Orlov, A.I.; Perezhogin, V.D.; Samojlova, L.Yu.; Sokolov, Yu.A.; Terekhin, V.A.; Chernukhin, Yu.I.
1991-01-01
Critical mass experiments were performed using assemblies which simulated one-dimensional lattice consisting of shielding containers with metal fissile materials. Calculations of the criticality of the above assemblies were carried out using the KLAN program with the BAS neutron constants. Errors in the calculations of the criticality for one-, two-, and three-dimensional lattices are estimated. 3 refs.; 1 tab
Model for lattice dynamics of hexagonal close packed metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, R K [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Kumar, S [Meerut Coll. (India). Dept. of Physics
1977-11-19
A lattice dynamical model, which satisfies the requirements of translational invariance as well as the static equilibrium of hexagonal close packed lattice, has been proposed and applied to study the phonon dispersion relations in magnesium. The results revealed by this model have been claimed to be better than earlier ones.
THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION WITH THE DIRECT METHOD ON STACKED SPECTRA OF SDSS GALAXIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrews, Brett H.; Martini, Paul, E-mail: andrews@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)
2013-03-10
The relation between galaxy stellar mass and gas-phase metallicity is a sensitive diagnostic of the main processes that drive galaxy evolution, namely cosmological gas inflow, metal production in stars, and gas outflow via galactic winds. We employed the direct method to measure the metallicities of {approx}200,000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that were stacked in bins of (1) stellar mass and (2) both stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) to significantly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the weak [O III] {lambda}4363 and [O II] {lambda}{lambda}7320, 7330 auroral lines required to apply the direct method. These metallicity measurements span three decades in stellar mass from log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 7.4-10.5, which allows the direct method mass-metallicity relation to simultaneously capture the high-mass turnover and extend a full decade lower in mass than previous studies that employed more uncertain strong line methods. The direct method mass-metallicity relation rises steeply at low mass (O/H {proportional_to} M{sub *} {sup 1/2}) until it turns over at log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 8.9 and asymptotes to 12 + log(O/H) = 8.8 at high mass. The direct method mass-metallicity relation has a steeper slope, a lower turnover mass, and a factor of two to three greater dependence on SFR than strong line mass-metallicity relations. Furthermore, the SFR-dependence appears monotonic with stellar mass, unlike strong line mass-metallicity relations. We also measure the N/O abundance ratio, an important tracer of star formation history, and find the clear signature of primary and secondary nitrogen enrichment. N/O correlates tightly with oxygen abundance, and even more so with stellar mass.
Indirect Fabrication of Lattice Metals with Thin Sections Using Centrifugal Casting.
Mun, Jiwon; Ju, Jaehyung; Thurman, James
2016-05-14
One of the typical methods to manufacture 3D lattice metals is the direct-metal additive manufacturing (AM) process such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM). In spite of its potential processing capability, the direct AM method has several disadvantages such as high cost, poor surface finish of final products, limitation in material selection, high thermal stress, and anisotropic properties of parts. We propose a cost-effective method to manufacture 3D lattice metals. The objective of this study is to provide a detailed protocol on fabrication of 3D lattice metals having a complex shape and a thin wall thickness; e.g., octet truss made of Al and Cu alloys having a unit cell length of 5 mm and a cell wall thickness of 0.5 mm. An overall experimental procedure is divided into eight sections: (a) 3D printing of sacrificial patterns (b) melt-out of support materials (c) removal of residue of support materials (d) pattern assembly (e) investment (f) burn-out of sacrificial patterns (g) centrifugal casting (h) post-processing for final products. The suggested indirect AM technique provides the potential to manufacture ultra-lightweight lattice metals; e.g., lattice structures with Al alloys. It appears that the process parameters should be properly controlled depending on materials and lattice geometry, observing the final products of octet truss metals by the indirect AM technique.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Kristine B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland
2015-01-01
Comparisons of cell and stack designs for the electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from two harbour sediments, were made. Multivariate modelling showed that sediment properties and experimental set-ups had the highest influence on the heavy metal removal indicating that they should be modelled...
Backside versus frontside advanced chemical analysis of high-k/metal gate stacks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez, E., E-mail: eugenie.martinez@cea.fr [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Saidi, B. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Rousset Cedex, Crolles (France); Veillerot, M. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Caubet, P. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Rousset Cedex, Crolles (France); Fabbri, J-M. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Piallat, F. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Rousset Cedex, Crolles (France); Gassilloud, R. [Univ Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Schamm-Chardon, S. [CEMES-CNRS et Université de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)
2015-08-15
Highlights: • The backside approach is a promising solution for advanced chemical characterization of future MOSFETs. • Frontside ToF-SIMS and Auger depth profiles are affected by cumulative mixing effects and thus not relevant for analyzing ultra-thin layers. • Higher in-depth resolution is possible in the backside approach for Auger and ToF-SIMS depth profiling. • Backside depth profiling allows revealing ultra-thin layers and elemental in-depth redistribution inside high-k/metal gate stacks. • Backside XPS allows preserving the full metal gate, thus enabling the analysis of real technological samples. - Abstract: Downscaling of transistors beyond the 14 nm technological node requires the implementation of new architectures and materials. Advanced characterization methods are needed to gain information about the chemical composition of buried layers and interfaces. An effective approach based on backside analysis is presented here. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger depth profiling and time-of-flight secondary ions mass spectrometry are combined to investigate inter-diffusion phenomena. To highlight improvements related to the backside method, backside and frontside analyses are compared. Critical information regarding nitrogen, oxygen and aluminium redistribution inside the gate stacks is obtained only in the backside configuration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maasa Nakano
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Micrometer order magnetophotonic crystals with periodic arranged metallic glass and oxide glass composite materials were fabricated by stereolithographic method to reflect electromagnetic waves in terahertz frequency ranges through Bragg diffraction. In the fabrication process, the photo sensitive acrylic resin paste mixed with micrometer sized metallic glass of Fe72B14.4Si9.6Nb4 and oxide glass of B2O3·Bi2O3 particles was spread on a metal substrate, and cross sectional images of ultra violet ray were exposed. Through the layer by layer stacking, micro lattice structures with a diamond type periodic arrangement were successfully formed. The composite structures could be obtained through the dewaxing and sintering process with the lower temperature under the transition point of metallic glass. Transmission spectra of the terahertz waves through the magnetophotonic crystals were measured by using a terahertz time domain spectroscopy.
Microchannel neural interface manufacture by stacking silicone and metal foil laminae
Lancashire, Henry T.; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne; Pendegrass, Catherine J.; Ajam, Yazan Al; Magee, Elliot; Donaldson, Nick; Blunn, Gordon W.
2016-06-01
Objective. Microchannel neural interfaces (MNIs) overcome problems with recording from peripheral nerves by amplifying signals independent of node of Ranvier position. Selective recording and stimulation using an MNI requires good insulation between microchannels and a high electrode density. We propose that stacking microchannel laminae will improve selectivity over single layer MNI designs due to the increase in electrode number and an improvement in microchannel sealing. Approach. This paper describes a manufacturing method for creating MNIs which overcomes limitations on electrode connectivity and microchannel sealing. Laser cut silicone—metal foil laminae were stacked using plasma bonding to create an array of microchannels containing tripolar electrodes. Electrodes were DC etched and electrode impedance and cyclic voltammetry were tested. Main results. MNIs with 100 μm and 200 μm diameter microchannels were manufactured. High electrode density MNIs are achievable with electrodes present in every microchannel. Electrode impedances of 27.2 ± 19.8 kΩ at 1 kHz were achieved. Following two months of implantation in Lewis rat sciatic nerve, micro-fascicles were observed regenerating through the MNI microchannels. Significance. Selective MNIs with the peripheral nervous system may allow upper limb amputees to control prostheses intuitively.
Han, Jun Hee; Kim, Do-Hong; Jeong, Eun Gyo; Lee, Tae-Woo; Lee, Myung Keun; Park, Jeong Woo; Lee, Hoseung; Choi, Kyung Cheol
2017-05-17
To keep pace with the era of transparent and deformable electronics, electrode functions should be improved. In this paper, an innovative structure is suggested to overcome the trade-off between optical and electrical properties that commonly arises with transparent electrodes. The structure of double-stacked metal films showed high conductivity (electronics are expected.
Hot Embossing of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Micropart Using Stacked Silicon Dies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhijing Zhu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We demonstrated hot embossing of Zr65Cu17.5Ni10Al7.5 bulk metallic glass micropart using stacked silicon dies. Finite element simulation was carried out, suggesting that it could reduce the stress below 400 MPa in the silicon dies and enhance the durability of the brittle silicon dies when using varying load mode (100 N for 60 s and then 400 N for 60 s compared with using constant load mode (200 N for 120 s. A micropart with good appearance was fabricated under the varying load, and no silicon die failure was observed, in agreement with the simulation. The amorphous state of the micropart was confirmed by differential scanning calorimeter and X-ray diffraction, and the nanohardness and Young’s modulus were validated close to those of the as-cast BMG rods by nanoindentation tests. The results proved that it was feasible to adopt the varying load mode to fabricate three-dimensional Zr-based bulk metallic glass microparts by hot embossing process.
Texture formation in metals with bcc lattice during drawing in dead rollers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubchevskij, V.P.; Zemlyanskov, V.A.; Zlatoustovskij, D.M.; Nemkina, Eh.D.
1976-01-01
The texture of low-carbon steel, molybdenum and tungsten wires subjected to intermediate and finish drawing were studied to find whether it is common to metals with a body-centered lattice. Experimental data tend to indicate that both the intermediate drawing and the finish drawing give rise to two axial textures, or (110) and (114), parallel to the axis of drawing. It was inferred that the mechanism of the formation of texture in drawing is common to all the metals of a VCC lattice
The lattice thermal conductivity of pure metals: Aluminium and Indium, ch. 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lang, H.N. de
1977-01-01
The lattice conductivity of aluminium and indium has been determined by reducing the electronic thermal conductivity by means of a magnetic field. This was done using the Corbino configuration which prevents the thermal Hall field from forming, hence produces the largest magnetoresistance for a given field strength. In this way for the first time the lattice conductivity of Al and In was measured by the magnetic field method. Apart from a discussion of these results, a comprehensive and critical examination is given of the different methods to determine the lattice conductivity of metals, the phenomenon of the linear magnetoresistance, the quadratic field dependence of the MR and the anomalous lattice conductivity of Potassium as well as the phenomenon of curve crossing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouyang, Bin; Lan, Guoqiang; Song, Jun; Guo, Yinsheng; Mi, Zetian
2015-01-01
First-principles calculations were performed to investigate the phase stability and transition within four monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) systems, i.e., MX 2 (M = Mo or W and X = S or Se) under coupled electron doping and lattice deformation. With the lattice distortion and electron doping density treated as state variables, the energy surfaces of different phases were computed, and the diagrams of energetically preferred phases were constructed. These diagrams assess the competition between different phases and predict conditions of phase transitions for the TMDs considered. The interplay between lattice deformation and electron doping was identified as originating from the deformation induced band shifting and band bending. Based on our findings, a potential design strategy combining an efficient electrolytic gating and a lattice straining to achieve controllable phase engineering in TMD monolayers was demonstrated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borges, J.F.A.; Padilha, A.F.; Imakuma, K.
1988-03-01
An X-rays diffraction method was applied to measure the Stacking Fault Energies (SFE) of the AISI 304, AISI 316, AISI 347 and DIN-WERKSTOFF 1.4970 Austenitic Stainless Steels. The SFE determination plays an important role in the research of the mecanichal behaviour of the Metal and Alloys, their deformation mechanisms, stability of micro-structure and electronic configuration. The method is based on the relationship between the SFE and the ratio of the Mean Square Strains to the Stacking-Fault probability. The Mean Square Strain was evaluated by Fourier Analysis of X-rays Diffaction profiles, corrected to reduce instrumental effects, followed by the application of the Warren-Averbach method to the Fourier Coefficients. The Stacking-Fault probabilities were derived from the changes of peak separations between cold-worked and annealed specimens. (author) [pt
Lattice vibrational properties of transition metal carbides (TiC, ZrC
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Lattice vibrational properties of transition metal carbides (TiC, ZrC and HfC) have been presented by including the effects of free-carrier doping and three-body interactions in the rigid shell model. The short-range overlap repulsion is operative up to the second neighbour ions. An excellent agreement has been obtained ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheltov, Yu.V.; Ageev, V.S.; Kolesnikov, Yu.G.
1990-01-01
The experimental data on influence of Mn, Cr, Ni, P, B, Ce alloying in austenitic and simultaneously Nb, V, B alloying in ferritic steels and also heat treatment on stacking fault density (SFD) are represented. In all cases besides influence of Cr in austenitic steel the increase of SFD is shown. The decrease of radiation swelling of industrial steels at the increase of their SFD, measured by X-rays, was studied. The tendency of increase of relative radiation swelling change at SFD increase at relative fluence rise is verified. It is shown that SFD may be a perspective proximate characteristics of choice of radiation-resistant steel melts within one steel quality. 14 refs.; 4 figs. (author)
Synthesis of Stacked-Cup Carbon Nanotubes in a Metal Free Low Temperature System
Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Farmer, Kevin D.; Roberts, Kenneth P.; Hussaini, Syed R.
2011-01-01
Stacked-cup carbon nanotubes were formed by either Fischer-Tropsch type or Haber Bosch type reactions in a metal free system. Graphite particles were used as the catalyst. The samples were heated at 600 C in a gas mixture of CO 75 Torr, N2 75 Torr and H2 550 Torr for three days. Trans mission electron microscope analysis of the catalyst surface at the completion of the experiment recognized the growth of nanotubes. They were 10-50 nm in diameter and approximately 1 micrometer in length. They had a hollow channel of 5-20 nm in the center. The nanotubes may have grown on graphite surfaces by the CO disproportionation reaction and the surface tension of the carbon nucleus may have determined the diameter. Although, generally, the diameter of a carbon nanotube depends on the size of the cataly1ic particles, the diameter of the nanotubes on graphite particles was independent of the particle size and significantly confined within a narrow range compared with that produced using catalytic amorphous iron-silicate nanoparticles. Therefore, they must have an unknown formation process that is different than the generally accepted mechanism.
Broadband and wide angle near-unity absorption in graphene-insulator-metal thin film stacks
Zhang, H. J.; Zheng, G. G.; Chen, Y. Y.; Xu, L. H.
2018-05-01
Broadband unity absorption in graphene-insulator-metal (GIM) structures is demonstrated in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra. The spectral characteristics possess broadband absorption peaks, by simply choosing a stack of GIM, while no nanofabrication steps and patterning are required, and thus can be easily fabricated to cover a large area. The electromagnetic (EM) waves can be entirely trapped and the absorption can be greatly enhanced are verified with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) methods. The position and the number of the absorption peak can be totally controlled by adjusting the thickness of the insulator layer. The proposed absorber maintains high absorption (above 90%) for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations, and for angles of incidence up to 80°. This work opens up a promising approach to realize perfect absorption (PA) with ultra-thin film, which could implicate many potential applications in optical detection and optoelectronic devices.
Interatomic potentials and the simulation of lattice defects in metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heugten, W.F.W.M. van.
1979-01-01
The computer simulation technique is applied to investigate the properties of point defects and line defects in metals. For that purpose crystallites are constructed in which these defects are simulated. In the case of line defects (dislocations) the initial positions of the atoms, surrounding the dislocations, are determined using the elastic theory of anisotropic media. Hereafter the atoms in such crystallites are allowed to relax to there minimum potential energy positions under the influence of the interatomic forces. These forces are derived from interatomic interaction potentials. These potentials are together with the boundary conditions of the simulated crystallite the main input data in these computer simulation models. The metals considered include molybdenum, tungsten and tantalum. (Auth.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruban, Andrei; Simak, S.I.; Shallcross, S.
2003-01-01
We present a simple effective tetrahedron model for local lattice relaxation effects in random metallic alloys on simple primitive lattices. A comparison with direct ab initio calculations for supercells representing random Ni0.50Pt0.50 and Cu0.25Au0.75 alloys as well as the dilute limit of Au-ri......-rich CuAu alloys shows that the model yields a quantitatively accurate description of the relaxtion energies in these systems. Finally, we discuss the bond length distribution in random alloys....
Fermi level pinning in metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stack after post metallization annealing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winter, R.; Krylov, I.; Cytermann, C.; Eizenberg, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Tang, K.; Ahn, J.; McIntyre, P. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
2015-08-07
The effect of post metal deposition annealing on the effective work function in metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stacks was investigated. The effective work functions of different metal gates (Al, Au, and Pt) were measured. Flat band voltage shifts for these and other metals studied suggest that their Fermi levels become pinned after the post-metallization vacuum annealing. Moreover, there is a difference between the measured effective work functions of Al and Pt, and the reported vacuum work function of these metals after annealing. We propose that this phenomenon is caused by charging of indium and gallium induced traps at the annealed metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface.
Large-area metallic photonic lattices for military applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luk, Ting Shan
2007-11-01
In this project we developed photonic crystal modeling capability and fabrication technology that is scaleable to large area. An intelligent optimization code was developed to find the optimal structure for the desired spectral response. In terms of fabrication, an exhaustive survey of fabrication techniques that would meet the large area requirement was reduced to Deep X-ray Lithography (DXRL) and nano-imprint. Using DXRL, we fabricated a gold logpile photonic crystal in the <100> plane. For the nano-imprint technique, we fabricated a cubic array of gold squares. These two examples also represent two classes of metallic photonic crystal topologies, the connected network and cermet arrangement.
Lattice mechanical properties of some fcc f-shell metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baria, J.K.; Jani, A.R.
2003-01-01
A pseudopotential depending on an effective core radius is proposed to study the binding energy, equation of state, ion-ion interaction, phonon dispersion curves (q-space and r-space analysis), mode Grueneisen parameters and dynamical elastic constants of some fcc f-shell metals La, Yb, Ce and Th. The contribution of the s-like electrons is calculated in the second-order perturbation theory for the potential while d- and f-like electron is taken into account by introducing repulsive short-range Born-Mayer term. The parameter of the potential is evaluated by zero pressure condition. An excellent agreement between theoretical investigations and experimental findings is achieved which confirms the present formalism. (author)
Emission Channeling Studies of the Lattice Site of Oversized Alkali Atoms Implanted in Metals
2002-01-01
% IS340 \\\\ \\\\ As alkali atoms have the largest atomic radius of all elements, the determination of their lattice configuration following implantation into metals forms a critical test for the various models predicting the lattice site of implanted impurity atoms. The site determination of these large atoms will especially be a crucial check for the most recent model that relates the substitutional fraction of oversized elements to their solution enthalpy. Recent exploratory $^{213}$Fr and $^{221}$Fr $\\alpha$-emission channeling experiments at ISOLDE-CERN and hyperfine interaction measurements on Fr implanted in Fe gave an indication for anomalously large substitutional fractions. To investigate further the behaviour of Fr and other alkali atoms like Cs and Rb thoroughly, more on-line emission channeling experiments are needed. We propose a number of shifts for each element, where the temperature of the implanted metals will be varied between 50$^\\circ$ and 700$^\\circ$~K. Temperature dependent measurements wi...
A new electron gas model for lattice vibrations in metals I : development of the model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramamurthy, V.; Neelkandan, K.
1978-01-01
The theoretical study of the lattice dynamics of metals is generally based on either the phenomenological force constant method or the pseudopotential method. However, it has been found that all the existing phenomenological models are inconsistent. Hence a new model based on the deformation potential approximation has been developed. By comparing this model with the existing models, its salient features and limitations are discussed. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asahara, Ryohei; Hideshima, Iori; Oka, Hiroshi; Minoura, Yuya; Hosoi, Takuji, E-mail: hosoi@mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ogawa, Shingo [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Toray Research Center Inc., 3-3-7 Sonoyama, Otsu, Shiga 520-8567 (Japan); Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)
2015-06-08
Advanced metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with a sub-nm equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) and improved interface properties were demonstrated by controlling interface reactions using ultrathin aluminum oxide (AlO{sub x}) interlayers. A step-by-step in situ procedure by deposition of AlO{sub x} and hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) layers on Ge and subsequent plasma oxidation was conducted to fabricate Pt/HfO{sub 2}/AlO{sub x}/GeO{sub x}/Ge stacked structures. Comprehensive study by means of physical and electrical characterizations revealed distinct impacts of AlO{sub x} interlayers, plasma oxidation, and metal electrodes serving as capping layers on EOT scaling, improved interface quality, and thermal stability of the stacks. Aggressive EOT scaling down to 0.56 nm and very low interface state density of 2.4 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} with a sub-nm EOT and sufficient thermal stability were achieved by systematic process optimization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aristarkhov, N.N.; Efimov, I.A.; Zaistev, B.I.; Peters, I.G.; Tymosh, B.S.
1976-01-01
Described is a method of detecting stacks with leaky fuel elements in a liquid-metal-cooled reactor, consisting in that prior to withdrawing a coolant sample, gas is accumulated in the coolant of the stack being controlled, the reactor being shut down, separated from the sample by means of an inert carrier gas, and the radioactivity of the separated gas is measured. An apparatus for carrying out said method comprises a sampler in the form of a tube parallel to the reactor axis in the hole of a rotating plug and adapted to move along the reactor axis. Made in the top portion of the tube are holes for the introduction of the inert carrier gas and the removal thereof together with the gases evolved from the coolant, while the bottom portion of the tube is provided with a sealing member
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Ikjun; Cho, Jinhan; Kim, Beom Joon; Cho, Jeong Ho; Ryu, Sook Won
2014-01-01
Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memories have rapidly evolved from low-cost and flexible electronics with relatively low-memory capacities to memory devices that require high-capacity memory such as smart memory cards or solid-state hard drives. Here, we report the high-capacity OFET memories based on the multilayer stacking of densely packed hydrophobic metal NP layers in place of the traditional transistor memory systems based on a single charge trapping layer. We demonstrated that the memory performances of devices could be significantly enhanced by controlling the adsorption isotherm behavior, multilayer stacking structure and hydrophobicity of the metal NPs. For this study, tetraoctylammonium (TOA)-stabilized Au nanoparticles (TOA-Au NPs ) were consecutively layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled with an amine-functionalized poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAD). The formed (PAD/TOA-Au NP ) n films were used as a multilayer stacked charge trapping layer at the interface between the tunneling dielectric layer and the SiO 2 gate dielectric layer. For a single Au NP layer (i.e. PAD/TOA-Au NP ) 1 ) with a number density of 1.82 × 10 12 cm −2 , the memory window of the OFET memory device was measured to be approximately 97 V. The multilayer stacked OFET memory devices prepared with four Au NP layers exhibited excellent programmable memory properties (i.e. a large memory window (ΔV th ) exceeding 145 V, a fast switching speed (1 μs), a high program/erase (P/E) current ratio (greater than 10 6 ) and good electrical reliability) during writing and erasing over a relatively short time scale under an operation voltage of 100 V applied at the gate. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kwok, Kawai; Frandsen, Henrik Lund
2016-01-01
temperature, deformations involving the elastic, creep as well as effect of changes in the geometry due to contact should be accounted for. The constitutive law can be applied using 3D modeling, but for simple presentation of the theory, 2D plane strain formulation is used to model the corrugated metallic......Currently thermo-mechanical analysis of the entire solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack at operational conditions is computationally challenging if the geometry of metallic interconnects is considered explicitly. This is particularly the case when creep deformations in the interconnect are considered...... model to calculate the homogenized mechanical response of corrugated metallic interconnects at high temperatures.Thereafter, a constitutive law for the homogenized structure (effective material law) is developed. In order to properly describe the mechanical behavior of the interconnect at high...
Is there lattice contraction in multicomponent metal oxides? Case study for GdVO4:Eu3+ nanoparticles
Yang, Liusai; Li, Liping; Zhao, Minglei; Fu, Chaochao; Li, Guangshe
2013-08-01
Metal oxide nanomaterials have been found to have great potential for diverse applications due to their unique relationships between structure and properties. Lattice expansion as particle size reduces was previously considered to be general for metal oxide nanomaterials. It is now a great challenge to see if lattice contraction could be induced by the size effect for metal oxide nanomaterials. ABO4 metal oxides (e.g., CaWO4, GdVO4, and CdWO4) are some of the most important functional materials with many applications, while such oxides at the nanoscale are never reported to show a lattice contraction. This work presents a first report on the variation from lattice expansion to lattice contraction by tuning the microstructures of GdVO4:Eu3+ nanocrystals. A hydrothermal method was adopted to synthesize GdVO4:Eu3+ nanocrystals, and then these nanoparticles were calcined at 600 ° C in air. It is found that particle size reduction led to a lattice contraction for the calcined samples, which is in contrast to the lattice expansion observed for the hydrothermally synthesized counterparts or many other metal oxide nanomaterials. In addition, the lattice symmetry of the calcined samples remained almost a constant. The results indicate that the negative surface stress was eliminated by calcination treatment, leading to a homogeneous compression process in the lattice structure of the calcined GdVO4:Eu3+ nanocrystals. Furthermore, Eu3+ was taken as a structural probe and a luminescence center to study the local environments pertinent to these structural changes and to optimize the photoluminescence performance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ezawa, Hirokazu; Miyata, Masahiro; Tatsumi, Kohei
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Alloying behavior of Ag/Pd/Ti film stack was studied by annealing at 400-800 °C. • The Ag film resistivity decreased with increasing annealing temperature. • Formation of the Pd-Ti intermetallics was found to be dominant over Ag-Pd alloying. • The excess Ti was consumed to form Ti oxides, which inhibited Ti alloying with Ag. -- Abstract: In this paper, viability of electroplated Ag film into device application was studied. Alloying behavior of the Ag film with its underlying Pd(50 nm)/Ti(100 nm) film stack was investigated with respect to heat treatment at different temperatures from 400 °C to 800 °C in an argon ambient. After annealing at 400 °C, the electrical resistivity of the Ag film increased due to Pd alloying with Ag. Formation of Pd–Ti intermetallic phases became dominant over Ag–Pd alloying with increasing annealing temperature, leading to the resistivity decrease of the Ag film. The resistivity of the 800 °C annealed Ag film approached that of its as-plated Ag film. The excess Ti atoms which were not consumed to form the intermetallic phases with the Pd atoms migrated to the Ag film surface to form Ti oxides along the Ag grain boundaries on the topmost film surface. The Ag/Pd/Ti film stack has been confirmed to maintain the resistivity of the Ag film at as-plated low levels after high temperature annealing. This paper also discusses process integration issues to enable the Ag metallization process for future scaled and three dimensionally chip stacked devices
Intrinsic Dirac half-metal and quantum anomalous Hall phase in a hexagonal metal-oxide lattice
Zhang, Shou-juan; Zhang, Chang-wen; Zhang, Shu-feng; Ji, Wei-xiao; Li, Ping; Wang, Pei-ji; Li, Sheng-shi; Yan, Shi-shen
2017-11-01
The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect has attracted extensive attention due to time-reversal symmetry broken by a staggered magnetic flux emerging from ferromagnetic ordering and spin-orbit coupling. However, the experimental observations of the QAH effect are still challenging due to its small nontrivial bulk gap. Here, based on density functional theory and Berry curvature calculations, we propose the realization of intrinsic QAH effect in two-dimensional hexagonal metal-oxide lattice, N b2O3 , which is characterized by the nonzero Chern number (C =1 ) and chiral edge states. Spin-polarized calculations indicate that it exhibits a Dirac half-metal feature with temperature as large as TC=392 K using spin-wave theory. When the spin-orbit coupling is switched on, N b2O3 becomes a QAH insulator. Notably, the nontrivial topology is robust against biaxial strain with its band gap reaching up to Eg=75 meV , which is far beyond room temperature. A tight-binding model is further constructed to understand the origin of nontrivially electronic properties. Our findings on the Dirac half-metal and room-temperature QAH effect in the N b2O3 lattice can serve as an ideal platform for developing future topotronics devices.
Magnetic states, correlation effects and metal-insulator transition in FCC lattice
Timirgazin, M. A.; Igoshev, P. A.; Arzhnikov, A. K.; Irkhin, V. Yu
2016-12-01
The ground-state magnetic phase diagram (including collinear and spiral states) of the single-band Hubbard model for the face-centered cubic lattice and related metal-insulator transition (MIT) are investigated within the slave-boson approach by Kotliar and Ruckenstein. The correlation-induced electron spectrum narrowing and a comparison with a generalized Hartree-Fock approximation allow one to estimate the strength of correlation effects. This, as well as the MIT scenario, depends dramatically on the ratio of the next-nearest and nearest electron hopping integrals {{t}\\prime}/t . In contrast with metallic state, possessing substantial band narrowing, insulator one is only weakly correlated. The magnetic (Slater) scenario of MIT is found to be superior over the Mott one. Unlike simple and body-centered cubic lattices, MIT is the first order transition (discontinuous) for most {{t}\\prime}/t . The insulator state is type-II or type-III antiferromagnet, and the metallic state is spin-spiral, collinear antiferromagnet or paramagnet depending on {{t}\\prime}/t . The picture of magnetic ordering is compared with that in the standard localized-electron (Heisenberg) model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khalil, M.I., E-mail: mdibrahim.khalil@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy); Atici, O. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy); Lucotti, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Binetti, S.; Le Donne, A. [Department of Materials Science and Solar Energy Research Centre (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano- Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Magagnin, L., E-mail: luca.magagnin@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy)
2016-08-30
Highlights: • CZTS absorber layer was fabricated by electrodeposition—annealing route from stacked bilayer precursor (Zn/Cu-Sn). • Different characterization techniques have ensured the well formed Kesterite CZTS along the film thickness also. • Two different excitation wavelengths of laser lines (514.5 and 785 nm) have been used for the Raman characterization of the films. • No significant Sn loss is observed in CZTS films after the sulfurization of the stacked bilayer precursors. • Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals the PL peak of CZTS at 1.15 eV at low temperature (15 K). - Abstract: In the present work, Kesterite-Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films were successfully synthesized from stacked bilayer precursor (Zn/Cu-Sn) through electrodeposition-annealing route. Adherent and homogeneous Cu-poor, Zn-rich stacked metal Cu-Zn-Sn precursors with different compositions were sequentially electrodeposited, in the order of Zn/Cu-Sn onto Mo foil substrates. Subsequently, stacked layers were soft annealed at 350 °C for 20 min in flowing N{sub 2} atmosphere in order to improve intermixing of the elements. Then, sulfurization was completed at 585 °C for 15 min in elemental sulfur environment in a quartz tube furnace with N{sub 2} atmosphere. Morphological, compositional and structural properties of the films were investigated using SEM, EDS and XRD methods. Raman spectroscopy with two different excitation lines (514.5 and 785 nm), has been carried out on the sulfurized films in order to fully characterize the CZTS phase. Higher excitation wavelength showed more secondary phases, but with low intensities. Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) has also been performed on films showing well formed Kesterite CZTS along the film thickness as compositions of the elements do not change along the thickness. In order to investigate the electronic structure of the CZTS, Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been carried out on the films, whose
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.M. Chernov
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The state of a low-temperature embrittlement (cold brittleness and dislocation mechanisms for formation of the temperature of a ductile-brittle transition and brittle fracture of metals (mono- and polycrystals with various crystal lattices (BCC, FCC, HCP are considered. The conditions for their formation connected with a stress-deformed state and strength (low temperature yield strength as well as the fracture breaking stress and mobility of dislocations in the top of a crack of the fractured metal are determined. These conditions can be met for BCC and some HCP metals in the initial state (without irradiation and after a low-temperature damaging (neutron irradiation. These conditions are not met for FCC and many HCP metals. In the process of the damaging (neutron irradiation such conditions are not met also and the state of low-temperature embrittlement of metals is absent (suppressed due to arising various radiation dynamic processes, which increase the mobility of dislocations and worsen the strength characteristics.
Wang, Jer-Chyi; Chan, Ya-Ting; Chen, Wei-Fan; Wu, Ming-Chung; Lai, Chao-Sung
2017-10-25
Bernal- and rhombohedral-stacked trilayer graphene (B- and r-TLG) on nickel (Ni) and iridium (Ir) films acting as bottom electrodes (BEs) of silver electrochemical metallization cells (Ag-EMCs) have been investigated in this study. Prior to the fabrication of the EMC devices, Raman mapping and atomic force microscopy are applied to identify the B- and r-TLG sheets, with the latter revealing a significant D peak and a rough surface for the Ir film. The Ag-EMCs with the stacked BE of r-TLG on the Ir film show a conductive mechanism of Schottky emission at the positive top electrode bias for both high- and low-resistance states that can be examined by the resistance change with the device area and are modulated by pulse bias operation. Thus, an effective electron barrier height of 0.262 eV at the r-TLG and Ir interface is obtained because of the conspicuous energy gap of r-TLG on the Ir film and the van der Waals (vdW) gap between the r-TLG and Ir contact metal. With the use of Ni instead of Ir contact metal, the Ag-EMCs with TLG BE demonstrate +0.3 V/-0.75 V operation voltages, more than 10 4 s data retention at 115 °C and 250 times endurance testing, making the TLG sheets suitable for low-power nonvolatile memory applications on flexible substrates.
Two-extremum electrostatic potential of metal-lattice plasma and the work function of an electron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Surma S.A.
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Metal-lattice plasma is treated as a neutral two-component two-phase system of 2D surface and 3D bulk. Free electron density and bulk chemical potential are used as intensive parameters of the system with the phase boundary position determined in the crystalline lattice. A semiempirical expression for the electron screened electrostatic potential is constructed using the lattice-plasma polarization concept. It comprises an image term and three repulsion/attraction terms of second and fourth orders. The novel curve has two extremes and agrees with certain theoretical forms of potential. A practical formula for the electron work function of metals and a simplified schema of electronic structure at the metal/vacuum interface are proposed. This yields 10.44 eV for the Fermi energy of free electron gas; -5.817 eV for the Fermi energy level; 4.509 eV for the average work function of bcc tungsten. Selected data are also given for fcc Cu and hcp Re. For harmonic frequencies ~ 10E16 per s of the self-excited metal-lattice plasma, energy gaps of 14.54 and 8.02 eV are found, which correspond to the bulk and surface plasmons, respectively. Further extension of this thermodynamics and metal-lattice theory based approach may contribute to a better understanding of theoretical models which are employed in chemical physics, catalysis and materials science of nanostructures.
Thermal expansion and lattice parameters of shaped metal deposited Ti-6Al-4V
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Swarnakar, Akhilesh Kumar; Van der Biest, Omer [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, MTM, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Baufeld, Bernd, E-mail: b.baufeld@sheffield.ac.uk [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, MTM, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)
2011-02-10
Research highlights: > Measurement of thermal expansion and of the lattice parameters of Ti-6Al-4V fabricated by shaped metal deposition up to 1100 {sup o}C. > The observation of alpha to beta transformation not reflected in the expansion but in the contraction curve is explained by non-equilibrium alpha phase of the SMD material. > Denuding of the {alpha} phase and enrichment of the {beta} phase of Vanadium due to high temperature experiments. > The unit cell volumes derived from lattice parameters measured by X-ray diffraction are at room temperature larger for the {alpha} than for the {beta} phase. With increasing temperature the unit cell volume of the {beta} phase increases stronger than the one of the {alpha} phase resulting in a similar unit cell volume at the {beta} transus temperature. - Abstract: Thermal expansion and lattice parameters are investigated up to 1100 deg. C for Ti-6Al-4V components, fabricated by shaped metal deposition. This is a novel additive layer manufacturing technique where near net-shape components are built by tungsten inert gas welding. The as-fabricated SMD Ti-6Al-4V components exhibit a constant coefficient of thermal expansion of 1.17 x 10{sup -5} K{sup -1} during heating up to 1100 {sup o}C, not reflecting the {alpha} to {beta} phase transformation. During cooling a stalling of the contraction is observed starting at the {beta} transus temperature. These high temperature experiments denude the {alpha} phase of V and enrich the {beta} phase. The development of the lattice parameters in dependence on temperature are observed with high temperature X-ray diffraction. The unit cell volumes derived from these parameters are at room temperature larger for the {alpha} than for the {beta} phase. With increasing temperature the unit cell volume of the {beta} phase increases stronger than the one of the {alpha} phase resulting in a similar unit cell volume at the {beta} transus temperature. These observations are interpreted as an
Temperature dependence of trapping effects in metal gates/Al2O3/InGaAs stacks
Palumbo, F.; Pazos, S.; Aguirre, F.; Winter, R.; Krylov, I.; Eizenberg, M.
2017-06-01
The influence of the temperature on Metal Gate/Al2O3/n-InGaAs stacks has been studied by means of capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis and flat band voltage as function of both negative and positive stress fields. It was found that the de-trapping effect decreases at low-temperature, indicating that the de-trapping of trapped electrons from oxide traps may be performed via Al2O3/InGaAs interface defects. The dependence of the C-V hysteresis on the stress field at different temperatures in our InGaAs stacks can be explained in terms of the defect spatial distribution. An oxide defect distribution can be found very close to the metal gate/Al2O3 interface. On the other side, the Al2O3/InGaAs interface presents defects distributed from the interface into the bulk of the oxide, showing the influence of InGaAs on Al2O3 in terms of the spatial defect distribution. At the present, he is a research staff of the National Council of Science and Technology (CONICET), working in the National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, well embedded within international research collaboration. Since 2008, he is Professor at the National Technological University (UTN) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Dr. Palumbo has received research fellowships from: Marie Curie Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme, Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Italy, National Council of Science and Technology (CONICET) Argentina, and Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) Italy. He is also a frequent scientific visitor of academic institutions as IMM-CNR-Italy, Minatec Grenoble-France, the Autonomous University of Barcelona-Spain, and the Israel Institute of Technology-Technion. He has authored and co-authored more than 50 papers in international conferences and journals.
Electrical and structural properties of a stacked metal layer contact to n-InP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Wen-Chang; Horng, Chia-Tsung
2011-01-01
In this study, we found that the double metal contact structure in Pt/Al/n-InP diodes provides better rectification characteristics than conventional single-metal/n-InP Schottky diodes. The effective barrier height was measured to be 0.67 eV for a 400 deg. C-annealed Pt/Al/n-InP diode sample. The increase in the barrier height is attributed to the formation of Al 2 O 3 at the metal/n-InP contact interface during thermal annealing. The formation of the phase Al 2 O 3 phase was monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The corresponding element profiles of Al and O were also confirmed at the metal/n-InP contact interface using secondary ion mass spectrum (SIMS) analysis. The lowering of the Schottky barrier height due to the inhomogeneity at the metal/n-InP junction is also discussed on the basis of the TE theory. The distribution of local effective Schottky barrier heights was explained by a model incorporating the existence of double Gaussian barrier heights, which represent the high barrier and low barrier of the full distribution in the temperature ranges of 83-198 and 198-300 K.
Lattice location of implanted transition metals in 3C–SiC
AUTHOR|(CDS)2085259; Wahl, Ulrich; Martins Correia, Joao; David Bosne, Eric; Amorim, Lígia; Silva, Daniel; Castro Ribeiro Da Silva, Manuel; Bharuth-Ram, Krishanlal; Da Costa Pereira, Lino Miguel
2017-01-01
We have investigated the lattice location of implanted transition metal (TM) 56Mn, 59Fe and 65Ni ions in undoped single-crystalline cubic 3C–SiC by means of the emission channeling technique using radioactive isotopes produced at the CERN-ISOLDE facility. We find that in the room temperature as-implanted state, most Mn, Fe and Ni atoms occupy carbon-coordinated tetrahedral interstitial sites (TC). Smaller TM fractions were also found on Si substitutional (SSi) sites. The TM atoms partially disappear from ideal-TC positions during annealing at temperatures between 500 °C and 700 °C, which is accompanied by an increase in the TM fraction occupying both SSi sites and random sites. An explanation is given according to what is known about the annealing mechanisms of silicon vacancies in silicon carbide. The origin of the observed lattice sites and their changes with thermal annealing are discussed and compared to the case of Si, highlighting the feature that the interstitial migration of TMs in SiC is much slo...
Numerical study of natural convection in porous media (metals) using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, C.Y., E-mail: c.y.zhao@warwick.ac.u [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Dai, L.N.; Tang, G.H.; Qu, Z.G.; Li, Z.Y. [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)
2010-10-15
A thermal lattice BGK model with doubled populations is proposed to simulate the two-dimensional natural convection flow in porous media (porous metals). The accuracy of this method is validated by the benchmark solutions. The detailed flow and heat transfer at the pore level are revealed. The effects of pore density (cell size) and porosity on the natural convection are examined. Also the effect of porous media configuration (shape) on natural convection is investigated. The results showed that the overall heat transfer will be enhanced by lowering the porosity and cell size. The square porous medium can have a higher heat transfer performance than spheres due to the strong flow mixing and more surface area.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chadderton, L.T.; Johnson, E.; Wohlenberg, T.
1976-01-01
Void lattices in metals apparently owe their stability to elastically anisotropic interactions. An ordered array of voids on the anion sublattice in fluorite does not fit so neatly into this scheme of things. Crowdions may play a part in the formation of the void lattice, and stability may derive from other sources. (Auth.)
He atom surface spectroscopy: Surface lattice dynamics of insulators, metals and metal overlayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
During the first three years of this grant (1985--1988) the effort was devoted to the construction of a state-of-the-art He atom scattering (HAS) instrument which would be capable of determining the structure and dynamics of metallic, semiconductor or insulator crystal surfaces. The second three year grant period (1988--1991) has been dedicated to measurements. The construction of the instrument went better than proposed; it was within budget, finished in the proposed time and of better sensitivity and resolution than originally planned. The same success has been carried over to the measurement phase where the concentration has been on studies of insulator surfaces, as discussed in this paper. The experiments of the past three years have focused primarily on the alkali halides with a more recent shift to metal oxide crystal surfaces. Both elastic and inelastic scattering experiments were carried out on LiF, NaI, NaCl, RbCl, KBr, RbBr, RbI, CsF, CsI and with some preliminary work on NiO and MgO
Ardini, Matteo; Golia, Giordana; Passaretti, Paolo; Cimini, Annamaria; Pitari, Giuseppina; Giansanti, Francesco; Di Leandro, Luana; Ottaviano, Luca; Perrozzi, Francesco; Santucci, Sandro; Morandi, Vittorio; Ortolani, Luca; Christian, Meganne; Treossi, Emanuele; Palermo, Vincenzo; Angelucci, Francesco; Ippoliti, Rodolfo
2016-03-28
Graphene oxide (GO) is rapidly emerging worldwide as a breakthrough precursor material for next-generation devices. However, this requires the transition of its two-dimensional layered structure into more accessible three-dimensional (3D) arrays. Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are a family of multitasking redox enzymes, self-assembling into ring-like architectures. Taking advantage of both their symmetric structure and function, 3D reduced GO-based composites are hereby built up. Results reveal that the "double-faced" Prx rings can adhere flat on single GO layers and partially reduce them by their sulfur-containing amino acids, driving their stacking into 3D multi-layer reduced GO-Prx composites. This process occurs in aqueous solution at a very low GO concentration, i.e. 0.2 mg ml(-1). Further, protein engineering allows the Prx ring to be enriched with metal binding sites inside its lumen. This feature is exploited to both capture presynthesized gold nanoparticles and grow in situ palladium nanoparticles paving the way to straightforward and "green" routes to 3D reduced GO-metal composite materials.
High permittivity materials for oxide gate stack in Ge-based metal oxide semiconductor capacitors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molle, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.molle@mdm.infm.i [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza, Milano (Italy); Baldovino, Silvia [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Spiga, Sabina [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza, Milano (Italy); Fanciulli, Marco [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)
2010-01-01
In the effort to ultimately shrink the size of logic devices towards a post-Si era, the integration of Ge as alternative channel material for high-speed p-MOSFET devices and the concomitant coupling with high permittivity dielectrics (high-k) as gate oxides is currently a key-challenge in microelectronics. However, the Ge option still suffers from a number of unresolved drawbacks and open issues mainly related to the thermodynamic and electrical compatibility of Ge substrates with high-k gate stack. Strictly speaking, two main concerns can be emphasized. On one side is the dilemma on which chemical/physical passivation is more suitable to minimize the unavoidable presence of electrically active defects at the oxide/semiconductor interface. On the other side, overcoming the SiO{sub 2} gate stack opens the route to a number of potentially outperforming high-k oxides. Two deposition approaches were here separately adopted to investigate the high-k oxide growth on Ge substrates, the molecular beam deposition (MBD) of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO{sub 2}. In the MBD framework epitaxial and amorphous Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were grown onto GeO{sub 2}-passivated Ge substrates. In this case, Ge passivation was achieved by exploiting the Ge{sup 4+} bonding state in GeO{sub 2} ultra-thin interface layers intentionally deposited in between Ge and the high-k oxide by means of atomic oxygen exposure to Ge. The composition of the interface layer has been characterized as a function of the oxidation temperature and evidence of Ge dangling bonds at the GeO{sub 2}/Ge interface has been reported. Finally, the electrical response of MOS capacitors incorporating Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GeO{sub 2}-passivated Ge substrates has been checked by capacitance-voltage measurements. On the other hand, the structural and electrical properties of HfO{sub 2} films grown by ALD on Ge by using different oxygen precursors, i.e. H{sub 2}O, Hf(O{sup t}Bu){sub 2}(mmp
New method of experimental evaluation of stacking fault energy in d-transition metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dekhtyar, A.I.; Kozyrsky, G.Ya.; Kononenko, V.A.
1976-01-01
The positron-electron annihilation method is the most useful to study the electron structure near the dislocation cores. It follows from the analysis of angular correlation curves for γ-quanta of d-transition metals that sp- and spd-electrons may be treated as two Fermi-gases It has been concluded that d-like electrons reveal the behavior of both the collectivized and localized type. The splitting width, ω, of edge dislocations in various d-metals has been determined. Interesting data have been obtained for Mo single crystals deformed under different conditions: cold working (tensile test at room temperature); warm working (rolling at 300 deg C); hot working (creep at 1360 deg C)
Sedman, R M; Polisini, J M; Esparza, J R
1994-01-01
Potential public health effects associated with exposure to metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators through noninhalation pathways were evaluated. Instead of relying on modeling the movement of toxicants through various environmental media, an approach based on estimating changes from baseline levels of exposure was employed. Changes in soil and water As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, and Be concentrations that result from incinerator emissions were first determined. Estimates of changes in human...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fatimah A Noor; Mikrajuddin Abdullah; Sukirno; Khairurrijal
2008-01-01
In this paper, we have derived analytical expression of leakage current through double barriers in Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) capacitor. Initially, electron transmittance through the MOS capacitor was derived by including the coupling between the transverse and longitudinal energies. The transmittance was then employed to obtain leakage current through the double barrier. In this model, we observed the effect of electron velocity due to the coupling effect and the oxide thickness to the leakage current. The calculated results showed that the leakage current decreases as the electron velocity increases. (author)
Waveguide resonance mode response of stacked structures of metallic sub-wavelength slit arrays
Tokuda, Yasunori; Takano, Keisuke; Sakaguchi, Koichiro; Kato, Kosaku; Nakajima, Makoto; Akiyama, Koichi
2018-05-01
Detailed measurements of the optical properties of two-tier systems composed of metallic plates perforated with periodic sub-wavelength slit patterns were carried out using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the transmission properties observed experimentally for various configurations can be reproduced successfully by simulations based on the finite-differential time-domain method. Fabry-Perot-like waveguide resonance mode behaviors specific to this quasi-dielectric system were then investigated. For structures with no lateral displacement between the slit-array plates, mode disappearance phenomena, which are caused by destructive interference between the odd-order mode and the blue- or red-shifted even-order modes, were observed experimentally. The uncommon behavior of the even-order modes was examined precisely to explain the slit-width dependence. For structures with half-pitched displacement between the plates, extraordinarily strong transmission was observed experimentally, even when the optical paths were shut off. This result was interpreted in terms of the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons through very thin and labyrinthine spacings that inevitably exist between the metallic plates. Furthermore, the optical mode disappearance phenomena are revealed to be characterized by anticrossing of the two mixing modes formed by even- and odd-order modes. These experimental observations that are supported theoretically are indispensable to the practical use of this type of artificial dielectric and are expected to encourage interest in optical mode behaviors that are not typically observed in conventional dielectric systems.
Kwadrin, A.; Koenderink, A.F.
2014-01-01
Metasurfaces and metamaterials promise arbitrary rerouting of light using two-dimensional (2D) planar arrangements of electric and magnetic scatterers, respectively, 3D stacks built out of such 2D planes. An important problem is how to self-consistently model the response of these systems in a
The Role of Lattice Vibrations in Adatom Diffusion at Metal Stepped Surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durakanoglu, S.
2004-01-01
Diffusion of a single atom on metal surfaces remains a subject of continuing interest in the surface science community because of the important role it plays in several technologically important phenomena such as thin-film and eptaxial growth, catalysis and chemical reactions. Except for a few studies, most of theoretical works, ranging from molecular dynamic simulations to first principle electronic structure calculations, are devoted to determination of the characteristics of the diffusion processes and the energy barriers, neglecting the contribution of lattice vibrations in adatom diffusion. However, in a series of theoretical works on self-diffusion on the flat surfaces of Cu(100), Ag(100) and Ni(100), Ulrike et al.[1-3], showed that the vibrational contributions are important and should be included in any complete description of the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient. In this work, it is our aim to examine the role of lattice vibrations in adatom diffusion at stepped surfaces of Cu(100) and Ni(100) within the framework of transition state theory. Ehrlich-Shwoebel energy barriers for an adatom diffusing over a step-edge are calculated through the inclusion of vibrational internal energy. Local vibrational density of states, main ingredient to the vibrational thermodynamic functions, are calculated in the harmonic approximation, using real space Green's function method with the force constants derived from interaction potentials based on the embedded atom method. We emphasize the sensitivity of the local vibrational density of states to the local atomic environment. We, furthermore, discuss the contribution of thermodynamic functions calculated from local vibrational density of states to the prefactors in diffusion coefficient
Stacking with stochastic cooling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caspers, Fritz E-mail: Fritz.Caspers@cern.ch; Moehl, Dieter
2004-10-11
Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10{sup 5} the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some
Pr-O-Al-N dielectrics for metal insulator semiconductor stacks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henkel, Karsten; Torche, Mohamed; Sohal, Rakesh; Karavaev, Konstantin; Burkov, Yevgen; Schwiertz, Carola; Schmeisser, Dieter [Brandenburg University of Technology, Chair of Applied Physics and Sensors, K.-Wachsmann-Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)
2011-02-15
This work focuses on praseodymium oxide films as a high-k material on silicon and silicon carbide (SiC) in metal insulator semiconductor samples. The electrical results are correlated to spectroscopic findings on this material system. Strong interfacial reactions between the praseodymium oxide and the semiconductor as well as silicon inter-diffusion into the high-k material are observed. The importance of a buffer layer is discussed and its optimisation is addressed, too. In particular the improvement of the performance by the introduction of an aluminium oxynitride buffer layer, which acts as an inter-diffusion barrier and reduces the leakage current, the interface state density and the equivalent oxide thickness is demonstrated. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borges, J.F.A.
1985-01-01
An X-rays diffraction method was applied to measure the Stacking-Fault Energies (SFE) of the AISI 304, AISI 316, AISI 347 and DIN-WERKSTOFF 1.4970 Austenitic Stainless Steels. The SFE determination plays an important role in the research of the mechanical behaviour of the Metal and Alloys, their deformation mechanisms, stability of microstructure amd electronic configuration. The method is based on the relationship between the SFE and the ratio of the Mean Square Strain to the Stacking-Fault probability. The Mean Square Strain was evaluated by Fourier Analysis of X-rays Diffraction profiles, corrected to reduce instrumental effects, followed by the application of the Warren-Averbach method to the Fourier Coefficients. The Stacking-Fault probabilities were derived from the changes of peak separations between cold-worked and annealed specimens. (author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Hyeong-Ho; Park, Hyung-Ho; Hill, Ross H.
2004-01-01
The ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) multilayer films formed by photochemical metal-organic deposition (PMOD) using photosensitive precursors have been characterized. The substitution of La for Pb was reported to induce improved ferroelectric properties, especially fatigue resistance, through the reduction of oxygen vacancies. The relation between La-substitution and the ferroelectric properties was investigated by characterization of the effect of the order of stacking four ferroelectric layers of PZT or PLZT in the multilayer films 4-PZT, PZT/2-PLZT/PZT, PLZT/2-PZT/PLZT, and 4-PLZT. The films with the PLZT layer at the top and bottom showed an improvement in the fatigue resistance. It was revealed that defect dipole such as O vacancy was reduced at the ferroelectric/Pt interface by doping with La. Also, the bottom layer, just on Pt substrate had a significant influence on the surface microstructure and growth orientation of ferroelectric film
Wang, Wen; Jiang, Ping; Yuan, Fuping; Wu, Xiaolei
2018-05-01
The size effects of nano-spaced basal stacking faults (SFs) on the tensile strength and deformation mechanisms of nanocrystalline pure cobalt and magnesium have been investigated by a series of large-scale 2D columnar and 3D molecular dynamics simulations. Unlike the strengthening effect of basal SFs on Mg alloys, the nano-spaced basal SFs are observed to have no strengthening effect on the nanocrystalline pure cobalt and magnesium from MD simulations. These observations could be attributed to the following two reasons: (i) Lots of new basal SFs are formed before (for cobalt) or simultaneously with (for magnesium) the other deformation mechanisms (i.e. the formation of twins and the edge dislocations) during the tensile deformation; (ii) In hcp alloys, the segregation of alloy elements and impurities at typical interfaces, such as SFs, can stablilise them for enhancing the interactions with dislocation and thus elevating the strength. Without such segregation in pure hcp metals, the edge dislocations can cut through the basal SFs although the interactions between the dislocations and the pre-existing SFs/newly formed SFs are observed. The nano-spaced basal SFs are also found to have no restriction effect on the formation of deformation twins.
Abusnina, Mohamed; Moutinho, Helio; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; DeHart, Clay; Matin, Mohammed
2014-09-01
In this work, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were prepared by the sulfurization of metal precursors deposited sequentially via radio frequency magnetron sputtering on Mo-coated soda-lime glass. The stack order of the precursors was Mo/Zn/Sn/Cu. Sputtered precursors were annealed in sulfur atmosphere with nine different conditions to study the impact of sulfurization time and substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the final CZTS films. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the elemental composition ratio of the metal precursors. Final CZTS films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD and EDS were combined to investigate the films' structure and to identify the presence of secondary phases. XRD analysis indicated an improvement in film crystallinity with an increase of the substrate temperature and annealing times. Also indicated was the minimization and/or elimination of secondary phases when the films experienced longer annealing time. EDS revealed slight Sn loss in films sulfurized at 550°C; however, an increase of the sulfurization temperature to 600°C did not confirm these results. SEM study showed that films treated with higher temperatures exhibited dense morphology, indicating the completion of the sulfurization process. The estimated absorption coefficient was on the order of 104 cm-1 for all CZTS films, and the values obtained for the optical bandgap energy of the films were between 1.33 eV and 1.52 eV.
Permeability measurements and modeling of topology-optimized metallic 3-D woven lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Longyu; Ha, Seunghyun; Sharp, Keith W.; Geltmacher, Andrew B.; Fonda, Richard W.; Kinsey, Alex H.; Zhang, Yong; Ryan, Stephen M.; Erdeniz, Dinc; Dunand, David C.; Hemker, Kevin J.; Guest, James K.; Weihs, Timothy P.
2014-01-01
Topology optimization was combined with a 3-D weaving technique to design and fabricate structures with optimized combinations of fluid permeability and mechanical stiffness. Two different microarchitected structures are considered: one is a “standard” weave in which all wires were included, while the other is termed an “optimized” weave as specific wires were removed to maximize the permeability of the resulting porous materials with only a limited reduction in stiffness. Permeability was measured and predicted for both structures that were 3-D woven with either Cu or Ni–20Cr wires. The as-woven wires in the Cu lattices were bonded at contact points using solder or braze while the Ni–20Cr wires were bonded at contact points using pack aluminization. Permeability was measured under laminar flow conditions in all three normal directions for unbonded and bonded samples and in the optimized structure it was found to increase between 200% and 600%, depending on direction, over the standard structures. Permeability was also predicted using finite-element modeling with as-fabricated wires positions that were identified with optical microscopy or X-ray tomography; the measurements and predictions show good agreement. Lastly, the normalized permeability values significantly exceed those found for stochastic, metallic foams and other periodic structures with a material volume fraction of over 30%
Lattice location of transition metals in silicon by means of emission channeling
da Silva, Daniel José; Wahl, Ulrich; Correia, João Guilherme
The behavior of transition metals (TMs) in silicon is a subject that has been studied extensively during the last six decades. Their unintentional introduction during the Si production, crystal growth and device manufacturing have made them difficult contaminants to avoid. Once in silicon they easily form deep levels, either when in the isolated form or when forming precipitates. One important effect is the reduction of efficiency of silicon-based devices, being dramatic, in particular, in photovoltaic applications. One way to avoid such effects is by engineering the location of the TM: some TM complexes or lattice sites of the isolated form do not introduce any level in the silicon bandgap. Which point defects lead to such passivation is still under debate. Another way is to mitigate the reduction of efficiency by reducing the dangling bonds of TMs with hydrogen. The most important and commonly used procedures to diminish the unwanted effects of the introduced deep levels are, nevertheless, based on the so-c...
Aljarb, Areej
2017-08-07
Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDCs) semiconductors are important for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Given the difficulty in growing large single crystals of 2D TMDC materials, understanding the factors affecting the seed formation and orientation becomes an important issue for controlling the growth. Here, we systematically study the growth of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayer on c-plane sapphire with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to discover the factors controlling their orientation. We show that the concentration of precursors, i.e., the ratio between sulfur and molybdenum oxide (MoO3), plays a key role in the size and orientation of seeds, subsequently controlling the orientation of MoS2 monolayers. High S/MoO3 ratio is needed in the early stage of growth to form small seeds that can align easily to the substrate lattice structures while the ratio should be decreased to enlarge the size of the monolayer at the next stage of the lateral growth. Moreover, we show that the seeds are actually crystalline MoS2 layers as revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. There exist two preferred orientations (0° or 60°) registered on sapphire, confirmed by our density functional theory (DFT) simulation. This report offers a facile technique to grow highly aligned 2D TMDCs and contributes to knowledge advancement in growth mechanism.
Stable biexcitons in two-dimensional metal-halide perovskites with strong dynamic lattice disorder
Thouin, Félix; Neutzner, Stefanie; Cortecchia, Daniele; Dragomir, Vlad Alexandru; Soci, Cesare; Salim, Teddy; Lam, Yeng Ming; Leonelli, Richard; Petrozza, Annamaria; Kandada, Ajay Ram Srimath; Silva, Carlos
2018-03-01
With strongly bound and stable excitons at room temperature, single-layer, two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are viable semiconductors for light-emitting quantum optoelectronics applications. In such a technological context, it is imperative to comprehensively explore all the factors—chemical, electronic, and structural—that govern strong multiexciton correlations. Here, by means of two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy, we examine excitonic many-body effects in pure, single-layer (PEA) 2PbI4 (PEA = phenylethylammonium). We determine the binding energy of biexcitons—correlated two-electron, two-hole quasiparticles—to be 44 ±5 meV at room temperature. The extraordinarily high values are similar to those reported in other strongly excitonic two-dimensional materials such as transition-metal dichalcogenides. Importantly, we show that this binding energy increases by ˜25 % upon cooling to 5 K. Our work highlights the importance of multiexciton correlations in this class of technologically promising, solution-processable materials, in spite of the strong effects of lattice fluctuations and dynamic disorder.
Lowering the environmental impact of high-kappa/ metal gate stack surface preparation processes
Zamani, Davoud
ABSTRACT Hafnium based oxides and silicates are promising high-κ dielectrics to replace SiO2 as gate material for state-of-the-art semiconductor devices. However, integrating these new high-κ materials into the existing complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process remains a challenge. One particular area of concern is the use of large amounts of HF during wet etching of hafnium based oxides and silicates. The patterning of thin films of these materials is accomplished by wet etching in HF solutions. The use of HF allows dissolution of hafnium as an anionic fluoride complex. Etch selectivity with respect to SiO2 is achieved by appropriately diluting the solutions and using slightly elevated temperatures. From an ESH point of view, it would be beneficial to develop methods which would lower the use of HF. The first objective of this study is to find new chemistries and developments of new wet etch methods to reduce fluoride consumption during wet etching of hafnium based high-κ materials. Another related issue with major environmental impact is the usage of large amounts of rinsing water for removal of HF in post-etch cleaning step. Both of these require a better understanding of the HF interaction with the high-κ surface during the etching, cleaning, and rinsing processes. During the rinse, the cleaning chemical is removed from the wafers. Ensuring optimal resource usage and cycle time during the rinse requires a sound understanding and quantitative description of the transport effects that dominate the removal rate of the cleaning chemicals from the surfaces. Multiple processes, such as desorption and re-adsorption, diffusion, migration and convection, all factor into the removal rate of the cleaning chemical during the rinse. Any of these processes can be the removal rate limiting process, the bottleneck of the rinse. In fact, the process limiting the removal rate generally changes as the rinse progresses, offering the opportunity to save resources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jimenez-Saez, J C; Perez-MartIn, A M C; Jimenez-RodrIguez, J J
2007-01-01
The soft deposition of Cu and Au clusters on Au(001) and Cu(001) surfaces respectively is studied by constant-temperature molecular-dynamics simulations. The initial shape of the nanoclusters is icosahedral or truncated octahedral (Wulff type). Their number of atoms ranges between 12 and 1289 atoms. Bombardment energy is of the order of a few meV/atom. The atomic interactions are mimicked by a many-body potential based on the tightbinding model. The effect of the temperature as activation to get the complete epitaxy is analysed. We have found that Cu clusters manage to align their {002} planes with the substrate by increasing the temperature. However, there is not epitaxial growth in any case since the lattice becomes bcc or important stacking faults are generated. For Au clusters, the alignment of these planes is practically independent of the temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nichau, Alexander
2013-01-01
The continued downscaling of MOSFET dimensions requires an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of the gate stack below 1 nm. An EOT below 1.4 nm is hereby enabled by the use of high-κ/metal gate stacks. LaLuO 3 and HfO 2 are investigated as two different high-κ oxides on silicon in conjunction with TiN as the metal electrode. LaLuO 3 and its temperature-dependent silicate formation are characterized by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES). The effective attenuation length of LaLuO 3 is determined between 7 and 13 keV to enable future interface and diffusion studies. In a first investigation of LaLuO 3 on germanium, germanate formation is shown. LaLuO 3 is further integrated in a high-temperature MOSFET process flow with varying thermal treatment. The devices feature drive currents up to 70μA/μm at 1μm gate length. Several optimization steps are presented. The effective device mobility is related to silicate formation and thermal budget. At high temperature the silicate formation leads to mobility degradation due to La-rich silicate formation. The integration of LaLuO 3 in high-T processes delicately connects with the optimization of the TiN metal electrode. Hereby, stoichiometric TiN yields the best results in terms of thermal stability with respect to Si-capping and high-κ oxide. Different approaches are presented for a further EOT reduction with LaLuO 3 and HfO 2 . Thereby the thermodynamic and kinetic predictions are employed to estimate the behavior on the nanoscale. Based on thermodynamics, excess oxygen in the gate stack, especially in oxidized metal electrodes, is identified to prevent EOT scaling below 1.2 nm. The equivalent oxide thickness of HfO 2 gate stacks is scalable below 1 nm by the use of thinned interfacial SiO 2 . The prevention of oxygen incorporation into the metal electrode by Si-capping maintains the EOT after high temperature annealing. Redox systems are employed within the gate electrode to decrease the EOT of HfO 2 gate stacks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nichau, Alexander
2013-07-15
The continued downscaling of MOSFET dimensions requires an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of the gate stack below 1 nm. An EOT below 1.4 nm is hereby enabled by the use of high-κ/metal gate stacks. LaLuO{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} are investigated as two different high-κ oxides on silicon in conjunction with TiN as the metal electrode. LaLuO{sub 3} and its temperature-dependent silicate formation are characterized by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES). The effective attenuation length of LaLuO{sub 3} is determined between 7 and 13 keV to enable future interface and diffusion studies. In a first investigation of LaLuO{sub 3} on germanium, germanate formation is shown. LaLuO{sub 3} is further integrated in a high-temperature MOSFET process flow with varying thermal treatment. The devices feature drive currents up to 70μA/μm at 1μm gate length. Several optimization steps are presented. The effective device mobility is related to silicate formation and thermal budget. At high temperature the silicate formation leads to mobility degradation due to La-rich silicate formation. The integration of LaLuO{sub 3} in high-T processes delicately connects with the optimization of the TiN metal electrode. Hereby, stoichiometric TiN yields the best results in terms of thermal stability with respect to Si-capping and high-κ oxide. Different approaches are presented for a further EOT reduction with LaLuO{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}. Thereby the thermodynamic and kinetic predictions are employed to estimate the behavior on the nanoscale. Based on thermodynamics, excess oxygen in the gate stack, especially in oxidized metal electrodes, is identified to prevent EOT scaling below 1.2 nm. The equivalent oxide thickness of HfO{sub 2} gate stacks is scalable below 1 nm by the use of thinned interfacial SiO{sub 2}. The prevention of oxygen incorporation into the metal electrode by Si-capping maintains the EOT after high temperature annealing. Redox systems are employed within the
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Deligne, Mumford and Artin [DM, Ar2]) and consider algebraic stacks, then we can cons- truct the 'moduli ... the moduli scheme and the moduli stack of vector bundles. First I will give ... 1–31. © Printed in India. 1 ...... Cultura, Spain. References.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Liu, Xi-Wen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Ho, Szu-Han; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Lu, Ching-Sen
2014-01-01
This work investigates electron-electron scattering (EES)-induced channel hot electron (CHE) injection in nanoscale n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (n-MOSFETs) with high-k/metal gate stacks. Many groups have proposed new models (i.e., single-particle and multiple-particle process) to well explain the hot carrier degradation in nanoscale devices and all mechanisms focused on Si-H bond dissociation at the Si/SiO 2 interface. However, for high-k dielectric devices, experiment results show that the channel hot carrier trapping in the pre-existing high-k bulk defects is the main degradation mechanism. Therefore, we propose a model of EES-induced CHE injection to illustrate the trapping-dominant mechanism in nanoscale n-MOSFETs with high-k/metal gate stacks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vrielink, J.A.M.; Tiggelaar, R.M.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Lefferts, L.
2012-01-01
In this work the applicability of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) for fast, accurate and non-destructive determination of the thickness of a variety of single-layer and multi-layer metal thin films deposited on glass and silicon is investigated. Data obtained with XRF is compared with information from profilometry and images from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whereas thickness determinations based on profilometry and cross-sectional SEM-imaging have restrictions with respect to thickness of metal stacks or hardness of the metals, XRF has no such limitations. Moreover, XRF can discriminate between sublayers in a multi-layer film, and can also be utilized for compositional analysis and density estimations. Good agreement between thickness data obtained with XRF, profilometry and SEM-images is found, under the justifiable assumption that the density of sputter-deposited and evaporated thin films is ca. 5% below that of bulk metals. Similar XRF-results are found for non-patterned areas (64 mm 2 metal) as well as lithographically patterned areas containing a series of small metal lines (total metal surface ca. 8 mm 2 ). As a consequence, it is concluded that XRF is a versatile technique for analysis, verification, control or evaluation of the thickness, density or (elemental) composition of thin metal film line-patterns, during their fabrication as well as prior or post to applications.
Sim, Hasung; Lee, Seongsu; Hong, Kun-Pyo; Jeong, Jaehong; Zhang, J. R.; Kamiyama, T.; Adroja, D. T.; Murray, C. A.; Thompson, S. P.; Iga, F.; Ji, S.; Khomskii, D.; Park, Je-Geun
2016-11-01
Dy B4 has a two-dimensional Shastry-Sutherland (Sh-S) lattice with strong Ising character of the Dy ions. Despite the intrinsic frustrations, it undergoes two successive transitions: a magnetic ordering at TN=20 K and a quadrupole ordering at TQ=12.5 K . From high-resolution neutron and synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction studies, we have obtained full structural information on this material in all phases and demonstrate that structural modifications occurring at quadrupolar transition lead to the lifting of frustrations inherent in the Sh-S model. Our paper thus provides a complete experimental picture of how the intrinsic frustration of the Sh-S lattice can be lifted by the coupling to quadrupole moments. We show that two other factors, i.e., strong spin-orbit coupling and long-range Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction in metallic Dy B4 , play an important role in this behavior.
Hegde, Vinay I; Tan, Jin-Chong; Waghmare, Umesh V; Cheetham, Anthony K
2013-10-17
We determine the nonlinear mechanical behavior of a prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) along two modes of mechanical failure in response to tensile and shear forces using first-principles simulations. Our generalized stacking fault energy surface reveals an intrinsic stacking fault of surprisingly low energy comparable to that in copper, though the energy barrier associated with its formation is much higher. The lack of vibrational spectroscopic evidence for such faults in experiments can be explained with the structural instability of the barrier state to form a denser and disordered state of ZIF-8 seen in our analysis, that is, large shear leads to its amorphization rather than formation of faults.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCulloch, D.B.; Clarke, W.G.; Ashworth, F.P.O.; Hoskins, T.A.
1963-01-01
Exponential experiments have been carried out on graphite lattices fuelled by 1.2 in. diameter uranium metal rods at three near-natural U 235 compositions, 0.6 Co, 1.3 Co and 1.6 Co. The results, together with those already existing from earlier exponential or critical measurements on these and similar natural uranium rods, have been correlated with the theory of Syrett (1961) and also with the modified form of this theory given in Vol.1, Ch. 7. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunne, Lawrence J; Manos, George
2015-01-01
Here we present a statistical mechanical lattice model which is exactly solvable using a matrix method and allows treatment of adsorption induced gate opening structural transformations of metal-organic frameworks which are nanoporous materials with exceptional adsorption properties. Modelling of these structural changes presents a serious theoretical challenge when the solid and gas species are treated in an even handed way. This exactly solvable model complements other simulation based approaches. The methodology presented here highlights the competition between the potential for adsorption and the energy required for structural transition as a driving force for the features in the adsorption isotherms. (paper)
Noncentral forces and lattice vibration in transition metals. Alpha-iron, chromium, and tungsten
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, V P; Kharoo, H L; Kumar, M; Hemkar, M P [Allahabad Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics
1976-03-11
The elastic-force model proposed in a previous paper has been considered to compute the phonon dispersion relations for lattice waves propagating along the principal symmetry directions of ..cap alpha..-iron, chromium and tungsten. The model, however, takes into account the central forces together with the Clark, Gazis and Wallis type angular forces and the effect of electron-iron interaction on the lattice vibration as outlined by Krebs. The theoretical results are found to be quite satisfactory and compare well with recent neutron scattering data.
Lattice dynamics and electron/phonon interactions in epitaxial transition-metal nitrides
Mei, Antonio Rodolph Bighetti
Transition metal (TM) nitrides, due to their unique combination of remarkable physical properties and simple NaCl structure, are presently utilized in a broad range of applications and as model systems in the investigation of complex phenomena. Group-IVB nitrides TiN, ZrN, and HfN have transport properties which include superconductivity and high electrical conductivity; consequentially, they have become technologically important as electrodes and contacts in the semiconducting and superconducting industries. The Group-VB nitride VN, which exhibits enhanced ductility, is a fundamental component in superhard and tough nanostructured hard coatings. In this thesis, I investigate the lattice dynamics responsible for controlling superconductivity and electrical conductivities in Group-IVB nitrides and elasticity and structural stability of the NaCl-structure Group-VB nitride VN. Our group has already synthesized high-quality epitaxial TiN, HfN, and CeN layers on MgO(001) substrates. By irradiating the growth surface with high ion fluxes at energies below the bulk lattice-atom displacement threshold, dense epitaxial single crystal TM nitride films with extremely smooth surfaces have been grown using ultra-high vacuum magnetically-unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition. Using this approach, I completed the Group-IVB nitride series by growing epitaxial ZrN/MgO(001) films and then grew Group-VB nitride VN films epitaxially on MgO(001), MgO(011), and MgO(111). The combination of high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) reciprocal lattice maps (RLMs), high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HR-XTEM), and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) show that single-crystal stoichiometric ZrN films grown at 450 °C are epitaxially oriented cube-on-cube with respect to their MgO(001) substrates, (001) ZrN||(001)MgO and [100]ZrN||[100]MgO. The layers are essentially fully relaxed with a lattice parameter of 0.4575 nm. X-ray reflectivity results reveal that
Effect of three-body forces on the lattice dynamics of noble metals
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A simple method to generate an effective electron–ion interaction pseudopotential from the energy wave number characteristic obtained by ﬁrst principles calculations has been suggested. This effective potential has been used, in third order perturbation, to study the effect of three-body forces on the lattice dynamics of ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fadida, S.; Shekhter, P.; Eizenberg, M.; Cvetko, D.; Floreano, L.; Verdini, A.; Nyns, L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Kymissis, I.
2014-01-01
In the path to incorporating Ge based metal-oxide-semiconductor into modern nano-electronics, one of the main issues is the oxide-semiconductor interface quality. Here, the reactivity of Ti on Ge stacks and the scavenging effect of Ti were studied using synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, with an in-situ metal deposition and high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging. Oxygen removal from the Ge surface was observed both in direct contact as well as remotely through an Al 2 O 3 layer. The scavenging effect was studied in situ at room temperature and after annealing. We find that the reactivity of Ti can be utilized for improved scaling of Ge based devices.
2002-01-01
The channelling effect of decay-electrons and positrons is used for the localization of radioactive impurities implanted into single crystals. Because of the low implantation doses and the variety of different isotopes available at ISOLDE, this technique is especially suited for applications in semiconducting materials. \\\\ \\\\ Channelling measurements in Si, GaAs and GaP implanted with In-, Cd- and Xe-isotopes have demonstrated that impurity lattice sites can be studied directly after implantation without any annealing. The electron-channelling technique can be ideally combined with hyperfine interaction techniques like Moessbauer s This was shown for the formation of In-vacancy complexes in ion-implanted Ni. \\\\ \\\\ We intend to continue the lattice location measurements in semiconductors implanted with various radioactive impurities of Cd, In, Sn, Sb and Te.
S/sub n/ analysis of the TRX metal lattices with ENDF/B version III data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wheeler, F.J.
1975-01-01
Two critical assemblies, designated as thermal-reactor benchmarks TRX-1 and TRX-2 for ENDF/B data testing, were analyzed using the one-dimensional S/sub n/-theory code SCAMP. The two assemblies were simple lattices of aluminum-clad, uranium-metal fuel rods in triangular arrays with D 2 O as moderator and reflector. The fuel was low-enriched (1.3 percent 235 U), 0.387-inch in diameter and had an active height of 48 inches. The volume ratio of water to uranium was 2.35 for the TRX-1 lattice and 4.02 for TRX-2. Full-core S/sub n/ calculations based on Version III data were performed for these assemblies and the results obtained were compared with the measured values of the multiplication factors, the ratio of epithermal-to-thermal neutron capture in 238 U, the ratio of epithermal-to-thermal fission in 235 U, the ratio of 238 U fission to 235 U fission, and the ratio of capture in 238 U to fission in 235 U. Reaction rates were obtained from a central region of the full-core problems. Multigroup cross sections for the reactor calculation were obtained from S/sub n/ cell calculations with resonance self-shielding calculated using the RABBLE treatment. The results of the analyses are generally consistent with results obtained by other investigators
Vortex lattices in layered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokic, V.; Davidovic, D.; Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, L.
1995-01-01
We study vortex lattices in a superconductor--normal-metal superlattice in a parallel magnetic field. Distorted lattices, resulting from the shear deformations along the layers, are found to be unstable. Under field variation, nonequilibrium configurations undergo an infinite sequence of continuous transitions, typical for soft lattices. The equilibrium vortex arrangement is always a lattice of isocell triangles, without shear
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Yang
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to evaluate the influence of the stacking fault energy (SFE as a single variable parameter on defect formation by collision cascades in face-centered cubic metals. The simulations are performed for energies of a primary knock-on atom (EPKA up to 50keV at 100K by using six sets of the recently developed embedded atom method–type potentials. Neither the number of residual defects nor their clustering behavior is found to be affected by the SFE, except for the mean size of the vacancy clusters at EPKA=50keV. The mean size increases as the SFE decreases because of the enhanced formation of large vacancy clusters, which prefer to have stacking faults inside them. On the other hand, the ratio of glissile self-interstitial atom (SIA clusters decreases as the SFE increases. At higher SFEs, both the number of Frank loops and number of perfect loops tend to decrease; instead, three-dimensional irregular clusters with higher densities appear, most of which are sessile. The effect of SFE on the number of Frank loops becomes apparent only at a high EPKA of 50keV, where comparably large SIA clusters can be formed with a higher density.
Tennfors, Einar
2013-02-01
The present article is a critical comment on Widom and Larsens speculations concerning low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) based on spontaneous collective motion of protons in a room temperature metallic hydride lattice producing oscillating electric fields that renormalize the electron self-energy, adding significantly to the effective electron mass and enabling production of low-energy neutrons. The frequency and mean proton displacement estimated on the basis of neutron scattering from protons in palladium and applied to the Widom and Larsens model of the proton oscillations yield an electron mass enhancement less than one percent, far below the threshold for the proposed neutron production and even farther below the mass enhancement obtained by Widom and Larsen assuming a high charge density. Neutrons are not stopped by the Coulomb barrier, but the energy required for the neutron production is not low.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radu, I.E.
2006-03-15
This thesis presents the femtosecond laser-induced electron, lattice and spin dynamics on two representative rare-earth systems: The ferromagnetic gadolinium Gd(0001) and the paramagnetic yttrium Y(0001) metals. The employed investigation tools are the time-resolved linear reflectivity and second-harmonic generation, which provide complementary information about the bulk and surface/interface dynamics, respectively. The femtosecond laser excitation of the exchange-split surface state of Gd(0001) triggers simultaneously the coherent vibrational dynamics of the lattice and spin subsystems in the surface region at a frequency of 3 THz. The coherent optical phonon corresponds to the vibration of the topmost atomic layer against the underlying bulk along the normal direction to the surface. The coupling mechanism between phonons and magnons is attributed to the modulation of the exchange interaction J between neighbour atoms due to the coherent lattice vibration. This leads to an oscillatory motion of the magnetic moments having the same frequency as the lattice vibration. Thus these results reveal a new type of phonon-magnon coupling mediated by the modulation of the exchange interaction and not by the conventional spin-orbit interaction. Moreover, we show that coherent spin dynamics in the THz frequency domain is achievable, which is at least one order of magnitude faster than previously reported. The laser-induced (de)magnetization dynamics of the ferromagnetic Gd(0001) thin films have been studied. Upon photo-excitation, the nonlinear magneto-optics measurements performed in this work show a sudden drop in the spin polarization of the surface state by more than 50% in a <100 fs time interval. Under comparable experimental conditions, the time-resolved photoemission studies reveal a constant exchange splitting of the surface state. The ultrafast decrease of spin polarization can be explained by the quasi-elastic spin-flip scattering of the hot electrons among spin
Pressure-induced structural change from hexagonal to fcc metal lattice in scandium trihydride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohmura, A.; Machida, A.; Watanuki, T.; Aoki, K.; Nakano, S.; Takemura, K.
2007-01-01
We synthesized scandium hydrides by hydrogenation of a scandium foil with hydrogen fluid under high pressure at ambient temperature. Scandium dihydride (ScH 2 ) and trihydride (ScH 3 ) were prepared near 4 and 5 GPa, respectively. The hydrogenation process and pressure-induced structural changes in ScH 3 were investigated by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction measurements up to 54.7 GPa. A structural transition from hexagonal to the fcc lattice began at 30 GPa and was completed at 46 GPa via an intermediate state similar to those reported for other hexagonal trihydrides. The intermediate state was not interpreted in terms of a coexisting state for the low-pressure hexagonal and the high-pressure fcc structures. The onset transition pressure of ScH 3 supported the previously proposed relation that the hexagonal-fcc transition pressure is inversely proportional to the ionic radius of the trihydride
Local-field correction in the lattice dynamics of b.b.c. transition metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onwuagba, B.N.
1984-01-01
It is shown that the off-diagonal components of the inverse dielectric matrix which determine the local-field correction associated with s-d interactions, make contributions to the dynamical matrix for phonon dispersion in the body-centred cubic transition metals V, Nb and Ta which tend to cancel the Born-Mayer contribution, just as the diagonal components of the inverse dielectric matrix tend to cancel or screen the long-range (Coulombic) contribution. Numerical calculations show that the cancellation of the Born-Mayer contribution to the dynamical matrix by the local-field correction is such that the effective short-range interatomic potential turns out to be attractive rather than repulsive in these metals and accounts for some peculiar shapes of the major soft modes observed in these metals
Metal-insulator transition in one-dimensional lattices with chaotic energy sequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinto, R.A.; Rodriguez, M.; Gonzalez, J.A.; Medina, E.
2005-01-01
We study electronic transport through a one-dimensional array of sites by using a tight binding Hamiltonian, whose site-energies are drawn from a chaotic sequence. The correlation degree between these energies is controlled by a parameter regulating the dynamic Lyapunov exponent measuring the degree of chaos. We observe the effect of chaotic sequences on the localization length, conductance, conductance distribution and wave function, finding evidence of a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at a critical degree of chaos. The one-dimensional metallic phase is characterized by a Gaussian conductance distribution and exhibits a peculiar non-selfaveraging
Metal-insulator transition in one-dimensional lattices with chaotic energy sequences
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinto, R.A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Estadistica, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela)]. E-mail: ripinto@ivic.ve; Rodriguez, M. [Laboratorio de Fisica Estadistica, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela); Gonzalez, J.A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Computacional, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela); Medina, E. [Laboratorio de Fisica Estadistica, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela)
2005-06-20
We study electronic transport through a one-dimensional array of sites by using a tight binding Hamiltonian, whose site-energies are drawn from a chaotic sequence. The correlation degree between these energies is controlled by a parameter regulating the dynamic Lyapunov exponent measuring the degree of chaos. We observe the effect of chaotic sequences on the localization length, conductance, conductance distribution and wave function, finding evidence of a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at a critical degree of chaos. The one-dimensional metallic phase is characterized by a Gaussian conductance distribution and exhibits a peculiar non-selfaveraging.
The lattice dynamics of six prominent B.C.C. transition metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brescansin, L.M.; Padial, N.T.; Shukla, M.M.
1975-01-01
The frequency versus wave vector dispersion relations along the three principal symmetry directions, [xi00], [xixi0] and [xixixi], of six prominent body centered cubic transition metals, namely that of molybdenum, α-iron, tungsten, tantalum, niobium and that of chromium, have been computed on the basis of a phenomenological model. The calculated results are in very good agreements to the experimental findings
Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in n -type insulating and metallic GaAs single crystals
Lu, J.; Hoch, M. J. R.; Kuhns, P. L.; Moulton, W. G.; Gan, Z.; Reyes, A. P.
2006-09-01
The coupling of electron and nuclear spins in n-GaAs changes significantly as the donor concentration n increases through the insulator-metal critical concentration nC˜1.2×1016cm-3 . The present measurements of the Ga71 relaxation rates W made as a function of magnetic field (1-13T) and temperature (1.5-300K) for semi-insulating GaAs and for three doped n-GaAs samples with donor concentrations n=5.9×1015 , 7×1016 , and 2×1018cm-3 , show marked changes in the relaxation behavior with n . Korringa-like relaxation is found in both metallic samples for T30K phonon-induced nuclear quadrupolar relaxation is dominant. The relaxation rate measurements permit determination of the electron probability density at Ga71 sites. A small Knight shift of -3.3ppm was measured on the most metallic (2×1018cm-3) sample using magic-angle spinning at room temperature. For the n=5.9×1015cm-3 sample, a nuclear relaxation model involving the Fermi contact hyperfine interaction, rapid spin diffusion, and exchange coupled local moments is proposed. While the relaxation rate behavior with temperature for the weakly metallic sample, n=7×1016cm-3 , is similar to that found for the just-insulating sample, the magnetic field dependence is quite different. For the 5.9×1015cm-3 sample, increasing the magnetic field leads to a decrease in the relaxation rate, while for the 7×1016cm-3 sample this results in an increase in the relaxation rate ascribed to an increase in the density of states at the Fermi level as the Landau level degeneracy is increased.
Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.
2009-01-01
Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)
Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.
2008-03-01
Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)
2016-08-28
In the present study, atomic layer deposition has been used to grow a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1–7) of ZnO/TiO{sub x} layers on (0001) sapphire substrates. The effects of defect states mediated chemisorption of O{sub 2} and/OH groups on the electrical properties of these films have been investigated by illuminating the samples under UV light inside a high vacuum optical cryostat. The ultra-thin film having one stacked layer (n = 1) did not show any change in its electrical resistance upon UV light exposure. On the contrary, marginal drop in the electrical resistivity was measured for the samples with n ≥ 3. Most surprisingly, the sample with n = 2 (thickness ∼ 12 nm) showed an insulator to metal transition upon UV light exposure. The temperature dependent electrical resistivity measurement on the as grown film (n = 2) showed insulating behaviour, i.e., diverging resistivity on extrapolation to T→ 0 K. However, upon UV light exposure, it transformed to a metallic state, i.e., finite resistivity at T → 0 K. Such an insulator-metal transition plausibly arises due to the de-trapping of conduction electrons from the surface defect sites which resulted in an upward shift of the Fermi level above the mobility edge. The low-temperature electron transport properties on the insulating film (n = 2) were investigated by a combined study of zero field electrical resistivity ρ(T) and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. The observed negative MR was found to be in good agreement with the magnetic field induced suppression of quantum interference between forward-going paths of tunnelling electrons. Both ρ(T) and MR measurements provided strong evidence for the Efros-Shklovskii type variable range hopping conduction in the low-temperature (≤40 K) regime. Such studies on electron transport in ultra-thin n-type doped ZnO films are crucial to achieve optimum functionality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Bao; Liu, Wen-Jun; Wei, Lei; Zhang, David Wei; Jiang, Anquan; Ding, Shi-Jin, E-mail: sjding@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, School of Microelectronics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)
2015-07-07
Excellent voltage linearity of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors is highly required for next generation radio frequency integration circuits. In this work, employing atomic layer deposition technique, we demonstrated how the voltage linearity of MIM capacitors was modulated by adding different thickness of SiO{sub 2} layer to the nano-stack of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}. It was found that the quadratic voltage coefficient of capacitance (α) can be effectively reduced from 1279 to −75 ppm/V{sup 2} with increasing the thickness of SiO{sub 2} from zero to 4 nm, which is more powerful than increasing the thickness of ZrO{sub 2} in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} stack. This is attributed to counteraction between the positive α for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} and the negative one for SiO{sub 2} in the MIM capacitors with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} stacks. Interestingly, voltage-polarity dependent conduction behaviors in the MIM capacitors were observed. For electron bottom-injection, the addition of SiO{sub 2} obviously suppressed the leakage current; however, it abnormally increased the leakage current for electron top-injection. These are ascribed to the co-existence of shallow and deep traps in ZrO{sub 2}, and the former is in favor of the field-assisted tunnelling conduction and the latter contributes to the trap-assisted tunnelling process. The above findings will be beneficial to device design and process optimization for high performance MIM capacitors.
Electrical and materials properties of AlN/ HfO{sub 2} high-k stack with a metal gate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reid, Kimberly G. [Tokyo Electron U.S., 14338 FM 1826, Austin, TX 78737 (United States)], E-mail: kim@ireid.com; Dip, Anthony [Tokyo Electron U.S., 2400 Grove Blvd., Austin, TX 78747 (United States)], E-mail: anthony.dip@us.tel.com; Sasaki, Sadao [Tokyo Electron U.S. (United States)], E-mail: Sadao.sasaki@us.tel.com; Triyoso, Dina [Freescale Semiconductor Inc., 3501 Ed Bluestein Blvd, Austin, TX 78721 (United States)], E-mail: Dina.Triyoso@freescale.com; Samavedam, Sri [Freescale Semiconductor Inc., 3501 Ed Bluestein Blvd, Austin, TX 78721 (United States)], E-mail: Sri.Samavedam@freescale.com; Gilmer, David [SEMATECH 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, TX 78741 (United States)], E-mail: David.Gilmer@sematech.org; Gondran, Carolyn F.H. [Process Characterization Laboratory, ATDF/SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, Texas 78741 (United States)], E-mail: Carolyn.Gondran@atdf.com
2009-02-27
In this study, aluminum nitride (AlN) was grown by molecular layer deposition on HfO{sub 2} that had been deposited on 200 mm Si (100) substrates. The AlN was grown on HfO{sub 2} using sequential exposures of trimethyl-aluminum and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) in a batch vertical furnace. Excellent thickness uniformity on test wafers from the top of the furnace to the bottom of the furnace (across the furnace load) was obtained. The equivalent oxide thickness was 16.5-18.8 A for the AlN/HfO{sub 2} stack on patterned device wafers with a molybdenum oxynitride metal gate with leakage current densities from low 10{sup -5} to mid 10{sup -6} A/cm{sup 2} at threshold voltage minus one volt. There was no change in the work function with the AlN cap on HfO{sub 2} with the MoN metal gate, even with a 1000 deg. C anneal.
Sodium-Induced Reordering of Atomic Stacks in Black Phosphorus
Cheng, Yingchun
2017-01-12
While theoretical simulations predict contradictory results about how the intercalation of foreign metal atoms affects the order of atomic layers in black phosphorus (BP), no direct experimental visualization work has yet clarified this ambiguity. By in situ electrochemical sodiation of BP inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and first-principles calculations, we found that sodium intercalation induces a relative glide of/ ⟨010⟩ {001}, resulting in reordering of atomic stacks from AB to AC in BP. The observed local amorphization in our experiments is triggered by lattice constraints. We predict that intercalation of sodium or other metal atoms introduces n-type carriers in BP. This potentially opens a new field for two-dimensional electronics based on BP.
Sodium-Induced Reordering of Atomic Stacks in Black Phosphorus
Cheng, Yingchun; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Liu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Bingchao; Nie, Anmin; Huang, Wei; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Mashayek, Farzad
2017-01-01
While theoretical simulations predict contradictory results about how the intercalation of foreign metal atoms affects the order of atomic layers in black phosphorus (BP), no direct experimental visualization work has yet clarified this ambiguity. By in situ electrochemical sodiation of BP inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and first-principles calculations, we found that sodium intercalation induces a relative glide of/ ⟨010⟩ {001}, resulting in reordering of atomic stacks from AB to AC in BP. The observed local amorphization in our experiments is triggered by lattice constraints. We predict that intercalation of sodium or other metal atoms introduces n-type carriers in BP. This potentially opens a new field for two-dimensional electronics based on BP.
Lattice Dynamics of Transition Metals; Dynamique de Reseau des Metaux de Transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woods, A. D.B. [Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)
1965-04-15
The frequency versus wave-vector v(q) dispersion relations for the normal modes of vibration of several body-centred cubic transition metal, crystals have been measured recently at room temperature. The dispersion curves for niobium, measured by Nakagawa and Woods, displayed some very unusual features, and the results could only be fitted by means of a Born-von Karman model if interactions out to very distant neighbours (beyond eighth) were included. Subsequent measurements on tantalum by Woods showed very similar results. This is not surprising since niobium and tantalum are in column V of the periodic table and many of their electronic properties are similar. Measurements of the dispersion curves of molybdenum by Woods and Chen and of tungsten by Chen and Brockhouse showed that although these metals, which are in column VI of the periodic table, had dispersion relations which were similar to each other, these dispersion relations were very different from those of the column V metals, niobium and tantalum. The gross features of the v(q) for molybdenum and tungsten were very nearly describable by a third neighbour axially-symmetric Born-von Karman force model, although several important features were not reproduced by this model. One of these features is a striking anomaly in the [{zeta}{zeta}{zeta}] longitudinal (L) branch for molybdenum where the frequency changes from v = 6.3 x 10{sup 12} c/s at {zeta} = 0.92 to v= 5.5 x 10{sup 12} c/s at {zeta} = 1.0. If this and other observed features are Kohn anomalies, their positions are consistent with the dimensions of the Fermi suriace of the column V metals proposed by Lomer. Thus it is suggested that the striking differences between the dispersion relation for niobium and that for molybdenum (metals which are believed to have quite similar band structures) reflect differences in the Fermi energies and hence the Fermi surfaces for these materials. (author) [French] Les relations de dispersion v(q) (frequence- vecteur d
Kündel, J.; Pontiller, P.; Müller, C.; Obermeier, G.; Liu, Z.; Nateprov, A. A.; Hörner, A.; Wixforth, A.; Horn, S.; Tidecks, R.
2013-03-01
A surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line is used to study the metal-to-insulator (MI) transition of V2O3 thin films deposited on a piezoelectric LiNbO3 substrate. Effects contributing to the sound velocity shift of the SAW which are caused by elastic properties of the lattice of the V2O3 films when changing the temperature are separated from those originating from the electrical conductivity. For this purpose the electric field accompanying the elastic wave of the SAW has been shielded by growing the V2O3 film on a thin metallic Cr interlayer (coated with Cr2O3), covering the piezoelectric substrate. Thus, the recently discovered lattice precursor of the MI transition can be directly observed in the experiments, and its fine structure can be investigated.
Gutha, Rithvik R.; Sharp, Christina; Wing, Waylin J.; Sadeghi, Seyed M.
2018-02-01
Chemical sensing based on Localized Surface Plasmonic Resonances (LSPR) and the ultra-sharp optical features of surface lattice resonances (SLR) of arrays of metallic nanoantennas have attracted much attention. Recently we studied biosensing based on the transition between LSPR and SLR (hybridization phase), demonstrating significantly higher refractive index sensitivity than each of these resonances individually. In this contribution we study the impact of size and shape of the metallic nanoantennas on the hybridization process and the way they influence application of this process for biosensing, wherein miniscule variation of the refractive index of the environment leads to dramatic changes in the spectral properties of the arrays.
Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas
2004-01-01
An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.
Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leela Mohana Reddy A
2008-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.
Liu, Lu; Kamm, Paul; García-Moreno, Francisco; Banhart, John; Pasini, Damiano
2017-10-01
This paper examines three-dimensional metallic lattices with regular octet and rhombicuboctahedron units fabricated with geometric imperfections via Selective Laser Sintering. We use X-ray computed tomography to capture morphology, location, and distribution of process-induced defects with the aim of studying their role in the elastic response, damage initiation, and failure evolution under quasi-static compression. Testing results from in-situ compression tomography show that each lattice exhibits a distinct failure mechanism that is governed not only by cell topology but also by geometric defects induced by additive manufacturing. Extracted from X-ray tomography images, the statistical distributions of three sets of defects, namely strut waviness, strut thickness variation, and strut oversizing, are used to develop numerical models of statistically representative lattices with imperfect geometry. Elastic and failure responses are predicted within 10% agreement from the experimental data. In addition, a computational study is presented to shed light into the relationship between the amplitude of selected defects and the reduction of elastic properties compared to their nominal values. The evolution of failure mechanisms is also explained with respect to strut oversizing, a parameter that can critically cause failure mode transitions that are not visible in defect-free lattices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasenfratz, P.
1983-01-01
The author presents a general introduction to lattice gauge theories and discusses non-perturbative methods in the gauge sector. He then shows how the lattice works in obtaining the string tension in SU(2). Lattice QCD at finite physical temperature is discussed. Universality tests in SU(2) lattice QCD are presented. SU(3) pure gauge theory is briefly dealt with. Finally, fermions on the lattice are considered. (Auth.)
Chang, P. K.; Hwu, J. G.
2018-02-01
Interface defects and oxide bulk traps conventionally play important roles in the electrical performance of SiC MOS device. Introducing the Al2O3 stack grown by repeated anodization of Al films can notably lower the leakage current in comparison to the SiO2 structure, and enhance the minority carrier response at low frequency when the number of Al2O3 layers increase. In addition, the interface quality is not deteriorated by the stacking of Al2O3 layers because the stacked Al2O3 structure grown by anodization possesses good uniformity. In this work, the capacitance equivalent thickness (CET) of stacking Al2O3 will be up to 19.5 nm and the oxidation process can be carried out at room temperature. For the Al2O3 gate stack with CET 19.5 nm on n-SiC substrate, the leakage current at 2 V is 2.76 × 10-10 A/cm2, the interface trap density at the flatband voltage is 3.01 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2, and the effective breakdown field is 11.8 MV/cm. Frequency dispersion and breakdown characteristics may thus be improved as a result of the reduction in trap density. The Al2O3 stacking layers are capable of maintaining the leakage current as low as possible even after constant voltage stress test, which will further ameliorate reliability characteristics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carter, D H; Clarke, W G; Gibson, M; Hobday, R; Hunt, C; Marshall, J; Puckett, B J; Symons, C R; Wass, T [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)
1964-07-15
This report presents experimental measurements of bucklings, flux fine structure and fission rate distributions in graphite moderated lattices fuelled with plutonium/uranium metal at temperatures up to 400 deg. C in the sub-critical assemblies SCORPIO I and SCORPIO II. The experimental techniques employed are described in some detail. The accuracy of the experimental measurements appears to be adequate for testing methods of calculation being developed for the calculation of reactivity and temperature coefficient of reactivity for power reactors containing plutonium and uranium. (author) 26 refs, 17 tabs, 17 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capriotti, M.; Fleury, C.; Oposich, M.; Bethge, O.; Strasser, G.; Pogany, D.; Lagger, P.; Ostermaier, C.
2015-01-01
We provide theoretical and simulation analysis of the small signal response of SiO 2 /AlGaN/GaN metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) capacitors from depletion to spill over region, where the AlGaN/SiO 2 interface is accumulated with free electrons. A lumped element model of the gate stack, including the response of traps at the III-N/dielectric interface, is proposed and represented in terms of equivalent parallel capacitance, C p , and conductance, G p . C p -voltage and G p -voltage dependences are modelled taking into account bias dependent AlGaN barrier dynamic resistance R br and the effective channel resistance. In particular, in the spill-over region, the drop of C p with the frequency increase can be explained even without taking into account the response of interface traps, solely by considering the intrinsic response of the gate stack (i.e., no trap effects) and the decrease of R br with the applied forward bias. Furthermore, we show the limitations of the conductance method for the evaluation of the density of interface traps, D it , from the G p /ω vs. angular frequency ω curves. A peak in G p /ω vs. ω occurs even without traps, merely due to the intrinsic frequency response of gate stack. Moreover, the amplitude of the G p /ω vs. ω peak saturates at high D it , which can lead to underestimation of D it . Understanding the complex interplay between the intrinsic gate stack response and the effect of interface traps is relevant for the development of normally on and normally off MIS high electron mobility transistors with stable threshold voltage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang ShuXiang; Yang Hong; Tang Bo; Tang Zhaoyun; Xu Yefeng; Xu Jing; Yan Jiang
2014-01-01
ALD HfO 2 films fabricated by a novel multi deposition multi annealing (MDMA) technique are investigated, we have included samples both with and without a Ti scavenging layer. As compared to the reference gate stack treated by conventional one-time deposition and annealing (D and A), devices receiving MDMA show a significant reduction in leakage current. Meanwhile, EOT growth is effectively controlled by the Ti scavenging layer. This improvement strongly correlates with the cycle number of D and A (while keeping the total annealing time and total dielectrics thickness the same). Transmission electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis suggests that oxygen incorporation into both the high-k film and the interfacial layer is likely to be responsible for the improvement of the device. This novel MDMA is promising for the development of gate stack technology in a gate last integration scheme. (semiconductor technology)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jan Rud; Taranko, A. R.; Tomkiewicz, Y.
1987-01-01
An organic conductor having a Peierls instability driven by donor stacks is considered. The compound is tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene-2,5-dimethyltetracyanoquinodimethane. Magnetic data confirm that the instability is donor driven. The influence of the unit cell size is examined. The unit cell...... size can be changed by the substitution of sulphur or selenium or by the introduction of methyl groups. The consequences of this are discussed...
1974-01-01
Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.
Topcu, Turker; Derevianko, Andrei
2014-05-01
Long range interactions between neutral Rydberg atoms has emerged as a potential means for implementing quantum logical gates. These experiments utilize hyperfine manifold of ground state atoms to act as a qubit basis, while exploiting the Rydberg blockade mechanism to mediate conditional quantum logic. The necessity for overcoming several sources of decoherence makes magic wavelength trapping in optical lattices an indispensable tool for gate experiments. The common wisdom is that atoms in Rydberg states see trapping potentials that are essentially that of a free electron, and can only be trapped at laser intensity minima. We show that although the polarizability of a Rydberg state is always negative, the optical potential can be both attractive or repulsive at long wavelengths (up to ~104 nm). This opens up the possibility of magic trapping Rydberg states with ground state atoms in optical lattices, thereby eliminating the necessity to turn off trapping fields during gate operations. Because the wavelengths are near the CO2 laser band, the photon scattering and the ensuing motional heating is also reduced compared to conventional traps near low lying resonances, alleviating an important source of decoherence. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. PHY-1212482.
Yin, Jiuren; Wu, Bozhao; Wang, Yanggang; Li, Zhimi; Yao, Yuanpeng; Jiang, Yong; Ding, Yanhuai; Xu, Fu; Zhang, Ping
2018-04-01
Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the research of two-dimensional (2D) phosphides due to their unique physical properties and wide applications. Transition metal phosphides 2H-M 2Ps (Mo2P, W2P, Nb2P and Ta2P) show considerable catalytic activity and energy storage potential. However, the electronic structure and mechanical properties of 2D 2H-M 2Ps are still unrevealed. Here, first-principles calculations are employed to investigate the lattice dynamics, elasticity and thermodynamic properties of 2H-M 2Ps. Results show that M 2Ps with lower stiffness exhibit remarkable lateral deformation under unidirectional loads. Due to the largest average Grüneisen parameter, single-layer Nb2P has the strongest anharmonic vibrations, resulting in the highest thermal expansion coefficient. The lattice thermal conductivities of Ta2P, W2P and Nb2P contradict classical theory, which would predict a smaller thermal conductivity due to the much heavier atom mass. Moreover, the calculations also demonstrate that the thermal conductivity of Ta2P is the highest as well as the lowest thermal expansion, owing to its weak anharmonic phonon scattering and the lowest average Grüneisen parameter. The insight provided by this study may be useful for future experimental and theoretical studies concerning 2D transition metal phosphide materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randjbar-Daemi, S.
1995-12-01
The so-called doubling problem in the lattice description of fermions led to a proof that under certain circumstances chiral gauge theories cannot be defined on the lattice. This is called the no-go theorem. It implies that if Γ/sub/A is defined on a lattice then its infrared limit, which should correspond to the quantum description of the classical action for the slowly varying fields on lattice scale, is inevitably a vector like theory. In particular, if not circumvented, the no-go theorem implies that there is no lattice formulation of the Standard Weinberg-Salam theory or SU(5) GUT, even though the fermions belong to anomaly-free representations of the gauge group. This talk aims to explain one possible attempt at bypassing the no-go theorem. 20 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randjbar-Daemi, S
1995-12-01
The so-called doubling problem in the lattice description of fermions led to a proof that under certain circumstances chiral gauge theories cannot be defined on the lattice. This is called the no-go theorem. It implies that if {Gamma}/sub/A is defined on a lattice then its infrared limit, which should correspond to the quantum description of the classical action for the slowly varying fields on lattice scale, is inevitably a vector like theory. In particular, if not circumvented, the no-go theorem implies that there is no lattice formulation of the Standard Weinberg-Salam theory or SU(5) GUT, even though the fermions belong to anomaly-free representations of the gauge group. This talk aims to explain one possible attempt at bypassing the no-go theorem. 20 refs.
Radez, Dan
2015-01-01
If you need to get started with OpenStack or want to learn more, then this book is your perfect companion. If you're comfortable with the Linux command line, you'll gain confidence in using OpenStack.
Reeves, Adam A.
1977-04-12
Hot stack gases transfer contained heat to a gravity flow of pebbles treated with a catalyst, cooled stacked gases and a sulfuric acid mist is withdrawn from the unit, and heat picked up by the pebbles is transferred to air for combustion or other process. The sulfuric acid (or sulfur, depending on the catalyst) is withdrawn in a recovery unit.
Khedher, Omar
2015-01-01
This book is intended for system administrators, cloud engineers, and system architects who want to deploy a cloud based on OpenStack in a mid- to large-sized IT infrastructure. If you have a fundamental understanding of cloud computing and OpenStack and want to expand your knowledge, then this book is an excellent checkpoint to move forward.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klotsman, S.M.; Timofeev, A.N.
2008-01-01
Measured changes (ε vac ) i,j of vibrational energy on vacancies formation in i-fields (in volumes and nuclei of crystallite conjugation regions of polycrystalline metals (CCR-PM)): Cr, Mo, Ta, W, Cu, Ir are presented. Changes ε vol of vibrational energy of vacancy nearest environment formed in the metal volume, changes ε FCC of vibrational energy when vacancies formation in CCR nuclei of BCC- and FCC lattices transition metals are discussed. Measured changes ε FCC of vibrational energy, u FCC potential energy and determined sign of interatomic distances changes Δa FCC when formation of split vacancy in the FCC-lattice CCR-PM, changes ε BCC of vibrational energy, u BCC potential energy and determined sign of Δa BCC changes of interatomic distances when vacancies formation in the BCC-lattice CCR-PM are demonstrated. It is noted that the increase of interatomic distances when vacancies formation in the BCC-lattice CCR nucleus of transition metals is conditioned by the the appearance of vacancies alternative structure. Properties of CCR-PM nuclei are more sensitive to interatomic distances changes in the vacancies environment, than to changes of its nearest neighbours numbers [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorn, C.B.
1988-01-01
The possibility of studying non-perturbative effects in string theory using a world sheet lattice is discussed. The light-cone lattice string model of Giles and Thorn is studied numerically to assess the accuracy of ''coarse lattice'' approximations. For free strings a 5 by 15 lattice seems sufficient to obtain better than 10% accuracy for the bosonic string tachyon mass squared. In addition a crude lattice model simulating string like interactions is studied to find out how easily a coarse lattice calculation can pick out effects such as bound states which would qualitatively alter the spectrum of the free theory. The role of the critical dimension in obtaining a finite continuum limit is discussed. Instead of the ''gaussian'' lattice model one could use one of the vertex models, whose continuum limit is the same as a gaussian model on a torus of any radius. Indeed, any critical 2 dimensional statistical system will have a stringy continuum limit in the absence of string interactions. 8 refs., 1 fig. , 9 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reed, D.J.
1977-01-01
Recent theoretical calculations of the properties of rare gases, and in particular helium, in the common f.c.c. and b.c.c. metals, are reviewed from the viewpoint of the investigator concerned with the behaviour of rare gas in such radiation damage processes as surface blistering and void swelling. Particular attention is paid to mechanisms by which helium may migrate in a damaged metal lattice during irradiation and to the properties of small gas and vacancy clusters which may represent bubble or void nuclei. Initially the proposed rapid migration of interstitial helium is discussed together with the substitutional de-trapping mechanism, whereby thermally activated helium jumps from a substitutional to an interstitial position. This enables a mechanism of substitutional helium diffusion to be proposed which may proceed at temperatures below those of self-diffusion. The formation, binding, migration and dissociation energies of gas-vacancy clusters have been reviewed. The relevance of the predicted trend towards the optimum stability of clusters composed of equal numbers of gas atoms and vacancies is discussed. The limited data available concerned with the binding of a helium atom to a pure dislocation line is presented together with comments on the possible nature of the interaction of helium with the dislocation jog. (author)
Kim, Hyeryun; Ohta, Jitsuo; Ueno, Kohei; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Morita, Mari; Tokumoto, Yuki; Fujioka, Hiroshi
2017-05-18
GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been widely accepted as highly efficient solid-state light sources capable of replacing conventional incandescent and fluorescent lamps. However, their applications are limited to small devices because their fabrication process is expensive as it involves epitaxial growth of GaN by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on single crystalline sapphire wafers. If a low-cost epitaxial growth process such as sputtering on a metal foil can be used, it will be possible to fabricate large-area and flexible GaN-based light-emitting displays. Here we report preparation of GaN films on nearly lattice-matched flexible Hf foils using pulsed sputtering deposition (PSD) and demonstrate feasibility of fabricating full-color GaN-based LEDs. It was found that introduction of low-temperature (LT) grown layers suppressed the interfacial reaction between GaN and Hf, allowing the growth of high-quality GaN films on Hf foils. We fabricated blue, green, and red LEDs on Hf foils and confirmed their normal operation. The present results indicate that GaN films on Hf foils have potential applications in fabrication of future large-area flexible GaN-based optoelectronics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zou Xiao [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physical Science and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Department of Electromachine Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan, 430056 (China); Fang Guojia, E-mail: gjfang@whu.edu.c [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physical Science and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Yuan Longyan; Liu Nishuang; Long Hao; Zhao Xingzhong [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physical Science and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430074 (China)
2010-05-31
Polycrystalline p-type Cu{sub x}O films were deposited after the growth of HfO{sub 2} dielectric on Si substrate by pulsed laser deposition, and Cu{sub x}O metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} stack gate dielectric were primarily fabricated and investigated. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were applied to analyze crystalline structure and Cu{sup +}/Cu{sup 2+} ratios of Cu{sub x}O films respectively. SiO{sub 2} interlayer formed between the high-{kappa} dielectric and substrate was estimated by the transmission electron microscope. Results of electrical characteristic measurement indicate that the permittivity of HfO{sub 2} is about 22, and the gate leakage current density of MOS capacitor with 11.3 nm HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} stack dielectrics is {approx} 10{sup -4} A/cm{sup 2}. Results also show that the annealing in N{sub 2} can improve the quality of Cu{sub x}O/HfO{sub 2} interface and thus reduce the gate leakage density.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, L.
1975-01-01
An analysis is given of a number of variants of the basic lattice of the planned ISABELLE storage rings. The variants were formed by removing cells from the normal part of the lattice and juggling the lengths of magnets, cells, and insertions in order to maintain a rational relation of circumference to that of the AGS and approximately the same dispersion. Special insertions, correction windings, and the working line with nonlinear resonances are discussed
Stacking the Equiangular Spiral
Agrawal, A.; Azabi, Y. O.; Rahman, B. M.
2013-01-01
We present an algorithm that adapts the mature Stack and Draw (SaD) methodology for fabricating the exotic Equiangular Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber. (ES-PCF) The principle of Steiner chains and circle packing is exploited to obtain a non-hexagonal design using a stacking procedure based on Hexagonal Close Packing. The optical properties of the proposed structure are promising for SuperContinuum Generation. This approach could make accessible not only the equiangular spiral but also other qua...
Criss, Everett M.; Hofmeister, Anne M.
2017-06-01
From femtosecond spectroscopy (fs-spectroscopy) of metals, electrons and phonons reequilibrate nearly independently, which contrasts with models of heat transfer at ordinary temperatures (T > 100 K). These electronic transfer models only agree with thermal conductivity (k) data at a single temperature, but do not agree with thermal diffusivity (D) data. To address the discrepancies, which are important to problems in solid state physics, we separately measured electronic (ele) and phononic (lat) components of D in many metals and alloys over ˜290-1100 K by varying measurement duration and sample length in laser-flash experiments. These mechanisms produce distinct diffusive responses in temperature versus time acquisitions because carrier speeds (u) and heat capacities (C) differ greatly. Electronic transport of heat only operates for a brief time after heat is applied because u is high. High Dele is associated with moderate T, long lengths, low electrical resistivity, and loss of ferromagnetism. Relationships of Dele and Dlat with physical properties support our assignments. Although kele reaches ˜20 × klat near 470 K, it is transient. Combining previous data on u with each D provides mean free paths and lifetimes that are consistent with ˜298 K fs-spectroscopy, and new values at high T. Our findings are consistent with nearly-free electrons absorbing and transmitting a small fraction of the incoming heat, whereas phonons absorb and transmit the majority. We model time-dependent, parallel heat transfer under adiabatic conditions which is one-dimensional in solids, as required by thermodynamic law. For noninteracting mechanisms, k≅ΣCikiΣCi/(ΣCi2). For metals, this reduces to k = klat above ˜20 K, consistent with our measurements, and shows that Meissner’s equation (k≅klat + kele) is invalid above ˜20 K. For one mechanism with multiple, interacting carriers, k≅ΣCiki/(ΣCi). Thus, certain dynamic behaviors of electrons and phonons in metals have been
Numerical simulations of flux flow in stacked Josephson junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Søren Peder; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
2005-01-01
We numerically investigate Josephson vortex flux flow states in stacked Josephson junctions, motivated by recent experiments trying to observe the vortices in a square vortex lattice when a magnetic field is applied to layered high-Tc superconductors of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox type. By extensive...
Singh, Prashant; Jha, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Rajat Kumar; Singh, B. R.
2018-02-01
In this paper, we present the structural and electrical properties of the Al2O3 buffer layer on non-volatile memory behavior using Metal/PZT/Al2O3/Silicon structures. Metal/PZT/Silicon and Metal/Al2O3/Silicon structures were also fabricated and characterized to obtain capacitance and leakage current parameters. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT::35:65) and Al2O3 films were deposited by sputtering on the silicon substrate. Memory window, PUND, endurance, breakdown voltage, effective charges, flat-band voltage and leakage current density parameters were measured and the effects of process parameters on the structural and electrical characteristics were investigated. X-ray data show dominant (110) tetragonal phase of the PZT film, which crystallizes at 500 °C. The sputtered Al2O3 film annealed at different temperatures show dominant (312) orientation and amorphous nature at 425 °C. Multiple angle laser ellipsometric analysis reveals the temperature dependence of PZT film refractive index and extinction coefficient. Electrical characterization shows the maximum memory window of 3.9 V and breakdown voltage of 25 V for the Metal/Ferroelectric/Silicon (MFeS) structures annealed at 500 °C. With 10 nm Al2O3 layer in the Metal/Ferroelectric/Insulator/Silicon (MFeIS) structure, the memory window and breakdown voltage was improved to 7.21 and 35 V, respectively. Such structures show high endurance with no significant reduction polarization charge for upto 2.2 × 109 iteration cycles.
Image transfer by cascaded stack of photonic crystal and air layers
Shen, C.; Michielsen, K.; Raedt, H. De
2006-01-01
We demonstrate image transfer by a cascaded stack consisting of two and three triangular-lattice photonic crystal slabs separated by air. The quality of the image transfered by the stack is sensitive to the air/photonic crystal interface termination and the frequency. Depending on the frequency and
Haase, S.; Moser, M.; Hirschfeld, J. A.; Jozwiak, K.
2016-01-01
An automotive fuel cell with an active area of 250 cm2 is investigated in a 4-cell short stack with a current and temperature distribution device next to the bipolar plate with 560 current and 140 temperature segments. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this current scan shunt module. The applied fuel cell consists of bipolar plates constructed of 75-μm-thick, welded stainless-steel foils and a graphitic coating. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this module with a 6% deviation in in-plane conductivity. The current density distribution is evaluated up to 2.4 A cm-2. The entire cell's investigated volumetric power density is 4.7 kW l-1, and its gravimetric power density is 4.3 kW kg-1 at an average cell voltage of 0.5 V. The current density distribution is determined without influencing the operating cell. In addition, the current density distribution in the catalyst-coated membrane and its effective resistivity distribution with a finite volume discretisation of Ohm's law are evaluated. The deviation between the current density distributions in the catalyst-coated membrane and the bipolar plate is determined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chia-Ho Huang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available CIGS films are prepared by single-stage annealing of the solid Se-coated In/Cu-Ga bilayer precursor. The annealing processes were performed using various Ar pressures, heating rates, and soaking times. A higher Ar pressure is needed to fabricate highly crystalline CIGS films, as no extra Se-vapor source is supplied. As the heating rate increases, the surface morphologies of the CIGS films become looser and some cracks are observed. However, the influence of soaking time is insignificant and the selenization process only requires a short time when the precursors are selenized at a higher temperature with a lower heating rate and a higher Ar pressure. In this study, a dense chalcopyrite CIGS film with a thickness of about 1.5-1.6 μm, with large grains (~1.2 μm and no cracking or peeling is obtained after selenizing at a temperature of 550°C, an Ar pressure of 300 Torr, a heating rate of 60°C/min, and a soaking time of 20 min. By adequate design of the stacked precursor and controlling the annealing parameters, single-stage annealing of the solid Se-coated In/Cu-Ga bilayer precursor is simplified for the fabrication of a fully crystallized chalcopyrite CIGS absorber layers with good crystallization and large grains.
Hoogeland, D.; Jinesh, K.B.; Roozeboom, F.; Besling, W.F.A.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.
2009-01-01
By employing plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition, thin films of Al2O3 and TiN are subsequently deposited in a single reactor at a single substrate temperature with the objective of fabricating high-quality TiN/Al2O3 / p-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. Transmission electron microscopy
Huang, Liping; Li, Ming; Pan, Yuzhen; Quan, Xie; Yang, Jinhui; Puma, Gianluca Li
2018-04-16
The deposition and separation of W and Mo from aqueous solutions with simultaneous hydrogen production was investigated in stacked bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) composed of microbial electrolysis cell (1#) serially connected with parallel connected microbial fuel cell (2#). The impact of W/Mo molar ratio (in the range 0.01 mM : 1 mM and vice-versa), initial pH (1.5 to 4.0) and cathode material (stainless steel mesh (SSM), carbon rod (CR) and titanium sheet (TS)) on the BES performance was systematically investigated. The concentration of Mo(VI) was more influential than W(VI) in determining the rate of deposition of both metals and the rate of hydrogen production. Complete metal recovery was achieved at equimolar W/Mo ratio of 0.05 mM : 0.05 mM. The rates of metal deposition and hydrogen production increased at acidic pH, with the fastest rates at pH 1.5. The morphology of the metal deposits and the valence of the Mo were correlated with W/Mo ratio and pH. CR cathodes (2#) coupled with SSM cathodes (1#) achieved a significant rate of hydrogen production (0.82 ± 0.04 m 3 /m 3 /d) with W and Mo deposition (0.049 ± 0.003 mmol/L/h and 0.140 ± 0.004 mmol/L/h (1#); 0.025 ± 0.001 mmol/L/h and 0.090 ± 0.006 mmol/L/h (2#)). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catterall, Simon
2013-01-01
Discretization of supersymmetric theories is an old problem in lattice field theory. It has resisted solution until quite recently when new ideas drawn from orbifold constructions and topological field theory have been brought to bear on the question. The result has been the creation of a new class of lattice gauge theory in which the lattice action is invariant under one or more supersymmetries. The resultant theories are local and free of doublers and in the case of Yang-Mills theories also possess exact gauge invariance. In principle they form the basis for a truly non-perturbative definition of the continuum supersymmetric field theory. In this talk these ideas are reviewed with particular emphasis being placed on N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory.
Duan, Yuhua; Sorescu, Dan C
2010-08-21
By combining density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics, the thermodynamic properties of CO(2) absorption/desorption reactions with alkaline earth metal oxides MO and hydroxides M(OH)(2) (where M=Be,Mg,Ca,Sr,Ba) are analyzed. The heats of reaction and the chemical potential changes of these solids upon CO(2) capture reactions have been calculated and used to evaluate the energy costs. Relative to CaO, a widely used system in practical applications, MgO and Mg(OH)(2) systems were found to be better candidates for CO(2) sorbent applications due to their lower operating temperatures (600-700 K). In the presence of H(2)O, MgCO(3) can be regenerated into Mg(OH)(2) at low temperatures or into MgO at high temperatures. This transition temperature depends not only on the CO(2) pressure but also on the H(2)O pressure. Based on our calculated results and by comparing with available experimental data, we propose a general computational search methodology which can be used as a general scheme for screening a large number of solids for use as CO(2) sorbents.
Displacive phase transformations and generalized stacking faults
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Paidar, Václav; Ostapovets, Andriy; Duparc, O. H.; Khalfallah, O.
2012-01-01
Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 490-492 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials, ISPMA /12./. Praha, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ab-initio calculations * close-packed structures * generalized stacking faults * homogeneous deformation * lattice deformation * many-body potentials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G
2009-01-01
Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.
Stochastic stacking without filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.
1982-12-01
The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10 8 per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1984-01-01
After reviewing some recent developments in supercomputer access, the author discusses a few areas where perturbation theory and lattice gauge simulations make contact. The author concludes with a brief discussion of a deterministic dynamics for the Ising model. This may be useful for numerical studies of nonequilibrium phenomena. 13 references
Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, James W.
2013-12-01
A realistic molecular-level description of catalytic reactions on single-crystal metal surfaces can be provided by stochastic multisite lattice-gas (msLG) models. This approach has general applicability, although in this report, we will focus on the example of CO-oxidation on the unreconstructed fcc metal (1 0 0) or M(1 0 0) surfaces of common catalyst metals M = Pd, Rh, Pt and Ir (i.e., avoiding regimes where Pt and Ir reconstruct). These models can capture the thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorbed layers for the individual reactants species, such as CO/M(1 0 0) and O/M(1 0 0), as well as the interaction and reaction between different reactant species in mixed adlayers, such as (CO + O)/M(1 0 0). The msLG models allow population of any of hollow, bridge, and top sites. This enables a more flexible and realistic description of adsorption and adlayer ordering, as well as of reaction configurations and configuration-dependent barriers. Adspecies adsorption and interaction energies, as well as barriers for various processes, constitute key model input. The choice of these energies is guided by experimental observations, as well as by extensive Density Functional Theory analysis. Model behavior is assessed via Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation. We also address the simulation challenges and theoretical ramifications associated with very rapid diffusion and local equilibration of reactant adspecies such as CO. These msLG models are applied to describe adsorption, ordering, and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) for individual CO/M(1 0 0) and O/M(1 0 0) reactant adlayers. In addition, they are also applied to predict mixed (CO + O)/M(1 0 0) adlayer structure on the nanoscale, the complete bifurcation diagram for reactive steady-states under continuous flow conditions, temperature programmed reaction (TPR) spectra, and titration reactions for the CO-oxidation reaction. Extensive and reasonably successful comparison of model predictions is made with experimental
Moses, E.I.
1992-12-01
A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.
Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous
Sengupta, A.; Audiffred, M.; Heine, T.; Niehaus, T. A.
2016-02-01
We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green’s function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous.
Barreteau, C.; Ducastelle, F.; Mallah, T.
2017-11-01
We present a thorough tight-binding analysis of the band structure of a wide variety of lattices belonging to the class of honeycomb and Kagome systems including several mixed forms combining both lattices. The band structure of these systems are made of a combination of dispersive and flat bands. The dispersive bands possess Dirac cones (linear dispersion) at the six corners (K points) of the Brillouin zone although in peculiar cases Dirac cones at the center of the zone (Γ point) appear. The flat bands can be of different nature. Most of them are tangent to the dispersive bands at the center of the zone but some, for symmetry reasons, do not hybridize with other states. The objective of our work is to provide an analysis of a wide class of so-called ligand-decorated honeycomb Kagome lattices that are observed in a 2D metal-organic framework where the ligand occupy honeycomb sites and the metallic atoms the Kagome sites. We show that the p x -p y graphene model is relevant in these systems and there exists four types of flat bands: Kagome flat (singly degenerate) bands, two kinds of ligand-centered flat bands (A2 like and E like, respectively doubly and singly degenerate) and metal-centered (three fold degenerate) flat bands.
Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-03-15
Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.
Stacking-dependent electronic property of trilayer graphene epitaxially grown on Ru(0001)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Que, Yande; Xiao, Wende, E-mail: wdxiao@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: hjgao@iphy.ac.cn; Chen, Hui; Wang, Dongfei; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hong-Jun, E-mail: wdxiao@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: hjgao@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2015-12-28
The growth, atomic structure, and electronic property of trilayer graphene (TLG) on Ru(0001) were studied by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy in combined with tight-binding approximation (TBA) calculations. TLG on Ru(0001) shows a flat surface with a hexagonal lattice due to the screening effect of the bottom two layers and the AB-stacking in the top two layers. The coexistence of AA- and AB-stacking in the bottom two layers leads to three different stacking orders of TLG, namely, ABA-, ABC-, and ABB-stacking. STS measurements combined with TBA calculations reveal that the density of states of TLG with ABC- and ABB-stacking is characterized by one and two sharp peaks near to the Fermi level, respectively, in contrast to the V-shaped feature of TLG with ABA-stacking. Our work demonstrates that TLG on Ru(0001) might be an ideal platform for exploring stacking-dependent electronic properties of graphene.
Myers, Colton
2015-01-01
If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ligges, Manuel
2009-07-21
In the framework of the present thesis the fast lattice heating in thin metal and bismuth layers after optical short-pulse excitation was studied. By irradiation of ultrathin solid films with ultrashort (femtosecond) laser pulses for sort times an extreme nonequilibrium state occurs: The electronic system is strongly excited, while the lattice system remains cold. An energetic exchange between both systems follows, which is based on the electron-phonon interaction and leads to heating of the lattice system. This lattice heating can be observed by means of the Debye-Waller effect in the electron diffraction image. By means of the excitation-interrogation scheme by a series of moment records this lattice heating can be observed time-resolvedly. The experimentally determind time scales for this process permit conclusions on the electron-phonon coupling in the studied materials. In this thesis a time-resolving transmissi9on-electron diffraction experiment with sub-picosecond time resolution was constructed and optimized. By means of this experiment the fast lattice heating in thin gold, silver, copper, and bismuth films was studied. The observed heating behaviour of the metal films shows agreement with theoretical predictions of different model calculations. The results of the measurements on bismuth films show a hitherto not observed coupling behaviour. [German] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die schnelle Gitteraufheizung in duennen Metall- und Wismutschichten nach optischer Kurzimpulsanregung untersucht. Durch Bestrahlung duenner Festkoerperfilme mit ultrakurzen (Femtosekunden-) Laserimpulsen entsteht fuer kurze Zeiten ein extremer Nichtgleichgewichtszustand: Das elektronische System wird stark angeregt, waehrend das Gittersystem kalt bleibt. Es folgt ein energetischer Austausch zwischen beiden Systemen, der auf der Elektron-Phonon-Wechselwirkung beruht und zur Aufheizung des Gittersystems fuehrt. Diese Gitteraufheizung kann anhand des Debye
Suzuki, Akihiro; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Zaima, Shigeaki
2018-06-01
The impact of a silicon germanium tin (Si x Ge1‑ x ‑ y Sn y ) ternary alloy interlayer on the Schottky barrier height (SBH) of metal/Ge contacts with various metal work functions has been investigated. Lattice matching at the Si x Ge1‑ x ‑ y Sn y /Ge heterointerface is a key factor for controlling Fermi level pinning (FLP) at the metal/Ge interface. The Si x Ge1‑ x ‑ y Sn y ternary alloy interlayer having a small lattice mismatch with the Ge substrate can alleviate FLP at the metal/Ge interface significantly. A Si0.11Ge0.86Sn0.03 interlayer increases the slope parameter for the work function dependence of the SBH to 0.4. An ohmic behavior with an SBH below 0.15 eV can be obtained with Zr and Al/Si0.11Ge0.86Sn0.03/n-Ge contacts at room temperature.
Locati, Fabio Alessandro
2015-01-01
If you are an OpenStack administrator or developer, or wish to build solutions to protect your OpenStack environment, then this book is for you. Experience of Linux administration and familiarity with different OpenStack components is assumed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Stefan [DESY (Germany). Neumann Inst. for Computing
2016-11-01
These configurations are currently in use in many on-going projects carried out by researchers throughout Europe. In particular this data will serve as an essential input into the computation of the coupling constant of QCD, where some of the simulations are still on-going. But also projects computing the masses of hadrons and investigating their structure are underway as well as activities in the physics of heavy quarks. As this initial project of gauge field generation has been successful, it is worthwhile to extend the currently available ensembles with further points in parameter space. These will allow to further study and control systematic effects like the ones introduced by the finite volume, the non-physical quark masses and the finite lattice spacing. In particular certain compromises have still been made in the region where pion masses and lattice spacing are both small. This is because physical pion masses require larger lattices to keep the effects of the finite volume under control. At light pion masses, a precise control of the continuum extrapolation is therefore difficult, but certainly a main goal of future simulations. To reach this goal, algorithmic developments as well as faster hardware will be needed.
Stacked magnet superconducting bearing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.
1993-01-01
A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines
Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)
Spry, David James (Inventor)
2015-01-01
An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.
Routes to a commercially viable PEM fuel cell stack
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Newton, J.; Foster, S.E.; Hodgson, D.; Marrett, A.
2002-07-01
This report describes the results of a project to design and build a 10 kW{sub e} proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack, including membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), bipolar plates and stack hardware. The aim was to prove the design concept and to demonstrate functionality by operating the stack at >1 kW{sub e}/L and 500 W/kg for 200 hours operation. The project was extended to include the assembly and testing of two additional 1 kW{sub e} PEMFC stacks based on coated metal components. Low equivalent weight perfluorinated ionomer ion exchange membranes were prepared and were found to give a superior electrochemical performance to commercial materials. A technique to etch various stainless steel grades and control processes was successfully developed and optimised. Coatings for stainless steel and titanium were successfully developed and met the required performance criteria. All PEMFC stack components were selected and designed to enable subsequent commercial manufacture.
Gabriel, C; Perikli, M; Raptopoulou, C P; Terzis, A; Psycharis, V; Mateescu, C; Jakusch, T; Kiss, T; Bertmer, M; Salifoglou, A
2012-09-03
Hydrothermal pH-specific reactivity in the binary/ternary systems of Pb(II) with the carboxylic acids N-hydroxyethyl-iminodiacetic acid (Heida), 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (Dpot), and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) afforded the new well-defined crystalline compounds [Pb(Heida)](n)·nH(2)O(1), [Pb(Phen)(Heida)]·4H(2)O(2), and [Pb(3)(NO(3))(Dpot)](n)(3). All compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, solution or/and solid-state NMR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures in 1-2 reveal the presence of a Pb(II) center coordinated to one Heida ligand, with 1 exhibiting a two-dimensional (2D) lattice extending to a three-dimensional (3D) one through H-bonding interactions. The concurrent aqueous speciation study of the binary Pb(II)-Heida system projects species complementing the synthetic efforts, thereby lending credence to a global structural speciation strategy in investigating binary/ternary Pb(II)-Heida/Phen systems. The involvement of Phen in 2 projects the significance of nature and reactivity potential of N-aromatic chelators, disrupting the binary lattice in 1 and influencing the nature of the ultimately arising ternary 3D lattice. 3 is a ternary coordination polymer, where Pb(II)-Dpot coordination leads to a 2D metal-organic-framework material with unique architecture. The collective physicochemical properties of 1-3 formulate the salient features of variable dimensionality metal-organic-framework lattices in binary/ternary Pb(II)-(hydroxy-carboxylate) structures, based on which new Pb(II) materials with distinct architecture and spectroscopic signature can be rationally designed and pursued synthetically.
Calculation of AC losses in large HTS stacks and coils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zermeno, Victor; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad
2012-01-01
In this work, we present a homogenization method to model a stack of HTS tapes under AC applied transport current or magnetic field. The idea is to find an anisotropic bulk equivalent for the stack of tapes, where the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting...... allowing for overcritical current densities to be considered. The method presented here allowed for a computational speedup factor of up to 2 orders of magnitude when compared to full 2-D simulations taking into account the actual structure of the stacks without compromising accuracy....
Scott, Paul
2006-01-01
A lattice is a (rectangular) grid of points, usually pictured as occurring at the intersections of two orthogonal sets of parallel, equally spaced lines. Polygons that have lattice points as vertices are called lattice polygons. It is clear that lattice polygons come in various shapes and sizes. A very small lattice triangle may cover just 3…
Le Thanh, Nghi
2017-01-01
The aim of the thesis is to provide a universal website using JavaScript as the main programming language. It also shows the basic parts anyone need to create a web application. The thesis creates a simple CMS using MEAN stack. MEAN is a collection of JavaScript based technologies used to develop web application. It is an acronym for MongoDB, Express, AngularJS and Node.js. It also allows non-technical users to easily update and manage a website’s content. But the application also lets o...
Xie, Yuan
2015-01-01
The emerging three-dimensional (3D) chip architectures, with their intrinsic capability of reducing the wire length, promise attractive solutions to reduce the delay of interconnects in future microprocessors. 3D memory stacking enables much higher memory bandwidth for future chip-multiprocessor design, mitigating the ""memory wall"" problem. In addition, heterogenous integration enabled by 3D technology can also result in innovative designs for future microprocessors. This book first provides a brief introduction to this emerging technology, and then presents a variety of approaches to design
Fluxons in long and annular intrinsic Josephson junction stacks
Clauss, T; Moessle, M; Müller, A; Weber, A; Kölle, D; Kleiner, R
2002-01-01
A promising approach towards a THz oscillator based on intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-temperature superconductors is based on the collective motion of Josephson fluxons, which are predicted to form various configurations ranging from a triangular to a quadratic lattice. Not only for this reason, but certainly also for the sake of basic physics, several experimental and theoretical investigations have been done on the subject of collective fluxon dynamics in stacked intrinsic Josephson junctions. In this paper we will present some experimental results on the fluxon dynamics of long intrinsic Josephson junction stacks made of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8. The stacks were formed either in an open or in an annular geometry, and clear resonant fluxon modes were observed. Experiments discussed include measurements of current-voltage characteristics in external magnetic fields and in external microwave fields.
LATTICE: an interactive lattice computer code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staples, J.
1976-10-01
LATTICE is a computer code which enables an interactive user to calculate the functions of a synchrotron lattice. This program satisfies the requirements at LBL for a simple interactive lattice program by borrowing ideas from both TRANSPORT and SYNCH. A fitting routine is included
Judge, Gary
2013-01-01
Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English
Tables of formulae for calculating the mechanics of stacks in gas-graphite reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1968-01-01
This collection of formulae only gives, for nuclear graphite stacks. The mechanical effects due to the strains, thermal or not, of steel structures supporting or surrounding graphite blocks. Equations have been established by mean of experiments made at Chinon with large pile models. Thus, it is possible to calculate displacement, strain and stress in the EDF type stacks of horizontal triangular block lattice. (authors) [fr
Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK
Sangwin, Christopher J.
2007-01-01
This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…
Spherical Torus Center Stack Design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz
2002-01-01
The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device
Development and preliminary experimental study on micro-stacked insulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren Chengyan; Yuan Weiqun; Zhang Dongdong; Yan Ping; Wang Jue
2009-01-01
High gradient insulating technology is one of the key technologies in new type dielectric wall accelerator(DWA). High gradient insulator, namely micro-stacked insulator, was developed and preliminary experimental study was done. Based on the finite element and particle simulating method, surface electric field distribution and electron movement track of micro-stacked insulator were numerated, and then the optimized design proposal was put forward. Using high temperature laminated method, we developed micro-stacked insulator samples which uses exhaustive fluorinated ethylene propylene(FEP) as dielectric layer and stainless steel as metal layer. Preliminary experiment of vacuum surface flashover in nanosecond pulse voltage was done and micro-stacked insulator exhibited favorable vacuum surface flashover performance with flashover field strength of near 180 kV/cm. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.
1982-01-01
After a description of a pure Yang-Mills theory on a lattice, the author considers a three-dimensional pure U(1) lattice gauge theory. Thereafter he discusses the exact relation between lattice gauge theories with the gauge groups SU(2) and SO(3). Finally he presents Monte Carlo data on phase transitions in SU(2) and SO(3) lattice gauge models. (HSI)
Žukovič, M.; Borovský, M.; Bobák, A.
2018-05-01
We study a stacked triangular lattice Ising model with both intra- and inter-plane antiferromagnetic interactions in a field, by Monte Carlo simulation. We find only one phase transition from a paramagnetic to a partially disordered phase, which is of second order and 3D XY universality class. At low temperatures we identify two highly degenerate phases: at smaller (larger) fields the system shows long-range ordering in the stacking direction (within planes) but not in the planes (stacking direction). Nevertheless, crossovers to these phases do not have a character of conventional phase transitions but rather linear-chain-like excitations.
Lattices with unique complements
Saliĭ, V N
1988-01-01
The class of uniquely complemented lattices properly contains all Boolean lattices. However, no explicit example of a non-Boolean lattice of this class has been found. In addition, the question of whether this class contains any complete non-Boolean lattices remains unanswered. This book focuses on these classical problems of lattice theory and the various attempts to solve them. Requiring no specialized knowledge, the book is directed at researchers and students interested in general algebra and mathematical logic.
Modeling fuel cell stack systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, J H [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lalk, T R [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
1998-06-15
A technique for modeling fuel cell stacks is presented along with the results from an investigation designed to test the validity of the technique. The technique was specifically designed so that models developed using it can be used to determine the fundamental thermal-physical behavior of a fuel cell stack for any operating and design configuration. Such models would be useful tools for investigating fuel cell power system parameters. The modeling technique can be applied to any type of fuel cell stack for which performance data is available for a laboratory scale single cell. Use of the technique is demonstrated by generating sample results for a model of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack consisting of 125 cells each with an active area of 150 cm{sup 2}. A PEMFC stack was also used in the verification investigation. This stack consisted of four cells, each with an active area of 50 cm{sup 2}. Results from the verification investigation indicate that models developed using the technique are capable of accurately predicting fuel cell stack performance. (orig.)
Revisiting the Fundamentals and Capabilities of the Stack Compression Test
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alves, L.M.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martin, P.A.F.
2011-01-01
performance by comparing the flow curves obtained from its utilisation with those determined by means of compressive testing carried out on solid cylinder specimens of the same material. Results show that mechanical testing of materials by means of the stack compression test is capable of meeting...... the increasing demand of accurate and reliable flow curves for sheet metals....
Near transferable phenomenological n-body potentials for noble metals.
Pontikis, Vassilis; Baldinozzi, Gianguido; Luneville, Laurence; Simeone, David
2017-09-06
We present a semi-empirical model of cohesion in noble metals with suitable parameters reproducing a selected set of experimental properties of perfect and defective lattices in noble metals. It consists of two short-range, n-body terms accounting respectively for attractive and repulsive interactions, the former deriving from the second moment approximation of the tight-binding scheme and the latter from the gas approximation of the kinetic energy of electrons. The stability of the face centred cubic versus the hexagonal compact stacking is obtained via a long-range, pairwise function of customary use with ionic pseudo-potentials. Lattice dynamics, molecular statics, molecular dynamics and nudged elastic band calculations show that, unlike previous potentials, this cohesion model reproduces and predicts quite accurately thermodynamic properties in noble metals. In particular, computed surface energies, largely underestimated by existing empirical cohesion models, compare favourably with measured values, whereas predicted unstable stacking-fault energy profiles fit almost perfectly ab initio evaluations from the literature. All together the results suggest that this semi-empirical model is nearly transferable.
New integrable lattice hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pickering, Andrew; Zhu Zuonong
2006-01-01
In this Letter we give a new integrable four-field lattice hierarchy, associated to a new discrete spectral problem. We obtain our hierarchy as the compatibility condition of this spectral problem and an associated equation, constructed herein, for the time-evolution of eigenfunctions. We consider reductions of our hierarchy, which also of course admit discrete zero curvature representations, in detail. We find that our hierarchy includes many well-known integrable hierarchies as special cases, including the Toda lattice hierarchy, the modified Toda lattice hierarchy, the relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy, and the Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain here a new integrable two-field lattice hierarchy, to which we give the name of Suris lattice hierarchy, since the first equation of this hierarchy has previously been given by Suris. The Hamiltonian structure of the Suris lattice hierarchy is obtained by means of a trace identity formula
Creep mechanisms and constitutive relations in pure metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nix, W.D.
1979-01-01
The mechanisms of creep of pure metals is briefly reviewed and divided into two parts: steady state flow mechanisms, and non-steady state flow mechanisms and constitutive relations. Creep by diffusional flow is now reasonably well understood, with theory and experiment in good agreement. The closely related phenomenon of Harper--Dorn creep can also be understood in terms of diffusion between dislocations. Power law creep involves the climb of edge disloctions controlled by lattice self diffusion. Theoretical treatments of this process invariably give a power law exponent of 3. This natural creep law is compared with the data for FCC and BCC metals. It is suggested that diffusion controlled climb is the controlling process in BCC metals at very high temperatures. Stacking fault energy effects may preclude the possibility that creep is controlled entirely by lattice self diffusion in some FCC metals. The subject of power law breakdown is presented as a natural consequence of the transition to low temperature flow phenomena. The role of core diffusion in this transition is briefly discussed. The mechanisms are presented by which pure metals creep at elevated temperatures. While most of this review deals with the mechanisms of steady state flow, some discussion is devoted to creep flow under non-steady state conditions. This topic is discussed in connection with the development of constitutive equations for describing plastic flow in metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2006-07-01
The TOFC/Riso pilot plant production facility for the manufacture of anode-supported cells has been further up-scaled with an automated continuous spraying process and an extra sintering capacity resulting in production capacity exceeding 15,000 standard cells (12x12 cm2) in 2006 with a success rate of about 85% in the cell production. All processing steps such as tape-casting, spraying, screen-printing and atmospheric air sintering in the cell production have been selected on condition that up-scaling and cost effective, flexible, industrial mass production are feasible. The standard cell size is currently being increased to 18x18 cm2, and 150 cells of this size have been produced in 2006 for our further stack development. To improve quality and lower production cost, a new screen printing line is under establishment. TOFC's stack design is an ultra compact multilayer assembly of cells (including contact layers), metallic interconnects, spacer frames and glass seals. The compactness ensures minimized material consumption and low cost. Standard stacks with cross flow configuration contains 75 cells (12x12cm2) delivering about 1.2 kW at optimal operation conditions with pre-reformed NG as fuel. Stable performance has been demonstrated for 500-1000 hours. Significantly improved materials, especially concerning the metallic interconnect and the coatings have been introduced during the last year. Small stacks (5-10 cells) exhibit no detectable stack degradation using our latest cells and stack materials during test periods of 500-1000 hours. Larger stacks (50-75 cells) suffer from mal-distribution of gas and air inside the stacks, gas leakage, gas cross-over, pressure drop, and a certain loss of internal electrical contact during operation cycles. Measures have been taken to find solutions during the following development work. The stack production facilities have been improved and up-scaled. In 2006, 5 standard stacks have been assembled and burned in based on
Generalized isothermic lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doliwa, Adam
2007-01-01
We study multi-dimensional quadrilateral lattices satisfying simultaneously two integrable constraints: a quadratic constraint and the projective Moutard constraint. When the lattice is two dimensional and the quadric under consideration is the Moebius sphere one obtains, after the stereographic projection, the discrete isothermic surfaces defined by Bobenko and Pinkall by an algebraic constraint imposed on the (complex) cross-ratio of the circular lattice. We derive the analogous condition for our generalized isothermic lattices using Steiner's projective structure of conics, and we present basic geometric constructions which encode integrability of the lattice. In particular, we introduce the Darboux transformation of the generalized isothermic lattice and we derive the corresponding Bianchi permutability principle. Finally, we study two-dimensional generalized isothermic lattices, in particular geometry of their initial boundary value problem
Glassy carbon based supercapacitor stacks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baertsch, M; Braun, A; Koetz, R; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1997-06-01
Considerable effort is being made to develop electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) that store relatively large quantities of electrical energy and possess at the same time a high power density. Our previous work has shown that glassy carbon is suitable as a material for capacitor electrodes concerning low resistance and high capacity requirements. We present the development of bipolar electrochemical glassy carbon capacitor stacks of up to 3 V. Bipolar stacks are an efficient way to meet the high voltage and high power density requirements for traction applications. Impedance and cyclic voltammogram measurements are reported here and show the frequency response of a 1, 2, and 3 V stack. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref..
Time-predictable Stack Caching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar
completely. Thus, in systems with hard deadlines the worst-case execution time (WCET) of the real-time software running on them needs to be bounded. Modern architectures use features such as pipelining and caches for improving the average performance. These features, however, make the WCET analysis more...... addresses, provides an opportunity to predict and tighten the WCET of accesses to data in caches. In this thesis, we introduce the time-predictable stack cache design and implementation within a time-predictable processor. We introduce several optimizations to our design for tightening the WCET while...... keeping the timepredictability of the design intact. Moreover, we provide a solution for reducing the cost of context switching in a system using the stack cache. In design of these caches, we use custom hardware and compiler support for delivering time-predictable stack data accesses. Furthermore...
Simulations Of Transverse Stacking In The NSLS-II Booster
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fliller, R. III; Shaftan, T.
2011-01-01
The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac and a 3 GeV booster. The linac needs to deliver 15 nC in 80 - 150 bunches to the booster every minute to achieve current stability goals in the storage ring. This is a very stringent requirement that has not been demonstrated at an operating light source. We have developed a scheme to transversely stack two bunch trains in the NSLS-II booster in order to alleviate the charge requirements on the linac. This scheme has been outlined previously. In this paper we show particle tracking simulations of the tracking scheme. We show simulations of the booster ramp with a stacked beam for a variety of lattice errors and injected beam parameters. In all cases the performance of the proposed stacking method is sufficient to reduce the required charge from the linac. For this reason the injection system of the NSLS-II booster is being designed to include this feature. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac and a 3 GeV booster. The injectors must provide 7.5nC in bunch trains 80-150 bunches long every minute for top off operation of the storage ring. Top off then requires that the linac deliver 15nC of charge once losses in the injector chain are taken into consideration. This is a very stringent requirement that has not been demonstrated at an operating light source. For this reason we have developed a method to transversely stack two bunch trains in the booster while maintaining the charge transport efficiency. This stacking scheme has been discussed previously. In this paper we show the simulations of the booster ramp with a single bunch train in the booster. Then we give a brief overview of the stacking scheme. Following, we show the results of stacking two bunch trains in the booster with varying beam emittances and train separations. The behavior of the beam through the ramp is examined showing that it is possible to stack two bunch trains in the booster.
Gharib, A.; Hagedorn, D.; Della Corte, A.; Fiamozzi Zignani, C.; Turtu, S.; Brown, D.; Rout, C.
2004-06-01
For the protection of the LHC superconducting magnets, about 2100 specially developed by-pass diodes were manufactured by DYNEX SEMICONDUCTOR LTD (Lincoln, GB) and about 1300 of these diodes were mounted into diode stacks and submitted to tests at cryogenic temperatures. To date about 800 dipole diode stacks and about 250 quadrupole diode stacks for the protection of the superconducting lattice dipole and lattice quadrupole magnets have been assembled at OCEM (Bologna,Italy) and successfully tested in liquid helium at ENEA (Frascati, Italy). This report gives an overview of the test results obtained so far. After a short description of the test installations and test procedures, a statistical analysis is presented for test data during diode production as well as for the performance of the diode stacks during testing in liquid helium, including failure rates and degradation of the diodes.
Lattice Waves, Spin Waves, and Neutron Scattering
Brockhouse, Bertram N.
1962-03-01
Use of neutron inelastic scattering to study the forces between atoms in solids is treated. One-phonon processes and lattice vibrations are discussed, and experiments that verified the existence of the quantum of lattice vibrations, the phonon, are reviewed. Dispersion curves, phonon frequencies and absorption, and models for dispersion calculations are discussed. Experiments on the crystal dynamics of metals are examined. Dispersion curves are presented and analyzed; theory of lattice dynamics is considered; effects of Fermi surfaces on dispersion curves; electron-phonon interactions, electronic structure influence on lattice vibrations, and phonon lifetimes are explored. The dispersion relation of spin waves in crystals and experiments in which dispersion curves for spin waves in Co-Fe alloy and magnons in magnetite were obtained and the reality of the magnon was demonstrated are discussed. (D.C.W)
Thermal stress analysis of a planar SOFC stack
Lin, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Tsung-Ting; Chyou, Yau-Pin; Chiang, Lieh-Kwang
The aim of this study is, by using finite element analysis (FEA), to characterize the thermal stress distribution in a planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack during various stages. The temperature profiles generated by an integrated thermo-electrochemical model were applied to calculate the thermal stress distributions in a multiple-cell SOFC stack by using a three-dimensional (3D) FEA model. The constructed 3D FEA model consists of the complete components used in a practical SOFC stack, including positive electrode-electrolyte-negative electrode (PEN) assembly, interconnect, nickel mesh, and gas-tight glass-ceramic seals. Incorporation of the glass-ceramic sealant, which was never considered in previous studies, into the 3D FEA model would produce more realistic results in thermal stress analysis and enhance the reliability of predicting potential failure locations in an SOFC stack. The effects of stack support condition, viscous behavior of the glass-ceramic sealant, temperature gradient, and thermal expansion mismatch between components were characterized. Modeling results indicated that a change in the support condition at the bottom frame of the SOFC stack would not cause significant changes in thermal stress distribution. Thermal stress distribution did not differ significantly in each unit cell of the multiple-cell stack due to a comparable in-plane temperature profile. By considering the viscous characteristics of the glass-ceramic sealant at temperatures above the glass-transition temperature, relaxation of thermal stresses in the PEN was predicted. The thermal expansion behavior of the metallic interconnect/frame had a greater influence on the thermal stress distribution in the PEN than did that of the glass-ceramic sealant due to the domination of interconnect/frame in the volume of a planar SOFC assembly.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Li; Wu, Gang; Holby, Edward F; Zelenay, Piotr; Tao, Wen-Quan; Kang, Qinjun
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Nanoscale structures of catalyst layer are reconstructed. • Pore-scale simulation is performed to predict macroscopic transport properties. • Reactive transport in catalyst layer with non-precious metal and Pt catalysts is studied. • Mesopores rather than micropores are required to enhance mass transport. - Abstract: High-resolution porous structures of catalyst layers (CLs) including non-precious metal catalysts (NPMCs) or Pt for proton exchange membrane fuel cells are reconstructed using the quartet structure generation set. The nanoscale structures are analyzed in terms of pore size distribution, specific surface area, and phase connectivity. Pore-scale simulation methods based on the lattice Boltzmann method are developed to predict the macroscopic transport properties in CLs. The non-uniform distribution of ionomer in CL generates more tortuous pathways for reactant transport, greatly reducing the effective diffusivity. The tortuosity of CLs is much higher than that adopted by the Bruggeman equation. Knudsen diffusion plays a significant role in oxygen diffusion and significantly reduces the effective diffusivity. Reactive transport inside the CLs is also investigated. Although the reactive surface area of the non-precious metal catalyst (NPMC) CL is much higher than that of the Pt CL, the oxygen reaction rate is lower in the NPMC CL due to the much lower reaction rate coefficient. Although pores of a few nanometers in size can increase the number of reactive sites in NPMC CLs, they contribute little to enhance the mass transport. Mesopores, which are a few tens of nanometers or larger in size, are shown to be required in order to increase the mass transport rate
Stack semantics of type theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Coquand, Thierry; Mannaa, Bassel; Ruch, Fabian
2017-01-01
We give a model of dependent type theory with one univalent universe and propositional truncation interpreting a type as a stack, generalizing the groupoid model of type theory. As an application, we show that countable choice cannot be proved in dependent type theory with one univalent universe...
Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization
Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph
2008-01-01
Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.
V-stack piezoelectric actuator
Ardelean, Emil V.; Clark, Robert L.
2001-07-01
Aeroelastic control of wings by means of a distributed, trailing-edge control surface is of interest with regards to maneuvers, gust alleviation, and flutter suppression. The use of high energy density, piezoelectric materials as motors provides an appealing solution to this problem. A comparative analysis of the state of the art actuators is currently being conducted. A new piezoelectric actuator design is presented. This actuator meets the requirements for trailing edge flap actuation in both stroke and force. It is compact, simple, sturdy, and leverages stroke geometrically with minimum force penalties while displaying linearity over a wide range of stroke. The V-Stack Piezoelectric Actuator, consists of a base, a lever, two piezoelectric stacks, and a pre-tensioning element. The work is performed alternately by the two stacks, placed on both sides of the lever. Pre-tensioning can be readily applied using a torque wrench, obviating the need for elastic elements and this is for the benefit of the stiffness of the actuator. The characteristics of the actuator are easily modified by changing the base or the stacks. A prototype was constructed and tested experimentally to validate the theoretical model.
Open stack thermal battery tests
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-04-17
We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.
Holst, Glendon
2016-12-01
Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.
Anisotropic Born-Mayer potential in lattice dynamics of Vanadium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onwuagba, B.N.
1988-01-01
A microscopic theory of the lattice dynamics of the transition metal vanadium is developed based on the Animalu's transition metal model potential (TMMP). The Born-Mayer potential associated with the distribution of the transition metal d-electrons is treated as anisotropic. Good agreement with experimental phonon dispersion curves longitudinal branches in the [111] direction
Lattice theory for nonspecialists
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hari Dass, N.D.
1984-01-01
These lectures were delivered as part of the academic training programme at the NIKHEF-H. These lectures were intended primarily for experimentalists, and theorists not specializing in lattice methods. The goal was to present the essential spirit behind the lattice approach and consequently the author has concentrated mostly on issues of principle rather than on presenting a large amount of detail. In particular, the author emphasizes the deep theoretical infra-structure that has made lattice studies meaningful. At the same time, he has avoided the use of heavy formalisms as they tend to obscure the basic issues for people trying to approach this subject for the first time. The essential ideas are illustrated with elementary soluble examples not involving complicated mathematics. The following subjects are discussed: three ways of solving the harmonic oscillator problem; latticization; gauge fields on a lattice; QCD observables; how to solve lattice theories. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1983-04-01
In the last few years lattice gauge theory has become the primary tool for the study of nonperturbative phenomena in gauge theories. The lattice serves as an ultraviolet cutoff, rendering the theory well defined and amenable to numerical and analytical work. Of course, as with any cutoff, at the end of a calculation one must consider the limit of vanishing lattice spacing in order to draw conclusions on the physical continuum limit theory. The lattice has the advantage over other regulators that it is not tied to the Feynman expansion. This opens the possibility of other approximation schemes than conventional perturbation theory. Thus Wilson used a high temperature expansion to demonstrate confinement in the strong coupling limit. Monte Carlo simulations have dominated the research in lattice gauge theory for the last four years, giving first principle calculations of nonperturbative parameters characterizing the continuum limit. Some of the recent results with lattice calculations are reviewed
On Traveling Waves in Lattices: The Case of Riccati Lattices
Dimitrova, Zlatinka
2012-09-01
The method of simplest equation is applied for analysis of a class of lattices described by differential-difference equations that admit traveling-wave solutions constructed on the basis of the solution of the Riccati equation. We denote such lattices as Riccati lattices. We search for Riccati lattices within two classes of lattices: generalized Lotka-Volterra lattices and generalized Holling lattices. We show that from the class of generalized Lotka-Volterra lattices only the Wadati lattice belongs to the class of Riccati lattices. Opposite to this many lattices from the Holling class are Riccati lattices. We construct exact traveling wave solutions on the basis of the solution of Riccati equation for three members of the class of generalized Holling lattices.
Lattice degeneracies of fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raszillier, H.
1983-10-01
We present a detailed description of the minimal degeneracies of geometric (Kaehler) fermions on all the lattices of maximal symmetries in n = 1, ..., 4 dimensions. We also determine the isolated orbits of the maximal symmetry groups, which are related to the minimal numbers of ''naive'' fermions on the reciprocals of these lattices. It turns out that on the self-reciprocal lattices the minimal numbers of naive fermions are equal to the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom of geometric fermions. The description we give relies on the close connection of the maximal lattice symmetry groups with (affine) Weyl groups of root systems of (semi-) simple Lie algebras. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shindler, A.
2007-07-01
I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2007-07-15
I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)
Temperature dependence of stacking faults in catalyst-free GaAs nanopillars.
Shapiro, Joshua N; Lin, Andrew; Ratsch, Christian; Huffaker, D L
2013-11-29
Impressive opto-electronic devices and transistors have recently been fabricated from GaAs nanopillars grown by catalyst-free selective-area epitaxy, but this growth technique has always resulted in high densities of stacking faults. A stacking fault occurs when atoms on the growing (111) surface occupy the sites of a hexagonal-close-pack (hcp) lattice instead of the normal face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice sites. When stacking faults occur consecutively, the crystal structure is locally wurtzite instead of zinc-blende, and the resulting band offsets are known to negatively impact device performance. Here we present experimental and theoretical evidence that indicate stacking fault formation is related to the size of the critical nucleus, which is temperature dependent. The difference in energy between the hcp and fcc orientation of small nuclei is computed using density-function theory. The minimum energy difference of 0.22 eV is calculated for a nucleus with 21 atoms, so the population of nuclei in the hcp orientation is expected to decrease as the nucleus grows larger. The experiment shows that stacking fault occurrence is dramatically reduced from 22% to 3% by raising the growth temperature from 730 to 790 ° C. These data are interpreted using classical nucleation theory which dictates a larger critical nucleus at higher growth temperature.
Vertical melting of a stack of membranes
Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.; Schakel, A. M. J.
2001-02-01
A stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is studied. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a melting-like transition.
Search for the in-phase Flux Flow mode in stacked Josephson junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Madsen, Søren Peder
2006-01-01
Josephson vortex flux flow states in stacked Josephson junctions are investigated numerically. The aim of the work is to understand the mechanisms behind the formation of triangular (anti-phase) and square (in-phase) vortex lattices, and is motivated by recent experiments on layered BSCCO type high......-T-c superconductors in a magnetic field. In order to keep the problem as simple as possible we consider in detail only the case with two junctions in the stack. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Epelbaum E.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available We review recent progress on nuclear lattice simulations using chiral eﬀective ﬁeld theory. We discuss lattice results for dilute neutron matter at next-to-leading order, three-body forces at next-to-next-toleading order, isospin-breaking and Coulomb eﬀects, and the binding energy of light nuclei.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jersak, J.
1986-01-01
This year has brought a sudden interest in lattice Higgs models. After five years of only modest activity we now have many new results obtained both by analytic and Monte Carlo methods. This talk is a review of the present state of lattice Higgs models with particular emphasis on the recent development
Helping Students Design HyperCard Stacks.
Dunham, Ken
1995-01-01
Discusses how to teach students to design HyperCard stacks. Highlights include introducing HyperCard, developing storyboards, introducing design concepts and scripts, presenting stacks, evaluating storyboards, and continuing projects. A sidebar presents a HyperCard stack evaluation form. (AEF)
PRECISION COSMOGRAPHY WITH STACKED VOIDS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.
2012-01-01
We present a purely geometrical method for probing the expansion history of the universe from the observation of the shape of stacked voids in spectroscopic redshift surveys. Our method is an Alcock-Paczyński (AP) test based on the average sphericity of voids posited on the local isotropy of the universe. It works by comparing the temporal extent of cosmic voids along the line of sight with their angular, spatial extent. We describe the algorithm that we use to detect and stack voids in redshift shells on the light cone and test it on mock light cones produced from N-body simulations. We establish a robust statistical model for estimating the average stretching of voids in redshift space and quantify the contamination by peculiar velocities. Finally, assuming that the void statistics that we derive from N-body simulations is preserved when considering galaxy surveys, we assess the capability of this approach to constrain dark energy parameters. We report this assessment in terms of the figure of merit (FoM) of the dark energy task force and in particular of the proposed Euclid mission which is particularly suited for this technique since it is a spectroscopic survey. The FoM due to stacked voids from the Euclid wide survey may double that of all other dark energy probes derived from Euclid data alone (combined with Planck priors). In particular, voids seem to outperform baryon acoustic oscillations by an order of magnitude. This result is consistent with simple estimates based on mode counting. The AP test based on stacked voids may be a significant addition to the portfolio of major dark energy probes and its potentialities must be studied in detail.
Agarwal, Nitin; Moreira, Belmiro
2014-01-01
Project Specification CERN is establishing a large scale private cloud based on OpenStack as part of the expansion of the computing infrastructure for storing the data coming out of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. As the data coming out of the detectors is increasing continuously that needs to be stored in the data center, we need more physical resources (more money) and since Virtual machines takes lot of CPU and memory overhead and minutes for creating the images, booting u...
Iridium Interfacial Stack - IrIS
Spry, David
2012-01-01
Iridium Interfacial Stack (IrIS) is the sputter deposition of high-purity tantalum silicide (TaSi2-400 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm)/iridium (Ir-200 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm) in an ultra-high vacuum system followed by a 600 C anneal in nitrogen for 30 minutes. IrIS simultaneously acts as both a bond metal and a diffusion barrier. This bondable metallization that also acts as a diffusion barrier can prevent oxygen from air and gold from the wire-bond from infiltrating silicon carbide (SiC) monolithically integrated circuits (ICs) operating above 500 C in air for over 1,000 hours. This TaSi2/Pt/Ir/Pt metallization is easily bonded for electrical connection to off-chip circuitry and does not require extra anneals or masking steps. There are two ways that IrIS can be used in SiC ICs for applications above 500 C: it can be put directly on a SiC ohmic contact metal, such as Ti, or be used as a bond metal residing on top of an interconnect metal. For simplicity, only the use as a bond metal is discussed. The layer thickness ratio of TaSi2 to the first Pt layer deposited thereon should be 2:1. This will allow Si from the TaSi2 to react with the Pt to form Pt2Si during the 600 C anneal carried out after all layers have been deposited. The Ir layer does not readily form a silicide at 600 C, and thereby prevents the Si from migrating into the top-most Pt layer during future anneals and high-temperature IC operation. The second (i.e., top-most) deposited Pt layer needs to be about 200 nm to enable easy wire bonding. The thickness of 200 nm for Ir was chosen for initial experiments; further optimization of the Ir layer thickness may be possible via further experimentation. Ir itself is not easily wire-bonded because of its hardness and much higher melting point than Pt. Below the iridium layer, the TaSi2 and Pt react and form desired Pt2Si during the post-deposition anneal while above the iridium layer remains pure Pt as desired to facilitate easy and strong wire-bonding to the Si
Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cadwallader, L.C.; Bruyere, S.A.
2009-01-01
Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative 'all modes' failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.
Ultrahigh capacitance density for multiple ALD-grown MIM capacitor stacks in 3-D silicon
Klootwijk, J.H.; Jinesh, K.B.; Dekkers, W.; Verhoeven, J.F.C.; Heuvel, van den F.C.; Kim, H.-D.; Blin, D.; Verheijen, M.A.; Weemaes, R.G.R.; Kaiser, M.; Ruigrok, J.J.M.; Roozeboom, F.
2008-01-01
"Trench" capacitors containing multiple metal-insulator-metal (MIM) layer stacks are realized by atomic-layer deposition (ALD), yielding an ultrahigh capacitance density of 440 nF/mm2 at a breakdown voltage VBD > 6 V. This capacitance density on silicon is at least 10 times higher than the values
On singularities of lattice varieties
Mukherjee, Himadri
2013-01-01
Toric varieties associated with distributive lattices arise as a fibre of a flat degeneration of a Schubert variety in a minuscule. The singular locus of these varieties has been studied by various authors. In this article we prove that the number of diamonds incident on a lattice point $\\a$ in a product of chain lattices is more than or equal to the codimension of the lattice. Using this we also show that the lattice varieties associated with product of chain lattices is smooth.
Transient deformational properties of high temperature alloys used in solid oxide fuel cell stacks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kwok, Kawai; Frandsen, Henrik Lund
2017-01-01
Stresses and probability of failure during operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is affected by the deformational properties of the different components of the SOFC stack. Though the overall stress relaxes with time during steady state operation, large stresses would normally appear through...... to describe the high temperature inelastic deformational behaviors of Crofer 22 APU used for metallic interconnects in SOFC stacks.......Stresses and probability of failure during operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is affected by the deformational properties of the different components of the SOFC stack. Though the overall stress relaxes with time during steady state operation, large stresses would normally appear through...... transients in operation including temporary shut downs. These stresses are highly affected by the transient creep behavior of metallic components in the SOFC stack. This study investigates whether a variation of the so-called Chaboche's unified power law together with isotropic hardening can represent...
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup
As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation....... An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... in the hydrogen fuel gas supplied to the stack. EIS was used to examine the long-term behavior and monitor the evolution of the impedance of each of the repeating units and the whole stack. The observed impedance was analyzed in detail for one of the repeating units and the whole stack and the losses reported...
Gate-tunable gigantic lattice deformation in VO2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okuyama, D.; Hatano, T.; Nakano, M.; Takeshita, S.; Ohsumi, H.; Tardif, S.; Shibuya, K.; Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Ohashi, H.; Takata, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.; Iwasa, Y.; Arima, T.
2014-01-01
We examined the impact of electric field on crystal lattice of vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) in a field-effect transistor geometry by in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements. Whereas the c-axis lattice parameter of VO 2 decreases through the thermally induced insulator-to-metal phase transition, the gate-induced metallization was found to result in a significant increase of the c-axis length by almost 1% from that of the thermally stabilized insulating state. We also found that this gate-induced gigantic lattice deformation occurs even at the thermally stabilized metallic state, enabling dynamic control of c-axis lattice parameter by more than 1% at room temperature
Influence factors of the inter-nanowire thermal contact resistance in the stacked nanowires
Wu, Dongxu; Huang, Congliang; Zhong, Jinxin; Lin, Zizhen
2018-05-01
The inter-nanowire thermal contact resistance is important for tuning the thermal conductivity of a nanocomposite for thermoelectric applications. In this paper, the stacked copper nanowires are applied for studying the thermal contact resistance. The stacked copper nanowires are firstly made by the cold-pressing method, and then the nanowire stacks are treated by sintering treatment. With the effect of the volumetric fraction of nanowires in the stack and the influence of the sintering-temperature on the thermal contact resistance discussed, results show that: The thermal conductivity of the 150-nm copper nanowires can be enlarged almost 2 times with the volumetric fraction increased from 32 to 56% because of the enlarged contact-area and contact number of a copper nanowire. When the sintering temperature increases from 293 to 673 K, the thermal conductivity of the stacked 300-nm nanowires could be enlarged almost 2.5 times by the sintering treatment, because of the improved lattice property of the contact zone. In conclusion, application of a high volumetric fraction or/and a sintering-treatment are effectivity to tune the inter-nanowire thermal contact resistance, and thus to tailor the thermal conductivity of a nanowire network or stack.
Continued SOFC cell and stack technology and improved production methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wandel, M.; Brodersen, K.; Phair, J. (and others)
2009-05-15
Within this project significant results are obtained on a number of very diverse areas ranging from development of cell production, metallic creep in interconnect to assembling and test of stacks with foot print larger than 500 cm2. Out of 38 milestones 28 have been fulfilled and 10 have been partly fulfilled. This project has focused on three main areas: 1) The continued cell development and optimization of manufacturing processes aiming at production of large foot-print cells, improving cell performance and development environmentally more benign production methods. 2) Stack technology - especially stacks with large foot print and improving the stack design with respect to flow geometry and gas leakages. 3) Development of stack components with emphasis on sealing (for 2G as well as 3G), interconnect (coat, architecture and creep) and test development. Production of cells with a foot print larger than 500 cm2 is very difficult due to the brittleness of the cells and great effort has been put into this topic. Eight cells were successfully produced making it possible to assemble and test a real stack thereby giving valuable results on the prospects of stacks with large foot print. However, the yield rate is very low and a significant development to increase this yield lies ahead. Several lessons were learned on the stack level regarding 'large foot print' stacks. Modelling studies showed that the width of the cell primarily is limited by production and handling of the cell whereas the length (in the flow direction) is limited by e.g. pressure drop and necessary manifolding. The optimal cell size in the flow direction was calculated to be between approx20 cm and < 30 cm. From an economical point of view the production yield is crucial and stacks with large foot print cell area are only feasible if the cell production yield is significantly enhanced. Co-casting has been pursued as a production technique due to the possibilities in large scale production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mackenzie, Paul
1989-01-01
The forty-year dream of understanding the properties of the strongly interacting particles from first principles is now approaching reality. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD - the field theory of the quark and gluon constituents of strongly interacting particles) was initially handicapped by the severe limitations of the conventional (perturbation) approach in this picture, but Ken Wilson's inventions of lattice gauge theory and renormalization group methods opened new doors, making calculations of masses and other particle properties possible. Lattice gauge theory became a major industry around 1980, when Monte Carlo methods were introduced, and the first prototype calculations yielded qualitatively reasonable results. The promising developments over the past year were highlighted at the 1988 Symposium on Lattice Field Theory - Lattice 88 - held at Fermilab
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Risager, Morten S.; Södergren, Carl Anders
2017-01-01
It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior of the den......It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior...... of the density function in both the small and large variable limits. This extends earlier results by Boca, Pasol, Popa and Zaharescu and Kelmer and Kontorovich in dimension 2 to general dimension n . Our proofs use the decay of matrix coefficients together with a number of careful estimates, and lead...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulikowska, T.
1999-01-01
The present lecture has a main goal to show how the transport lattice calculations are realised in a standard computer code. This is illustrated on the example of the WIMSD code, belonging to the most popular tools for reactor calculations. Most of the approaches discussed here can be easily modified to any other lattice code. The description of the code assumes the basic knowledge of reactor lattice, on the level given in the lecture on 'Reactor lattice transport calculations'. For more advanced explanation of the WIMSD code the reader is directed to the detailed descriptions of the code cited in References. The discussion of the methods and models included in the code is followed by the generally used homogenisation procedure and several numerical examples of discrepancies in calculated multiplication factors based on different sources of library data. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mackenzie, Paul
1989-03-15
The forty-year dream of understanding the properties of the strongly interacting particles from first principles is now approaching reality. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD - the field theory of the quark and gluon constituents of strongly interacting particles) was initially handicapped by the severe limitations of the conventional (perturbation) approach in this picture, but Ken Wilson's inventions of lattice gauge theory and renormalization group methods opened new doors, making calculations of masses and other particle properties possible. Lattice gauge theory became a major industry around 1980, when Monte Carlo methods were introduced, and the first prototype calculations yielded qualitatively reasonable results. The promising developments over the past year were highlighted at the 1988 Symposium on Lattice Field Theory - Lattice 88 - held at Fermilab.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christ, Norman H
2000-01-01
The architecture and capabilities of the computers currently in use for large-scale lattice QCD calculations are described and compared. Based on this present experience, possible future directions are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulikowska, T.
2001-01-01
The description of reactor lattice codes is carried out on the example of the WIMSD-5B code. The WIMS code in its various version is the most recognised lattice code. It is used in all parts of the world for calculations of research and power reactors. The version WIMSD-5B is distributed free of charge by NEA Data Bank. The description of its main features given in the present lecture follows the aspects defined previously for lattice calculations in the lecture on Reactor Lattice Transport Calculations. The spatial models are described, and the approach to the energy treatment is given. Finally the specific algorithm applied in fuel depletion calculations is outlined. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petronzio, R.
1992-01-01
Lattice gauge theories are about fifteen years old and I will report on the present status of the field without making the elementary introduction that can be found in the proceedings of the last two conferences. The talk covers briefly the following subjects: the determination of α s , the status of spectroscopy, heavy quark physics and in particular the calculation of their hadronic weak matrix elements, high temperature QCD, non perturbative Higgs bounds, chiral theories on the lattice and induced theories
Kiefel, Martin; Jampani, Varun; Gehler, Peter V.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a convolutional layer that is able to process sparse input features. As an example, for image recognition problems this allows an efficient filtering of signals that do not lie on a dense grid (like pixel position), but of more general features (such as color values). The presented algorithm makes use of the permutohedral lattice data structure. The permutohedral lattice was introduced to efficiently implement a bilateral filter, a commonly used image processing operation....
Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D
2016-09-01
Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.
Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.
Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun
2017-11-16
Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.
Lattice regularized chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borasoy, Bugra; Lewis, Randy; Ouimet, Pierre-Philippe A.
2004-01-01
Chiral perturbation theory can be defined and regularized on a spacetime lattice. A few motivations are discussed here, and an explicit lattice Lagrangian is reviewed. A particular aspect of the connection between lattice chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD is explored through a study of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term
Local field corrections in the lattice dynamics of chromium | Ndukwe ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This work extends the inclusion of local field corrections in the calculation of the phonon dispersion curves to the transition metal, chromium (Cr3+) using the formalism of lattice dynamics based on the transition metal model potential approach in the adiabatic and hatmonic approximations. The results obtained here have a ...
The untyped stack calculus and Bohm's theorem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alberto Carraro
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The stack calculus is a functional language in which is in a Curry-Howard correspondence with classical logic. It enjoys confluence but, as well as Parigot's lambda-mu, does not admit the Bohm Theorem, typical of the lambda-calculus. We present a simple extension of stack calculus which is for the stack calculus what Saurin's Lambda-mu is for lambda-mu.
Flexural characteristics of a stack leg
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, J.
1979-06-01
A 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator is at present under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The insulating stack of the machine is of modular construction, each module being 860 mm in length. Each live section stack module contains 8 insulating legs mounted between bulkhead rings. The design, fabrication (from glass discs bonded to stainless steel discs using an epoxy film adhesive) and testing of the stack legs is described. (U.K.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Álvaro López García
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum’s Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015 [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.
López García, Álvaro; Fernández del Castillo, Enol; Orviz Fernández, Pablo
In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum's Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI) for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015) [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.
California dreaming?[PEM stacks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crosse, J.
2002-06-01
Hyundai's Santa Fe FCEV will be on sale by the end of 2002. Hyundai uses PEM stacks that are manufactured by International Fuel Cells (IFC), a division of United Technologies. Santa Fe is equipped with a 65 kW electric powertrain of Enova systems and Shell's new gasoline reformer called Hydrogen Source. Eugene Jang, Senior Engineer - Fuel Cell and Materials at Hyundai stated that the compressor related losses on IFC system are below 3%. The maximum speed offered by the vehicle is estimated as 123km/hr while the petrol equivalent fuel consumption is quoted between 5.6L/100 km and 4.8L/100 km. Santa Fe is a compact vehicle offering better steering response and a pleasant drive. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chodos, A.
1978-01-01
A version of lattice gauge theory is presented in which the shape of the lattice is not assumed at the outset but is a consequence of the dynamics. Other related features which are not specified a priori include the internal and space-time symmetry groups and the dimensionality of space-time. The theory possesses a much larger invariance group than the usual gauge group on a lattice, and has associated with it an integer k 0 analogous to the topological quantum numer of quantum chromodynamics. Families of semiclassical solutions are found which are labeled by k 0 and a second integer x, but the analysis is not carried far enough to determine which space-time and internal symmetry groups characterize the lowest-lying states of the theory
Graphene antidot lattice waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels
2012-01-01
We introduce graphene antidot lattice waveguides: nanostructured graphene where a region of pristine graphene is sandwiched between regions of graphene antidot lattices. The band gaps in the surrounding antidot lattices enable localized states to emerge in the central waveguide region. We model...... the waveguides via a position-dependent mass term in the Dirac approximation of graphene and arrive at analytical results for the dispersion relation and spinor eigenstates of the localized waveguide modes. To include atomistic details we also use a tight-binding model, which is in excellent agreement...... with the analytical results. The waveguides resemble graphene nanoribbons, but without the particular properties of ribbons that emerge due to the details of the edge. We show that electrons can be guided through kinks without additional resistance and that transport through the waveguides is robust against...
Stacks with TiN/titanium as the bipolar plate for PEMFCs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren, Zhijun; Zhang, Dongming; Wang, Zaiyi
2012-01-01
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is a potential alternative for the internal combustion engine. But many problems, such as metallic bipolar plate instead of graphite bipolar plate to decrease the cost, should be solved before its application. Based on the previous results that single cell with TiN/Ti as bipolar plates shows high performance and enough long-time durability, the progress on the stacks with TiN/Ti as bipolar plates is reported in this manuscript. Till now seldom report is focused on stacks because of the complicated processing technique, especially for that with TiN/Ti as bipolar plate. The flow field in the plate is punched from titanium deformation, and two plates are welded by laser welding to form one piece of bipolar plate. The adopted processing techniques for stacks with TiN/Ti as bipolar plate exhibit advantage and feasibility in industry. The power density by weight for the stack is as high as 1353 W kg −1 , although it still has space to be improved. Next work should be focused on the design of flow channel parameters and flow field type based on plastic deformation of metal materials. -- Highlights: ► The progress on the stacks with TiN/Ti as bipolar plates is reported. ► The adopted processing techniques exhibit feasibility in industry. ► The power density by weight for the stack is as high as 1353 W kg −1 .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Catterall, Simon; Kaplan, David B.; Unsal, Mithat
2009-03-31
We provide an introduction to recent lattice formulations of supersymmetric theories which are invariant under one or more real supersymmetries at nonzero lattice spacing. These include the especially interesting case of N = 4 SYM in four dimensions. We discuss approaches based both on twisted supersymmetry and orbifold-deconstruction techniques and show their equivalence in the case of gauge theories. The presence of an exact supersymmetry reduces and in some cases eliminates the need for fine tuning to achieve a continuum limit invariant under the full supersymmetry of the target theory. We discuss open problems.
Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A. Hepworth, Richard
2009-01-01
This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...... of vector fields....
Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CARPENTER, K.E.
1999-01-01
This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420
40 CFR 61.44 - Stack sampling.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.44 Section 61.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Firing § 61.44 Stack sampling. (a) Sources subject to § 61.42(b) shall be continuously sampled, during...
On the "stacking fault" in copper
Fransens, J.R.; Pleiter, F
2003-01-01
The results of a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations experiment on In-111 implanted into a properly cut single crystal of copper show that the defect known in the literature as "stacking fault" is not a planar faulted loop but a stacking fault tetrahedron with a size of 10-50 Angstrom.
Learning OpenStack networking (Neutron)
Denton, James
2014-01-01
If you are an OpenStack-based cloud operator with experience in OpenStack Compute and nova-network but are new to Neutron networking, then this book is for you. Some networking experience is recommended, and a physical network infrastructure is required to provide connectivity to instances and other network resources configured in the book.
Ibarra-Hernández, Wilfredo; Elsayed, Hannan; Romero, Aldo H.; Bautista-Hernández, Alejandro; Olguín, Daniel; Cantarero, Andrés
2017-07-01
There is a growing interest in the property dependence of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of the number of layers and formation of heterostructures. Depending on the stacking, doping, edge effects, and interlayer distance, the properties can be modified, which opens the door to novel applications that require a detailed understanding of the atomic mechanisms responsible for those changes. In this work, we analyze the electronic properties and lattice dynamics of a heterostructure constructed by simultaneously stacking InSe layers and GaSe layers bounded by van der Waals forces. We have assumed the same space group of GaSe, P 6 ¯m 2 as it becomes the lower energy configuration for other considered stackings. The structural, vibrational, and optical properties of this layered compound have been calculated using density functional theory. The structure is shown to be energetically, thermally, and elastically stable, which indicates its possible chemical synthesis. A correlation of the theoretical physical properties with respect to its parent compounds is extensively discussed. One of the most interesting properties is the low thermal conductivity, which indicates its potential use in thermolectric applications. Additionally, we discuss the possibility of using electronic gap engineering methods, which can help us to tune the optical emission in a variable range close to that used in the field of biological systems (NIR). Finally, the importance of considering properly van der Waals dispersion in layered materials has been emphasized as included in the exchange correlation functional. As for the presence of atoms with important spin-orbit coupling, relativistic corrections have been included.
Topological Quantum Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Lattice Bilayers
Zhai, Xuechao; Jin, Guojun
2013-09-01
Since the successful fabrication of graphene, two-dimensional hexagonal lattice structures have become a research hotspot in condensed matter physics. In this short review, we theoretically focus on discussing the possible realization of a topological insulator (TI) phase in systems of graphene bilayer (GBL) and boron nitride bilayer (BNBL), whose band structures can be experimentally modulated by an interlayer bias voltage. Under the bias, a band gap can be opened in AB-stacked GBL but is still closed in AA-stacked GBL and significantly reduced in AA- or AB-stacked BNBL. In the presence of spin-orbit couplings (SOCs), further demonstrations indicate whether the topological quantum phase transition can be realized strongly depends on the stacking orders and symmetries of structures. It is observed that a bulk band gap can be first closed and then reopened when the Rashba SOC increases for gated AB-stacked GBL or when the intrinsic SOC increases for gated AA-stacked BNBL. This gives a distinct signal for a topological quantum phase transition, which is further characterized by a jump of the ℤ2 topological invariant. At fixed SOCs, the TI phase can be well switched by the interlayer bias and the phase boundaries are precisely determined. For AA-stacked GBL and AB-stacked BNBL, no strong TI phase exists, regardless of the strength of the intrinsic or Rashba SOCs. At last, a brief overview is given on other two-dimensional hexagonal materials including silicene and molybdenum disulfide bilayers.
Displacive stability of a void in a void lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brailsford, A.D.
1977-01-01
It has recently been suggested that the stability of the void-lattice structure in irradiated metals may be attributed to the effect of the overlapping of the point-defect diffusion fields associated with each void. It is shown here, however, that the effect is much too weak. When one void is displaced from its lattice site, the displacement is shown to relax to zero as proposed, but a conservative estimate indicates that the characteristic time is equivalent to an irradiation dose of the order of 300 displacements per atom which is generally much greater than the dose necessary for void-lattice formation
Status of MCFC stack technology at IHI
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosaka, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Otsubo, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-12-31
The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising option for highly efficient power generation possible to enlarge. IHI has been studying parallel flow MCFC stacks with internal manifolds that have a large electrode area of 1m{sup 2}. IHI will make two 250 kW stacks for MW plant, and has begun to make cell components for the plant. To improve the stability of stack, soft corrugated plate used in the separator has been developed, and a way of gathering current from stacks has been studied. The DC output potential of the plant being very high, the design of electric insulation will be very important. A 20 kW short stack test was conducted in 1995 FY to certificate some of the improvements and components of the MW plant. These activities are presented below.
Modular fuel-cell stack assembly
Patel, Pinakin
2010-07-13
A fuel cell assembly having a plurality of fuel cells arranged in a stack. An end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at an end of said stack. The end plate assembly has an inlet area adapted to receive an exhaust gas from the stack, an outlet area and a passage connecting the inlet area and outlet area and adapted to carry the exhaust gas received at the inlet area from the inlet area to the outlet area. A further end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at a further opposing end of the stack. The further end plate assembly has a further inlet area adapted to receive a further exhaust gas from the stack, a further outlet area and a further passage connecting the further inlet area and further outlet area and adapted to carry the further exhaust gas received at the further inlet area from the further inlet area to the further outlet area.
Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Conroy, Charlie; Foster, Caroline; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Arnold, Jacob A.
2015-01-01
As part of the SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey, we stack 1137 Keck DEIMOS (Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph) spectra of globular clusters from 10 galaxies to study their stellar populations in detail. The stacked spectra have median signal-to-noise ratios of ˜90 Å-1. Besides the calcium triplet, we study weaker sodium, magnesium, titanium and iron lines as well as the Hα and higher order Paschen hydrogen lines. In general, the stacked spectra are consistent with old ages and a Milky Way-like initial mass function. However, we see different metal line index strengths at fixed colour and magnitude, and differences in the calcium triplet-colour relation from galaxy to galaxy. We interpret this as strong evidence for variations in the globular cluster colour-metallicity relation between galaxies. Two possible explanations for the colour-metallicity relation variations are that the average ages of globular clusters vary from galaxy to galaxy or that the average abundances of light elements (i.e. He, C, N and O) differ between galaxies. Stacking spectra by magnitude, we see that the colours become redder and metal line indices stronger with brighter magnitudes. These trends are consistent with the previously reported `blue tilts' being mass-metallicity relations.
Thermodynamic modeling of the stacking fault energy of austenitic steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curtze, S.; Kuokkala, V.-T.; Oikari, A.; Talonen, J.; Haenninen, H.
2011-01-01
The stacking fault energies (SFE) of 10 austenitic steels were determined in the temperature range 50 ≤ T ≤ 600 K by thermodynamic modeling of the Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Al-Si-Cu-C-N system using a modified Olson and Cohen modeling approach (Olson GB, Cohen M. Metall Trans 1976;7A:1897 ). The applied model accounts for each element's contribution to the Gibbs energy, the first-order excess free energies, magnetic contributions and the effect of interstitial nitrogen. Experimental SFE values from X-ray diffraction measurements were used for comparison. The effect of SFE on deformation mechanisms was also studied by electron backscatter diffraction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krojts, M.
1987-01-01
The book by the known american physicist-theoretist M.Kreuts represents the first monography in world literature, where a new perspective direction in elementary particle physics and quantum field theory - lattice formulation of gauge theories is stated systematically. Practically all main ideas of this direction are given. Material is stated in systematic and understandable form
Phenomenology Using Lattice QCD
Gupta, R.
2005-08-01
This talk provides a brief summary of the status of lattice QCD calculations of the light quark masses and the kaon bag parameter BK. Precise estimates of these four fundamental parameters of the standard model, i.e., mu, md, ms and the CP violating parameter η, help constrain grand unified models and could provide a window to new physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bali, G.S.
2005-01-01
I comment on progress of lattice QCD techniques and calculations. Recent results on pentaquark masses as well as of the spectrum of excited baryons are summarized and interpreted. The present state of calculations of quantities related to the nucleon structure and of electromagnetic transition form factors is surveyed
Finite lattice extrapolation algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henkel, M.; Schuetz, G.
1987-08-01
Two algorithms for sequence extrapolation, due to von den Broeck and Schwartz and Bulirsch and Stoer are reviewed and critically compared. Applications to three states and six states quantum chains and to the (2+1)D Ising model show that the algorithm of Bulirsch and Stoer is superior, in particular if only very few finite lattice data are available. (orig.)
Williamson, S. Gill
2010-01-01
Will the cosmological multiverse, when described mathematically, have easily stated properties that are impossible to prove or disprove using mathematical physics? We explore this question by constructing lattice multiverses which exhibit such behavior even though they are much simpler mathematically than any likely cosmological multiverse.
de Raedt, Hans; von der Linden, W.; Binder, K
1995-01-01
In this chapter we review methods currently used to perform Monte Carlo calculations for quantum lattice models. A detailed exposition is given of the formalism underlying the construction of the simulation algorithms. We discuss the fundamental and technical difficulties that are encountered and
Scott, Paul
2006-01-01
A "convex" polygon is one with no re-entrant angles. Alternatively one can use the standard convexity definition, asserting that for any two points of the convex polygon, the line segment joining them is contained completely within the polygon. In this article, the author provides a solution to a problem involving convex lattice polygons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Autin, B.
1984-01-01
After a description of the constraints imposed by the cooling of Antiprotons on the lattice of the rings, the reasons which motivate the shape and the structure of these machines are surveyed. Linear and non-linear beam optics properties are treated with a special amplification to the Antiproton Accumulator. (orig.)
Probing Temperature Inside Planar SOFC Short Stack, Modules, and Stack Series
Yu, Rong; Guan, Wanbing; Zhou, Xiao-Dong
2017-02-01
Probing temperature inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack lies at the heart of the development of high-performance and stable SOFC systems. In this article, we report our recent work on the direct measurements of the temperature in three types of SOFC systems: a 5-cell short stack, a 30-cell stack module, and a stack series consisting of two 30-cell stack modules. The dependence of temperature on the gas flow rate and current density was studied under a current sweep or steady-state operation. During the current sweep, the temperature inside the 5-cell stack decreased with increasing current, while it increased significantly at the bottom and top of the 30-cell stack. During a steady-state operation, the temperature of the 5-cell stack was stable while it was increased in the 30-cell stack. In the stack series, the maximum temperature gradient reached 190°C when the gas was not preheated. If the gas was preheated and the temperature gradient was reduced to 23°C in the stack series with the presence of a preheating gas and segmented temperature control, this resulted in a low degradation rate.
Unquenched lattice upsilon spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcantonio, L.M.
2001-03-01
A non-relativistic effective theory of QCD (NRQCD) is used in calculations of the upsilon spectrum. Simultaneous multi-correlation fitting routines are used to yield lattice channel energies and amplitudes. The lattice configurations used were both dynamical, with two flavours of sea quarks included in the action; and quenched, with no sea quarks. These configurations were generated by the UKQCD collaboration. The dynamical configurations used were ''matched'', having the same lattice spacing, but differing in the sea quark mass. Thus, it was possible to analyse trends of observables with sea quark mass, in the certainty that the trend isn't partially due to varying lattice spacing. The lattice spacing used for spectroscopy was derived from the lattice 1 1 P 1 - 1 3 S 1 splitting. On each set of configurations two lattice bare b quark masses were used, giving kinetic masses bracketing the physical Υ mass. The only quantity showing a strong dependence on these masses was the hyperfine splitting, so it was interpolated to the real Υ mass. The radial and orbital splittings gave good agreement with experiment. The hyperfine splitting results showed a clear signal for unquenching and the dynamical hyperfine splitting results were extrapolated to a physical sea quark mass. This result, combined with the quenched result yielded a value for the hyperfine splitting at n f = 3, predicting an η b mass of 9.517(4) GeV. The NRQCD technique for obtaining a value of the strong coupling constant in the M-barS-bar scheme was followed. Using quenched and dynamical results a value was extrapolated to n f = 3. Employing a three loop beta function to run the coupling, with suitable matching conditions at heavy quark thresholds, the final result was obtained for n f = 5 at a scale equal to the Z boson mass. This result was α(5)/MS(Mz)=0.110(4). Two methods for finding the mass of the b quark in the MS scheme were employed. The results of both methods agree within error but the
Wantha, Channarong
2018-02-01
This paper reports on the experimental and simulation studies of the influence of stack geometries and different mean pressures on the cold end temperature of the stack in the thermoacoustic refrigeration system. The stack geometry was tested, including spiral stack, circular pore stack and pin array stack. The results of this study show that the mean pressure of the gas in the system has a significant impact on the cold end temperature of the stack. The mean pressure of the gas in the system corresponds to thermal penetration depth, which results in a better cold end temperature of the stack. The results also show that the cold end temperature of the pin array stack decreases more than that of the spiral stack and circular pore stack geometry by approximately 63% and 70%, respectively. In addition, the thermal area and viscous area of the stack are analyzed to explain the results of such temperatures of thermoacoustic stacks.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stassis, C.; Zaretsky, J.; Misemer, D. K.;
1983-01-01
A large single crystal of FCC Ca was grown and was used to study the lattice dynamics of this divalent metal by coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The phonon dispersion curves were measured, at room temperature, along the [ξ00], [ξξ0], [ξξξ], and [0ξ1] symmetry directions. The dispersion curves...... to the propagation of elastic waves. The frequencies of the T1[ξξ0] branch for ξ between approximately 0.5 and 0.8 are slightly above the velocity-of-sound line determined from the low-frequency measurements. Since a similar effect has been observed in FCC Yb, it is natural to assume that the anomalous dispersion...... bear a striking resemblance to those of FCC Yb, which is also a divalent metal with an electronic band structure similar to that of Ca. In particular, the shear moduli c44 and (c11-c 12)/2 differ by a factor of 3.4, which implies that FCC Ca (like FCC Yb) is very anisotropic with regard...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1998-01-01
Following the departure of Communism, Hungary adopted the most ambitious privatisation programme of all the eastern European countries. Within a year the state electricity company, MVM, and the oil and gas company, MOL, were prepared for sale and a consequent injection of foreign capital. Control of prices by central government inhibited investment initially but a new legal framework put in place in 1995 introduced a pricing regime more attractive to external investors. Particular interest was shown in the 2,200MW mixed heavy oil and natural gas power plant at Dunamenti on the Danube, characterised by its five stacks of varying height which reflect the changing technology employed at the plant. The bid was won by Tractabel of Belgium who have been highly successful in improving plant efficiency. However, the impact of privatisation is now being felt in uncertainty over fuel supply. Removing such uncertainty in order to maintain existing investment and provide the additional 4000MW of generating capacity needed to keep pace with demand, is a major problem which the incoming government faces. (UK)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lei, Dian; Wang, Wei; Gong, Xiao, E-mail: elegong@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: elegong@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng [Institute of Material Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Tok, Eng-Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)
2016-01-14
The effect of room temperature sulfur passivation of the surface of Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} prior to high-k dielectric (HfO{sub 2}) deposition is investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the chemical bonding at the interface of HfO{sub 2} and Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}. Sulfur passivation is found to be effective in suppressing the formation of both Ge oxides and Sn oxides. A comparison of XPS results for sulfur-passivated and non-passivated Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} samples shows that sulfur passivation of the GeSn surface could also suppress the surface segregation of Sn atoms. In addition, sulfur passivation reduces the interface trap density D{sub it} at the high-k dielectric/Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} interface from the valence band edge to the midgap of Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}, as compared with a non-passivated control. The impact of the improved D{sub it} is demonstrated in Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (p-MOSFETs). Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-MOSFETs with sulfur passivation show improved subthreshold swing S, intrinsic transconductance G{sub m,int}, and effective hole mobility μ{sub eff} as compared with the non-passivated control. At a high inversion carrier density N{sub inv} of 1 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2}, sulfur passivation increases μ{sub eff} by 25% in Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-MOSFETs.
Density of oxidation-induced stacking faults in damaged silicon
Kuper, F.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Verwey, J.F.
1986-01-01
A model for the relation between density and length of oxidation-induced stacking faults on damaged silicon surfaces is proposed, based on interactions of stacking faults with dislocations and neighboring stacking faults. The model agrees with experiments.
Superspace approach to lattice supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostelecky, V.A.; Rabin, J.M.
1984-01-01
We construct a cubic lattice of discrete points in superspace, as well as a discrete subgroup of the supersymmetry group which maps this ''superlattice'' into itself. We discuss the connection between this structure and previous versions of lattice supersymmetry. Our approach clarifies the mathematical problems of formulating supersymmetric lattice field theories and suggests new methods for attacking them
Basis reduction for layered lattices
Torreão Dassen, Erwin
2011-01-01
We develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. We present algorithms to compute both Gram-Schmidt and reduced bases in this generalized setting. A layered lattice can be seen as lattices where certain directions have infinite weight. It can also be
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woloshyn, R.M.
1988-03-01
The basic concepts of the Lagrangian formulation of lattice field theory are discussed. The Wilson and staggered schemes for dealing with fermions on the lattice are described. Some recent results for hadron masses and vector and axial vector current matrix elements in lattice QCD are reviewed. (Author) (118 refs., 16 figs.)
Basis reduction for layered lattices
E.L. Torreão Dassen (Erwin)
2011-01-01
htmlabstractWe develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. With this new theory certain problems that usually are solved by using classical lattices with a "weighting" gain a new, more natural form. Using the layered lattice basis reduction algorithms introduced here these
Annex I.G. Demolition of the G1 stack at Marcoule by toppling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-01-01
The G1 stack at Marcoule was constructed during the first half of 1956 as a ventilation outlet for the G1 reactor, which is cooled by air. After the G1 reactor was decommissioned, the G1 stack served as a ventilation outlet for two new nuclear facilities on the site. Being no longer in compliance with regulations and having many inadequacies and uncertainties in terms of the prestressed concrete, the stack posed a potential damage risk in extreme wind or in the event of an earthquake. In 1994 it was decided that a new stack would be built to act as an outlet for the existing nuclear facilities, and that the old one would be demolished. The G1 stack was 100 m in height, 10 m in diameter and constructed with 24 vertically stacked concrete rings consisting of nine prefabricated sections, each 3.6 m in height. It was capped by a metal deflector (about 6 m in height and weighing 50 t). The inside consisted of nine semicircular tubes constructed of steel sheet metal weighing 120 t. The base of the stack consisted of the foundation, a plate and a base plate which were constructed at the site. The barrel sections were prefabricated. Construction lasted from January 1956 to June 1956. At the base, the cylindrical portion of the stack widened to form three feet extending to a depth of 7.5 m. The base plate of the stack was formed onsite to the height of 16.7 m and then prestressed using cables. A repair carried out in 1964 included adding a concrete lining of the initial rings of the cylinder up to a level of 22.1 m. Additional prestressing with the base plate and repair of the horizontal and vertical prestressing of the barrel were also carried out, leaving only 22 rings and 43 visible cables. The total mass of the stack was 2170 t, including: - Concrete: cylinder 800 t, base plate 1200 t; - Steel: internal structures 120 t, deflector 50 t. The main radiological risk was the presence of traces of tritium. The radioactive inventory for the entire stack was estimated in 2000
Dynamical stability of slip-stacking particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert
2014-09-01
We study the stability of particles in slip-stacking configuration, used to nearly double proton beam intensity at Fermilab. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We find perturbative solutions for stable particle trajectories. We establish Booster beam quality requirements to achieve 97% slip-stacking efficiency. We show that slip-stacking dynamics directly correspond to the driven pendulum and to the system of two standing-wave traps moving with respect to each other.
Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kraus, Martin
2011-01-01
-filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....
Tunable electro-optic filter stack
Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa
2017-09-05
A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.
Gao, L. G.; Xu, B.; Guo, H. X.; Xia, Y. D.; Yin, J.; Liu, Z. G.
2009-06-01
The band alignments of (La2O3)0.5(SiO2)0.5(LSO)/GaN and LSO/SiO2/GaN gate dielectric stacks were investigated comparatively by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band offsets for LSO/GaN stack and LSO/SiO2/GaN stack are 0.88 and 1.69 eV, respectively, while the corresponding conduction band offsets are found to be 1.40 and 1.83 eV, respectively. Measurements of the leakage current density as function of temperature revealed that the LSO/SiO2/GaN stack has much lower leakage current density than that of the LSO/GaN stack, especially at high temperature. It is concluded that the presence of a SiO2 buffer layer increases band offsets and reduces the leakage current density effectively.
An impact analysis of a micro wind system. [windpower for recovering magnesium from stack dust
Zimmer, R. P.; Robinette, S. L.; Mason, R. M.; Schaffer, W. A.
1975-01-01
A process for the recovery of steel mill stack dust has been developed and is being used to recover secondary metals by a small company in Georgia. The process is energy intensive and wind generators were studied as a means of supplying energy for part of the recovery process. Some of the results of this study will be presented.
Lester, David; Whipple, Melissa
1996-01-01
In a sample of students (n=93), preference for country and western music was not associated with depression or suicidal preoccupation as has been suggested by Stack and Gundlach. However, preference for heavy metal music was associated with prior suicidal ideation. Stronger associations were found between music preferences and measures of…
Strain-Driven Stacking Faults in CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanorods.
Demortière, Arnaud; Leonard, Donovan N; Petkov, Valeri; Chapman, Karena; Chattopadhyay, Soma; She, Chunxing; Cullen, David A; Shibata, Tomohiro; Pelton, Matthew; Shevchenko, Elena V
2018-04-19
Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are commonly grown with a shell of a second semiconductor material to obtain desired physical properties, such as increased photoluminescence quantum yield. However, the growth of a lattice-mismatched shell results in strain within the nanocrystal, and this strain has the potential to produce crystalline defects. Here, we study CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods as a model system to investigate the influence of core size and shape on the formation of stacking faults in the nanocrystal. Using a combination of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and pair-distribution-function analysis of synchrotron X-ray scattering, we show that growth of the CdS shell on smaller, spherical CdSe cores results in relatively small strain and few stacking faults. By contrast, growth of the shell on larger, prolate spheroidal cores leads to significant strain in the CdS lattice, resulting in a high density of stacking faults.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buechner, O. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Ernst, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Jansen, K. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Lippert, Th. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Melkumyan, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Orth, B. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Pleiter, D. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)]. E-mail: dirk.pleiter@desy.de; Stueben, H. [Konrad-Zuse-Institut fuer Informationstechnik ZIB, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wegner, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Wollny, S. [Konrad-Zuse-Institut fuer Informationstechnik ZIB, 14195 Berlin (Germany)
2006-04-01
As the need for computing resources to carry out numerical simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) formulated on a lattice has increased significantly, efficient use of the generated data has become a major concern. To improve on this, groups plan to share their configurations on a worldwide level within the International Lattice DataGrid (ILDG). Doing so requires standardized description of the configurations, standards on binary file formats and common middleware interfaces. We describe the requirements and problems, and discuss solutions. Furthermore, an overview is given on the implementation of the LatFor DataGrid [http://www-zeuthen.desy.de/latfor/ldg], a France/German/Italian grid that will be one of the regional grids within the ILDG grid-of-grids concept.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borsanyi, Sz.; Kampert, K.H.; Fodor, Z.; Forschungszentrum Juelich; Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest
2016-06-01
We present a full result for the equation of state (EoS) in 2+1+1 (up/down, strange and charm quarks are present) flavour lattice QCD. We extend this analysis and give the equation of state in 2+1+1+1 flavour QCD. In order to describe the evolution of the universe from temperatures several hundreds of GeV to the MeV scale we also include the known effects of the electroweak theory and give the effective degree of freedoms. As another application of lattice QCD we calculate the topological susceptibility (χ) up to the few GeV temperature region. These two results, EoS and χ, can be used to predict the dark matter axion's mass in the post-inflation scenario and/or give the relationship between the axion's mass and the universal axionic angle, which acts as a initial condition of our universe.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lutz, H.D.; Willich, P.
1977-01-01
The FIR absorption spectra of pyrite type compounds RuS 2 , RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x), RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , OsSe 2 , and PtP 2 as well as loellingite type phosphides FeP 2 , RuP 2 , and OsP 2 are reported. For RuS 2 , RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , and PtP 2 all of the five infrared allowed modes (k = 0) are observed. As a first result of a numerical normal coordinate treatment vibration forms of pyrite structure are communicated. The spectra show that lattice forces of corresponding sulfides, tellurides, and phosphides are about the same strength, but increase strongly by substitution of iron by ruthenium and especially of ruthenium by osmium. The lattice constants of the RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x) solid solution obey Vegard's rule. (author)
Solórzano, S.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Herrmann, H. J.
2018-01-01
We present a numerical scheme to solve the Wigner equation, based on a lattice discretization of momentum space. The moments of the Wigner function are recovered exactly, up to the desired order given by the number of discrete momenta retained in the discretization, which also determines the accuracy of the method. The Wigner equation is equipped with an additional collision operator, designed in such a way as to ensure numerical stability without affecting the evolution of the relevant moments of the Wigner function. The lattice Wigner scheme is validated for the case of quantum harmonic and anharmonic potentials, showing good agreement with theoretical results. It is further applied to the study of the transport properties of one- and two-dimensional open quantum systems with potential barriers. Finally, the computational viability of the scheme for the case of three-dimensional open systems is also illustrated.
Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics
Sachrajda, C T
2016-01-01
I review the the application of the lattice formulation of QCD and large-scale numerical simulations to the evaluation of non-perturbative hadronic effects in Standard Model Phenomenology. I present an introduction to the elements of the calculations and discuss the limitations both in the range of quantities which can be studied and in the precision of the results. I focus particularly on the extraction of the QCD parameters, i.e. the quark masses and the strong coupling constant, and on important quantities in flavour physics. Lattice QCD is playing a central role in quantifying the hadronic effects necessary for the development of precision flavour physics and its use in exploring the limits of the Standard Model and in searches for inconsistencies which would signal the presence of new physics.
Lattices of dielectric resonators
Trubin, Alexander
2016-01-01
This book provides the analytical theory of complex systems composed of a large number of high-Q dielectric resonators. Spherical and cylindrical dielectric resonators with inferior and also whispering gallery oscillations allocated in various lattices are considered. A new approach to S-matrix parameter calculations based on perturbation theory of Maxwell equations, developed for a number of high-Q dielectric bodies, is introduced. All physical relationships are obtained in analytical form and are suitable for further computations. Essential attention is given to a new unified formalism of the description of scattering processes. The general scattering task for coupled eigen oscillations of the whole system of dielectric resonators is described. The equations for the expansion coefficients are explained in an applicable way. The temporal Green functions for the dielectric resonator are presented. The scattering process of short pulses in dielectric filter structures, dielectric antennas and lattices of d...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasenfratz, A.; Hasenfratz, P.
1985-01-01
This paper deals almost exclusively with applications in QCD. Presumably QCD will remain in the center of lattice calculations in the near future. The existing techniques and the available computer resources should be able to produce trustworthy results in pure SU(3) gauge theory and in quenched hadron spectroscopy. Going beyond the quenched approximation might require some technical breakthrough or exceptional computer resources, or both. Computational physics has entered high-energy physics. From this point of view, lattice QCD is only one (although the most important, at present) of the research fields. Increasing attention is devoted to the study of other QFTs. It is certain that the investigation of nonasymptotically free theories, the Higgs phenomenon, or field theories that are not perturbatively renormalizable will be important research areas in the future
Lattice degeneracies of geometric fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raszillier, H.
1983-05-01
We give the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom carried by geometric fermions on all lattices of maximal symmetries in d = 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. These numbers are lattice dependent, but in the (free) continuum limit, part of the degrees of freedom have to escape to infinity by a Wilson mechanism built in, and 2sup(d) survive for any lattice. On self-reciprocal lattices we compare the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom of geometric fermions with the minimal numbers of naive fermions on these lattices and argue that these numbers are equal. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1962-01-01
The panel was attended by prominent physicists from most of the well-known laboratories in the field of light-water lattices, who exchanged the latest information on the status of work in their countries and discussed both the theoretical and the experimental aspects of the subjects. The supporting papers covered most problems, including criticality, resonance absorption, thermal utilization, spectrum calculations and the physics of plutonium bearing systems. Refs, figs and tabs
Diffusion in heterogeneous lattices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tarasenko, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír
2010-01-01
Roč. 256, č. 17 (2010), s. 5137-5144 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : lattice- gas systems * diffusion * Monte Carlo simulations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.795, year: 2010
Automated lattice data generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayyar Venkitesh
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The process of generating ensembles of gauge configurations (and measuring various observables over them can be tedious and error-prone when done “by hand”. In practice, most of this procedure can be automated with the use of a workflow manager. We discuss how this automation can be accomplished using Taxi, a minimal Python-based workflow manager built for generating lattice data. We present a case study demonstrating this technology.
Automated lattice data generation
Ayyar, Venkitesh; Hackett, Daniel C.; Jay, William I.; Neil, Ethan T.
2018-03-01
The process of generating ensembles of gauge configurations (and measuring various observables over them) can be tedious and error-prone when done "by hand". In practice, most of this procedure can be automated with the use of a workflow manager. We discuss how this automation can be accomplished using Taxi, a minimal Python-based workflow manager built for generating lattice data. We present a case study demonstrating this technology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, J [Agra Coll. (India). Dept. of Physics
1977-03-01
In the present work, a local model pseudopotential has been proposed to study the lattice dynamics of thorium. The model potential depends on the core and ionic radii, and accounts for the s-d-f hybridization effects in a phenomenological way. When this form of potential is applied to derive the photon dispersion curves of Th, sufficiently good agreement is found between the computed and experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowler, Ken
1990-01-01
One of the major recent developments in particle theory has been the use of very high performance computers to obtain approximate numerical solutions of quantum field theories by formulating them on a finite space-time lattice. The great virtue of this new technique is that it avoids the straitjacket of perturbation theory and can thus attack new, but very fundamental problems, such as the calculation of hadron masses in quark-gluon field theory (quantum chromodynamics - QCD)
Stacking fault tetrahedron induced plasticity in copper single crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Liang, E-mail: lz592@uowmail.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Lu, Cheng, E-mail: chenglu@uow.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Tieu, Kiet; Su, Lihong; Zhao, Xing [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Pei, Linqing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)
2017-01-05
Stacking fault tetrahedron (SFT) is the most common type of vacancy clustered defects in fcc metals and alloys, and can play an important role in the mechanical properties of metallic materials. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to investigate the incipience of plasticity and the underlying atomic mechanisms in copper single crystals with SFT. Different deformation mechanisms of SFT were reported due to the crystal orientations and loading directions (compression and tension). The results showed that the incipient plasticity in crystals with SFT resulted from the heterogeneous dislocation nucleation from SFT, so the stress required for plastic deformation was less than that needed for perfect single crystals. Three crystal orientations ([1 0 0], [1 1 0] and [1 1 1]) were specified in this study because they can represent most of the typical deformation mechanisms of SFT. MD simulations revealed that the structural transformation of SFT was frequent under the applied loading; a metastable SFT structure and the collapse of SFT were usually observed. The structural transformation resulted in a different reduction of yield stress in compression and tension, and also caused a decreased or reversed compression/tension asymmetry. Compressive stress can result in the unfaulting of Frank loop in some crystal orientations. According to the elastic theory of dislocation, the process of unfaulting was closely related to the size of the dislocation loop and the stacking fault energy.
Adamatzky, Andrew
2015-01-01
The book gives a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art research and engineering in theory and application of Lattice Automata in design and control of autonomous Robots. Automata and robots share the same notional meaning. Automata (originated from the latinization of the Greek word “αυτόματον”) as self-operating autonomous machines invented from ancient years can be easily considered the first steps of robotic-like efforts. Automata are mathematical models of Robots and also they are integral parts of robotic control systems. A Lattice Automaton is a regular array or a collective of finite state machines, or automata. The Automata update their states by the same rules depending on states of their immediate neighbours. In the context of this book, Lattice Automata are used in developing modular reconfigurable robotic systems, path planning and map exploration for robots, as robot controllers, synchronisation of robot collectives, robot vision, parallel robotic actuators. All chapters are...
Digital lattice gauge theories
Zohar, Erez; Farace, Alessandro; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2017-02-01
We propose a general scheme for a digital construction of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. In this method, the four-body interactions arising in models with 2 +1 dimensions and higher are obtained stroboscopically, through a sequence of two-body interactions with ancillary degrees of freedom. This yields stronger interactions than the ones obtained through perturbative methods, as typically done in previous proposals, and removes an important bottleneck in the road towards experimental realizations. The scheme applies to generic gauge theories with Lie or finite symmetry groups, both Abelian and non-Abelian. As a concrete example, we present the construction of a digital quantum simulator for a Z3 lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermionic matter in 2 +1 dimensions, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, involving three atomic species, representing the matter, gauge, and auxiliary degrees of freedom, that are separated in three different layers. By moving the ancilla atoms with a proper sequence of steps, we show how we can obtain the desired evolution in a clean, controlled way.
Dielectric lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.
1983-06-01
Dielectric lattice gauge theory models are introduced. They involve variables PHI(b)epsilong that are attached to the links b = (x+esub(μ),x) of the lattice and take their values in the linear space g which consists of real linear combinations of matrices in the gauge group G. The polar decomposition PHI(b)=U(b)osub(μ)(x) specifies an ordinary lattice gauge field U(b) and a kind of dielectric field epsilonsub(ij)proportionalosub(i)osub(j)sup(*)deltasub(ij). A gauge invariant positive semidefinite kinetic term for the PHI-field is found, and it is shown how to incorporate Wilson fermions in a way which preserves Osterwalder Schrader positivity. Theories with G = SU(2) and without matter fields are studied in some detail. It is proved that confinement holds, in the sense that Wilson loop expectation values show an area law decay, if the Euclidean action has certain qualitative features which imply that PHI = 0 (i.e. dielectric field identical 0) is the unique maximum of the action. (orig.)
Dielectric lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.
1984-01-01
Dielectric lattice gauge theory models are introduced. They involve variables PHI(b)element ofG that are attached to the links b = (x+esub(μ), x) of the lattice and take their values in the linear space G which consists of real linear combinations of matrices in the gauge group G. The polar decomposition PHI(b)=U(b)sigmasub(μ)(x) specifies an ordinary lattice gauge field U(b) and a kind of dielectric field epsilonsub(ij)proportional sigmasub(i)sigmasub(j)sup(*)deltasub(ij). A gauge invariant positive semidefinite kinetic term for the PHI-field is found, and it is shown how to incorporate Wilson fermions in a way which preserves Osterwalder-Schrader positivity. Theories with G = SU(2) and without matter fields are studied in some detail. It is proved that confinement holds, in the sense that Wilson-loop expectation values show an area law decay, if the euclidean action has certain qualitative features which imply that PHI=0 (i.e. dielectric field identical 0) is the unique maximum of the action. (orig.)
Characterization of Piezoelectric Stacks for Space Applications
Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher; Aldrich, Jack; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph
2008-01-01
Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to actuate mechanisms to precision levels in the nanometer range and below. Co-fired multilayer piezoelectric stacks offer the required actuation precision that is needed for such mechanisms. To obtain performance statistics and determine reliability for extended use, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and high temperatures and voltages. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators were driven sinusoidally for up to ten billion cycles. An automated data acquisition system was developed and implemented to monitor each stack's electrical current and voltage waveforms over the life of the test. As part of the monitoring tests, the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current were measured to assess the operation degradation. This paper presents some of the results of this effort.
The stack on software and sovereignty
Bratton, Benjamin H
2016-01-01
A comprehensive political and design theory of planetary-scale computation proposing that The Stack -- an accidental megastructure -- is both a technological apparatus and a model for a new geopolitical architecture.
Development of Auto-Stacking Warehouse Truck
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kuo-Hsien Hsia
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Warehouse automation is a very important issue for the promotion of traditional industries. For the production of larger and stackable products, it is usually necessary to operate a fork-lifter for the stacking and storage of the products by a skilled person. The general autonomous warehouse-truck does not have the ability of stacking objects. In this paper, we develop a prototype of auto-stacking warehouse-truck that can work without direct operation by a skill person. With command made by an RFID card, the stacker truck can take the packaged product to the warehouse on the prior-planned route and store it in a stacking way in the designated storage area, or deliver the product to the shipping area or into the container from the storage area. It can significantly reduce the manpower requirements of the skilled-person of forklift technician and improve the safety of the warehousing area.
Toward lattice fractional vector calculus
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2014-09-01
An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.
Exploring online evolution of network stacks
Imai, Pierre
2013-01-01
Network stacks today follow a one-size-fits-all philosophy. They are mostly kept unmodified due to often prohibitive costs of engineering, deploying and administrating customisation of the networking software, with the Internet stack architecture still largely being based on designs and assumptions made for the ARPANET 40 years ago. We venture that heterogeneous and rapidly changing networks of the future require, in order to be successful, run-time self-adaptation mechanisms at different tim...
A Time-predictable Stack Cache
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abbaspour, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin
2013-01-01
Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to le...... of a cache for stack allocated data. Our port of the LLVM C++ compiler supports the management of the stack cache. The combination of stack cache instructions and the hardware implementation of the stack cache is a further step towards timepredictable architectures.......Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to less...... precise results of the cache analysis part of the WCET analysis. Splitting the data cache for different data areas enables composable data cache analysis. The WCET analysis tool can analyze the accesses to these different data areas independently. In this paper we present the design and implementation...
StackGAN++: Realistic Image Synthesis with Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks
Zhang, Han; Xu, Tao; Li, Hongsheng; Zhang, Shaoting; Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiaolei; Metaxas, Dimitris
2017-01-01
Although Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown remarkable success in various tasks, they still face challenges in generating high quality images. In this paper, we propose Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks (StackGAN) aiming at generating high-resolution photo-realistic images. First, we propose a two-stage generative adversarial network architecture, StackGAN-v1, for text-to-image synthesis. The Stage-I GAN sketches the primitive shape and colors of the object based on given...
Electron-lattice Interaction and Nonlinear Excitations in Cuprate Structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulsen, J.; Eschrig, H.; Drechsler, S.L.; Malek, J.
1995-01-01
A low temperature lattice modulation of the chains of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 is considered by deriving a Hamiltonian of electron-lattice interaction from density-functional calculations for deformed lattice and solving it for the groundstate. Hubbard-type Coulomb interaction is included. The obtained groundstate is a charge-density-wave state with a pereodicity of four lattice constants and a gap for one-electron excitations of about 1eV, sensitively depending on parameters of the Hamiltonian. There are lots of polaronic and solitonic excitations with formation energies deep in the gap, which can pin the Fermi level and thus produce again metallicity of the chain. They might also contribute to pairing of holes in adjacent CuO 2 -planes. (author)
Lattice-induced nonadiabatic frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beloy, K.
2010-01-01
We consider the frequency shift in optical lattice clocks which arises from the coupling of the electronic motion to the atomic motion within the lattice. For the simplest of three-dimensional lattice geometries this coupling is shown to affect only clocks based on blue-detuned lattices. We have estimated the size of this shift for the prospective strontium lattice clock operating at the 390-nm blue-detuned magic wavelength. The resulting fractional frequency shift is found to be on the order of 10 -18 and is largely overshadowed by the electric quadrupole shift. For lattice clocks based on more complex geometries or other atomic systems, this shift could potentially be a limiting factor in clock accuracy.
Lattice topology dictates photon statistics.
Kondakci, H Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Saleh, Bahaa E A
2017-08-21
Propagation of coherent light through a disordered network is accompanied by randomization and possible conversion into thermal light. Here, we show that network topology plays a decisive role in determining the statistics of the emerging field if the underlying lattice is endowed with chiral symmetry. In such lattices, eigenmode pairs come in skew-symmetric pairs with oppositely signed eigenvalues. By examining one-dimensional arrays of randomly coupled waveguides arranged on linear and ring topologies, we are led to a remarkable prediction: the field circularity and the photon statistics in ring lattices are dictated by its parity while the same quantities are insensitive to the parity of a linear lattice. For a ring lattice, adding or subtracting a single lattice site can switch the photon statistics from super-thermal to sub-thermal, or vice versa. This behavior is understood by examining the real and imaginary fields on a lattice exhibiting chiral symmetry, which form two strands that interleave along the lattice sites. These strands can be fully braided around an even-sited ring lattice thereby producing super-thermal photon statistics, while an odd-sited lattice is incommensurate with such an arrangement and the statistics become sub-thermal.
Initiation and Performance of a Coating for Countering Chromium Poisoning in a SOFC-stack
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Karsten Agersted; Persson, Åsa Helen; Beeaff, Dustin
2007-01-01
Minimising transport of chromium from the metallic interconnect (e.g. of Crofer 22APU) to the cathode in a planar solid oxide fuel cell is done by application of a coating between the two parts. The coating is applied by slurry coating, and taken through stack initialisation it transforms...... into a stable and densely grown barrier layer, which minimises both the evaporation of chromium from the interconnect surface and the electrical contact resistance between the interconnect and the cathode. Between comparable stack element tests with and without coatings at 750 degrees C, the degradation rate...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kilcup, G.
1986-01-01
A progress report on a lattice project at Los Alamos is presented. The projects are basically of two sorts: approaching the continuum (determination of MCRG flows under the blocking transformation, and beta-function along Wilson and improved action lines); and arriving at the continuum (hadron spectrum, coupling constants, and matrix elements). Since the ultimate goal is to determine matrix elements for which chiral symmetry is very relevant, the authors choose the formalism whose chiral properties are easier to understand, i.e., staggered fermions
Lattice of quantum predictions
Drieschner, Michael
1993-10-01
What is the structure of reality? Physics is supposed to answer this question, but a purely empiristic view is not sufficient to explain its ability to do so. Quantum mechanics has forced us to think more deeply about what a physical theory is. There are preconditions every physical theory must fulfill. It has to contain, e.g., rules for empirically testable predictions. Those preconditions give physics a structure that is “a priori” in the Kantian sense. An example is given how the lattice structure of quantum mechanics can be understood along these lines.
Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.
1974-01-01
Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...
Diamond lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet
Oitmaa, J.
2018-04-01
We investigate ground-state and high-temperature properties of the nearest-neighbour Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the three-dimensional diamond lattice, using series expansion methods. The ground-state energy and magnetization, as well as the magnon spectrum, are calculated and found to be in good agreement with first-order spin-wave theory, with a quantum renormalization factor of about 1.13. High-temperature series are derived for the free energy, and physical and staggered susceptibilities for spin S = 1/2, 1 and 3/2, and analysed to obtain the corresponding Curie and Néel temperatures.
Lattice cell burnup calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pop-Jordanov, J.
1977-01-01
Accurate burnup prediction is a key item for design and operation of a power reactor. It should supply information on isotopic changes at each point in the reactor core and the consequences of these changes on the reactivity, power distribution, kinetic characters, control rod patterns, fuel cycles and operating strategy. A basic stage in the burnup prediction is the lattice cell burnup calculation. This series of lectures attempts to give a review of the general principles and calculational methods developed and applied in this area of burnup physics
Crisafulli, M.; Martinelli, G.; Sachrajda, Christopher T.; Crisafulli, M; Gimenez, V; Martinelli, G; Sachrajda, C T
1994-01-01
We present the first lattice calculation of the B-meson binding energy \\labar and of the kinetic energy \\lambda_1/2 m_Q of the heavy-quark inside the pseudoscalar B-meson. In order to cancel the ambiguities due to the ultraviolet renormalons present in the operator matrix elements, this calculation has required the non-perturbative subtraction of the power divergences present in the Lagrangian operator \\energy and in the kinetic energy operator \\kkinetic. The non-perturbative renormalization of the relevant operators has been implemented by imposing suitable renormalization conditions on quark matrix elements in the Landau gauge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vidovsky, I.; Kereszturi, A.
1991-11-01
The results of experiments and calculations on Gd lattices are presented, and a comparison of experimental and calculational data is given. This latter can be divided into four groups. The first belongs to the comparison of criticality parameters, the second group is related with the comparison of 2D distributions, the third one relates the comparison of intra-macrocell distributions, whereas the fourth group is devoted for the comparison of spectral parameters. For comparison, the computer code RFIT based on strict statistical criteria has been used. The calculated and measured results agree, in most cases, sufficiently. (R.P.) 11 refs.; 13 figs.; 9 tabs
Start-Stop Test Procedures on the PEMFC Stack Level
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mitzel, Jens; Nygaard, Frederik; Veltzé, Sune
The test is addressed to investigate the influence on stack durability of a long stop followed by a restart of a stack. Long stop should be defined as a stop in which the anodic compartment is fully filled by air due to stack leakages. In systems, leakage level of the stack is low and time to fil...
Principles for Instructional Stack Development in HyperCard.
McEneaney, John E.
The purpose of this paper is to provide information about obtaining and using HyperCard stacks that introduce users to principles of stack development. The HyperCard stacks described are available for downloading free of charge from a server at Indiana University South Bend. Specific directions are given for stack use, with advice for beginners. A…
EmuStack: An OpenStack-Based DTN Network Emulation Platform (Extended Version
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haifeng Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available With the advancement of computing and network virtualization technology, the networking research community shows great interest in network emulation. Compared with network simulation, network emulation can provide more relevant and comprehensive details. In this paper, EmuStack, a large-scale real-time emulation platform for Delay Tolerant Network (DTN, is proposed. EmuStack aims at empowering network emulation to become as simple as network simulation. Based on OpenStack, distributed synchronous emulation modules are developed to enable EmuStack to implement synchronous and dynamic, precise, and real-time network emulation. Meanwhile, the lightweight approach of using Docker container technology and network namespaces allows EmuStack to support a (up to hundreds of nodes large-scale topology with only several physical nodes. In addition, EmuStack integrates the Linux Traffic Control (TC tools with OpenStack for managing and emulating the virtual link characteristics which include variable bandwidth, delay, loss, jitter, reordering, and duplication. Finally, experiences with our initial implementation suggest the ability to run and debug experimental network protocol in real time. EmuStack environment would bring qualitative change in network research works.
Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. S. Dhathathreyan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.
Lattice Transparency of Graphene.
Chae, Sieun; Jang, Seunghun; Choi, Won Jin; Kim, Youn Sang; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Tae Il; Lee, Jeong-O
2017-03-08
Here, we demonstrated the transparency of graphene to the atomic arrangement of a substrate surface, i.e., the "lattice transparency" of graphene, by using hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods as a model system. The growth behaviors of ZnO nanocrystals on graphene-coated and uncoated substrates with various crystal structures were investigated. The atomic arrangements of the nucleating ZnO nanocrystals exhibited a close match with those of the respective substrates despite the substrates being bound to the other side of the graphene. By using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we confirmed the energetic favorability of the nucleating phase following the atomic arrangement of the substrate even with the graphene layer present in between. In addition to transmitting information about the atomic lattice of the substrate, graphene also protected its surface. This dual role enabled the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods on a Cu substrate, which otherwise dissolved in the reaction conditions when graphene was absent.
Introduction to lattice gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
La Cock, P.
1988-03-01
A general introduction to Lattice Gauge Theory (LGT) is given. The theory is discussed from first principles to facilitate an understanding of the techniques used in LGT. These include lattice formalism, gauge invariance, fermions on the lattice, group theory and integration, strong coupling methods and mean field techniques. A review of quantum chromodynamics on the lattice at finite temperature and density is also given. Monte Carlo results and analytical methods are discussed. An attempt has been made to include most relevant data up to the end of 1987, and to update some earlier reviews existing on the subject. 224 refs., 33 figs., 14 tabs
Hadron structure from lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, Andreas
2008-01-01
Some elements and current developments of lattice QCD are reviewed, with special emphasis on hadron structure observables. In principle, high precision experimental and lattice data provide nowadays a very detailled picture of the internal structure of hadrons. However, to relate both, a very good controle of perturbative QCD is needed in many cases. Finally chiral perturbation theory is extremely helpful to boost the precision of lattice calculations. The mutual need and benefit of all four elements: experiment, lattice QCD, perturbative QCD and chiral perturbation theory is the main topic of this review
Lattice formulations of reggeon interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brower, R.C.; Ellis, J.; Savit, R.; Zinn-Justin, J.
1976-01-01
A class of lattice analogues to reggeon field theory is examined. First the transition from a continuum to a lattice field theory is discussed, emphasizing the necessity of a Wick rotation and the consideration of symmetry properties. Next the theory is transformed to a discrete system with two spins at each lattice site, and the problems of the triple-reggeon interaction and the reggeon energy gap are discussed. It is pointed out that transferring the theory from the continuum to a lattice necesarily introduces new relevant operators not normally present in reggeon field theory. (Auth.)
Nature of interstitially induced lattice strains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emin, D.
1978-01-01
The addition of interstitial atoms to a metal lattice has been likened to the addition of extra billiard balls to an array of tangentially touching billiard balls. In such a picture the increased clustering of interstitials can lead to the buildup of larger and larger strain fields which ultimately are associated with the production of broken bonds. Simple models of the strain fields associated with the addition of particles to a lattice in which the force exerted between the added atoms and host atoms is finite have been studied. From these studies one can define situations in which the billiard-ball approach has qualitative validity and those in which it is inappropriate. Basically, those situations in which the displacements of the host atoms can be represented as involving acoustic phonons yield long-range strain fields analogous to those of the billiard-ball model with the radius of the extra billiard ball being determined by the stiffness of the host lattice and the forces between the added atom and the surrounding host atoms. If the displacements produced by the added atoms are represented as involving primarily optical phonons the displacement pattern is short-ranged and not described by the usual elasticity theory. For example, Vegard's law does not apply in these instances. Such concerns arise in considering the strains induced by interstitial helium in tritides
Lattice location of impurities in silicon Carbide
AUTHOR|(CDS)2085259; Correia Martins, João Guilherme
The presence and behaviour of transition metals (TMs) in SiC has been a concern since the start of producing device-grade wafers of this wide band gap semiconductor. They are unintentionally introduced during silicon carbide (SiC) production, crystal growth and device manufacturing, which makes them difficult contaminants to avoid. Once in SiC they easily form deep levels, either when in the isolated form or when forming complexes with other defects. On the other hand, using intentional TM doping, it is possible to change the electrical, optical and magnetic properties of SiC. TMs such as chromium, manganese or iron have been considered as possible candidates for magnetic dopants in SiC, if located on silicon lattice sites. All these issues can be explored by investigating the lattice site of implanted TMs. This thesis addresses the lattice location and thermal stability of the implanted TM radioactive probes 56Mn, 59Fe, 65Ni and 111Ag in both cubic 3C- and hexagonal 6H SiC polytypes by means of emission cha...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foury-Leylekian, P.; Sandre, E.; Ravy, S.; Pouget, J.-P.; Elkaim, E.; Roussel, P.; Groult, D.; Labbe, Ph.
2002-01-01
The monophosphate tungsten bronzes (PO 2 ) 4 (WO 3 ) 2m form family of two-dimensional metals which exhibit charge density wave (CDW) instabilities. These materials are generally built by the regular stacking of (a,b) layers in which chains made of segments of m WO 6 octahedra directed along the a and a±b directions are delimited. Their electronic structure thus originates from quasi-one-dimensional (1D) bands located on these chains. As a consequence their Fermi surface (FS) exhibits large flat portions whose nesting gives rise to successive CDW instabilities. Here we present a structural study of the CDW instability of the (PO 2 ) 4 (WO 3 ) 10 member formed by the alternate stacking of layers built with segments of m=4 and m=6 WO 6 octahedra. Its ab initio electronic structure calculation shows that the FS of this member exhibits large flat portions which can be extremely well nested. Its best nesting wave vector accounts for the modulation wave vector stabilized by the CDW transition which occurs at 156 K. Because of the regular stacking of layers of different m values the FS is slightly split. The unusual thermal dependence of the x-ray satellite intensity provides evidence that the two types of layers become modulated at different temperature. This also leads to a slight thermal sliding of the CDW-nesting modulation wave vector, which can be accounted for within the framework of a Landau-Ginzburg theory. In addition, the observation of a global hysteresis in the thermal cycling of the satellite intensity, as well as the degradation of the interlayer order upon cooling, suggest the formation of a disordered lattice of dilute solitons. Such solitons allow to accommodate the charge transferred between the two types of layer. Finally the relevance of local charge transfers, at intergrowth defects, for example, to create pinned discommensurations that break the CDW coherence is emphasized in this whole family of bronzes
Convection-diffusion lattice Boltzmann scheme for irregular lattices
Sman, van der R.G.M.; Ernst, M.H.
2000-01-01
In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) scheme for convection diffusion on irregular lattices is presented, which is free of any interpolation or coarse graining step. The scheme is derived using the axioma that the velocity moments of the equilibrium distribution equal those of the
Elimination of spurious lattice fermion solutions and noncompact lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, T.D.
1997-09-22
It is well known that the Dirac equation on a discrete hyper-cubic lattice in D dimension has 2{sup D} degenerate solutions. The usual method of removing these spurious solutions encounters difficulties with chiral symmetry when the lattice spacing l {ne} 0, as exemplified by the persistent problem of the pion mass. On the other hand, we recall that in any crystal in nature, all the electrons do move in a lattice and satisfy the Dirac equation; yet there is not a single physical result that has ever been entangled with a spurious fermion solution. Therefore it should not be difficult to eliminate these unphysical elements. On a discrete lattice, particle hop from point to point, whereas in a real crystal the lattice structure in embedded in a continuum and electrons move continuously from lattice cell to lattice cell. In a discrete system, the lattice functions are defined only on individual points (or links as in the case of gauge fields). However, in a crystal the electron state vector is represented by the Bloch wave functions which are continuous functions in {rvec {gamma}}, and herein lies one of the essential differences.
Progress of MCFC stack technology at Toshiba
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hori, M.; Hayashi, T.; Shimizu, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-12-31
Toshiba is working on the development of MCFC stack technology; improvement of cell characteristics, and establishment of separator technology. For the cell technology, Toshiba has concentrated on both the restraints of NiO cathode dissolution and electrolyte loss from cells, which are the critical issues to extend cell life in MCFC, and great progress has been made. On the other hand, recognizing that the separator is one of key elements in accomplishing reliable and cost-competitive MCFC stacks, Toshiba has been accelerating the technology establishment and verification of an advanced type separator. A sub-scale stack with such a separator was provided for an electric generating test, and has been operated for more than 10,000 hours. This paper presents several topics obtained through the technical activities in the MCFC field at Toshiba.
Development of an Integrated Polymer Microfluidic Stack
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datta, Proyag; Hammacher, Jens; Pease, Mark; Gurung, Sitanshu; Goettert, Jost
2006-01-01
Microfluidic is a field of considerable interest. While significant research has been carried out to develop microfluidic components, very little has been done to integrate the components into a complete working system. We present a flexible modular system platform that addresses the requirements of a complete microfluidic system. A microfluidic stack system is demonstrated with the layers of the stack being modular for specific functions. The stack and accompanying infrastructure provides an attractive platform for users to transition their design concepts into a working microfluidic system quickly with very little effort. The concept is demonstrated by using the system to carry out a chemilumiscence experiment. Details regarding the fabrication, assembly and experimental methods are presented
Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.
2012-01-01
application of advanced methods for detailed electrochemical characterisation during operation. An operating stack is subject to steep compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and significant temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which makes it a complex system...... Fuel Cell A/S was characterised in detail using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An investigation of the optimal geometrical placement of the current probes and voltage probes was carried out in order to minimise measurement errors caused by stray impedances. Unwanted stray impedances...... are particularly problematic at high frequencies. Stray impedances may be caused by mutual inductance and stray capacitance in the geometrical set-up and do not describe the fuel cell. Three different stack geometries were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Impedance measurements were carried...
High power, repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davanloo, F; Borovina, D L; Korioth, J L; Krause, R K; Collins, C B [Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Quantum Electronics; Agee, F J [US Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Kingsley, L E [US Army CECOM, Ft. Monmouth, NJ (United States)
1997-12-31
The repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse power generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switch at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Extensive characterization of these novel pulsers have been performed over the past few years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with rise times and repetition rates in the range of 0.5-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. The progress in the development and use of stacked Blumlein pulse generators is reviewed. The technology and the characteristics of these novel pulsers driving flash x-ray diodes are discussed. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.
Calculation of tritium release from reactor's stack
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhadi, M.
1996-01-01
Method for calculation of tritium release from nuclear to environment has been discussed. Part of gas effluent contain tritium in form of HTO vapor released from reactor's stack was sampled using silica-gel. The silica-gel was put in the water to withdraw HTO vapor absorbed by silica-gel. Tritium concentration in the water was measured by liquid scintillation counter of Aloka LSC-703. Tritium concentration in the gas effluent and total release of tritium from reactor's stack during certain interval time were calculated using simple mathematic formula. This method has examined for calculation of tritium release from JRR-3M's stack of JAERI, Japan. From the calculation it was obtained the value of tritium release as much as 4.63 x 10 11 Bq during one month. (author)
Faria, Jorge C. D.; Garnier, Philippe; Devos, Arnaud
2017-12-01
We demonstrate the ability to construct wide-area spatial mappings of buried interfaces in thin film stacks in a non-destructive manner using two color picosecond acoustics. Along with the extraction of layer thicknesses and sound velocities from acoustic signals, the morphological information presented is a powerful demonstration of phonon imaging as a metrological tool. For a series of heterogeneous (polymer, metal, and semiconductor) thin film stacks that have been treated with a chemical procedure known to alter layer properties, the spatial mappings reveal changes to interior thicknesses and chemically modified surface features without the need to remove uppermost layers. These results compare well to atomic force microscopy scans showing that the technique provides a significant advantage to current characterization methods for industrially important device stacks.
Nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator
Schuster, William B. (Inventor); Nolcheff, Nick A. (Inventor); Gunaraj, John A. (Inventor); Kontos, Karen B. (Inventor); Weir, Donald S. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane having a characteristic curve that is characterized by a nonlinear sweep and a nonlinear lean is provided. The stator is in an axial fan or compressor turbomachinery stage that is comprised of a collection of vanes whose highly three-dimensional shape is selected to reduce rotor-stator and rotor-strut interaction noise while maintaining the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of the vane. The nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane reduces noise associated with the fan stage of turbomachinery to improve environmental compatibility.
Stack Monitoring System At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamrul Faizad Omar; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Izhar Abu Hussin
2014-01-01
This paper describes the current Stack Monitoring System at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) building. A stack monitoring system is a continuous air monitor placed at the reactor top for monitoring the presence of radioactive gaseous in the effluent air from the RTP building. The system consists of four detectors that provide the reading for background, particulate, Iodine and Noble gas. There is a plan to replace the current system due to frequent fault of the system, thus thorough understanding of the current system is required. Overview of the whole system will be explained in this paper. Some current results would be displayed and moving forward brief plan would be mentioned. (author)
Lattice quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassenfratz, P.
1983-01-01
It is generally accepted that relativistic field theory is relevant in high energy physics. It is also recognized that even in QCD, which is asymptotically free, the scope of perturbation theory is very limited. Despite the tremendous theoretical and experimental effort to study scaling, scaling violations, e + e - , lepton pair creation, jets, etc., the answer to the question whether and to what extent is QCD the theory of strong interactions is vague. At present-day energies it is difficult to disentangle perturbative and non-perturbative effects. The author states that QCD must be understood and that quantitative non-perturbative methods are needed. He states that the lattice formulation of field theories is a promising approach to meeting this need and discusses the formulation in detail in this paper
Geometry of lattice field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Honan, T.J.
1986-01-01
Using some tools of algebraic topology, a general formalism for lattice field theory is presented. The lattice is taken to be a simplicial complex that is also a manifold and is referred to as a simplicial manifold. The fields on this lattice are cochains, that are called lattice forms to emphasize the connections with differential forms in the continuum. This connection provides a new bridge between lattice and continuum field theory. A metric can be put onto this simplicial manifold by assigning lengths to every link or I-simplex of the lattice. Regge calculus is a way of defining general relativity on this lattice. A geometric discussion of Regge calculus is presented. The Regge action, which is a discrete form of the Hilbert action, is derived from the Hilbert action using distribution valued forms. This is a new derivation that emphasizes the underlying geometry. Kramers-Wannier duality in statistical mechanics is discussed in this general setting. Nonlinear field theories, which include gauge theories and nonlinear sigma models are discussed in the continuum and then are put onto a lattice. The main new result here is the generalization to curved spacetime, which consists of making the theory compatible with Regge calculus
Homogenization theory in reactor lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benoist, P.
1986-02-01
The purpose of the theory of homogenization of reactor lattices is to determine, by the mean of transport theory, the constants of a homogeneous medium equivalent to a given lattice, which allows to treat the reactor as a whole by diffusion theory. In this note, the problem is presented by laying emphasis on simplicity, as far as possible [fr
Remarks on lattice gauge models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, H.
1981-01-01
The author reports a study of the phase structure of lattice gauge models where one takes as a gauge group a non-abelian discrete subgroup of SU(3). In addition he comments on a lattice action proposed recently by Manton and observes that it violates a positivity property. (Auth.)
Remarks on lattice gauge models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, H.
1981-01-01
The author reports on a study of the phase structure of lattice gauge models where one takes as a gauge group a non-abelian discrete subgroup of SU(3). In addition he comments on a lattice action proposed recently by Manton (1980) and observes that it violates a positivity property. (Auth.)
Lattices, supersymmetry and Kaehler fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, D.M.
1984-01-01
It is shown that a graded extension of the space group of a (generalised) simple cubic lattice exists in any space dimension, D. The fermionic variables which arise admit a Kaehlerian interpretation. Each graded space group is a subgroup of a graded extension of the appropriate Euclidean group, E(D). The relevance of this to the construction of lattice theories is discussed. (author)
Lattice polytopes in coding theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Soprunov
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we discuss combinatorial questions about lattice polytopes motivated by recent results on minimum distance estimation for toric codes. We also include a new inductive bound for the minimum distance of generalized toric codes. As an application, we give new formulas for the minimum distance of generalized toric codes for special lattice point configurations.
Progress in the study of PCHE performance with various stacking methods; PCHEs and test facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Eun Ho; Yoon, Sung Ho; Kim, Moo Hwan; Park, Gun Yeop
2012-01-01
Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) is famous with its superior compactness and relatively higher resistance to pressure which came from its manufacturing process. PCHE is made by diffusion bonding of thin metal plates having various flow channel shapes on them. Diffusion bonding makes stack of plates become a monolithic block by grain growth between the surfaces of each plates near the melting temperature of material. With these characteristics, it has become a promising heat exchanger type in oil and gas industry, power plant and chemical reactors fields, despite of its relatively short history than others. From many researches, it is known that the flow channel and the stacking method of plates are the major design factors of PCHE. Flow channels have been studied by relatively many researchers, and there are several well known channel types like zigzag channel, S shape fin, and airfoil fin shape. On the other hands, there is little research about stacking method so called 'bank type'. By Kim et al., it was showed that stacking method of PCHE influences the heat transfer rate and pressure drop, but the comparison of the different stacking method was not conducted. In this research, heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of PCHEs with various bank types will be studied. And this article will introduce three kinds of PCHEs fabricated by different bank types, and the test facility for performance test of these heat exchangers
Computing the writhe on lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laing, C; Sumners, D W
2006-01-01
Given a polygonal closed curve on a lattice or space group, we describe a method for computing the writhe of the curve as the average of weighted projected writhing numbers of the polygon in a few directions. These directions are determined by the lattice geometry, the weights are determined by areas of regions on the unit 2-sphere, and the regions are formed by the tangent indicatrix to the polygonal curve. We give a new formula for the writhe of polygons on the face centred cubic lattice and prove that the writhe of polygons on the body centred cubic lattice, the hexagonal simple lattice, and the diamond space group is always a rational number, and discuss applications to ring polymers
Dinetta, L. C.; Hannon, M. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Mcneeley, J. B.; Barnett, Allen M.
1990-01-01
Free-standing, transparent, tunable bandgap AlxGa1-xAs top solar cells have been fabricated for mechanical attachment in a four terminal tandem stack solar cell. Evaluation of the device results has demonstrated 1.80 eV top solar cells with efficiencies of 18 percent (100 X, and AM0) which would yield stack efficiencies of 31 percent (100 X, AM0) with a silicon bottom cell. When fully developed, the AlxGa1-xAs/Si mechanically-stacked two-junction solar cell concentrator system can provide efficiencies of 36 percent (AM0, 100 X). AlxGa1-xAs top solar cells with bandgaps from 1.66 eV to 2.08 eV have been fabricated. Liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) growth techniques have been used and LPE has been found to yield superior AlxGa1-xAs material when compared to molecular beam epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It is projected that stack assembly technology will be readily applicable to any mechanically stacked multijunction (MSMJ) system. Development of a wide bandgap top solar cell is the only feasible method for obtaining stack efficiencies greater than 40 percent at AM0. System efficiencies of greater than 40 percent can be realized when the AlGaAs top solar cell is used in a three solar cell mechanical stack.
Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
BASUDEB DATTA
2011-11-20
Nov 20, 2011 ... Preliminaries. Lower bound theorem. On going work. Definitions. An n-simplex is a convex hull of n + 1 affinely independent points. (called vertices) in some Euclidean space R. N . Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta. Indian Institute of Science. 2 / 27 ...
Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šlampová, Andrea; Malá, Zdeňka; Pantůčková, Pavla; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr
2013-01-01
Roč. 34, č. 1 (2013), s. 3-18 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/10/1219 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013
SRS reactor stack plume marking tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petry, S.F.
1992-03-01
Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart
Scaling the CERN OpenStack cloud
Bell, T.; Bompastor, B.; Bukowiec, S.; Castro Leon, J.; Denis, M. K.; van Eldik, J.; Fermin Lobo, M.; Fernandez Alvarez, L.; Fernandez Rodriguez, D.; Marino, A.; Moreira, B.; Noel, B.; Oulevey, T.; Takase, W.; Wiebalck, A.; Zilli, S.
2015-12-01
CERN has been running a production OpenStack cloud since July 2013 to support physics computing and infrastructure services for the site. In the past year, CERN Cloud Infrastructure has seen a constant increase in nodes, virtual machines, users and projects. This paper will present what has been done in order to make the CERN cloud infrastructure scale out.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Caceres, Elena; Goldstein, Kevin; Lowe, David A. . lowe@het.brown.edu
2001-08-01
We present a candidate supergravity solution for a stacked configuration of stable non-BPS D-branes in Type II string theory compactified on T 4 /Z 2 . This gives a supergravity description of nonabelian tachyon condensation on the brane woldvolume. (author)
Trace interpolation by slant-stack migration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novotny, M.
1990-01-01
The slant-stack migration formula based on the radon transform is studied with respect to the depth steep Δz of wavefield extrapolation. It can be viewed as a generalized trace-interpolation procedure including wave extrapolation with an arbitrary step Δz. For Δz > 0 the formula yields the familiar plane-wave decomposition, while for Δz > 0 it provides a robust tool for migration transformation of spatially under sampled wavefields. Using the stationary phase method, it is shown that the slant-stack migration formula degenerates into the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral in the far-field approximation. Consequently, even a narrow slant-stack gather applied before the diffraction stack can significantly improve the representation of noisy data in the wavefield extrapolation process. The theory is applied to synthetic and field data to perform trace interpolation and dip reject filtration. The data examples presented prove that the radon interpolator works well in the dip range, including waves with mutual stepouts smaller than half the dominant period
Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Malá, Zdeňka; Šlampová, Andrea; Křivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr
2015-01-01
Roč. 36, č. 1 (2015), s. 15-35 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.482, year: 2015
40 CFR 61.53 - Stack sampling.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.53 Section 61.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Mercury ore processing facility. (1) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under...
40 CFR 61.33 - Stack sampling.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.33 Section 61.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under § 61.13, each owner or operator...
OpenStack cloud computing cookbook
Jackson, Kevin
2013-01-01
A Cookbook full of practical and applicable recipes that will enable you to use the full capabilities of OpenStack like never before.This book is aimed at system administrators and technical architects moving from a virtualized environment to cloud environments with familiarity of cloud computing platforms. Knowledge of virtualization and managing linux environments is expected.
Toward advising SME's on stacked funding
Rauwerda, Kirsten; van Teeffelen, Lex; de Graaf, Frank Jan
2017-01-01
This paper addresses new funding issues faced by SMEs. Over a period of nine months, the authors conducted a preliminary study into the problems surrounding stacked funding faced by SMEs and their financial advisers. The study includes a short literature review, the outcomes of three round table
Photoswitchable Intramolecular H-Stacking of Perylenebisimide
Wang, Jiaobing; Kulago, Artem; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.
2010-01-01
Dynamic control over the formation of H- or J-type aggregates of chromophores is of fundamental importance for developing responsive organic optoelectronic materials. In this study, the first example of photoswitching between a nonstacked and an intramolecularly H-stacked arrangement of
Optoelectronic interconnects for 3D wafer stacks
Ludwig, David; Carson, John C.; Lome, Louis S.
1996-01-01
Wafer and chip stacking are envisioned as means of providing increased processing power within the small confines of a three-dimensional structure. Optoelectronic devices can play an important role in these dense 3-D processing electronic packages in two ways. In pure electronic processing, optoelectronics can provide a method for increasing the number of input/output communication channels within the layers of the 3-D chip stack. Non-free space communication links allow the density of highly parallel input/output ports to increase dramatically over typical edge bus connections. In hybrid processors, where electronics and optics play a role in defining the computational algorithm, free space communication links are typically utilized for, among other reasons, the increased network link complexity which can be achieved. Free space optical interconnections provide bandwidths and interconnection complexity unobtainable in pure electrical interconnections. Stacked 3-D architectures can provide the electronics real estate and structure to deal with the increased bandwidth and global information provided by free space optical communications. This paper will provide definitions and examples of 3-D stacked architectures in optoelectronics processors. The benefits and issues of these technologies will be discussed.
OpenStack Object Storage (Swift) essentials
Kapadia, Amar; Varma, Sreedhar
2015-01-01
If you are an IT administrator and you want to enter the world of cloud storage using OpenStack Swift, then this book is ideal for you. Basic knowledge of Linux and server technology is beneficial to get the most out of the book.
Change in lattice parameter of tantalum due to dissolved hydrogen
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gyanendra P. Tiwari
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The volume expansion of tantalum due to the dissolved hydrogen has been determined using Bragg equation. The hydrogen was dissolved in the pure tantalum metal at constant temperature (360 °C and constant pressure (132 mbar by varying the duration of hydrogen charging. The amount of dissolved hydrogen was within the solid solubility limit. The samples with different hydrogen concentration were analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique. Slight peak shifts as well as peak broadening were observed. The relative changes of lattice parameters plotted against the hydrogen concentration revealed that the lattice parameters varied linearly with the hydrogen concentration.
Lattice gas cellular automata and lattice Boltzmann models an introduction
Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A
2000-01-01
Lattice-gas cellular automata (LGCA) and lattice Boltzmann models (LBM) are relatively new and promising methods for the numerical solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. The book provides an introduction for graduate students and researchers. Working knowledge of calculus is required and experience in PDEs and fluid dynamics is recommended. Some peculiarities of cellular automata are outlined in Chapter 2. The properties of various LGCA and special coding techniques are discussed in Chapter 3. Concepts from statistical mechanics (Chapter 4) provide the necessary theoretical background for LGCA and LBM. The properties of lattice Boltzmann models and a method for their construction are presented in Chapter 5.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, Hyeondeok; Lee, Hoonkyung; Heinonen, Olle; Benali, Anouar; Kwon, Yongkyung
2017-01-01
α-graphyne is a two-dimensional sheet of sp-sp2 hybridized carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice. While the geometrical structure is similar to that of graphene, the hybridized triple bonds give rise to electronic structure that is different from that of graphene. Similar to graphene, α-graphyne can be stacked in bilayers with two stable configurations, but the different stackings have very different electronic structures: one is predicted to have gapless parabolic bands and the other a tunable bandgap which is attractive for applications. In order to realize applications, it is crucial to understand which stacking is more stable. This is difficult to model, as the stability is a result of weak interlayer van der Waals interactions which are not well captured by density functional theory (DFT). We have used quantum Monte Carlo simulations that accurately include van der Waals interactions to calculate the interlayer binding energy of bilayer graphyne and to determine its most stable stacking mode. Our results show that inter-layer bindings of sp- and sp2-bonded carbon networks are significantly underestimated in a Kohn-Sham DFT approach, even with an exchange-correlation potential corrected to include, in some approximation, van der Waals interactions. Finally, our quantum Monte Carlo calculations reveal that the interlayer binding energy difference between the two stacking modes is only 0.9(4) eV/atom. From this we conclude that the two stable stacking modes of bilayer α-graphyne are almost degenerate with each other, and both will occur with about the same probability at room temperature unless there is a synthesis path that prefers one stacking over the other.
Irreversible stochastic processes on lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nord, R.S.
1986-01-01
Models for irreversible random or cooperative filling of lattices are required to describe many processes in chemistry and physics. Since the filling is assumed to be irreversible, even the stationary, saturation state is not in equilibrium. The kinetics and statistics of these processes are described by recasting the master equations in infinite hierarchical form. Solutions can be obtained by implementing various techniques: refinements in these solution techniques are presented. Programs considered include random dimer, trimer, and tetramer filling of 2D lattices, random dimer filling of a cubic lattice, competitive filling of two or more species, and the effect of a random distribution of inactive sites on the filling. Also considered is monomer filling of a linear lattice with nearest neighbor cooperative effects and solve for the exact cluster-size distribution for cluster sizes up to the asymptotic regime. Additionally, a technique is developed to directly determine the asymptotic properties of the cluster size distribution. Finally cluster growth is considered via irreversible aggregation involving random walkers. In particular, explicit results are provided for the large-lattice-size asymptotic behavior of trapping probabilities and average walk lengths for a single walker on a lattice with multiple traps. Procedures for exact calculation of these quantities on finite lattices are also developed
Toward lattice fractional vector calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, Vasily E
2014-01-01
An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity. (papers)
Introduction to lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, R.
1987-01-01
The lattice formulation of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) can be exploited in many ways. We can derive the lattice Feynman rules and carry out weak coupling perturbation expansions. The lattice then serves as a manifestly gauge invariant regularization scheme, albeit one that is more complicated than standard continuum schemes. Strong coupling expansions: these give us useful qualitative information, but unfortunately no hard numbers. The lattice theory is amenable to numerical simulations by which one calculates the long distance properties of a strongly interacting theory from first principles. The observables are measured as a function of the bare coupling g and a gauge invariant cut-off ≅ 1/α, where α is the lattice spacing. The continuum (physical) behavior is recovered in the limit α → 0, at which point the lattice artifacts go to zero. This is the more powerful use of lattice formulation, so in these lectures the author focuses on setting up the theory for the purpose of numerical simulations to get hard numbers. The numerical techniques used in Lattice Gauge Theories have their roots in statistical mechanics, so it is important to develop an intuition for the interconnection between quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This will be the emphasis of the first lecture. In the second lecture, the author reviews the essential ingredients of formulating QCD on the lattice and discusses scaling and the continuum limit. In the last lecture the author summarizes the status of some of the main results. He also mentions the bottlenecks and possible directions for research. 88 refs
Gate-tunable gigantic lattice deformation in VO{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okuyama, D., E-mail: okuyama@riken.jp, E-mail: nakano@imr.tohoku.ac.jp, E-mail: iwasa@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Hatano, T. [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Nakano, M., E-mail: okuyama@riken.jp, E-mail: nakano@imr.tohoku.ac.jp, E-mail: iwasa@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Takeshita, S.; Ohsumi, H.; Tardif, S. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Shibuya, K. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8562 (Japan); Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Ohashi, H. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takata, M. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.; Iwasa, Y., E-mail: okuyama@riken.jp, E-mail: nakano@imr.tohoku.ac.jp, E-mail: iwasa@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Quantum-Phase Electronics Center and Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Arima, T. [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Department of Advanced Materials Science, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan)
2014-01-13
We examined the impact of electric field on crystal lattice of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) in a field-effect transistor geometry by in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements. Whereas the c-axis lattice parameter of VO{sub 2} decreases through the thermally induced insulator-to-metal phase transition, the gate-induced metallization was found to result in a significant increase of the c-axis length by almost 1% from that of the thermally stabilized insulating state. We also found that this gate-induced gigantic lattice deformation occurs even at the thermally stabilized metallic state, enabling dynamic control of c-axis lattice parameter by more than 1% at room temperature.
Lattice Methods for Quantum Chromodynamics
DeGrand, Thomas
2006-01-01
Numerical simulation of lattice-regulated QCD has become an important source of information about strong interactions. In the last few years there has been an explosion of techniques for performing ever more accurate studies on the properties of strongly interacting particles. Lattice predictions directly impact many areas of particle and nuclear physics theory and phenomenology. This book provides a thorough introduction to the specialized techniques needed to carry out numerical simulations of QCD: a description of lattice discretizations of fermions and gauge fields, methods for actually do
Localized structures in Kagome lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saxena, Avadh B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bishop, Alan R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Law, K J H [UNIV OF MASSACHUSETTS; Kevrekidis, P G [UNIV OF MASSACHUSETTS
2009-01-01
We investigate the existence and stability of gap vortices and multi-pole gap solitons in a Kagome lattice with a defocusing nonlinearity both in a discrete case and in a continuum one with periodic external modulation. In particular, predictions are made based on expansion around a simple and analytically tractable anti-continuum (zero coupling) limit. These predictions are then confirmed for a continuum model of an optically-induced Kagome lattice in a photorefractive crystal obtained by a continuous transformation of a honeycomb lattice.
Lattice QCD: Status and Prospect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ukawa, Akira
2006-01-01
A brief review is given of the current status and near-future prospect of lattice QCD studies of the Standard Model. After summarizing a bit of history, we describe current attempts toward inclusion of dynamical up, down and strange quarks. Recent results on the light hadron mass spectrum as well as those on the heavy quark quantities are described. Recent work on lattice pentaquark search is summarized. We touch upon the PACS-CS Project for building our next machine for lattice QCD, and conclude with a summary of computer situation and the physics possibilities over the next several years
Borwein, J M; McPhedran, R C
2013-01-01
The study of lattice sums began when early investigators wanted to go from mechanical properties of crystals to the properties of the atoms and ions from which they were built (the literature of Madelung's constant). A parallel literature was built around the optical properties of regular lattices of atoms (initiated by Lord Rayleigh, Lorentz and Lorenz). For over a century many famous scientists and mathematicians have delved into the properties of lattices, sometimes unwittingly duplicating the work of their predecessors. Here, at last, is a comprehensive overview of the substantial body of
Three-dimensional stacked structured ASIC devices and methods of fabrication thereof
Shinde, Subhash L.; Teifel, John; Flores, Richard S.; Jarecki Jr., Robert L.; Bauer, Todd
2015-11-19
A 3D stacked sASIC is provided that includes a plurality of 2D reconfigurable structured structured ASIC (sASIC) levels interconnected through hard-wired arrays of 3D vias. The 2D sASIC levels may contain logic, memory, analog functions, and device input/output pad circuitry. During fabrication, these 2D sASIC levels are stacked on top of each other and fused together with 3D metal vias. Such 3D vias may be fabricated as through-silicon vias (TSVs). They may connect to the back-side of the 2D sASIC level, or they may be connected to top metal pads on the front-side of the 2D sASIC level.
Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
TUCK, J.A.
1998-01-01
This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks
Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
TUCK, J.A.
1998-11-06
This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks.
Synthesis and structure of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides
Shi, Yumeng; Zhang, Hua; Chang, Wen-Hao; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Li, Lain-Jong
2015-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) exhibit unique electrical, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, which enable them to be used as building blocks in compact and lightweight integrated electronic systems. The controllable and reliable synthesis of atomically thin TMDCs is essential for their practical application. Recent progress in large-area synthesis of monolayer TMDCs paves the way for practical production of various 2D TMDC layers. The intrinsic optical and electrical properties of monolayer TMDCs can be defined by stoichiometry during synthesis. By manipulating the lattice structure or layer stacking manner, it is possible to create atomically thin van der Waals materials with unique and unexplored physical properties. In this article, we review recent developments in the synthesis of TMDC monolayers, alloys, and heterostructures, which shine light on the design of novel TMDCs with desired functional properties.
Synthesis and structure of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides
Shi, Yumeng
2015-07-13
Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) exhibit unique electrical, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, which enable them to be used as building blocks in compact and lightweight integrated electronic systems. The controllable and reliable synthesis of atomically thin TMDCs is essential for their practical application. Recent progress in large-area synthesis of monolayer TMDCs paves the way for practical production of various 2D TMDC layers. The intrinsic optical and electrical properties of monolayer TMDCs can be defined by stoichiometry during synthesis. By manipulating the lattice structure or layer stacking manner, it is possible to create atomically thin van der Waals materials with unique and unexplored physical properties. In this article, we review recent developments in the synthesis of TMDC monolayers, alloys, and heterostructures, which shine light on the design of novel TMDCs with desired functional properties.
Tallarita, Gianni; Peterson, Adam
2018-04-01
We perform a numerical study of the phase diagram of the model proposed in [M. Shifman, Phys. Rev. D 87, 025025 (2013)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.025025], which is a simple model containing non-Abelian vortices. As per the case of Abrikosov vortices, we map out a region of parameter space in which the system prefers the formation of vortices in ordered lattice structures. These are generalizations of Abrikosov vortex lattices with extra orientational moduli in the vortex cores. At sufficiently large lattice spacing the low energy theory is described by a sum of C P (1 ) theories, each located on a vortex site. As the lattice spacing becomes smaller, when the self-interaction of the orientational field becomes relevant, only an overall rotation in internal space survives.
Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks
Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)
2015-01-01
Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.
Radiation-Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack - RTIMS
Ng, Tak-kwong; Herath, Jeffrey A.
2011-01-01
This innovation provides reconfigurable circuitry and 2-Gb of error-corrected or 1-Gb of triple-redundant digital memory in a small package. RTIMS uses circuit stacking of heterogeneous components and radiation shielding technologies. A reprogrammable field-programmable gate array (FPGA), six synchronous dynamic random access memories, linear regulator, and the radiation mitigation circuits are stacked into a module of 42.7 42.7 13 mm. Triple module redundancy, current limiting, configuration scrubbing, and single- event function interrupt detection are employed to mitigate radiation effects. The novel self-scrubbing and single event functional interrupt (SEFI) detection allows a relatively soft FPGA to become radiation tolerant without external scrubbing and monitoring hardware
Development of on-site PAFC stacks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hotta, K.; Matsumoto, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Amagasaki (Japan); Horiuchi, H.; Ohtani, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kobe (Japan)
1996-12-31
PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell) has been researched for commercial use and demonstration plants have been installed in various sites. However, PAFC don`t have a enough stability yet, so more research and development must be required in the future. Especially, cell stack needs a proper state of three phases (liquid, gas and solid) interface. It is very difficult technology to keep this condition for a long time. In the small size cell with the electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2}, gas flow and temperature distributions show uniformity. But in the large size cell with the electrode area of 4000 cm{sup 2}, the temperature distributions show non-uniformity. These distributions would cause to be shorten the cell life. Because these distributions make hot-spot and gas poverty in limited parts. So we inserted thermocouples in short-stack for measuring three-dimensional temperature distributions and observed effects of current density and gas utilization on temperature.
System for inspection of stacked cargo containers
Derenzo, Stephen [Pinole, CA
2011-08-16
The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.
Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1987-12-31
The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.
Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F; Shyu, F L
2010-01-01
AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.
Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)
1986-12-31
The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.
400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen
2006-01-01
This work demonstrates the operation of a 30 cell high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. This prototype stack has been developed at the Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, as a proof-of-concept for a low pressure cathode air cooled HTPEM stack. The membranes used are Celtec...
Lattice Studies of Hyperon Spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richards, David G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-04-01
I describe recent progress at studying the spectrum of hadrons containing the strange quark through lattice QCD calculations. I emphasise in particular the richness of the spectrum revealed by lattice studies, with a spectrum of states at least as rich as that of the quark model. I conclude by prospects for future calculations, including in particular the determination of the decay amplitudes for the excited states.
Harmonic oscillator on a lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ader, J.P.; Bonnier, B.; Hontebeyrie, M.; Meyers, C.
1983-01-01
The continuum limit of the ground state energy for the harmonic oscillator with discrete time is derived for all possible choices of the lattice derivative. The occurrence of unphysical values is shown to arise whenever the lattice laplacian is not strictly positive on its Brillouin zone. These undesirable limits can either be finite and arbitrary (multiple spectrum) or infinite (overlapping sublattices with multiple spectrum). (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeGrand, T.
1997-01-01
These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and α s (M z ), and B-anti B mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs
Takami, A.; Hashimoto, T.; Horibe, M.; Hayashi, A.
2000-01-01
The Wigner functions on the one dimensional lattice are studied. Contrary to the previous claim in literature, Wigner functions exist on the lattice with any number of sites, whether it is even or odd. There are infinitely many solutions satisfying the conditions which reasonable Wigner functions should respect. After presenting a heuristic method to obtain Wigner functions, we give the general form of the solutions. Quantum mechanical expectation values in terms of Wigner functions are also ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeGrand, T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-06-01
These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub z}), and B-{anti B} mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs.
Role of stacking disorder in ice nucleation.
Lupi, Laura; Hudait, Arpa; Peters, Baron; Grünwald, Michael; Gotchy Mullen, Ryan; Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria
2017-11-08
The freezing of water affects the processes that determine Earth's climate. Therefore, accurate weather and climate forecasts hinge on good predictions of ice nucleation rates. Such rate predictions are based on extrapolations using classical nucleation theory, which assumes that the structure of nanometre-sized ice crystallites corresponds to that of hexagonal ice, the thermodynamically stable form of bulk ice. However, simulations with various water models find that ice nucleated and grown under atmospheric temperatures is at all sizes stacking-disordered, consisting of random sequences of cubic and hexagonal ice layers. This implies that stacking-disordered ice crystallites either are more stable than hexagonal ice crystallites or form because of non-equilibrium dynamical effects. Both scenarios challenge central tenets of classical nucleation theory. Here we use rare-event sampling and free energy calculations with the mW water model to show that the entropy of mixing cubic and hexagonal layers makes stacking-disordered ice the stable phase for crystallites up to a size of at least 100,000 molecules. We find that stacking-disordered critical crystallites at 230 kelvin are about 14 kilojoules per mole of crystallite more stable than hexagonal crystallites, making their ice nucleation rates more than three orders of magnitude higher than predicted by classical nucleation theory. This effect on nucleation rates is temperature dependent, being the most pronounced at the warmest conditions, and should affect the modelling of cloud formation and ice particle numbers, which are very sensitive to the temperature dependence of ice nucleation rates. We conclude that classical nucleation theory needs to be corrected to include the dependence of the crystallization driving force on the size of the ice crystallite when interpreting and extrapolating ice nucleation rates from experimental laboratory conditions to the temperatures that occur in clouds.
A Late Pleistocene sea level stack
Spratt Rachel M; Lisiecki Lorraine E
2016-01-01
Late Pleistocene sea level has been reconstructed from ocean sediment core data using a wide variety of proxies and models. However, the accuracy of individual reconstructions is limited by measurement error, local variations in salinity and temperature, and assumptions particular to each technique. Here we present a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of individual reconstructions. Specifically, we perform principal componen...
CAM and stack air sampler design guide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phillips, T.D.
1994-01-01
About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from 'H' and 'F' area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system
X-cube model on generic lattices: Fracton phases and geometric order
Slagle, Kevin; Kim, Yong Baek
2018-04-01
Fracton order is a new kind of quantum order characterized by topological excitations that exhibit remarkable mobility restrictions and a robust ground-state degeneracy (GSD) which can increase exponentially with system size. In this paper, we present a generic lattice construction (in three dimensions) for a generalized X-cube model of fracton order, where the mobility restrictions of the subdimensional particles inherit the geometry of the lattice. This helps explain a previous result that lattice curvature can produce a robust GSD, even on a manifold with trivial topology. We provide explicit examples to show that the (zero-temperature) phase of matter is sensitive to the lattice geometry. In one example, the lattice geometry confines the dimension-1 particles to small loops, which allows the fractons to be fully mobile charges, and the resulting phase is equivalent to (3+1)-dimensional toric code. However, the phase is sensitive to more than just lattice curvature; different lattices without curvature (e.g., cubic or stacked kagome lattices) also result in different phases of matter, which are separated by phase transitions. Unintuitively, however, according to a previous definition of phase [X. Chen et al., Phys. Rev. B 82, 155138 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.155138], even just a rotated or rescaled cubic results in different phases of matter, which motivates us to propose a coarser definition of phase for gapped ground states and fracton order. This equivalence relation between ground states is given by the composition of a local unitary transformation and a quasi-isometry (which can rotate and rescale the lattice); equivalently, ground states are in the same phase if they can be adiabatically connected by varying both the Hamiltonian and the positions of the degrees of freedom (via a quasi-isometry). In light of the importance of geometry, we further propose that fracton orders should be regarded as a geometric order.
Extended Life PZT Stack Test Fixture
Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Aldrich, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Jones, C.
2009-01-01
Piezoelectric stacks are being sought to be used as actuators for precision positioning and deployment of mechanisms in future planetary missions. Beside the requirement for very high operation reliability, these actuators are required for operation at space environments that are considered harsh compared to normal terrestrial conditions.These environmental conditions include low and high temperatures and vacuum or high pressure. Additionally, the stacks are subjected to high stress and in some applications need to operate with a very long lifetime durability.Many of these requirements are beyond the current industry design margins for nominal terrestrial applications. In order to investigate some of the properties that will indicate the durability of such actuators and their limitations we have developed a new type of test fixture that can be easily integrated in various test chambers for simulating environmental conditions, can provide access for multiple measurements while being exposed to adjustable stress levels. We designed and built two test fixtures and these fixtures were made to be adjustable for testing stacks with different dimensions and can be easily used in small or large numbers. The properties that were measured using these fixtures include impedance, capacitance, dielectric loss factor, leakage current, displacement, breakdown voltage, and lifetime performance. The fixtures characteristics and the test capabilities are presented in this paper.
Electrochemical Detection in Stacked Paper Networks.
Liu, Xiyuan; Lillehoj, Peter B
2015-08-01
Paper-based electrochemical biosensors are a promising technology that enables rapid, quantitative measurements on an inexpensive platform. However, the control of liquids in paper networks is generally limited to a single sample delivery step. Here, we propose a simple method to automate the loading and delivery of liquid samples to sensing electrodes on paper networks by stacking multiple layers of paper. Using these stacked paper devices (SPDs), we demonstrate a unique strategy to fully immerse planar electrodes by aqueous liquids via capillary flow. Amperometric measurements of xanthine oxidase revealed that electrochemical sensors on four-layer SPDs generated detection signals up to 75% higher compared with those on single-layer paper devices. Furthermore, measurements could be performed with minimal user involvement and completed within 30 min. Due to its simplicity, enhanced automation, and capability for quantitative measurements, stacked paper electrochemical biosensors can be useful tools for point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.
Racetrack lattices for the TRIUMF KAON factory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Servranckx, R.V.; Wienands, U.; Craddock, M.K.; Rees, G.H.
1989-03-01
Separated-function racetrack lattices have been developed for the KAON Factory accelerators that have more flexibility than the old circular lattices. Straight sections with zero dispersion are provided for rf cavities and fast injection and extraction, and with controlled dispersion for H - injection and slow extraction. In addition the new lattices have fewer depolarizing resonances than the old circular lattices
Guanine base stacking in G-quadruplex nucleic acids
Lech, Christopher Jacques; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân
2013-01-01
G-quadruplexes constitute a class of nucleic acid structures defined by stacked guanine tetrads (or G-tetrads) with guanine bases from neighboring tetrads stacking with one another within the G-tetrad core. Individual G-quadruplexes can also stack with one another at their G-tetrad interface leading to higher-order structures as observed in telomeric repeat-containing DNA and RNA. In this study, we investigate how guanine base stacking influences the stability of G-quadruplexes and their stacked higher-order structures. A structural survey of the Protein Data Bank is conducted to characterize experimentally observed guanine base stacking geometries within the core of G-quadruplexes and at the interface between stacked G-quadruplex structures. We couple this survey with a systematic computational examination of stacked G-tetrad energy landscapes using quantum mechanical computations. Energy calculations of stacked G-tetrads reveal large energy differences of up to 12 kcal/mol between experimentally observed geometries at the interface of stacked G-quadruplexes. Energy landscapes are also computed using an AMBER molecular mechanics description of stacking energy and are shown to agree quite well with quantum mechanical calculated landscapes. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a structural explanation for the experimentally observed preference of parallel G-quadruplexes to stack in a 5′–5′ manner based on different accessible tetrad stacking modes at the stacking interfaces of 5′–5′ and 3′–3′ stacked G-quadruplexes. PMID:23268444
High Power High Efficiency Diode Laser Stack for Processing
Gu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Hui; Fu, Yueming; Cui, Yan
2018-03-01
High-power diode lasers based on GaAs semiconductor bars are well established as reliable and highly efficient laser sources. As diode laser is simple in structure, small size, longer life expectancy with the advantages of low prices, it is widely used in the industry processing, such as heat treating, welding, hardening, cladding and so on. Respectively, diode laser could make it possible to establish the practical application because of rectangular beam patterns which are suitable to make fine bead with less power. At this power level, it can have many important applications, such as surgery, welding of polymers, soldering, coatings and surface treatment of metals. But there are some applications, which require much higher power and brightness, e.g. hardening, key hole welding, cutting and metal welding. In addition, High power diode lasers in the military field also have important applications. So all developed countries have attached great importance to high-power diode laser system and its applications. This is mainly due their low performance. In this paper we will introduce the structure and the principle of the high power diode stack.
Stacked optical antennas for plasmon propagation in a 5 nm-confined cavity
Saeed, A.; Panaro, S.; Zaccaria, R. Proietti; Raja, W.; Liberale, Carlo; Dipalo, M.; Messina, G. C.; Wang, H.; De Angelis, F.; Toma, A.
2015-01-01
The sub-wavelength concentration and propagation of electromagnetic energy are two complementary aspects of plasmonics that are not necessarily co-present in a single nanosystem. Here we exploit the strong nanofocusing properties of stacked optical antennas in order to highly concentrate the electromagnetic energy into a 5nm metal-insulator-metal (MIM) cavity and convert free radiation into guided modes. The proposed nano-architecture combines the concentration properties of optical nanoantennas with the propagation capability of MIM systems, paving the way to highly miniaturized on-chip plasmonic waveguiding. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.
Stacked optical antennas for plasmon propagation in a 5 nm-confined cavity
Saeed, A.
2015-06-09
The sub-wavelength concentration and propagation of electromagnetic energy are two complementary aspects of plasmonics that are not necessarily co-present in a single nanosystem. Here we exploit the strong nanofocusing properties of stacked optical antennas in order to highly concentrate the electromagnetic energy into a 5nm metal-insulator-metal (MIM) cavity and convert free radiation into guided modes. The proposed nano-architecture combines the concentration properties of optical nanoantennas with the propagation capability of MIM systems, paving the way to highly miniaturized on-chip plasmonic waveguiding. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.
Lattice gauge theory using parallel processors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, T.D.; Chou, K.C.; Zichichi, A.
1987-01-01
The book's contents include: Lattice Gauge Theory Lectures: Introduction and Current Fermion Simulations; Monte Carlo Algorithms for Lattice Gauge Theory; Specialized Computers for Lattice Gauge Theory; Lattice Gauge Theory at Finite Temperature: A Monte Carlo Study; Computational Method - An Elementary Introduction to the Langevin Equation, Present Status of Numerical Quantum Chromodynamics; Random Lattice Field Theory; The GF11 Processor and Compiler; and The APE Computer and First Physics Results; Columbia Supercomputer Project: Parallel Supercomputer for Lattice QCD; Statistical and Systematic Errors in Numerical Simulations; Monte Carlo Simulation for LGT and Programming Techniques on the Columbia Supercomputer; Food for Thought: Five Lectures on Lattice Gauge Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J. E. O' Brien; R. C. O' Brien; X. Zhang; G. Tao; B. J. Butler
2011-11-01
Performance characterization and durability testing have been completed on two five-cell high-temperature electrolysis stacks constructed with advanced cell and stack technologies. The solid oxide cells incorporate a negative-electrode-supported multi-layer design with nickel-zirconia cermet negative electrodes, thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and multi-layer lanthanum ferrite-based positive electrodes. The per-cell active area is 100 cm2. The stack is internally manifolded with compliant mica-glass seals. Treated metallic interconnects with integral flow channels separate the cells. Stack compression is accomplished by means of a custom spring-loaded test fixture. Initial stack performance characterization was determined through a series of DC potential sweeps in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes of operation. Results of these sweeps indicated very good initial performance, with area-specific resistance values less than 0.5 ?.cm2. Long-term durability testing was performed with A test duration of 1000 hours. Overall performance degradation was less than 10% over the 1000-hour period. Final stack performance characterization was again determined by a series of DC potential sweeps at the same flow conditions as the initial sweeps in both electrolysis and fuel cell modes of operation. A final sweep in the fuel cell mode indicated a power density of 0.356 W/cm2, with average per-cell voltage of 0.71 V at a current of 50 A.
Embedded Lattice and Properties of Gram Matrix
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Futa Yuichi
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In this article, we formalize in Mizar [14] the definition of embedding of lattice and its properties. We formally define an inner product on an embedded module. We also formalize properties of Gram matrix. We formally prove that an inverse of Gram matrix for a rational lattice exists. Lattice of Z-module is necessary for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lov´asz base reduction algorithm [16] and cryptographic systems with lattice [17].
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budai, J.D.
2004-01-01
Texture, the preference for a particular crystallographic orientation in polycrystalline materials, plays an important role in controlling such diverse materials properties as corrosion resistance, recording density in magnetic media and electrical transport in superconductors [1]. Without texture, polycrystalline oxide superconductors contain many high-angle, weak-linked grain boundaries which reduce critical current densities by several orders of magnitude [2]. One approach for inducing texture in oxide superconductors has been the epitaxial growth of films on rolling-assisted biaxially-textured substrates (RABiTS) [3]. In this approach, rolled Ni foils are recrystallized under conditions that lead to a high degree of biaxial {001} cube texture. Subsequent deposition of epitaxial oxide buffer layers (typically CeO 2 and YSZ as chemical barriers) and superconducting YBCO preserves the lattice alignment, eliminating high-angle boundaries and enabling high critical current densities, J c > 10 6 /cm 2 . Conventional x-ray diffraction using ω- and φ-scans typically shows macroscopic biaxial texture to within ∼5 o -10 o FWHM for all layers, but does not describe the local microstructural features that control the materials properties. Understanding and controlling the local texture and microstructural evolution of processes associated with heteroepitaxial growth, differential thermal contraction and cracking remain significant challenges in this complex system [4], as well as in many other technologically important thin-film applications
Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen
2007-01-01
cathode air cooled 30 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack developed at the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University. This fuel cell stack uses PEMEAS Celtec P-1000 membranes, runs on pure hydrogen in a dead end anode configuration with a purge valve. The cooling of the stack is managed by running......The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system consists of a prototype...... the stack at a high stoichiometric air flow. This is possible because of the PBI fuel cell membranes used, and the very low pressure drop in the stack. The model consists of a discrete thermal model dividing the stack into three parts: inlet, middle and end and predicting the temperatures in these three...
A long-term stable power supply µDMFC stack for wireless sensor node applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Zonglin; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaozhao; Xu, Manqi; Liu, Litian
2014-01-01
In this paper, a passive, air-breathing four-cell micro direct methanol fuel cell (µDMFC) stack featuring a fuel delivery structure for long-term and stable power supply is designed, fabricated and tested. The fuel is reserved in a T-shaped tank and diffuses through the porous diffusion layer to the catalyst at the anode. A peak power density of 25.7 mW cm −2 and a maximum power output of 113 mW are achieved with 3 M methanol at room temperature, and the stack can produce 60 mW of power, even though only 5% fuel remains in the reservoir. Combined with a low-input dc–dc convertor, the stack can realize a stable and optional constant voltage output from 1 V–6 V. The stack successfully powered a heavy metal sensor node for water environment monitoring 12 d continuously, with consumption of 10 mL 5 M methanol solution. As such, it is believed to be applicable for powering wireless sensor nodes. (paper)
Temperature-dependent stability of stacking faults in Al, Cu and Ni: first-principles analysis.
Bhogra, Meha; Ramamurty, U; Waghmare, Umesh V
2014-09-24
We present comparative analysis of microscopic mechanisms relevant to plastic deformation of the face-centered cubic (FCC) metals Al, Cu, and Ni, through determination of the temperature-dependent free energies of intrinsic and unstable stacking faults along [1 1̄ 0] and [1 2̄ 1] on the (1 1 1) plane using first-principles density-functional-theory-based calculations. We show that vibrational contribution results in significant decrease in the free energy of barriers and intrinsic stacking faults (ISFs) of Al, Cu, and Ni with temperature, confirming an important role of thermal fluctuations in the stability of stacking faults (SFs) and deformation at elevated temperatures. In contrast to Al and Ni, the vibrational spectrum of the unstable stacking fault (USF[1 2̄ 1]) in Cu reveals structural instabilities, indicating that the energy barrier (γusf) along the (1 1 1)[1 2̄ 1] slip system in Cu, determined by typical first-principles calculations, is an overestimate, and its commonly used interpretation as the energy release rate needed for dislocation nucleation, as proposed by Rice (1992 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 40 239), should be taken with caution.
Stacking multiple connecting functional materials in tandem organic light-emitting diodes
Zhang, Tao; Wang, Deng-Ke; Jiang, Nan; Lu, Zheng-Hong
2017-02-01
Tandem device is an important architecture in fabricating high performance organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. The key element in making a high performance tandem device is the connecting materials stack, which plays an important role in electric field distribution, charge generation and charge injection. For a tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a simple Liq/Al/MoO3 stack, we discovered that there is a significant current lateral spreading causing light emission over an extremely large area outside the OLED pixel when the Al thickness exceeds 2 nm. This spread light emission, caused by an inductive electric field over one of the device unit, limits one’s ability to fabricate high performance tandem devices. To resolve this issue, a new connecting materials stack with a C60 fullerene buffer layer is reported. This new structure permits optimization of the Al metal layer in the connecting stack and thus enables us to fabricate an efficient tandem OLED having a high 155.6 cd/A current efficiency and a low roll-off (or droop) in current efficiency.
Lattice dynamics of silver and gold on Krebs's model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolo, L.A.; Shukla, M.M.
1975-01-01
Phonon dispersion relations along the principal symmetry directions of gold and silver have been calculated for phonons propagating at room temperature. The calculated curves are compared with the recent experimental findings. Also calculated are the lattice heat capacities of these metals at absolute zero temperature. Computed(theta - T) curves of them show good agreements with experimental results. The effect of various forms of the dielectric screening functions on the calculated phonon spectrum of gold and silver has also been investigated
Simulating Photons and Plasmons in a Three-dimensional Lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pletzer, A.; Shvets, G.
2002-01-01
Three-dimensional metallic photonic structures are studied using a newly developed mixed finite element-finite difference (FE-FD) code, Curly3d. The code solves the vector Helmholtz equation as an eigenvalue problem in the unit cell of a triply periodic lattice composed of conductors and/or dielectrics. The mixed FE-FD discretization scheme ensures rapid numerical convergence of the eigenvalue and allows the code to run at low resolution. Plasmon and photonic band structure calculations are presented
Finite-lattice-spacing corrections to masses and g factors on a lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roskies, R.; Wu, J.C.
1986-01-01
We suggest an alternative method for extracting masses and g factors from lattice calculations. Our method takes account of more of the infrared and ultraviolet lattice effects. It leads to more reasonable results in simulations of QED on a lattice
NSF tandem stack support structure deflection characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, J.
1979-12-01
Results are reported of load tests carried out on the glass legs of the insulating stack of the 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator now under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The tests to investigate the vulnerability of the legs when subjected to tensile stresses were designed to; establish the angle of rotation of the pads from which the stresses in the glass legs may be calculated, proof-test the structure and at the same time reveal any asymmetry in pad rotations or deflections, and to confirm the validity of the computer design analysis. (UK)
Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, Yeong -Shyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Pyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephens, Elizabeth V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2014-04-30
This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.
Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack
Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.
2005-03-08
A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.
Quantum lattice model solver HΦ
Kawamura, Mitsuaki; Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Misawa, Takahiro; Yamaji, Youhei; Todo, Synge; Kawashima, Naoki
2017-08-01
HΦ [aitch-phi ] is a program package based on the Lanczos-type eigenvalue solution applicable to a broad range of quantum lattice models, i.e., arbitrary quantum lattice models with two-body interactions, including the Heisenberg model, the Kitaev model, the Hubbard model and the Kondo-lattice model. While it works well on PCs and PC-clusters, HΦ also runs efficiently on massively parallel computers, which considerably extends the tractable range of the system size. In addition, unlike most existing packages, HΦ supports finite-temperature calculations through the method of thermal pure quantum (TPQ) states. In this paper, we explain theoretical background and user-interface of HΦ. We also show the benchmark results of HΦ on supercomputers such as the K computer at RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science (AICS) and SGI ICE XA (Sekirei) at the Institute for the Solid State Physics (ISSP).
Frustrated lattices of Ising chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudasov, Yurii B; Korshunov, Aleksei S; Pavlov, V N; Maslov, Dmitrii A
2012-01-01
The magnetic structure and magnetization dynamics of systems of plane frustrated Ising chain lattices are reviewed for three groups of compounds: Ca 3 Co 2 O 6 , CsCoCl 3 , and Sr 5 Rh 4 O 12 . The available experimental data are analyzed and compared in detail. It is shown that a high-temperature magnetic phase on a triangle lattice is normally and universally a partially disordered antiferromagnetic (PDA) structure. The diversity of low-temperature phases results from weak interactions that lift the degeneracy of a 2D antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangle lattice. Mean-field models, Monte Carlo simulation results on the static magnetization curve, and results on slow magnetization dynamics obtained with Glauber's theory are discussed in detail. (reviews of topical problems)
Lattice QCD for nuclear physics
Meyer, Harvey
2015-01-01
With ever increasing computational resources and improvements in algorithms, new opportunities are emerging for lattice gauge theory to address key questions in strongly interacting systems, such as nuclear matter. Calculations today use dynamical gauge-field ensembles with degenerate light up/down quarks and the strange quark and it is possible now to consider including charm-quark degrees of freedom in the QCD vacuum. Pion masses and other sources of systematic error, such as finite-volume and discretization effects, are beginning to be quantified systematically. Altogether, an era of precision calculation has begun, and many new observables will be calculated at the new computational facilities. The aim of this set of lectures is to provide graduate students with a grounding in the application of lattice gauge theory methods to strongly interacting systems, and in particular to nuclear physics. A wide variety of topics are covered, including continuum field theory, lattice discretizations, hadron spect...
Self-organized lattice of ordered quantum dot molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lippen, T. von; Noetzel, R.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Wolter, J.H.
2004-01-01
Ordered groups of InAs quantum dots (QDs), lateral QD molecules, are created by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering of a (In,Ga)As/GaAs superlattice (SL) template on GaAs (311)B in molecular-beam epitaxy. During stacking, the SL template self-organizes into a two-dimensionally ordered strain modulated network on a mesoscopic length scale. InAs QDs preferentially grow on top of the nodes of the network due to local strain recognition. The QDs form a lattice of separated groups of closely spaced ordered QDs whose number can be controlled by the GaAs separation layer thickness on top of the SL template. The QD groups exhibit excellent optical properties up to room temperature
Nucleon structure from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dinter, Simon
2012-11-13
In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a{sup 2}) discretization effects.
Nucleon structure from lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dinter, Simon
2012-01-01
In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a 2 ) discretization effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioannou-Sougleridis, V; Dimitrakis, P; Vamvakas, V Em; Normand, P; Bonafos, C; Schamm, S; Mouti, A; Assayag, G Ben; Paillard, V
2007-01-01
Formation of a thin band of silicon nanoparticles within silicon nitride films by low-energy (1 keV) silicon ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing is demonstrated. Electrical characterization of metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors reveals that oxide/Si-nanoparticles-nitride/oxide dielectric stacks exhibit enhanced charge transfer characteristics between the substrate and the silicon nitride layer compared to dielectric stacks using unimplanted silicon nitride. Attractive results are obtained in terms of write/erase memory characteristics and data retention, indicating the large potential of the low-energy ion-beam-synthesis technique in SONOS memory technology
Kondo length in bosonic lattices
Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea
2017-09-01
Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.
Supersymmetry on the noncommutative lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishimura, Jun; Rey, Soo-Jong; Sugino, Fumihiko
2003-01-01
Built upon the proposal of Kaplan et al. (heplat{0206109}), we construct noncommutative lattice gauge theory with manifest supersymmetry. We show that such theory is naturally implementable via orbifold conditions generalizing those used by Kaplan et al. We present the prescription in detail and illustrate it for noncommutative gauge theories latticized partially in two dimensions. We point out a deformation freedom in the defining theory by a complex-parameter, reminiscent of discrete torsion in string theory. We show that, in the continuum limit, the supersymmetry is enhanced only at a particular value of the deformation parameter, determined solely by the size of the noncommutativity. (author)
Machines for lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mackenzie, P.B.
1989-05-01
The most promising approach to the solution of the theory of strong interactions is large scale numerical simulation using the techniques of lattice gauge theory. At the present time, computing requirements for convincing calculations of the properties of hadrons exceed the capabilities of even the most powerful commercial supercomputers. This has led to the development of massively parallel computers dedicated to lattice gauge theory. This talk will discuss the computing requirements behind these machines, and general features of the components and architectures of the half dozen major projects now in existence. 20 refs., 1 fig
Graphene on graphene antidot lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Søren Schou; Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Power, Stephen
2015-01-01
Graphene bilayer systems are known to exhibit a band gap when the layer symmetry is broken by applying a perpendicular electric field. The resulting band structure resembles that of a conventional semiconductor with a parabolic dispersion. Here, we introduce a bilayer graphene heterostructure......, where single-layer graphene is placed on top of another layer of graphene with a regular lattice of antidots. We dub this class of graphene systems GOAL: graphene on graphene antidot lattice. By varying the structure geometry, band-structure engineering can be performed to obtain linearly dispersing...
Unconventional superconductivity in honeycomb lattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P Sahebsara
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The possibility of symmetrical s-wave superconductivity in the honeycomb lattice is studied within a strongly correlated regime, using the Hubbard model. The superconducting order parameter is defined by introducing the Green function, which is obtained by calculating the density of the electrons . In this study showed that the superconducting order parameter appears in doping interval between 0 and 0.5, and x=0.25 is the optimum doping for the s-wave superconductivity in honeycomb lattice.
[Lattice degeneration of the retina].
Boĭko, E V; Suetov, A A; Mal'tsev, D S
2014-01-01
Lattice degeneration of the retina is a clinically important type of peripheral retinal dystrophies due to its participation in the pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. In spite of extensive epidemiological, morphological, and clinical data, the question on causes of this particular type of retinal dystrophies currently remains debatable. Existing hypotheses on pathogenesis of retinal structural changes in lattice degeneration explain it to a certain extent. In clinical ophthalmology it is necessary to pay close attention to this kind of degenerations and distinguish between cases requiring preventive treatment and those requiring monitoring.
Lattice calculations in gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebbi, C.
1985-01-01
The lattice formulation of quantum gauge theories is discussed as a viable technique for quantitative studies of nonperturbative effects in QCD. Evidence is presented to ascertain that whole classes of lattice actions produce a universal continuum limit. Discrepancies between numerical results from Monto Carlo simulations for the pure gauge system and for the system with gauge and quark fields are discussed. Numerical calculations for QCD require very substantial computational resources. The use of powerful vector processors of special purpose machines, in extending the scope and magnitude or the calculations is considered, and one may reasonably expect that in the near future good quantitative predictions will be obtained for QCD
Chiral symmetry on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1994-11-01
The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model
Nuclear Physics from Lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
William Detmold, Silas Beane, Konstantinos Orginos, Martin Savage
2011-01-01
We review recent progress toward establishing lattice Quantum Chromodynamics as a predictive calculational framework for nuclear physics. A survey of the current techniques that are used to extract low-energy hadronic scattering amplitudes and interactions is followed by a review of recent two-body and few-body calculations by the NPLQCD collaboration and others. An outline of the nuclear physics that is expected to be accomplished with Lattice QCD in the next decade, along with estimates of the required computational resources, is presented.
States of light positive particles in metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klamt, A.G.
1987-01-01
The states of light positively charged particles in metals are treated in tight-binding approximation. The polaron states of the particles are investigated. The 'molecular crystal model' and an interstitial model' are treated. Moreover, the particle-lattice coupling of excited particles is treated for fcc and bcc lattices. (BHO)
Analysis and prediction of stacking sequences in intercalated lamellar vanadium phosphates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gautier, Romain [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226 CNRS - Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Rennes (France); Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Universite de Nantes (France); Fourre, Yoann; Furet, Eric; Gautier, Regis; Le Fur, Eric [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226 CNRS - Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Rennes (France)
2015-04-15
An approach is presented that enables the analysis and prediction of stacking sequences in intercalated lamellar vanadium phosphates. A comparison of previously reported vanadium phosphates reveals two modes of intercalation: (i) 3d transition metal ions intercalated between VOPO{sub 4} layers and (ii) alkali/alkaline earth metal ions between VOPO{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O layers. Both intercalations were investigated using DFT calculations in order to understand the relative shifts of the vanadium phosphate layers. These calculations in addition to an analysis of the stacking sequences in previously reported materials enable the prediction of the crystal structures of M{sub x}(VOPO{sub 4}).yH{sub 2}O (M = Cs{sup +}, Cd{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 2+}). Experimental realization and structural determination of Cd(VOPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O by single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirmed the predicted stacking sequences. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Analysis of the effect of dissimilar welding in a high pressure flare stack
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahdi Ezwan Mahmoud; Mohd Harun; Zaifol Samsu; Norasiah Kasim; Zaiton Selamat; Alahuddin, K.H.
2010-01-01
A flare stack is an elevated vertical stack found in a natural gas processing plant, used primarily for combusting waste gases released by pressure relief valves. The materials used for our high pressure flare tip are carbon steel (CS) type A516 Gr. 55 for its lower portion, and stainless steel (SS) 310 for its upper portion. Both were combined into a single unit by arc welding (dissimilar welding), with SS310 as a base metal. After 5 years of operations, few mechanical deformations were observed on the flare stack, along with corrosion deposit on the CS portion of the flare. Detailed analysis shows the presence of toe and shrinkage cracks, along with spheroidization of pearlite in the CS. These are caused by factors such as mismatched welding and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the metals. These factors helped exacerbate crack initiation and propagation. Based on the evidence collected, it is recommended that the CS A516 be replaced with SS310. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristiana L. Ciobanu
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Atomic-scale high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM imaging and electron diffractions are used to address the complexity of lattice-scale intergrowths of REE-fluorocarbonates from an occurrence adjacent to the Olympic Dam deposit, South Australia. The aims are to define the species present within the intergrowths and also assess the value of the HAADF STEM technique in resolving stacking sequences within mixed-layer compounds. Results provide insights into the definition of species and crystal-structural modularity. Lattice-scale intergrowths account for the compositional range between bastnäsite and parasite, as measured by electron probe microanalysis (at the µm-scale throughout the entire area of the intergrowths. These comprise rhythmic intervals of parisite and bastnäsite, or stacking sequences with gradational changes in the slab stacking between B, BBS and BS types (B—bastnäsite, S—synchysite. An additional occurrence of an unnamed B2S phase [CaCe3(CO34F3], up to 11 unit cells in width, is identified among sequences of parisite and bastnäsite within the studied lamellar intergrowths. Both B2S and associated parisite show hexagonal lattices, interpreted as 2H polytypes with c = 28 and 38 Å, respectively. 2H parisite is a new, short hexagonal polytype that can be added to the 14 previously reported polytypes (both hexagonal and rhombohedral for this mineral. The correlation between satellite reflections and the number of layers along the stacking direction (c* can be written empirically as: Nsat = [(m × 2 + (n × 4] − 1 for all BmSn compounds with S ≠ 0. The present study shows intergrowths characterised by short-range stacking disorder and coherent changes in stacking along perpendicular directions. Knowing that the same compositional range can be expressed as long-period stacking compounds in the group, the present intergrowths are interpreted as being related to disequilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sedao, Xxx; Garrelie, Florence, E-mail: florence.garrelie@univ-st-etienne.fr; Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Pigeon, Florent [Université de Lyon, CNRS, UMR5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université de Saint Etienne, Jean Monnet, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Maurice, Claire; Quey, Romain [Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, CNRS, UMR5307, Laboratoire Georges Friedel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France)
2014-04-28
The influence of crystal orientation on the formation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) has been investigated on a polycrystalline nickel sample. Electron Backscatter Diffraction characterization has been exploited to provide structural information within the laser spot on irradiated samples to determine the dependence of LIPSS formation and lattice defects (stacking faults, twins, dislocations) upon the crystal orientation. Significant differences are observed at low-to-medium number of laser pulses, outstandingly for (111)-oriented surface which favors lattice defects formation rather than LIPSS formation.
Computerized plutonium laboratory-stack monitoring system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stafford, R.G.; DeVore, R.K.
1977-01-01
The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has recently designed and constructed a Plutonium Research and Development Facility to meet design criteria imposed by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. A primary objective of the design criteria is to assure environmental protection and to reliably monitor plutonium effluent via the ventilation exhaust systems. A state-of-the-art facility exhaust air monitoring system is described which establishes near ideal conditions for evaluating plutonium activity in the stack effluent. Total and static pressure sensing manifolds are incorporated to measure average velocity and integrated total discharge air volume. These data are logged at a computer which receives instrument data through a multiplex scanning system. A multipoint isokinetic sampling assembly with associated instrumentation is described. Continuous air monitors have been designed to sample from the isokinetic sampling assembly and transmit both instantaneous and integrated stack effluent concentration data to the computer and various cathode ray tube displays. The continuous air monitors also serve as room air monitors in the plutonium facility with the primary objective of timely evacuation of personnel if an above tolerance airborne plutonium concentration is detected. Several continuous air monitors are incorporated in the ventilation system to assist in identification of release problem areas
Control of heteroepitaxial stacking by substrate miscut
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonham, S.W.; Flynn, C.P.
1998-01-01
We report studies of fcc epitaxial crystals, grown on Nb(110), in which the Nb surface offers a template for selection between the two alternative stackings, ABCA hor-ellipsis and ACBA hor-ellipsis of the fcc close-packed planes. The Nb templates were grown epitaxially about 500 Angstrom thick on sapphire (11 bar 20), and the fcc material studied was Cu 3 Au. From symmetry it is not possible for the perfect bcc (110) surface to cause any such selection, which is here attributed instead to vicinal miscut: the logarithm of the stacking ratio must be even in miscut along [001] and odd in miscut along [1 bar 10]. We find that the measured selectivity is small for miscuts less than about 0.5 degree, but approaches a factor 10 3 for miscuts along [1 bar 10] greater than about 1 degree. A mechanism for the selection process is discussed in terms of fingered mesostructures that grow on Nb(110) in this regime, as observed first by Zhou, Bonham, and Flynn. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Generalized stacking fault energies of alloys.
Li, Wei; Lu, Song; Hu, Qing-Miao; Kwon, Se Kyun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente
2014-07-02
The generalized stacking fault energy (γ surface) provides fundamental physics for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms. Using the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation, we calculate the γ surface for the disordered Cu-Al, Cu-Zn, Cu-Ga, Cu-Ni, Pd-Ag and Pd-Au alloys. Studying the effect of segregation of the solute to the stacking fault planes shows that only the local chemical composition affects the γ surface. The calculated alloying trends are discussed using the electronic band structure of the base and distorted alloys.Based on our γ surface results, we demonstrate that the previous revealed 'universal scaling law' between the intrinsic energy barriers (IEBs) is well obeyed in random solid solutions. This greatly simplifies the calculations of the twinning measure parameters or the critical twinning stress. Adopting two twinnability measure parameters derived from the IEBs, we find that in binary Cu alloys, Al, Zn and Ga increase the twinnability, while Ni decreases it. Aluminum and gallium yield similar effects on the twinnability.
Representation theory of lattice current algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alekseev, A.Yu.; Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich; Faddeev, L.D.; Froehlich, L.D.; Schomerus, V.; Kyoto Univ.
1996-04-01
Lattice current algebras were introduced as a regularization of the left-and right moving degrees of freedom in the WZNW model. They provide examples of lattice theories with a local quantum symmetry U q (G). Their representation theory is studied in detail. In particular, we construct all irreducible representations along with a lattice analogue of the fusion product for representations of the lattice current algebra. It is shown that for an arbitrary number of lattice sites, the representation categories of the lattice current algebras agree with their continuum counterparts. (orig.)
Spin-orbital quantum liquid on the honeycomb lattice
Corboz, Philippe
2013-03-01
The symmetric Kugel-Khomskii can be seen as a minimal model describing the interactions between spin and orbital degrees of freedom in transition-metal oxides with orbital degeneracy, and it is equivalent to the SU(4) Heisenberg model of four-color fermionic atoms. We present simulation results for this model on various two-dimensional lattices obtained with infinite projected-entangled pair states (iPEPS), an efficient variational tensor-network ansatz for two dimensional wave functions in the thermodynamic limit. This approach can be seen as a two-dimensional generalization of matrix product states - the underlying ansatz of the density matrix renormalization group method. We find a rich variety of exotic phases: while on the square and checkerboard lattices the ground state exhibits dimer-Néel order and plaquette order, respectively, quantum fluctuations on the honeycomb lattice destroy any order, giving rise to a spin-orbital liquid. Our results are supported from flavor-wave theory and exact diagonalization. Furthermore, the properties of the spin-orbital liquid state on the honeycomb lattice are accurately accounted for by a projected variational wave-function based on the pi-flux state of fermions on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4-filling. In that state, correlations are algebraic because of the presence of a Dirac point at the Fermi level, suggesting that the ground state is an algebraic spin-orbital liquid. This model provides a good starting point to understand the recently discovered spin-orbital liquid behavior of Ba3CuSb2O9. The present results also suggest to choose optical lattices with honeycomb geometry in the search for quantum liquids in ultra-cold four-color fermionic atoms. We acknowledge the financial support from the Swiss National Science Foundation.
Simple model of stacking-fault energies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stokbro, Kurt; Jacobsen, Lærke Wedel
1993-01-01
metals, and thereby explain the pronounced differences in energetics in these two classes of metals. The model is discussed in the framework of the effective-medium theory where it is possible to find a functional form for the pair potential and relate the contribution associated with the fourth moment...
Description of gasket failure in a 7 cell PEMFC stack
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Husar, Attila; Serra, Maria [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Parc Tecnologic de Barcelona, Edifici U, C. Llorens i Artigas, 4-6, 2a Planta, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kunusch, Cristian [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial Control e Instrumentacion, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNLP (Argentina)
2007-06-10
This article presents the data and the description of a fuel cell stack that failed due to gasket degradation. The fuel cell under study is a 7 cell stack. The unexpected change in several variables such as temperature, pressure and voltage indicated the possible failure of the stack. The stack was monitored over a 6 h period in which data was collected and consequently analyzed to conclude that the fuel cell stack failed due to a crossover leak on the anode inlet port located on the cathode side gasket of cell 2. This stack failure analysis revealed a series of indicators that could be used by a super visional controller in order to initiate a shutdown procedure. (author)
Simple Stacking Methods for Silicon Micro Fuel Cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gianmario Scotti
2014-08-01
Full Text Available We present two simple methods, with parallel and serial gas flows, for the stacking of microfabricated silicon fuel cells with integrated current collectors, flow fields and gas diffusion layers. The gas diffusion layer is implemented using black silicon. In the two stacking methods proposed in this work, the fluidic apertures and gas flow topology are rotationally symmetric and enable us to stack fuel cells without an increase in the number of electrical or fluidic ports or interconnects. Thanks to this simplicity and the structural compactness of each cell, the obtained stacks are very thin (~1.6 mm for a two-cell stack. We have fabricated two-cell stacks with two different gas flow topologies and obtained an open-circuit voltage (OCV of 1.6 V and a power density of 63 mW·cm−2, proving the viability of the design.
A Novel Kind of Transverse Micro-Stack High-Power Diode Bars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lei, Zhang; Bi-Feng, Cui; Jian-Jun, Li; Wei-Lling, Guo; Zhi-Qun, Wang; Guang-Di, Shen
2008-01-01
Novel transverse micro-stack semiconductor laser bars are put forward to improve the output optical power of semiconductor laser bars at low injection current. More importantly, the novel laser bars have a coupled large optical cavity, which can overcome the problem of catastrophic optical damage and improve light beam quality due to the coherently coupled emitting along the transverse direction. The micro-stack tunnel regeneration tri-active region laser structure was grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition. For a weakly coupled uncoated device, the optical power exceeds 60W under 50A driving current and the slope efficiency reaches 1.55W/A. Further experiments show that the perpendicular divergence of 23° is achieved from transverse strongly coupled devices
A search for the coherently radiating fluxon state in stacks of long intrinsic Josephson junctions
Lee, H J; Bae, M H; Wang, H; Yamashita, T
2002-01-01
We studied the motion of fluxons in a stack of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8 sub + subdelta single crystals in a long junction limit. Driven by the tunnelling bias, current Josephson fluxons excite plasma oscillations and move in resonance with the plasma propagation modes. We examined two types of samples in this study; mesa structure (UD1) and a stack of junctions sandwiched between normal-metallic electrodes (DSC1). In a high magnetic field, the hysteresis in the I-V characteristics of both-types of samples vanished. The resulting single I-V curve exhibited a cusp structure at characteristic bias voltages which were believed to be boundaries of different moving fluxon configurations. We studied the sample-geometry dependence of the cusp characteristics by comparing the results from the two types of samples.
Atomic-scale details of dislocation-stacking fault tetrahedra interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osetsky, Yu. N.; Stoller, R.E.; Rodney, D.; Bacon, D.J.
2005-01-01
Stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) are formed during irradiation of f.c.c. metals and alloys with low stacking fault energy. The high number density of SFTs observed suggests that they should contribute to radiation-induced hardening and, therefore, be taken into account when estimating mechanical property changes of irradiated materials. Key issue is to describe the interaction between a moving dislocation and an individual SFT, which is characterized by a small physical scale of about 100 nm. In this paper we present results of an atomistic simulation of edge and screw dislocations interacting with small SFTs at different temperatures and strain rates and present mechanisms which can explain the formation of defect-free channels observed experimentally
Kuwabara, Hiroki; Sumi, Akihiro; Okamoto, Shoji; Hoko, Hiromasa; Cross, Jeffrey S.; Funakubo, Hiroshi
2009-04-01
Pb(Zr0.35Ti0.65)O3 (PZT) films 170 nm thick were prepared at 415 °C by pulsed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The (111)-oriented PZT films with local epitaxial growth were obtained on (111)SrRuO3/(111)Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates and their ferroelectricities were ascertained. Ferroelectricity was improved by postannealing under O2 gas flow up to 550 °C. Larger remanent polarization and better fatigue endurance were obtained using a SrRuO3 top electrode compared to a Pt top electrode for PZT films after annealing at 500 °C.
Computers for lattice field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwasaki, Y.
1994-01-01
Parallel computers dedicated to lattice field theories are reviewed with emphasis on the three recent projects, the Teraflops project in the US, the CP-PACS project in Japan and the 0.5-Teraflops project in the US. Some new commercial parallel computers are also discussed. Recent development of semiconductor technologies is briefly surveyed in relation to possible approaches toward Teraflops computers. (orig.)
Synthesis of spatially variant lattices.
Rumpf, Raymond C; Pazos, Javier
2012-07-02
It is often desired to functionally grade and/or spatially vary a periodic structure like a photonic crystal or metamaterial, yet no general method for doing this has been offered in the literature. A straightforward procedure is described here that allows many properties of the lattice to be spatially varied at the same time while producing a final lattice that is still smooth and continuous. Properties include unit cell orientation, lattice spacing, fill fraction, and more. This adds many degrees of freedom to a design such as spatially varying the orientation to exploit directional phenomena. The method is not a coordinate transformation technique so it can more easily produce complicated and arbitrary spatial variance. To demonstrate, the algorithm is used to synthesize a spatially variant self-collimating photonic crystal to flow a Gaussian beam around a 90° bend. The performance of the structure was confirmed through simulation and it showed virtually no scattering around the bend that would have arisen if the lattice had defects or discontinuities.
From lattice gases to polymers
Frenkel, D.
1990-01-01
The modification of a technique that was developed to study time correlations in lattice-gas cellular automata to facilitate the numerical simulation of chain molecules is described. As an example, the calculation of the excess chemical potential of an ideal polymer in a dense colloidal
Flavor extrapolation in lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffy, W.C.
1984-01-01
Explicit calculation of the effect of virtual quark-antiquark pairs in lattice QCD has eluded researchers. To include their effect explicitly one must calculate the determinant of the fermion-fermion coupling matrix. Owing to the large number of sites in a continuum limit size lattice, direct evaluation of this term requires an unrealistic amount of computer time. The effect of the virtual pairs can be approximated by ignoring this term and adjusting lattice couplings to reproduce experimental results. This procedure is called the valence approximation since it ignores all but the minimal number of quarks needed to describe hadrons. In this work the effect of the quark-antiquark pairs has been incorporated in a theory with an effective negative number of quark flavors contributing to the closed loops. Various particle masses and decay constants have been calculated for this theory and for one with no virtual pairs. The author attempts to extrapolate results towards positive numbers of quark flavors. The results show approximate agreement with experimental measurements and demonstrate the smoothness of lattice expectations in the number of quark flavors
Nuclear physics on the lattice?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koonin, S.E.
1985-01-01
The goal of the paper is to try to adapt lattice gauge theory to build in some biases in order for being applicable to nuclear physics. In so doing the calculations are made more precise, and the author can address questions like the size of the nucleon, the nucleon-nucleon potential, the modifications of the nucleon in the nuclear medium, etc. (Auth.)
Differential geometry of group lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert
2003-01-01
In a series of publications we developed ''differential geometry'' on discrete sets based on concepts of noncommutative geometry. In particular, it turned out that first-order differential calculi (over the algebra of functions) on a discrete set are in bijective correspondence with digraph structures where the vertices are given by the elements of the set. A particular class of digraphs are Cayley graphs, also known as group lattices. They are determined by a discrete group G and a finite subset S. There is a distinguished subclass of ''bicovariant'' Cayley graphs with the property ad(S)S subset of S. We explore the properties of differential calculi which arise from Cayley graphs via the above correspondence. The first-order calculi extend to higher orders and then allow us to introduce further differential geometric structures. Furthermore, we explore the properties of ''discrete'' vector fields which describe deterministic flows on group lattices. A Lie derivative with respect to a discrete vector field and an inner product with forms is defined. The Lie-Cartan identity then holds on all forms for a certain subclass of discrete vector fields. We develop elements of gauge theory and construct an analog of the lattice gauge theory (Yang-Mills) action on an arbitrary group lattice. Also linear connections are considered and a simple geometric interpretation of the torsion is established. By taking a quotient with respect to some subgroup of the discrete group, generalized differential calculi associated with so-called Schreier diagrams are obtained
Lattice dynamics of lithium oxide
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Li2O finds several important technological applications, as it is used in solid- state batteries, can be used as a blanket breeding material in nuclear fusion reactors, etc. Li2O exhibits a fast ion phase, characterized by a thermally induced dynamic disorder in the anionic sub-lattice of Li+, at elevated temperatures ...
Lattice fields and strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1989-06-01
I review the lattice formulation of gauge theories and the use of numerical methods to investigate nonperturbative phenomena. These methods are directly applicable to studying hadronic matter at high temperatures. Considerable recent progress has been made in numerical algorithms for including dynamical fermions in such calculations. Dealing with a nonvanishing baryon density adds new unsolved challenges. 33 refs
Borgs, C.; Chayes, J.T.; Hofstad, van der R.W.; Slade, G.
1999-01-01
We introduce a mean-field model of lattice trees based on embeddings into d of abstract trees having a critical Poisson offspring distribution. This model provides a combinatorial interpretation for the self-consistent mean-field model introduced previously by Derbez and Slade [9], and provides an
Lattice quantum chromodynamics: Some topics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
I will begin with a lightning quick overview of the basic lattice gauge theory and then go on to .... The Monte Carlo technique to evaluate C(t), or the expectation value of any other observable ... x }occurs with a probability proportional to. 890.
Lattice continuum and diffusional creep.
Mesarovic, Sinisa Dj
2016-04-01
Diffusional creep is characterized by growth/disappearance of lattice planes at the crystal boundaries that serve as sources/sinks of vacancies, and by diffusion of vacancies. The lattice continuum theory developed here represents a natural and intuitive framework for the analysis of diffusion in crystals and lattice growth/loss at the boundaries. The formulation includes the definition of the Lagrangian reference configuration for the newly created lattice, the transport theorem and the definition of the creep rate tensor for a polycrystal as a piecewise uniform, discontinuous field. The values associated with each crystalline grain are related to the normal diffusional flux at grain boundaries. The governing equations for Nabarro-Herring creep are derived with coupled diffusion and elasticity with compositional eigenstrain. Both, bulk diffusional dissipation and boundary dissipation accompanying vacancy nucleation and absorption, are considered, but the latter is found to be negligible. For periodic arrangements of grains, diffusion formally decouples from elasticity but at the cost of a complicated boundary condition. The equilibrium of deviatorically stressed polycrystals is impossible without inclusion of interface energies. The secondary creep rate estimates correspond to the standard Nabarro-Herring model, and the volumetric creep is small. The initial (primary) creep rate is estimated to be much larger than the secondary creep rate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itzykson, C.
1983-10-01
We review the formulation of field theory and statistical mechanics on a Poissonian random lattice. Topics discussed include random geometry, the construction of field equations for arbitrary spin, the free field spectrum and the question of localization illustrated in the one dimensional case
Development of the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kotani, Ikuo [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Kobe (Japan); Morotomi, Isamu [Kansai Electric Power Co., Hyogo (Japan)] [and others
1996-12-31
Kansai Electric Power Co. and Mitsubishi Electric Co. have been developing the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack operated under the ambient pressure. The new cell design have been developed, so that the large scale cell (1 m{sup 2} size) was adopted for the stack. To confirm the performance and the stability of the 1 m{sup 2} scale cell design, the short stack study had been performed.
Stacked Heterogeneous Neural Networks for Time Series Forecasting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florin Leon
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A hybrid model for time series forecasting is proposed. It is a stacked neural network, containing one normal multilayer perceptron with bipolar sigmoid activation functions, and the other with an exponential activation function in the output layer. As shown by the case studies, the proposed stacked hybrid neural model performs well on a variety of benchmark time series. The combination of weights of the two stack components that leads to optimal performance is also studied.
Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD
Gambhir, Arjun Singh
In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called "disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements
Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gambhir, Arjun [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)
2017-08-01
In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called \\disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements
Turbostratic stacked CVD graphene for high-performance devices
Uemura, Kohei; Ikuta, Takashi; Maehashi, Kenzo
2018-03-01
We have fabricated turbostratic stacked graphene with high-transport properties by the repeated transfer of CVD monolayer graphene. The turbostratic stacked CVD graphene exhibited higher carrier mobility and conductivity than CVD monolayer graphene. The electron mobility for the three-layer turbostratic stacked CVD graphene surpassed 10,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, which is five times greater than that for CVD monolayer graphene. The results indicate that the high performance is derived from maintenance of the linear band dispersion, suppression of the carrier scattering, and parallel conduction. Therefore, turbostratic stacked CVD graphene is a superior material for high-performance devices.
Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, H.G.
1988-01-01
A method for sampling stack gases emanating from the purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion cascade system utilized to enrich uranium for determining the presence and extent of uranium in the stack gases in the form of gaseous uranium hexafluoride, is described comprising the steps of removing a side stream of gases from the stack gases, contacting the side stream of the stack gases with a stream of air sufficiently saturated with moisture for reacting with and converting any gaseous uranium hexafluroide contracted thereby in the side stream of stack gases to particulate uranyl fluoride. Thereafter contacting the side stream of stack gases containing the particulate uranyl fluoride with moving filter means for continuously intercepting and conveying the intercepted particulate uranyl fluoride away from the side stream of stack gases, and continually scanning the moving filter means with radiation monitoring means for sensing the presence and extent of particulate uranyl fluoride on the moving filter means which is indicative of the extent of particulate uranyl fluoride in the side stream of stack gases which in turn is indicative of the presence and extent of uranium hexafluoride in the stack gases
Highly Efficient, Durable Regenerative Solid Oxide Stack, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a highly efficient regenerative solid oxide stack design. Novel structural elements allow direct internal...
A Dynamic Momentum Compaction Factor Lattice for Improvements to Stochastic Cooling in Storage Rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olivieri, David Nicholas [Massachusetts U., Amherst
1996-01-01
A dynamic momentum compaction factor, also referred to as a dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$, lattice for the FNAL Antiproton Source Debuncher Storage Ring is studied, both theoretically and experimentally, for the purpose of improving stochastic precooling, and hence, improving the global antiproton production and stacking performance. A dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$ lattice is proposed due to the competing requirements inherent within the Debuncher storage ring upon $\\gamma \\tau$· Specifically, the Debuncher storage ring performs two disparate functions, $(i)$ accepting and debunching a large number of $\\overline{p}$s/pulse at the outset of the production cycle, which would perform ideally with a large value of $\\gamma\\tau$, and $(ii)$ subsequently employing stochastic cooling throughout the remainder of the $\\overline{p}$ production cycle for improved transfer and stacking efficiency into the Accumulator, for which a small value $\\gamma \\tau$ is ideal in order to reduce the diffusive heating caused by the mixing factor. In the initial design of the Debuncher optical lattice, an intermediate value of $\\gamma \\tau$ was chosen as a compromise between the two functional requirements. The goal of the thesis is to improve stochastic precooling by changing $\\gamma \\tau$ between two desired values during each p production cycle. In particular, the dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$ lattice accomplishes a reduction in $\\gamma \\tau$, and hence the mixing factor, through an uniform increase to the dispersion throughout the arc sections of the storage ring. Experimental measurements of cooling rates and system performance parameters, with the implementation of the dynamic $\\Delta \\gamma \\tau$ lattice, are in agreement with theoretical predictions based upon a detailed integration of the stochastic cooling Fokker Planck equations. Based upon the consistency between theory and experiment, predictions of cooling rates are presented for future operational
Hristu, Radu; Stanciu, Stefan G; Tranca, Denis E; Polychroniadis, Efstathios K; Stanciu, George A
2017-07-07
Although silicon carbide is a highly promising crystalline material for a wide range of electronic devices, extended and point defects which perturb the lattice periodicity hold deep implications with respect to device reliability. There is thus a great need for developing new methods that can detect silicon carbide defects which are detrimental to device functionality. Our experiment demonstrates that polarization-resolved second harmonic generation microscopy can extend the efficiency of the "optical signature" concept as an all-optical rapid and non-destructive set of investigation methods for the differentiation between hexagonal and cubic stacking faults in silicon carbide. This technique can be used for fast and in situ characterization and optimization of growth conditions for epilayers of silicon carbide and similar materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Xia; Wu, Genhua
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A high efficient method for optimization of atomic clusters is developed. • Its performance is studied by optimizing Lennard-Jones clusters and Ag clusters. • The method is proved to be quite efficient. • A new Ag 61 cluster with stacking-fault face-centered cubic motif is found. - Abstract: Geometrical optimization of atomic clusters is performed by a development of adaptive immune optimization algorithm (AIOA) with dynamic lattice searching (DLS) operation (AIOA-DLS method). By a cycle of construction and searching of the dynamic lattice (DL), DLS algorithm rapidly makes the clusters more regular and greatly reduces the potential energy. DLS can thus be used as an operation acting on the new individuals after mutation operation in AIOA to improve the performance of the AIOA. The AIOA-DLS method combines the merit of evolutionary algorithm and idea of dynamic lattice. The performance of the proposed method is investigated in the optimization of Lennard-Jones clusters within 250 atoms and silver clusters described by many-body Gupta potential within 150 atoms. Results reported in the literature are reproduced, and the motif of Ag 61 cluster is found to be stacking-fault face-centered cubic, whose energy is lower than that of previously obtained icosahedron
Statistical hydrodynamics of lattice-gas automata
Grosfils, Patrick; Boon, Jean-Pierre; Brito López, Ricardo; Ernst, M. H.
1993-01-01
We investigate the space and time behavior of spontaneous thermohydrodynamic fluctuations in a simple fluid modeled by a lattice-gas automaton and develop the statistical-mechanical theory of thermal lattice gases to compute the dynamical structure factor, i.e., the power spectrum of the density correlation function. A comparative analysis of the theoretical predictions with our lattice gas simulations is presented. The main results are (i) the spectral function of the lattice-gas fluctuation...
Durable solid oxide electrolysis cells and stacks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ming Chen
2010-08-15
The purpose of this project was to make a substantial contribution to development of a cost competitive electrolysis technology based on solid oxide cells. The strategy was to address what had been identified as the key issues in previous research projects. Accordingly five lines of work were carried out in the here reported project: 1) Cell and stack element testing and post test characterization to identify major degradation mechanisms under electrolysis operation. 2) Development of interconnects and coatings to allow stable electrolysis operation at approx850 deg. C or above. 3) Development of seals with reduced Si emission. 4) Development of durable SOEC cathodes. 5) Modeling. Good progress has been made on several of the planned activities. The outcome and most important achievements of the current project are listed for the five lines of the work. (LN)
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00529764; The ATLAS collaboration; Stewart, Graeme; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf
2017-01-01
This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.
Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Stewart, Graeme A.; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf; ATLAS Collaboration
2017-10-01
This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.
Stacked generalization: an introduction to super learning.
Naimi, Ashley I; Balzer, Laura B
2018-04-10
Stacked generalization is an ensemble method that allows researchers to combine several different prediction algorithms into one. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, the method has evolved several times into a host of methods among which is the "Super Learner". Super Learner uses V-fold cross-validation to build the optimal weighted combination of predictions from a library of candidate algorithms. Optimality is defined by a user-specified objective function, such as minimizing mean squared error or maximizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Although relatively simple in nature, use of Super Learner by epidemiologists has been hampered by limitations in understanding conceptual and technical details. We work step-by-step through two examples to illustrate concepts and address common concerns.
Manifold seal structure for fuel cell stack
Collins, William P.
1988-01-01
The seal between the sides of a fuel cell stack and the gas manifolds is improved by adding a mechanical interlock between the adhesive sealing strip and the abutting surface of the manifolds. The adhesive is a material which can flow to some extent when under compression, and the mechanical interlock is formed providing small openings in the portion of the manifold which abuts the adhesive strip. When the manifolds are pressed against the adhesive strips, the latter will flow into and through the manifold openings to form buttons or ribs which mechanically interlock with the manifolds. These buttons or ribs increase the bond between the manifolds and adhesive, which previously relied solely on the adhesive nature of the adhesive.
Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers
Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh
2015-01-01
Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.