WorldWideScience

Sample records for stacked films immobilization

  1. A Urea Biosensor from Stacked Sol-Gel Films with Immobilized Nile Blue Chromoionophore and Urease Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia Salameh; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa

    2007-01-01

    An optical urea biosensor was fabricated by stacking several layers of sol-gel films. The stacking of the sol-gel films allowed the immobilization of a Nile Blue chromoionophore (ETH 5294) and urease enzyme separately without the need of any chemical attachment procedure. The absorbance response of the biosensor was monitored at 550 nm, i.e. the deprotonation of the chromoionophore. This multi-layer sol-gel film format enabled higher enzyme loading in the biosensor to be achieved. The urea op...

  2. A Urea Biosensor from Stacked Sol-Gel Films with Immobilized Nile Blue Chromoionophore and Urease Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An optical urea biosensor was fabricated by stacking several layers of sol-gelfilms. The stacking of the sol-gel films allowed the immobilization of a Nile Bluechromoionophore (ETH 5294 and urease enzyme separately without the need of anychemical attachment procedure. The absorbance response of the biosensor was monitoredat 550 nm, i.e. the deprotonation of the chromoionophore. This multi-layer sol-gel filmformat enabled higher enzyme loading in the biosensor to be achieved. The urea opticalbiosensor constructed from three layers of sol-gel films that contained urease demonstrateda much wider linear response range of up to 100 mM urea when compared with biosensorsthat constructed from 1-2 layers of films. Analysis of urea in urine samples with thisoptical urea biosensor yielded results similar to that determined by a spectrophotometricmethod using the reagent p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (R2 = 0.982, n = 6. The averagerecovery of urea from urine samples using this urea biosensor is approximately 103%.

  3. A Urea Biosensor from Stacked Sol-Gel Films with Immobilized Nile Blue Chromoionophore and Urease Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia Salameh; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa

    2007-10-11

    An optical urea biosensor was fabricated by stacking several layers of sol-gelfilms. The stacking of the sol-gel films allowed the immobilization of a Nile Bluechromoionophore (ETH 5294) and urease enzyme separately without the need of anychemical attachment procedure. The absorbance response of the biosensor was monitoredat 550 nm, i.e. the deprotonation of the chromoionophore. This multi-layer sol-gel filmformat enabled higher enzyme loading in the biosensor to be achieved. The urea opticalbiosensor constructed from three layers of sol-gel films that contained urease demonstrateda much wider linear response range of up to 100 mM urea when compared with biosensorsthat constructed from 1-2 layers of films. Analysis of urea in urine samples with thisoptical urea biosensor yielded results similar to that determined by a spectrophotometricmethod using the reagent p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (R² = 0.982, n = 6). The averagerecovery of urea from urine samples using this urea biosensor is approximately 103%.

  4. Ablation of film stacks in solar cell fabrication processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-04-02

    A dielectric film stack of a solar cell is ablated using a laser. The dielectric film stack includes a layer that is absorptive in a wavelength of operation of the laser source. The laser source, which fires laser pulses at a pulse repetition rate, is configured to ablate the film stack to expose an underlying layer of material. The laser source may be configured to fire a burst of two laser pulses or a single temporally asymmetric laser pulse within a single pulse repetition to achieve complete ablation in a single step.

  5. Measurements of proton energy spectra using a radiochromic film stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, T. M.; Steidle, Jessica; Ellison, D. M.; Steidle, Jeffrey; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Fiksel, G.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The energy spectrum of protons accelerated from the rear-side of a thin foil illuminated with ultra-intense laser light from the OMEGA EP laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was measured using a stack of radiochromic film (RCF). The film stack consisted of four layers of Gafchromic HD-V2 film and four layers of Gafchromic MD-V2-55 film. Aluminum foils of various thicknesses were placed between each piece of RCF in the stack. This arrangement allowed protons with energies of 30 MeV to reach the back layer of RCF in the stack. The stack was placed in the detector plane of a Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) spectrometer. Each piece of film in the stack was scanned using a commercially available flat-bed scanner (Epson 10000XL). The resulting optical density was converted into proton fluence using an absolute calibration of the RCF obtained at the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator laboratory. In these calibration measurements, the sensitivity of the radiochromic film was measured using monoenergetic protons produced by the accelerator. Details of the analysis procedure and the resulting proton energy spectra will be presented. Funded in part by a grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  6. Method for applying a thin film barrier stack to a device with microstructures, and device provided with such a thin film barrier stack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A method for applying a thin film barrier stack to a device with microstructures, such as, for instance, an OLED, wherein the thin film barrier stack forms a barrier to at least moisture and oxygen, wherein the stack is built up from a combination of org. and inorg. layers, characterized in that a

  7. Stacking fault-mediated ultrastrong nanocrystalline Ti thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K.; Zhang, J. Y.; Li, G.; Wang, Y. Q.; Cui, J. C.; Liu, G.; Sun, J.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we prepared nanocrystalline (NC) Ti thin films with abundant stacking faults (SFs), which were created via partial dislocations emitted from grain boundaries and which were insensitive to grain sizes. By employing the nanoindentation test, we investigated the effects of SFs and grain sizes on the strength of NC Ti films at room temperature. The high density of SFs significantly strengthens NC Ti films, via dislocation-SF interactions associated with the reported highest Hall-Petch slope of ˜20 GPa nm1/2, to an ultrahigh strength of ˜4.4 GPa, approaching ˜50% of its ideal strength.

  8. Driving down defect density in composite EUV patterning film stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Luciana; Petrillo, Karen; De Silva, Anuja; Arnold, John; Felix, Nelson; Johnson, Richard; Murray, Cody; Hubbard, Alex; Durrant, Danielle; Hontake, Koichi; Huli, Lior; Lemley, Corey; Hetzer, Dave; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Matsunaga, Koichi

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology is one of the leading candidates for enabling the next generation devices, for 7nm node and beyond. As the technology matures, further improvement is required in the area of blanket film defectivity, pattern defectivity, CD uniformity, and LWR/LER. As EUV pitch scaling approaches sub 20 nm, new techniques and methods must be developed to reduce the overall defectivity, mitigate pattern collapse and eliminate film related defect. IBM Corporation and Tokyo Electron Limited (TELTM) are continuously collaborating to develop manufacturing quality processes for EUVL. In this paper, we review key defectivity learning required to enable 7nm node and beyond technology. We will describe ongoing progress in addressing these challenges through track-based processes (coating, developer, baking), highlighting the limitations of common defect detection strategies and outlining methodologies necessary for accurate characterization and mitigation of blanket defectivity in EUV patterning stacks. We will further discuss defects related to pattern collapse and thinning of underlayer films.

  9. COVALENT IMMOBILIZATION OF INVERTASE ON EPOXY-ACTIVATED POLYANILINE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Vacareanu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in manufacturing and use of biosensors is their rapid and selective detection of the target analyte. The immobilization of the enzymes, onto the appropriate matrix is the key-step in the construction of biosensing devices, considerably affecting its performance. In this study, new polyaniline bearing epoxy groups was synthesized by electrochemical polymerization reactions, as adherent, green film deposited on electrode surface, and was further used as immobilization matrix for invertase enzyme. The immobilization was carried out by condensation reactions between the amino groups of the enzyme molecules and the epoxy groups of polyaniline film. The covalent attachment was achieved by simple immersing the epoxy-activated polyaniline in acetate buffer solution (10 mM, pH 6.0 containing 2mg/mL invertase, for 24 h at 4 ºC, by continuous stirring. The polyaniline films thus obtained were analyzed before and after the invertase attachment, by using FT-IR spectroscopy and SEM microscopy. The presence of the invertase was evaluated by measuring their activity, using UV-Vis spectroscopy, in the presence of a known amount of sucrose as a substrate. These tests, performed for three times under the same conditions, revealed that even after five washes of the polyaniline /invertase electrode to remove the unbounded enzyme, the enzyme remain attached on the polyaniline film, being able to hydrolyze the sucrose presented in the assay solutions.

  10. Improvement of the homogeneity of protein-imprinted polymer films by orientated immobilization of the template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lijian; Zheng Jingjing; Fang Guijie; Xie Weihong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► MPH was genetically modified at its C-terminal with (Gly-Ser) 5 –Cys. ► MPH-L was immobilized with fixed orientation via disulfide chemistry. ► The immobilized MPH-L retained the activity of MPH. ► MPH-L formed a homogeneous template. ► Homogeneous MIP film was obtained with orientated immobilization of the template. - Abstract: A method for preparing homogeneous protein-imprinted polymer films with orientated immobilization of template is described. The template methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) was modified with a peptide linker (Gly-Ser) 5 –Cys and was immobilized on a cover glass with a fixed orientation via the linker. The activity of the fusion enzyme (MPH-L) was evaluated by determining the product's absorbance at 405 nm (A 405 ). Both the free and the immobilized MPH-L showed higher retention of the bioactivity than the wide type enzyme (MPH-W) as revealed by the A 405 values for MPH-L free /MPH-W free (1.159/1.111) and for MPH-L immobilized /MPH-W immobilized (0.348/0.118). The immobilized MPH-L also formed a more homogeneous template stamp compared to the immobilized MPH-W. The molecularly imprinted polymer films prepared with the immobilized MPH-L exhibited high homogeneity with low Std. Deviations of 80 and 200 from the CL intensity mean volumes which were observed for batch-prepared films and an individual film, respectively. MPH-L-imprinted polymer film also had a larger template binding capacity indicated by higher CL intensity mean volume of 3900 INT over 2500 INT for MPH-W-imprinted films. The imprinted film prepared with the orientated immobilization of template showed an imprinting factor of 1.7, while the controls did not show an imprinting effect.

  11. Alloying behaviour of electroplated Ag film with its underlying Pd/Ti film stack for low resistivity interconnect metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezawa, Hirokazu; Miyata, Masahiro; Tatsumi, Kohei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alloying behavior of Ag/Pd/Ti film stack was studied by annealing at 400-800 °C. • The Ag film resistivity decreased with increasing annealing temperature. • Formation of the Pd-Ti intermetallics was found to be dominant over Ag-Pd alloying. • The excess Ti was consumed to form Ti oxides, which inhibited Ti alloying with Ag. -- Abstract: In this paper, viability of electroplated Ag film into device application was studied. Alloying behavior of the Ag film with its underlying Pd(50 nm)/Ti(100 nm) film stack was investigated with respect to heat treatment at different temperatures from 400 °C to 800 °C in an argon ambient. After annealing at 400 °C, the electrical resistivity of the Ag film increased due to Pd alloying with Ag. Formation of Pd–Ti intermetallic phases became dominant over Ag–Pd alloying with increasing annealing temperature, leading to the resistivity decrease of the Ag film. The resistivity of the 800 °C annealed Ag film approached that of its as-plated Ag film. The excess Ti atoms which were not consumed to form the intermetallic phases with the Pd atoms migrated to the Ag film surface to form Ti oxides along the Ag grain boundaries on the topmost film surface. The Ag/Pd/Ti film stack has been confirmed to maintain the resistivity of the Ag film at as-plated low levels after high temperature annealing. This paper also discusses process integration issues to enable the Ag metallization process for future scaled and three dimensionally chip stacked devices

  12. Immobilization and controlled release of drug using plasma polymerized thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, Sung-Woon [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, MRC Center, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sang-Chul [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Hoon, E-mail: kim5055@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, MRC Center, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    In this study, plasma polymerization of acrylic acid was employed to immobilize drug and control its release. Doxorubicin (DOX) was immobilized covalently on the glass surface deposited with plasma polymerized acrylic acid (PPAAc) thin film containing the carboxylic group. At first, the PPAAc thin film was coated on a glass surface at a pressure of 1.33 Pa and radio frequency (RF) discharge power of 20 W for 10 min. DOX was immobilized on the PPAAc deposition in a two environment of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions. The DOX immobilized surface was characterized by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The DOX molecules were more immobilized in PBS than DMSO solution. The different immobilization and release profiles of DOX result from the solubility of hydrophobic DOX in aqueous and organic solutions. Second, in order to control the release of the drug, PPAAc thin film was covered over DOX dispersed layer. Different thicknesses and cross-linked PPAAc thin films by adjusting deposition time and RF discharge power were covered on the DOX layer dispersed. PPAAc thin film coated DOX layer reduced the release rate of DOX. The thickness control of plasma deposition allows controlling the release rate of drug. - Highlights: • Doxorubicin was immobilized on the surface of plasma polymerized acrylic acid thin film. • Release profile of doxorubicin was affected by aqueous and organic solutions. • Plasma polymerized acrylic acid thin film can be used to achieve controlled release.

  13. Immobilization and controlled release of drug using plasma polymerized thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Sung-Woon; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, plasma polymerization of acrylic acid was employed to immobilize drug and control its release. Doxorubicin (DOX) was immobilized covalently on the glass surface deposited with plasma polymerized acrylic acid (PPAAc) thin film containing the carboxylic group. At first, the PPAAc thin film was coated on a glass surface at a pressure of 1.33 Pa and radio frequency (RF) discharge power of 20 W for 10 min. DOX was immobilized on the PPAAc deposition in a two environment of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions. The DOX immobilized surface was characterized by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The DOX molecules were more immobilized in PBS than DMSO solution. The different immobilization and release profiles of DOX result from the solubility of hydrophobic DOX in aqueous and organic solutions. Second, in order to control the release of the drug, PPAAc thin film was covered over DOX dispersed layer. Different thicknesses and cross-linked PPAAc thin films by adjusting deposition time and RF discharge power were covered on the DOX layer dispersed. PPAAc thin film coated DOX layer reduced the release rate of DOX. The thickness control of plasma deposition allows controlling the release rate of drug. - Highlights: • Doxorubicin was immobilized on the surface of plasma polymerized acrylic acid thin film. • Release profile of doxorubicin was affected by aqueous and organic solutions. • Plasma polymerized acrylic acid thin film can be used to achieve controlled release

  14. Development and characterization of a three-dimensional radiochromic film stack dosimeter for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw, Travis J; Micka, John A; DeWerd, Larry A

    2014-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) dosimeters are particularly useful for verifying the commissioning of treatment planning and delivery systems, especially with the ever-increasing implementation of complex and conformal radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy. However, currently available 3D dosimeters require extensive experience to prepare and analyze, and are subject to large measurement uncertainties. This work aims to provide a more readily implementable 3D dosimeter with the development and characterization of a radiochromic film stack dosimeter for megavoltage photon beam dosimetry. A film stack dosimeter was developed using Gafchromic(®) EBT2 films. The dosimeter consists of 22 films separated by 1 mm-thick spacers. A Virtual Water™ phantom was created that maintains the radial film alignment within a maximum uncertainty of 0.3 mm. The film stack dosimeter was characterized using simulations and measurements of 6 MV fields. The absorbed-dose energy dependence and orientation dependence of the film stack dosimeter were investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. The water equivalence of the dosimeter was determined by comparing percentage-depth-dose (PDD) profiles measured with the film stack dosimeter and simulated using Monte Carlo methods. Film stack dosimeter measurements were verified with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) microcube measurements. The film stack dosimeter was also used to verify the delivery of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) procedure. The absorbed-dose energy response of EBT2 film differs less than 1.5% between the calibration and film stack dosimeter geometries for a 6 MV spectrum. Over a series of beam angles ranging from normal incidence to parallel incidence, the overall variation in the response of the film stack dosimeter is within a range of 2.5%. Relative to the response to a normally incident beam, the film stack dosimeter exhibits a 1% under-response when the beam axis is parallel to the film

  15. Immobilization and stretching of 5'-pyrene-terminated DNA on carbon film deposited on electron microscope grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukanov, Alexandre; Filipov, Chavdar; Lecheva, Marta; Emin, Saim

    2015-11-01

    The immobilization and stretching of randomly coiled DNA molecules on hydrophobic carbon film is a challenging microscopic technique, which possess various applications, especially for genome sequencing. In this report the pyrenyl nucleus is used as an anchor moiety to acquire higher affinity of double stranded DNA to the graphite surface. DNA and pyrene are joined through a linker composed of four aliphatic methylene groups. For the preparation of pyrene-terminated DNA a multifunctional phosphoramidite monomer compound was designed. It contains pyrenylbutoxy group as an anchor moiety for π-stacking attachment to the carbon film, 2-cyanoethyloxy, and diisopropylamino as coupling groups for conjugation to activated oligonucleotide chain or DNA molecule. This monomer derivative was suitable for incorporation into automated solid-phase DNA synthesis and was attached to the 5' terminus of the DNA chain through a phosphodiester linkage. The successful immobilization and stretching of pyrene-terminated DNA was demonstrated by conventional 100 kV transmission electron microscope. The microscopic analysis confirmed the stretched shape of the negatively charged nucleic acid pieces on the hydrophobic carbon film. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase to Nanostructured Films of Polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)

    OpenAIRE

    Bhakta, Samir A; Benavidez, Tomas E; Garcia, Carlos D

    2014-01-01

    A critical step for the development of biosensors is the immobilization of the biorecognition element to the surface of a substrate. Among other materials that can be used as substrates, block copolymers have the untapped potential to provide significant advantages for the immobilization of proteins. To explore such possibility, this manuscript describes the fabrication and characterization of thin-films of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP). These films were then used to inv...

  17. Universal biomimetic preparation and immobilization of layered double hydroxide films and adsorption behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • An in situ method is developed for immobilization of nanoscale LDHs. • The universal method can be applied on multiple substrates. • The homogeneous LDHs film can be synthesis and immobilized in one step. • The LDHs film showed good adsorption performance towards anionic compounds. - Abstract: Preparation and immobilization of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) film onto multiple substrates is important and challenging in functional materials fields by date. In this work, a simple and universal polydopamine (PD)-based layer-by-layer assembly strategy was developed for the immobilization of LDHs film onto surfaces such as polypropylene chip, glass slides and metal coins. The surface of substrates was firstly modified by polydopamine functionalization, and then LDHs film was synthesized via urea method and directly immobilized on the PD layer by in situ growing strategy in one step. The PD layer as well as the final LDHs film was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern and X-ray photoelectron spectra. It has been demonstrated the formation of the dense and homogeneous nanoscaled LDHs film with 400 nm thickness. Adsorption behavior of the fabricated NiAl-LDHs film toward anionic dyes and pharmaceuticals was further assessed. To demonstrate their extensive application, fast and high efficient adsorption of anionic dyes and pharmaceuticals was achieved by NiAl-LDHs-modified polypropylene centrifugal tube.

  18. Improvement of the homogeneity of protein-imprinted polymer films by orientated immobilization of the template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Lijian; Zheng Jingjing; Fang Guijie [Key Laboratory of Fermentation Engineering (Ministry of Education), College of Bioengineering, Hubei University of Technology, Nanhu Li Jia Dun 1, Wuhan 430068 (China); Xie Weihong, E-mail: weihong.xie@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Fermentation Engineering (Ministry of Education), College of Bioengineering, Hubei University of Technology, Nanhu Li Jia Dun 1, Wuhan 430068 (China)

    2012-05-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPH was genetically modified at its C-terminal with (Gly-Ser){sub 5}-Cys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPH-L was immobilized with fixed orientation via disulfide chemistry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The immobilized MPH-L retained the activity of MPH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPH-L formed a homogeneous template. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneous MIP film was obtained with orientated immobilization of the template. - Abstract: A method for preparing homogeneous protein-imprinted polymer films with orientated immobilization of template is described. The template methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) was modified with a peptide linker (Gly-Ser){sub 5}-Cys and was immobilized on a cover glass with a fixed orientation via the linker. The activity of the fusion enzyme (MPH-L) was evaluated by determining the product's absorbance at 405 nm (A{sub 405}). Both the free and the immobilized MPH-L showed higher retention of the bioactivity than the wide type enzyme (MPH-W) as revealed by the A{sub 405} values for MPH-L{sub free}/MPH-W{sub free} (1.159/1.111) and for MPH-L{sub immobilized}/MPH-W{sub immobilized} (0.348/0.118). The immobilized MPH-L also formed a more homogeneous template stamp compared to the immobilized MPH-W. The molecularly imprinted polymer films prepared with the immobilized MPH-L exhibited high homogeneity with low Std. Deviations of 80 and 200 from the CL intensity mean volumes which were observed for batch-prepared films and an individual film, respectively. MPH-L-imprinted polymer film also had a larger template binding capacity indicated by higher CL intensity mean volume of 3900 INT over 2500 INT for MPH-W-imprinted films. The imprinted film prepared with the orientated immobilization of template showed an imprinting factor of 1.7, while the controls did not show an imprinting effect.

  19. Finite Element Analysis of Film Stack Architecture for Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuo-Tsai; Hwang, Sheng-Jye; Lee, Huei-Huang

    2017-05-02

    Image sensors are the core components of computer, communication, and consumer electronic products. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have become the mainstay of image-sensing developments, but are prone to leakage current. In this study, we simulate the CMOS image sensor (CIS) film stacking process by finite element analysis. To elucidate the relationship between the leakage current and stack architecture, we compare the simulated and measured leakage currents in the elements. Based on the analysis results, we further improve the performance by optimizing the architecture of the film stacks or changing the thin-film material. The material parameters are then corrected to improve the accuracy of the simulation results. The simulated and experimental results confirm a positive correlation between measured leakage current and stress. This trend is attributed to the structural defects induced by high stress, which generate leakage. Using this relationship, we can change the structure of the thin-film stack to reduce the leakage current and thereby improve the component life and reliability of the CIS components.

  20. Ellipsometry investigation of perovskite/pyrochlore PZT thin film stacks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deineka, Alexander; Glinchuk, M. D.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Suchaneck, G.; Gerlach, G.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 258, - (2001), s. 271-276 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015; GA ČR GA202/00/1425 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ferroelectric film * depth profile * interface Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.471, year: 2001

  1. Spontaneous stacking of purple membranes during immobilization with physical cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel with retaining native-like functionality of bacteriorhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yasunori; Tanaka, Hikaru; Yano, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kikukawa, Takashi; Sonoyama, Masashi; Takenaka, Koshi

    2017-05-01

    We previously discovered the correlation between light-induced chromophore color change of a photo-receptor membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and its two-dimensional crystalline state in the membrane. To apply this phenomenon to a novel optical memory device, it is necessary that bR molecules are immobilized as maintaining their structure and functional properties. In this work, a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel with physical cross-linkages (hydrogen bonds between PVA chains) that resulted from repeated freezing-and-thawing (FT) cycles was used as an immobilization medium. To investigate the effects of physically cross-linked PVA gelation on the structure and function of bR in purple membranes (PMs), spectroscopic techniques were employed against PM/PVA immobilized samples prepared with different FT cycle numbers. Visible circular dichroism spectroscopy strongly suggested PM stacking during gelation. X-ray diffraction data also indicated the PM stacking as well as its native-like crystalline lattice even after gelation. Time-resolved absorption spectroscopy showed that bR photocycle behaviors in PM/PVA immobilized samples were almost identical to that in suspension. These results suggested that a physically cross-linked PVA hydrogel is appropriate for immobilizing membrane proteins in terms of maintaining their structure and functionality.

  2. Band Gap Grading of Stacked Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seonghyun; Sohn, So Hyeong; Shim, Hyeong Seop; Park, Seung Min; Song, Jae Kyu [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byoung Koun [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The band gap energy of CIGS, which depends on the composition variation and strain effect, can influence the collection and recombination of photocarriers. The solar cell efficiency is improved by the graded band gap in the absorber layer due to the enhanced carrier collection and the reduced carrier recombination. In our previous study, the photovoltaic performance of solar cells was affected by the stacking combination of layers, where the solar cell with dense-bottom and porous-top layers showed better performance than that with a reversely stacked structure. We studied the stacking effect of CIGS thin films. The stacking did not change E {sub g} of each layer, which led to the double grading of E {sub g} along the depth of the stacked films, mainly due to the difference in E {sub g} between the dense and porous layers. The higher degree of the grading in A+B+A improved J {sub sc}. However, the higher density of the defect states in A+B+A reduced V {sub oc}, which was inferred by the short lifetime of the carriers and the broad bandwidth of photoluminescence. Overall, the efficiency of A+B+A was only slightly improved compared to that of B+A.

  3. Prediction of residual stress distribution in multi-stacked thin film by curvature measurement and iterative FEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyeon Chang; Park, Jun Hyub

    2005-01-01

    In this study, residual stress distribution in multi-stacked film by MEMS (Micro-Electro Mechanical System) process is predicted using Finite Element Method (FEM). We develop a finite element program for REsidual Stress Analysis (RESA) in multi-stacked film. The RESA predicts the distribution of residual stress field in multi-stacked film. Curvatures of multi-stacked film and single layers which consist of the multi-stacked film are used as the input to the RESA. To measure those curvatures is easier than to measure a distribution of residual stress. To verify the RESA, mean stresses and stress gradients of single and multilayers are measured. The mean stresses are calculated from curvatures of deposited wafer by using Stoney's equation. The stress gradients are calculated from the vertical deflection at the end of cantilever beam. To measure the mean stress of each layer in multi-stacked film, we measure the curvature of wafer with the film after etching layer by layer in multi-stacked film

  4. Immobilization of biomolecules on cysteamine-modified polyaniline film for highly sensitive biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qi; Xu, Baojian; Ye, Lin; Di, Zengfeng; Zhang, Jishen; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Xue, Jian; Chen, Xianfeng

    2014-03-01

    We present a new cysteamine (CS)-modified polyaniline (PANI) film for highly efficient immobilization of biomolecules in biosensing technology. This electrochemical deposited PANI film treated with CS and glutaraldehyde could be employed as an excellent substrate for biomolecules immobilization. The parameters of PANI growth were optimized to obtain suitable surface morphology of films for biomolecules combination with the help of electron and atomic force microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was utilized to illustrate the different electrochemical activities of each modified electrode. Due to the existence of sulfydryl group and amino group in CS, surface modification with CS was proven to reduce oxidized units on PANI film remarkably, as evidenced by both ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy characterizations. Furthermore, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as the model protein to investigate the immobilization efficiency of biomolecules on the PANI film, comparative study using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) showed that BSA immobilized on CS-modified PANI could be increased by at least 20% than that without CS-modified PANI in BSA solution with the concentration of 0.1-1mg/mL. The CS-modified PANI film would be significant for the immobilization and detection of biomolecules and especially promising in the application of immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. P-111 : a thin film encapsulation stack for PLED and OLED displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assche, van F.J.H.; Vangheluwe, R.T.; Maes, J.W.C.; Mischke, W.S.; Bijker, M.D.; Dings, F.C.; Evers, M.F.J.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    For a thin film (<1 µm) encapsulation stack consisting of only 3 plasma deposited silicon nitride layers separated by a thin (<100 nm) organic layer, a water permeation rate of below 10–5 g/m2 per day at 50 °C and 50% rH has been measured using the Ca test. PLED lifetimes of over 500 hours at 60 °C

  6. Immobilization of glucose oxidase to nanostructured films of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Samir A; Benavidez, Tomas E; Garcia, Carlos D

    2014-09-15

    A critical step for the development of biosensors is the immobilization of the biorecognition element to the surface of a substrate. Among other materials that can be used as substrates, block copolymers have the untapped potential to provide significant advantages for the immobilization of proteins. To explore such possibility, this manuscript describes the fabrication and characterization of thin-films of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP). These films were then used to investigate the immobilization of glucose oxidase, a model enzyme for the development of biosensors. According to the results presented, the nanoporous films can provide significant increases in surface area of the substrate and the immobilization of larger amounts of active enzyme. The characterization of the substrate-enzyme interface discussed in the manuscript aims to provide critical information about relationship between the surface (material, geometry, and density of pores), the protein structure, and the immobilization conditions (pH, and protein concentration) required to improve the catalytic activity and stability of the enzymes. A maximum normalized activity of 3300±700 U m(-2) was achieved for the nanoporous film of PS-b-P2VP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on optimization of YBCO thin film stack for compact NMR magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Kimoto, T.; Hahn, S.; Iwasa, Y.; Voccio, J.; Tomita, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Stacking methods for compact NMR magnet using YBCO thin films were tested. ► The stacking angles are 0°, 22.5° and 90° against the rolling direction. ► The best spatial field homogeneity was obtained in rotation angle of 22.5°. ► The maximum trapped magnetic fields of 0.4 T was obtained at 77.4 K. ► The maximum trapped magnetic fields of 0.95 T was obtained at 21 K. -- Abstract: A compact high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet, which consists of a stack of 500 HTS thin film annuli, was constructed and tested. Each thin film annulus, manufactured by the AMSC using the Rolling Assisted Bi-axially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) method, has a square cross-section of 40 mm × 40 mm with a thickness of 80 m. It has a 25-mm center hole created by machining. This paper reports a study on the anisotropic J c issue due to the rolling procedure of the Ni substrate direction and its impact on field homogeneity. Also, three different stacking methods with rotation angles of 22.5°, 90°, and 0° against the rolling direction have been tested to study their impacts on strength, spatial homogeneity, and temporal stability of trapped fields. Finally, the 500-annulus magnet was tested at 21 K under a cryogen-free environment using a GM cryocooler. The spatial field homogeneity and temporal stability were measured at 21 K and compared with those obtained in a bath of liquid nitrogen at 77 K

  8. Yttrium scandate thin film as alternative high-permittivity dielectric for germanium gate stack formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Cimang, E-mail: cimang@adam.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Lee, Choong Hyun; Nishimura, Tomonori; Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST, CREST, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    We investigated yttrium scandate (YScO{sub 3}) as an alternative high-permittivity (k) dielectric thin film for Ge gate stack formation. Significant enhancement of k-value is reported in YScO{sub 3} comparing to both of its binary compounds, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}, without any cost of interface properties. It suggests a feasible approach to a design of promising high-k dielectrics for Ge gate stack, namely, the formation of high-k ternary oxide out of two medium-k binary oxides. Aggressive scaling of equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) with promising interface properties is presented by using YScO{sub 3} as high-k dielectric and yttrium-doped GeO{sub 2} (Y-GeO{sub 2}) as interfacial layer, for a demonstration of high-k gate stack on Ge. In addition, we demonstrate Ge n-MOSFET performance showing the peak electron mobility over 1000 cm{sup 2}/V s in sub-nm EOT region by YScO{sub 3}/Y-GeO{sub 2}/Ge gate stack.

  9. Effects of RGD immobilization on light-induced cell sheet detachment from TiO{sub 2} nanodots films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kui; Wang, Tiantian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yu, Mengliu [The Affiliated Stomatologic Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003 (China); Wan, Hongping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin, Jun [The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003 (China); Weng, Wenjian, E-mail: wengwj@zju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); The Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Huiming, E-mail: hmwang1960@hotmail.com [The Affiliated Stomatologic Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003 (China)

    2016-06-01

    Light-induced cell detachment is reported to be a safe and effective cell sheet harvest method. In the present study, the effects of arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD) immobilization on cell growth, cell sheet construction and cell harvest through light illumination are investigated. RGD was first immobilized on TiO{sub 2} nanodots films through simple physical adsorption, and then mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the films. It was found that RGD immobilization promoted cell adhesion and proliferation. It was also observed that cells cultured on RGD immobilized films showed relatively high level of pan-cadherin. Cells harvested with ultraviolet illumination (365 nm) showed good viability on both RGD immobilized and unmodified TiO{sub 2} nanodot films. Single cell detachment assay showed that cells detached more quickly on RGD immobilized TiO{sub 2} nanodot films. That could be ascribed to the RGD release after UV365 illumination. The current study demonstrated that RGD immobilization could effectively improve both the cellular responses and light-induced cell harvest. - Highlights: • RGD immobilization on TiO{sub 2} nanodots film favors light-induced cell sheet detachment. • Physically adsorbed RGD detaches from the film through ultraviolet illumination. • RGD detachment promotes cells and cell sheets detachment.

  10. Protein immobilization on epoxy-activated thin polymer films: effect of surface wettability and enzyme loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Pernodet, Nadine; Rafailovich, Miriam H; Bakhtina, Asya; Gross, Richard A

    2008-12-02

    A series of epoxy-activated polymer films composed of poly(glycidyl methacrylate/butyl methacrylate/hydroxyethyl methacrylate) were prepared. Variation in comonomer composition allowed exploration of relationships between surface wettability and Candida antartica lipase B (CALB) binding to surfaces. By changing solvents and polymer concentrations, suitable conditions were developed for preparation by spin-coating of uniform thin films. Film roughness determined by AFM after incubation in PBS buffer for 2 days was less than 1 nm. The occurrence of single CALB molecules and CALB aggregates at surfaces was determined by AFM imaging and measurements of volume. Absolute numbers of protein monomers and multimers at surfaces were used to determine values of CALB specific activity. Increased film wettability, as the water contact angle of films increased from 420 to 550, resulted in a decreased total number of immobilized CALB molecules. With further increases in the water contact angle of films from 55 degrees to 63 degrees, there was an increased tendency of CALB molecules to form aggregates on surfaces. On all flat surfaces, two height populations, differing by more than 30%, were observed from height distribution curves. They are attributed to changes in protein conformation and/or orientation caused by protein-surface and protein-protein interactions. The fraction of molecules in these populations changed as a function of film water contact angle. The enzyme activity of immobilized films was determined by measuring CALB-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Total enzyme specific activity decreased by decreasing film hydrophobicity.

  11. Simplified design of thin-film polarizing beam splitter using embedded symmetric trilayer stack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A

    2011-07-01

    An analytically tractable design procedure is presented for a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) that uses frustrated total internal reflection and optical tunneling by a symmetric LHL trilayer thin-film stack embedded in a high-index prism. Considerable simplification arises when the refractive index of the high-index center layer H matches the refractive index of the prism and its thickness is quarter-wave. This leads to a cube design in which zero reflection for the p polarization is achieved at a 45° angle of incidence independent of the thicknesses of the identical symmetric low-index tunnel layers L and L. Arbitrarily high reflectance for the s polarization is obtained at subwavelength thicknesses of the tunnel layers. This is illustrated by an IR Si-cube PBS that uses an embedded ZnS-Si-ZnS trilayer stack.

  12. Study on immobilizations of ovine anti-human IgG and MCAb against EHF on radiation-modified silicone films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinhui, Guo; Hongfei, Ha; Yuhua, Zhang [Beijing Univ., BJ (China). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1990-08-01

    Films of silicone (silastic) were grafted by monomer acrylamide vis {gamma}-radiation technology and then the ovine anti-human IgG, Epidemic hemorrhagic fever (EHF)-MCAb were immobilized on the silastic-AAM films with different grafting yields passthrough associate reactions. Measruements of relationships between grafting yields. Contents of immobilized antibodies and immunoactivities for immobilized silastic-AAM films were performed by using {sup 125}I method ELISA method was used to measure the immunoactivities for the immobilized monoantibody. The results showed that the antibodies used can be immobilized on radiation-grafted silicone films and this immobilization method has its potential significance in clinical practice.

  13. Study on immobilizations of ovine anti-human IgG and MCAb against EHF on radiation-modified silicone films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinhui; Ha Hongfei; Zhang Yuhua

    1990-01-01

    Films of silicone (silastic) were grafted by monomer acrylamide vis γ-radiation technology and then the ovine anti-human IgG, Epidemic hemorrhagic fever (EHF)-MCAb were immobilized on the silastic-AAM films with different grafting yields passthrough associate reactions. Measruements of relationships between grafting yields. Contents of immobilized antibodies and immunoactivities for immobilized silastic-AAM films were performed by using 125 I method ELISA method was used to measure the immunoactivities for the immobilized monoantibody. The results showed that the antibodies used can be immobilized on radiation-grafted silicone films and this immobilization method has its potential significance in clinical practice

  14. Rapid ELISA Using a Film-Stack Reaction Field with Micropillar Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuma; Morioka, Kazuhiro; Ohata, Soichiro; Shimizu, Tetsuhide; Nakajima, Hizuru; Uchiyama, Katsumi; Yang, Ming

    2017-07-11

    A film-stack reaction field with a micropillar array using a motor stirrer was developed for the high sensitivity and rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reaction. The effects of the incubation time of a protein (30 s, 5 min, and 10 min) on the fluorescence intensity in ELISAs were investigated using a reaction field with different micropillar array dimensions (5-µm, 10-µm and 50-µm gaps between the micropillars). The difference in fluorescence intensity between the well with the reaction field of 50-µm gap for the incubation time of 30 s and the well without the reaction field with for incubation time of 10 min was 6%. The trend of the fluorescence intensity in the gap between the micro pillars in the film-stack reaction field was different between the short incubation time and the long incubation time. The theoretical analysis of the physical parameters related with the biomolecule transport indicated that the reaction efficiency defined in this study was the dominant factor determining the fluorescence intensity for the short incubation time, whereas the volumetric rate of the circulating flow through the space between films and the specific surface area were the dominant factors for the long incubation time.

  15. Oxygen-induced immediate onset of the antiferromagnetic stacking in thin Cr films on Fe(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, Giulia, E-mail: giulia.berti@polimi.it; Brambilla, Alberto; Calloni, Alberto; Bussetti, Gianlorenzo; Finazzi, Marco; Duò, Lamberto; Ciccacci, Franco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-04-20

    We investigated the magnetic coupling of ultra-thin Cr films grown at 600 K on a Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O substrate by means of spin-polarized photoemission spectroscopy. Our findings show that the expected antiferromagnetic stacking of the magnetization in Cr(001) layers occurs right from the first atomic layer at the Cr/Fe interface. This is at variance with all previous observations in similar systems, prepared in oxygen-free conditions, which always reported on a delayed onset of the magnetic oscillations due to the occurrence of significant chemical alloying at the interface, which is substantially absent in our preparation.

  16. Surface engineering of Ti-O films by photochemical immobilization of gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Y.J.; Ren, J.R.; Huang, N.; Wang, J.; Chen, J.Y.; Leng, Y.X.; Liu, H.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Crystalline Ti-O films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering and the structure was confirmed by XRD. An organic layer of 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid (APP) was first introduced on the Ti-O films by self-assembling. The stability of the APP on Ti-O films was confirmed by XPS and FTIR analysis. Simultaneously, azido group was introduced in gelatin molecule to act as photoreactive point. The derivated gelatin was spin-coated onto the self-assembled layer and immobilized by UV irradiating. Chemical patterned surface was obtained by using a photomask when irradiating and confirmed by sirius red staining and surface profile analysis. Measured by surface profilometer, the thickness of the immobilized gelatin was about 5-20 nm. The adhering of human endothelial EVC304 cells on APP modified surface was enhanced in the cell culture test. Moreover, the adherence and growth of cells were prior on gelatin-immobilized region visually seen on the patterned surface. This result indicated gelatin-immobilized Ti-O surface can serve as a biocompatible biomaterial for endothelialization

  17. Characterization of bioactive RGD peptide immobilized onto poly(acrylic acid) thin films by plasma polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyun Suk; Ko, Yeong Mu; Shim, Jae Won [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, MRC Center, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yun Kyong; Kook, Joong-Ki [Department of Oral Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Dong-Lyun [School of Applied Chemical Engineering and Center for Functional Nano Fine Chemicals, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Hoon, E-mail: kim5055@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, MRC Center, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-01

    Plasma surface modification can be used to improve the surface properties of commercial pure Ti by creating functional groups to produce bioactive materials with different surface topography. In this study, a titanium surface was modified with acrylic acid (AA) using a plasma treatment and immobilized with bioactive arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide, which may accelerate the tissue integration of bone implants. Both terminals containing the -NH{sub 2} of RGD peptide sequence and -COOH of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) thin film were combined with a covalent bond in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC). The chemical structure and morphology of AA film and RGD immobilized surface were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All chemical analysis showed full coverage of the Ti substrate with the PAA thin film containing COOH groups and the RGD peptide. The MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on each specimen, and the cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were examined. The surface-immobilized RGD peptide has a significantly increased the ALP activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. These results suggest that the RGD peptide immobilization on the titanium surface has an effect on osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and potential use in osteo-conductive bone implants.

  18. Preparation and characterization of porphyrin-polythiophene stacked films as prepared by electrochemical method under stirring condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawa, Kosuke; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Sunao

    2008-01-01

    Porphyrin-polythiophene (pTh) stacked films consisting of meso-tetrathienylporphyrin (TThP) and bithiophene (BiTh) were prepared on transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes by sequential electrochemical scanning of applied potential between 0 and + 2 V vs Ag wire in the electrolyte solution of BiTh and TThP under stirring condition. First, the pTh films were prepared by electrochemical polymerization and then TThP was incorporated into the as-prepared pTh film by subsequent electrochemical scanning as described above in the TThP solution. The operation of solution stirring during electrochemical scanning achieved the formation of robust stacked films. UV/Vis and fluorescence spectra confirmed that the amount of TThP moiety increased with increasing the number of electrochemical scanning cycles in the TThP solution. In order to evaluate the incorporation profile of TThP, surface analyses and depth profiles of stacked films were carried out by XPS spectroscopy. The results suggested that all films formed porphyrin-polythiophene stacked structure precisely, and that TThP was exclusively incorporated around the outermost region of the pTh film

  19. Direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase immobilized on electrografted 4-ethynylphenyl film via click chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Qin; Peng Ru; Liang Cong; Ye Siqiu; Xian Yuezhong; Zhang Wenjing; Jin Litong

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hydrogen peroxide biosensor was developed based on electrochemically assisted aryldiazonium salt chemistry and click chemistry. Highlights: → A simple, versatile two-step approach, which is based on electrochemically assisted aryldiazonium salt chemistry and Cu(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has been developed for covalent redox proteins immobilization and biosensing for the first time. In this work, azido group modified HRP was covalently grafted on 4-ethylnylphenyl diazonium compound via CuAAC reaction and a novel electrochemical hydrogen peroxide biosensor was successfully fabricated. - Abstract: In this paper, a simple two-step approach for redox protein immobilization was introduced. Firstly, alkynyl-terminated film was formed on electrode surface by electrochemical reduction of 4-ethylnylphenyl (4-EP) diazonium compound. Then, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) modified with azido group was covalently immobilized onto the electrografted film via click reaction. Reflection absorption infrared (RAIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the modification process. The results indicate that HRP retains its native structure and shows fast direct electron transfer. Moreover, the immobilized HRP shows excellent electrocatalytic reduction activity toward H 2 O 2 with a linear range of 5.0 x 10 -6 to 9.3 x 10 -4 mol L -1 .

  20. Direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase immobilized on electrografted 4-ethynylphenyl film via click chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ran Qin; Peng Ru; Liang Cong; Ye Siqiu [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Xian Yuezhong, E-mail: yzxian@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhang Wenjing; Jin Litong [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2011-07-04

    Graphical abstract: Hydrogen peroxide biosensor was developed based on electrochemically assisted aryldiazonium salt chemistry and click chemistry. Highlights: > A simple, versatile two-step approach, which is based on electrochemically assisted aryldiazonium salt chemistry and Cu(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has been developed for covalent redox proteins immobilization and biosensing for the first time. In this work, azido group modified HRP was covalently grafted on 4-ethylnylphenyl diazonium compound via CuAAC reaction and a novel electrochemical hydrogen peroxide biosensor was successfully fabricated. - Abstract: In this paper, a simple two-step approach for redox protein immobilization was introduced. Firstly, alkynyl-terminated film was formed on electrode surface by electrochemical reduction of 4-ethylnylphenyl (4-EP) diazonium compound. Then, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) modified with azido group was covalently immobilized onto the electrografted film via click reaction. Reflection absorption infrared (RAIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the modification process. The results indicate that HRP retains its native structure and shows fast direct electron transfer. Moreover, the immobilized HRP shows excellent electrocatalytic reduction activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with a linear range of 5.0 x 10{sup -6} to 9.3 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}.

  1. Triclosan-immobilized polyamide thin film composite membranes with enhanced biofouling resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hee; Hwang, Seon Oh; Kim, Taek-Seung; Cho, Arah; Kwon, Soon Jin; Kim, Kyoung Taek; Park, Hee-Deung; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2018-06-01

    We report on a strategy to improve biofouling resistance of a polyamide (PA) thin-film composite (TFC) reverse osmosis (RO) membrane via chemically immobilizing triclosan (TC), known as a common organic biocide, on its surface. To facilitate covalent attachment of TC on the membrane surface, TC was functionalized with amine moiety to prepare aminopropyl TC. Then, the TC-immobilized TFC (TFC-TC) membranes were fabricated through a one-step amide formation reaction between amine groups of aminopropyl TC and acyl chloride groups present on the PA membrane surface, which was confirmed by high-resolution XPS. Strong stability of the immobilized TC was also confirmed by a hydraulic washing test. Although the TFC-TC membrane showed slightly reduced separation performance compared to the pristine control, it still maintained a satisfactory RO performance level. Importantly, the TFC-TC membrane exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against both gram negative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and gram positive (S. aureus) bacteria along with greatly enhanced resistance to biofilm formation. Our immobilization approach offers a robust and relatively benign strategy to control biofouling of functional surfaces, films and membranes.

  2. Immobilization of Ochrobactrum tritici As5 on PTFE thin films for arsenite biofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Rita; Sousa, Tânia; Piedade, Ana P; Morais, Paula V

    2016-03-01

    Ochrobactrum tritici SCII24T bacteria is an environmental strain with high capacity to resist to arsenic (As) toxicity, which makes it able to grow in the presence of As(III). The inactivation of the two functional arsenite efflux pumps, ArsB and ACR3_1, resulted in the mutant O. tritici As5 exhibiting a high accumulation of arsenite. This work describes a method for the immobilization of the mutant cells O. tritici As5, on a commercial polymeric net after sputtered modified by the deposition of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) thin films, and demonstrates the capacity of immobilized cells to accumulate arsenic from solutions. Six different set of deposition parameters for PTFE thin films were developed and tested in vitro regarding their ability to immobilize the bacterial cells. The surface that exhibited a mild zeta potential value, hydrophobic characteristics, the lowest surface free energy but with a high polar component and the appropriate ratio of chemical reactive groups allowed cells to proliferate and to grow as a biofilm. These immobilized cells maintained their ability to accumulate the surrounding arsenite, making it a great arsenic biofilter to be used in bioremediation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrochemical Biosensor for Nitrite Based on Polyacrylic-Graphene Composite Film with Covalently Immobilized Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Zaidatul Akhmar Raja Jamaluddin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new biosensor for the analysis of nitrite in food was developed based on hemoglobin (Hb covalently immobilized on the succinimide functionalized poly(n-butyl acrylate-graphene [poly(nBA-rGO] composite film deposited on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode (SPE. The immobilized Hb on the poly(nBA-rGO conducting matrix exhibited electrocatalytic ability for the reduction of nitrite with significant enhancement in the reduction peak at −0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Thus, direct determination of nitrite can be achieved by monitoring the cathodic peak current signal of the proposed polyacrylic-graphene hybrid film-based voltammetric nitrite biosensor. The nitrite biosensor exhibited a reproducible dynamic linear response range from 0.05–5 mg L−1 nitrite and a detection limit of 0.03 mg L−1. No significant interference was observed by potential interfering ions such as Ca2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, and NO3− ions. Analysis of nitrite in both raw and processed edible bird’s nest (EBN samples demonstrated recovery of close to 100%. The covalent immobilization of Hb on poly(nBA-rGO composite film has improved the performance of the electrochemical nitrite biosensor in terms of broader detection range, lower detection limit, and prolonged biosensor stability.

  4. A novel method to immobilize collagen on polypropylene film as substrate for hepatocyte culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Wang Wenjie; Feng Qingling; Cui Fuzhai; Xu Yingxin

    2006-01-01

    To improve the biocompatibility of polypropylene membrane with hepatocytes, film was firstly allowed to generate peroxide groups by ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) thermal decomposition and was then carboxylated by free radical grafting polymerization using acrylic acid as the monomer and ferrous(II) ions as redox initiator. Collagen was then covalently immobilized through amide bonds between the residue amine groups and carboxylic ones in the presence of water-soluble carbodiimide. The film was characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (ATR-FTIR), X-photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), etc. The experimental results show that there exist hydroperoxide groups after APS aqueous thermal decomposition, which are subsequently converted into the polymeric free radicals initiating the vinyl monomers to subject grafting polymerization. The maximum collagen immobilization content is about 10.5 μg/cm 2 by ninhydrin assay. Hepatocytes cultured on collagen immobilized film show stable phenotype and normal liver-specific functions more than 20 days as observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and biochemical parameters determination

  5. A novel method to immobilize collagen on polypropylene film as substrate for hepatocyte culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yong [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Wenjie [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng Qingling [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Cui Fuzhai [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Yingxin [Institute of General Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2006-05-15

    To improve the biocompatibility of polypropylene membrane with hepatocytes, film was firstly allowed to generate peroxide groups by ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) thermal decomposition and was then carboxylated by free radical grafting polymerization using acrylic acid as the monomer and ferrous(II) ions as redox initiator. Collagen was then covalently immobilized through amide bonds between the residue amine groups and carboxylic ones in the presence of water-soluble carbodiimide. The film was characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (ATR-FTIR), X-photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), etc. The experimental results show that there exist hydroperoxide groups after APS aqueous thermal decomposition, which are subsequently converted into the polymeric free radicals initiating the vinyl monomers to subject grafting polymerization. The maximum collagen immobilization content is about 10.5 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} by ninhydrin assay. Hepatocytes cultured on collagen immobilized film show stable phenotype and normal liver-specific functions more than 20 days as observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and biochemical parameters determination.

  6. Ordered mesoporous polyaniline film as a new matrix for enzyme immobilization and biosensor construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qin; Zhu Junjie; Hu Xiaoya

    2007-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous polyaniline film has been fabricated by electrodepositing from the hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystalline (LCC). Horseradish peroxidase (HRP), as a symbol biomolecule, was successfully immobilized on the film to construct a new kind of hydrogen peroxide biosensor. The biosensor combined the advantages of the good conductivity of polyaniline and the higher surface area of the ordered mesoporous film. Polyaniline could be served as a wire to relay electron between HRP and the electrode. The high surface area of the film supplied more sites for HRP immobilization, therefore increased the catalytic activity of the biosensor. The ordered mesoporous character of the film increased the rate of mass transport, which resulted in the improvement of sensor response and linearity. The biosensor displayed excellent electrocatalytic response to the detection of H 2 O 2 in a concentration range from 1.0 μM to 2.0 mM with a detection limit of 0.63 μM. Good reproducibility, stability, high precision, wide linearity and low detection limit were assessed for the biosensor

  7. A facile and efficient method of enzyme immobilization on silica particles via Michael acceptor film coatings: immobilized catalase in a plug flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Genc, Aysenur; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Ince, Ahmet; Bicak, Niyazi

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for facile immobilization of enzymes on silica surfaces. Herein, we describe a single-step strategy for generating of reactive double bonds capable of Michael addition on the surfaces of silica particles. This method was based on reactive thin film generation on the surfaces by heating of impregnated self-curable polymer, alpha-morpholine substituted poly(vinyl methyl ketone) p(VMK). The generated double bonds were demonstrated to be an efficient way for rapid incorporation of enzymes via Michael addition. Catalase was used as model enzyme in order to test the effect of immobilization methodology by the reactive film surface through Michael addition reaction. Finally, a plug flow type immobilized enzyme reactor was employed to estimate decomposition rate of hydrogen peroxide. The highly stable enzyme reactor could operate continuously for 120 h at 30 °C with only a loss of about 36 % of its initial activity.

  8. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical characterization of different mesoporous TiO2 film electrodes for the immobilization of Cytochrome c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiaounis, Stavros; Tiflidis, Christina; Tsekoura, Christina; Topoglidis, Emmanuel

    2018-03-01

    In this work three different mesoporous TiO2 film electrodes were prepared and used for the immobilization of Cytochrome c (Cyt-c). Films prepared via a standard sol-gel route (SG-films) were compared with commercially available benchmark nanotitania materials, namely P25 Degussa (P25-films) and Dyesol nanopaste (Dyesol films). Their properties, film deposition characteristics and their abilities to adsorb protein molecules in a stable and functional way were examined. We investigated whether it is possible, rather than preparing TiO2 films using multistep, lengthy and not always reproducible sol-gel procedures, to use commercially available nanotitania materials and produce reproducible films faster that exhibit all the properties that make TiO2 films ideal for protein immobilization. Although these materials are formulated primarily for dye-sensitized solar cell applications, in this study we found out that protein immobilization is facile and remarkably stable on all of them. We also investigated their electrochemical properties by using cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry and found out that not only direct reduction of Fe(III)-heme to Fe(II)-heme of immobilized Cyt-c was possible on all films but that the adsorbed protein remained electroactive.

  9. The impedance of inductive superconducting fault current limiters operating with stacks of thin film Y123/Au washers or bulk Bi2223 rings as secondaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J A Lorenzo; Osorio, M R; Toimil, P; Ferro, G; Blanch, M; Veira, J A; Vidal, F

    2006-01-01

    Inductive fault current limiters operating with stacks of various small superconducting elements acting as secondaries were studied. The stacks consist of Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thin film washers or Bi 1.8 Pb 0.26 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+x bulk rings. A central result of our work is an experimental demonstration that the limiting capability of the device is strongly reduced when several bulk rings are stacked, whereas it remains almost unchanged for thin film washers. The use of thin films should therefore allow us to build more efficient high power inductive limiters based on stacks of small washers

  10. Coloration principles of nymphaline butterflies - thin films, melanin, ommochromes and wing scale stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavenga, Doekele G; Leertouwer, Hein L; Wilts, Bodo D

    2014-06-15

    The coloration of the common butterflies Aglais urticae (small tortoiseshell), Aglais io (peacock) and Vanessa atalanta (red admiral), belonging to the butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae, is due to the species-specific patterning of differently coloured scales on their wings. We investigated the scales' structural and pigmentary properties by applying scanning electron microscopy, (micro)spectrophotometry and imaging scatterometry. The anatomy of the wing scales appears to be basically identical, with an approximately flat lower lamina connected by trabeculae to a highly structured upper lamina, which consists of an array of longitudinal, parallel ridges and transversal crossribs. Isolated scales observed at the abwing (upper) side are blue, yellow, orange, red, brown or black, depending on their pigmentation. The yellow, orange and red scales contain various amounts of 3-OH-kynurenine and ommochrome pigment, black scales contain a high density of melanin, and blue scales have a minor amount of melanin pigment. Observing the scales from their adwing (lower) side always revealed a structural colour, which is blue in the case of blue, red and black scales, but orange for orange scales. The structural colours are created by the lower lamina, which acts as an optical thin film. Its reflectance spectrum, crucially determined by the lamina thickness, appears to be well tuned to the scales' pigmentary spectrum. The colours observed locally on the wing are also due to the degree of scale stacking. Thin films, tuned pigments and combinations of stacked scales together determine the wing coloration of nymphaline butterflies. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Highly Conductive Transparent and Flexible Electrodes Including Double-Stacked Thin Metal Films for Transparent Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun Hee; Kim, Do-Hong; Jeong, Eun Gyo; Lee, Tae-Woo; Lee, Myung Keun; Park, Jeong Woo; Lee, Hoseung; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2017-05-17

    To keep pace with the era of transparent and deformable electronics, electrode functions should be improved. In this paper, an innovative structure is suggested to overcome the trade-off between optical and electrical properties that commonly arises with transparent electrodes. The structure of double-stacked metal films showed high conductivity (electronics are expected.

  12. Enantioselective resolution of (R,S)-1-phenylethanol catalyzed by lipases immobilized in starch films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Isabel; Silva, Vanessa D.; Nascimento, Maria da G.

    2011-01-01

    Lipases from different sources and two mycelium-bound lipases, in a free or immobilized form, in ginger starch film were screened as biocatalysts in the reaction of (R,S)-1-phenylethanol (1) with vinyl acetate and other acylating agents. The effect of various reaction parameters in the resolution of (1) catalyzed by lipase from Burkholderia cepacia (BCL) immobilized in ginger starch film was evaluated (acyl donor type, alcohol:acyl donor molar ratio, temperature and organic solvent). The catalytic efficiency of BCL immobilized in polymeric blends of ginger starch and polyethylene oxide (PEO), in different compositions, was also studied. Vinyl acetate and iso-propenyl acetate furnished the highest conversion (9%) and enantiomeric excess (> 99%) of the (R)-ester. The alcohol:acyl donor molar ratio and temperature optimum were 1:1 and 28 deg respectively. The mixture of n-hexane/glycerol (9:1 v:v) was the most adequate for this reaction (conversion 23%, E > 200). The ginger starch/PEO (7:3 m/m) blend was successfully reused six times consecutively. (author)

  13. Enantioselective resolution of (R,S)-1-phenylethanol catalyzed by lipases immobilized in starch films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Isabel; Silva, Vanessa D.; Nascimento, Maria da G., E-mail: graca@qmc.ufsc.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Lipases from different sources and two mycelium-bound lipases, in a free or immobilized form, in ginger starch film were screened as biocatalysts in the reaction of (R,S)-1-phenylethanol (1) with vinyl acetate and other acylating agents. The effect of various reaction parameters in the resolution of (1) catalyzed by lipase from Burkholderia cepacia (BCL) immobilized in ginger starch film was evaluated (acyl donor type, alcohol:acyl donor molar ratio, temperature and organic solvent). The catalytic efficiency of BCL immobilized in polymeric blends of ginger starch and polyethylene oxide (PEO), in different compositions, was also studied. Vinyl acetate and iso-propenyl acetate furnished the highest conversion (9%) and enantiomeric excess (> 99%) of the (R)-ester. The alcohol:acyl donor molar ratio and temperature optimum were 1:1 and 28 deg respectively. The mixture of n-hexane/glycerol (9:1 v:v) was the most adequate for this reaction (conversion 23%, E > 200). The ginger starch/PEO (7:3 m/m) blend was successfully reused six times consecutively. (author)

  14. Alternating stacking of ferromagnetic nanosheet and nanoparticle films: heteroassembly and magneto-optical Kerr effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Baoping, E-mail: baoping.jia@cczu.edu.cn [Changzhou University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wei.zhang@unisa.edu.au [University of Tokyo, Department of Urban Engineering (Japan); Liu, Hui [Central South University, School of Metallurgy and Environment, National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution (China); Lin, Bencai; Ding, Jianning [Changzhou University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-09-15

    Heterostructured multilayer films of two different nanocrystals have been successfully fabricated by layer-by-layer stacking of Ti{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} nanosheet and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle films. UV–Vis spectroscopy and AFM observation confirmed the successful alternating deposition in the multilayer buildup process. The average thickness of both Ti{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} nanosheet and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle layers was determined to be about 1.4–1.7 and 5 nm, which was in good agreement with TEM results. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements demonstrated that the heteroassemblies exhibit gigantic magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) (2 × 10{sup 4} deg/cm) at 320–360 nm, deriving from strong interlayer [Co{sup 2+}]t{sub 2g}–[Fe{sup 3+}]e{sub g} d–d charge transfer which was further confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Their structure-dependent MCD showed high potential in rational design and construction of high-efficiency magneto-optical devices.

  15. Alternating stacking of ferromagnetic nanosheet and nanoparticle films: heteroassembly and magneto-optical Kerr effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Baoping; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Lin, Bencai; Ding, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    Heterostructured multilayer films of two different nanocrystals have been successfully fabricated by layer-by-layer stacking of Ti_0_._8Co_0_._2O_2 nanosheet and Fe_3O_4 nanoparticle films. UV–Vis spectroscopy and AFM observation confirmed the successful alternating deposition in the multilayer buildup process. The average thickness of both Ti_0_._8Co_0_._2O_2 nanosheet and Fe_3O_4 nanoparticle layers was determined to be about 1.4–1.7 and 5 nm, which was in good agreement with TEM results. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements demonstrated that the heteroassemblies exhibit gigantic magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) (2 × 10"4 deg/cm) at 320–360 nm, deriving from strong interlayer [Co"2"+]t_2_g–[Fe"3"+]e_g d–d charge transfer which was further confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Their structure-dependent MCD showed high potential in rational design and construction of high-efficiency magneto-optical devices.

  16. CZTS absorber layer for thin film solar cells from electrodeposited metallic stacked precursors (Zn/Cu-Sn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M.I., E-mail: mdibrahim.khalil@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy); Atici, O. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy); Lucotti, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Binetti, S.; Le Donne, A. [Department of Materials Science and Solar Energy Research Centre (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano- Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Magagnin, L., E-mail: luca.magagnin@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • CZTS absorber layer was fabricated by electrodeposition—annealing route from stacked bilayer precursor (Zn/Cu-Sn). • Different characterization techniques have ensured the well formed Kesterite CZTS along the film thickness also. • Two different excitation wavelengths of laser lines (514.5 and 785 nm) have been used for the Raman characterization of the films. • No significant Sn loss is observed in CZTS films after the sulfurization of the stacked bilayer precursors. • Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals the PL peak of CZTS at 1.15 eV at low temperature (15 K). - Abstract: In the present work, Kesterite-Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films were successfully synthesized from stacked bilayer precursor (Zn/Cu-Sn) through electrodeposition-annealing route. Adherent and homogeneous Cu-poor, Zn-rich stacked metal Cu-Zn-Sn precursors with different compositions were sequentially electrodeposited, in the order of Zn/Cu-Sn onto Mo foil substrates. Subsequently, stacked layers were soft annealed at 350 °C for 20 min in flowing N{sub 2} atmosphere in order to improve intermixing of the elements. Then, sulfurization was completed at 585 °C for 15 min in elemental sulfur environment in a quartz tube furnace with N{sub 2} atmosphere. Morphological, compositional and structural properties of the films were investigated using SEM, EDS and XRD methods. Raman spectroscopy with two different excitation lines (514.5 and 785 nm), has been carried out on the sulfurized films in order to fully characterize the CZTS phase. Higher excitation wavelength showed more secondary phases, but with low intensities. Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) has also been performed on films showing well formed Kesterite CZTS along the film thickness as compositions of the elements do not change along the thickness. In order to investigate the electronic structure of the CZTS, Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been carried out on the films, whose

  17. Modification of polyethylene films by radiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate and immobilization of {beta}-cyclodextrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava-Ortiz, C.A.B. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Burillo, G. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail: burillo@nucleares.unam.mx; Bucio, E. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Alvarez-Lorenzo, C. [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnologia Farmaceutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Glycidyl methacrylate was grafted onto polyethylene films using a preirradiation method with {gamma} rays. The effect of absorbed dose, monomer concentration, and reaction time on the degree of grafting was determined. The grafted samples were verified by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. {beta}-Cyclodextrin was immobilized onto polypropylene modified with glycidyl methacrylate, and the ability of the cavities of {beta}-cyclodextrin to form inclusion complexes was demonstrated using the typically organic compound approach with m-toluic acid (3-MBA) as a probe.

  18. Covalent immobilization of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase on polyaniline films for application to cholesterol biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Suman [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Solanki, Pratima R. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Pandey, M.K. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Malhotra, B.D. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)]. E-mail: bansi@mail.nplindia.ernet.in

    2006-05-24

    Cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) have been covalently immobilized on electrochemically prepared polyaniline (PANI) films. These PANI/ChEt/ChOx enzyme films have been characterized using UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical behavior of these films has been studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric techniques, respectively. The PANI/ChEt/ChOx enzyme films show broad oxidation peak from 0.2 to 0.5 V. These PANI/ChEt/ChOx biosensing electrodes have a response time of about 40 s, linearity from 50 to 500 mg/dl of cholesterol oleate concentration. These PANI/ChEt/ChOx films are thermally stable up to 46 deg. C. This polyaniline based cholesterol biosensor has optimum pH in the range of 6.5-7.5, sensitivity as 7.5 x 10{sup -4} nA/mg dl and a lifetime of about 6 weeks.

  19. Immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenase in phospholipid Langmuir-Blodgett films to detect ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseli, Luciano; Perinotto, Angelo C; Viitala, Tapani; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2009-03-03

    Enzyme immobilization in nanostructured films may be useful for a number of biomimetic systems, particularly if suitable matrixes are identified. Here we show that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has high affinity toward a negatively charged phospholipid, dimyristoylphosphatidic acid (DMPA), which forms a Langmuir monolayer at an air-water interface. Incorporation of ADH into the DMPA monolayer was monitored with surface pressure measurements and polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, with the alpha-helices from ADH being mainly oriented parallel to the water surface. ADH remained at the interface even at high surface pressures, thus allowing deposition of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films from the DMPA-ADH film. Indeed, interaction with DMPA enhances the transfer of ADH, where the mass transferred onto a solid support increased from 134 ng for ADH on a Gibbs monolayer to 178 ng for an LB film with DMPA. With fluorescence spectroscopy it was possible to confirm that the ADH structure was preserved even after one month of the LB deposition. ADH-containing films deposited onto gold-interdigitated electrodes were employed in a sensor array capable of detecting ethanol at concentrations down to 10 ppb (in volume), using impedance spectroscopy as the method of detection.

  20. Preparation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Zhenghua; Yan Chang; Sun Kaiwen; Han Zili [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Fangyang, E-mail: liufangyang@csu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Jin [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lai Yanqing, E-mail: laiyanqingcsu@163.com [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li Jie; Liu Yexiang [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Earth-abundant Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} is a promising alternative photovoltaic material which has been examined as absorber layer of thin film solar cells. In this study, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films have been successfully fabricated by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The prepared CZTS thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Hall effect measurements and photoelectrochemical tests. Results reveal that the thin films have kesterite structured Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and the p-type conductivity with a carrier concentration in the order of 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and an optical band gap of 1.5 eV, which are suitable for applications in thin film solar cells.

  1. Broadband and wide angle near-unity absorption in graphene-insulator-metal thin film stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. J.; Zheng, G. G.; Chen, Y. Y.; Xu, L. H.

    2018-05-01

    Broadband unity absorption in graphene-insulator-metal (GIM) structures is demonstrated in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra. The spectral characteristics possess broadband absorption peaks, by simply choosing a stack of GIM, while no nanofabrication steps and patterning are required, and thus can be easily fabricated to cover a large area. The electromagnetic (EM) waves can be entirely trapped and the absorption can be greatly enhanced are verified with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) methods. The position and the number of the absorption peak can be totally controlled by adjusting the thickness of the insulator layer. The proposed absorber maintains high absorption (above 90%) for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations, and for angles of incidence up to 80°. This work opens up a promising approach to realize perfect absorption (PA) with ultra-thin film, which could implicate many potential applications in optical detection and optoelectronic devices.

  2. Efficient thin-film stack characterization using parametric sensitivity analysis for spectroscopic ellipsometry in semiconductor device fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhachev, D.V., E-mail: dmitriy.likhachev@globalfoundries.com

    2015-08-31

    During semiconductor device fabrication, control of the layer thicknesses is an important task for in-line metrology since the correct thickness values are essential for proper device performance. At the present time, ellipsometry is widely used for routine process monitoring and process improvement as well as characterization of various materials in the modern nanoelectronic manufacturing. The wide recognition of this technique is based on its non-invasive, non-intrusive and non-destructive nature, high measurement precision, accuracy and speed, and versatility to characterize practically all types of materials used in modern semiconductor industry (dielectrics, semiconductors, metals, polymers, etc.). However, it requires the use of one of the multi-parameter non-linear optimization methods due to its indirect nature. This fact creates a big challenge for analysis of multilayered structures since the number of simultaneously determined model parameters, for instance, thin film thicknesses and model variables related to film optical properties, should be restricted due to parameter cross-correlations. In this paper, we use parametric sensitivity analysis to evaluate the importance of various model parameters and to suggest their optimal search ranges. In this work, the method is applied practically for analysis of a few structures with up to five-layered film stack. It demonstrates an evidence-based improvement in accuracy of multilayered thin-film thickness measurements which suggests that the proposed approach can be useful for industrial applications. - Highlights: • An improved method for multilayered thin-film stack characterization is proposed. • The screening-type technique based on so-called “elementary effects” was employed. • The model parameters were ranked according to relative importance for model output. • The method is tested using two examples of complex thin-film stack characterization. • The approach can be useful in many practical

  3. Efficient thin-film stack characterization using parametric sensitivity analysis for spectroscopic ellipsometry in semiconductor device fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, D.V.

    2015-01-01

    During semiconductor device fabrication, control of the layer thicknesses is an important task for in-line metrology since the correct thickness values are essential for proper device performance. At the present time, ellipsometry is widely used for routine process monitoring and process improvement as well as characterization of various materials in the modern nanoelectronic manufacturing. The wide recognition of this technique is based on its non-invasive, non-intrusive and non-destructive nature, high measurement precision, accuracy and speed, and versatility to characterize practically all types of materials used in modern semiconductor industry (dielectrics, semiconductors, metals, polymers, etc.). However, it requires the use of one of the multi-parameter non-linear optimization methods due to its indirect nature. This fact creates a big challenge for analysis of multilayered structures since the number of simultaneously determined model parameters, for instance, thin film thicknesses and model variables related to film optical properties, should be restricted due to parameter cross-correlations. In this paper, we use parametric sensitivity analysis to evaluate the importance of various model parameters and to suggest their optimal search ranges. In this work, the method is applied practically for analysis of a few structures with up to five-layered film stack. It demonstrates an evidence-based improvement in accuracy of multilayered thin-film thickness measurements which suggests that the proposed approach can be useful for industrial applications. - Highlights: • An improved method for multilayered thin-film stack characterization is proposed. • The screening-type technique based on so-called “elementary effects” was employed. • The model parameters were ranked according to relative importance for model output. • The method is tested using two examples of complex thin-film stack characterization. • The approach can be useful in many practical

  4. Covalent immobilization of lysozyme on ethylene vinyl alcohol films for nonmigrating antimicrobial packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel-Galet, V; Talbert, J N; Hernandez-Munoz, P; Gavara, R; Goddard, J M

    2013-07-10

    The objective of this study was to develop a new antimicrobial film, in which lysozyme was covalently attached onto two different ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH 29 and EVOH 44). The EVOH surface was modified with UV irradiation treatment to generate carboxylic acid groups, and lysozyme was covalently attached to the functionalized polymer surface. Surface characterization of control and modified films was performed using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and dye assay. The value of protein loading after attachment on the surface was 8.49 μg protein/cm(2) and 5.74 μg protein/cm(2) for EVOH 29 and EVOH 44, respectively, after 10 min UV irradiation and bioconjugation. The efficacy of the EVOH-lysozyme films was assessed using Micrococcus lysodeikticus. The antimicrobial activity of the films was tested against Listeria monocytogenes and was similar to an equivalent amount of free enzyme. The reduction was 1.08 log for EVOH 29-lysozyme, 0.95 log for EVOH 44-lysozyme, and 1.34 log for free lysozyme. This work confirmed the successful use of lysozyme immobilization on the EVOH surface for antimicrobial packaging.

  5. Molecular view of the interaction between iota-carrageenan and a phospholipid film and its role in enzyme immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Thatyane M; de Sousa e Silva, Heurison; Furriel, Rosa P M; Leone, Francisco A; Miranda, Paulo B; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D

    2009-05-28

    Proteins incorporated into phospholipid Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films are a good model system for biomembranes and enzyme immobilization studies. The specific fluidity of biomembranes, an important requisite for enzymatic activity, is naturally controlled by varying phospholipid compositions. In a model system, instead, LB film fluidity may be varied by covering the top layer with different substances able to interact simultaneously with the phospholipid and the protein to be immobilized. In this study, we immobilized a carbohydrate rich Neurospora crassa alkaline phosphatase (NCAP) in monolayers of the sodium salt of dihexadecylphosphoric acid (DHP), a synthetic phospholipid that provides very condensed Langmuir films. The binding of NCAP to DHP Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films was mediated by the anionic polysaccharide iota-carrageenan (iota-car). Combining results from surface isotherms and the quartz crystal microbalance technique, we concluded that the polysaccharide was essential to promote the interaction between DHP and NCAP and also to increase the fluidity of the film. An estimate of DHP:iota-car ratio within the film also revealed that the polysaccharide binds to DHP LB film in an extended conformation. Furthermore, the investigation of the polysaccharide conformation at molecular level, using sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFG), indicated a preferential conformation of the carrageenan molecules with the sulfate groups oriented toward the phospholipid monolayer, and both the hydroxyl and ether groups interacting preferentially with the protein. These results demonstrate how interfacial electric fields can reorient and induce conformational changes in macromolecules, which may significantly affect intermolecular interactions at interfaces. This detailed knowledge of the interaction mechanism between the enzyme and the LB film is relevant to design strategies for enzyme immobilization when orientation and fluidity properties of the film provided by the

  6. Influence of chirality on catalytic generation of nitric oxide and platelet behavior on selenocystine immobilized TiO2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yonghong; Pan, Xiaxin; Wang, Ke; Wu, Sisi; Han, Honghong; Yang, Ping; Luo, Rifang; Wang, Hong; Huang, Nan; Tan, Wei; Weng, Yajun

    2016-09-01

    As nitric oxide (NO) plays vital roles in the cardiovascular system, incorporating this molecule into cardiovascular stents is considered as an effective method. In the present study, selenocystine with different chirality (i.e., l- and d-selenocystine) was used as the catalytic molecule immobilized on TiO2 films for decomposing endogenous NO donor. The influences of surface chirality on NO release and platelet behavior were evaluated. Results show that although the amount of immobilized l-selenocystine on the surface was nearly the same as that of immobilized d-selenocystine, in vitro catalytic NO release tests showed that l-selenocystine immobilized surfaces were more capable of catalyzing the decomposition of S-nitrosoglutathione and thus generating more NO. Accordingly, l-selenocystine immobilized surfaces demonstrated significantly increased inhibiting effects on the platelet adhesion and activation, when compared to d-selenocystine immobilized ones. Measurement of the cGMP concentration of platelets further confirmed that surface chirality played an important role in regulating NO generation and platelet behaviors. Additionally, using bovine serum albumin and fibrinogen as model proteins, the protein adsorption determined with quartz crystal microbalance showed that the l-selenocystine immobilized surface enhanced protein adsorption. In conclusion, surface chirality significantly influences protein adsorption and NO release, which may have significant implications in the design of NO-generating cardiovascular stents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Trans-membrane electron transfer in red blood cells immobilized in a chitosan film on a glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chunmei; Wang, Li; Zhu, Zhenkun; Bao, Ning; Gu, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the trans-membrane electron transfer in human red blood cells (RBCs) immobilized in a chitosan film on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Electron transfer results from the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) in the RBCs. The electron transfer rate (k s ) of Hb in RBCs is 0.42 s −1 , and <1.13 s −1 for Hb directly immobilized in the chitosan film. Only Hb molecules in RBCs that are closest to the plasma membrane and the surface of the electrode can undergo electron transfer to the electrode. The immobilized RBCs displayed sensitive electrocatalytic response to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. It is believed that this cellular biosensor is of potential significance in studies on the physiological status of RBCs based on observing their electron transfer on the modified electrode. (author)

  8. Evaluation of two-dimensional bolus effect of immobilization/support devices on skin doses: A radiochromic EBT film dosimetry study in phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Chan, Maria F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors have quantified the two-dimensional (2D) perspective of skin dose increase using EBT film dosimetry in phantom in the presence of patient immobilization devices during conventional and IMRT treatments. Methods: For 6 MV conventional photon field, the authors evaluated and quantified the 2D bolus effect on skin doses for six different common patient immobilization/support devices, including carbon fiber grid with Mylar sheet, Orfit carbon fiber base plate, balsa wood board, Styrofoam, perforated AquaPlast sheet, and alpha-cradle. For 6 and 15 MV IMRT fields, a stack of two film layers positioned above a solid phantom was exposed at the air interface or in the presence of a patient alpha-cradle. All the films were scanned and the pixel values were converted to doses based on an established calibration curve. The authors determined the 2D skin dose distributions, isodose curves, and cross-sectional profiles at the surface layers with or without the immobilization/support device. The authors also generated and compared the dose area histograms (DAHs) and dose area products from the 2D skin dose distributions. Results: In contrast with 20% relative dose [(RD) dose relative to d max on central axis] at 0.0153 cm in the film layer for 6 MV 10x10 cm 2 open field, the average RDs at the same depth in the film layer were 71%, 69%, 55%, and 57% for Orfit, balsa wood, Styrofoam, and alpha-cradle, respectively. At the same depth, the RDs were 54% under a strut and 26% between neighboring struts of a carbon fiber grid with Mylar sheet, and between 34% and 56% for stretched perforated AquaPlast sheet. In the presence of the alpha-cradle for the 6 MV (15 MV) IMRT fields, the hot spot doses at the effective measurement depths of 0.0153 and 0.0459 cm were 140% and 150% (83% and 89%), respectively, of the isocenter dose. The enhancement factor was defined as the ratio of a given DAH parameter (minimum dose received in a given area) with and without

  9. Immobilization of cholesterol oxidase in LbL films and detection of cholesterol using ac measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Marli L.; Souza, Nara C. de; Hayasaka, Caio O.; Ferreira, Marystela; Rodrigues Filho, Ubirajara P.; Riul, Antonio; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.

    2009-01-01

    The preserved activity of immobilized biomolecules in layer-by-layer (LbL) films can be exploited in various applications, including biosensing. In this study, cholesterol oxidase (COX) layers were alternated with layers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) in LbL films whose morphology was investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adsorption kinetics of COX layers comprised two regimes, a fast, first-order kinetics process followed by a slow process fitted with a Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) function, with exponent ∼ 2 characteristic of aggregates growing as disks. The concept based on the use of sensor arrays to increase sensitivity, widely employed in electronic tongues, was extended to biosensing with impedance spectroscopy measurements. Using three sensing units, made of LbL films of PAH/COX and PAH/PVS (polyvinyl sulfonic acid) and a bare gold interdigitated electrode, we were able to detect cholesterol in aqueous solutions down to the 10 -6 M level. This high sensitivity is attributed to the molecular-recognition interaction between COX and cholesterol, and opens the way for clinical tests to be made with low cost, fast experimental procedures

  10. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of horseradish peroxidase immobilized in graphene oxide–Nafion nanocomposite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lili; Cheng Huhu; Zhang Huimin; Qu Liangti

    2012-01-01

    Direct electron transfer of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilized in graphene oxide (GO)–Nafion nanocomposite film and its application as a new biosensor was investigated with electrochemical methods. Immobilized HRP shows a pair of well-defined redox waves and retains its bioelectrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H 2 O 2 and O 2 . As a new sensor with excellent electrocatalytic response to the reduction of H 2 O 2 and O 2 , calibrations with good linear relationships were obtained from 1.0 μmol L −1 to 1.0 mmol L −1 for H 2 O 2 and from 0.5 μmol L −1 to 18.6 μmol L −1 for O 2 with the detection limits of 4.0 × 10 −7 mol L −1 for H 2 O 2 and 1.0 × 10 −7 mol L −1 for O 2 at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Additionally, the responses showed Michaelis–Menten behavior with K m app values of 0.684 mmol L −1 for H 2 O 2 and 0.0160 mmol L −1 for O 2 . Moreover, the cathodic peak current of an HRP/GO/Nafion/GCE biosensor decreases by less than 5% after 4 weeks. These results reveal that GO can be conveniently incorporated into a polymer nanocomposite for fabrication of new GO-based biosensors.

  11. An Amperometric Biosensor for Uric Acid Determination Prepared From Uricase Immobilized in Polyaniline-Polypyrrole Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Arslan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new amperometric uric acid biosensor was developed by immobilizing uricase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on polyaniline-polypyrrole (pani-ppy composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode. Determination of uric acid was performed by the oxidation of enzymatically generated H2O2 at 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The linear working range of the biosensor was 2.5×10-6 – 8.5×10-5 M and the response time was about 70 s. The effects of pH, temperature were investigated and optimum parameters were found to be 9.0, 55 oC, respectively. The stability and reproducibility of the enzyme electrode have been also studied.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of CZTS Thin Films Prepared by the Sulfurization of RF-Sputtered Stacked Metal Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusnina, Mohamed; Moutinho, Helio; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; DeHart, Clay; Matin, Mohammed

    2014-09-01

    In this work, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were prepared by the sulfurization of metal precursors deposited sequentially via radio frequency magnetron sputtering on Mo-coated soda-lime glass. The stack order of the precursors was Mo/Zn/Sn/Cu. Sputtered precursors were annealed in sulfur atmosphere with nine different conditions to study the impact of sulfurization time and substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the final CZTS films. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the elemental composition ratio of the metal precursors. Final CZTS films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD and EDS were combined to investigate the films' structure and to identify the presence of secondary phases. XRD analysis indicated an improvement in film crystallinity with an increase of the substrate temperature and annealing times. Also indicated was the minimization and/or elimination of secondary phases when the films experienced longer annealing time. EDS revealed slight Sn loss in films sulfurized at 550°C; however, an increase of the sulfurization temperature to 600°C did not confirm these results. SEM study showed that films treated with higher temperatures exhibited dense morphology, indicating the completion of the sulfurization process. The estimated absorption coefficient was on the order of 104 cm-1 for all CZTS films, and the values obtained for the optical bandgap energy of the films were between 1.33 eV and 1.52 eV.

  13. Enhanced stability of thin film transistors with double-stacked amorphous IWO/IWO:N channel layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dong; Pi, Shubin; Yang, Jianwen; Tiwari, Nidhi; Ren, Jinhua; Zhang, Qun; Liu, Po-Tsun; Shieh, Han-Ping

    2018-06-01

    In this work, bottom-gate top-contact thin film transistors with double-stacked amorphous IWO/IWO:N channel layer were fabricated. Herein, amorphous IWO and N-doped IWO were deposited as front and back channel layers, respectively, by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The electrical characteristics of the bi-layer-channel thin film transistors (TFTs) were examined and compared with those of single-layer-channel (i.e., amorphous IWO or IWO:N) TFTs. It was demonstrated to exhibit a high mobility of 27.2 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 and an on/off current ratio of 107. Compared to the single peers, bi-layer a-IWO/IWO:N TFTs showed smaller hysteresis and higher stability under negative bias stress and negative bias temperature stress. The enhanced performance could be attributed to its unique double-stacked channel configuration, which successfully combined the merits of the TFTs with IWO and IWO:N channels. The underlying IWO thin film provided percolation paths for electron transport, meanwhile, the top IWO:N layer reduced the bulk trap densities. In addition, the IWO channel/gate insulator interface had reduced defects, and IWO:N back channel surface was insensitive to the ambient atmosphere. Overall, the proposed bi-layer a-IWO/IWO:N TFTs show potential for practical applications due to its possibly long-term serviceability.

  14. Immobilization of Tyrosinase from Avocado Crude Extract in Polypyrrole Films for Inhibitive Detection of Benzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Brisolari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition-based biosensors were developed by immobilizing tyrosinase (Tyr, polyphenol oxidase from the crude extract of avocado fruit on electrochemically prepared polypyrrole (PPy films. The biosensors were prepared during the electropolymerization of pyrrole in a solution containing a fixed volume of the crude extract of avocado. The dependence of the biosensor responses on the volume used from the crude extract, values of pH and temperature was studied, and a substrate, catechol, at different concentrations, was amperometrically detected by these biosensors. Benzoic acid, a competitive inhibitor of Try, was added to the catechol solutions at specific concentrations aimed at obtaining the inhibition constant, K’m, which ranged from 1.7 to 4.6 mmol∙L−1 for 0.0 and 60 µmol∙L−1 of benzoic acid, respectively. Studies on the inhibition caused by benzoic acid by using PPy/Try films, and catechol as a substrate, allowed us propose how to develop, under optimized conditions, simple and low-cost biosensors based on the use of avocado fruit.

  15. Immobilization, direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of hemoglobin on colloidal silver nanoparticles-chitosan film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Chunmei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Institute of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226007 (China); Zhou Xiaohui [Institute of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226007 (China); Gu Haiying, E-mail: hygu@ntu.edu.c [Institute of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong 226007 (China)

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of hemoglobin (Hb)-colloidal silver nanoparticles (CSNs)-chitosan film on the glassy carbon electrode and its application on electrochemical biosensing. CSNs could greatly enhance the electron transfer reactivity of Hb as a bridge. In the phosphate buffer solution with pH value of 7.0, Hb showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks with the formal potential (E{sup 0'}) of -0.325 V (vs. SCE). The immobilized Hb in the film maintained its biological activity, showing a surface-controlled process with the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) of 1.83 s{sup -1} and displayed the same features of a peroxidase in the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The linear range for the determination of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was from 0.75 {mu}M to 0.216 mM with a detection limit of 0.5 {mu}M (S/N = 3). Such a simple assemble method could offer a promising platform for further study on the direct electrochemistry of other redox proteins and the development of the third-generation electrochemical biosensors.

  16. Characterization of double Shockley-type stacking faults formed in lightly doped 4H-SiC epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, T.; Hayashi, S.; Naijo, T.; Momose, K.; Osawa, H.; Senzaki, J.; Kojima, K.; Kato, T.; Okumura, H.

    2018-05-01

    Double Shockley-type stacking faults (2SSFs) formed in 4H-SiC epitaxial films with a dopant concentration of 1.0 × 1016 cm-3 were characterized using grazing incident X-ray topography and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The origins of 2SSFs were investigated, and it was found that 2SSFs in the epitaxial layer originated from narrow SFs with a double Shockley structure in the substrate. Partial dislocations formed between 4H-type and 2SSF were also characterized. The shapes of 2SSFs are related with Burgers vectors and core types of the two Shockley partial dislocations.

  17. Solid-state dewetting of Au-Ni bi-layer films mediated through individual layer thickness and stacking sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Andreas; Theska, Felix; Rossberg, Diana; Kups, Thomas; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, the solid-state dewetting of Au-Ni bi-layer thin films deposited on SiO2/Si is systematically studied with respect to individual layer thickness and stacking sequence. For this purpose, a rapid heat treatment at medium temperatures is applied in order to examine void formation at the early stages of the dewetting. Compositional variations are realized by changing the thickness ratio of the bi-layer films, while the total thickness is maintained at 20 nm throughout the study. In the event of Au/Ni films annealed at 500 °C, crystal voids exposing the substrate are missing regardless of chemical composition. In reverse order, the number of voids per unit area in two-phase Au-Ni thin films is found to be governed by the amount of Au-rich material. At higher temperatures up to 650 °C, a decreased probability of nucleation comes at the expense of a major portion of cavities, resulting in the formation of bubbles in 15 nm Ni/5 nm Au bi-layers. Film buckling predominantly occurred at phase boundaries crossing the bubbles.

  18. Electromagnetic waves in a topological insulator thin film stack: helicon-like wave mode and photonic band structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2013-09-09

    We theoretically explore the electromagnetic modes specific to a topological insulator superlattice in which topological and conventional insulator thin films are stacked periodically. In particular, we obtain analytic formulas for low energy mode that corresponds to a helicon wave, as well as those for photonic bands. We illustrate that the system can be modeled as a stack of quantum Hall layers whose conductivity tensors alternately change signs, and then we analyze the photonic band structures. This subject is a natural extension of a previous study by Tselis et al., which took into consideration a stack of identical quantum Hall layers but their discussion was limited into a low energy mode. Thus we provide analytic formulas for photonic bands and compare their features between the two systems. Our central findings in the topological insulator superlattice are that a low energy mode corresponding to a helicon wave has linear dispersion instead of the conventional quadratic form, and that a robust gapless photonic band appears although the system considered has spacial periodicity. In addition, we demonstrate that the photonic bands agree with the numerically calculated transmission spectra.

  19. Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase immobilized on nanostructured gold thin films and its application to bioelectrochemical glucose sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Cuicui; Wang Xia; Liu Xueying; Hou Shifeng; Ma Houyi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Au thin films are formed by electrodeposition and galvanic replacement technology. ► Glucose oxidase is stably immobilized via a simple physical adsorption method. ► The direct electrochemical behavior is obtained on the immobilized glucose oxidase. ► An amperometric sensor of glucose with an excellent sensing capability is achieved. - Abstract: Glucose oxidase (GOx) was stably immobilized via a simple physical adsorption method onto the nanostructured Au thin films fabricated by using electrodeposition and galvanic replacement technology, which provides a facile method to prepare morphology-controllable Au films and also facilitates the preparation and application of enzyme modified electrodes. An obvious advantage of the as-prepared enzyme electrode (denoted as GOx/Au/GCE) is that the nano-Au films provide a favorable microenvironment for GOx and facilitate the electron transfer between the active center of GOx and electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) results indicate that the immobilized GOx displayed a direct, reversible and surface-confined redox reaction in the phosphate buffer solution. Furthermore, the enzyme modified electrode was used as a glucose bioelectrochemical sensor, exhibiting a linear relationship in the concentration ranges of 2.5–32.5 μmol L −1 and 60–130 μmol L −1 with a detection limit of 0.32 μmol L −1 (S/N = 3) at an applied potential of −0.55 V. Due to the excellent stability, sensitivity and anti-interference ability, the Au thin films are hopeful in the construction of glucose biosensors.

  20. Dependence of intermetallic compound formation on the sublayer stacking sequence in Ag–Sn bilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, P.J.; Zotov, N.; Bischoff, E.; Mittemeijer, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Intermetallic compound (IMC) formation in thermally-evaporated Ag–Sn bilayer thin films has been investigated employing especially X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (S)TEM methods. The specific IMCs that are present in the as-deposited state depend sensitively on the stacking sequence of the sublayers. In case of Sn on top of Ag, predominantly Ag 3 Sn is formed, whereas Ag 4 Sn is predominantly present in the as-deposited state for Ag on top of Sn. In the latter case this is accompanied by an extremely fast uptake of a large amount of Sn by the Ag sublayer, leaving behind macroscopic voids in the Sn sublayer. The results are discussed on the basis of the thermodynamics and kinetics of (IMC) product-layer growth in thin films. It is shown that both thermodynamic and kinetic arguments explain the contrasting phenomena observed.

  1. Antimicrobial and cell viability measurement of bovine serum albumin capped silver nanoparticles (Ag/BSA) loaded collagen immobilized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Rotimi; Hawthrone, Samantha; Vails, Carmen; Gugssa, Ayele; Karim, Alamgir; Stubbs, John; Raghavan, Dharmaraj

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial infection of orthopedic devices has been a major concern in joint replacement procedures. Therefore, this study is aimed at formulating collagen immobilized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) film loaded with bovine serum albumin capped silver nanoparticles (Ag/BSA NPs) to inhibit bacterial growth while retaining/promoting osteoblast cells viability. The nanoparticles loaded collagen immobilized PHBV film was characterized for its composition by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. The extent of loading of Ag/BSA NPs on collagen immobilized PHBV film was found to depend on the chemistry of the functionalized PHBV film and the concentration of Ag/BSA NPs solution used for loading nanoparticles. Our results showed that more Ag/BSA NPs were loaded on higher molecular weight collagen immobilized PHEMA-g-PHBV film. Maximum loading of Ag/BSA NPs on collagen immobilized PHBV film was observed when 16ppm solution was used for adsorption studies. Colony forming unit and optical density measurements showed broad antimicrobial activity towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at significantly lower concentration i.e., 0.19 and 0.31μg/disc, compared to gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim while MTT assay showed that released nanoparticles from Ag/BSA NPs loaded collagen immobilized PHBV film has no impact on MCTC3-E1 cells viability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of stacked elemental layers for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film preparation by rapid thermal selenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, Christiane; Ohland, Joerg; Mikolajczak, Ulf; Madena, Thomas; Keller, Jan; Parisi, Juergen; Hammer, Maria; Riedel, Ingo [Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Rapid thermal selenization of pure metallic (Cu-In-Ga) or selenium-containing (Cu-In-Ga-Se) precursors is a favorable method to fabricate Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber films for application in thin film solar cells. Because of its upscaling potential and the short process time it is a promising approach for the fabrication of CIGSe photovoltaic modules on industrial scale. As a preliminary work for prospective plasma-enhanced selenization of stacked elemental layers (SEL) the elements copper, indium and gallium were sequentially deposited on molybdenum coated soda-lime glass by thermal evaporation. The stacking order was varied and the precursors were annealed with different heating rates. Morphology, elemental depth distribution and phases of the layers were investigated before and after annealing using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore the influence of different heating rates on phase transitions during annealing was studied by in-situ X-ray diffraction.

  3. Cystamine immobilization on TiO2 film surfaces and the influence on inhibition of collagen-induced platelet activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yujuan; Weng Yajun; Zhang Liping; Jing Fengjuan; Huang Nan; Chen Junying

    2011-01-01

    Poor haemocompatibility is a main issue of artificial cardiovascular materials in clinical application. Nitric oxide (NO), produced by vascular endothelial cells, is a well known inhibitor of platelet adhesion and activation. Thus, NO-releasing biomaterials are beneficial for improving haemocompatibility of blood-contacting biomedical devices. In this paper, a novel method was developed for enhancement of haemocompatibility by exploiting endogenous NO donors. TiO 2 films were firstly synthesized on Si (1 0 0) wafers via unbalanced magnetron sputtering technology, and then polydopamine was grafted on TiO 2 films and used as a linker for further immobilization of cystamine. The obtained surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. NO generation is evaluated by saville-griess reagents, and it shows that cystamine immobilized samples are able to catalytically generate NO by decomposing endogenous S-nitrosothiols (RSNO). In vitro platelet adhesion results reveal that cystamine modified surfaces can inhibit collagen-induced platelet activation. ELISA analysis reveals that cGMP in platelets obviously increases on cystamine immobilized surface, which suggests the reducing of platelet activation is through NO/cGMP signal channel. It can be concluded that cystamine immobilized surface shows better blood compatibility by catalyzing NO release from the endogenous NO donor. It may be a promising method for improvement of haemocompatibility of blood-contacting implants.

  4. Controlled fabrication of gold nanoparticles biomediated by glucose oxidase immobilized on chitosan layer-by-layer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caseli, Luciano; Santos, David S. dos; Aroca, Ricardo F.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.

    2009-01-01

    The control of size and shape of metallic nanoparticles is a fundamental goal in nanochemistry, and crucial for applications exploiting nanoscale properties of materials. We present here an approach to the synthesis of gold nanoparticles mediated by glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized on solid substrates using the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique. The LbL films contained four alternated layers of chitosan and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS), with GOD in the uppermost bilayer adsorbed on a fifth chitosan layer: (chitosan/PSS) 4 /(chitosan/GOD). The films were inserted into a solution containing gold salt and glucose, at various pHs. Optimum conditions were achieved at pH 9, producing gold nanoparticles of ca. 30 nm according to transmission electron microscopy. A comparative study with the enzyme in solution demonstrated that the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is more efficient using immobilized GOD.

  5. Stacking effect on the ferroelectric properties of PZT/PLZT multilayer thin films formed by photochemical metal-organic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeong-Ho; Park, Hyung-Ho; Hill, Ross H.

    2004-01-01

    The ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) multilayer films formed by photochemical metal-organic deposition (PMOD) using photosensitive precursors have been characterized. The substitution of La for Pb was reported to induce improved ferroelectric properties, especially fatigue resistance, through the reduction of oxygen vacancies. The relation between La-substitution and the ferroelectric properties was investigated by characterization of the effect of the order of stacking four ferroelectric layers of PZT or PLZT in the multilayer films 4-PZT, PZT/2-PLZT/PZT, PLZT/2-PZT/PLZT, and 4-PLZT. The films with the PLZT layer at the top and bottom showed an improvement in the fatigue resistance. It was revealed that defect dipole such as O vacancy was reduced at the ferroelectric/Pt interface by doping with La. Also, the bottom layer, just on Pt substrate had a significant influence on the surface microstructure and growth orientation of ferroelectric film

  6. Immobilization of carbon nanotubes on functionalized graphene film grown by chemical vapor deposition and characterization of the hybrid material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanta Dhoj Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the surface functionalization of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition and fabrication of a hybrid material combining multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene (CNT–G. Amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers were prepared on graphene by the UV-modification of oxidized groups introduced onto the film surface. Amine-termination led to effective interaction with functionalized CNTs to assemble a CNT–G hybrid through covalent bonding. Characterization clearly showed no defects of the graphene film after the immobilization reaction with CNT. In addition, the hybrid graphene material revealed a distinctive CNT–G structure and p–n type electrical properties. The introduction of functional groups on the graphene film surface and fabrication of CNT–G hybrids with the present technique could provide an efficient, novel route to device fabrication.

  7. The Study of Electrical Properties for Multilayer La2O3/Al2O3 Dielectric Stacks and LaAlO3 Dielectric Film Deposited by ALD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing-Yao; Liu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Xing; Zhao, Lu; Fei, Chen-Xi; Liu, He-Lei

    2017-12-01

    The capacitance and leakage current properties of multilayer La 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 dielectric stacks and LaAlO 3 dielectric film are investigated in this paper. A clear promotion of capacitance properties is observed for multilayer La 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 stacks after post-deposition annealing (PDA) at 800 °C compared with PDA at 600 °C, which indicated the recombination of defects and dangling bonds performs better at the high-k/Si substrate interface for a higher annealing temperature. For LaAlO 3 dielectric film, compared with multilayer La 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 dielectric stacks, a clear promotion of trapped charges density (N ot ) and a degradation of interface trap density (D it ) can be obtained simultaneously. In addition, a significant improvement about leakage current property is observed for LaAlO 3 dielectric film compared with multilayer La 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 stacks at the same annealing condition. We also noticed that a better breakdown behavior for multilayer La 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 stack is achieved after annealing at a higher temperature for its less defects.

  8. Highly sensitive determination of hydroxylamine using fused gold nanoparticles immobilized on sol-gel film modified gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, P. [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302, Dindigul, Tamilnadu (India); John, S. Abraham, E-mail: abrajohn@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302, Dindigul, Tamilnadu (India)

    2010-03-24

    We are reporting the highly sensitive determination of hydroxylamine (HA) using 2-mercapto-4-methyl-5-thiazoleacetic acid (TAA) capped fused spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified Au electrode. The fused TAA-AuNPs were immobilized on (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) sol-gel film, which was pre-assembled on Au electrode. The immobilization of fused TAA-AuNPs on MPTS sol-gel film was confirmed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM image showed that the AuNPs retained the fused spherical morphology after immobilized on sol-gel film. The fused TAA-AuNPs on MPTS modified Au electrode were used for the determination of HA in phosphate buffer (PB) solution (pH = 7.2). When compared to bare Au electrode, the fused AuNPs modified electrode not only shifted the oxidation potential of HA towards less positive potential but also enhanced its oxidation peak current. Further, the oxidation of HA was highly stable at fused AuNPs modified electrode. Using amperometric method, determination of 17.5 nM HA was achieved for the first time. Further, the current response of HA increases linearly while increasing its concentration from 17.5 nM to 22 mM and a detection limit was found to be 0.39 nM (S/N = 3). The present modified electrode was also successfully used for the determination of 17.5 nM HA in the presence of 200-fold excess of common interferents such as urea, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, oxalate, Mn{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}. The practical application of the present modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of HA in ground water samples.

  9. An amperometric biosensor for glucose detection from glucose oxidase immobilized in polyaniline-polyvinylsulfonate-potassium ferricyanide film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Fatma; Beskan, Umut

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a novel amperometric glucose biosensor with immobilization of glucose oxidase on electrochemically polymerized polyaniline-polyvinylsulphonate-potassium ferricyanide (Pani-Pvs-Fc) films has been accomplished via the entrapment technique. Potassium ferricyanide was used as the mediator. Determination of glucose was carried out by the oxidation of potassium ferrocyanide at 0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The effects of pH and temperature were investigated, and the optimum pH value was found to be 7.5. The storage stability and the operational stability of the enzyme electrode were also studied.

  10. Oxidation precursor dependence of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films in a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 surface passivation stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yuren; Zhou, Chunlan; Jia, Endong; Wang, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain a good passivation of a silicon surface, more and more stack passivation schemes have been used in high-efficiency silicon solar cell fabrication. In this work, we prepared a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks on KOH solution-polished n-type solar grade mono-silicon(100) wafers. For the Al2O3 film deposition, both thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) were used. Interface trap density spectra were obtained for Si passivation with a-Si films and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks by a non-contact corona C-V technique. After the fabrication of a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks, the minimum interface trap density was reduced from original 3 × 10(12) to 1 × 10(12) cm(-2) eV(-1), the surface total charge density increased by nearly one order of magnitude for PE-ALD samples and about 0.4 × 10(12) cm(-2) for a T-ALD sample, and the carrier lifetimes increased by a factor of three (from about 10 μs to about 30 μs). Combining these results with an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, we discussed the influence of an oxidation precursor for ALD Al2O3 deposition on Al2O3 single layers and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stack surface passivation from field-effect passivation and chemical passivation perspectives. In addition, the influence of the stack fabrication process on the a-Si film structure was also discussed in this study.

  11. Tailoring the surface properties of polypropylene films through cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization and immobilization of biomolecules for enhancement of anti-coagulation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navaneetha Pandiyaraj, K.; Ram Kumar, M.C.; Arun Kumar, A.; Padmanabhan, P.V.A.; Deshmukh, R.R.; Bah, M.; Ismat Shah, S.; Su, Pi-Guey; Halleluyah, M.; Halim, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developed low cost cold atmospheric plasma reactor for plasma polymerization technique. • Surface of the PP film was modified by grafting of AAc and PEG by CAPP polymerization. • Biomolecules of chitosan, insulin and heparin were immobilized on surface of PEG-AAc grafted PP films. • The surface modified PP films were characterized by various techniques. • The plasma polymerized and immobilized film reveals substantial blood compatibility. - Abstract: Enhancement of anti-thrombogenic properties of polypropylene (PP) to avert the adsorption of plasma proteins (fibrinogen and albumin), adhesion and activation of the platelets are very important for vast biomedical applications. The cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization has potential to create the specific functional groups such as O−C=O, C=O, C−N and S−S. on the surface of polymeric films using selective precursor in vapour phase to enhance anti-thrombogenic properties. Such functionalized polymeric surfaces would be suitable for various biomedical applications especially to improve the blood compatibility. The eventual aspiration of the present investigation is to develop the biofunctional coating onto the surface of PP films using acrylic acid (AAc) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a precursor in a vapour phase by incorporating specific functional groups for immobilization of biomolecules such as heparin (HEP), chitosan (CHI) and insulin (INS) on the surface of plasma modified PP films. The surface properties such as hydrophilicity, chemical composition, surface topography of the surface modified PP films were analyzed by contact angle (CA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore the anti-thrombogenic properties of the surface modified PP films were studied by in vitro tests which include platelet adhesion and protein adsorption analysis. It was

  12. Tailoring the surface properties of polypropylene films through cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization and immobilization of biomolecules for enhancement of anti-coagulation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navaneetha Pandiyaraj, K., E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T By Pass, Chinniyam Palayam (Post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Ram Kumar, M.C.; Arun Kumar, A. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T By Pass, Chinniyam Palayam (Post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Padmanabhan, P.V.A. [PSN College of Engineering and Technology, Tirunelveli 627 152 (India); Deshmukh, R.R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Bah, M.; Ismat Shah, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, 208 Dupont Hall, Newark (United States); Su, Pi-Guey [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Halleluyah, M.; Halim, A.S. [School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developed low cost cold atmospheric plasma reactor for plasma polymerization technique. • Surface of the PP film was modified by grafting of AAc and PEG by CAPP polymerization. • Biomolecules of chitosan, insulin and heparin were immobilized on surface of PEG-AAc grafted PP films. • The surface modified PP films were characterized by various techniques. • The plasma polymerized and immobilized film reveals substantial blood compatibility. - Abstract: Enhancement of anti-thrombogenic properties of polypropylene (PP) to avert the adsorption of plasma proteins (fibrinogen and albumin), adhesion and activation of the platelets are very important for vast biomedical applications. The cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) assisted polymerization has potential to create the specific functional groups such as O−C=O, C=O, C−N and S−S. on the surface of polymeric films using selective precursor in vapour phase to enhance anti-thrombogenic properties. Such functionalized polymeric surfaces would be suitable for various biomedical applications especially to improve the blood compatibility. The eventual aspiration of the present investigation is to develop the biofunctional coating onto the surface of PP films using acrylic acid (AAc) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a precursor in a vapour phase by incorporating specific functional groups for immobilization of biomolecules such as heparin (HEP), chitosan (CHI) and insulin (INS) on the surface of plasma modified PP films. The surface properties such as hydrophilicity, chemical composition, surface topography of the surface modified PP films were analyzed by contact angle (CA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore the anti-thrombogenic properties of the surface modified PP films were studied by in vitro tests which include platelet adhesion and protein adsorption analysis. It was

  13. Accelerated life test of an ONO stacked insulator film for a silicon micro-strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Shoji; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Saitoh, Yutaka

    1996-01-01

    We have used to acquire the signal through an integrated capacitor for a silicon micro-strip detector. When we have been using a double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, we have required a long-term stability and a high feasibility for the integrated capacitor. An oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) insulator film was theoretically expected to have a superior nature in terms of long term reliability. In order to test long term reliability for integrated capacitor of a silicon micro-strip detector, we made a multi-channel measuring system for capacitors

  14. Immobilization of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase onto sol-gel films for application to cholesterol biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Suman; Singhal, Rahul; Malhotra, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) have been covalently immobilized onto tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) sol-gel films. The tetraethylorthosilicate sol-gel/ChEt/ChOx enzyme films thus prepared have been characterized using scanning electron microscopic (SEM), UV-vis spectroscopic, Fourier-transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic and amperometric techniques, respectively. The results of photometric measurements carried out on tetraethylorthosilicate sol-gel/ChEt/ChOx reveal thermal stability up to 55 deg. C, response time as 180 s, linearity up to 780 mg dL -1 (12 mM), shelf life of 1 month, detection limit of 12 mg dL -1 and sensitivity as 5.4 x 10 -5 Abs. mg -1 dL -1

  15. Immobilization of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase onto sol-gel films for application to cholesterol biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Suman [Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, G. Avenue, Durgapur 713209, West Bengal (India); Singhal, Rahul [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Malhotra, B.D. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)]. E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com

    2007-01-23

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) have been covalently immobilized onto tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) sol-gel films. The tetraethylorthosilicate sol-gel/ChEt/ChOx enzyme films thus prepared have been characterized using scanning electron microscopic (SEM), UV-vis spectroscopic, Fourier-transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic and amperometric techniques, respectively. The results of photometric measurements carried out on tetraethylorthosilicate sol-gel/ChEt/ChOx reveal thermal stability up to 55 deg. C, response time as 180 s, linearity up to 780 mg dL{sup -1} (12 mM), shelf life of 1 month, detection limit of 12 mg dL{sup -1} and sensitivity as 5.4 x 10{sup -5} Abs. mg{sup -1} dL{sup -1}.

  16. Solid-state dewetting of single- and bilayer Au-W thin films: Unraveling the role of individual layer thickness, stacking sequence and oxidation on morphology evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly of ultrathin Au, W, and Au-W bilayer thin films is investigated using a rapid thermal annealing technique in an inert ambient. The solid-state dewetting of Au films is briefly revisited in order to emphasize the role of initial film thickness. W films deposited onto SiO2 evolve into needle-like nanocrystals rather than forming particle-like agglomerates upon annealing at elevated temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that such nanocrystals actually consist of tungsten (VI oxide (WO3 which is related to an anisotropic oxide crystal growth out of the thin film. The evolution of W films is highly sensitive to the presence of any residual oxygen. Combination of both the dewetting of Au and the oxide crystal growth of WO3 is realized by using various bilayer film configurations of the immiscible Au and W. At low temperature, Au dewetting is initiated while oxide crystal growth is still suppressed. Depending on the stacking sequence of the Au-W bilayer thin film, W acts either as a substrate or as a passivation layer for the dewetting of Au. Being the ground layer, W changes the wettability of Au which clearly modifies its initial state for the dewetting. Being the top layer, W prevents Au from dewetting regardless of Au film thickness. Moreover, regular pattern formation of Au-WO3 nanoparticles is observed at high temperature demonstrating how bilayer thin film dewetting can create unique nanostructure arrangements.

  17. Solid-state dewetting of single- and bilayer Au-W thin films: Unraveling the role of individual layer thickness, stacking sequence and oxidation on morphology evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herz, A., E-mail: andreas.herz@tu-ilmenau.de, E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Franz, A.; Theska, F.; Hentschel, M.; Kups, Th.; Wang, D., E-mail: andreas.herz@tu-ilmenau.de, E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Schaaf, P. [Department of Materials for Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, TU Ilmenau, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Self-assembly of ultrathin Au, W, and Au-W bilayer thin films is investigated using a rapid thermal annealing technique in an inert ambient. The solid-state dewetting of Au films is briefly revisited in order to emphasize the role of initial film thickness. W films deposited onto SiO{sub 2} evolve into needle-like nanocrystals rather than forming particle-like agglomerates upon annealing at elevated temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that such nanocrystals actually consist of tungsten (VI) oxide (WO{sub 3}) which is related to an anisotropic oxide crystal growth out of the thin film. The evolution of W films is highly sensitive to the presence of any residual oxygen. Combination of both the dewetting of Au and the oxide crystal growth of WO{sub 3} is realized by using various bilayer film configurations of the immiscible Au and W. At low temperature, Au dewetting is initiated while oxide crystal growth is still suppressed. Depending on the stacking sequence of the Au-W bilayer thin film, W acts either as a substrate or as a passivation layer for the dewetting of Au. Being the ground layer, W changes the wettability of Au which clearly modifies its initial state for the dewetting. Being the top layer, W prevents Au from dewetting regardless of Au film thickness. Moreover, regular pattern formation of Au-WO{sub 3} nanoparticles is observed at high temperature demonstrating how bilayer thin film dewetting can create unique nanostructure arrangements.

  18. Cross-stacked carbon nanotube film as an additional built-in current collector and adsorption layer for high-performance lithium sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Kong, Weibang; Li, Mengya; Wu, Hengcai; Jiang, Kaili; Li, Qunqing; Zhang, Yihe; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-02-19

    Cross-stacked carbon nanotube (CNT) film is proposed as an additional built-in current collector and adsorption layer in sulfur cathodes for advanced lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries. On one hand, the CNT film with high conductivity, microstructural rough surface, high flexibility and mechanical durability retains stable and direct electronic contact with the sulfur cathode materials, therefore decreasing internal resistivity and suppressing polarization of the cathode. On the other hand, the highly porous structure and the high surface area of the CNT film provide abundant adsorption points to support and confine sulfur cathode materials, alleviate their aggregation and promote high sulfur utilization. Moreover, the lightweight and compact structure of the CNT film adds no extra weight or volume to the sulfur cathode, benefitting the improvement of energy densities. Based on these characteristics, the sulfur cathode with a 100-layer cross-stacked CNT film presents excellent rate performances with capacities of 986, 922 and 874 mAh g(-1) at cycling rates of 0.2C, 0.5C and 1C for sulfur loading of 60 wt%, corresponding to an improvement of 52%, 109% and 146% compared to that without a CNT film. Promising cycling performances are also demonstrated, offering great potential for scaled-up production of sulfur cathodes for Li-S batteries.

  19. Immobilization-stabilization of proteins on nanofibrillated cellulose derivatives and their bioactive film formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, Suvi; Tammelin, Tekla; Setälä, Harri; Tullila, Antti; Linder, Markus B

    2012-03-12

    In a number of different applications for enzymes and specific binding proteins a key technology is the immobilization of these proteins to different types of supports. In this work we describe a concept for protein immobilization that is based on nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC is a form of cellulose where fibers have been disintegrated into fibrils that are only a few nanometers in diameter and have a very large aspect ratio. Proteins were conjugated through three different strategies using amine, epoxy, and carboxylic acid functionalized NFC. The conjugation chemistries were chosen according to the reactive groups on the NFC derivatives; epoxy amination, heterobifunctional modification of amino groups, and EDC/s-NHS activation of carboxylic acid groups. The conjugation reactions were performed in solution and immobilization was performed by spin coating the protein-NCF conjugates. The structure of NFC was shown to be advantageous for both protein performance and stability. The use of NFC allows all covalent chemistry to be performed in solution, while the immobilization is achieved by a simple spin coating or spreading of the protein-NFC conjugates on a support. This allows more scalable methods and better control of conditions compared to the traditional methods that depend on surface reactions.

  20. The immobilization of filamentous fungi by cellular adherence and surface film growth on radiopolymerized hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petre, M.; Zarnea, G.; Adrian, P.; Gheorghiu, E.; Gheordunescu, V.

    1998-01-01

    The continuous biodegradation processes of cellulose wastes, from wine-producing industry and canned food processing were performed using immobilized fungal cells on complex polyhydrogels such as: collagen-polyacrylamide (CPAA), elastin-polyacrylamide (EPAA), gelatin-polyacrylamide (GPAA) and poly-hydroxy-ethyl-methyl-methacrylate (PHEMA) which were prepared by experimental radiopolymerization methods using a 60 Co radioactive source. The experiments were performed using cellulolytic micro- and macrofungal species and the immobilization methods were applied in connection with morphogenetic characteristics of each one of these species that were used as inoculum. A flow-cascade bioreactor was achieved as a research laboratory tool in order to control the cellulose waste biodegradation in continuous processes using immobilized fungal cells on complex polyhydrogels. In this way the continuous control was possible for fungal metabolic activity during the cellulose biodegradation processes by microscopical hyphal growth measurements inside the polyhydrogels and, also, by mycelial protein content analysis. The tested fungal species were Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus florida from macromycetes and Trichoderma viride from micromycetes. There were noticed significant differences in biodegradation rate of cellulose wastes between 'in vitro' immobilized fungal cultures and free fungal cells cultures used as control samples to be compared with cellulose biodegradation processes in natural conditions of polluted ecosystems. The fungal growth displayed by soluble mycelial protein were compared with cellulose biodegradation rates which were expressed by cellulose weight loss in the culture medium. (authors)

  1. Deposition temperature dependence of material and Si surface passivation properties of O3-based atomic layer deposited Al2O3-based films and stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordihn, Stefan; Mertens, Verena; Müller, Jörg W.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    The material composition and the Si surface passivation of aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) films prepared by atomic layer deposition using Al(CH 3 ) 3 and O 3 as precursors were investigated for deposition temperatures (T Dep ) between 200 °C and 500 °C. The growth per cycle decreased with increasing deposition temperature due to a lower Al deposition rate. In contrast the material composition was hardly affected except for the hydrogen concentration, which decreased from [H] = 3 at. % at 200 °C to [H]  2 O 3 /SiN x stacks complemented the work and revealed similar levels of surface passivation as single-layer Al 2 O 3 films, both for the chemical and field-effect passivation. The fixed charge density in the Al 2 O 3 /SiN x stacks, reflecting the field-effect passivation, was reduced by one order of magnitude from 3·10 12  cm −2 to 3·10 11  cm −2 when T Dep was increased from 300 °C to 500 °C. The level of the chemical passivation changed as well, but the total level of the surface passivation was hardly affected by the value of T Dep . When firing films prepared at of low T Dep , blistering of the films occurred and this strongly reduced the surface passivation. These results presented in this work demonstrate that a high level of surface passivation can be achieved for Al 2 O 3 -based films and stacks over a wide range of conditions when the combination of deposition temperature and annealing or firing temperature is carefully chosen

  2. Comparison of two immobilization techniques using portal film and digitally reconstructed radiographs for pediatric patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yunping; Stovall, John; Butler, Laura; Ji Qing; Gaber, M. Waleed; Samant, Sanjiv; Sontag, Marc R.; Armendi, Alberto J. de; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of two immobilization techniques for pediatric brain tumor patients. Methods and Materials: We analyzed data from 128 treatments involving 22 patients. Patients were immobilized with either a relocatable head frame (12 patients) or a vacuum bag (10 patients). Orthogonal portal films were used as verification images. Errors in patient positioning were measured by comparing verification images with digitally reconstructed radiographs generated by a three-dimensional treatment-planning system. Results: With the head frame, systematic errors ranged from 1.4 mm to 2.1 mm; random errors, from 1.7 mm to 2.1 mm. With the vacuum bag, systematic errors ranged from 2.1 mm to 2.5 mm; random errors, from 2.0 mm to 2.6 mm. For the head frame, the mean length of the radial displacement was 4.4 mm; 90% of the total three-dimensional deviation was less than 6.8 mm. The corresponding values for the vacuum bag were 5.0 and 6.6 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The head frame and vacuum bag techniques limit the random and systematic errors in each of the three directions to within ± 5 mm. We have used these results to determine the margin used to create the planning target volume for conformal radiation therapy

  3. Observation of dopant-profile independent electron transport in sub-monolayer TiO{sub x} stacked ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Das, Gangadhar [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)

    2016-01-18

    Dopant-profile independent electron transport has been observed through a combined study of temperature dependent electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements on a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films with varying degree of static-disorder. These films were grown by atomic layer deposition through in-situ vertical stacking of multiple sub-monolayers of TiO{sub x} in ZnO. Upon decreasing ZnO spacer layer thickness, electron transport smoothly evolved from a good metallic to an incipient non-metallic regime due to the intricate interplay of screening of spatial potential fluctuations and strength of static-disorder in the films. Temperature dependent phase-coherence length as extracted from the magnetotransport measurement revealed insignificant role of inter sub-monolayer scattering as an additional channel for electron dephasing, indicating that films were homogeneously disordered three-dimensional electronic systems irrespective of their dopant-profiles. Results of this study are worthy enough for both fundamental physics perspective and efficient applications of multi-stacked ZnO/TiO{sub x} structures in the emerging field of transparent oxide electronics.

  4. Improvements in the reliability of a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors with triple stacked gate insulator in flexible electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-Mao [Department of Photonics & Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang3708@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Tai, Ya-Hsiang [Department of Photonics & Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuan-Fu [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Hsiao-Cheng [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Liu, Kuan-Hsien [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chao-Kuei [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Ting; Cheng, Chun-Cheng; Tu, Chun-Hao; Liu, Chu-Yu [Advanced Technology Research Center, AU Optronics Corp, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-30

    This study examined the impact of the low-temperature stacking gate insulator on the gate bias instability of a-InGaZnO thin film transistors in flexible electronics applications. Although the quality of SiN{sub x} at low process/deposition temperature is better than that of SiO{sub x} at similarly low process/deposition temperature, there is still a very large positive threshold voltage (V{sub th}) shift of 9.4 V for devices with a single low-temperature SiN{sub x} gate insulator under positive gate bias stress. However, a suitable oxide–nitride–oxide-stacked gate insulator exhibits a V{sub th} shift of only 0.23 V. This improvement results from the larger band offset and suitable gate insulator thickness that can effectively suppress carrier trapping behavior. - Highlights: • The cause of the bias instability for a low-temperature gate insulator is verified. • A triple-stacked gate insulator was fabricated. • A suitable triple stacked gate insulator shows only 0.23 V threshold voltage shift.

  5. Immobilization of horseradish peroxidase on self-assembled (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane film: Characterization, direct electrochemistry, redox thermodynamics and biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Fanghua; Hu Zhichao; Xu Jingjing; Tian Yuan; Wang Liwei; Xian Yuezhong; Jin Litong

    2008-01-01

    Highly organized (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (3-MPT) films have been prepared via self-assembled coupled with sol-gel linking technology. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is successfully immobilized onto the densely packed three-dimensional (3D) 3-MPT network and the direct electrochemistry of HRP is achieved without any electron mediators or promoters. Redox thermodynamics of HRP on the 3-MPT films, which is obtained from the temperature dependence of the reduction potential, suggests that the positive shift of redox potentials of HRP at the interface of 3-MPT originates from the solvent reorganization effects and conformational change of the polypeptide chain of HRP. Based on the direct electrochemistry and electrocatalytic ability of HRP, a sensitive third-generation amperometric H 2 O 2 biosensor is developed with two linear dependence ranges of 5.0 x 10 -7 to 1.0 x 10 -4 and 1.0 x 10 -4 to 2.0 x 10 -2 mol L -1

  6. The immobilization of titania nanoparticles on hyaluronan films and their photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqui, Daniela; Atrei, Andrea; Barbucci, Rolando

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a method to bind titania nanoparticles onto hyaluronic films (HA) photoimmobilized on silanized glass. Titania nanoparticles were deposited on the HA films from commercially available dispersions by casting and dip-coating methods at various pH values. XPS was used to monitor the deposition of titania and to estimate the surface coverage of the nanoparticles. The topography of the titania-modified HA films was investigated by means of AFM. XPS results indicate that the titania surface coverage depends on the preparation method and the pH of the dispersion. We found that the maximum titania nanoparticle surface coverage was obtained by the casting method with the formation of aggregates and multilayers of particles. The titania surface coverage for the surfaces prepared by the dip-coating method is pH-dependent. The surfaces prepared at pH 2 show a surface coverage of 65% and a rather uniform distribution of particles. We found that titania nanoparticles are anchored in a stable way to the HA substrate in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and that the interaction between the HA and the titania is through the carbonyl group of carboxylates and amidic groups of the polymer. AFM images clearly show that titania nanoparticles are uniformly distributed over the HA films. By measuring the average diameter and the average height of the nanoparticles deposited on HA films it appears that the particles are partially embedded in the polysaccharide films. The results of the study on the photobleaching of methylene blue indicate that the characteristic photocatalytic activity of titania is maintained when the nanoparticles are anchored to the HA substrate.

  7. Silk fibroin immobilization on poly(ethylene terephthalate) films: Comparison of two surface modification methods and their effect on mesenchymal stem cells culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Meini; Yao, Jinrong; Chen, Xin; Huang, Lei; Shao, Zhengzhong, E-mail: zzshao@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) has played a curial role for the surface modification of conventional materials to improve the biocompatibility, and SF modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) materials have potential applications on tissue engineering such as artificial ligament, artificial vessel, artificial heart valve sewing cuffs dacron and surgical mesh engineering. In this work, SF was immobilized onto PET film via two different methods: 1) plasma pretreatment followed by SF dip coating (PET-SF) and 2) plasma-induce acrylic acid graft polymerization and subsequent covalent immobilization of SF on PET film (PET-PAA-SF). It could be found that plasma treatment provided higher surface roughness which was suitable for further SF dip coating, while grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) promised the covalent bonding between SF and PAA. ATR-FTIR adsorption band at 3284 cm{sup −1}, 1623 cm{sup −1} and 1520 cm{sup −1} suggested the successful introduction of SF onto PET surface, while the amount of immobilized SF of PET-SF was higher than PET-PAA-SF according to XPS investigation (0.29 vs 0.23 for N/C ratio). Surface modified PET film was used as substrate for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) culture, the cells on PET-SF surface exhibited optimum density compared to PET-PAA-SF according to CCK-8 assays, which indicated that plasma pretreatment followed by SF dip coating was a simple and effective way to prepare biocompatible PET surface. Highlights: ► Silk fibroins were immobilized onto PET films with or without the linker of PAA. ► Various techniques were performed to characterize the modified surfaces ► Plasma treatment followed by SF dip coating introduced more SF onto PET films. ► Compare to PET-PAA-SF, PET-SF has better biocompatibility base on MSCs culture.

  8. Cystamine immobilization on TiO{sub 2} film surfaces and the influence on inhibition of collagen-induced platelet activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yujuan [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Chinese Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Weng Yajun, E-mail: wengyj7032@sohu.com [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Chinese Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhang Liping; Jing Fengjuan; Huang Nan [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Chinese Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Chen Junying, E-mail: chenjy@263.net [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Chinese Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Poor haemocompatibility is a main issue of artificial cardiovascular materials in clinical application. Nitric oxide (NO), produced by vascular endothelial cells, is a well known inhibitor of platelet adhesion and activation. Thus, NO-releasing biomaterials are beneficial for improving haemocompatibility of blood-contacting biomedical devices. In this paper, a novel method was developed for enhancement of haemocompatibility by exploiting endogenous NO donors. TiO{sub 2} films were firstly synthesized on Si (1 0 0) wafers via unbalanced magnetron sputtering technology, and then polydopamine was grafted on TiO{sub 2} films and used as a linker for further immobilization of cystamine. The obtained surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. NO generation is evaluated by saville-griess reagents, and it shows that cystamine immobilized samples are able to catalytically generate NO by decomposing endogenous S-nitrosothiols (RSNO). In vitro platelet adhesion results reveal that cystamine modified surfaces can inhibit collagen-induced platelet activation. ELISA analysis reveals that cGMP in platelets obviously increases on cystamine immobilized surface, which suggests the reducing of platelet activation is through NO/cGMP signal channel. It can be concluded that cystamine immobilized surface shows better blood compatibility by catalyzing NO release from the endogenous NO donor. It may be a promising method for improvement of haemocompatibility of blood-contacting implants.

  9. Synaptic behaviors of thin-film transistor with a Pt/HfO x /n-type indium–gallium–zinc oxide gate stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Paul; Park, Daehoon; Beom, Keonwon; Kim, Hyung Jun; Kang, Chi Jung; Yoon, Tae-Sik

    2018-07-01

    We report a variety of synaptic behaviors in a thin-film transistor (TFT) with a metal-oxide-semiconductor gate stack that has a Pt/HfO x /n-type indium–gallium–zinc oxide (n-IGZO) structure. The three-terminal synaptic TFT exhibits a tunable synaptic weight with a drain current modulation upon repeated application of gate and drain voltages. The synaptic weight modulation is analog, voltage-polarity dependent reversible, and strong with a dynamic range of multiple orders of magnitude (>104). This modulation process emulates biological synaptic potentiation, depression, excitatory-postsynaptic current, paired-pulse facilitation, and short-term to long-term memory transition behaviors as a result of repeated pulsing with respect to the pulse amplitude, width, repetition number, and the interval between pulses. These synaptic behaviors are interpreted based on the changes in the capacitance of the Pt/HfO x /n-IGZO gate stack, the channel mobility, and the threshold voltage that result from the redistribution of oxygen ions by the applied gate voltage. These results demonstrate the potential of this structure for three-terminal synaptic transistor using the gate stack composed of the HfO x gate insulator and the IGZO channel layer.

  10. Synaptic behaviors of thin-film transistor with a Pt/HfO x /n-type indium-gallium-zinc oxide gate stack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Paul; Park, Daehoon; Beom, Keonwon; Kim, Hyung Jun; Kang, Chi Jung; Yoon, Tae-Sik

    2018-07-20

    We report a variety of synaptic behaviors in a thin-film transistor (TFT) with a metal-oxide-semiconductor gate stack that has a Pt/HfO x /n-type indium-gallium-zinc oxide (n-IGZO) structure. The three-terminal synaptic TFT exhibits a tunable synaptic weight with a drain current modulation upon repeated application of gate and drain voltages. The synaptic weight modulation is analog, voltage-polarity dependent reversible, and strong with a dynamic range of multiple orders of magnitude (>10 4 ). This modulation process emulates biological synaptic potentiation, depression, excitatory-postsynaptic current, paired-pulse facilitation, and short-term to long-term memory transition behaviors as a result of repeated pulsing with respect to the pulse amplitude, width, repetition number, and the interval between pulses. These synaptic behaviors are interpreted based on the changes in the capacitance of the Pt/HfO x /n-IGZO gate stack, the channel mobility, and the threshold voltage that result from the redistribution of oxygen ions by the applied gate voltage. These results demonstrate the potential of this structure for three-terminal synaptic transistor using the gate stack composed of the HfO x gate insulator and the IGZO channel layer.

  11. Electrical and optical properties of a kind of ferroelectric oxide films comprising of PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shimin; Ma, Guohong; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Wenchao; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chu, Junhao; Dai, Ning; Shi, Wangzhou; Hu, Gujin

    2017-07-01

    A type of ferroelectric oxide films, consisting of three PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 stacks with different periodic thicknesses, has been designed and fabricated on F-doped transparent conductive tin oxide substrates by using one single precursor solution and spinning-coating process. These films exhibit superior ferroelectric, dielectric, and optical performance. Each PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 multilayer has a high reflectivity band with ˜110 nm photonic band width and average reflectivity of >80%, a dielectric constant of 530 and dielectric tunability of ˜28% at 1 MHz, a remnant polarization of 36 μC/cm2, and a polarization loss of cycles, rendering their perspective application in photonic band-gap engineering, microwave tunable devices, and integrated optoelectronics.

  12. Electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin immobilized in sulfonated graphene oxide and Nafion films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guiying; Sun, Hong; Hou, Shifeng

    2016-06-01

    In this study, sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) was synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was used to make Mb-SGO-Nafion composite films by coating myoglobin (Mb) on the glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). Positions of the Soret absorption bands suggested that Mb retained its native conformation in the films. Mb-SGO-Nafion film modified electrode showed a pair of well-defined and nearly reversible cyclic voltammetry peaks at around -0.39 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE) in pH 7.0 buffers, characteristic of heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couples. Electrochemical parameters such as electron transfer rate constant (ks) and formal potential (E(o')) were estimated by fitting the data of square-wave voltammetry with nonlinear regression analysis. Experimental data demonstrated that the electron transfer between Mb and electrode was greatly facilitated and showed good electrocatalytic properties toward various substrates, such as H2O2 and NaNO2, with significant lowering of reduction overpotential. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films containing sulfur and gold: Synthesis, characterization and application to immobilize and direct electrochemistry of cytochrome c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee-Pour, Hossain-Ali, E-mail: rafieepour@kashanu.ac.ir [Biotechnology Division, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamadanian, Masood [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan , Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Koushali, Samaneh Katebi [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Promoting efficiency of TiO{sub 2} in cyt c immobilization by metal and nonmetal doping. • Synthesis of Au/S-TiO{sub 2} as a novel and efficient for cyt c immobilization. • Investigating structural, chemical and morphological characteristics of prepared TiO{sub 2}, S-TiO{sub 2} and Au/S-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • 4%Au/S-TiO{sub 2} showed high surface area, nanometer size, strong absorbance, high efficiency in cyt c immobilization. • Promoting immobilization efficiency by addition of a small amount of gold at the surface of TiO{sub 2} by photochemistry method. - Abstract: In this paper, nanoporous titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) film was used for cytochrome c (cyt c) immobilization as an electrode substrate for electrochemical redox activity of the adsorbed cyt c. The result of cyclic voltammetry exhibited a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible peaks for direct electron transfer of cyt c (formal potential [E{sup 0}′ = (E{sub pa} + E{sub pc})/2] of 53 mV versus Ag/AgCl). In addition the effect of metal and nonmetal ions (Au, S) co-doping on the efficiency of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (prepared by combining sol–gel and photo-deposition methods) on the cyt c immobilization process was investigated. The results exhibited that the Au, S-co-doped TiO{sub 2} (Au/S-TiO{sub 2}) with a spheroidal shape demonstrates a smaller grain size than the pure TiO{sub 2}. Meanwhile, the UV–vis DRS of Au/S-TiO{sub 2} showed a considerable red shift to the visible region. As a result, it was found that 4% Au/0.1% S-TiO{sub 2} had the highest efficiency for cytochrome c immobilization. The results showed that the peak currents were higher after the annealing of the TiO{sub 2} film. This observation suggests that the use of TiO{sub 2} films may be advantageous for the development of nanoporous biosensors employing reductive electrochemistry.

  14. Facile Fabrication of BiOI/BiOCl Immobilized Films With Improved Visible Light Photocatalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxian Zhong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSA facial method was used to fabricate BiOI/BiOCl film at room temperature.30% BiOI/BiOCl showed an excellent photocatalytic activity and stability.Improvement of photocatalytic activity was owed to expanded visible light absorption and high separation efficiency of charge.Photocatalysis has been considered to be one of the most promising ways to photodegrade organic pollutants. Herein, a series of BiOI/BiOCl films coating on FTO were fabricated through a simple method at room temperature. The photocatalytic efficiency of 30%BiOI/BiOCl could reach more than 99% aiming to degrading RhB and MB after 90 and 120 min, respectively. Compared with BiOCl, 30%BiOI/BiOCl showed 12 times higher efficiency when degrading RhB. In comparison with BiOI, 30%BiOI/BiOCl showed 5 and 6 times higher efficiency when degrading RhB and MB, respectively. These obvious enhancements were attributed to expanded visible light absorption and high separation performance of photoinduced charge. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of 30%BiOI/BiOCl had no obvious decrease after five recycles, suggesting that it was a promising photocatalyst for the removal of MB and RhB pollutants. Finally, the possible growth process for the BiOI/BiOCl thin films and photocatalysis mechanism were investigated in details. This work would provide insight to the reasonable construction of BiOX heterojunction and the photocatalytic mechanism in degrading organic pollutants.

  15. Fabrication of Flexible Arrayed Lactate Biosensor Based on Immobilizing LDH-NAD+ on NiO Film Modified by GO and MBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Siao-Jie; Liao, Yi-Hung; Lai, Chih-Hsien; Wu, You-Xiang; Wu, Cian-Yi; Chen, Hsiang-Yi; Huang, Hong-Yu; Wu, Tong-Yu

    2017-01-01

    We proposed the flexible arrayed lactate biosensor based on immobilizing l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) on nickel oxide (NiO) film, and which the average sensitivity could be enhanced by using graphene oxide (GO) and magnetic beads (MBs). By using GO and MBs, it exhibits excellent sensitivity (45.397 mV/mM) with a linearity of 0.992 in a range of 0.2 mM to 3 mM. According to the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the electron transfer resistance of LDH-NAD+-MBs/GPTS/GO/NiO film was smaller than those of LDH-NAD+/GPTS/GO/NiO film and LDH-NAD+/GPTS/NiO film, and it presented the outstanding electron transfer ability. After that, the limit of detection, anti-interference effect and bending test were also investigated. PMID:28704960

  16. Fabrication of Flexible Arrayed Lactate Biosensor Based on Immobilizing LDH-NAD+ on NiO Film Modified by GO and MBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chuan Chou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We proposed the flexible arrayed lactate biosensor based on immobilizing l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ( NAD + on nickel oxide (NiO film, and which the average sensitivity could be enhanced by using graphene oxide (GO and magnetic beads (MBs. By using GO and MBs, it exhibits excellent sensitivity (45.397 mV/mM with a linearity of 0.992 in a range of 0.2 mM to 3 mM. According to the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, the electron transfer resistance of LDH- NAD + -MBs/GPTS/GO/NiO film was smaller than those of LDH-NAD+/GPTS/GO/NiO film and LDH- NAD + /GPTS/NiO film, and it presented the outstanding electron transfer ability. After that, the limit of detection, anti-interference effect and bending test were also investigated.

  17. Facile Fabrication of BiOI/BiOCl Immobilized Films with Improved Visible Light Photocatalytic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yingxian; Liu, Yuehua; Wu, Shuang; Zhu, Yi; Chen, Hongbin; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Yuanming

    2018-03-01

    Photocatalysis has been considered to be one of the most promising ways to photodegrade organic pollutants. Herein, a series of BiOI/BiOCl films coating on FTO were fabricated through a simple method at room temperature. The photocatalytic efficiency of 30%BiOI/BiOCl could reach more than 99% aiming to degrading RhB and MB after 90 and 120 min, respectively. Compared with BiOCl, 30%BiOI/BiOCl showed 12 times higher efficiency when degrading RhB. In comparison with BiOI, 30%BiOI/BiOCl showed 5 and 6 times higher efficiency when degrading RhB and MB, respectively. These obvious enhancements were attributed to expanded visible light absorption and high separation performance of photoinduced charge. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of 30%BiOI/BiOCl had no obvious decrease after 5 recycles, suggesting that it was a promising photocatalyst for the removal of MB and RhB pollutants. Finally, the possible growth process for the BiOI/BiOCl thin films and photocatalysis mechanism were investigated in details. This work would provide insight to the reasonable construction of BiOX heterojunction and the photocatalytic mechanism in degrading organic pollutants.

  18. Applicability of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy as method to determine thickness and composition of stacks of metal thin films: A comparison with imaging and profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrielink, J.A.M.; Tiggelaar, R.M.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Lefferts, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the applicability of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) for fast, accurate and non-destructive determination of the thickness of a variety of single-layer and multi-layer metal thin films deposited on glass and silicon is investigated. Data obtained with XRF is compared with information from profilometry and images from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whereas thickness determinations based on profilometry and cross-sectional SEM-imaging have restrictions with respect to thickness of metal stacks or hardness of the metals, XRF has no such limitations. Moreover, XRF can discriminate between sublayers in a multi-layer film, and can also be utilized for compositional analysis and density estimations. Good agreement between thickness data obtained with XRF, profilometry and SEM-images is found, under the justifiable assumption that the density of sputter-deposited and evaporated thin films is ca. 5% below that of bulk metals. Similar XRF-results are found for non-patterned areas (64 mm 2 metal) as well as lithographically patterned areas containing a series of small metal lines (total metal surface ca. 8 mm 2 ). As a consequence, it is concluded that XRF is a versatile technique for analysis, verification, control or evaluation of the thickness, density or (elemental) composition of thin metal film line-patterns, during their fabrication as well as prior or post to applications.

  19. Algebraic stacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deligne, Mumford and Artin [DM, Ar2]) and consider algebraic stacks, then we can cons- truct the 'moduli ... the moduli scheme and the moduli stack of vector bundles. First I will give ... 1–31. © Printed in India. 1 ...... Cultura, Spain. References.

  20. High-performance glucose biosensor based on chitosan-glucose oxidase immobilized polypyrrole/Nafion/functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes bio-nanohybrid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bishnu Kumar; Ahmad, Rafiq; Mousa, Hamouda M; Kim, In-Gi; Kim, Jeong In; Neupane, Madhav Prasad; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-11-15

    A highly electroactive bio-nanohybrid film of polypyrrole (PPy)-Nafion (Nf)-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (fMWCNTs) nanocomposite was prepared on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by a facile one-step electrochemical polymerization technique followed by chitosan-glucose oxidase (CH-GOx) immobilization on its surface to achieve a high-performance glucose biosensor. The as-fabricated nanohybrid composite provides high surface area for GOx immobilization and thus enhances the enzyme-loading efficiency. The structural characterization revealed that the PPy-Nf-fMWCNTs nanocomposite films were uniformly formed on GCE and after GOx immobilization, the surface porosities of the film were decreased due to enzyme encapsulation inside the bio-nanohybrid composite materials. The electrochemical behavior of the fabricated biosensor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and amperometry measurements. The results indicated an excellent catalytic property of bio-nanohybrid film for glucose detection with improved sensitivity of 2860.3μAmM(-1)cm(-2), the linear range up to 4.7mM (R(2)=0.9992), and a low detection limit of 5μM under a signal/noise (S/N) ratio of 3. Furthermore, the resulting biosensor presented reliable selectivity, better long-term stability, good repeatability, reproducibility, and acceptable measurement of glucose concentration in real serum samples. Thus, this fabricated biosensor provides an efficient and highly sensitive platform for glucose sensing and can open up new avenues for clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High density gold nanoparticles immobilized on surface via plasma deposited APTES film for decomposing organic compounds in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Xi; Guyon, Cédric; Ognier, Stephanie; Da Silva, Bradley; Chu, Chenglin; Tatoulian, Michaël; Hassan, Ali Abou

    2018-05-01

    Immobilization of colloidal particles (e.g. gold nanoparticles (AuNps)) on the inner surface of micro-/nano- channels has received a great interest for catalysis. A novel catalytic ozonation setup using a gold-immobilized microchannel reactor was developed in this work. To anchor AuNps, (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) with functional amine groups was deposited using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. The results clearly evidenced that PECVD processing exhibited relatively high efficiency for grafting amine groups and further immobilizing AuNPs. The catalytic activity of gold immobilized microchannel was evaluated by pyruvic acid ozonation. The decomposition rate calculated from High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) indicated a much better catalytic performance of gold in microchannel than that in batch. The results confirmed immobilizing gold nanoparticles on plasma deposited APTES for preparing catalytic microreactors is promising for the wastewater treatment in the future.

  2. Phase change cellular automata modeling of GeTe, GaSb and SnSe stacked chalcogenide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, C.; Velea, A.

    2018-06-01

    Data storage needs are increasing at a rapid pace across all economic sectors, so the need for new memory technologies with adequate capabilities is also high. Phase change memories (PCMs) are a leading contender in the emerging race for non-volatile memories due to their fast operation speed, high scalability, good reliability and low power consumption. However, in order to meet the present and future storage demands, PCM technologies must further increase the storage density. Here, we employ a probabilistic cellular automata approach to explore the multi-step threshold switching from the reset (off) to the set (on) state in chalcogenide stacked structures. Simulations have shown that in order to obtain multi-step switching with high contrast among different resistance states, the stacked structure needs to contain materials with a large difference among their crystallization temperatures and careful tuning of strata thicknesses. The crystallization dynamics can be controlled through the external energy pulses applied to the system, in such a way that a balance between nucleation and growth in phase change behavior can be achieved, optimized for PCMs.

  3. Cellulase and alcohol dehydrogenase immobilized in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films and their molecular-level effects upon contact with cellulose and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dilmer; Camilo, Fernanda Ferraz; Caseli, Luciano

    2014-02-25

    The key challenges for producing devices based on nanostructured films with control over the molecular architecture are to preserve the catalytic activity of the immobilized biomolecules and to provide a reliable method for determining the intermolecular interactions and the accommodation of molecules at very small scales. In this work, the enzymes cellulase and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were coimmobilized with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, and their biological activities were assayed by accommodating the structure formed in contact with cellulose. For this purpose, the polysaccharide was dissolved in an ionic liquid, 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMImCl), and dropped on the top of the hybrid cellulase-ADH-DPPC LB film. The interactions between cellulose and ethanol, which are the catalytic substrates of the enzymes as well as important elements in the production of second-generation fuels, were then investigated using polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Investigation of the secondary structures of the enzymes was performed using PM-IRRAS, through which the presence of ethanol and cellulose was observed to highly affect the structures of ADH and cellulase, respectively. The detection of products formed from the catalyzed reactions as well as the changes of secondary structure of the enzymes immobilization could be carried out, which opens the possibility to produce a means for producing second-generation ethanol using nanoscale arrangements.

  4. A novel amperometric biosensor for superoxide anion based on superoxide dismutase immobilized on gold nanoparticle-chitosan-ionic liquid biocomposite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Wen Wei; Xiong Huayu; Zhang Xiuhua; Gu Haoshuang; Wang Shengfu

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the assembly process of SOD/GNPs-CS-IL/GCE. Highlights: ► SOD was immobilized in gold nanoparticles-chitosan-ionic liquid (GNPs-CS-IL) film. ► The biosensor was constructed by one-step ultrasonic electrodeposition of GNPs-CS-IL onto GCE. ► The biosensor showed excellent analytical performance for O 2 · − real-time analysis. - Abstract: A novel superoxide anion (O 2 · − ) biosensor is proposed based on the immobilization of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a gold nanoparticle-chitosan-ionic liquid (GNPs-CS-IL) biocomposite film. The SOD-based biosensor was constructed by one-step ultrasonic electrodeposition of GNP-CS-IL composite onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE), followed by immobilization of SOD on the modified electrode. Surface morphologies of a set of representative films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical performance of the biosensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. A pair of quasi-reversible redox peaks of SOD with a formal potential of 0.257 V was observed at SOD/GNPs-CS-IL/GCE in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, 0.1 M, pH 7.0). The effects of varying test conditions on the electrochemical behavior of the biosensor were investigated. Furthermore, several electrochemical parameters were calculated in detail. Based on the biomolecule recognition of the specific reactivity of SOD toward O 2 · − , the developed biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response ( 3 nM), low detection limit (1.7 nM), and excellent selectivity for the real-time measurement of O 2 · − . The proposed method is promising for estimating quantitatively the dynamic changes of O 2 · − in biological systems.

  5. Amperometric immunosensor for {alpha}-fetoprotein antigen in human serum based on co-immobilizing dinuclear copper complex and gold nanoparticle doped chitosan film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan Ning; Meng Linghua; Wang Feng [State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation science, Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering of Ninbo University, Ningbo, 315211 (China)], E-mail: ganning@nbu.edu.cn

    2009-09-01

    A sensitive amperometric immunosensor for {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP), a tumor marker for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), was constructed, The immunosensor is prepared by co-immobilizing [Cu{sub 2}(phen){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}] ({mu}-Cl){sub 2} (CuL), nano-Au/Chitosan(Chit) composite, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and AFP antibody(anti-AFP) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Firstly, CuL was irreversibly absorb on GCE electrode through {pi}-{pi} stacking interaction; then nano-Au/Chit composite was immobilized onto the electrode because of its excellent membrane-forming ability, finally HRP and anti-AFP was adsorbed onto the surface of the gold nanoparticles to construct GCE | CuL/nanoAu-chit/HRP/anti-AFP immunosensor. The preparation procedure of the electrode was characterized by electrochemical and spectroscopy method. The results showed that this immunosensor exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) without the aid of an electron mediator, offers a high-sensitivity (1710 nA {center_dot} ng{sup -1} {center_dot} ml{sup -1}) for the detection of AFP and has good correlation for detection of AFP in the range of 0.2 to 120.0 ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.05 ng/ml. The biosensor showed high selectivity as well as good stability and reproductivity.

  6. The interfacial-organized monolayer water film (MWF) induced ``two-step'' aggregation of nanographene: both in stacking and sliding assembly pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenping; Wu, Ren'an

    2013-03-01

    A computational investigation was carried out to understand the aggregation of nanoscale graphene with two typical pathways of stacking assembly and sliding assembly in water. The interfacial-organized monolayer water film (MWF) induced ``two-step'' aggregation of nanographene in both stacking and sliding assembly pathways was reported for the first time. By means of potential mean forces (PMFs) calculation, no energy barrier was observed during the sliding assembly of two graphene nanosheets, while the PMF profiles could be impacted by the contact forms of nanographene and the MWF within the interplate of two graphene nanosheets. To explore the potential physical basis of the ``hindering role'' of self-organized interfacial water, the dynamical and structural properties as well as the status of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) for interfacial water were investigated. We found that the compact, ordered structure and abundant H-bonds of the MWF could be taken as the fundamental aspects of the ``hindering role'' of interfacial water for the hydrophobic assembly of nanographene. These findings are displaying a potential to further understand the hydrophobic assembly which mostly dominate the behaviors of nanomaterials, proteins etc. in aqueous solutions.A computational investigation was carried out to understand the aggregation of nanoscale graphene with two typical pathways of stacking assembly and sliding assembly in water. The interfacial-organized monolayer water film (MWF) induced ``two-step'' aggregation of nanographene in both stacking and sliding assembly pathways was reported for the first time. By means of potential mean forces (PMFs) calculation, no energy barrier was observed during the sliding assembly of two graphene nanosheets, while the PMF profiles could be impacted by the contact forms of nanographene and the MWF within the interplate of two graphene nanosheets. To explore the potential physical basis of the ``hindering role'' of self-organized interfacial

  7. Homogeneous-oxide stack in IGZO thin-film transistors for multi-level-cell NAND memory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hao; Wei, Yehui; Zhang, Xinlei; Jiang, Ran

    2017-11-01

    A nonvolatile charge-trap-flash memory that is based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors was fabricated with a homogeneous-oxide structure for a multi-level-cell application. All oxide layers, i.e., tunneling layer, charge trapping layer, and blocking layer, were fabricated with Al2O3 films. The fabrication condition (including temperature and deposition method) of the charge trapping layer was different from those of the other oxide layers. This device demonstrated a considerable large memory window of 4 V between the states fully erased and programmed with the operation voltage less than 14 V. This kind of device shows a good prospect for multi-level-cell memory applications.

  8. Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP Immobilized Poly(aniline-co-m-aminophenol Film Electrodes–fabrication and Evaluation as Hydrogen Peroxide Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Ho Choi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme modified electrodes were fabricated with poly(aniline-co-m-aminophenol. Electrochemical polymerization of aniline and m-aminophenol wasperformed to get the film of copolymer on the surface of gold electrode. Modifiedelectrodes were fabricated by two methods, physical entrapment and covalent cross-linking.In one of the method, gold nanoparticles were loaded into the copolymer film andhorseradish peroxidase (HRP was immobilized into the Au nanoparticle loaded copolymerfilm through physical entrapment. In the other method, the amino and -OH groups in thecopolymer are utilized to form covalent functionalization with HRP via glutaric dialdehydeas cross-linker/mediator. The conducting copolymer/enzyme modified electrodes preparedby physical entrapment/covalent functionalization of enzyme were tested forelectrocatalytic activities towards sensing of H2O2. Amperometric results indicate thatenzyme modified electrode via physical entrapment possesses better electrocatalyticperformance over covalent functionalized enzyme electrode.

  9. Twisted intra-molecular electron transfer phenomenon of dansyl immobilized on chitosan film and its sensing property to the composition of ethanol-water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Liping; Fang Yu; Jiang Linling; Gao Lining; Yin Xiong

    2005-01-01

    A new fluorescent chitosan film bearing dansyl as a fluorophore has been prepared. The film shows dual fluorescence phenomenon due to twisted intra-molecular charge transfer (TICT) in the excited state of the fluorophore. The position of the maximum emission of the film depends on the polarity of the medium, and it shifts from 460 nm in ethanol to 505 nm in water. The two emissions have been attributed to the emission from the 'locally excited' state or non-charge transfer excited state of dansyl and that from the TICT excited state of the fluorophore, respectively. Existence of TICT phenomenon of the immobilized dansyl has been confirmed and studied by various fluorescence techniques, such as fluorescence lifetime measurement, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence emission spectroscopy measurements, etc. The ratio, I 505 /I 460 , of the intensities of the two emission bands depends linearly on the concentration of water in ethanol-water mixture provided the concentration is less than 40%. Furthermore, the sensing property of the film to the mixture is reversible

  10. Twisted intra-molecular electron transfer phenomenon of dansyl immobilized on chitosan film and its sensing property to the composition of ethanol-water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Liping [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Changan Road No. 199, Xi' an 710062 (China); Fang Yu [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Changan Road No. 199, Xi' an 710062 (China)]. E-mail: yfang@snnu.edu.cn; Jiang Linling [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Changan Road No. 199, Xi' an 710062 (China); Gao Lining [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Changan Road No. 199, Xi' an 710062 (China); Yin Xiong [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Changan Road No. 199, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2005-05-01

    A new fluorescent chitosan film bearing dansyl as a fluorophore has been prepared. The film shows dual fluorescence phenomenon due to twisted intra-molecular charge transfer (TICT) in the excited state of the fluorophore. The position of the maximum emission of the film depends on the polarity of the medium, and it shifts from 460 nm in ethanol to 505 nm in water. The two emissions have been attributed to the emission from the 'locally excited' state or non-charge transfer excited state of dansyl and that from the TICT excited state of the fluorophore, respectively. Existence of TICT phenomenon of the immobilized dansyl has been confirmed and studied by various fluorescence techniques, such as fluorescence lifetime measurement, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence emission spectroscopy measurements, etc. The ratio, I {sub 505}/I {sub 460}, of the intensities of the two emission bands depends linearly on the concentration of water in ethanol-water mixture provided the concentration is less than 40%. Furthermore, the sensing property of the film to the mixture is reversible.

  11. AMPEROMETRIC THICK-FILM STRIP ELECTRODES FOR MONITORING ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS BASED ON IMMOBILIZED ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE. (R823663)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of organophosphorus hydrolase(OPH) onto screen-printed carbon electrodes is shown useful for the rapid, sensitive, and low-costdetection of organophosphate (OP) nerve agents. The sensor relies upon the sensitive and ra...

  12. Fabrication and characterization of Pb(Zr 0.53,Ti 0.47)O 3-Pb(Nb 1/3,Zn 2/3)O 3 thin films on cantilever stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Fuentes-Fernandez, E. M A

    2010-11-18

    0.9Pb(Zr 0.53,Ti 0.47)O 3-0.1Pb(Zn 1/3,Nb 2/3)O 3 (PZT-PZN) thin films and integrated cantilevers have been fabricated. The PZT-PZN films were deposited on SiO 2/Si or SiO 2/Si 3N 4/SiO 2/poly-Si/Si membranes capped with a sol-gel-derived ZrO 2 buffer layer. It is found that the membrane layer stack, lead content, existence of a template layer of PbTiO 3 (PT), and ramp rate during film crystallization are critical for obtaining large-grained, single-phase PZT-PZN films on the ZrO 2 surface. By controlling these parameters, the electrical properties of the PZT-PZN films, their microstructure, and phase purity were significantly improved. PZT-PZN films with a dielectric constant of 700 to 920 were obtained, depending on the underlying stack structure. © 2010 TMS.

  13. TiN/Al2O3/ZnO gate stack engineering for top-gate thin film transistors by combination of post oxidation and annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kimihiko; Matsui, Hiroaki; Tabata, Hitoshi; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    Control of fabrication processes for a gate stack structure with a ZnO thin channel layer and an Al2O3 gate insulator has been examined for enhancing the performance of a top-gate ZnO thin film transistor (TFT). The Al2O3/ZnO interface and the ZnO layer are defective just after the Al2O3 layer formation by atomic layer deposition. Post treatments such as plasma oxidation, annealing after the Al2O3 deposition, and gate metal formation (PMA) are promising to improve the interfacial and channel layer qualities drastically. Post-plasma oxidation effectively reduces the interfacial defect density and eliminates Fermi level pinning at the Al2O3/ZnO interface, which is essential for improving the cut-off of the drain current of TFTs. A thermal effect of post-Al2O3 deposition annealing at 350 °C can improve the crystalline quality of the ZnO layer, enhancing the mobility. On the other hand, impacts of post-Al2O3 deposition annealing and PMA need to be optimized because the annealing can also accompany the increase in the shallow-level defect density and the resulting electron concentration, in addition to the reduction in the deep-level defect density. The development of the interfacial control technique has realized the excellent TFT performance with a large ON/OFF ratio, steep subthreshold characteristics, and high field-effect mobility.

  14. Flexural characteristics of a stack leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-06-01

    A 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator is at present under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The insulating stack of the machine is of modular construction, each module being 860 mm in length. Each live section stack module contains 8 insulating legs mounted between bulkhead rings. The design, fabrication (from glass discs bonded to stainless steel discs using an epoxy film adhesive) and testing of the stack legs is described. (U.K.)

  15. An electrochemical sensor for warfarin determination based on covalent immobilization of quantum dots onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes and chitosan composite film modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Mohammadi-Behzad, Leila

    2015-01-01

    A method is described for the construction of a novel electrochemical warfarin sensor based on covalent immobilization of CdS-quantum dots (CdS-QDs) onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/chitosan (CS) composite film on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The CdS-QDs/CS/MWCNTs were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, XRD analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensor showed optimum anodic stripping response within 90 s at an accumulation potential of 0.75 V. The modified electrode was used to detect the concentration of warfarin with a wide linear range of 0.05–80 μM and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 8.5 nM. The proposed sensor has good storage stability, repeatability and reproducibility and was successfully applied for the determination of warfarin in real samples such as urine, serum and milk. - Highlights: • A new sensitive sensor for warfarin determination was developed. • The sensor was constructed based on covalent immobilization of CdS-QDs on the chitosan/MWCNTs/GCE. • The parameters affecting the stripping analysis of warfarin were optimized. • The proposed sensor is used for trace determination of warfarin in urine, serum and milk

  16. Anticodeine aptamer immobilized on a Whatman cellulose paper for thin-film microextraction of codeine from urine followed by electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Zahra; Khayamian, Taghi; Saraji, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    A combination of thin-film microextaction based on an aptamer immobilized on modified Whatman cellulose paper followed by electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry has been developed for the analysis of codeine in urine samples. The immobilization is based on the covalent linking of an amino-modified anticodeine aptamer to aldehyde groups of the oxidized cellulose paper. The covalent bonds were examined by infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The effect of the extraction parameters, including the elution conditions (solvent type and volume), extraction time, and extraction temperature, on the extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the linear dynamic range was found to be 10-300 ng/mL with a detection limit of 3.4 ng/mL for codeine in urine. The relative standard deviation was 6.8% for three replicate measurements of codeine at 100 ng/mL in urine. Furthermore, the samples were analyzed with a standard method for the analysis of codeine using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The comparison of the results validates the accuracy of the proposed method as an alternative method for the analysis of codeine in urine samples.

  17. An electrochemical sensor for warfarin determination based on covalent immobilization of quantum dots onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes and chitosan composite film modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher, E-mail: mbgholivand2013@gmail.com; Mohammadi-Behzad, Leila

    2015-12-01

    A method is described for the construction of a novel electrochemical warfarin sensor based on covalent immobilization of CdS-quantum dots (CdS-QDs) onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/chitosan (CS) composite film on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The CdS-QDs/CS/MWCNTs were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, XRD analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensor showed optimum anodic stripping response within 90 s at an accumulation potential of 0.75 V. The modified electrode was used to detect the concentration of warfarin with a wide linear range of 0.05–80 μM and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 8.5 nM. The proposed sensor has good storage stability, repeatability and reproducibility and was successfully applied for the determination of warfarin in real samples such as urine, serum and milk. - Highlights: • A new sensitive sensor for warfarin determination was developed. • The sensor was constructed based on covalent immobilization of CdS-QDs on the chitosan/MWCNTs/GCE. • The parameters affecting the stripping analysis of warfarin were optimized. • The proposed sensor is used for trace determination of warfarin in urine, serum and milk.

  18. A resettable and reprogrammable keypad lock based on electrochromic Prussian blue films and biocatalysis of immobilized glucose oxidase in a bipolar electrode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue; Liang, Jiying; Yang, Tiangang; Gong, Mengjie; Xi, Dongman; Liu, Hongyun

    2018-01-15

    Herein, a resettable and reprogrammable biomolecular keypad lock on the basis of a closed bipolar electrode (BPE) system was established. In this system, one ITO electrode with immobilized chitosan (CS) and glucose oxidase (GOD), designated as CS-GOD, acted as one pole of BPE in the sensing cell; another ITO with electrodeposited Prussian blue (PB) films as the other pole in the reporting cell. The addition of ascorbic acid (AA) in the sensing cell with driving voltage (V tot ) at +2.5V would make the PB films become Prussian white (PW) in the reporting cell, accompanied by the color change from blue to nearly transparent. On the other hand, with the help of oxygen, the addition of glucose in the sensing cell with V tot at -1.5V would induce PW back to PB. The change of color and the corresponding UV-vis absorbance at 700nm for the PB/PW films in the reporting cell could be reversibly switched by changing the solute in the sensing cell between AA and glucose and then switching V tot between +2.5 and -1.5V. Based on these, a keypad lock was developed with AA, glucose and V tot as 3 inputs, and the color change of the PB/PW films as the output. This keypad lock system combined enzymatic catalysis with bipolar electrochemistry, demonstrating some unique advantages such as good reprogrammability, easy resettability and visual readout by naked eye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CuAlO2 and CuAl2O4 thin films obtained by stacking Cu and Al films using physical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Hernández, G.; Mayén-Hernández, S.; Castaño-Tostado, E.; DeMoure-Flores, F.; Campos-González, E.; Martínez-Alonso, C.; Santos-Cruz, J.

    2018-06-01

    CuAlO2 and CuAl2O4 thin films were synthesized by the deposition of the precursor metals using the physical vapor deposition technique and subsequent annealing. Annealing was carried out for 4-6 h in open and nitrogen atmospheres respectively at temperatures of 900-1000 °C with control of heating and cooling ramps. The band gap measurements ranged from 3.3 to 4.5 eV. Electrical properties were measured using the van der Pauw technique. The preferred orientations of CuAlO2 and CuAl2O4 were found to be along the (1 1 2) and (3 1 1) planes, respectively. The phase percentages were quantified using a Rietveld refinement simulation and the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the composition is very close to the stoichiometry of CuAlO2 samples and with excess of aluminum and deficiency of copper for CuAl2O4 respectively. High resolution transmission electron microscopy identified the principal planes in CuAlO2 and in CuAl2O4. Higher purities were achieved in nitrogen atmosphere with the control of the cooling ramps.

  20. Design of Amperometric Biosensors for the Detection of Glucose Prepared by Immobilization of Glucose Oxidase on Conducting (PolyThiophene Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pilo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme-based sensors have emerged as important analytical tools with application in diverse fields, and biosensors for the detection of glucose using the enzyme glucose oxidase have been widely investigated. In this work, the preparation of biosensors by electrochemical polymerization of (polythiophenes, namely 2,2′-bithiophene (2,2′-BT and 4,4′-bis(2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol-2,2′-bithiophene (4,4′-bBT, followed by immobilization of glucose oxidase on the films, is described. N-cyclohexyl-N′-(2-morpholinoethylcarbodiimide metho-p-toluenesulfonate (CMC was used as a condensing agent, and p-benzoquinone (BQ was used as a redox mediator in solution. The glucose oxidase electrodes with films of 2,2′-BT and 4,4′-bBT were then tested for their ability in detecting glucose from synthetic and real samples (pear, apricot, and peach fruit juices.

  1. PC-ANN assisted to the determination of Vanadium (IV) ion using an optical sensor based on immobilization of Eriochorome Cyanine R on a triacetylcellulose film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Mohammad Mahdi; Khajehsharifi, Habibollah; Solhjoo, Aida

    2015-01-01

    More detailed analytical studies of an optical sensor based on immobilization of Eriochorome Cyanine R (ECR) on a triacetylcellulose film have been described to determine Vanadium (IV) ions in some real samples. The sensor based on complex formation between Vanadium (IV) ions and ECR in acidic media caused the color of the film to change from violet to blue along with the appearance of a strong peak appears at 595 nm. At the optimal conditions, the calibration curve showed a linear range of 9.90×10(-7)-8.25×10(-5)mol L(-1). Vanadium (IV) ions can be detected with a detection limit of 1.03×10(-7)mol L(-1) within 15 min depending on its concentration. Also, the working range was improved by using PC-ANN algorithm. The sensor could regenerate with dilute acetic acid solution and could be completely reversible. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for determining V (IV) ions in environmental water and tea leaves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of mutations using microarrays of poly(C)10-poly(T)10 modified DNA probes immobilized on agarose films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dufva, Hans Martin; Petersen, Jesper; Stoltenborg, M.

    2006-01-01

    Allele-specific hybridization to a DNA microarray call be a useful method for genotyping patient DNA. In this article, we demonstrate that 13- to 17-base oligonucleotides tagged with a poly(T)10-poly(C)10 tail (TC tag), but otherwise unmodified, can be crosslinked by UV light irradiation to an ag......Allele-specific hybridization to a DNA microarray call be a useful method for genotyping patient DNA. In this article, we demonstrate that 13- to 17-base oligonucleotides tagged with a poly(T)10-poly(C)10 tail (TC tag), but otherwise unmodified, can be crosslinked by UV light irradiation...... to an agarose film grafted onto unmodified glass. Microarrays of TC-tagged probes immobilized on the agarose film can be used to diagnose Mutations in the human P-globin gene, which encodes the beta-chains in hemoglobin. Although the probes differed widely regarding inciting point temperature (similar to 20...... degrees C), a single stringency wash still gave sufficiently high discrimination signals between perfect match and mismatch probes to allow robust mutation detection. In all, 270 genotypings were performed on patient materials, and no genotype was incorrectly classified. Quality control experiments...

  3. Lipase immobilized on nanostructured cerium oxide thin film coated on transparent conducting oxide electrode for butyrin sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panky, Sreedevi; Thandavan, Kavitha; Sivalingam, Durgajanani; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Jeyaprakash, Beri Gopalakrishnan; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique with cerium nitrate salt, Ce(NO 3 ) 3 ·6H 2 O as precursor. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film prepared using spray pyrolysis technique acts as the TCO film and hence the bare electrode. The structural, morphological and elemental characterizations of the films were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) respectively. The diffraction peak positions in XRD confirmed the formation of highly crystalline ceria with cubic structure and FE-SEM images showed uniform adherent films with granular morphology. The band gaps of CeO 2 and TCO were found to be 3.2 eV and 2.6 eV respectively. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO 2 /TCO film to form the lipase/nano-CeO 2 /TCO bioelectrode. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, with lipase/nano-CeO 2 /TCO as working electrode and tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33–1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 μM with sharp response time of 5 s and a shelf life of about 6 weeks. -- Graphical abstract: Nanostructured cerium oxide thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film acts as the TCO film and hence the working electrode. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO 2 /TCO film and hence the lipase/nano-CeO 2 /TCO bioelectrode has been fabricated. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33–1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 μM with sharp response time of 5 s and a shelf life of about 6

  4. Lipase immobilized on nanostructured cerium oxide thin film coated on transparent conducting oxide electrode for butyrin sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panky, Sreedevi; Thandavan, Kavitha [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Sivalingam, Durgajanani [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Jeyaprakash, Beri Gopalakrishnan [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru, E-mail: rjbosco@ece.sastra.edu [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-01-15

    Nanostructured cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique with cerium nitrate salt, Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O as precursor. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film prepared using spray pyrolysis technique acts as the TCO film and hence the bare electrode. The structural, morphological and elemental characterizations of the films were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) respectively. The diffraction peak positions in XRD confirmed the formation of highly crystalline ceria with cubic structure and FE-SEM images showed uniform adherent films with granular morphology. The band gaps of CeO{sub 2} and TCO were found to be 3.2 eV and 2.6 eV respectively. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO{sub 2}/TCO film to form the lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO bioelectrode. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, with lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO as working electrode and tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33-1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 {mu}M with sharp response time of 5 s and a shelf life of about 6 weeks. -- Graphical abstract: Nanostructured cerium oxide thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film acts as the TCO film and hence the working electrode. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO{sub 2}/TCO film and hence the lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO bioelectrode has been fabricated. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33-1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 {mu}M with sharp

  5. A solid-state sensor based on ruthenium (II) complex immobilized on polytyramine film for the simultaneous determination of dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaish, Emad A.; Al-Ajmi, Khawla Y.; Al-Harthi, Salim H.

    2014-01-01

    A solid-state sensor based on a polytyramine (Pty) film deposited on a glassy carbon electrode doped with a tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)Ru(II) complex (Ru/Pty/GCE) was constructed electrochemically. The surface morphology of the film modified electrode was characterized using electrochemical and surface scanning techniques. A redox property represented by a [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 3+/2+ couple immobilized at the Pty moiety was characterized using typical voltammetric techniques. A distinct Ru 3d peak obtained at 280.9 eV confirms doping of the Ru species onto the Pty moiety characterized by X-ray photoelectron (XPS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images demonstrate that incorporation of Ru decreases the surface roughness of the native Pty film modified electrode. The Ru/Pty/GCE exhibits efficient electrochemical sensing toward the oxidation of dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) in their mixture. Three well-defined peaks were resolved with a large peak to peak separation and the detection limits of AA, DA and UA are brought down to 0.31, 0.08 and 0.58 μM, respectively. Interference studies and application for DA determination in real samples were conducted with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • XPS data confirm doping of ruthenium onto the polytyramine moiety. • The voltammetric signals of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid are well defined. • The sensor is stable and offers a large adsorption facility for all species. • The sensor is highly sensitive to dopamine oxidation. • The sensor is applied to a real sample with a satisfactory recovery percentage

  6. A solid-state sensor based on ruthenium (II) complex immobilized on polytyramine film for the simultaneous determination of dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khudaish, Emad A., E-mail: ejoudi@squ.edu.om [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science, Chemistry Department, PO Box 36, PC 123 Muscat (Oman); Al-Ajmi, Khawla Y. [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science, Chemistry Department, PO Box 36, PC 123 Muscat (Oman); Al-Harthi, Salim H. [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science, Department of Physics, PO Box 36, PC 123 Muscat (Oman)

    2014-08-01

    A solid-state sensor based on a polytyramine (Pty) film deposited on a glassy carbon electrode doped with a tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)Ru(II) complex (Ru/Pty/GCE) was constructed electrochemically. The surface morphology of the film modified electrode was characterized using electrochemical and surface scanning techniques. A redox property represented by a [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 3+/2+} couple immobilized at the Pty moiety was characterized using typical voltammetric techniques. A distinct Ru 3d peak obtained at 280.9 eV confirms doping of the Ru species onto the Pty moiety characterized by X-ray photoelectron (XPS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images demonstrate that incorporation of Ru decreases the surface roughness of the native Pty film modified electrode. The Ru/Pty/GCE exhibits efficient electrochemical sensing toward the oxidation of dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) in their mixture. Three well-defined peaks were resolved with a large peak to peak separation and the detection limits of AA, DA and UA are brought down to 0.31, 0.08 and 0.58 μM, respectively. Interference studies and application for DA determination in real samples were conducted with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • XPS data confirm doping of ruthenium onto the polytyramine moiety. • The voltammetric signals of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid are well defined. • The sensor is stable and offers a large adsorption facility for all species. • The sensor is highly sensitive to dopamine oxidation. • The sensor is applied to a real sample with a satisfactory recovery percentage.

  7. Effects of L-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yun; Yang Yun; Wu Feng

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with L-arginine (L-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and the measurement of clotting time including plasma recalcification time (PRT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). The data of blood coagulation index (BCI) for L-arginine modified PET films (PET-Arg) was larger than that for PET at the same blood-sample contact time. The hemolysis ratio for PET-Arg was less than that for PET and within the accepted standard for biomaterials. The PRT and APTT for PET-Arg were significantly prolonged by 189 s and 25 s, respectively, compared to those for the unmodified PET. All results suggested that the currently described modification method could be a possible candidate to create antithrombogenic PET surfaces which would be useful for further medical applications.

  8. Maskless Surface Modification of Polyurethane Films by an Atmospheric Pressure He/O2 Plasma Microjet for Gelatin Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A localized maskless modification method of polyurethane (PU films through an atmospheric pressure He/O2 plasma microjet (APPμJ was proposed. The APPμJ system combines an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ with a microfabricated silicon micronozzle with dimension of 30 μm, which has advantages of simple structure and low cost. The possibility of APPμJ in functionalizing PU films with hydroxyl (–OH groups and covalent grafting of gelatin for improving its biocompatibility was demonstrated. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the modified surface were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The fluorescent images show the modified surface can be divided into four areas with different fluorescence intensity from the center to the outside domain. The distribution of the rings could be controlled by plasma process parameters, such as the treatment time and the flow rate of O2. When the treatment time is 4 to 5 min with the oxygen percentage of 0.6%, the PU film can be effectively local functionalized with the diameter of 170 μm. In addition, the modification mechanism of PU films by the APPμJ is investigated. The localized polymer modified by APPμJ has potential applications in the field of tissue engineering.

  9. Self-aligned top-gate InGaZnO thin film transistors using SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stack gate dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Wong, Man; Kwok, Hoi Sing

    2013-12-02

    Self-aligned top-gate amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) utilizing SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stack thin films as gate dielectric are developed in this paper. Due to high quality of the high-k Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and good interface between active layer and gate dielectric, the resulting a-IGZO TFT exhibits good electrical performance including field-effect mobility of 9 cm{sup 2}/Vs, threshold voltage of 2.2 V, subthreshold swing of 0.2 V/decade, and on/off current ratio of 1 × 10{sup 7}. With scaling down of the channel length, good characteristics are also obtained with a small shift of the threshold voltage and no degradation of subthreshold swing. - Highlights: • Self-aligned top-gate indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistor is proposed. • SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stack gate dielectric is proposed. • The source/drain areas are hydrogen-doped by CHF{sub 3} plasma. • The devices show good electrical performance and scaling down behavior.

  10. Microorganism immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Live metabolically active microorganisms are immobilized on a solid support by contacting particles of aggregate material with a water dispersible polyelectrolyte such as gelatin, crosslinking the polyelectrolyte by reacting it with a crosslinking agent such as glutaraldehyde to provide a crosslinked coating on the particles of aggregate material, contacting the coated particles with live microorganisms and incubating the microorganisms in contact with the crosslinked coating to provide a coating of metabolically active microorganisms. The immobilized microorganisms have continued growth and reproduction functions.

  11. Development of glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanoparticles film and glucose oxidase-immobilized eggshell membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohari Noor Aini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrochemical glucose biosensor was developed by depositing an ionic liquid (IL (e.g., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate; [EMIM][Otf], ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs and eggshell membrane (ESM on a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE for determination of glucose. Glucose oxidase (GOx was covalently immobilized on eggshell membrane with glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. Methylene blue was used as a redox indicator to enhance the electron transfer capacity and to ensure stability of both the oxidized and reduced forms in the reaction of enzyme and substrate. The morphological characteristics of microstructures eggshell membranes, chitosan, GOx/ESM, GOx/ZnONPs/IL/ESM and GOx/ZnONPs-IL/CHIT were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effects of scan rate, time and pH on the response of glucose biosensors were studied in detail. Under optimal conditions (pH 6.5, 50 s, cyclic voltammetry showed different glucose concentrations on the range of 1 × 10−12 to 0.6 M, with a detection limit of 1 × 10−13 M. The GOx/ZnONPs/IL/ESM was found to be more sensitive as compared to GOx/ZnONPs-IL/CHIT. This developed glucose biosensor detection approach has several advantages such as fast, simple and convenient method, sensitivity, low cost, eco-friendly, low concentrations and remarkable catalytic activities of current signals during glucose reaction.

  12. Spontaneous Synthesis of Highly Crystalline TiO2 Compact/Mesoporous Stacked Films by a Low-Temperature Steam-Annealing Method for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanehira, Yoshitaka; Numata, Youhei; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2018-05-23

    Highly crystalline TiO 2 nanostructured films were synthesized by a simple steam treatment of a TiCl 4 precursor film under a saturated water vapor atmosphere at 125 °C, here referred to as the steam-annealing method. In a single TiO 2 film preparation step, a bilayer structure comprising a compact bottom layer and a mesoporous surface layer was formed. The mesoporous layer was occupied by bipyramidal nanoparticles, with a composite phase of anatase and brookite crystals. Despite the low-temperature treatment process, the crystallinity of the TiO 2 film was high, comparable with that of the TiO 2 film sintered at 500 °C. The compact double-layered TiO 2 film was applied to perovskite solar cells (PSCs) as an electron-collecting layer. The PSC exhibited a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.9% with an open-circuit voltage ( V OC ) of 1.15 V. The PCE and V OC were higher than those of PSCs using a TiO 2 film formed by 500 °C sintering.

  13. Comparative studies of AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMTs with stacked gate dielectrics by the mixed thin film growth method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Bo-Yi; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Liu, Han-Yin; Ho, Chiu-Sheng; Lee, Ching-Sung

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports Al 0.27 Ga 0.73 N/GaN metal–oxide–semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) with stacked Al 2 O 3 /HfO 2 gate dielectrics by using hydrogen peroxideoxidation/sputtering techniques. The Al 2 O 3 employed as a gate dielectric and surface passivation layer effectively suppresses the gate leakage current, improves RF drain current collapse and exhibits good thermal stability. Moreover, by stacking the good insulating high-k HfO 2 dielectric further suppresses the gate leakage, enhances the dielectric breakdown field and power-added efficiency, and decreases the equivalent oxide thickness. The present MOS-HEMT design has demonstrated superior improvements of 10.1% (16.4%) in the maximum drain–source current (I DS,max ), 11.4% (22.5%) in the gate voltage swing and 12.5%/14.4% (21.9%/22.3%) in the two-terminal gate–drain breakdown/turn-on voltages (BV GD /V ON ), and the present design also demonstrates the lowest gate leakage current and best thermal stability characteristics as compared to two reference MOS-HEMTs with a single Al 2 O 3 /(HfO 2 ) dielectric layer of the same physical thickness. (invited paper)

  14. Influence of different sulfur to selenium ratios on the structural and electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films and solar cells formed by the stacked elemental layer process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B. J., E-mail: bjm.mueller@web.de [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Research and Advance Engineering, Advanced Functional Materials and Microsystems, D-70839 Gerlingen (Germany); Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Zimmermann, C.; Haug, V., E-mail: veronika.haug@de.bosch.com; Koehler, T.; Zweigart, S. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Research and Advance Engineering, Advanced Functional Materials and Microsystems, D-70839 Gerlingen (Germany); Hergert, F. [Bosch Solar CISTech GmbH, D-14772 Brandenburg (Germany); Herr, U., E-mail: ulrich.herr@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2014-11-07

    In this study, we investigate the effect of different elemental selenium to elemental sulfur ratios on the chalcopyrite phase formation in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films. The films are formed by the stacked elemental layer process. The structural and electronic properties of the thin films and solar cells are analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, spectral photoluminescence as well as current-voltage, and quantum efficiency measurements. The influence of different S/(S+Se) ratios on the anion incorporation and on the Ga/In distribution is investigated. We find a homogenous sulfur concentration profile inside the film from the top surface to the bottom. External quantum efficiency measurements show that the band edge of the solar cell device is shifted to shorter wavelength, which enhances the open-circuit voltages. The relative increase of the open-circuit voltage with S/(S+Se) ratio is lower than expected from the band gap energy trend, which is attributed to the presence of S-induced defects. We also observe a linear decrease of the short-circuit current density with increasing S/(S+Se) ratio which can be explained by a reduced absorption. Above a critical S/(S+Se) ratio of around 0.61, the fill factor drops drastically, which is accompanied by a strong series resistance increase which may be attributed to changes in the back contact or p-n junction properties.

  15. Imobilização de lipases em filme de caseinato de sódio/glicerol: aplicação na síntese de ésteres Lipase immobilization in sodium caseinate/glycerol film: application in ester synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Damianni Sebrão; Vanessa Dutra Silva; Maria da Graça Nascimento; Marcelo Alves Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Lipases from different sources were immobilized in sodium caseinate/glycerol film and used in the esterification reactions of aliphatic acids with alcohols in the presence of organic solvents. Lipases from Pseudomonas sp and Rhizopus oryzae were selected and the influence of several parameters was analyzed, including: lipase loading, organic solvent polarity, reaction temperature, chain length of alcohol and acid and enzyme/support reuse. For comparison, free enzymes were used under similar e...

  16. Imobilização de lipases em filme de caseinato de sódio/glicerol: aplicação na síntese de ésteres Lipase immobilization in sodium caseinate/glycerol film: application in ester synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damianni Sebrão

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipases from different sources were immobilized in sodium caseinate/glycerol film and used in the esterification reactions of aliphatic acids with alcohols in the presence of organic solvents. Lipases from Pseudomonas sp and Rhizopus oryzae were selected and the influence of several parameters was analyzed, including: lipase loading, organic solvent polarity, reaction temperature, chain length of alcohol and acid and enzyme/support reuse. For comparison, free enzymes were used under similar experimental conditions.

  17. Algal polysaccharides as matrices for the immobilization of urease in lipid ultrathin films studied with tensiometry and vibrational spectroscopy: Physical-chemical properties and implications in the enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Audrey Kalinouski; Nordi, Cristina S F; Caseli, Luciano

    2015-11-01

    Currently, many biological substances extracted from algae have received special attention because of their intrinsic characteristics, which can be applied to different areas of biotechnology. Therefore, in the current study, exopolysaccharides (EPS) from the microalgae Cryptomonas tetrapirenoidosa were employed as an aqueous subphase of a monolayer formed by the lipid dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB). The primary objective of this approach was to evaluate whether EPS could serve as a matrix for the immobilization of the enzyme urease to produce biosensors for urea. After DODAB was spread on the EPS solutions, urease was injected into the aqueous subphase, and the surface was submitted to compression using lateral barriers. The monolayers were subsequently characterized by surface pressure-area isotherms and polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). The results indicated that EPS enhanced the adsorption of the enzyme on the lipid monolayer. The mixed films were later transferred to solid supports using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique and were characterized by transfer ratio, PM-IRRAS, quartz crystal microbalance, and atomic force microscopy. The immobilization of the enzyme on solid supports was fundamental for providing an ideal geometrical accommodation of urease because the interaction of EPS with urease in solution causes a decrease of the relative activity of urease. Therefore, these LB films are promising for the fabrication of future urea biosensors, the architecture of which can be manipulated and enhanced at the molecular level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term stable stacked CsPbBr3 quantum dot films for highly efficient white light generation in LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Hyun; Yoo, Jin Sun; Kang, Bong Kyun; Choi, Seung Hee; Ji, Eun Kyung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-12-01

    We report highly efficient ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr 3 perovskite QD films for white light generation in LED application. Ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr 3 quantum dots is applied with Sr 2 Si 5 N 8  : Eu 2+ red phosphor on an InGaN blue chip, achieving a highly efficient luminous efficacy of 67.93 lm W -1 under 20 mA current.

  19. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy reveals energy-band dispersion for π-stacked 7,8,15,16-tetraazaterrylene thin films in a donor–acceptor bulk heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, Nabi; Wang, Qi; Ji, Ru-Ru; Wang, Bin; Fan, Jian; Duhm, Steffen

    2018-05-01

    7,8,15,16-tetraazaterrylene (TAT) thin films grown on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates were studied extensively with regard to their intrinsic and interfacial electronic properties by means of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). Merely weak substrate–adsorbate interaction occurs at the TAT/HOPG interface, with interface energetics being only little affected by the nominal film thickness. Photon energy-dependent UPS performed perpendicular to the molecular planes of TAT multilayer films at room temperature clearly reveals band-like intermolecular dispersion of the TAT highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy. Based on a comparison with a tight-binding model, a relatively narrow bandwidth of 54 meV is derived, which points to the presence of an intermediate regime between hopping and band-like hole transport. Upon additional deposition of 2,2‧:5‧,2″:5″,2″‧-quaterthiophene (4T), a 4T:TAT donor–acceptor bulk heterojunction with a considerable HOMO-level offset at the donor–acceptor interface is formed. The 4T:TAT bulk heterojunction likewise exhibits intermolecular dispersion of the TAT HOMO energy, yet with a significant decreased bandwidth.

  20. OpenStack essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Radez, Dan

    2015-01-01

    If you need to get started with OpenStack or want to learn more, then this book is your perfect companion. If you're comfortable with the Linux command line, you'll gain confidence in using OpenStack.

  1. Stack gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-04-12

    Hot stack gases transfer contained heat to a gravity flow of pebbles treated with a catalyst, cooled stacked gases and a sulfuric acid mist is withdrawn from the unit, and heat picked up by the pebbles is transferred to air for combustion or other process. The sulfuric acid (or sulfur, depending on the catalyst) is withdrawn in a recovery unit.

  2. Mastering OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Khedher, Omar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators, cloud engineers, and system architects who want to deploy a cloud based on OpenStack in a mid- to large-sized IT infrastructure. If you have a fundamental understanding of cloud computing and OpenStack and want to expand your knowledge, then this book is an excellent checkpoint to move forward.

  3. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, Fritz E-mail: Fritz.Caspers@cern.ch; Moehl, Dieter

    2004-10-11

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10{sup 5} the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some

  4. Effect of ion implantation energy for the synthesis of Ge nanocrystals in SiN films with HfO2/SiO2 stack tunnel dielectrics for memory application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloux Florence

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ge nanocrystals (Ge-NCs embedded in SiN dielectrics with HfO2/SiO2 stack tunnel dielectrics were synthesized by utilizing low-energy (≤5 keV ion implantation method followed by conventional thermal annealing at 800°C, the key variable being Ge+ ion implantation energy. Two different energies (3 and 5 keV have been chosen for the evolution of Ge-NCs, which have been found to possess significant changes in structural and chemical properties of the Ge+-implanted dielectric films, and well reflected in the charge storage properties of the Al/SiN/Ge-NC + SiN/HfO2/SiO2/Si metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS memory structures. No Ge-NC was detected with a lower implantation energy of 3 keV at a dose of 1.5 × 1016 cm-2, whereas a well-defined 2D-array of nearly spherical and well-separated Ge-NCs within the SiN matrix was observed for the higher-energy-implanted (5 keV sample for the same implanted dose. The MIS memory structures implanted with 5 keV exhibits better charge storage and retention characteristics compared to the low-energy-implanted sample, indicating that the charge storage is predominantly in Ge-NCs in the memory capacitor. A significant memory window of 3.95 V has been observed under the low operating voltage of ± 6 V with good retention properties, indicating the feasibility of these stack structures for low operating voltage, non-volatile memory devices.

  5. Effects of thickness and geometric variations in the oxide gate stack on the nonvolatile memory behaviors of charge-trap memory thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Jun Yong; Kim, So-Jung; Byun, Chun-Won; Pi, Jae-Eun; Ryu, Min-Ki; Hwang, Chi Sun; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Device designs of charge-trap oxide memory thin-film transistors (CTM-TFTs) were investigated to enhance their nonvolatile memory performances. The first strategy was to optimize the film thicknesses of the tunneling and charge-trap (CT) layers in order to meet requirements of both higher operation speed and longer retention time. While the program speed and memory window were improved for the device with a thinner tunneling layer, a long retention time was obtained only for the device with a tunneling layer thicker than 5 nm. The carrier concentration and charge-trap densities were optimized in the 30-nm-thick CT layer. It was observed that 10-nm-thick tunneling, 30-nm-thick CT, and 50-nm-thick blocking layers were the best configuration for our proposed CTM-TFTs, where a memory on/off margin higher than 107 was obtained, and a memory margin of 6.6 × 103 was retained even after the lapse of 105 s. The second strategy was to examine the effects of the geometrical relations between the CT and active layers for the applications of memory elements embedded in circuitries. The CTM-TFTs fabricated without an overlap between the CT layer and the drain electrode showed an enhanced program speed by the reduced parasitic capacitance. The drain-bias disturbance for the memory off-state was effectively suppressed even when a higher read-out drain voltage was applied. Appropriate device design parameters, such as the film thicknesses of each component layer and the geometrical relations between them, can improve the memory performances and expand the application fields of the proposed CTM-TFTs.

  6. Improved magnetic-field homogeneity of NMR HTS bulk magnet using a new stacking structure and insertion of an HTS film cylinder into a bulk bore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yoshitaka; Yanagi, Yousuke; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    A new type of superconducting bulk magnet for compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) devices with high magnetic-field homogeneity has been developed by inserting an HTS film cylinder into a bulk superconductor bore. Annular 60 mmϕ Eu-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors with a larger inner diameter (ID) of 36 mm were sandwiched between bulk superconductors with a smaller ID of 28 mm, and the total height of the bulk superconductor set was made to be 120 mm. The inner height of central wide bore space was optimized by magnetic-field simulation so that the influence of the bulk superconductor's paramagnetic moment on applied field homogeneity was minimized during the magnetization process. An HTS film cylinder, in which Gd-Ba-Cu-O tapes were wound helically in three layers around a copper cylinder, was inserted into the bulk bore in order to compensate for the inhomogeneous field trapped by the bulk superconductor. The superconducting bulk magnet composed of the above bulk superconductor set and the film cylinder were cooled by a GM pulse tube refrigerator and magnetized at 4.747 T using the field cooling (FC) method and a conventional superconducting coil magnet adjusted to below 0.5 ppm in magnetic-field homogeneity. The NMR measurement was conducted for an H_2O sample with a diameter of 6.9 mm and a length of 10 mm by setting the sample in the center of the 20 mm ID room-temperature bore of the bulk magnet. The magnetic-field homogeneity derived from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the "1H spectrum of H_2O was 0.45 ppm. We confirmed that the HTS film inner cylinder was effective in maintaining the homogeneity of the magnetic field applied in the magnetization process, and as a result, a magnetic field with a homogeneity of less than 1 ppm can be generated in the bore of the bulk magnet without using shim coils. (author)

  7. Tuning SPT-3G Transition-Edge-Sensor Electrical Properties with a Four-Layer Ti-Au-Ti-Au Thin-Film Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, F. W.; Ade, P. A. R.; Ahmed, Z.; Anderson, A. J.; Austermann, J. E.; Avva, J. S.; Thakur, R. Basu; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Cecil, T.; Chang, C. L.; Cliche, J. F.; Cukierman, A.; Denison, E. V.; de Haan, T.; Ding, J.; Divan, R.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dutcher, D.; Everett, W.; Foster, A.; Gannon, R. N.; Gilbert, A.; Groh, J. C.; Halverson, N. W.; Harke-Hosemann, A. H.; Harrington, N. L.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Huang, N.; Irwin, K. D.; Jeong, O. B.; Jonas, M.; Khaire, T.; Kofman, A. M.; Korman, M.; Kubik, D.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuo, C. L.; Kutepova, V.; Lee, A. T.; Lowitz, A. E.; Meyer, S. S.; Michalik, D.; Miller, C. S.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nguyen, H.; Noble, G. I.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pan, Z.; Pearson, J.; Posada, C. M.; Rahlin, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saunders, L. J.; Sayre, J. T.; Shirley, I.; Shirokoff, E.; Smecher, G.; Sobrin, J. A.; Stan, L.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Suzuki, A.; Tang, Q. Y.; Thompson, K. L.; Tucker, C.; Vale, L. R.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Yefremenko, V.; Yoon, K. W.; Young, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    We have developed superconducting Ti transition-edge sensors with Au protection layers on the top and bottom for the South Pole Telescope's third-generation receiver (a cosmic microwave background polarimeter, due to be upgraded this austral summer of 2017/2018). The base Au layer (deposited on a thin Ti glue layer) isolates the Ti from any substrate effects; the top Au layer protects the Ti from oxidation during processing and subsequent use of the sensors. We control the transition temperature and normal resistance of the sensors by varying the sensor width and the relative thicknesses of the Ti and Au layers. The transition temperature is roughly six times more sensitive to the thickness of the base Au layer than to that of the top Au layer. The normal resistance is inversely proportional to sensor width for any given film configuration. For widths greater than five micrometers, the critical temperature is independent of width.

  8. Metallorganic chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition approaches for the growth of hafnium-based thin films from dialkylamide precursors for advanced CMOS gate stack applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Steven P.

    the properties of conductive HfN grown via plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) using tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)hafnium on a modified commercially available wafer processing tool. Key properties of these materials for use as gate stack replacement materials are addressed and future directions for further characterization and novel material investigations are proposed.

  9. Stacking the Equiangular Spiral

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A.; Azabi, Y. O.; Rahman, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present an algorithm that adapts the mature Stack and Draw (SaD) methodology for fabricating the exotic Equiangular Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber. (ES-PCF) The principle of Steiner chains and circle packing is exploited to obtain a non-hexagonal design using a stacking procedure based on Hexagonal Close Packing. The optical properties of the proposed structure are promising for SuperContinuum Generation. This approach could make accessible not only the equiangular spiral but also other qua...

  10. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  11. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  12. Stochastic stacking without filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.

    1982-12-01

    The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10 8 per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth

  13. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  14. Multi-input and -output logic circuits based on bioelectrocatalysis with horseradish peroxidase and glucose oxidase immobilized in multi-responsive copolymer films on electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue; Lian, Wenjing; Zhang, Jiannan; Liu, Hongyun

    2016-06-15

    Herein, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N'-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) copolymer films were polymerized on electrode surface with a simple one-step method, and the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was embedded in the films simultaneously, which were designated as P(NiPAAm-co-DMEM)-HRP. The films exhibited a reversible structure change with the external stimuli, such as pH, CO2, temperature and SO4(2-), causing the cyclic voltammetric (CV) response of electroactive K3Fe(CN)6 at the film electrodes to display the corresponding multi-stimuli sensitive ON-OFF behavior. Based on the switchable CV property of the system and the electrochemical reduction of H2O2 catalyzed by HRP in the films and mediated by Fe(CN)6(3-) in solution, a 5-input/3-output logic gate was established. To further increase the complexity of the logic system, another enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) was added into the films, designated as P(NiPAAm-co-DMEM)-HRP-GOD. In the presence of oxygen, the oxidation of glucose in the solution was catalyzed by GOD in the films, and the produced H2O2 in situ was recognized and electrocatalytically reduced by HRP and mediated by Fe(CN)6(3-). Based on the bienzyme films, a cascaded or concatenated 4-input/3-output logic gate system was proposed. The present work combined the multi-responsive interface with bioelectrocatalysis to construct cascaded logic circuits, which might open a new avenue to develop biocomputing elements with more sophisticated functions and design novel glucose biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Laser pulse stacking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  16. Electrically programmable-erasable In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistor memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/Pt nanocrystals/Al2O3 gate stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bing Qian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO thin-film transistor (TFT memory is very promising for transparent and flexible system-on-panel displays; however, electrical erasability has always been a severe challenge for this memory. In this article, we demonstrated successfully an electrically programmable-erasable memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/Pt nanocrystals/Al2O3 gate stack under a maximal processing temperature of 300 oC. As the programming voltage was enhanced from 14 to 19 V for a constant pulse of 0.2 ms, the threshold voltage shift increased significantly from 0.89 to 4.67 V. When the programmed device was subjected to an appropriate pulse under negative gate bias, it could return to the original state with a superior erasing efficiency. The above phenomena could be attributed to Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling of electrons from the IGZO channel to the Pt nanocrystals during programming, and inverse tunnelling of the trapped electrons during erasing. In terms of 0.2-ms programming at 16 V and 350-ms erasing at −17 V, a large memory window of 3.03 V was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the memory exhibited stable repeated programming/erasing (P/E characteristics and good data retention, i.e., for 2-ms programming at 14 V and 250-ms erasing at −14 V, a memory window of 2.08 V was still maintained after 103 P/E cycles, and a memory window of 1.1 V was retained after 105 s retention time.

  17. Electrically programmable-erasable In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistor memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt nanocrystals/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Shi-Bing; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin, E-mail: sjding@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, School of Microelectronics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) memory is very promising for transparent and flexible system-on-panel displays; however, electrical erasability has always been a severe challenge for this memory. In this article, we demonstrated successfully an electrically programmable-erasable memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt nanocrystals/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate stack under a maximal processing temperature of 300 {sup o}C. As the programming voltage was enhanced from 14 to 19 V for a constant pulse of 0.2 ms, the threshold voltage shift increased significantly from 0.89 to 4.67 V. When the programmed device was subjected to an appropriate pulse under negative gate bias, it could return to the original state with a superior erasing efficiency. The above phenomena could be attributed to Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling of electrons from the IGZO channel to the Pt nanocrystals during programming, and inverse tunnelling of the trapped electrons during erasing. In terms of 0.2-ms programming at 16 V and 350-ms erasing at −17 V, a large memory window of 3.03 V was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the memory exhibited stable repeated programming/erasing (P/E) characteristics and good data retention, i.e., for 2-ms programming at 14 V and 250-ms erasing at −14 V, a memory window of 2.08 V was still maintained after 10{sup 3} P/E cycles, and a memory window of 1.1 V was retained after 10{sup 5} s retention time.

  18. Influence of selenium amount on the structural and electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films and solar cells formed by the stacked elemental layer process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B.J., E-mail: bjm.mueller@web.de [Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Corporate Research, Robert Bosch GmbH, D-71272 Renningen (Germany); Opasanont, B.; Haug, V. [Corporate Research, Robert Bosch GmbH, D-71272 Renningen (Germany); Hergert, F. [Bosch Solar CISTech GmbH, D-14772 Brandenburg (Germany); Zweigart, S. [Corporate Research, Robert Bosch GmbH, D-71272 Renningen (Germany); Herr, U., E-mail: ulrich.herr@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2016-06-01

    In the following article the influence of selenium supply on the stacked elemental layer process during the final annealing step is investigated. We find that the Se supply strongly influences the phase formation in the Cu(In,Ga)Se {sub 2} resulting in a modified Ga/In distribution. The effects of Se supply on the structural and electronic properties of the films are reported. The solar cell performance has been investigated in detail using current voltage and external quantum efficiency measurements. We find that the chalcopyrite crystal formation is strongly influenced by the Se supply during the growth process. Furthermore the interdiffusion of Ga and In is accelerated with increasing Se amount. This has direct consequences on band gap and series resistance, which leads to changes in the values of short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage and fill factor. The open-circuit voltage increases with increasing band gap of the Cu(In,Ga)Se {sub 2}, whereas the short-circuit current density decreases with increasing band gap. The fill factor is affected by the formation of MoSe {sub 2} at the back contact. The experimental findings are compared with the theoretical efficiency limits calculated from the Shockley–Queisser model, and also with numerical 1D SCAPS simulations. - Highlights: • Adjustment of the Ga/In distribution by the Se supply • Enhanced Ga incorporation near-surface • Interdiffusion coefficients of Ga/In are investigated. • Shockley–Queisser modeling and 1D SCAPS simulations • Fill factor is strongly coupled on the MoSe2/Mo ratio.

  19. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  20. Effect of interfacial SiO2- y layer and defect in HfO2- x film on flat-band voltage of HfO2- x /SiO2- y stacks for backside-illuminated CMOS image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Heedo; Lee, Jimin; Jeong, Juyoung; Kim, Taeho; Sohn, Hyunchul

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the effect of oxygen gas fraction during deposition of a hafnium oxide (HfO2- x ) film and the influence of the quality of the SiO2- y interlayer on the nature of flat-band voltage ( V fb) in TiN/HfO/SiO2- y /p-Si structures were investigated. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy analysis showed that the non-lattice oxygen peak, indicating an existing oxygen vacancy, increased as the oxygen gas fraction decreased during sputtering. From C- V and J- E analyses, the V fb behavior was significantly affected by the characteristics of the SiO2- y interlayer and the non-lattice oxygen fraction in the HfO2- x films. The HfO2- x /native SiO2- y stack presented a V fb of - 1.01 V for HfO2- x films with an oxygen gas fraction of 5% during sputtering. Additionally, the V fb of the HfO2- x /native SiO2- y stack could be controlled from - 1.01 to - 0.56 V by changing the deposition conditions of the HfO2- x film with the native SiO2- y interlayer. The findings of this study can be useful to fabricate charge-accumulating layers for backside-illuminated image sensor devices.

  1. OpenStack cloud security

    CERN Document Server

    Locati, Fabio Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack administrator or developer, or wish to build solutions to protect your OpenStack environment, then this book is for you. Experience of Linux administration and familiarity with different OpenStack components is assumed.

  2. Stacked magnet superconducting bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines

  3. Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.

  4. Immobilized enzymes and cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucke, C; Wiseman, A

    1981-04-04

    This article reviews the current state of the art of enzyme and cell immobilization and suggests advances which might be made during the 1980's. Current uses of immobilized enzymes include the use of glucoamylase in the production of glucose syrups from starch and glucose isomerase in the production of high fructose corn syrup. Possibilities for future uses of immobilized enzymes and cells include the utilization of whey and the production of ethanol.

  5. Enhanced performance of a glucose/O(2) biofuel cell assembled with laccase-covalently immobilized three-dimensional macroporous gold film-based biocathode and bacterial surface displayed glucose dehydrogenase-based bioanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chuantao; Yang, Dapeng; Liang, Bo; Liu, Aihua

    2014-06-17

    The power output and stability of enzyme-based biofuel cells (BFCs) is greatly dependent on the properties of both the biocathode and bioanode, which may be adapted for portable power production. In this paper, a novel highly uniform three-dimensional (3D) macroporous gold (MP-Au) film was prepared by heating the gold "supraspheres", which were synthesized by a bottom-up protein templating approach, and followed by modification of laccase on the MP-Au film by covalent immobilization. The as-prepared laccase/MP-Au biocathode exihibited an onset potential of 0.62 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE, or 0.86 V vs NHE, normal hydrogen electrode) toward O2 reduction and a high catalytic current of 0.61 mAcm(-2). On the other hand, mutated glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) surface displayed bacteria (GDH-bacteria) were used to improve the stability of the glucose oxidation at the bioanode. The as-assembled membraneless glucose/O2 fuel cell showed a high power output of 55.8 ± 2.0 μW cm(-2) and open circuit potential of 0.80 V, contributing to the improved electrocatalysis toward O2 reduction at the laccase/MP-Au biocathode. Moreover, the BFC retained 84% of its maximal power density even after continuous operation for 55 h because of the high stability of the bacterial surface displayed GDH mutant toward glucose oxidation. Our findings may be promising for the development of more efficient glucose BFC for portable battery or self-powered device applications.

  6. Stepwise Reduction of Immobilized Mono layer Graphene Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren; He, Yudong; Lang, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    to the pronounced aggregation that accompanies deoxygenation of GO in solution. Surface immobilization of monolayered graphene oxide (mGO) in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films was investigated as a method to circumvent this problem. Two types of LB films with different density of mGO flakes were prepared, i.e., diluted...

  7. Immobilization of glucose oxidase into a nanoporous TiO₂ film layered on metallophthalocyanine modified vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes for efficient direct electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Kuan; Zhang, Yong-Fang; Sun, Yu-Long; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Wei-De; Luong, John H T

    2013-08-15

    Glucose oxidase (GOD) was adsorbed into a nanoporous TiO₂ film layered on the surface of an iron phthalocyanine (FePc) vertically-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) modified electrode. A Nafion film was then dropcast on the electrode's surface to improve operational and storage stabilities of the GOD-based electrode. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed the formation of FePc and nanoporous TiO₂ nanoparticles along the sidewall and the tip of CNTs. Cyclic voltammograms of the GOD electrode in neutral PBS exhibited a pair of well-defined redox peaks, attesting the direct electron transfer of GOD (FAD/FADH₂) with the underlying electrode. The potential of glucose electro-oxidation under nitrogen was ∼+0.12 V with an oxidation current density of 65.3 μA cm(-2) at +0.77 V. Voltammetric and amperometric responses were virtually unaffected by oxygen, illustrating an efficient and fast direct electron transfer. The modification of the CNT surface with FePc resulted in a biosensor with remarkable detection sensitivity with an oxygen-independent bioelectrocatalysis. In deaerated PBS, the biosensor displayed average response time of 12 s, linearity from 50 μM to 4 mM, and a detection limit of 30 μM (S/N=3) for glucose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MEAN STACK WEB DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thanh, Nghi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to provide a universal website using JavaScript as the main programming language. It also shows the basic parts anyone need to create a web application. The thesis creates a simple CMS using MEAN stack. MEAN is a collection of JavaScript based technologies used to develop web application. It is an acronym for MongoDB, Express, AngularJS and Node.js. It also allows non-technical users to easily update and manage a website’s content. But the application also lets o...

  9. Die-stacking architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) chip architectures, with their intrinsic capability of reducing the wire length, promise attractive solutions to reduce the delay of interconnects in future microprocessors. 3D memory stacking enables much higher memory bandwidth for future chip-multiprocessor design, mitigating the ""memory wall"" problem. In addition, heterogenous integration enabled by 3D technology can also result in innovative designs for future microprocessors. This book first provides a brief introduction to this emerging technology, and then presents a variety of approaches to design

  10. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  11. Immobilization of chitosan film containing semaphorin 3A onto a microarc oxidized titanium implant surface via silane reaction to improve MG63 osteogenic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaixiu Fang,1,* Wen Song,2,* Lifeng Wang,1 Sen Jia,3 Hongbo Wei,1 Shuai Ren,1 Xiaoru Xu,1 Yingliang Song1 1State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 3State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Improving osseointegration of extensively used titanium (Ti implants still remains a main theme in implantology. Recently, grafting biomolecules onto a Ti surface has attracted more attention due to their direct participation in the osseointegration process around the implant. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A is a new proven osteoprotection molecule and is considered to be a promising therapeutic agent in bone diseases, but how to immobilize the protein onto a Ti surface to acquire a long-term effect is poorly defined. In our study, we tried to use chitosan to wrap Sema3A (CS/Sema and connect to the microarc oxidized Ti surface via silane glutaraldehyde coupling. The microarc oxidization could formulate porous topography on a Ti surface, and the covalently bonded coating was homogeneously covered on the ridges between the pores without significant influence on the original topography. A burst release of Sema3A was observed in the first few days in phosphate-buffered saline and could be maintained for >2 weeks. Coating in phosphate-buffered saline containing lysozyme was similar, but the release rate was much more rapid. The coating did not significantly affect cellular adhesion, viability, or cytoskeleton arrangement, but the osteogenic-related gene

  12. Immobilized waste leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The main mechanism by which the immobilized radioactive materials can return to biosphere is the leaching due to the intrusion of water into the repositories. Some mathematical models and experiments utilized to evaluate the leaching rates in different immobilization matrices are described. (author) [pt

  13. Immobilization of the enzyme β-lactamase by self-assembly on thin films of a poly(phenyleneethynylene) sequenced with flexible segments containing sulfur atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Erika; Aguilar, Abdieel Esquivel; Moggio, Ivana; Arias, Eduardo; Romero, Jorge; Barrientos, Hector; Torres, Jose Roman; Luz Reyes Vega, Maria de la

    2007-01-01

    A novel poly(phenyleneethynylene) sequenced in the main conjugated chain with flexible groups containing sulfur atoms has been synthesized by Heck-Sonogashira coupling reaction. Layer-by-layer films of the polymer have been prepared with a linear growth in thickness up to four layers as evidenced by UV-Vis spectroscopy and perfilometry. On the top of these multilayers, the enzyme β-lactamase was deposited by self-assembly. The enzymatic activity was measured by a modified spectrophotometric standard assay method for penicillin G, ampicillin and amoxicillin. A higher and faster activity was obtained for penicillin G and thus preliminary study of the biosensor response by fluorescence was carried out for this antibiotic revealing a decrease in the polymer fluorescence as function of the penicillin G concentration

  14. Immobilization of the enzyme {beta}-lactamase by self-assembly on thin films of a poly(phenyleneethynylene) sequenced with flexible segments containing sulfur atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Erika [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna 140, 25253, Saltillo (Mexico); Aguilar, Abdieel Esquivel [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna 140, 25253, Saltillo (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Blvd. V. Carranza and Ing. J. Cardenas, 25000 Saltillo (Mexico); Moggio, Ivana [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna 140, 25253, Saltillo (Mexico)]. E-mail: imoggio@ciqa.mx; Arias, Eduardo [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna 140, 25253, Saltillo (Mexico); Romero, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna 140, 25253, Saltillo (Mexico); Barrientos, Hector [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna 140, 25253, Saltillo (Mexico); Torres, Jose Roman [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna 140, 25253, Saltillo (Mexico); Luz Reyes Vega, Maria de la [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Blvd. V. Carranza and Ing. J. Cardenas, 25000 Saltillo (Mexico)

    2007-05-16

    A novel poly(phenyleneethynylene) sequenced in the main conjugated chain with flexible groups containing sulfur atoms has been synthesized by Heck-Sonogashira coupling reaction. Layer-by-layer films of the polymer have been prepared with a linear growth in thickness up to four layers as evidenced by UV-Vis spectroscopy and perfilometry. On the top of these multilayers, the enzyme {beta}-lactamase was deposited by self-assembly. The enzymatic activity was measured by a modified spectrophotometric standard assay method for penicillin G, ampicillin and amoxicillin. A higher and faster activity was obtained for penicillin G and thus preliminary study of the biosensor response by fluorescence was carried out for this antibiotic revealing a decrease in the polymer fluorescence as function of the penicillin G concentration.

  15. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  16. Plutonium Disposition by Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.; DiSabatino, A.; Mitchell, M.

    2000-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize between 17 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons-usable plutonium materials in waste forms that meet the ''spent fuel'' standard and are acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. Using the ceramic can-in-canister technology selected for immobilization, surplus plutonium materials will be chemically combined into ceramic forms which will be encapsulated within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2008 and be completed within 10 years. In support of this goal, the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) is conducting development and testing (D and T) activities at four DOE laboratories under the technical leadership of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Savannah River Site has been selected as the site for the planned Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). The D and T effort, now in its third year, will establish the technical bases for the design, construction, and operation of the U. S. capability to immobilize surplus plutonium in a suitable and cost-effective manner. Based on the D and T effort and on the development of a conceptual design of the PIP, automation is expected to play a key role in the design and operation of the Immobilization Plant. Automation and remote handling are needed to achieve required dose reduction and to enhance operational efficiency

  17. In situ Observation of Direct Electron Transfer Reaction of Cytochrome c Immobilized on ITO Electrode Modified with 11-{2-[2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}undecylphosphonic Acid Self-assembled Monolayer Film by Electrochemical Slab Optical Waveguide Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Okabe, Hirotaka; Omura, Ayako; Nakano, Miki; Miyake, Koji

    2017-01-01

    To immobilize cytochrome c (cyt.c) on an ITO electrode while keeping its direct electron transfer (DET) functionality, the ITO electrode surface was modified with 11-{2-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}undecylphosphonic acid (CH 3 O (CH 2 CH 2 O) 3 C 11 H 22 PO(OH) 2 , M-EG 3 -UPA) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) film. After a 100-times washing process to exchange a phosphate buffer saline solution surrounding cyt.c and ITO electrode to a fresh one, an in situ observation of visible absorption spectral change with slab optical waveguide (SOWG) spectroscopy showed that 87.7% of the cyt.c adsorbed on the M-EG 3 -UPA modified ITO electrode remained on the ITO electrode. The SOWG absorption spectra corresponding to oxidized and reduced cyt.c were observed with setting the ITO electrode potential at 0.3 and -0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively, while probing the DET reaction between cyt.c and ITO electrode occurred. The amount of cyt.c was evaluated to be about 19.4% of a monolayer coverage based on the coulomb amount in oxidation and reduction peaks on cyclic voltammetry (CV) data. The CV peak current maintained to be 83.4% compared with the initial value for a M-EG 3 -UPA modified ITO electrode after 60 min continuous scan with 0.1 V/s between 0.3 and -0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl.

  18. Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…

  19. Spherical Torus Center Stack Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-01-01

    The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device

  20. Modeling fuel cell stack systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lalk, T R [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-06-15

    A technique for modeling fuel cell stacks is presented along with the results from an investigation designed to test the validity of the technique. The technique was specifically designed so that models developed using it can be used to determine the fundamental thermal-physical behavior of a fuel cell stack for any operating and design configuration. Such models would be useful tools for investigating fuel cell power system parameters. The modeling technique can be applied to any type of fuel cell stack for which performance data is available for a laboratory scale single cell. Use of the technique is demonstrated by generating sample results for a model of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack consisting of 125 cells each with an active area of 150 cm{sup 2}. A PEMFC stack was also used in the verification investigation. This stack consisted of four cells, each with an active area of 50 cm{sup 2}. Results from the verification investigation indicate that models developed using the technique are capable of accurately predicting fuel cell stack performance. (orig.)

  1. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  2. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2008-03-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  3. Frictional forces in an SOFC stack with sliding seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, T; Oishi, N; Namikawa, T; Yamazaki, Y [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-05

    The detrimental thermal stresses in planar SOFC stacks can be reduced using sliding seals. In the proposal planar stack the electrolyte film is sandwiched by YSZ support rings to release the thermal stresses. In order to estimate the strength of the support ring, the frictional forces between heat resistant alloy and YSZ were measured at 900{degree}C. The coefficient of friction between Hastelloy X and YSZ increased when they were measured lifter 144h heating. However, the coefficient of friction between HA-214 and YSZ did not increase. The measurement and a calculation of the stresses in the support rings led the result that a thickness of 0.6mm was necessary for 200mm diameter support rings under a stack pressure of 0.1kgcm{sup -2}. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Study on immobilization enzyme using radiation grafting and condensation covalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jin; Su Zongxian; Gao Jianfeng

    1989-01-01

    The immobilization of gluecose oxidase (GOD) on polyethylene and F 46 is described by radiation grafting and condensation covalent. The GOD on polyethylene film is characterized with IR-spectrum. The results show that the enzyme activity on F 46 film is high when dose rate and covalent yield are low. When covalent yield is 4.3% the enzyme relative activity achieves the greatest value for F 46 film. The experiment also demonstrates that acrylic acid affects the relative activity of enzyme and the method of IR-pectrum character is convenient and efficient for GOD on polyethylene film

  5. Immobilization of microorganisms. Part 1. Preparation of immobilized Lactobacillus bulgaricus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K H

    1981-01-01

    The immobilization of Lactobacillus bulgaricus on polyacrylamide and on alginate beads was investigated. The most active immobilized cells were obtained by entrapment in Ca alginate beads. These immobilized microbial cells, when introduced into 4.5% lactose solution and whey solution showed maximum relative activity of 28% for lactose and 18% for whey compared to free cells.

  6. Limb immobilization and corticobasal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Boeve, Bradley F; Drubach, Daniel A; Knopman, David S; Ahlskog, J Eric; Golden, Erin C; Drubach, Dina I; Petersen, Ronald C; Josephs, Keith A

    2012-12-01

    Recently, we evaluated two patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) who reported symptom onset after limb immobilization. Our objective was to investigate the association between trauma, immobilization and CBS. The charts of forty-four consecutive CBS patients seen in the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer Disease Research Center were reviewed with attention to trauma and limb immobilization. 10 CBS patients (23%) had immobilization or trauma on the most affected limb preceding the onset or acceleration of symptoms. The median age at onset was 61. Six patients manifested their first symptoms after immobilization from surgery or fracture with one after leg trauma. Four patients had pre-existing symptoms of limb dysfunction but significantly worsened after immobilization or surgery. 23 percent of patients had immobilization or trauma of the affected limb. This might have implications for management of CBS, for avoiding injury, limiting immobilization and increasing movement in the affected limb. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Membranes suited for immobilizing biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to flow-through membranes suitable for the immobilization of biomols., methods for the prepn. of such membranes and the use of such membranes for the immobilization of biomols. and subsequent detection of immobilized biomols. The invention concerns a flow-through

  8. Simultaneously and separately immobilizing incompatible dual-enzymes on polymer substrate via visible light induced graft polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xing; He, Bin; Zhao, Changwen; Ma, Yuhong; Yang, Wantai

    2018-04-01

    Developing facile and mild strategy to construct multi-enzymes immobilization system has attracted considerable attentions in recent years. Here a simple immobilization strategy called visible light induced graft polymerization that can simultaneously and separately encapsulate two kinds of enzymes on one polymer film was proposed. Two incompatible enzymes, trypsin and transglutaminase (TGase) were selected as model dual-enzymes system and simultaneously immobilized on two sides of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film. After immobilization, it was found that more than 90% of the enzymes can be embedded into dual-enzymes loaded film without leakage. And the activities of both separately immobilized enzymes were higher than the activities of mixed co-immobilized enzymes or the sequential immobilized ones. This dual-enzymes loaded film (DEL film) showed excellent recyclability and can retain >87% activities of both enzymes after 4 cycles of utilization. As an example, this DEL film was used to conjugate a prodrug of cytarabine with a target peptide. The successful preparation of expected product demonstrated that the separately immobilized two enzymes can worked well together to catalyze a two-step reaction.

  9. The effectiveness of immobilization during prostate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentel, Gunilla C.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Sherouse, George W.; Spencer, David P.; Anscher, Mitchell S.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a hemibody foam cradle on the reproducibility of patient setup during external beam radiation treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 1992 and April 1993, 74 patients received external beam radiation treatment to the prostate ± nodes, generally with a four-field box technique. Forty-four of the 74 patients had a custom-made hemibody foam cast used in an attempt to improve setup accuracy. A review of the routine weekly port films was performed following the completion of therapy to determine the reproducibility of patient setup in all 74 patients. The physician's request of an isocenter shift was used as an indicator of reproducibility. Neither the treating technologists nor the physicians knew at the time the films were taken that the port films would be reviewed for setup reproducibility at a later date. The results were compared between the patients treated with (44) and without (30) an immobilization device. Results: In the 44 immobilized patients, 213 routine checks of the isocenter were performed during the 7-week course of radiation therapy. In 17.4% of these instances (37 out of 213), an isocenter shift was requested. This rate is compared to 23.1% (30 out of 130) in the 30 patients who did not have the immobilization device (p < 0.2). There was a statistically significant reduction in isocenter shifts requested in the anterior to posterior direction in the patients who were immobilized, 5.1% (9 out of 175) vs. 12.6% (13 out of 103) (p < 0.05, two tailed chi-square test). There was no significant improvement in the reproducibility of isocenter placement in the cephalad to caudal or right to left directions. Conclusions: This custom-made hemibody foam cradle appears to improve the reproducibility of patient setup during the 7-week course of fractionated external beam irradiation for patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate. This type of immobilization device is now routinely used in our

  10. Glassy carbon based supercapacitor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M; Braun, A; Koetz, R; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Considerable effort is being made to develop electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) that store relatively large quantities of electrical energy and possess at the same time a high power density. Our previous work has shown that glassy carbon is suitable as a material for capacitor electrodes concerning low resistance and high capacity requirements. We present the development of bipolar electrochemical glassy carbon capacitor stacks of up to 3 V. Bipolar stacks are an efficient way to meet the high voltage and high power density requirements for traction applications. Impedance and cyclic voltammogram measurements are reported here and show the frequency response of a 1, 2, and 3 V stack. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref..

  11. Time-predictable Stack Caching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar

    completely. Thus, in systems with hard deadlines the worst-case execution time (WCET) of the real-time software running on them needs to be bounded. Modern architectures use features such as pipelining and caches for improving the average performance. These features, however, make the WCET analysis more...... addresses, provides an opportunity to predict and tighten the WCET of accesses to data in caches. In this thesis, we introduce the time-predictable stack cache design and implementation within a time-predictable processor. We introduce several optimizations to our design for tightening the WCET while...... keeping the timepredictability of the design intact. Moreover, we provide a solution for reducing the cost of context switching in a system using the stack cache. In design of these caches, we use custom hardware and compiler support for delivering time-predictable stack data accesses. Furthermore...

  12. Impact of cradle immobilization on setup reproducibility during external beam radiation therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentel, Gunilla C.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Krishnamurthy, Rupa

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the setup accuracy during fractionated radiation therapy for two patient groups with lung cancer treated with and without an immobilization cradle. Methods: Three hundred ninety-seven port films from 30 patients immobilized in the Alpha Cradle TM1 were compared with 329 port films from 30 patients who were not immobilized with the cradle. All patients were treated with curative intent for nonmetastatic lung cancer. The frequency of physician-requested isocenter shifts were compared in the two groups using a two-tailed chi-square test. Initial port films taken on the first day of treatment, routine films taken usually weekly during radiation therapy, and requested films taken after a requested shift were considered separately. The immobilization device consisted of a custom-made foam cradle that extended from above the head to the knees. Patients were generally treated with their arms above their heads, and treatment setup marks in the immobilized patients were placed on both the patients' skin and the immobilization cradle. For the noncradle patients, setup marks were placed only on the patients' skin. Results: For the routine films, the frequency of physician-requested isocenter shifts was lower in immobilized patients than in the nonimmobilized group (p = 0.139). Most of this reduction was seen on oblique fields (p = 0.038). No benefits were seen among initial or requested films. The two groups were well balanced with regard to stage, age, field size, and total dose. Conclusions: The use of aggressive immobilization improves the setup reproducibility in patients receiving external beam radiation therapy for lung cancer, especially during treatment with oblique fields. This improvement in treatment accuracy might improve the therapeutic ratio

  13. Stack semantics of type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquand, Thierry; Mannaa, Bassel; Ruch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    We give a model of dependent type theory with one univalent universe and propositional truncation interpreting a type as a stack, generalizing the groupoid model of type theory. As an application, we show that countable choice cannot be proved in dependent type theory with one univalent universe...

  14. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  15. V-stack piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelean, Emil V.; Clark, Robert L.

    2001-07-01

    Aeroelastic control of wings by means of a distributed, trailing-edge control surface is of interest with regards to maneuvers, gust alleviation, and flutter suppression. The use of high energy density, piezoelectric materials as motors provides an appealing solution to this problem. A comparative analysis of the state of the art actuators is currently being conducted. A new piezoelectric actuator design is presented. This actuator meets the requirements for trailing edge flap actuation in both stroke and force. It is compact, simple, sturdy, and leverages stroke geometrically with minimum force penalties while displaying linearity over a wide range of stroke. The V-Stack Piezoelectric Actuator, consists of a base, a lever, two piezoelectric stacks, and a pre-tensioning element. The work is performed alternately by the two stacks, placed on both sides of the lever. Pre-tensioning can be readily applied using a torque wrench, obviating the need for elastic elements and this is for the benefit of the stiffness of the actuator. The characteristics of the actuator are easily modified by changing the base or the stacks. A prototype was constructed and tested experimentally to validate the theoretical model.

  16. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  17. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  18. Vertical melting of a stack of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.; Schakel, A. M. J.

    2001-02-01

    A stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is studied. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a melting-like transition.

  19. Electrode-immobilized compounds through γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Castro, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Chemically Modified Electrodes (CMEs) are used as substrates in heterogeneous catalysis and as sensors. This work demonstrates a new strategy for immobilizing polyelectrolytes and electroactive agents on electrode surfaces. The success of this method lies in cross-linking water soluble polymer chains through the ionizing radiation of γ emissions from a 60 Co source. Cross-linking can create a continuous network out of the polymer macromolecules which then makes the network insoluble on the electrode surface. Bonds between the network and the substrate are also possible. Redox species mixed with the polymer network and irradiated become part of the insoluble network, and are permanently attached. The use of γ radiation to make electrochemical sensors is demonstrated. The immobilized network poly[diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride] (DDAC) is placed in a solution of potassium ferricyanide and ionicly exchanges the anion into the network. An electroactive network is created from irradiating a mixture of DDAC and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCIP). Using the amount of electroactive DCIP remaining in the film as the optimization parameter, variables such as polymer:DCIP ratio, film thickness, and dosage employed are shown to be relevant

  20. Immobilization of enzymes by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaetsu, I.; Kumakura, M.; Yoshida, M.; Asano, M.; Himei, M.; Tamura, M.; Hayashi, K.

    1979-01-01

    Immobilization of various enzymes was performed by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomers at low temperatures. Alpha-amylase and glucoamylase were effectively immobilized in hydrophilic polymer carrier such as poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and also in rather hydrophobic carrier such as poly(tetraethylene-glycol diacrylate). Immobilized human hemoglobin underwent the reversible oxygenation concomitantly with change of oxygen concentration outside of the matrices. (author)

  1. Effects of immobilization on spermiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitner, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of immobilization stress on spermiogenesis in rats was investigated. After 96 hour immobilization, histological changes began to manifest themselves in the form of practically complete disappearance of cell population of the wall of seminiferous tubule as well as a markedly increased number of cells with pathologic mitoses. Enzymological investigations showed various changes of activity (of acid and alkaline phosphatase and nonspecific esterase) in the 24, 48, and 96 hour immobilization groups.

  2. Helping Students Design HyperCard Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how to teach students to design HyperCard stacks. Highlights include introducing HyperCard, developing storyboards, introducing design concepts and scripts, presenting stacks, evaluating storyboards, and continuing projects. A sidebar presents a HyperCard stack evaluation form. (AEF)

  3. PRECISION COSMOGRAPHY WITH STACKED VOIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a purely geometrical method for probing the expansion history of the universe from the observation of the shape of stacked voids in spectroscopic redshift surveys. Our method is an Alcock-Paczyński (AP) test based on the average sphericity of voids posited on the local isotropy of the universe. It works by comparing the temporal extent of cosmic voids along the line of sight with their angular, spatial extent. We describe the algorithm that we use to detect and stack voids in redshift shells on the light cone and test it on mock light cones produced from N-body simulations. We establish a robust statistical model for estimating the average stretching of voids in redshift space and quantify the contamination by peculiar velocities. Finally, assuming that the void statistics that we derive from N-body simulations is preserved when considering galaxy surveys, we assess the capability of this approach to constrain dark energy parameters. We report this assessment in terms of the figure of merit (FoM) of the dark energy task force and in particular of the proposed Euclid mission which is particularly suited for this technique since it is a spectroscopic survey. The FoM due to stacked voids from the Euclid wide survey may double that of all other dark energy probes derived from Euclid data alone (combined with Planck priors). In particular, voids seem to outperform baryon acoustic oscillations by an order of magnitude. This result is consistent with simple estimates based on mode counting. The AP test based on stacked voids may be a significant addition to the portfolio of major dark energy probes and its potentialities must be studied in detail.

  4. Docker on OpenStack

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Nitin; Moreira, Belmiro

    2014-01-01

    Project Specification CERN is establishing a large scale private cloud based on OpenStack as part of the expansion of the computing infrastructure for storing the data coming out of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. As the data coming out of the detectors is increasing continuously that needs to be stored in the data center, we need more physical resources (more money) and since Virtual machines takes lot of CPU and memory overhead and minutes for creating the images, booting u...

  5. Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Bruyere, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative 'all modes' failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.

  6. Immobilization of enzymes and antibodies to radiation grafted polymers for therapeutic and diagnostic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, A.S.; Gombotz, W.R.; Uenoyama, S.; Dong, L.C.; Schmer, G.

    1986-01-01

    Pre-irradiation and mutual radiation grafting were employed to produce poly(methacrylic acid) (MAAc) hydrogels on polypropylene/polyethylene (PP/PE) copolymer films, and porous PP fibers of a plasma filter. A diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay was developed to measure the surface peroxide concentration of the pre-irradiated PP/PE films prior to grafting. Mutually grafted porous PP fibers were used for subsequent immobilization of L-asparaginase while the mutually grafted PP/PE films were used to immobilize a schistosoma monoclonal antibody.

  7. Using KrF ELA to Improve Gate-Stacked LaAlO₃/ZrO₂ Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with Novel Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Hung; Chang, Kow-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Xin; Wang, Shui-Jinn

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD) technique and KrF excimer laser annealing (ELA) were employed for the fabrication of indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (IGZO-TFTs). Device with a 150 mJ/cm2 laser annealing densities demonstrated excellent electrical characteristics with improved on/off current ratio of 4.7×107, high channel mobility of 10 cm2/V-s, and low subthreshold swing of 0.15 V/dec. The improvements are attributed to the adjustment of oxygen vacancies in the IGZO channel to an appropriate range of around 28.3% and the reduction of traps at the high-k/IGZO interface.

  8. Biodegradation of chlorobenzene using immobilized crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... immobilized crude extracts were reused for all other experiments and found that immobilization .... India which are of analytical reagent grade. .... 9. 60. 3. 1. Figure 3. Degradation of chlorobenzene by immobilized crude.

  9. Supramolecular protein immobilization on lipid bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, R.P.G.; Hendriksen, W.E.; Verheijden, Mark Lloyd; Eelkema, R.; Jonkheijm, Pascal; van Esch, J.H.; Brunsveld, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Protein immobilization on surfaces, and on lipid bilayers specifically, has great potential in biomolecular and biotechnological research. Of current special interest is the immobilization of proteins using supramolecular noncovalent interactions. This allows for a reversible immobilization and

  10. Iodine immobilization in apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audubert, F.; Lartigue, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of a scientific program on long-lived radionuclide conditioning, a matrix for iodine 129 immobilization has been studied. A lead vanado-phosphate apatite was prepared from the melt of lead vanado-phosphate Pb 3 (VO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 0.4 and lead iodide PbI 2 in stoichiometric proportions by calcination at 700 deg. C during 3 hours. Natural sintering of this apatite is not possible because the product decomposition occurs at 400 deg. C. Reactive sintering is the solution. The principle depends on the coating of lead iodide with lead vanado-phosphate. Lead vanado-phosphate coating is used as iodo-apatite reactant and as dense covering to confine iodine during synthesis. So the best condition to immobilize iodine during iodo-apatite synthesis is a reactive sintering at 700 deg. C under 25 MPa. We obtained an iodo-apatite surrounded with dense lead vanadate. Leaching behaviour of the matrix synthesized by solid-solid reaction is under progress in order to determine chemical durability, basic mechanisms of the iodo-apatite alteration and kinetic rate law. Iodo-apatite dissolution rates were pH and temperature dependent. We obtained a rate of 2.5 10 -3 g.m -2 .d -1 at 90 deg. C in initially de-ionised water. (authors)

  11. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  12. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup

    As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation....... An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... in the hydrogen fuel gas supplied to the stack. EIS was used to examine the long-term behavior and monitor the evolution of the impedance of each of the repeating units and the whole stack. The observed impedance was analyzed in detail for one of the repeating units and the whole stack and the losses reported...

  13. Assessing attitudes toward spinal immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouland, Andrew J; Jenkins, J Lee; Levy, Matthew J

    2013-10-01

    Prospective studies have improved knowledge of prehospital spinal immobilization. The opinion of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers regarding spinal immobilization is unknown, as is their knowledge of recent research advances. To examine the attitudes, knowledge, and comfort of prehospital and Emergency Department (ED) EMS providers regarding spinal immobilization performed under a non-selective protocol. An online survey was conducted from May to July of 2011. Participants were drawn from the Howard County Department of Fire and Rescue Services and the Howard County General Hospital ED. The survey included multiple choice questions and responses on a modified Likert scale. Correlation analysis and descriptive data were used to analyze results. Comfort using the Kendrick Extrication Device was low among ED providers. Experienced providers were more likely to indicate comfort using this device. Respondents often believed that spinal immobilization is appropriate in the management of penetrating trauma to the chest and abdomen. Reported use of padding decreased along with the frequency with which providers practice and encounter immobilized patients. Respondents often indicated that they perform spinal immobilization due solely to mechanism of injury. Providers who feel as if spinal immobilization is often performed unnecessarily were more likely to agree that immobilization causes an unnecessary delay in patient care. The results demonstrate the need for improved EMS education in the use of the Kendrick Extrication Device, backboard padding, and spinal immobilization in the management of penetrating trauma. The attitudes highlighted in this study are relevant to the implementation of a selective spinal immobilization protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Light transfer in agar immobilized microalgae cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandilian, Razmig; Jesus, Bruno; Legrand, Jack; Pilon, Laurent; Pruvost, Jérémy

    2017-09-01

    This paper experimentally and theoretically investigates light transfer in agar-immobilized cell cultures. Certain biotechnological applications such as production of metabolites secreted by photosynthetic microorganisms require cells to be immobilized in biopolymers to minimize contamination and to facilitate metabolite recovery. In such applications, light absorption by cells is one of the most important parameters affecting cell growth or metabolite productivity. Modeling light transfer therein can aid design and optimize immobilized-cell reactors. In this study, Parachlorella kessleri cells with areal biomass concentrations ranging from 0.36 to 16.9 g/m2 were immobilized in 2.6 mm thick agar gels. The average absorption and scattering cross-sections as well as the scattering phase function of P. kessleri cells were measured. Then, the absorption and transport scattering coefficients of the agar gel were determined using an inverse method based on the modified two-flux approximation. The forward model was used to predict the normal-hemispherical transmittance and reflectance of the immobilized-cell films accounting for absorption and scattering by both microalgae and the agar gel. Good agreement was found between the measured and predicted normal-hemispherical transmittance and reflectance provided absorption and scattering by agar were taken into account. Moreover, good agreement was found between experimentally measured and predicted mean rate of photon absorption. Finally, optimal areal biomass concentration was determined to achieve complete absorption of the incident radiation.

  15. Conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: contribution of pelvic immobilization and new fiducial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.; Oozeer, R.; Le Thanh, H.; Chauvet, B.; Toy, B.J.; Reboul, F.

    1997-01-01

    To reduce errors in the positioning of patients treated with external conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer, we evaluated both the use of an immobilization device and new fiducial markers. The immobilization device consisted of an individual mold made of polyurethane foam. Two sets of skin markers located on the anterior tibial surfaces were used to identify the pelvic isocenter. The patient's position was evaluated by orthogonal port film which were then compared with the original simulation film. Results are presented with respect to orthogonal axes. Comparison with classic procedures without immobilization showed that use of the mold and new fiducial markers led to a decrease in set-up errors which were less than 5 mm. With the use of an immobilization device and optimized techniques for patients' positioning, conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer is more accurate. (authors)

  16. HLW immobilization in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, P.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Runge, S.

    1992-01-01

    The immobilization of High Level Waste in glass in France is a long history which started as early as in the 1950's. More than 30 years of Research and Development have been invested in that field. Two industrial facilities are operating (AVM and R7) and a third one (T7), under cold testing, is planned to start active operation in the mid-92. While vitrification has been demonstrated to be an industrially mastered process, the question of the quality of the final waste product, i.e. the HLW glass, must be addressed. The scope of the present paper is to focus on the latter point from both standpoints of the R and D and of the industrial reality

  17. Report on radiation exposure of lead-scintillator stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    A stack of lead and scintillator was placed in a neutral beam obtained from targeting 800 GeV protons. Small pieces of film containing radiochromic dye were placed adjacent to the layers of scintillator for the purpose of measuring the radiation dose to the scintillator. Our motivation was to calibrate the radiation dose obtainable in this manner for future tests of scintillator for SSC experiments and to relate dose to flux to check absolute normalization for calculations. We also observed several other radiation effects which should be considered for both damage and compensation in a calorimeter

  18. Non-destructive spatial characterization of buried interfaces in multilayer stacks via two color picosecond acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge C. D.; Garnier, Philippe; Devos, Arnaud

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate the ability to construct wide-area spatial mappings of buried interfaces in thin film stacks in a non-destructive manner using two color picosecond acoustics. Along with the extraction of layer thicknesses and sound velocities from acoustic signals, the morphological information presented is a powerful demonstration of phonon imaging as a metrological tool. For a series of heterogeneous (polymer, metal, and semiconductor) thin film stacks that have been treated with a chemical procedure known to alter layer properties, the spatial mappings reveal changes to interior thicknesses and chemically modified surface features without the need to remove uppermost layers. These results compare well to atomic force microscopy scans showing that the technique provides a significant advantage to current characterization methods for industrially important device stacks.

  19. Immobilization of lipases in PSS/PEO blends and applications in esters synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchia, Roberto D.; Nascimento, Maria G.; Soldi, Valdir

    2001-01-01

    Various lipases were immobilized in PSS/PEO blends and used as bio catalysts in the esterification reaction of lauric acid with n-pentanol, in hexane as a solvent for 24 h at 35 deg C. The best results in the ester conversion, were obtained by using lipase from Rhryzopus oryzae immobilized in PSS/PEO 80:20 blend. The data are in agreement with DSC and TGA values, which showed that these systems (blend/lipase) were very stable with low mass loss. No product was obtained by using lipase FAP-15 immobilized in PSS film , showing the strong influence of the polymer on enzyme activity. (author)

  20. Stable and Selective Humidity Sensing Using Stacked Black Phosphorus Flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasaei, Poya; Behranginia, Amirhossein; Foroozan, Tara; Asadi, Mohammad; Kim, Kibum; Khalili-Araghi, Fatemeh; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-10-27

    Black phosphorus (BP) atomic layers are known to undergo chemical degradation in humid air. Yet in more robust configurations such as films, composites, and embedded structures, BP can potentially be utilized in a large number of practical applications. In this study, we explored the sensing characteristics of BP films and observed an ultrasensitive and selective response toward humid air with a trace-level detection capability and a very minor drift over time. Our experiments show that the drain current of the BP sensor increases by ∼4 orders of magnitude as the relative humidity (RH) varies from 10% to 85%, which ranks it among the highest ever reported values for humidity detection. The mechanistic studies indicate that the operation principle of the BP film sensors is based on the modulation in the leakage ionic current caused by autoionization of water molecules and ionic solvation of the phosphorus oxoacids produced on moist BP surfaces. Our stability tests reveal that the response of the BP film sensors remains nearly unchanged after prolonged exposures (up to 3 months) to ambient conditions. This study opens up the route for utilizing BP stacked films in many potential applications such as energy generation/storage systems, electrocatalysis, and chemical/biosensing.

  1. The untyped stack calculus and Bohm's theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carraro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The stack calculus is a functional language in which is in a Curry-Howard correspondence with classical logic. It enjoys confluence but, as well as Parigot's lambda-mu, does not admit the Bohm Theorem, typical of the lambda-calculus. We present a simple extension of stack calculus which is for the stack calculus what Saurin's Lambda-mu is for lambda-mu.

  2. Frozen Microemulsions for MAPLE Immobilization of Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Califano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida rugosa lipase (CRL was deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE in order to immobilize the enzyme with a preserved native conformation, which ensures its catalytic functionality. For this purpose, the composition of the MAPLE target was optimized by adding the oil phase pentane to a water solution of the amino acid 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-2-methyl-l-alanine (m-DOPA, giving a target formed by a frozen water-lipase-pentane microemulsion. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM were used to investigate the structure of MAPLE deposited lipase films. FTIR deconvolution of amide I band indicated a reduction of unfolding and aggregation, i.e., a better preserved lipase secondary structure in the sample deposited from the frozen microemulsion target. AFM images highlighted the absence of big aggregates on the surface of the sample. The functionality of the immobilized enzyme to promote transesterification was determined by thin layer chromatography, resulting in a modified specificity.

  3. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro López García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum’s Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015  [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  4. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    López García, Álvaro; Fernández del Castillo, Enol; Orviz Fernández, Pablo

    In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum's Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI) for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015) [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  5. Comparison of two head and neck immobilization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentel, Gunilla C.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Hendren, Kristin; Brizel, David M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate and reproducible patient positioning is fundamental to the success of fractionated radiotherapy. Concurrent with the introduction of three-dimensional treatment planning capabilities at our institution, a head and neck immobilization system consisting of a standard foam rubber head support and three casting strips was replaced by a customized mask-based device. This study was performed to analyze the impact of the customized immobilization system on the reproducibility of patient setup during irradiation of head and neck and brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Patients treated from 1989-1991 were immobilized with the strip system while those treated from 1991-1995 were immobilized with the mask. All treatment fields were simulated and were treated on a 4 MV (where the strip, but not the mask, system was fixed to the treatment couch) or ≥ 6 MV (where both the strip and the mask systems were fixed to the couch) accelerator. Port films were taken on the initial treatment day, routinely during treatment, and following shifts (requested). The number, magnitude, and direction of any isocenter shifts were retrospectively reviewed. A two-tailed chi square test was used to compare the differences in requested shifts in the strip and mask groups. Results: The study population consisted of 69 brain tumor (35 strip, 34 mask) and 71 head and neck (37 strip, 34 mask) patients. A total of 1575 port films representing 1070 isocenter placements were analyzed. No differences between the immobilization systems was seen on the 4-MV accelerator (where the mask system was not fixed to the couch). On the ≥ 6-MV units, the frequency of shifts was 16.1% versus 6.2% (p = 0.002) with the strips and mask, respectively. Almost all of the benefit was seen in the routine films, where the corresponding rates were 13.2% and 4.1% (p = 0.007). For the mask system, the rate of requested shifts on routine films was 4.1% ((8(197))) for the ≥ 6-MV units and 14.5% ((24(166))) for

  6. High-level-waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form

  7. Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.

  8. California dreaming?[PEM stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosse, J.

    2002-06-01

    Hyundai's Santa Fe FCEV will be on sale by the end of 2002. Hyundai uses PEM stacks that are manufactured by International Fuel Cells (IFC), a division of United Technologies. Santa Fe is equipped with a 65 kW electric powertrain of Enova systems and Shell's new gasoline reformer called Hydrogen Source. Eugene Jang, Senior Engineer - Fuel Cell and Materials at Hyundai stated that the compressor related losses on IFC system are below 3%. The maximum speed offered by the vehicle is estimated as 123km/hr while the petrol equivalent fuel consumption is quoted between 5.6L/100 km and 4.8L/100 km. Santa Fe is a compact vehicle offering better steering response and a pleasant drive. (author)

  9. The Characterization and Application of Grafted Polypropylene and Polystyrene Treated with Epichlorohydrin Coupled with Cellulose or Starch for Immobilization Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arnaouty, M.B.; Eid, M.; Dessouki, A.M.; Atia, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The direct irradiation induced grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto polypropylene (PP) films and polystyrene (PSty) films for crosslinking of acrylamide grafted polypropylene and polystyrene films with epichlorohydrin as spacer was studied. The reaction of polyamide-epichlorohydrin with cellulose and starch has been carried out, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were carried out before and after immobilized enzyme to confirm the characterization of the polymer as well as the α- amylase enzyme immobilized one. The physico-chemical parameters of the immobilized enzymes and the kinetics of co-enzymes-polymer catalyzed reactions and stability were measured. A direct comparison was made between the products activity of the free and the immobilized preparations

  10. Nanostructured ZnO-based biosensor: DNA immobilization and hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mishaal Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical DNA biosensor was successfully fabricated by using (3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES with zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods synthesized using microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition method on thermally oxidized SiO2 thin films. The structural quality and morphology of the ZnO nanorods were determined by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, which show a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred orientation along the (101 direction. The surface of the SiO2 thin films was chemically modified with ZnO. Label-free detection DNA immobilization and hybridization were performed using potassium hexacyanoferrate with cyclic voltammetry (CV measurements. The capacitance, permittivity, and conductivity profiles of the fabricated sensor clearly indicate DNA immobilization and hybridization. Results show that the capacitance values of bare, ZnO- modified surface immobilization, and target DNA hybridization were 46×10−12F, 47×10−8F, 27μF, and 17μF, respectively, at 1Hz. The permittivity measurement increased from 3.94×103 to 251×103 and 165×103 at the frequency range of approximately 200 to 1Hz for bare and DNA immobilization and hybridization, respectively. The measured conductivity values for the bare, ZnO, immobilized, and hybridization device were 2.4×10−9, 10×10−8, 1.6×10−7, and 1.3×10−7Scm−1, respectively. Keywords: Zinc oxide, Biosensor, Capacitance, Permittivity, Conductivity

  11. Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...... of vector fields....

  12. Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420

  13. 40 CFR 61.44 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.44 Section 61.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Firing § 61.44 Stack sampling. (a) Sources subject to § 61.42(b) shall be continuously sampled, during...

  14. On the "stacking fault" in copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransens, J.R.; Pleiter, F

    2003-01-01

    The results of a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations experiment on In-111 implanted into a properly cut single crystal of copper show that the defect known in the literature as "stacking fault" is not a planar faulted loop but a stacking fault tetrahedron with a size of 10-50 Angstrom.

  15. Learning OpenStack networking (Neutron)

    CERN Document Server

    Denton, James

    2014-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack-based cloud operator with experience in OpenStack Compute and nova-network but are new to Neutron networking, then this book is for you. Some networking experience is recommended, and a physical network infrastructure is required to provide connectivity to instances and other network resources configured in the book.

  16. Fabrication of a Cu/Ni stack in supercritical carbon dioxide at low-temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasadujjaman, Md, E-mail: rasadphy@duet.ac.bd [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Department of Physics, Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology, Gazipur 1700 (Bangladesh); Watanabe, Mitsuhiro [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Sudoh, Hiroshi; Machida, Hideaki [Gas-Phase Growth Ltd., 2-24-16 Naka, Koganei, Tokyo 184-0012 (Japan); Kondoh, Eiichi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan)

    2015-09-30

    We report the low-temperature deposition of Cu on a Ni-lined substrate in supercritical carbon dioxide. A novel Cu(I) amidinate precursor was used to reduce the deposition temperature. From the temperature dependence of the growth rate, the activation energy for Cu growth on the Ni film was determined to be 0.19 eV. The films and interfaces were characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy. At low temperature (140 °C), we successfully deposited a Cu/Ni stack with a sharp Cu/Ni interface. The stack had a high adhesion strength (> 1000 mN) according to microscratch testing. The high adhesion strength originated from strong interfacial bonding between the Cu and the Ni. However, at a higher temperature (240 °C), significant interdiffusion was observed and the adhesion became weak. - Highlights: • Cu/Ni stack fabricated in supercritical CO{sub 2} at low temperature. • A novel Cu(I) amidinate precursor was used to reduce the deposition temperature. • Adhesion strength of Cu/Ni stack improved dramatically. • Fabricated Cu/Ni stack is suitable for Cu interconnections in microelectronics.

  17. Status of MCFC stack technology at IHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosaka, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Otsubo, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising option for highly efficient power generation possible to enlarge. IHI has been studying parallel flow MCFC stacks with internal manifolds that have a large electrode area of 1m{sup 2}. IHI will make two 250 kW stacks for MW plant, and has begun to make cell components for the plant. To improve the stability of stack, soft corrugated plate used in the separator has been developed, and a way of gathering current from stacks has been studied. The DC output potential of the plant being very high, the design of electric insulation will be very important. A 20 kW short stack test was conducted in 1995 FY to certificate some of the improvements and components of the MW plant. These activities are presented below.

  18. Modular fuel-cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinakin

    2010-07-13

    A fuel cell assembly having a plurality of fuel cells arranged in a stack. An end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at an end of said stack. The end plate assembly has an inlet area adapted to receive an exhaust gas from the stack, an outlet area and a passage connecting the inlet area and outlet area and adapted to carry the exhaust gas received at the inlet area from the inlet area to the outlet area. A further end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at a further opposing end of the stack. The further end plate assembly has a further inlet area adapted to receive a further exhaust gas from the stack, a further outlet area and a further passage connecting the further inlet area and further outlet area and adapted to carry the further exhaust gas received at the further inlet area from the further inlet area to the further outlet area.

  19. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Vance, E.R.; Jostsons, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Menai (Australia)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R&D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 16}) and rutile (TiO{sub 2}). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}), and monazite (CePO{sub 4}), to name a few of the most promising. R&D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO{sub 2} powder, cold press and sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues.

  20. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Vance, E.R.; Jostsons, A.

    1996-01-01

    Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R ampersand D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi 2 O 7 ), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl 2 Ti 6 O 16 ) and rutile (TiO 2 ). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 ), zircon (ZrSiO 4 ), and monazite (CePO 4 ), to name a few of the most promising. R ampersand D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO 2 powder, cold press and sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues

  1. Probing Temperature Inside Planar SOFC Short Stack, Modules, and Stack Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Guan, Wanbing; Zhou, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Probing temperature inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack lies at the heart of the development of high-performance and stable SOFC systems. In this article, we report our recent work on the direct measurements of the temperature in three types of SOFC systems: a 5-cell short stack, a 30-cell stack module, and a stack series consisting of two 30-cell stack modules. The dependence of temperature on the gas flow rate and current density was studied under a current sweep or steady-state operation. During the current sweep, the temperature inside the 5-cell stack decreased with increasing current, while it increased significantly at the bottom and top of the 30-cell stack. During a steady-state operation, the temperature of the 5-cell stack was stable while it was increased in the 30-cell stack. In the stack series, the maximum temperature gradient reached 190°C when the gas was not preheated. If the gas was preheated and the temperature gradient was reduced to 23°C in the stack series with the presence of a preheating gas and segmented temperature control, this resulted in a low degradation rate.

  2. Immobilization of biomolecules to plasma polymerized pentafluorophenyl methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Luis; Menges, Bernhard; Borros, Salvador; Förch, Renate

    2010-10-11

    Thin films of plasma polymerized pentafluorophenyl methacrylate (pp-PFM) offer highly reactive ester groups throughout the structure of the film that allow for subsequent reactions with different aminated reagents and biological molecules. The present paper follows on from previous work on the plasma deposition of pentafluorophenyl methacrylate (PFM) for optimum functional group retention (Francesch, L.; Borros, S.; Knoll, W.; Foerch, R. Langmuir 2007, 23, 3927) and reactivity in aqueous solution (Duque, L.; Queralto, N.; Francesch, L.; Bumbu, G. G.; Borros, S.; Berger, R.; Förch, R. Plasma Process. Polym. 2010, accepted for publication) to investigate the binding of a biologically active peptide known to induce cellular adhesion (IKVAV) and of biochemically active proteins such as BSA and fibrinogen. Analyses of the films and of the immobilization of the biomolecules were carried out using infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The attachment of the biomolecules on pulsed plasma polymerized pentafluorophenyl methacrylate was monitored using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR). SPR analysis confirmed the presence of immobilized biomolecules on the plasma polymer and was used to determine the mass coverage of the peptide and proteins adsorbed onto the films. The combined analysis of the surfaces suggests the covalent binding of the peptide and proteins to the surface of the pp-PFM.

  3. The impact of stack geometry and mean pressure on cold end temperature of stack in thermoacoustic refrigeration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantha, Channarong

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the experimental and simulation studies of the influence of stack geometries and different mean pressures on the cold end temperature of the stack in the thermoacoustic refrigeration system. The stack geometry was tested, including spiral stack, circular pore stack and pin array stack. The results of this study show that the mean pressure of the gas in the system has a significant impact on the cold end temperature of the stack. The mean pressure of the gas in the system corresponds to thermal penetration depth, which results in a better cold end temperature of the stack. The results also show that the cold end temperature of the pin array stack decreases more than that of the spiral stack and circular pore stack geometry by approximately 63% and 70%, respectively. In addition, the thermal area and viscous area of the stack are analyzed to explain the results of such temperatures of thermoacoustic stacks.

  4. Low-pressure plasma enhanced immobilization of chitosan on low-density polyethylene for bio-medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandiyaraj, K. Navaneetha; Ferraria, Ana Maria; Rego, Ana Maria Botelho do; Deshmukh, Rajendra R.; Su, Pi-Guey; Halleluyah, Jr. Mercy; Halim, Ahmad Sukari

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Acrylic acid (AAc) was grafted on LDPE film by in situ plasma polymerization. • Molecules of PEG and chitosan were immobilized on AAc grafted LDPE films. • Surface modified LDPE exhibits excellent hydrophilic property. • Surface modified LDPE resist the adsorption of protein and adhesion of platelets. - Abstract: With the aim of improving blood compatibility of low density polyethylene (LDPE) films, an effective low-pressure plasma technology was employed to functionalize the LDPE film surfaces through in-situ grafting of acrylic acid (AAc). Subsequently, the molecules of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and chitosan (CHI) were immobilized on the surface of grafted LDPE films. The unmodified and modified LDPE films were analyzed using various characterization techniques such as contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) to understand the changes in surface properties such as hydrophilicity, surface topography and chemical composition, respectively. Furthermore, LDPE films have been subjected to an ageing process to determine the durability of the plasma assisted surface modification. The blood compatibility of the surface modified LDPE films was confirmed by in vitro tests. It was found that surface modified LDPE films show better hydrophilic behavior compared with the unmodified one. FTIR and XPS results confirm the successful immobilization of CHI on the surface of LDPE films. LDPE films showed marked morphological changes after grafting of AAc, PEG and CHI which were confirmed through AFM imaging. The in vitro blood compatibility tests have clearly demonstrated that CHI immobilized LDPE films exhibit remarkable anti thrombogenic nature compared with other modified films. Surface modified LDPE films through low-pressure plasma technique could be adequate for biomedical implants such as artificial skin substrates, urethral catheters or cardiac stents

  5. Low-pressure plasma enhanced immobilization of chitosan on low-density polyethylene for bio-medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyaraj, K. Navaneetha, E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore, 641062 (India); Ferraria, Ana Maria; Rego, Ana Maria Botelho do [Centro de Química- Física Molecular and Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon (Portugal); Deshmukh, Rajendra R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Su, Pi-Guey [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Halleluyah, Jr. Mercy; Halim, Ahmad Sukari [Reconstructive Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Acrylic acid (AAc) was grafted on LDPE film by in situ plasma polymerization. • Molecules of PEG and chitosan were immobilized on AAc grafted LDPE films. • Surface modified LDPE exhibits excellent hydrophilic property. • Surface modified LDPE resist the adsorption of protein and adhesion of platelets. - Abstract: With the aim of improving blood compatibility of low density polyethylene (LDPE) films, an effective low-pressure plasma technology was employed to functionalize the LDPE film surfaces through in-situ grafting of acrylic acid (AAc). Subsequently, the molecules of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and chitosan (CHI) were immobilized on the surface of grafted LDPE films. The unmodified and modified LDPE films were analyzed using various characterization techniques such as contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) to understand the changes in surface properties such as hydrophilicity, surface topography and chemical composition, respectively. Furthermore, LDPE films have been subjected to an ageing process to determine the durability of the plasma assisted surface modification. The blood compatibility of the surface modified LDPE films was confirmed by in vitro tests. It was found that surface modified LDPE films show better hydrophilic behavior compared with the unmodified one. FTIR and XPS results confirm the successful immobilization of CHI on the surface of LDPE films. LDPE films showed marked morphological changes after grafting of AAc, PEG and CHI which were confirmed through AFM imaging. The in vitro blood compatibility tests have clearly demonstrated that CHI immobilized LDPE films exhibit remarkable anti thrombogenic nature compared with other modified films. Surface modified LDPE films through low-pressure plasma technique could be adequate for biomedical implants such as artificial skin substrates, urethral catheters or cardiac stents

  6. Fabrication of Aligned Carbon Nanotube/Polycaprolactone/Gelatin Nanofibrous Matrices for Schwann Cell Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiao-Wen Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we utilized a mandrel rotating collector consisting of two parallel, electrically conductive pieces of tape to fabricate aligned electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin (PG and carbon nanotube/polycaprolactone/gelatin (PGC nanofibrous matrices. Furthermore, we examined the biological performance of the PGC nanofibrous and film matrices using an in vitro culture of RT4-D6P2T rat Schwann cells. Using cell adhesion tests, we found that carbon nanotube inhibited Schwann cell attachment on PGC nanofibrous and film matrices. However, the proliferation rates of Schwann cells were higher when they were immobilized on PGC nanofibrous matrices compared to PGC film matrices. Using western blot analysis, we found that NRG1 and P0 protein expression levels were higher for cells immobilized on PGC nanofibrous matrices compared to PG nanofibrous matrices. However, the carbon nanotube inhibited NRG1 and P0 protein expression in cells immobilized on PGC film matrices. Moreover, the NRG1 and P0 protein expression levels were higher for cells immobilized on PGC nanofibrous matrices compared to PGC film matrices. We found that the matrix topography and composition influenced Schwann cell behavior.

  7. Five stacks over the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Following the departure of Communism, Hungary adopted the most ambitious privatisation programme of all the eastern European countries. Within a year the state electricity company, MVM, and the oil and gas company, MOL, were prepared for sale and a consequent injection of foreign capital. Control of prices by central government inhibited investment initially but a new legal framework put in place in 1995 introduced a pricing regime more attractive to external investors. Particular interest was shown in the 2,200MW mixed heavy oil and natural gas power plant at Dunamenti on the Danube, characterised by its five stacks of varying height which reflect the changing technology employed at the plant. The bid was won by Tractabel of Belgium who have been highly successful in improving plant efficiency. However, the impact of privatisation is now being felt in uncertainty over fuel supply. Removing such uncertainty in order to maintain existing investment and provide the additional 4000MW of generating capacity needed to keep pace with demand, is a major problem which the incoming government faces. (UK)

  8. Immobilization needs and technology programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Shaw, H.; Armantrout, G.

    1995-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US and Russia agreed to large reductions in nuclear weapons. To aid in the selection of long-term management options, DOE has undertaken a multifaceted study to select options for storage and disposition of plutonium in keeping with US policy that plutonium must be subjected to the highest standards of safety, security, and accountability. One alternative being considered is immobilization. To arrive at a suitable immobilization form, we first reviewed published information on high-level waste immobilization technologies and identified 72 possible plutonium immobilization forms to be prescreened. Surviving forms were further screened using multi-attribute utility analysis to determine the most promising technology families. Promising immobilization families were further evaluated to identify chemical, engineering, environmental, safety, and health problems that remain to be solved prior to making technical decisions as to the viability of using the form for long- term disposition of plutonium. From this evaluation, a detailed research and development plan has been developed to provide answers to these remaining questions

  9. Hyaluronan Immobilized Polyurethane as a Blood Contacting Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feirong Gong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA was immobilized onto the surface of amino-functionalized polyurethane films with the goal of obtaining a novel kind of biomaterial which had the potential in blood-contacting applications. The amino-functionalized polyurethane was prepared by synthesized acidic polyurethane whose pendant carboxyl groups were treated with an excess amount of 1,3-diaminopropane in the presence of N,N-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, Raman spectroscopy (RS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and water contact angle measurement were used to confirm the surface changes at each step of treatment, both in morphologies and chemical compositions. APTT and PT results showed that HA immobilization could prolong the blood coagulation time, thus HA-immobilized polyurethane (PU-HA exhibited improved blood compatibility. Cytotoxicity analysis showed that the PU-HA films synthesized in this study were cytocompatible and could support human vein endothelial cells (HUVECs adhesion and proliferation.

  10. Immobilization of cellulase by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1983-01-01

    Immobilization of cellulase by radiation polymerization at low temperatures was studied. The enzymatic activity of immobilized cellulase pellets varied with the monomer, enzyme concentration, and the thickness of immobilized cellulase pellets. The optimum monomer concentration in the immobilization of cellulase was 30-50% at the pellet thickness of 1.0 mm, in which the enzymatic activity was 50%. The enzymatic activity of immobilized cellulase pellets was examined using various substrates such as cellobiose, carboxymethylcellulose, and paper pretreated by radiation. It was found that irradiated paper can be hydrolyzed by immobilized cellulase pellets. (author)

  11. Density of oxidation-induced stacking faults in damaged silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, F.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Verwey, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A model for the relation between density and length of oxidation-induced stacking faults on damaged silicon surfaces is proposed, based on interactions of stacking faults with dislocations and neighboring stacking faults. The model agrees with experiments.

  12. Fast static field CIPT mapping of unpatterned MRAM film stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel; Hansen, Ole; Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    Current In-Plane Tunneling (CIPT) method measures both RA and TMR, but the usefulness for uniformity mapping, e.g. for tool optimization, is limited by excessive measurement time. Thus, we develop and demonstrate a fast complementary static magnetic field method focused only on measurement of RA. We...... compare the static field method to the standard CIPT method and find perfect agreement between the extracted RA values and measurement repeatability while the static field method is several times faster. The static field CIPT method is demonstrated for 200 mm wafer mapping showing radial as well...

  13. Immobile Complex Verbs in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2005-01-01

    the V° requirements or the V* requirements. Haider (1993, p. 62) and Koopman (1995), who also discuss such immobile verbs, only account for verbs with two prefix-like parts (e.g., German uraufführen ‘to perform (a play) for the first time' or Dutch herinvoeren ‘to reintroduce'), not for the more...... frequent type with only one prefix-like part (e.g., German bauchreden/Dutch buikspreken ‘to ventriloquize'). This analysis will try to account not only for the data discussed in Haider (1993) and Koopman (1995) but also for the following: - why immobile verbs include verbs with only one prefix-like part...... are immobile, - why such verbs are not found in Germanic VO-languages such as English and Scandinavian....

  14. Dynamical stability of slip-stacking particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-09-01

    We study the stability of particles in slip-stacking configuration, used to nearly double proton beam intensity at Fermilab. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We find perturbative solutions for stable particle trajectories. We establish Booster beam quality requirements to achieve 97% slip-stacking efficiency. We show that slip-stacking dynamics directly correspond to the driven pendulum and to the system of two standing-wave traps moving with respect to each other.

  15. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    -filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

  16. Tunable electro-optic filter stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa

    2017-09-05

    A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.

  17. Mediator-free interaction of glucose oxidase, as model enzyme for immobilization, with Al-doped and undoped ZnO thin films laser-deposited on polycarbonate supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V T K P, Fidal; Inguva, Saikumar; Krishnamurthy, Satheesh; Marsili, Enrico; Mosnier, Jean-Paul; T S, Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Al doped and undoped ZnO thin films were deposited by pulsed-laser deposition on polycarbonate sheets. The films were characterized by optical transmission, Hall effect measurement, XRD and SEM. Optical transmission and surface reflectometry studies showed good transparency with thicknesses ∼100nm and surface roughness of 10nm. Hall effect measurements showed that the sheet carrier concentration was -1.44×10 15 cm -2 for AZO and -6×10 14 cm -2 for ZnO. The films were then modified by drop-casting glucose oxidase (GOx) without the use of any mediators. Higher protein concentration was observed on ZnO as compared to AZO with higher specific activity for ZnO (0.042Umg -1 ) compared to AZO (0.032Umg -1 ), and was in agreement with cyclic voltemmetry (CV). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested that the protein was bound by dipole interactions between AZO lattice oxygen and the amino group of the enzyme. Chronoamperometry showed sensitivity of 5.5μAmM -1 cm -2 towards glucose for GOx/AZO and 2.2μAmM -1 cm -2 for GOx/ZnO. The limit of detection (LoD) was 167μM of glucose for GOx/AZO, as compared to 360μM for GOx/ZnO. The linearity was 0.28-28mM for GOx/AZO whereas it was 0.6-28mM for GOx/ZnO with a response time of 10s. Possibly due to higher enzyme loading, the decrease of impedance in presence of glucose was larger for GOx/ZnO as compared to GOx/AZO in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Analyses with clinical blood serum samples showed that the systems had good reproducibility and accuracy. The characteristics of novel ZnO and AZO thin films with GOx as a model enzyme, should prove useful for the future fabrication of inexpensive, highly sensitive, disposable electrochemical biosensors for high throughput diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  19. Immobilization of molecular catalysts in supported ionic liquid phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorslaer, Charlie; Wahlen, Joos; Mertens, Pascal; Binnemans, Koen; De Vos, Dirk

    2010-09-28

    In a supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalyst system, an ionic liquid (IL) film is immobilized on a high-surface area porous solid and a homogeneous catalyst is dissolved in this supported IL layer, thereby combining the attractive features of homogeneous catalysts with the benefits of heterogeneous catalysts. In this review reliable strategies for the immobilization of molecular catalysts in SILPs are surveyed. In the first part, general aspects concerning the application of SILP catalysts are presented, focusing on the type of catalyst, support, ionic liquid and reaction conditions. Secondly, organic reactions in which SILP technology is applied to improve the performance of homogeneous transition-metal catalysts are presented: hydroformylation, metathesis reactions, carbonylation, hydrogenation, hydroamination, coupling reactions and asymmetric reactions.

  20. Thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, Armin G.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid progress that is being made with inorganic thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies, both in the laboratory and in industry, is reviewed. While amorphous silicon based PV modules have been around for more than 20 years, recent industrial developments include the first polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass and the first tandem solar cells based on stacks of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films ('micromorph cells'). Significant thin-film PV production levels are also being set up for cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide.

  1. Characterization of Piezoelectric Stacks for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher; Aldrich, Jack; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to actuate mechanisms to precision levels in the nanometer range and below. Co-fired multilayer piezoelectric stacks offer the required actuation precision that is needed for such mechanisms. To obtain performance statistics and determine reliability for extended use, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and high temperatures and voltages. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators were driven sinusoidally for up to ten billion cycles. An automated data acquisition system was developed and implemented to monitor each stack's electrical current and voltage waveforms over the life of the test. As part of the monitoring tests, the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current were measured to assess the operation degradation. This paper presents some of the results of this effort.

  2. The stack on software and sovereignty

    CERN Document Server

    Bratton, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive political and design theory of planetary-scale computation proposing that The Stack -- an accidental megastructure -- is both a technological apparatus and a model for a new geopolitical architecture.

  3. Development of Auto-Stacking Warehouse Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsien Hsia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Warehouse automation is a very important issue for the promotion of traditional industries. For the production of larger and stackable products, it is usually necessary to operate a fork-lifter for the stacking and storage of the products by a skilled person. The general autonomous warehouse-truck does not have the ability of stacking objects. In this paper, we develop a prototype of auto-stacking warehouse-truck that can work without direct operation by a skill person. With command made by an RFID card, the stacker truck can take the packaged product to the warehouse on the prior-planned route and store it in a stacking way in the designated storage area, or deliver the product to the shipping area or into the container from the storage area. It can significantly reduce the manpower requirements of the skilled-person of forklift technician and improve the safety of the warehousing area.

  4. Strength of interactions between immobilized dye molecules and sol-gel matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Fanya; Schoenleber, Monika; Mansour, Rolan; Bastani, Behnam; Fielden, Peter; Goddard, Nicholas J

    2011-02-21

    In this paper we present a new theory to re-examine the immobilization technique of dye doped sol-gel films, define the strength and types of possible bonds between the immobilized molecule and sol-gel glass, and show that the immobilized molecule is not free inside the pores as was previously thought. Immobilizing three different pH sensitive dyes with different size and functional groups inside the same sol-gel films revealed important information about the nature of the interaction between the doped molecule and the sol-gel matrix. The samples were characterized by means of ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), mercury porosimetry (MP), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((29)Si NMR) and field-emission environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM-FEG). It was found that the doped molecule itself has a great effect on the strength and types of the bonds. A number of factors were identified, such as number and types of the functional groups, overall charge, size, pK(a) and number of the silanol groups which surround the immobilized molecule. These results were confirmed by the successful immobilization of bromocresol green (BCG) after a completely polymerized sol-gel was made. The sol-gel consisted of 50% tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and 50% methyltriethoxysilane (MTEOS) (w/w). Moreover, the effect of the immobilized molecule on the structure of the sol-gel was studied by means of a leaky waveguide (LW) mode for doped films made before and after polymerization of the sol-gel.

  5. Radiation immobilization of catalase and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guanghui; Ha Hongfei; Wang Xia; Wu Jilan

    1988-01-01

    Catalase was immobilized by a chemical method on porous polyacrylamide particles produced by radiation polymerization of acrylamide monomer at low temperature (-78 0 C). Activity of immobilized catalase was enhanced distinctly by joining a chemical arm to the support. The method of recovery of catalase activity on immobilized polymer was found by soaking it in certain buffer. The treatment of H 2 O 2 both in aqueous solution and alcoholic solution by using the immobilized catalase was performed. (author)

  6. Exploring online evolution of network stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Network stacks today follow a one-size-fits-all philosophy. They are mostly kept unmodified due to often prohibitive costs of engineering, deploying and administrating customisation of the networking software, with the Internet stack architecture still largely being based on designs and assumptions made for the ARPANET 40 years ago. We venture that heterogeneous and rapidly changing networks of the future require, in order to be successful, run-time self-adaptation mechanisms at different tim...

  7. A Time-predictable Stack Cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspour, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to le...... of a cache for stack allocated data. Our port of the LLVM C++ compiler supports the management of the stack cache. The combination of stack cache instructions and the hardware implementation of the stack cache is a further step towards timepredictable architectures.......Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to less...... precise results of the cache analysis part of the WCET analysis. Splitting the data cache for different data areas enables composable data cache analysis. The WCET analysis tool can analyze the accesses to these different data areas independently. In this paper we present the design and implementation...

  8. StackGAN++: Realistic Image Synthesis with Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Han; Xu, Tao; Li, Hongsheng; Zhang, Shaoting; Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiaolei; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Although Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown remarkable success in various tasks, they still face challenges in generating high quality images. In this paper, we propose Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks (StackGAN) aiming at generating high-resolution photo-realistic images. First, we propose a two-stage generative adversarial network architecture, StackGAN-v1, for text-to-image synthesis. The Stage-I GAN sketches the primitive shape and colors of the object based on given...

  9. Immobilization and characterization of inulinase from Ulocladium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ulocladium atrum inulinase was immobilized on different composite membranes composed of chitosan/nonwoven fabrics. Km values of free and immobilized U. atrum inulinase on different composite membranes were calculated. The enzyme had optimum pH at 5.6 for free and immobilized U. atrum inulinase on polyester ...

  10. Immobilization of Mitochondria on Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    poly-L-lysine has also been reported for immobilization of yeast mitochondria. Coating was performed by repetitive washing of cover slips with 0.02...of Poly-L-lysine Applications of PLL PLL is a production of bacterial fermentation and is used as a food preservative. In biology, PLL is used in

  11. Immobilization of myoglobin in sodium alginate composite membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cecília de Souza Figueiredo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe immobilization of myoglobin in sodium alginate films was investigated with the aim of evaluating the protein stability in an ionic polymeric matrix. Myoglobin was chosen due to the resemblance to each hemoglobin tetramer. Sodium alginate, being a natural polysaccharide, was selected as the polymeric matrix because of its chemical structure and film-forming ability. To improve the mechanical resistance of sodium alginate films, the polymer was deposited over the surface of a cellulose acetate support by means of ultrafiltration. The ionic crosslink of sodium alginate was investigated by calcium ions. Composite membrane characterization comprised water swelling tests, water flux, SEM images and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrostatic interaction between the protein and the polysaccharide did not damage the UV-visible pattern of native myoglobin. A good affinity between sodium alginate and cellulose acetate was observed. The top layer of the dense composite membrane successfully immobilized Myoglobin, retaining the native UV-visible pattern for two months.

  12. Stack air-breathing membraneless glucose microfluidic biofuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J; Moreno-Zuria, A; Vallejo-Becerra, V; Guerra-Balcázar, M; Ledesma-García, J; Arjona, N; Arriaga, L G

    2016-01-01

    A novel stacked microfluidic fuel cell design comprising re-utilization of the anodic and cathodic solutions on the secondary cell is presented. This membraneless microfluidic fuel cell employs porous flow-through electrodes in a “V”-shape cell architecture. Enzymatic bioanodic arrays based on glucose oxidase were prepared by immobilizing the enzyme onto Toray carbon paper electrodes using tetrabutylammonium bromide, Nafion and glutaraldehyde. These electrodes were characterized through the scanning electrochemical microscope technique, evidencing a good electrochemical response due to the electronic transference observed with the presence of glucose over the entire of the electrode. Moreover, the evaluation of this microfluidic fuel cell with an air-breathing system in a double-cell mode showed a performance of 0.8951 mWcm -2 in a series connection (2.2822mAcm -2 , 1.3607V), and 0.8427 mWcm -2 in a parallel connection (3.5786mAcm -2 , 0.8164V). (paper)

  13. Co-immobilization of semaphorin3A and nerve growth factor to guide and pattern axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Aleesha M; Jarmusik, Natalie A; Leipzig, Nic D

    2015-12-01

    Immobilization of axon guidance cues offers a powerful tissue regenerative strategy to control the presentation and spatial location of these biomolecules. We use our previously developed immobilization strategy to specifically tether recombinant biotinylated nerve growth factor (bNGF) and biotinylated semaphorin3A (bSema3A) to chitosan films as an outgrowth and guidance platform. DRG neurite length and number for a range of single cues of immobilized bNGF or bSema3A were examined to determine a concentration response. Next single and dual cues of bNGF and bSema3A were immobilized and DRG guidance was assessed in response to a step concentration change from zero. Overall, immobilized groups caused axon extension, retraction and turning depending on the ratio of bNGF and bSema3A immobilized in the encountered region. This response indicated the exquisite sensitivity of DRG axons to both attractive and repulsive tethered cues. bSema3A concentrations of 0.10 and 0.49 ng/mm(2), when co-immobilized with bNGF (at 0.86 and 0.43 ng/mm(2) respectively), caused axons to turn away from the co-immobilized region. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that at these bSema3A concentrations, axons inside the co-immobilized region display microtubule degradation and breakdown of actin filaments. At the lowest bSema3A concentration (0.01 ng/mm(2)) co-immobilized with a higher bNGF concentration (2.16 ng/mm(2)), neurite lengths are shorter in the immobilized area, but bNGF dominates the guidance mechanism as neurites are directed toward the immobilized region. Future applications can pattern these cues in various geometries and gradients in order to better modulate axon guidance in terms of polarity, extension and branching. Nervous system formation and regeneration requires key molecules for guiding the growth cone and nervous system patterning. In vivo these molecules work in conjunction with one another to modulate axon guidance, and often they are tethered to limit spatial

  14. Start-Stop Test Procedures on the PEMFC Stack Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Nygaard, Frederik; Veltzé, Sune

    The test is addressed to investigate the influence on stack durability of a long stop followed by a restart of a stack. Long stop should be defined as a stop in which the anodic compartment is fully filled by air due to stack leakages. In systems, leakage level of the stack is low and time to fil...

  15. Principles for Instructional Stack Development in HyperCard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEneaney, John E.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about obtaining and using HyperCard stacks that introduce users to principles of stack development. The HyperCard stacks described are available for downloading free of charge from a server at Indiana University South Bend. Specific directions are given for stack use, with advice for beginners. A…

  16. Surface dosimetry for breast radiotherapy in the presence of immobilization cast material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Andrew; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Metcalfe, Peter; Cutajar, Dean; Quinn, Alexandra; Cardoso, Michael; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Foo, Kerwyn; Barlin, Sheree

    2011-01-01

    Curative breast radiotherapy typically leaves patients with varying degrees of cosmetic damage. One problem interfering with cosmetically acceptable breast radiotherapy is the external contour for large pendulous breasts which often results in high doses to skin folds. Thermoplastic casts are often employed to secure the breasts to maintain setup reproducibility and limit the presence of skin folds. This paper aims to determine changes in surface dose that can be attributed to the use of thermoplastic immobilization casts. Skin dose for a clinical hybrid conformal/IMRT breast plan was measured using radiochromic film and MOSFET detectors at a range of water equivalent depths representative of the different skin layers. The radiochromic film was used as an integrating dosimeter, while the MOSFETs were used for real-time dosimetry to isolate the contribution of skin dose from individual IMRT segments. Strips of film were placed at various locations on the breast and the MOSFETs were used to measure skin dose at 16 positions spaced along the film strips for comparison of data. The results showed an increase in skin dose in the presence of the immobilization cast of up to 45.7% and 62.3% of the skin dose without the immobilization cast present as measured with Gafchromic EBT film and MOSFETs, respectively. The increase in skin dose due to the immobilization cast varied with the angle of beam incidence and was greatest when the beam was normally incident on the phantom. The increase in surface dose with the immobilization cast was greater under entrance dose conditions compared to exit dose conditions.

  17. Surface dosimetry for breast radiotherapy in the presence of immobilization cast material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Metcalfe, Peter; Cutajar, Dean; Quinn, Alexandra; Foo, Kerwyn; Cardoso, Michael; Barlin, Sheree; Rosenfeld, Anatoly

    2011-02-01

    Curative breast radiotherapy typically leaves patients with varying degrees of cosmetic damage. One problem interfering with cosmetically acceptable breast radiotherapy is the external contour for large pendulous breasts which often results in high doses to skin folds. Thermoplastic casts are often employed to secure the breasts to maintain setup reproducibility and limit the presence of skin folds. This paper aims to determine changes in surface dose that can be attributed to the use of thermoplastic immobilization casts. Skin dose for a clinical hybrid conformal/IMRT breast plan was measured using radiochromic film and MOSFET detectors at a range of water equivalent depths representative of the different skin layers. The radiochromic film was used as an integrating dosimeter, while the MOSFETs were used for real-time dosimetry to isolate the contribution of skin dose from individual IMRT segments. Strips of film were placed at various locations on the breast and the MOSFETs were used to measure skin dose at 16 positions spaced along the film strips for comparison of data. The results showed an increase in skin dose in the presence of the immobilization cast of up to 45.7% and 62.3% of the skin dose without the immobilization cast present as measured with Gafchromic EBT film and MOSFETs, respectively. The increase in skin dose due to the immobilization cast varied with the angle of beam incidence and was greatest when the beam was normally incident on the phantom. The increase in surface dose with the immobilization cast was greater under entrance dose conditions compared to exit dose conditions.

  18. Biodiesel production with immobilized lipase: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current status of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase, including various lipases, immobilization methods, various feedstocks, lipase inactivation caused by short chain alcohols and large scale industrialization. Adsorption is still the most widely employed method for lipase immobilization. There are two kinds of lipase used most frequently especially for large scale industrialization. One is Candida antartica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin, and the other is Candida sp. 99-125 lipase immobilized on inexpensive textile membranes. However, to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production, new immobilization techniques with higher activity and stability still need to be explored. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dual-layer ultrathin film optics: I. Theory and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qian; Lim, Kim Peng

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits dual-layer ultrathin film optics, which can be used for functional graded refractive index thin film stack. We present the detailed derivation including s-polarized and p-polarized light under arbitrary incidence angle showing the equivalence between the dual-layer ultrathin films and a negative birefringent thin film and also the approximations made during the derivation. Analysis of the approximations shows the influence of thickness of dual-layer thin films, the incidence angle and desired refractive index of the birefringent film. Numerical comparison between the titanium dioxide/aluminum oxide based dual-layer ultrathin film stack and the equivalent birefringent film verifies the theoretical analysis. The detailed theoretical study and numerical comparison provide a physical insight and design guidelines for dual-layer ultrathin film based optical devices. (paper)

  20. EmuStack: An OpenStack-Based DTN Network Emulation Platform (Extended Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of computing and network virtualization technology, the networking research community shows great interest in network emulation. Compared with network simulation, network emulation can provide more relevant and comprehensive details. In this paper, EmuStack, a large-scale real-time emulation platform for Delay Tolerant Network (DTN, is proposed. EmuStack aims at empowering network emulation to become as simple as network simulation. Based on OpenStack, distributed synchronous emulation modules are developed to enable EmuStack to implement synchronous and dynamic, precise, and real-time network emulation. Meanwhile, the lightweight approach of using Docker container technology and network namespaces allows EmuStack to support a (up to hundreds of nodes large-scale topology with only several physical nodes. In addition, EmuStack integrates the Linux Traffic Control (TC tools with OpenStack for managing and emulating the virtual link characteristics which include variable bandwidth, delay, loss, jitter, reordering, and duplication. Finally, experiences with our initial implementation suggest the ability to run and debug experimental network protocol in real time. EmuStack environment would bring qualitative change in network research works.

  1. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  2. Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.

  3. Introduction of a stack-phantom for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, C.; Schnell, P.O.; Jacobsson, H.; Engelin, L.; Danielsson, A.M.; Johansson, L.; Larsson, S.A.; Pagani, M.; Stone-Elander, S.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: We have previously developed a new flexible phantom system for SPECT, i.e. 'the stack phantom' (Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 27, No.2, 131-139, 2000). The unique feature of this phantom system is that it allows studies with, as well as without major degrading impacts from photon attenuation and Compton scattering. The specific aim of this work was to further develop the system with special reference to PET. Material and methods: The principle of the phantom concept is discrete sampling of 3D objects by a series of equidistant 2D planes. The 2D planes are a digitised set of 2D sections, representing the radioactivity distribution in the object of interest. Using a grey scale related to the radioactivity concentration, selected images are printed by radioactive ink on thin paper sheets and stacked into the 3D structure with low-density or with tissue equivalent material in between. Using positron emitting radionuclides, the paper sheets alone may not be sufficiently thick to avoid annihilation losses due to escaping positrons. In order to investigate the amount of additional material needed, a spot of radioactivity ( 18 F) was printed out and subsequently covered by adding thin plastic films (0.055mm) on both sides of the paper. Short PET scans (ECAT 921) were performed and the count-rate was registered after each additional layer of plastic cover. A first prototype, a cylindrical cold-spot phantom was constructed on the basis of these results. Nine identical sheets were printed out and first mounted in between 4 mm plates of polystyrene (density 1.04 g/cm 3 ). After a PET-scan, the paper sheets were re-mounted in between a low-density material (Divinycell, H30, density 0.03 g/cm 3 ) before repeating the PET scan. Results: For 18 F, the number of registered annihilation photons increased with increasing number of plastic sheets from 70% for the pure paper sheet to about 100% with 0.5 mm plastic cover on each side. PET of the low-density stacked cold spot phantom

  4. Fabricating large-area metallic woodpile photonic crystals using stacking and rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibbotson, Lindsey A; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2013-01-01

    Stacking thin polymer films supporting metal nanowire gratings provides a simple route, demonstrated here, to producing large-area metallic woodpile structures with high throughput. Under appropriate conditions the grating films can spontaneously roll up, giving a rapid and controllable method of creating multilayers. The resulting three-dimensional (3D) wire structures are flexible and potentially stretchable. Since this process can be extended to include a wide variety of functional materials, it opens up the manufacture of many tailored 3D optical metamaterials. (paper)

  5. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  6. Contaminant immobilization via microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The aim of this study was to search the literature to identify biological techniques that could be applied to the restoration of contaminated groundwaters near uranium milling sites. Through bioremediation it was hypothesized that the hazardous heavy metals could be immobilized in a stable, low-solubility form, thereby halting their progress in the migrating groundwater. Three basic mechanisms were examined: reduction of heavy metals by microbially produced hydrogen sulfide; direct microbial mediated reduction; and biosorption

  7. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.E.; Thompson, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3 to 20 wt percent iodine as Ba(IO 3 ) 2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO 3 ) 2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. 10 claims, 2 figures

  8. Progress of MCFC stack technology at Toshiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M.; Hayashi, T.; Shimizu, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba is working on the development of MCFC stack technology; improvement of cell characteristics, and establishment of separator technology. For the cell technology, Toshiba has concentrated on both the restraints of NiO cathode dissolution and electrolyte loss from cells, which are the critical issues to extend cell life in MCFC, and great progress has been made. On the other hand, recognizing that the separator is one of key elements in accomplishing reliable and cost-competitive MCFC stacks, Toshiba has been accelerating the technology establishment and verification of an advanced type separator. A sub-scale stack with such a separator was provided for an electric generating test, and has been operated for more than 10,000 hours. This paper presents several topics obtained through the technical activities in the MCFC field at Toshiba.

  9. Development of an Integrated Polymer Microfluidic Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Proyag; Hammacher, Jens; Pease, Mark; Gurung, Sitanshu; Goettert, Jost

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic is a field of considerable interest. While significant research has been carried out to develop microfluidic components, very little has been done to integrate the components into a complete working system. We present a flexible modular system platform that addresses the requirements of a complete microfluidic system. A microfluidic stack system is demonstrated with the layers of the stack being modular for specific functions. The stack and accompanying infrastructure provides an attractive platform for users to transition their design concepts into a working microfluidic system quickly with very little effort. The concept is demonstrated by using the system to carry out a chemilumiscence experiment. Details regarding the fabrication, assembly and experimental methods are presented

  10. Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.

    2012-01-01

    application of advanced methods for detailed electrochemical characterisation during operation. An operating stack is subject to steep compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and significant temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which makes it a complex system...... Fuel Cell A/S was characterised in detail using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An investigation of the optimal geometrical placement of the current probes and voltage probes was carried out in order to minimise measurement errors caused by stray impedances. Unwanted stray impedances...... are particularly problematic at high frequencies. Stray impedances may be caused by mutual inductance and stray capacitance in the geometrical set-up and do not describe the fuel cell. Three different stack geometries were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Impedance measurements were carried...

  11. High power, repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanloo, F; Borovina, D L; Korioth, J L; Krause, R K; Collins, C B [Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Quantum Electronics; Agee, F J [US Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Kingsley, L E [US Army CECOM, Ft. Monmouth, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse power generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switch at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Extensive characterization of these novel pulsers have been performed over the past few years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with rise times and repetition rates in the range of 0.5-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. The progress in the development and use of stacked Blumlein pulse generators is reviewed. The technology and the characteristics of these novel pulsers driving flash x-ray diodes are discussed. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  12. Calculation of tritium release from reactor's stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhadi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for calculation of tritium release from nuclear to environment has been discussed. Part of gas effluent contain tritium in form of HTO vapor released from reactor's stack was sampled using silica-gel. The silica-gel was put in the water to withdraw HTO vapor absorbed by silica-gel. Tritium concentration in the water was measured by liquid scintillation counter of Aloka LSC-703. Tritium concentration in the gas effluent and total release of tritium from reactor's stack during certain interval time were calculated using simple mathematic formula. This method has examined for calculation of tritium release from JRR-3M's stack of JAERI, Japan. From the calculation it was obtained the value of tritium release as much as 4.63 x 10 11 Bq during one month. (author)

  13. Evaluation of protein immobilization capacity on various carbon nanotube embedded hydrogel biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derkus, Burak, E-mail: burakderkus@gmail.com; Emregul, Kaan Cebesoy; Emregul, Emel

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates effective immobilization of proteins, an important procedure in many fields of bioengineering and medicine, using various biomaterials. Gelatin, alginate and chitosan were chosen as polymeric carriers, and applied in both their composites and nanocomposite forms in combination with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The prepared nano/composite structures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and contact angle analysis (CA). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis revealed gelatin composites in general to exhibit better immobilization performance relative to the native gelatin which can be attributed to enhanced film morphologies of the composite structures. Moreover, superior immobilization efficiencies were obtained with the addition of carbon nanotubes, due to their conducting and surface enhancement features, especially in the gelatin–chitosan structures due to the presence of structural active groups. - Highlights: • Various nanocomposite biomaterials were developed for efficient immobilization of proteins. • CNTs enhance the immobilization efficiency owing to their conducting and surface enhancement features. • Gelatin–chitosan–CNTs structure is promising immobilization matrix thanks to its effective CNTs binding capacity.

  14. Nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, William B. (Inventor); Nolcheff, Nick A. (Inventor); Gunaraj, John A. (Inventor); Kontos, Karen B. (Inventor); Weir, Donald S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane having a characteristic curve that is characterized by a nonlinear sweep and a nonlinear lean is provided. The stator is in an axial fan or compressor turbomachinery stage that is comprised of a collection of vanes whose highly three-dimensional shape is selected to reduce rotor-stator and rotor-strut interaction noise while maintaining the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of the vane. The nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane reduces noise associated with the fan stage of turbomachinery to improve environmental compatibility.

  15. Stack Monitoring System At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamrul Faizad Omar; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the current Stack Monitoring System at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) building. A stack monitoring system is a continuous air monitor placed at the reactor top for monitoring the presence of radioactive gaseous in the effluent air from the RTP building. The system consists of four detectors that provide the reading for background, particulate, Iodine and Noble gas. There is a plan to replace the current system due to frequent fault of the system, thus thorough understanding of the current system is required. Overview of the whole system will be explained in this paper. Some current results would be displayed and moving forward brief plan would be mentioned. (author)

  16. A comparison of four patient immobilization devices in the treatment of prostate cancer patients with three dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Paul Y.; Washington, Maxine; Vaida, Florin; Hamilton, Russell; Spelbring, Danny; Wyman, Brenda; Harrison, Joanne; Chen, George T. Y.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the variability of patient positioning during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer treated with no immobilization or one of four immobilization devices, and to determine the effects of patient body habitus and pelvic circumference on patient movement with each individual immobilization technique. Methods and Materials: To see whether our immobilization techniques have improved day-to-day patient movement, a retrospective analysis was carried out. A total of 62 patients treated at one facility on a single machine with 3D-CRT via a four-field box technique (anterior-posterior and opposed laterals) in the supine position with either no immobilization or one of four immobilization devices. Five groups of patients were compared: (a) group 1-no immobilization; (b) group 2-alpha cradle from the waist to upper thigh; (c) group 3-alpha cradle from waist to below the knees; (d) group 4-styrofoam leg immobilizer (below knees); and (e) group 5-aquaplast cast encompassing the entire abdomen and pelvis to midthigh with alpha cradle immobilization to their lower legs and feet. Prior to starting radiotherapy, portal films of all four treatment fields were obtained 1 day before treatment. Subsequently, portal films were then obtained at least once a week. Portal films were compared with the simulation films and appropriate changes were made and verified on the next day prior to treatment. A deviation of greater than 0.5 cm or greater was considered to be clinically significant in our analysis. We studied the difference among the types of immobilization and no immobilization by looking at the frequency of movements (overall, and on each of the three axes) that a patient had during the course of his treatment. Using a logistic regression model, the probability of overall and individual directional movement for each group was obtained. In addition, the effects of patient body habitus and pelvic circumference on movement were

  17. Implementation of Man-made Tongue Immobilization Devices in Treating Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jong Geal; Kim, Joo Ho; Lee, Sang Kyu; Lee, Won Joo; Yoon, Jong Won; Cho, Jeong Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yensei Cancer Center, Yensei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    For head and neck cancer patients treated with radiation therapy, proper immobilization of intra-oral structures is crucial in reproducing treatment positions and optimizing dose distribution. We produced a man-made tongue immobilization device for each patient subjected to this study. Reproducibility of treatment positions and dose distributions at air-and-tissue interface were compared using man-made tongue immobilization devices and conventional tongue-bites. Dental alginate and putty were used in producing man-made tongue immobilization devices. In order to evaluate reproducibility of treatment positions, all patients were CT-simulated, and linac-gram was repeated 5 times with each patient in the treatment position. An acrylic phantom was devised in order to evaluate safety of man-made tongue immobilization devices. Air, water, alginate and putty were placed in the phantom and dose distributions at air-and-tissue interface were calculated using Pinnacle (version 7.6c, Phillips, USA) and measured with EBT film. Two different field sizes (33 cm and 55 cm) were used for comparison. Evaluation of linac grams showed reproducibility of a treatment position was 4 times more accurate with man-made tongue immobilization devices compared with conventional tongue bites. Patients felt more comfortable using customized tongue immobilization devices during radiation treatment. Air-and-tissue interface dose distributions calculated using Pinnacle were 7.78% and 0.56% for 33 cm field and 55 cm field respectively. Dose distributions measured with EBT (international specialty products, USA) film were 36.5% and 11.8% for 33 cm field and 55 cm field respectively. Values from EBT film were higher. Using man-made tongue immobilization devices made of dental alginate and putty in treatment of head and neck cancer patients showed higher reproducibility of treatment position compared with using conventional mouth pieces. Man-made immobilization devices can help optimizing air

  18. Implementation of Man-made Tongue Immobilization Devices in Treating Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jong Geal; Kim, Joo Ho; Lee, Sang Kyu; Lee, Won Joo; Yoon, Jong Won; Cho, Jeong Hee

    2008-01-01

    For head and neck cancer patients treated with radiation therapy, proper immobilization of intra-oral structures is crucial in reproducing treatment positions and optimizing dose distribution. We produced a man-made tongue immobilization device for each patient subjected to this study. Reproducibility of treatment positions and dose distributions at air-and-tissue interface were compared using man-made tongue immobilization devices and conventional tongue-bites. Dental alginate and putty were used in producing man-made tongue immobilization devices. In order to evaluate reproducibility of treatment positions, all patients were CT-simulated, and linac-gram was repeated 5 times with each patient in the treatment position. An acrylic phantom was devised in order to evaluate safety of man-made tongue immobilization devices. Air, water, alginate and putty were placed in the phantom and dose distributions at air-and-tissue interface were calculated using Pinnacle (version 7.6c, Phillips, USA) and measured with EBT film. Two different field sizes (33 cm and 55 cm) were used for comparison. Evaluation of linac grams showed reproducibility of a treatment position was 4 times more accurate with man-made tongue immobilization devices compared with conventional tongue bites. Patients felt more comfortable using customized tongue immobilization devices during radiation treatment. Air-and-tissue interface dose distributions calculated using Pinnacle were 7.78% and 0.56% for 33 cm field and 55 cm field respectively. Dose distributions measured with EBT (international specialty products, USA) film were 36.5% and 11.8% for 33 cm field and 55 cm field respectively. Values from EBT film were higher. Using man-made tongue immobilization devices made of dental alginate and putty in treatment of head and neck cancer patients showed higher reproducibility of treatment position compared with using conventional mouth pieces. Man-made immobilization devices can help optimizing air

  19. Texture-dependent twin formation in nanocrystalline thin Pd films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Idrissi, H.; Shi, H.; Colla, M.S.; Michotte, S.; Raskin, J.P.; Pardoen, T.; Schryvers, D.

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Pd films were produced by electron-beam evaporation and sputter deposition. The electron-beam-evaporated films reveal randomly oriented nanograins with a relatively high density of growth twins, unexpected in view of the high stacking fault energy of Pd. In contrast, sputter-deposited films show a clear 〈1 1 1〉 crystallographic textured nanostructure without twins. These results provide insightful information to guide the generation of microstructures with enhanced strength/ductility balance in high stacking fault energy nanocrystalline metallic thin films.

  20. Coalescence dynamics of mobile and immobile fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2018-01-12

    Coalescence dynamics between deformable bubbles and droplets can be dramatically affected by the mobility of the interfaces with fully tangentially mobile bubble-liquid or droplet-liquid interfaces expected to accelerate the coalescence by orders of magnitudes. However, there is a lack of systematic experimental investigations that quantify this effect. By using high speed camera imaging we examine the free rise and coalescence of small air-bubbles (100 to 1300 μm in diameter) with a liquid interface. A perfluorocarbon liquid, PP11 is used as a model liquid to investigate coalescence dynamics between fully-mobile and immobile deformable interfaces. The mobility of the bubble surface was determined by measuring the terminal rise velocity of small bubbles rising at Reynolds numbers, Re less than 0.1 and the mobility of free PP11 surface by measuring the deceleration kinetics of the small bubble toward the interface. Induction or film drainage times of a bubble at the mobile PP11-air surface were found to be more than two orders of magnitude shorter compared to the case of bubble and an immobile PP11-water interface. A theoretical model is used to illustrate the effect of hydrodynamics and interfacial mobility on the induction time or film drainage time. The results of this study are expected to stimulate the development of a comprehensive theoretical model for coalescence dynamics between two fully or partially mobile fluid interfaces.

  1. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASUDEB DATTA

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... Preliminaries. Lower bound theorem. On going work. Definitions. An n-simplex is a convex hull of n + 1 affinely independent points. (called vertices) in some Euclidean space R. N . Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta. Indian Institute of Science. 2 / 27 ...

  2. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlampová, Andrea; Malá, Zdeňka; Pantůčková, Pavla; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2013), s. 3-18 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/10/1219 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013

  3. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart

  4. Scaling the CERN OpenStack cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T.; Bompastor, B.; Bukowiec, S.; Castro Leon, J.; Denis, M. K.; van Eldik, J.; Fermin Lobo, M.; Fernandez Alvarez, L.; Fernandez Rodriguez, D.; Marino, A.; Moreira, B.; Noel, B.; Oulevey, T.; Takase, W.; Wiebalck, A.; Zilli, S.

    2015-12-01

    CERN has been running a production OpenStack cloud since July 2013 to support physics computing and infrastructure services for the site. In the past year, CERN Cloud Infrastructure has seen a constant increase in nodes, virtual machines, users and projects. This paper will present what has been done in order to make the CERN cloud infrastructure scale out.

  5. Stacking non-BPS D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Caceres, Elena; Goldstein, Kevin; Lowe, David A. . lowe@het.brown.edu

    2001-08-01

    We present a candidate supergravity solution for a stacked configuration of stable non-BPS D-branes in Type II string theory compactified on T 4 /Z 2 . This gives a supergravity description of nonabelian tachyon condensation on the brane woldvolume. (author)

  6. Trace interpolation by slant-stack migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, M.

    1990-01-01

    The slant-stack migration formula based on the radon transform is studied with respect to the depth steep Δz of wavefield extrapolation. It can be viewed as a generalized trace-interpolation procedure including wave extrapolation with an arbitrary step Δz. For Δz > 0 the formula yields the familiar plane-wave decomposition, while for Δz > 0 it provides a robust tool for migration transformation of spatially under sampled wavefields. Using the stationary phase method, it is shown that the slant-stack migration formula degenerates into the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral in the far-field approximation. Consequently, even a narrow slant-stack gather applied before the diffraction stack can significantly improve the representation of noisy data in the wavefield extrapolation process. The theory is applied to synthetic and field data to perform trace interpolation and dip reject filtration. The data examples presented prove that the radon interpolator works well in the dip range, including waves with mutual stepouts smaller than half the dominant period

  7. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, Zdeňka; Šlampová, Andrea; Křivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2015), s. 15-35 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.482, year: 2015

  8. 40 CFR 61.53 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.53 Section 61.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Mercury ore processing facility. (1) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under...

  9. 40 CFR 61.33 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.33 Section 61.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under § 61.13, each owner or operator...

  10. OpenStack cloud computing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook full of practical and applicable recipes that will enable you to use the full capabilities of OpenStack like never before.This book is aimed at system administrators and technical architects moving from a virtualized environment to cloud environments with familiarity of cloud computing platforms. Knowledge of virtualization and managing linux environments is expected.

  11. Toward advising SME's on stacked funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwerda, Kirsten; van Teeffelen, Lex; de Graaf, Frank Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses new funding issues faced by SMEs. Over a period of nine months, the authors conducted a preliminary study into the problems surrounding stacked funding faced by SMEs and their financial advisers. The study includes a short literature review, the outcomes of three round table

  12. Photoswitchable Intramolecular H-Stacking of Perylenebisimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiaobing; Kulago, Artem; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control over the formation of H- or J-type aggregates of chromophores is of fundamental importance for developing responsive organic optoelectronic materials. In this study, the first example of photoswitching between a nonstacked and an intramolecularly H-stacked arrangement of

  13. Optoelectronic interconnects for 3D wafer stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David; Carson, John C.; Lome, Louis S.

    1996-01-01

    Wafer and chip stacking are envisioned as means of providing increased processing power within the small confines of a three-dimensional structure. Optoelectronic devices can play an important role in these dense 3-D processing electronic packages in two ways. In pure electronic processing, optoelectronics can provide a method for increasing the number of input/output communication channels within the layers of the 3-D chip stack. Non-free space communication links allow the density of highly parallel input/output ports to increase dramatically over typical edge bus connections. In hybrid processors, where electronics and optics play a role in defining the computational algorithm, free space communication links are typically utilized for, among other reasons, the increased network link complexity which can be achieved. Free space optical interconnections provide bandwidths and interconnection complexity unobtainable in pure electrical interconnections. Stacked 3-D architectures can provide the electronics real estate and structure to deal with the increased bandwidth and global information provided by free space optical communications. This paper will provide definitions and examples of 3-D stacked architectures in optoelectronics processors. The benefits and issues of these technologies will be discussed.

  14. OpenStack Object Storage (Swift) essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kapadia, Amar; Varma, Sreedhar

    2015-01-01

    If you are an IT administrator and you want to enter the world of cloud storage using OpenStack Swift, then this book is ideal for you. Basic knowledge of Linux and server technology is beneficial to get the most out of the book.

  15. Glucose oxidase immobilization onto carbon nanotube networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachevtsev, V.A.; Glamazda, A.Yu.; Zarudnev, E.S.; Karachevtsev, M.V.; Leontiev, V.S.; Linnik, A.S.; Plokhotnichenko, A.M.; Stepanian, S.G.; Lytvyn, O.S.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient immobilization of GOX onto a carbon nanotube network through the molecular interface formed by PSE is carried out. This conclusion is based on the analysis of AFM images of the network with the adsorbed enzyme, whose globules locate mainly along a nanotube. The band corresponding to the high-frequency component of the G mode in the RR spectrum of the nanotube with adsorbed PSE is downshifted by 0.7 cm -1 relative to this band in the spectrum of pristine nanotubes. The analysis of the intensities of bands assigned to the RBM of nanotubes with adsorbed PSE in comparison with the spectrum of pristine SWNTs revealed the intensity transformation, which can be explained by a change of the resonance condition with variation of the laser energy. Thus, we concluded that PSE molecules create nanohybrids with SWNTs, which ensures the further enzyme immobilization. As the RR spectrum of an SWNT:PSE:GOX film does not essentially differ from SWNT:PSE ones, this indicates that the molecular interface (PSE) isolates the enzyme from nanotubes strongly enough. Our studies on the conductive properties of a single walled carbon nanotube network sprayed onto a quartz substrate from a solution of nanotubes in dichlorobenzene demonstrated that the I(U) dependence has nonlinear character. Most likely, the nonlinearity is related to Schottky barriers, which originate on the contact between nanotubes and the gold electrode, as well as between nanotubes with different conductivities. The deposition of bioorganic compounds (PSE and GOX) on the carbon nanotube network is accompanied by a decrease of their conductivity. Most probably, such a decrease is caused by adsorbed PSE molecules, which induce the appearance of scattering centers for charge carriers on the nanotube surface. The following GOX adsorption has practically no effect on the conductivity of the nanotube network that evidences the reliable isolation of the nanotube surface from the enzyme by means of the molecular

  16. Properties of immobilized papain by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1984-01-01

    Papain was immobilized by the radiation polymerization of various monomers at low temperatures and the effects of the polymer matrix on the enzyme activity and thermal stability of the immobilized enzymes were studied. The activity of the immobilized enzymes prepared from monofunctional (acrylate and methacrylate) monomers was higher than that from bifunctional (bismethacrylate) monomers and that from polyoxyethylene dimethacrylate monomers increased with an increase in the number of oxyethylene units. The thermal stability of the immobilized enzymes prepared from hydrophilic monomers was higher than that from hydrophobic monomers and increased markedly with increasing monomer concentration. (author)

  17. Optical properties of a HfO2/Si stack with a trace amount of nitrogen incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Tingting, Jiang; Qingqing, Sun; Pengfei, Wang; Shijin, Ding; Wei, Zhang

    2012-03-01

    HfO2 films were deposited by atomic layer deposition through alternating pulsing of Hf[N(C2H5)(CH3)]4 and H2O2. A trace amount of nitrogen was incorporated into the HfO2 through ammonia annealing. The composition, the interface stability of the HfO2/Si stack and the optical properties of the annealed films were analyzed to investigate the property evolution of HfO2 during thermal treatment. With a nitrogen concentration increase from 1.41 to 7.45%, the bandgap of the films decreased from 5.82 to 4.94 eV.

  18. Influence of gamma irradiation on polymerization of pyrrole and glucose oxidase immobilization onto poly (pyrrole)/poly (vinyl alcohol) matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idris, Sarada, E-mail: sarada@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Department of Radiation Technology, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600 (Malaysia); Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A., E-mail: ashrif@ukm.edu.my [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600 (Malaysia); Thevy Ratnam, Chantara [Department of Radiation Technology, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600 (Malaysia); Shaari, Sahbudin [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600 (Malaysia)

    2017-04-01

    Graphical abstract: The illustration of pyrrole polymerization, PVA crosslinking and immobilization of GOx onto polymer matrix. - Highlights: • Immobilization of glucose oxidase onto polymer matrices by gamma irradiation is proposed. • Crosslinking and grafting of polymers implies the immobilization reaction. • The mechanisms relies on gamma irradiation doses. • A simple single step process of polymerization, cross linking and immobilization by mean of gamma irradiation as was shown in Graphical abstract. - Abstract: This paper describes the immobilization of glucose oxidase, GOx onto polymer matrix comprising of poly(pyrrole), PPy and poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA using gamma irradiation technique. Py/PVA-GOx film was prepared by spreading PVA:GOx, 1:1 solution onto dried pyrrole film and exposed to gamma irradiation from cobalt 60 source at doses ranging from 0 to 60 kGy. The films were subjected to structural and morphological analyses by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Similar studies were also made on pristine pyrrole film which served as control. The SEM and FTIR spectra of Py/PVA-GOx film revealed that pyrrole has been successfully polymerized through irradiation-induced reactions. The results on the morphological properties of the samples characterize using FESEM, SEM and AFM further confirmed the occurrence of radiation-induced modification of Py/PVA-GOx film. The FTIR spectra showed the existence of intermolecular interaction between polymer matrix and GOx indicating that GOx had been successfully immobilized onto Ppy/PVA matrix by radiation-induced reactions. Results revealed that radiation induced reactions such as polymerization of pyrrole, crosslinking of PVA, grafting between the adjacent PVA and pyrrole molecules as well as immobilization of GOx onto Ppy

  19. Influence of gamma irradiation on polymerization of pyrrole and glucose oxidase immobilization onto poly (pyrrole)/poly (vinyl alcohol) matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, Sarada; Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A.; Thevy Ratnam, Chantara; Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The illustration of pyrrole polymerization, PVA crosslinking and immobilization of GOx onto polymer matrix. - Highlights: • Immobilization of glucose oxidase onto polymer matrices by gamma irradiation is proposed. • Crosslinking and grafting of polymers implies the immobilization reaction. • The mechanisms relies on gamma irradiation doses. • A simple single step process of polymerization, cross linking and immobilization by mean of gamma irradiation as was shown in Graphical abstract. - Abstract: This paper describes the immobilization of glucose oxidase, GOx onto polymer matrix comprising of poly(pyrrole), PPy and poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA using gamma irradiation technique. Py/PVA-GOx film was prepared by spreading PVA:GOx, 1:1 solution onto dried pyrrole film and exposed to gamma irradiation from cobalt 60 source at doses ranging from 0 to 60 kGy. The films were subjected to structural and morphological analyses by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Similar studies were also made on pristine pyrrole film which served as control. The SEM and FTIR spectra of Py/PVA-GOx film revealed that pyrrole has been successfully polymerized through irradiation-induced reactions. The results on the morphological properties of the samples characterize using FESEM, SEM and AFM further confirmed the occurrence of radiation-induced modification of Py/PVA-GOx film. The FTIR spectra showed the existence of intermolecular interaction between polymer matrix and GOx indicating that GOx had been successfully immobilized onto Ppy/PVA matrix by radiation-induced reactions. Results revealed that radiation induced reactions such as polymerization of pyrrole, crosslinking of PVA, grafting between the adjacent PVA and pyrrole molecules as well as immobilization of GOx onto Ppy

  20. Stacking metal nano-patterns and fabrication of moth-eye structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) can be used as a tool for three-dimensional nanoscale fabrication. In particular, complex metal pattern structures in polymer material are demanded as plasmonic effect devices and metamaterials. To fabricate of metallic color filter, we used silver ink and NIL techniques. Metallic color filter was composed of stacking of nanoscale silver disc patterns and polymer layers, thus, controlling of polymer layer thickness is necessary. To control of thickness of polymer layer, we used spin-coating of UV-curable polymer and NIL. As a result, ten stacking layers with 1000 nm layer thickness was obtained and red color was observed. Ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) is the most effective technique for mass fabrication of antireflection structure (ARS) films. For the use of ARS films in mobile phones and tablet PCs, which are touch-screen devices, it is important to protect the films from fingerprints and dust. In addition, as the nanoscale ARS that is touched by the hand is fragile, it is very important to obtain a high abrasion resistance. To solve these problems, a UV-curable epoxy resin has been developed that exhibits antifouling properties and high hardness. The high abrasion resistance ARS films are shown to withstand a load of 250 g/cm2 in the steel wool scratch test, and the reflectance is less than 0.4%.

  1. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF SOLID OXIDE STACKS WITH ELECTRODE-SUPPORTED CELLS OPERATING IN THE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; R. C. O' Brien; X. Zhang; G. Tao; B. J. Butler

    2011-11-01

    Performance characterization and durability testing have been completed on two five-cell high-temperature electrolysis stacks constructed with advanced cell and stack technologies. The solid oxide cells incorporate a negative-electrode-supported multi-layer design with nickel-zirconia cermet negative electrodes, thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and multi-layer lanthanum ferrite-based positive electrodes. The per-cell active area is 100 cm2. The stack is internally manifolded with compliant mica-glass seals. Treated metallic interconnects with integral flow channels separate the cells. Stack compression is accomplished by means of a custom spring-loaded test fixture. Initial stack performance characterization was determined through a series of DC potential sweeps in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes of operation. Results of these sweeps indicated very good initial performance, with area-specific resistance values less than 0.5 ?.cm2. Long-term durability testing was performed with A test duration of 1000 hours. Overall performance degradation was less than 10% over the 1000-hour period. Final stack performance characterization was again determined by a series of DC potential sweeps at the same flow conditions as the initial sweeps in both electrolysis and fuel cell modes of operation. A final sweep in the fuel cell mode indicated a power density of 0.356 W/cm2, with average per-cell voltage of 0.71 V at a current of 50 A.

  2. Immobilization/hybridization of amino-modified DNA on plasma-polymerized allyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhihong; Feng Chuanliang

    2007-01-01

    The present work describes the fabrication and characterization of chloride-derivatized polymer coatings prepared by continuous wave (cw) plasma polymerization as adhesion layers in DNA immobilization/hybridization. The stability of plasma-polymerized allyl chloride (ppAC) in H 2 O was characterized by variation of the thickness of polymer films and its wettability was examined by water contact angle technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study polymer matrix properties and oligonucleotide/DNA binding interaction. With the same carrier gas rate and process pressure, plasma polymers deposited at different input powers show various comparable immobilization properties; nevertheless, low input power plasma-polymerized films gives a lower sensitivity toward DNA binding than that from high input power plasma-deposited films. The following DNA immobilization on chloride-functionalized surfaces was found dependence on the macromolecular architecture of the plasma films. The hybridization between probe DNA and total mismatch target DNA shows no non-specific adsorption between target and ppAC

  3. Production of Biodiesel Using Immobilized Lipase and the Characterization of Different Co-Immobilizing Agents and Immobilization Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipase from Candida sp. 99–125 is widely employed to catalyzed transesterification and can be used for biodiesel production. In this study, the lipase was immobilized by combined adsorption and entrapment to catalyze biodiesel production from waste cooking oil (WCO via transesterification, and investigating co-immobilizing agents as additives according to the enzyme activity. The addition of the mixed co-immobilizing agents has positive effects on the activities of the immobilized lipase. Three different immobilizing methods were compared by the conversion ratio of biodiesel and structured by Atom Force Microscopy (AFM and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, respectively. It was found that entrapment followed by adsorption was the best method. The effect of the co-immobilizing agent amount, lipase dosage, water content, and reuse ability of the immobilized lipase was investigated. By comparison with previous research, this immobilized lipase showed good reuse ability: the conversion ratio excesses 70% after 10 subsequent reactions, in particular, was better than Novozym435 and TLIM on waste cooking oil for one unit of lipase.

  4. Assessment of the LV-C2 Stack Sampling Probe Location for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonio, Ernest J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling location for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-Activity Waste (LAW) C2V (LV-C2) exhaust stack with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. Federal regulations require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to the criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream. The tests were conducted on the LV-C2 scale model system. Based on the scale model tests, the location proposed for the air sampling probe in the scale model stack meets the requirements of the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard for velocity uniformity, flow angle, gas tracer and particle tracer uniformity. Additional velocity uniformity and flow angle tests on the actual stack will be necessary during cold startup to confirm the validity of the scale model results in representing the actual stack.

  5. Evaluation of protein immobilization capacity on various carbon nanotube embedded hydrogel biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkus, Burak; Emregul, Kaan Cebesoy; Emregul, Emel

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates effective immobilization of proteins, an important procedure in many fields of bioengineering and medicine, using various biomaterials. Gelatin, alginate and chitosan were chosen as polymeric carriers, and applied in both their composites and nanocomposite forms in combination with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The prepared nano/composite structures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and contact angle analysis (CA). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis revealed gelatin composites in general to exhibit better immobilization performance relative to the native gelatin which can be attributed to enhanced film morphologies of the composite structures. Moreover, superior immobilization efficiencies were obtained with the addition of carbon nanotubes, due to their conducting and surface enhancement features, especially in the gelatin-chitosan structures due to the presence of structural active groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks

  7. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-11-06

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks.

  8. Oxide-nitride-oxide dielectric stacks with Si nanoparticles obtained by low-energy ion beam synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou-Sougleridis, V; Dimitrakis, P; Vamvakas, V Em; Normand, P; Bonafos, C; Schamm, S; Mouti, A; Assayag, G Ben; Paillard, V

    2007-01-01

    Formation of a thin band of silicon nanoparticles within silicon nitride films by low-energy (1 keV) silicon ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing is demonstrated. Electrical characterization of metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors reveals that oxide/Si-nanoparticles-nitride/oxide dielectric stacks exhibit enhanced charge transfer characteristics between the substrate and the silicon nitride layer compared to dielectric stacks using unimplanted silicon nitride. Attractive results are obtained in terms of write/erase memory characteristics and data retention, indicating the large potential of the low-energy ion-beam-synthesis technique in SONOS memory technology

  9. Technetium Immobilization Forms Literature Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-05-01

    Of the many radionuclides and contaminants in the tank wastes stored at the Hanford site, technetium-99 (99Tc) is one of the most challenging to effectively immobilize in a waste form for ultimate disposal. Within the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the Tc will partition between both the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the tank waste. The HLW fraction will be converted to a glass waste form in the HLW vitrification facility and the LAW fraction will be converted to another glass waste form in the LAW vitrification facility. In both vitrification facilities, the Tc is incorporated into the glass waste form but a significant fraction of the Tc volatilizes at the high glass-melting temperatures and is captured in the off-gas treatment systems at both facilities. The aqueous off-gas condensate solution containing the volatilized Tc is recycled and is added to the LAW glass melter feed. This recycle process is effective in increasing the loading of Tc in the LAW glass but it also disproportionally increases the sulfur and halides in the LAW melter feed which increases both the amount of LAW glass and either the duration of the LAW vitrification mission or the required supplemental LAW treatment capacity.

  10. Role of reduced pi-pi stacking in the charge transport in polyfluorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, Manisha; Srivastava, Ritu; Dhar, Ravindra; Tiwari, R.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Role of bulky copolymer on the hole transport properties of polyfluorene thin films has been studied. • Photophysical measurement shows that the introduction of a SY in PFO effectively suppresses pi-stacking/aggregation of conjugated polymers in the solid state. • Current density decreases on blending for a given applied bias. - Abstract: We investigated the effect of blending of a bulky copolymer on the hole transport properties of poly (9,9-dihexyl fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)(PFO) thin films (∼120 nm) at different temperatures by obtaining the current density-voltage measurement. The poly (phenylenevinylene) based copolymer ‘‘Super Yellow” (SY) has been used as a blending component. Such polymer blending matrix is useful as it combines the host polymer (PFO) with the guest polymer of bulky side groups where pi-pi stacking is hindered by bulky side groups. This makes polyflorene much interesting and versatile material for lighting application. It has been found that the current density decreases on blending for a given applied bias. We demonstrated that the current conduction mechanism is bulk limited. It has been analyzed by trapped charge limited currents (TCLC) with electric field. We conclude that the relatively low hole mobility in blends as compared to pristine PFO would result due to increase in the pi-pi stacking distance and disorder.

  11. Bottom-up Fabrication of Multilayer Stacks of 3D Photonic Crystals from Titanium Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrin, Roman; Pasquarelli, Robert M; Waleczek, Martin; Lee, Hooi Sing; Zierold, Robert; do Rosário, Jefferson J; Dyachenko, Pavel N; Montero Moreno, Josep M; Petrov, Alexander Yu; Janssen, Rolf; Eich, Manfred; Nielsch, Kornelius; Schneider, Gerold A

    2016-04-27

    A strategy for stacking multiple ceramic 3D photonic crystals is developed. Periodically structured porous films are produced by vertical convective self-assembly of polystyrene (PS) microspheres. After infiltration of the opaline templates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of titania and thermal decomposition of the polystyrene matrix, a ceramic 3D photonic crystal is formed. Further layers with different sizes of pores are deposited subsequently by repetition of the process. The influence of process parameters on morphology and photonic properties of double and triple stacks is systematically studied. Prolonged contact of amorphous titania films with warm water during self-assembly of the successive templates is found to result in exaggerated roughness of the surfaces re-exposed to ALD. Random scattering on rough internal surfaces disrupts ballistic transport of incident photons into deeper layers of the multistacks. Substantially smoother interfaces are obtained by calcination of the structure after each infiltration, which converts amorphous titania into the crystalline anatase before resuming the ALD infiltration. High quality triple stacks consisting of anatase inverse opals with different pore sizes are demonstrated for the first time. The elaborated fabrication method shows promise for various applications demanding broadband dielectric reflectors or titania photonic crystals with a long mean free path of photons.

  12. Role of reduced pi-pi stacking in the charge transport in polyfluorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpai, Manisha, E-mail: mansa83@gmail.com [Soft Materials Research Laboratory, Centre of Material Sciences, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Srivastava, Ritu [Centre for Organic Electronics, National Physical Laboratory (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Dhar, Ravindra [Soft Materials Research Laboratory, Centre of Material Sciences, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Tiwari, R.S. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Role of bulky copolymer on the hole transport properties of polyfluorene thin films has been studied. • Photophysical measurement shows that the introduction of a SY in PFO effectively suppresses pi-stacking/aggregation of conjugated polymers in the solid state. • Current density decreases on blending for a given applied bias. - Abstract: We investigated the effect of blending of a bulky copolymer on the hole transport properties of poly (9,9-dihexyl fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)(PFO) thin films (∼120 nm) at different temperatures by obtaining the current density-voltage measurement. The poly (phenylenevinylene) based copolymer ‘‘Super Yellow” (SY) has been used as a blending component. Such polymer blending matrix is useful as it combines the host polymer (PFO) with the guest polymer of bulky side groups where pi-pi stacking is hindered by bulky side groups. This makes polyflorene much interesting and versatile material for lighting application. It has been found that the current density decreases on blending for a given applied bias. We demonstrated that the current conduction mechanism is bulk limited. It has been analyzed by trapped charge limited currents (TCLC) with electric field. We conclude that the relatively low hole mobility in blends as compared to pristine PFO would result due to increase in the pi-pi stacking distance and disorder.

  13. Heteroepitaxial growth of basal plane stacking fault free a-plane GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieneke, Matthias; Hempel, Thomas; Noltemeyer, Martin; Witte, Hartmut; Dadgar, Armin; Blaesing, Juergen; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke Universitaet Magdeburg, FNW/IEP, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Growth of light emitting quantum-wells based on a-plane GaN is a possibility to reduce or even to avoid polarization correlated luminescence red shift and reduction of radiative recombination efficiency. But until now heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN films are characterized by a poor crystalline quality expressed by a high density of basal plane stacking faults (BSF) and partial dislocations. We present Si doped a-plane GaN films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy using high temperature AlGaN nucleation layers. FE-SEM images revealed three dimensionally grown GaN crystallites sized up to tenth micrometer in the basal plane and a few tenth micrometers along the c-axes. Though, the full width at half maxima of the X-ray diffraction {omega}-scans of the in-plane GaN(1 anti 100) and GaN(0002) Bragg reflections exhibited a very high crystal quality. Furthermore, luminescence spectra were dominated by near band gap emission, while there was no separated peak of the basal plane stacking fault. In summary we present heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN without an evidence of basal plane stacking faults in X-ray diffraction measurements and luminescence spectra.

  14. Optimization of Adsorptive Immobilization of Alcohol Dehydrogenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivedi, Archana; Heinemann, Matthias; Spiess, Antje C.; Daussmann, Thomas; Büchs, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a systematic examination of various parameters of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) on solid support is performed and the impact of these parameters on immobilization efficiency is studied. Depending on the source of the enzymes, these parameters differently

  15. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Equipment Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.

    1998-05-01

    This report lists the operations required to complete the Can Loading steps on the Pu Immobilization Plant Flow Sheets and evaluates the equipment options to complete each operation. This report recommends the most appropriate equipment to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations

  16. Strong and Reversible Monovalent Supramolecular Protein Immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Jacqui F.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Yang, Lanti; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with an iron clasp: Site-selective incorporation of a ferrocene molecule into a protein allows for easy, strong, and reversible supramolecular protein immobilization through a selective monovalent interaction of the ferrocene with a cucurbit[7]uril immobilized on a gold surface. The

  17. Drug immobilization of walrus (Odobenus rosmarus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaster, D.P.; Faro, J.B.; Estes, J.A.; Taggart, James; Zabel, C.

    1981-01-01

    Five out of nine walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) were successfully immobilized at Round Island, Alaska, in May of 1978 by combinations of phencyclidine hydrochloride and acepromazine hydrochloride. A crossbow was an effective delivery technique. Walruses that had recently hauled out were more suitable for immobilization than well-rested animals. Care was taken to prevent walruses from overheating or suffocating.

  18. Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.

  19. Radiation-Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack - RTIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tak-kwong; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides reconfigurable circuitry and 2-Gb of error-corrected or 1-Gb of triple-redundant digital memory in a small package. RTIMS uses circuit stacking of heterogeneous components and radiation shielding technologies. A reprogrammable field-programmable gate array (FPGA), six synchronous dynamic random access memories, linear regulator, and the radiation mitigation circuits are stacked into a module of 42.7 42.7 13 mm. Triple module redundancy, current limiting, configuration scrubbing, and single- event function interrupt detection are employed to mitigate radiation effects. The novel self-scrubbing and single event functional interrupt (SEFI) detection allows a relatively soft FPGA to become radiation tolerant without external scrubbing and monitoring hardware

  20. Development of on-site PAFC stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, K.; Matsumoto, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Amagasaki (Japan); Horiuchi, H.; Ohtani, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell) has been researched for commercial use and demonstration plants have been installed in various sites. However, PAFC don`t have a enough stability yet, so more research and development must be required in the future. Especially, cell stack needs a proper state of three phases (liquid, gas and solid) interface. It is very difficult technology to keep this condition for a long time. In the small size cell with the electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2}, gas flow and temperature distributions show uniformity. But in the large size cell with the electrode area of 4000 cm{sup 2}, the temperature distributions show non-uniformity. These distributions would cause to be shorten the cell life. Because these distributions make hot-spot and gas poverty in limited parts. So we inserted thermocouples in short-stack for measuring three-dimensional temperature distributions and observed effects of current density and gas utilization on temperature.

  1. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen [Pinole, CA

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  2. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  3. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F; Shyu, F L

    2010-01-01

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  4. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  5. 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the operation of a 30 cell high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. This prototype stack has been developed at the Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, as a proof-of-concept for a low pressure cathode air cooled HTPEM stack. The membranes used are Celtec...

  6. Immobilized fluid membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-03-18

    Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.

  7. Role of stacking disorder in ice nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Laura; Hudait, Arpa; Peters, Baron; Grünwald, Michael; Gotchy Mullen, Ryan; Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria

    2017-11-08

    The freezing of water affects the processes that determine Earth's climate. Therefore, accurate weather and climate forecasts hinge on good predictions of ice nucleation rates. Such rate predictions are based on extrapolations using classical nucleation theory, which assumes that the structure of nanometre-sized ice crystallites corresponds to that of hexagonal ice, the thermodynamically stable form of bulk ice. However, simulations with various water models find that ice nucleated and grown under atmospheric temperatures is at all sizes stacking-disordered, consisting of random sequences of cubic and hexagonal ice layers. This implies that stacking-disordered ice crystallites either are more stable than hexagonal ice crystallites or form because of non-equilibrium dynamical effects. Both scenarios challenge central tenets of classical nucleation theory. Here we use rare-event sampling and free energy calculations with the mW water model to show that the entropy of mixing cubic and hexagonal layers makes stacking-disordered ice the stable phase for crystallites up to a size of at least 100,000 molecules. We find that stacking-disordered critical crystallites at 230 kelvin are about 14 kilojoules per mole of crystallite more stable than hexagonal crystallites, making their ice nucleation rates more than three orders of magnitude higher than predicted by classical nucleation theory. This effect on nucleation rates is temperature dependent, being the most pronounced at the warmest conditions, and should affect the modelling of cloud formation and ice particle numbers, which are very sensitive to the temperature dependence of ice nucleation rates. We conclude that classical nucleation theory needs to be corrected to include the dependence of the crystallization driving force on the size of the ice crystallite when interpreting and extrapolating ice nucleation rates from experimental laboratory conditions to the temperatures that occur in clouds.

  8. A Late Pleistocene sea level stack

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt Rachel M; Lisiecki Lorraine E

    2016-01-01

    Late Pleistocene sea level has been reconstructed from ocean sediment core data using a wide variety of proxies and models. However, the accuracy of individual reconstructions is limited by measurement error, local variations in salinity and temperature, and assumptions particular to each technique. Here we present a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of individual reconstructions. Specifically, we perform principal componen...

  9. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from 'H' and 'F' area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system

  10. Extended Life PZT Stack Test Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Aldrich, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Jones, C.

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric stacks are being sought to be used as actuators for precision positioning and deployment of mechanisms in future planetary missions. Beside the requirement for very high operation reliability, these actuators are required for operation at space environments that are considered harsh compared to normal terrestrial conditions.These environmental conditions include low and high temperatures and vacuum or high pressure. Additionally, the stacks are subjected to high stress and in some applications need to operate with a very long lifetime durability.Many of these requirements are beyond the current industry design margins for nominal terrestrial applications. In order to investigate some of the properties that will indicate the durability of such actuators and their limitations we have developed a new type of test fixture that can be easily integrated in various test chambers for simulating environmental conditions, can provide access for multiple measurements while being exposed to adjustable stress levels. We designed and built two test fixtures and these fixtures were made to be adjustable for testing stacks with different dimensions and can be easily used in small or large numbers. The properties that were measured using these fixtures include impedance, capacitance, dielectric loss factor, leakage current, displacement, breakdown voltage, and lifetime performance. The fixtures characteristics and the test capabilities are presented in this paper.

  11. Electrochemical Detection in Stacked Paper Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyuan; Lillehoj, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Paper-based electrochemical biosensors are a promising technology that enables rapid, quantitative measurements on an inexpensive platform. However, the control of liquids in paper networks is generally limited to a single sample delivery step. Here, we propose a simple method to automate the loading and delivery of liquid samples to sensing electrodes on paper networks by stacking multiple layers of paper. Using these stacked paper devices (SPDs), we demonstrate a unique strategy to fully immerse planar electrodes by aqueous liquids via capillary flow. Amperometric measurements of xanthine oxidase revealed that electrochemical sensors on four-layer SPDs generated detection signals up to 75% higher compared with those on single-layer paper devices. Furthermore, measurements could be performed with minimal user involvement and completed within 30 min. Due to its simplicity, enhanced automation, and capability for quantitative measurements, stacked paper electrochemical biosensors can be useful tools for point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  12. Rapid detection of food pathogens using RNA aptamers-immobilized slide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jin-Soo; Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Chong-Tai; Han, Seung Ryul; Lee, Young Ju; Lee, Seong-Wook; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Cho, Yong-Jin

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and rapid detection system for foodborne bacteria, which consisted of an optical microscope and its slide chip with artificial antibodies, or RNA aptamers. From an RNA pool, three each RNA aptamers were built by the method of SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) for components of cell wall, LPS (lipopolysaccharide) from E. coli O157:H7, teichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus and a cell membrane protein of OmpC from Salmonella typhimurium, respectively. These aptamers were hybridized with thiol-conjugated 16 dT-linker molecules in order to be immobilized on silver surface which was, in advance, fabricated on glass slide, using a spin-coating method. To confirm that each aptamers retained its specific binding activities to their antigenic live bacteria, microscopic view of bound cells immobilized on silver film were observed. Furthermore, we observed the fluorescence-emitting bacteria-aptamer complex immobilized on silver film after adding RNA aptamers hybridized with fluorophore, FAM-conjugated 16 dT-linker molecules. As a result, the RNA aptamers-immobilized slide system developed in this study was a useful new tool to rapidly monitor individual food pathogens.

  13. Guanine base stacking in G-quadruplex nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2013-01-01

    G-quadruplexes constitute a class of nucleic acid structures defined by stacked guanine tetrads (or G-tetrads) with guanine bases from neighboring tetrads stacking with one another within the G-tetrad core. Individual G-quadruplexes can also stack with one another at their G-tetrad interface leading to higher-order structures as observed in telomeric repeat-containing DNA and RNA. In this study, we investigate how guanine base stacking influences the stability of G-quadruplexes and their stacked higher-order structures. A structural survey of the Protein Data Bank is conducted to characterize experimentally observed guanine base stacking geometries within the core of G-quadruplexes and at the interface between stacked G-quadruplex structures. We couple this survey with a systematic computational examination of stacked G-tetrad energy landscapes using quantum mechanical computations. Energy calculations of stacked G-tetrads reveal large energy differences of up to 12 kcal/mol between experimentally observed geometries at the interface of stacked G-quadruplexes. Energy landscapes are also computed using an AMBER molecular mechanics description of stacking energy and are shown to agree quite well with quantum mechanical calculated landscapes. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a structural explanation for the experimentally observed preference of parallel G-quadruplexes to stack in a 5′–5′ manner based on different accessible tetrad stacking modes at the stacking interfaces of 5′–5′ and 3′–3′ stacked G-quadruplexes. PMID:23268444

  14. Evaluation of interlayer ferromagnetic coupling for stacked media by adding reference layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tham, K K; Saito, S; Itagaki, N; Hinata, S; Takahashi, M; Hasegawa, D

    2011-01-01

    The trial for quantitative evaluation of interlayer ferromagnetic coupling between granular and cap layer in stacked media is reported. The evaluation is realized by analyzing M-H loop of stacked media with another reference layer added on the cap layer. The reference layer is antiferromagnetically coupled with the cap layer through non-magnetic spacer layer. In this experiment, Rh which leads to antiferromagnetic coupling constant along film normal direction of around 2 erg/cm 2 was used as non-magnetic spacer layer. According to the evaluation result done by this method, when thickness of the spacer Pd layer between granular layer and cap layer is increased to 1.1 nm, ferromagnetic coupling constant is weakened to 7.2 erg/cm 2 which results in reduction of saturation field.

  15. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item

  16. Immobilization of organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a portland cement immobilization process for the disposal treatment of radioactive organic liquid wastes which would be generated in a a FFTF fuels reprocessing line. An incineration system already on-hand was determined to be too costly to operate for the 100 to 400 gallons per year organic liquid. Organic test liquids were dispersed into an aqueous phosphate liquid using an emulsifier. A total of 109 gallons of potential and radioactive aqueous immiscible organic liquid wastes from Hanford 300 Area operations were solidified with portland cement and disposed of as solid waste during a 3-month test program with in-drum mixers. Waste packing efficiencies varied from 32 to 40% and included pump oils, mineral spirits, and TBP-NPH type solvents

  17. Uranium Immobilization in Wetland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Li, Dien; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Scheckel, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    stronger for the mesocosms with the higher Fe(II) load. Analysis via XANES showed that a fraction (up to ~1/3) of uranium was reduced to U(IV), for mesocosms operated under low iron loading, indicating that iron cycling in the rhizosphere also results in uranium reduction and immobilization. For mesocosms operating under the higher iron loading, the fraction of uranium immobilized as U(IV) was much lower, indicating that uranium co-precipitation with iron might have been the dominant immobilization process. In parallel to these mesocosm experiments, dialysis samplers have been deployed at the Savannah River National Laboratory near a creek with uranium contamination, to determine dissolved species, including Fe(II) and U(VI) in these wetland soils and their seasonal variability. The results show that there is a strong seasonal variability in dissolved iron and uranium, indicating a strong immobilization during the growing season, which is consistent with the mesocosm experimental results that the rhizosphere iron and uranium cycling are closely linked.

  18. Nanocrystalline diamond films for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Alcaide, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films, which comprise the so called nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), represent a class of biomaterials possessing outstanding mechanical, tribological, and electrical properties, which include high surface smoothness, high corrosion...... performance of nanocrystalline diamond films is reviewed from an application-specific perspective, covering topics such as enhancement of cellular adhesion, anti-fouling coatings, non-thrombogenic surfaces, micropatterning of cells and proteins, and immobilization of biomolecules for bioassays. In order...

  19. Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    cathode air cooled 30 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack developed at the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University. This fuel cell stack uses PEMEAS Celtec P-1000 membranes, runs on pure hydrogen in a dead end anode configuration with a purge valve. The cooling of the stack is managed by running......The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system consists of a prototype...... the stack at a high stoichiometric air flow. This is possible because of the PBI fuel cell membranes used, and the very low pressure drop in the stack. The model consists of a discrete thermal model dividing the stack into three parts: inlet, middle and end and predicting the temperatures in these three...

  20. Radioactive seed immobilization techniques for interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, K.; Podder, T.; Buzurovic, I.; Hu, Y.; Dicker, A.; Valicenti, R.; Yu, Y.; Messing, E.; Rubens, D.; Sarkar, N.; Ng, W.

    2008-01-01

    In prostate brachytherapy, seeds can detach from their deposited sites and move locally in the pelvis or migrate to distant sites including the pulmonary and cardiac regions. Undesirable consequences of seed migration include inadequate dose coverage of the prostate and tissue irradiation effects at the site of migration. Thus, it is clinically important to develop seed immobilization techniques. We first analyze the possible causes for seed movement, and propose three potential techniques for seed immobilization: (1) surgical glue, (2) laser coagulation and (3) diathermy coagulation. The feasibility of each method is explored. Experiments were carried out using fresh bovine livers to investigate the efficacy of seed immobilization using surgical glue. Results have shown that the surgical glue can effectively immobilize the seeds. Evaluation of the radiation dose distribution revealed that the non-immobilized seed movement would change the planned isodose distribution considerably; while by using surgical glue method to immobilize the seeds, the changes were negligible. Prostate brachytherapy seed immobilization is necessary and three alternative mechanisms are promising for addressing this issue. Experiments for exploring the efficacy of the other two proposed methods are ongoing. Devices compatible with the brachytherapy procedure will be designed in future. (orig.)

  1. Effect of hydrogen on passivation quality of SiNx/Si-rich SiNx stacked layers deposited by catalytic chemical vapor deposition on c-Si wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi, Trinh Cham; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of hydrogen content and fixed charges of catalytic chemical vapor deposited (Cat-CVD) SiN x /Si-rich SiN x stacked layers on the quality of crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation. Calculated density of fixed charges is on the order of 10 12 cm −2 , which is high enough for effective field effect passivation. Hydrogen content in the films is also found to contribute significantly to improvement in passivation quality of the stacked layers. Furthermore, Si-rich SiN x films deposited with H 2 dilution show better passivation quality of SiN x /Si-rich SiN x stacked layers than those prepared without H 2 dilution. Effective minority carrier lifetime (τ eff ) in c-Si passivated by SiN x /Si-rich SiN x stacked layers is as high as 5.1 ms when H 2 is added during Si-rich SiN x deposition, which is much higher than the case of using Si-rich SiN x films prepared without H 2 dilution showing τ eff of 3.3 ms. - Highlights: • Passivation mechanism of Si-rich SiN x /SiN x stacked layers is investigated. • H atoms play important role in passivation quality of the stacked layer. • Addition of H 2 gas during Si-rich SiN x film deposition greatly enhances effective minority carrier lifetime (τ eff ). • For a Si-rich SiN x film with refractive index of 2.92, τ eff improves from 3.3 to 5.1 ms by H 2 addition

  2. Surface cell immobilization within perfluoroalkoxy microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovič, Gorazd; Krivec, Matic [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vesel, Alenka [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Marinšek, Marjan [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Žnidaršič-Plazl, Polona, E-mail: polona.znidarsic@fkkt.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A very efficient approach for immobilization of cells into microreactors is presented. • It is applicable to various materials, including PFA and cyclic olefin (co)polymers. • It was used to immobilize different prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. • Cells were immobilized on the surface in high density and showed good stability. • Mechanisms of APTES interactions with target materials are proposed. - Abstract: Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) is one of the most promising materials for the fabrication of cheap, solvent resistant and reusable microfluidic chips, which have been recently recognized as effective tools for biocatalytic process development. The application of biocatalysts significantly depends on efficient immobilization of enzymes or cells within the reactor enabling long-term biocatalyst use. Functionalization of PFA microchannels by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ATPES) and glutaraldehyde was used for rapid preparation of microbioreactors with surface-immobilized cells. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to accurately monitor individual treatment steps and to select conditions for cell immobilization. The optimized protocol for Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilization on PFA microchannel walls comprised ethanol surface pretreatment, 4 h contacting with 10% APTES aqueous solution, 10 min treatment with 1% glutaraldehyde and 20 min contacting with cells in deionized water. The same protocol enabled also immobilization of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis cells on PFA surface in high densities. Furthermore, the developed procedure has been proved to be very efficient also for surface immobilization of tested cells on other materials that are used for microreactor fabrication, including glass, polystyrene, poly (methyl methacrylate), polycarbonate, and two olefin-based polymers, namely Zeonor{sup ®} and Topas{sup ®}.

  3. Thin film growing by the laser ablation technique: possibilities for growing of dosimetric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas R, E.M.; Melo M, M.; Enriquez Z, E.; Fernandez G, M.; Haro P, E.; Hernandez P, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    In this talk we will present the basics about the laser ablation technique and how it is used for thin film growing, either as a single film or a stack of thin films, as well as some methods to characterize in real time the film thickness. Finally, we will discuss the possibilities of using laser ablation for growing thin films with applications to dosimetry. (Author)

  4. Strategies for an enzyme immobilization on electrodes: Structural and electrochemical characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, V.; Muthurasu, A.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we propose various strategies for an enzyme immobilization on electrodes (both metal and semiconductor electrodes). In general, the proposed methodology involves two critical steps viz., (1) chemical modification of substrates using functional monolayers [Langmuir - Blodgett (LB) films and/or self-assembled monolayers (SAMs)] and (2) anchoring of a target enzyme using specific chemical and physical interactions by attacking the terminal functionality of the modified films. Basically there are three ways to immobilize an enzyme on chemically modified electrodes. First method consists of an electrostatic interaction between the enzyme and terminal functional groups present within the chemically modified films. Second and third methods involve the introduction of nanomaterials followed by an enzyme immobilization using both the physical and chemical adsorption processes. As a proof of principle, in this work we demonstrate the sensing and catalytic activity of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) anchored onto SAM modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Structural characterization of such modified electrodes is performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. The binding events and the enzymatic reactions are monitored using electrochemical techniques mainly cyclic voltammetry (CV).

  5. Scleroglucan-borax hydrogel: a flexible tool for redox protein immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasconi, Marco; Rea, Sara; Matricardi, Pietro; Favero, Gabriele; Mazzei, Franco

    2009-09-15

    A highly stable biological film was prepared by casting an aqueous dispersion of protein and composite hydrogel obtained from the polysaccharide Scleroglucan (Sclg) and borax as a cross-linking agent. Heme proteins, such as hemoglobin (Hb), myoglobin (Mb), and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), were chosen as model proteins to investigate the immobilized system. A pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks, characteristics of the protein heme FeII/FeIII redox couples, were obtained at the Sclg-borax/proteins films on pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrodes, as a consequence of the direct electron transfer between the protein and the PG electrode. A full characterization of the electron transfer kinetic was performed by opportunely modeling data obtained from cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry experiments. The efficiency of our cross-linking approach was investigated by studying the influence of different borax groups percentage in the Sclg matrix, revealing the versatility of this hydrogel in the immobilization of redox proteins. The native conformation of the three heme proteins entrapped in the hydrogel films were proved to be unchanged, reflected by the unaltered Soret adsorption band and by the catalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The main kinetic parameters, such as the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, for the electrocatalytic reaction were also evaluated. The peculiar characteristics of Sclg-borax matrix make it possible to find wide opportunities as proteins immobilizing agent for studies of direct electrochemistry and biosensors development.

  6. Electronic States of High-k Oxides in Gate Stack Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chiyu

    In this dissertation, in-situ X-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy have been employed to study the interface chemistry and electronic structure of potential high-k gate stack materials. In these gate stack materials, HfO2 and La2O3 are selected as high-k dielectrics, VO2 and ZnO serve as potential channel layer materials. The gate stack structures have been prepared using a reactive electron beam system and a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition system. Three interrelated issues represent the central themes of the research: 1) the interface band alignment, 2) candidate high-k materials, and 3) band bending, internal electric fields, and charge transfer. 1) The most highlighted issue is the band alignment of specific high-k structures. Band alignment relationships were deduced by analysis of XPS and UPS spectra for three different structures: a) HfO2/VO2/SiO2/Si, b) HfO 2-La2O3/ZnO/SiO2/Si, and c) HfO 2/VO2/ HfO2/SiO2/Si. The valence band offset of HfO2/VO2, ZnO/SiO2 and HfO 2/SiO2 are determined to be 3.4 +/- 0.1, 1.5 +/- 0.1, and 0.7 +/- 0.1 eV. The valence band offset between HfO2-La2O3 and ZnO was almost negligible. Two band alignment models, the electron affinity model and the charge neutrality level model, are discussed. The results show the charge neutrality model is preferred to describe these structures. 2) High-k candidate materials were studied through comparison of pure Hf oxide, pure La oxide, and alloyed Hf-La oxide films. An issue with the application of pure HfO2 is crystallization which may increase the leakage current in gate stack structures. An issue with the application of pure La2O3 is the presence of carbon contamination in the film. Our study shows that the alloyed Hf-La oxide films exhibit an amorphous structure along with reduced carbon contamination. 3) Band bending and internal electric fields in the gate stack structure were observed by XPS and UPS and indicate the charge transfer during the growth and process. The oxygen

  7. Influence of gamma irradiation on polymerization of pyrrole and glucose oxidase immobilization onto poly (pyrrole)/poly (vinyl alcohol) matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Sarada; A. Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif; Thevy Ratnam, Chantara; Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the immobilization of glucose oxidase, GOx onto polymer matrix comprising of poly(pyrrole), PPy and poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA using gamma irradiation technique. Py/PVA-GOx film was prepared by spreading PVA:GOx, 1:1 solution onto dried pyrrole film and exposed to gamma irradiation from cobalt 60 source at doses ranging from 0 to 60 kGy. The films were subjected to structural and morphological analyses by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Similar studies were also made on pristine pyrrole film which served as control. The SEM and FTIR spectra of Py/PVA-GOx film revealed that pyrrole has been successfully polymerized through irradiation-induced reactions. The results on the morphological properties of the samples characterize using FESEM, SEM and AFM further confirmed the occurrence of radiation-induced modification of Py/PVA-GOx film. The FTIR spectra showed the existence of intermolecular interaction between polymer matrix and GOx indicating that GOx had been successfully immobilized onto Ppy/PVA matrix by radiation-induced reactions. Results revealed that radiation induced reactions such as polymerization of pyrrole, crosslinking of PVA, grafting between the adjacent PVA and pyrrole molecules as well as immobilization of GOx onto Ppy/PVA matrix occurred simultaneously upon gamma irradiation. The optimum dose for GOx immobilization in the polymer matrix found to be 40 kGy. Therefore it is clear that this irradiation technique offered a simple single process to produce Py/PVA-GOx film without additional crosslinking and polymerization agents.

  8. Immobilization of cellulase using porous polymer matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1984-01-01

    A new method is discussed for the immobilization of cellulase using porous polymer matrices, which were obtained by radiation polymerization of hydrophilic monomers. In this method, the immobilized enzyme matrix was prepared by enzyme absorbtion in the porous polymer matrix and drying treatment. The enzyme activity of the immobilized enzyme matrix varied with monomer concentration, cooling rate of the monomer solution, and hydrophilicity of the polymer matrix, takinn the change of the nature of the porous structure in the polymer matrix. The leakage of the enzymes from the polymer matrix was not observed in the repeated batch enzyme reactions

  9. Immobilization of Peroxidase onto Magnetite Modified Polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernandes Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP on magnetite-modified polyaniline (PANImG activated with glutaraldehyde. After the optimization of the methodology, the immobilization of HRP on PANImG produced the same yield (25% obtained for PANIG with an efficiency of 100% (active protein. The optimum pH for immobilization was displaced by the effect of the partition of protons produced in the microenvironment by the magnetite. The tests of repeated use have shown that PANImG-HRP can be used for 13 cycles with maintenance of 50% of the initial activity.

  10. Film Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

  11. Immobilization of Colloidal Monolayers at Fluid–Fluid Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Bähler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monolayers of colloidal particles trapped at an interface between two immiscible fluids play a pivotal role in many applications and act as essential models in fundamental studies. One of the main advantages of these systems is that non-close packed monolayers with tunable inter-particle spacing can be formed, as required, for instance, in surface patterning and sensing applications. At the same time, the immobilization of particles locked into desired structures to be transferred to solid substrates remains challenging. Here, we describe three different strategies to immobilize monolayers of polystyrene microparticles at water–decane interfaces. The first route is based on the leaking of polystyrene oligomers from the particles themselves, which leads to the formation of a rigid interfacial film. The other two rely on in situ interfacial polymerization routes that embed the particles into a polymer membrane. By tracking the motion of the colloids at the interface, we can follow in real-time the formation of the polymer membranes and we interestingly find that the onset of the polymerization reaction is accompanied by an increase in particle mobility determined by Marangoni flows at the interface. These results pave the way for future developments in the realization of thin tailored composite polymer-particle membranes.

  12. NSF tandem stack support structure deflection characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-12-01

    Results are reported of load tests carried out on the glass legs of the insulating stack of the 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator now under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The tests to investigate the vulnerability of the legs when subjected to tensile stresses were designed to; establish the angle of rotation of the pads from which the stresses in the glass legs may be calculated, proof-test the structure and at the same time reveal any asymmetry in pad rotations or deflections, and to confirm the validity of the computer design analysis. (UK)

  13. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yeong -Shyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Pyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephens, Elizabeth V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  14. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  15. Displacive phase transformations and generalized stacking faults

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paidar, Václav; Ostapovets, Andriy; Duparc, O. H.; Khalfallah, O.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 490-492 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials, ISPMA /12./. Praha, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ab-initio calculations * close-packed structures * generalized stacking faults * homogeneous deformation * lattice deformation * many-body potentials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  16. Preparation and characterization of immobilized lipase on magnetic hydrophobic microspheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zheng; Bai, Shu; Sun, Yan

    2003-01-01

    H for the immobilized CCL were determined. Activity amelioration of the immobilized CCL for the hydrolysis of olive oil was observed, indicating an interfacial activation of the enzyme after immobilization. Moreover, the immobilized CCL showed enhanced thermal stability and good durability in the repeated use after...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of immobilized lactoferrin and lactoferricin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renxun; Cole, Nerida; Dutta, Debarun; Kumar, Naresh; Willcox, Mark D P

    2017-11-01

    Lactoferrin and lactoferricin were immobilized on glass surfaces via two linkers, 4-azidobenzoic acid (ABA) or 4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl azide (FNA). The resulting surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. The antimicrobial activity of the surfaces was determined using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains by fluorescence microscopy. Lactoferrin and lactoferricin immobilization was confirmed by XPS showing significant increases (p lactoferricin immobilized on glass significantly (p lactoferricin were successfully immobilized on glass surfaces and showed promising antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2612-2617, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the immobilization process for graphite fines has proceeded through a series of experimental programs. The experimental procedures and results from each series of experiments are discussed in this report

  19. Immobilization and characterization of inulinase from Ulocladium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... The enzyme had optimum pH at 5.6 for free and immobilized U. atrum inulinase on polyester ... ceutical industry because of their beneficial effects in ..... Hanover LWJ 1993 Manufacturing, composing and applications of.

  20. Plutonium Immobilization Bagless Transfer Can Size Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Stokes, M.; Rogers, L.; Ward, C.

    1998-02-01

    This report identifies and documents the most appropriate bagless transfer can size to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations. Also, this report considers can diameter, can wall thickness, and can length

  1. Modeling intrinsic kinetics in immobilized photocatalytic microreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visan, Aura; Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a simple model for immobilized photocatalytic microreactors following a first order reaction rate with either light independency or light dependency described by photon absorption carrier generation semiconductor physics. Experimental data obtained for various residence times,

  2. A simplified technique for nasoendotracheal tube immobilization.

    OpenAIRE

    Berardo, N.; Leban, S. G.; Williams, F. A.

    1989-01-01

    A simplified technique for immobilization of a nasoendotracheal tube is described in which a wide strap of open cell, hypoallergenic, foam-backed fabric is secured to the patient's head with a Velcro fastener.

  3. Immobilization technology for krypton in amorphous zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takusagawa, Atsushi; Ishiyama, Keiichi

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive krypton recovered from the offgas of a reprocessing plant requires long-term storage on the order of 100 years. Immobilization technology for krypton into amorphous zeolite 5A is considered one of the best methods for long-term storage. In this report, conditions for immobilization treatment and stability of amorphous zeolite 5A loaded krypton against heat, radiation and water are discussed, and a treatment system using this technology is described. (author)

  4. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoria Mitropoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed.

  5. Silver Films with Hierarchical Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liguo; Cao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Yingying; Han, Lu; Che, Shunai

    2017-07-17

    Physical fabrication of chiral metallic films usually results in singular or large-sized chirality, restricting the optical asymmetric responses to long electromagnetic wavelengths. The chiral molecule-induced formation of silver films prepared chemically on a copper substrate through a redox reaction is presented. Three levels of chirality were identified: primary twisted nanoflakes with atomic crystal lattices, secondary helical stacking of these nanoflakes to form nanoplates, and tertiary micrometer-sized circinates consisting of chiral arranged nanoplates. The chiral Ag films exhibited multiple plasmonic absorption- and scattering-based optical activities at UV/Vis wavelengths based on their hierarchical chirality. The Ag films showed chiral selectivity for amino acids in catalytic electrochemical reactions, which originated from their primary atomic crystal lattices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Computerized plutonium laboratory-stack monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, R.G.; DeVore, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has recently designed and constructed a Plutonium Research and Development Facility to meet design criteria imposed by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. A primary objective of the design criteria is to assure environmental protection and to reliably monitor plutonium effluent via the ventilation exhaust systems. A state-of-the-art facility exhaust air monitoring system is described which establishes near ideal conditions for evaluating plutonium activity in the stack effluent. Total and static pressure sensing manifolds are incorporated to measure average velocity and integrated total discharge air volume. These data are logged at a computer which receives instrument data through a multiplex scanning system. A multipoint isokinetic sampling assembly with associated instrumentation is described. Continuous air monitors have been designed to sample from the isokinetic sampling assembly and transmit both instantaneous and integrated stack effluent concentration data to the computer and various cathode ray tube displays. The continuous air monitors also serve as room air monitors in the plutonium facility with the primary objective of timely evacuation of personnel if an above tolerance airborne plutonium concentration is detected. Several continuous air monitors are incorporated in the ventilation system to assist in identification of release problem areas

  7. Control of heteroepitaxial stacking by substrate miscut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonham, S.W.; Flynn, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    We report studies of fcc epitaxial crystals, grown on Nb(110), in which the Nb surface offers a template for selection between the two alternative stackings, ABCA hor-ellipsis and ACBA hor-ellipsis of the fcc close-packed planes. The Nb templates were grown epitaxially about 500 Angstrom thick on sapphire (11 bar 20), and the fcc material studied was Cu 3 Au. From symmetry it is not possible for the perfect bcc (110) surface to cause any such selection, which is here attributed instead to vicinal miscut: the logarithm of the stacking ratio must be even in miscut along [001] and odd in miscut along [1 bar 10]. We find that the measured selectivity is small for miscuts less than about 0.5 degree, but approaches a factor 10 3 for miscuts along [1 bar 10] greater than about 1 degree. A mechanism for the selection process is discussed in terms of fingered mesostructures that grow on Nb(110) in this regime, as observed first by Zhou, Bonham, and Flynn. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  8. Generalized stacking fault energies of alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lu, Song; Hu, Qing-Miao; Kwon, Se Kyun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2014-07-02

    The generalized stacking fault energy (γ surface) provides fundamental physics for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms. Using the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation, we calculate the γ surface for the disordered Cu-Al, Cu-Zn, Cu-Ga, Cu-Ni, Pd-Ag and Pd-Au alloys. Studying the effect of segregation of the solute to the stacking fault planes shows that only the local chemical composition affects the γ surface. The calculated alloying trends are discussed using the electronic band structure of the base and distorted alloys.Based on our γ surface results, we demonstrate that the previous revealed 'universal scaling law' between the intrinsic energy barriers (IEBs) is well obeyed in random solid solutions. This greatly simplifies the calculations of the twinning measure parameters or the critical twinning stress. Adopting two twinnability measure parameters derived from the IEBs, we find that in binary Cu alloys, Al, Zn and Ga increase the twinnability, while Ni decreases it. Aluminum and gallium yield similar effects on the twinnability.

  9. Recent Advances in Solid Catalysts Obtained by Metalloporphyrins Immobilization on Layered Anionic Exchangers: A Short Review and Some New Catalytic Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Nakagaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Layered materials are a very interesting class of compounds obtained by stacking of two-dimensional layers along the basal axis. A remarkable property of these materials is their capacity to interact with a variety of chemical species, irrespective of their charge (neutral, cationic or anionic. These species can be grafted onto the surface of the layered materials or intercalated between the layers, to expand or contract the interlayer distance. Metalloporphyrins, which are typically soluble oxidation catalysts, are examples of molecules that can interact with layered materials. This work presents a short review of the studies involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on two different anionic exchangers, Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs and Layered Hydroxide Salts (LHSs, published over the past year. After immobilization of anionic porphyrins, the resulting solids behave as reusable catalysts for heterogeneous oxidation processes. Although a large number of publications involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on LDHs exist, only a few papers have dealt with LHSs as supports, so metalloporphyrins immobilized on LHSs represent a new and promising research field. This work also describes new results on an anionic manganese porphyrin (MnP immobilized on Mg/Al-LDH solids with different nominal Mg/Al molar ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 and intercalated with different anions (CO32− or NO3−. The influence of the support composition on the MnP immobilization rates and the catalytic performance of the resulting solid in cyclooctene oxidation reactions will be reported.

  10. Recent Advances in Solid Catalysts Obtained by Metalloporphyrins Immobilization on Layered Anionic Exchangers: A Short Review and Some New Catalytic Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Shirley; Mantovani, Karen Mary; Machado, Guilherme Sippel; Castro, Kelly Aparecida Dias de Freitas; Wypych, Fernando

    2016-02-29

    Layered materials are a very interesting class of compounds obtained by stacking of two-dimensional layers along the basal axis. A remarkable property of these materials is their capacity to interact with a variety of chemical species, irrespective of their charge (neutral, cationic or anionic). These species can be grafted onto the surface of the layered materials or intercalated between the layers, to expand or contract the interlayer distance. Metalloporphyrins, which are typically soluble oxidation catalysts, are examples of molecules that can interact with layered materials. This work presents a short review of the studies involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on two different anionic exchangers, Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs) and Layered Hydroxide Salts (LHSs), published over the past year. After immobilization of anionic porphyrins, the resulting solids behave as reusable catalysts for heterogeneous oxidation processes. Although a large number of publications involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on LDHs exist, only a few papers have dealt with LHSs as supports, so metalloporphyrins immobilized on LHSs represent a new and promising research field. This work also describes new results on an anionic manganese porphyrin (MnP) immobilized on Mg/Al-LDH solids with different nominal Mg/Al molar ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1) and intercalated with different anions (CO₃(2-) or NO₃(-)). The influence of the support composition on the MnP immobilization rates and the catalytic performance of the resulting solid in cyclooctene oxidation reactions will be reported.

  11. Plasma-Assisted ALD TiN/Al2O3 stacks for MIMIM Trench Capacitor Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeland, D.; Jinesh, K.B.; Voogt, F.C.; Besling, W.F.A.; Lamy, Y.; Roozeboom, F.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Gendt, de S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the overall plasma-assisted ALD processes of Al2O3 and TiN conducted in a single reactor chamber and at a single temperature (340 oC). The individual Al2O3 and TiN films in the stack were consecutively deposited in such a way that they were separated by purge intervals

  12. Ceramification: A plutonium immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, W.C. [Dept. of Energy, Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, A.G. [Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a low temperature technique for stabilizing and immobilizing actinide compounds using a combination process/storage vessel of stainless steel, in which measured amounts of actinide nitrate solutions and actinide oxides (and/or residues) are systematically treated to yield a solid article. The chemical ceramic process is based on a coating technology that produces rare earth oxide coatings for defense applications involving plutonium. The final product of this application is a solid, coherent actinide oxide with process-generated encapsulation that has long-term environmental stability. Actinide compounds can be stabilized as pure materials for ease of re-use or as intimate mixtures with additives such as rare earth oxides to increase their degree of proliferation resistance. Starting materials for the process can include nitrate solutions, powders, aggregates, sludges, incinerator ashes, and others. Agents such as cerium oxide or zirconium oxide may be added as powders or precursors to enhance the properties of the resulting solid product. Additives may be included to produce a final product suitable for use in nuclear fuel pellet production. The process is simple and reduces the time and expense for stabilizing plutonium compounds. It requires a very low equipment expenditure and can be readily implemented into existing gloveboxes. The process is easily conducted with less associated risk than proposed alternative technologies.

  13. Biotechnological production of vanillin using immobilized enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Toshiki; Kuroiwa, Mari; Kino, Kuniki

    2017-02-10

    Vanillin is an important and popular plant flavor, but the amount of this compound available from plant sources is very limited. Biotechnological methods have high potential for vanillin production as an alternative to extraction from plant sources. Here, we report a new approach using immobilized enzymes for the production of vanillin. The recently discovered oxygenase Cso2 has coenzyme-independent catalytic activity for the conversion of isoeugenol and 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin. Immobilization of Cso2 on Sepabeads EC-EA anion-exchange carrier conferred enhanced operational stability enabling repetitive use. This immobilized Cso2 catalyst allowed 6.8mg yield of vanillin from isoeugenol through ten reaction cycles at a 1mL scale. The coenzyme-independent decarboxylase Fdc, which has catalytic activity for the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, was also immobilized on Sepabeads EC-EA. We demonstrated that the immobilized Fdc and Cso2 enabled the cascade synthesis of vanillin from ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol with repetitive use of the catalysts. This study is the first example of biotechnological production of vanillin using immobilized enzymes, a process that provides new possibilities for vanillin production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation technology for immobilization of bioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    Within the framework of the Agency's coordinated research programme on ''Application of Radiation Technology in Immobilization of Bioactive Materials'', the third and final research coordination meeting was held at Beijing University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 15-18 June 1987. The present publication compiles all presentations made at the meeting. Fundamental processes for the immobilization of enzymes, antibodies, cells and drugs were developed and established using gamma radiation, electron beams and plasma discharge. Applications of various biofunctional components, immobilized by radiation techniques in different processes, were studied. A range of backbone polymers has been examined together with various monomers. Coupling procedures have been developed which are relevant to our particular requirements. Enzymes of various types and characteristics have been immobilized with considerable efficiency. The immobilized biocatalysts have been shown to possess significant activity and retention of activity on storage. There appears to be a high degree of specificity associated with the properties of the immobilised biocatalysts, their activity and the ease of their preparation. Novel additives which lower the total radiation dose in grafting have been discovered and their value in immobilization processes assessed. Potential applications include: medical (diagnostic, therapeutic), and industrial processes (fermentation, bioseparation, etc.). Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Development of immobilization devices for patients with pelvic malignancies and a feasibility evaluation during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Min; Park, Yang Kyun; Cho, Woong; Park, Charn Il; Ha, Sung Whan

    2007-01-01

    Immobilization devices that improve the setup reproducibility of pelvic cancer patients and that provide comfort to patients during radiotherapy were designed and the feasibility of the devices was evaluated. A customized device was designed to immobilize a knee, thigh, and foot of a patient. Sixty-one patients with prostate cancer were selected and were divided into two groups-with or without devices. The setup errors were measured with respect to bony landmarks. The difference between digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) and simulation films, and the differences between DRR and portal films were measured. The left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP) and craniocaudal (CC) errors between the DRR and simulation films were 1.5 ± 0.9 mm, 3.0 ± 3.6 mm, and 1.6 ± 0.9 mm, respectively without devices. The errors were reduced to 1.3 ± 1.9 mm, 1.8 ± 1.5 mm and 1.1 ± 1.1 mm, respectively with the devices. The errors between DRR and portal films were 1.6 ± 1.2 mm, 4.0 ± 4.1 mm, and 4.2 ± 5.5 mm, respectively without the devices and were reduced to 1.0 ± 1.8 mm, 1.2 ± 0.9 mm, and 1.2 ± 0.8 mm, respectively, with the devices. The standard deviations among the portal films were 1.1 mm, 2.1 mm, and 1.0 mm at each axis without the devices and 0.9 mm, 1.6 mm and 0.8 mm with the devices. The percentage of setup errors larger than 3 mm and 5 mm were significantly reduced by use of the immobilization devices. The designed devices improved the setup reproducibility for all three directions and significantly reduced critical setup errors

  16. Description of gasket failure in a 7 cell PEMFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husar, Attila; Serra, Maria [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Parc Tecnologic de Barcelona, Edifici U, C. Llorens i Artigas, 4-6, 2a Planta, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kunusch, Cristian [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial Control e Instrumentacion, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNLP (Argentina)

    2007-06-10

    This article presents the data and the description of a fuel cell stack that failed due to gasket degradation. The fuel cell under study is a 7 cell stack. The unexpected change in several variables such as temperature, pressure and voltage indicated the possible failure of the stack. The stack was monitored over a 6 h period in which data was collected and consequently analyzed to conclude that the fuel cell stack failed due to a crossover leak on the anode inlet port located on the cathode side gasket of cell 2. This stack failure analysis revealed a series of indicators that could be used by a super visional controller in order to initiate a shutdown procedure. (author)

  17. Simple Stacking Methods for Silicon Micro Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmario Scotti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present two simple methods, with parallel and serial gas flows, for the stacking of microfabricated silicon fuel cells with integrated current collectors, flow fields and gas diffusion layers. The gas diffusion layer is implemented using black silicon. In the two stacking methods proposed in this work, the fluidic apertures and gas flow topology are rotationally symmetric and enable us to stack fuel cells without an increase in the number of electrical or fluidic ports or interconnects. Thanks to this simplicity and the structural compactness of each cell, the obtained stacks are very thin (~1.6 mm for a two-cell stack. We have fabricated two-cell stacks with two different gas flow topologies and obtained an open-circuit voltage (OCV of 1.6 V and a power density of 63 mW·cm−2, proving the viability of the design.

  18. Development of the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kotani, Ikuo [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Kobe (Japan); Morotomi, Isamu [Kansai Electric Power Co., Hyogo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Kansai Electric Power Co. and Mitsubishi Electric Co. have been developing the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack operated under the ambient pressure. The new cell design have been developed, so that the large scale cell (1 m{sup 2} size) was adopted for the stack. To confirm the performance and the stability of the 1 m{sup 2} scale cell design, the short stack study had been performed.

  19. Stacked Heterogeneous Neural Networks for Time Series Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Leon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid model for time series forecasting is proposed. It is a stacked neural network, containing one normal multilayer perceptron with bipolar sigmoid activation functions, and the other with an exponential activation function in the output layer. As shown by the case studies, the proposed stacked hybrid neural model performs well on a variety of benchmark time series. The combination of weights of the two stack components that leads to optimal performance is also studied.

  20. Enhancement of antibacterial properties of polyurethanes by chitosan and heparin immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, Filiz; Aksoy, E. Ayse; Yuksekdag, Zehranur; Aksoy, Serpil; Hasirci, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polyurethane elastomer was synthesized in medical purity. • Chitosan (CH) and heparin (Hep) were immobilized on polyurethane films. • Modification with CH and Hep increased hydrophilicity and surface free energy. • Immobilized films had high antibacterial activity against four bacteria. • Bacterial adhesion significantly decreased on the modified surfaces. - Abstract: Being antibacterial is a required property for the materials used in medical devices and instruments. Polyurethanes (PUs) are one class of polymers widely used in the production of devices that especially come in contact with blood (e.g. heart valves, blood vessels, vascular grafts and catheters). In this study, hexamethylene diisocyanate based polyurethanes (PUh) were synthesized and antibacterial and anti-adhesive properties were added by immobilizing chitosan (CH) and heparin (Hep) on the samples of PUh via a stepwise process. Chemistry and topography of the modified film samples (PUh-CH and PUh-CH-Hep) were examined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry-Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR), Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and surface free energy (SFE) values after each step were determined by goniometer. PUh-CH and PUh-CH-Hep samples were found to be antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) (both Gram positive) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (both Gram negative) bacteria, and bacterial adhesion results showed a significant decrease in the number of viable bacteria on both modified samples where PUh-CH-Hep was the most effective. The findings of this study show that polymeric surfaces can be effectively modified and converted to be antibacterial by chitosan and heparin immobilization, and presence of both chemicals enhance efficacy against bacteria.

  1. Enhancement of antibacterial properties of polyurethanes by chitosan and heparin immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara, Filiz [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Aksoy, E. Ayse [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Yuksekdag, Zehranur [Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Aksoy, Serpil [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Hasirci, Nesrin, E-mail: nhasirci@metu.edu.tr [BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polyurethane elastomer was synthesized in medical purity. • Chitosan (CH) and heparin (Hep) were immobilized on polyurethane films. • Modification with CH and Hep increased hydrophilicity and surface free energy. • Immobilized films had high antibacterial activity against four bacteria. • Bacterial adhesion significantly decreased on the modified surfaces. - Abstract: Being antibacterial is a required property for the materials used in medical devices and instruments. Polyurethanes (PUs) are one class of polymers widely used in the production of devices that especially come in contact with blood (e.g. heart valves, blood vessels, vascular grafts and catheters). In this study, hexamethylene diisocyanate based polyurethanes (PUh) were synthesized and antibacterial and anti-adhesive properties were added by immobilizing chitosan (CH) and heparin (Hep) on the samples of PUh via a stepwise process. Chemistry and topography of the modified film samples (PUh-CH and PUh-CH-Hep) were examined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry-Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR), Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and surface free energy (SFE) values after each step were determined by goniometer. PUh-CH and PUh-CH-Hep samples were found to be antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) (both Gram positive) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (both Gram negative) bacteria, and bacterial adhesion results showed a significant decrease in the number of viable bacteria on both modified samples where PUh-CH-Hep was the most effective. The findings of this study show that polymeric surfaces can be effectively modified and converted to be antibacterial by chitosan and heparin immobilization, and presence of both chemicals enhance efficacy against bacteria.

  2. Turbostratic stacked CVD graphene for high-performance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kohei; Ikuta, Takashi; Maehashi, Kenzo

    2018-03-01

    We have fabricated turbostratic stacked graphene with high-transport properties by the repeated transfer of CVD monolayer graphene. The turbostratic stacked CVD graphene exhibited higher carrier mobility and conductivity than CVD monolayer graphene. The electron mobility for the three-layer turbostratic stacked CVD graphene surpassed 10,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, which is five times greater than that for CVD monolayer graphene. The results indicate that the high performance is derived from maintenance of the linear band dispersion, suppression of the carrier scattering, and parallel conduction. Therefore, turbostratic stacked CVD graphene is a superior material for high-performance devices.

  3. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for sampling stack gases emanating from the purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion cascade system utilized to enrich uranium for determining the presence and extent of uranium in the stack gases in the form of gaseous uranium hexafluoride, is described comprising the steps of removing a side stream of gases from the stack gases, contacting the side stream of the stack gases with a stream of air sufficiently saturated with moisture for reacting with and converting any gaseous uranium hexafluroide contracted thereby in the side stream of stack gases to particulate uranyl fluoride. Thereafter contacting the side stream of stack gases containing the particulate uranyl fluoride with moving filter means for continuously intercepting and conveying the intercepted particulate uranyl fluoride away from the side stream of stack gases, and continually scanning the moving filter means with radiation monitoring means for sensing the presence and extent of particulate uranyl fluoride on the moving filter means which is indicative of the extent of particulate uranyl fluoride in the side stream of stack gases which in turn is indicative of the presence and extent of uranium hexafluoride in the stack gases

  4. Highly Efficient, Durable Regenerative Solid Oxide Stack, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a highly efficient regenerative solid oxide stack design. Novel structural elements allow direct internal...

  5. Porous Structures in Stacked, Crumpled and Pillared Graphene-Based 3D Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Creighton, Megan; Chen, Yantao; Hurt, Robert; Külaots, Indrek

    2014-01-01

    Graphene, an atomically thin material with the theoretical surface area of 2600 m 2 g -1 , has great potential in the fields of catalysis, separation, and gas storage if properly assembled into functional 3D materials at large scale. In ideal non-interacting ensembles of non-porous multilayer graphene plates, the surface area can be adequately estimated using the simple geometric law ~ 2600 m 2 g -1 /N, where N is the number of graphene sheets per plate. Some processing operations, however, lead to secondary plate-plate stacking, folding, crumpling or pillaring, which give rise to more complex structures. Here we show that bulk samples of multilayer graphene plates stack in an irregular fashion that preserves the 2600/N surface area and creates regular slot-like pores with sizes that are multiples of the unit plate thickness. In contrast, graphene oxide deposits into films with massive area loss (2600 to 40 m 2 g -1 ) due to nearly perfect alignment and stacking during the drying process. Pillaring graphene oxide sheets by co-deposition of colloidal-phase particle-based spacers has the potential to partially restore the large monolayer surface. Surface areas as high as 1000 m 2 g -1 are demonstrated here through colloidal-phase deposition of graphene oxide with water-dispersible aryl-sulfonated ultrafine carbon black as a pillaring agent.

  6. Reversible thermal denaturation of immobilized rhodanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, P.; Bowman, S.

    1987-01-01

    For the first time, the enzyme rhodanese had been refolded after thermal denaturation. This was previously not possible because of the strong tendency for the soluble enzyme to aggregate at temperatures above 37 degrees C. The present work used rhodanese that was covalently coupled to a solid support under conditions that were found to preserve enzyme activity. Rhodanese was immobilized using an N-hydroxymalonimidyl derivative of Sepharose containing a 6-carbon spacer. The number of immobilized competent active sites was measured by using [ 35 S]SO 3 (2-) to form an active site persulfide that is the obligatory catalytic intermediate. Soluble enzyme was irreversibly inactivated in 10 min at 52 degrees C. The immobilized enzyme regained at least 30% of its original activity even after boiling for 20 min. The immobilized enzyme had a Km and Vmax that were each approximately 3 times higher than the corresponding values for the native enzyme. After preincubation at high temperatures, progress curves for the immobilized enzyme showed induction periods of up to 5 min before attaining apparently linear steady states. The pH dependence of the activity was the same for both the soluble and the immobilized enzyme. These results indicate significant stabilization of rhodanese after immobilization, and instabilities caused by adventitious solution components are not the sole reasons for irreversibility of thermal denaturation seen with the soluble enzyme. The results are consistent with models for rhodanese that invoke protein association as a major cause of inactivation of the enzyme. Furthermore, the induction period in the progress curves is consistent with studies which show that rhodanese refolding proceeds through intermediate states

  7. Durable solid oxide electrolysis cells and stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Chen

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of this project was to make a substantial contribution to development of a cost competitive electrolysis technology based on solid oxide cells. The strategy was to address what had been identified as the key issues in previous research projects. Accordingly five lines of work were carried out in the here reported project: 1) Cell and stack element testing and post test characterization to identify major degradation mechanisms under electrolysis operation. 2) Development of interconnects and coatings to allow stable electrolysis operation at approx850 deg. C or above. 3) Development of seals with reduced Si emission. 4) Development of durable SOEC cathodes. 5) Modeling. Good progress has been made on several of the planned activities. The outcome and most important achievements of the current project are listed for the five lines of the work. (LN)

  8. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00529764; The ATLAS collaboration; Stewart, Graeme; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  9. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Stewart, Graeme A.; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  10. Stacked generalization: an introduction to super learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Balzer, Laura B

    2018-04-10

    Stacked generalization is an ensemble method that allows researchers to combine several different prediction algorithms into one. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, the method has evolved several times into a host of methods among which is the "Super Learner". Super Learner uses V-fold cross-validation to build the optimal weighted combination of predictions from a library of candidate algorithms. Optimality is defined by a user-specified objective function, such as minimizing mean squared error or maximizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Although relatively simple in nature, use of Super Learner by epidemiologists has been hampered by limitations in understanding conceptual and technical details. We work step-by-step through two examples to illustrate concepts and address common concerns.

  11. Manifold seal structure for fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William P.

    1988-01-01

    The seal between the sides of a fuel cell stack and the gas manifolds is improved by adding a mechanical interlock between the adhesive sealing strip and the abutting surface of the manifolds. The adhesive is a material which can flow to some extent when under compression, and the mechanical interlock is formed providing small openings in the portion of the manifold which abuts the adhesive strip. When the manifolds are pressed against the adhesive strips, the latter will flow into and through the manifold openings to form buttons or ribs which mechanically interlock with the manifolds. These buttons or ribs increase the bond between the manifolds and adhesive, which previously relied solely on the adhesive nature of the adhesive.

  12. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2015-01-01

    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  13. Characteristics of Immobilized Urease on Grafted Alginate Bead Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas N. Danial

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the biological importance of immobilized urease enzyme over the free urease. The support material used for urease immobilization was alginate. Generally, the immobilization of urease in alginate gel showed a marked increase in Km and Vmax. However, the immobilized urease showed higher thermal stability than that of free enzyme. The rate of thermal inactivation of the immobilized enzyme decreased due to entrapment in gel matrix. Also, the activity of the immobilized urease was more stable in retention than that of the free enzyme during the storage in solution, although the activity of the immobilized enzyme was lower in comparison with the free enzyme. A stable immobilized system and long storage life are convenient for applications that would not be feasible with a soluble enzyme system. These results highlighted the technical and biochemical benefits of immobilized urease over the free enzyme.

  14. Analysis of the surface density and reactivity of perfluorophenylazide and the impact on ligand immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorn, Gilad, E-mail: zorn@ge.com; Castner, David G. [National ESCA and Surface Analysis Center for Biomedical Problems, Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Box 351653, Seattle, Washington 98195-1653 (United States); Tyagi, Anuradha; Wang, Xin; Wang, Hui; Yan, Mingdi, E-mail: Mingdi-Yan@uml.edu [Department of Chemistry, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon 97207-0751 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Perfluorophenylazide (PFPA) chemistry is a novel method for tailoring the surface properties of solid surfaces and nanoparticles. It is general and versatile, and has proven to be an efficient way to immobilize graphene, proteins, carbohydrates, and synthetic polymers. The main thrust of this work is to provide a detailed investigation on the chemical composition and surface density of the PFPA tailored surface. Specifically, gold surfaces were treated with PFPA-derivatized (11-mercaptoundecyl)tetra(ethylene glycol) (PFPA-MUTEG) mixed with 2-[2-(2-mercaptoethoxy)ethoxy]ethanol (MDEG) at varying solution mole ratios. Complementary analytical techniques were employed to characterize the resulting films including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to detect fingerprints of the PFPA group, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ellipsometry to study the homogeneity and uniformity of the films, and near edge x-ray absorption fine structures to study the electronic and chemical structure of the PFPA groups. Results from these studies show that the films prepared from 90:10 and 80:20 PFPA-MUTEG/MDEG mixed solutions exhibited the highest surface density of PFPA and the most homogeneous coverage on the surface. A functional assay using surface plasmon resonance with carbohydrates covalently immobilized onto the PFPA-modified surfaces showed the highest binding affinity for lectin on the PFPA-MUTEG/MDEG film prepared from a 90:10 solution.

  15. A dilute Cu(Ni) alloy for synthesis of large-area Bernal stacked bilayer graphene using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madito, M. J.; Bello, A.; Dangbegnon, J. K.; Momodu, D. Y.; Masikhwa, T. M.; Barzegar, F.; Manyala, N., E-mail: ncholu.manyala@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARCHI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Oliphant, C. J.; Jordaan, W. A. [National Metrology Institute of South Africa, Private Bag X34, Lynwood Ridge, Pretoria 0040 (South Africa); Fabiane, M. [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARCHI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Department of Physics, National University of Lesotho, P.O. Roma 180 (Lesotho)

    2016-01-07

    A bilayer graphene film obtained on copper (Cu) foil is known to have a significant fraction of non-Bernal (AB) stacking and on copper/nickel (Cu/Ni) thin films is known to grow over a large-area with AB stacking. In this study, annealed Cu foils for graphene growth were doped with small concentrations of Ni to obtain dilute Cu(Ni) alloys in which the hydrocarbon decomposition rate of Cu will be enhanced by Ni during synthesis of large-area AB-stacked bilayer graphene using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition. The Ni doped concentration and the Ni homogeneous distribution in Cu foil were confirmed with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and proton-induced X-ray emission. An electron backscatter diffraction map showed that Cu foils have a single (001) surface orientation which leads to a uniform growth rate on Cu surface in early stages of graphene growth and also leads to a uniform Ni surface concentration distribution through segregation kinetics. The increase in Ni surface concentration in foils was investigated with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The quality of graphene, the number of graphene layers, and the layers stacking order in synthesized bilayer graphene films were confirmed by Raman and electron diffraction measurements. A four point probe station was used to measure the sheet resistance of graphene films. As compared to Cu foil, the prepared dilute Cu(Ni) alloy demonstrated the good capability of growing large-area AB-stacked bilayer graphene film by increasing Ni content in Cu surface layer.

  16. Electrochemistry of glucose oxidase immobilized on the carbon nanotube wrapped by polyelectrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Dan; Liu, Ying; Yang, Guocheng; Dong, Shaojun

    2007-01-01

    A more stably dispersing of multi-wall carbon nanotube composite (noted as PDDA-MWNT), which was obtained by wrapping the MWNT with poly(diallydimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA), was used for the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) and its bioelectrochemical studies. The morphologies and structures of the PDDA-MWNT composite were characterized by environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry were used to feature the GOD adsorbed onto the electrode modified by PDDA-MWNT composite. The immobilized GOD at the PDDA-MWNT films exhibited a pair of well-defined nearly reversible redox peaks and a fast heterogeneous electron transfer rate with the rate constant (k s ) of 2.76 s -1 . In addition, GOD immobilized in this way retained its bioelectrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose. The method of immobilizing GOD without any additional cross-linking agents presented here is easy and facile, which provides a model for other redox enzymes and proteins

  17. A Potentiometric Formaldehyde Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Alcohol Oxidase on Acryloxysuccinimide-modified Acrylic Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yook Heng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new alcohol oxidase (AOX enzyme-based formaldehyde biosensor based on acrylic microspheres has been developed. Hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate-N-acryloxy-succinimide [poly(nBA-NAS] microspheres, an enzyme immobilization matrix, was synthesized using photopolymerization in an emulsion form. AOX-poly(nBA-NAS microspheres were deposited on a pH transducer made from a layer of photocured and self-plasticized polyacrylate membrane with an entrapped pH ionophore coated on a Ag/AgCl screen printed electrode (SPE. Oxidation of formaldehyde by the immobilized AOX resulted in the production of protons, which can be determined via the pH transducer. Effects of buffer concentrations, pH and different amount of immobilization matrix towards the biosensor’s analytical performance were investigated. The formaldehyde biosensor exhibited a dynamic linear response range to formaldehyde from 0.3–316.2 mM and a sensitivity of 59.41 ± 0.66 mV/decade (R2 = 0.9776, n = 3. The lower detection limit of the biosensor was 0.3 mM, while reproducibility and repeatability were 3.16% RSD (relative standard deviation and 1.11% RSD, respectively (n = 3. The use of acrylic microspheres in the potentiometric formaldehyde biosensor improved the biosensor’s performance in terms of response time, linear response range and long term stability when compared with thick film immobilization methods.

  18. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R and D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R and D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the

  19. Disposition of surplus fissile materials via immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Sutcliffe, W.G.; McKibben, J.M.; Danker, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the Cold War aftermath, the US and Russia have agreed to large reductions in nuclear weapons. To aid in the selection of long-term management options, the USDOE has undertaken a multifaceted study to select options for storage and disposition of surplus plutonium (Pu). One disposition alternative being considered is immobilization. Immobilization is a process in which surplus Pu would be embedded in a suitable material to produce an appropriate form for ultimate disposal. To arrive at an appropriate form, we first reviewed published information on HLW immobilization technologies to identify forms to be prescreened. Surviving forms were screened using multi-attribute utility analysis to determine promising technologies for Pu immobilization. We further evaluated the most promising immobilization families to identify and seek solutions for chemical, chemical engineering, environmental, safety, and health problems; these problems remain to be solved before we can make technical decisions about the viability of using the forms for long-term disposition of Pu. All data, analyses, and reports are being provided to the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition to support the Record of Decision that is anticipated in Summer of 1996

  20. Production of cellulase from immobilized Trichoderma reesei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao; Kumakura, Minoru

    1989-05-01

    This report completed the results that obtained on the study of the enzyme activity in the culture of immobilized Trichoderma reesei cells in flask scale (100ml) and bench scale (30l). In the flask scale culture, the batch and repeated batch culture were carried out, and in the bench scale culture, the batch, repeated batch and continuous culture were done by using a culture equipment that is an unit process of the bench scale test plant for saccharification of cellulosic wastes. The enzyme activity of the immobilized cells was higher than that of the intact cells in the flask scale culture and it was confirmed that the enzyme activity was not decreased on the repeated batch culture of six times even. In the bench scale culture, it was found that a optimum culture condition of the immobilized cells was not different from that of the free cells and the immobilized cells gave the enzyme solution with a high enzyme activity in the culture condition of 450rpm stirring speed and air supply of 0.1v/v/m above. The technique of the repeated batch and continuous culture for long times in bench scale without contamination was established. The enzyme activity of the immobilized cells in continuous culture became to be 85 % to that in batch culture and it was found that the enzyme solution with high enzyme activity was continuously obtained in the continuous culture for long times. (author)

  1. Haloalkane hydrolysis with an immobilized haloalkane dehalogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravis, B C; Swanson, P E; Russell, A J

    2001-11-20

    Haloalkane dehalogenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous was covalently immobilized onto a polyethyleneimine impregnated gamma-alumina support. The dehalogenating enzyme was found to retain greater than 40% of its original activity after immobilization, displaying an optimal loading (max. activity/supported protein) of 70 to 75 mg/g with an apparent maximum (max. protein/support) of 156 mg/g. The substrate, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, was found to favorably partition (adsorb) onto the inorganic alumina carrier (10 to 20 mg/g), thereby increasing the local reactant concentration with respect to the catalyst's environment, whereas the product, 2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol, demonstrated no affinity. Additionally, the inorganic alumina support exhibited no adverse effects because of solvent/component incompatibilities or deterioration due to pH variance (pH 7.0 to 10.5). As a result of the large surface area to volume ratio of the support matrix and the accessibility of the bound protein, the immobilized biocatalyst was not subject to internal mass transfer limitations. External diffusional restrictions could be eliminated with simple agitation (mixing speed: 50 rpm; flux: 4.22 cm/min). The pH-dependence of the immobilized dehalogenase was essentially the same as that for the native enzyme. Finally, both the thermostability and resistance toward inactivation by organic solvent were improved by more than an order of magnitude after immobilization. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Multilayer stacks obtained by ion assisted EB PVD aimed at thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Maile, K.; Lyutovich, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA)

    2010-07-01

    Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) using Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition (EB PVD) is widely implemented, especially for aero-engine turbine blades. Generally, multilayer stacks are used for these aims. For the additional improvement of intermediate layers with graded transitions to the initial Ni-based alloy, the use of accelerated ions in the EBPVD-process is advantageous. The effect of the substrate bias potential, ion current density and deposition temperature on the structure and properties of Ti and Zr intermediate layers are investigated. The morphology of the films is studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is found that the surface morphology becomes smoother with rising bias potential and decreasing ion current density. Measurements of Vicker's micro-hardness performed on these coatings have shown its increase with higher values of the bias and its reduction with the growing temperature. This effect is caused by the observed decrease in grain size and higher porosity of the films. A multilayer coating system Ni (based substrate)-Si-Si{sub x}Al{sub y}-Al with graded transitions between the layers is obtained using ion assisted EBPVD. Architecture of a multilayer stack for TBC with graded transitions is proposed. (orig.)

  3. Vertically stacked multi-heterostructures of layered materials for logic transistors and complementary inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Woo Jong; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Yang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    The layered materials such as graphene have attracted considerable interest for future electronics. Here we report the vertical integration of multi-heterostructures of layered materials to enable high current density vertical field-effect transistors (VFETs). An n-channel VFET is created by sandwiching few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as the semiconducting channel between a monolayer graphene and a metal thin film. The VFETs exhibit a room temperature on-off ratio >103, while at same time deliver a high current density up to 5,000 A/cm2, sufficient for high performance logic applications. This study offers a general strategy for the vertical integration of various layered materials to obtain both p- and n-channel transistors for complementary logic functions. A complementary inverter with larger than unit voltage gain is demonstrated by vertically stacking the layered materials of graphene, Bi2Sr2Co2O8 (p-channel), graphene, MoS2 (n-channel), and metal thin film in sequence. The ability to simultaneously achieve high on-off ratio, high current density, and logic integration in the vertically stacked multi-heterostructures can open up a new dimension for future electronics to enable three-dimensional integration. PMID:23241535

  4. Selective detection and recovery of gold at tannin-immobilized non-conducting electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Khaleda; Shimura, Takayoshi; Sadeghi, Saman

    2015-01-01

    A tannin-immobilized glassy carbon electrode (TIGC) was prepared via electrochemical oxidation of the naturally occurring polyphenolic mimosa tannin, which generated a non-conducting polymeric film (NCPF) on the electrode surface. The fouling of the electrode surface by the electropolymerized film was evaluated by monitoring the electrode response of ferricyanide ions as a redox marker. The NCPF was permselective to HAuCl4, and the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl4 to metallic gold at the TIGC electrode was evaluated by recording the reduction current during cyclic voltammetry measurement. In the mixed electrolyte containing HAuCl4 along with FeCl3 and/or CuCl2, the NCPF remained selective toward the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl4 into the metallic state. The chemical reduction of HAuCl4 into metallic gold was also observed when the NCPF was inserted into an acidic gold solution overnight. The adsorption capacity of Au(III) on tannin-immobilized carbon fiber was 29±1.45 mg g(-1) at 60°C. In the presence of excess Cu(II) and Fe(III), tannin-immobilized NCPF proved to be an excellent candidate for the selective detection and recovery of gold through both electrochemical and chemical processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A dual shared stack for FSLM in Erika Enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramanian, S.M.N.; Afshar, S.; Gai, P.; Behnam, M.; Bril, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the flexible spin-lock model (FSLM) has been introduced, unifying spin-based and suspension-based resource sharing protocols for real-time multi-core platforms. Unlike the multiprocessor stack resource policy (MSRP), FSLM doesn’t allow tasks on a core to share a single stack, however. In

  6. Long Josephson Junction Stack Coupled to a Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Peder; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Groenbech-Jensen, N.

    2007-01-01

    A stack of inductively coupled long Josephson junctions are modeled as a system of coupled sine-Gordon equations. One boundary of the stack is coupled electrically to a resonant cavity. With one fluxon in each Josephson junction, the inter-junction fluxon forces are repulsive. We look at a possible...... transition, induced by the cavity, to a bunched state....

  7. Efficient Context Switching for the Stack Cache: Implementation and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Naji, Amine

    2015-01-01

    , the analysis of the stack cache was limited to individual tasks, ignoring aspects related to multitasking. A major drawback of the original stack cache design is that, due to its simplicity, it cannot hold the data of multiple tasks at the same time. Consequently, the entire cache content needs to be saved...

  8. Analysis of preemption costs for the stack cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Amine; Abbaspour, Sahar; Brandner, Florian

    2018-01-01

    , the analysis of the stack cache was limited to individual tasks, ignoring aspects related to multitasking. A major drawback of the original stack cache design is that, due to its simplicity, it cannot hold the data of multiple tasks at the same time. Consequently, the entire cache content needs to be saved...

  9. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  10. A Software Managed Stack Cache for Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Schoeberl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In a real-time system, the use of a scratchpad memory can mitigate the difficulties related to analyzing data caches, whose behavior is inherently hard to predict. We propose to use a scratchpad memory for stack allocated data. While statically allocating stack frames for individual functions...

  11. Selective detection and recovery of gold at tannin-immobilized non-conducting electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banu, Khaleda, E-mail: kbanu@ucla.edu [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Venture Business Laboratory, Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shimura, Takayoshi [Venture Business Laboratory, Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Sadeghi, Saman, E-mail: samsadeghi@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Selective detection of gold at non-conducting (NC) polymer modified electrode. • Mimosa tannin oxidized on glassy carbon electrode surface as NC polymeric film. • Permselective diffusion and mediated electron transfer at NC electrode surface. • Chemical recovery of gold is due to the reducing ability of the NC polymeric film. • Adsorption capacity of Au(III) on carbon fiber was 29 ± 1.45 mg g{sup −1} at 60 °C. - Abstract: A tannin-immobilized glassy carbon electrode (TIGC) was prepared via electrochemical oxidation of the naturally occurring polyphenolic mimosa tannin, which generated a non-conducting polymeric film (NCPF) on the electrode surface. The fouling of the electrode surface by the electropolymerized film was evaluated by monitoring the electrode response of ferricyanide ions as a redox marker. The NCPF was permselective to HAuCl{sub 4}, and the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} to metallic gold at the TIGC electrode was evaluated by recording the reduction current during cyclic voltammetry measurement. In the mixed electrolyte containing HAuCl{sub 4} along with FeCl{sub 3} and/or CuCl{sub 2}, the NCPF remained selective toward the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} into the metallic state. The chemical reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} into metallic gold was also observed when the NCPF was inserted into an acidic gold solution overnight. The adsorption capacity of Au(III) on tannin-immobilized carbon fiber was 29 ± 1.45 mg g{sup −1} at 60 °C. In the presence of excess Cu(II) and Fe(III), tannin-immobilized NCPF proved to be an excellent candidate for the selective detection and recovery of gold through both electrochemical and chemical processes.

  12. Selective detection and recovery of gold at tannin-immobilized non-conducting electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Khaleda; Shimura, Takayoshi; Sadeghi, Saman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Selective detection of gold at non-conducting (NC) polymer modified electrode. • Mimosa tannin oxidized on glassy carbon electrode surface as NC polymeric film. • Permselective diffusion and mediated electron transfer at NC electrode surface. • Chemical recovery of gold is due to the reducing ability of the NC polymeric film. • Adsorption capacity of Au(III) on carbon fiber was 29 ± 1.45 mg g −1 at 60 °C. - Abstract: A tannin-immobilized glassy carbon electrode (TIGC) was prepared via electrochemical oxidation of the naturally occurring polyphenolic mimosa tannin, which generated a non-conducting polymeric film (NCPF) on the electrode surface. The fouling of the electrode surface by the electropolymerized film was evaluated by monitoring the electrode response of ferricyanide ions as a redox marker. The NCPF was permselective to HAuCl 4 , and the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl 4 to metallic gold at the TIGC electrode was evaluated by recording the reduction current during cyclic voltammetry measurement. In the mixed electrolyte containing HAuCl 4 along with FeCl 3 and/or CuCl 2 , the NCPF remained selective toward the electrochemical reduction of HAuCl 4 into the metallic state. The chemical reduction of HAuCl 4 into metallic gold was also observed when the NCPF was inserted into an acidic gold solution overnight. The adsorption capacity of Au(III) on tannin-immobilized carbon fiber was 29 ± 1.45 mg g −1 at 60 °C. In the presence of excess Cu(II) and Fe(III), tannin-immobilized NCPF proved to be an excellent candidate for the selective detection and recovery of gold through both electrochemical and chemical processes

  13. Dimensional crossover of electron weak localization in ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Bhartiya, S. [Laser Materials Development & Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Gupta, M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452 017 (India)

    2016-01-25

    We report on the dimensional crossover of electron weak localization in ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers having well-defined and spatially-localized Ti dopant profiles along film thickness. These films were grown by in situ incorporation of sub-monolayer TiO{sub x} on the growing ZnO film surface and subsequent overgrowth of thin conducting ZnO spacer layer using atomic layer deposition. Film thickness was varied in the range of ∼6–65 nm by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1–7) of ZnO/TiO{sub x} layers of nearly identical dopant-profiles. The evolution of zero-field sheet resistance (R{sub ◻}) versus temperature with decreasing film thickness showed a metal to insulator transition. On the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition, R{sub ◻}(T) and magnetoresistance data were found to be well corroborated with the theoretical framework of electron weak localization in the diffusive transport regime. The temperature dependence of both R{sub ◻} and inelastic scattering length provided strong evidence for a smooth crossover from 2D to 3D weak localization behaviour. Results of this study provide deeper insight into the electron transport in low-dimensional n-type ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layers which have potential applications in the field of transparent oxide electronics.

  14. Ultrathin Polymer Films, Patterned Arrays, and Microwells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingdi

    2002-05-01

    The ability to control and tailor the surface and interface properties of materials is important in microelectronics, cell growth control, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Modification of material surfaces with ultrathin polymer films is attractive due to the availability of a variety of polymers either commercially or by synthesis. We have developed two approaches to the attachment of ultrathin polymer films on solid substrates. In the first method, a silane-functionalized perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA-silane) was synthesized and used to covalently immobilize polymer thin films on silicon wafers. Silanization of the wafer surface with the PFPA-silane introduced a monolayer of azido groups which in turn covalently attached the polymer film by way of photochemically initiated insertion reactions. The thickness of the film could be adjusted by the type and the molecular weight of the polymer. The method is versatile due to the general C-H and/or N-H insertion reactions of crosslinker; and therefore, no specific reactive functional groups on the polymers are required. Using this method, a new type of microwell array was fabricated from covalently immobilized polymer thin films on flat substrates. The arrays were characterized with AFM, XPS, and TOF-SIMS. The second method describes the attachment of polymer thin films on solid substrates via UV irradiation. The procedure consisted of spin-coating a polymer film and irradiating the film with UV light. Following solvent extraction, a thin film remained. The thickness of the film, from a few to over a hundred nanometers, was controlled by varying solution concentration and the molecular weight of the polymer.

  15. Routes to a commercially viable PEM fuel cell stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, J.; Foster, S.E.; Hodgson, D.; Marrett, A.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the results of a project to design and build a 10 kW{sub e} proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack, including membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), bipolar plates and stack hardware. The aim was to prove the design concept and to demonstrate functionality by operating the stack at >1 kW{sub e}/L and 500 W/kg for 200 hours operation. The project was extended to include the assembly and testing of two additional 1 kW{sub e} PEMFC stacks based on coated metal components. Low equivalent weight perfluorinated ionomer ion exchange membranes were prepared and were found to give a superior electrochemical performance to commercial materials. A technique to etch various stainless steel grades and control processes was successfully developed and optimised. Coatings for stainless steel and titanium were successfully developed and met the required performance criteria. All PEMFC stack components were selected and designed to enable subsequent commercial manufacture.

  16. High-Density Stacked Ru Nanocrystals for Nonvolatile Memory Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, Mao; Zhi-Gang, Zhang; Li-Yang, Pan; Jun, Xu; Pei-Yi, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Stacked ruthenium (Ru) nanocrystals (NCs) are formed by rapid thermal annealing for the whole gate stacks and embedded in memory structure, which is compatible with conventional CMOS technology. Ru NCs with high density (3 × 10 12 cm −2 ), small size (2–4 nm) and good uniformity both in aerial distribution and morphology are formed. Attributed to the higher surface trap density, a memory window of 5.2 V is obtained with stacked Ru NCs in comparison to that of 3.5 V with single-layer samples. The stacked Ru NCs device also exhibits much better retention performance because of Coulomb blockade and vertical uniformity between stacked Ru NCs

  17. Effects of supercritical carbon dioxide on immobile bound polymer chains on solid substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Mani; Asada, Mitsunori; Jiang, Naisheng; Endoh, Maya K.; Akgun, Bulent; Satija, Sushil; Koga, Tadanori

    2013-03-01

    Adsorbed polymer layers formed on flat solid substrates have recently been the subject of extensive studies because it is postulated to control the dynamics of technologically relevant polymer thin films, for example, in lithography. Such adsorbed layers have been reported to hinder the mobility of polymer chains in thin films even at a large length scale. Consequently, this bound layer remains immobile regardless of processing techniques (i.e. thermal annealing, solvent dissolution, etc). Here, we investigate the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a novel plasticizer for bound polystyrene layers formed on silicon substrates. In-situ swelling and interdiffusion experiments using neutron reflectivity were performed. As a result, we found the anomalous plasticization effects of scCO2 on the bound polymer layers near the critical point where the anomalous adsorption of CO2 molecules in polymer thin films has been reported previously. Acknowledgement: We acknowledge the financial support from NSF Grant No. CMMI-084626.

  18. Electrochemical direct immobilization of DNA sequences for label-free herpes virus detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh; Trung, Tran; Tuan, Mai Anh; Chien, Nguyen Duc

    2009-09-01

    DNA sequences/bio-macromolecules of herpes virus (5'-AT CAC CGA CCC GGA GAG GGA C-3') were directly immobilized into polypyrrole matrix by using the cyclic voltammetry method, and grafted onto arrays of interdigitated platinum microelectrodes. The morphology surface of the obtained PPy/DNA of herpes virus composite films was investigated by a FESEM Hitachi-S 4800. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the PPy/DNA film and to study the specific interactions that may exist between DNA biomacromolecules and PPy chains. Attempts are made to use these PPy/DNA composite films for label-free herpes virus detection revealed a response time of 60 s in solutions containing as low as 2 nM DNA concentration, and self life of six months when immerged in double distilled water and kept refrigerated.

  19. Electrochemical direct immobilization of DNA sequences for label-free herpes virus detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuong Dinh Tam; Mai Anh Tuan; Tran Trung; Nguyen Duc Chien

    2009-01-01

    DNA sequences/bio-macromolecules of herpes virus (5'-AT CAC CGA CCC GGA GAG GGA C-3') were directly immobilized into polypyrrole matrix by using the cyclic voltammetry method, and grafted onto arrays of interdigitated platinum microelectrodes. The morphology surface of the obtained PPy/DNA of herpes virus composite films was investigated by a FESEM Hitachi-S 4800. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the PPy/DNA film and to study the specific interactions that may exist between DNA biomacromolecules and PPy chains. Attempts are made to use these PPy/DNA composite films for label-free herpes virus detection revealed a response time of 60 s in solutions containing as low as 2 nM DNA concentration, and self life of six months when emerged in double distilled water and kept refrigerated.

  20. Electrochemical direct immobilization of DNA sequences for label-free herpes virus detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phuong Dinh Tam; Mai Anh Tuan [International Training Institute for Materials Science (Viet Nam); Tran Trung [Department of Electrochemistry, Hung-Yen University of Technology and Education (Viet Nam); Nguyen Duc Chien [Institute of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: tr_trunghut@yahoo.com

    2009-09-01

    DNA sequences/bio-macromolecules of herpes virus (5'-AT CAC CGA CCC GGA GAG GGA C-3') were directly immobilized into polypyrrole matrix by using the cyclic voltammetry method, and grafted onto arrays of interdigitated platinum microelectrodes. The morphology surface of the obtained PPy/DNA of herpes virus composite films was investigated by a FESEM Hitachi-S 4800. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the PPy/DNA film and to study the specific interactions that may exist between DNA biomacromolecules and PPy chains. Attempts are made to use these PPy/DNA composite films for label-free herpes virus detection revealed a response time of 60 s in solutions containing as low as 2 nM DNA concentration, and self life of six months when emerged in double distilled water and kept refrigerated.

  1. An overview of technologies for immobilization of enzymes and surface analysis techniques for immobilized enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nur Royhaila; Marzuki, Nur Haziqah Che; Buang, Nor Aziah; Huyop, Fahrul; Wahab, Roswanira Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The current demands of sustainable green methodologies have increased the use of enzymatic technology in industrial processes. Employment of enzyme as biocatalysts offers the benefits of mild reaction conditions, biodegradability and catalytic efficiency. The harsh conditions of industrial processes, however, increase propensity of enzyme destabilization, shortening their industrial lifespan. Consequently, the technology of enzyme immobilization provides an effective means to circumvent these concerns by enhancing enzyme catalytic properties and also simplify downstream processing and improve operational stability. There are several techniques used to immobilize the enzymes onto supports which range from reversible physical adsorption and ionic linkages, to the irreversible stable covalent bonds. Such techniques produce immobilized enzymes of varying stability due to changes in the surface microenvironment and degree of multipoint attachment. Hence, it is mandatory to obtain information about the structure of the enzyme protein following interaction with the support surface as well as interactions of the enzymes with other proteins. Characterization technologies at the nanoscale level to study enzymes immobilized on surfaces are crucial to obtain valuable qualitative and quantitative information, including morphological visualization of the immobilized enzymes. These technologies are pertinent to assess efficacy of an immobilization technique and development of future enzyme immobilization strategies. PMID:26019635

  2. Fabrication of ionic liquid electrodeposited Cu--Sn--Zn--S--Se thin films and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath

    2016-01-12

    A semiconductor thin-film and method for producing a semiconductor thin-films comprising a metallic salt, an ionic compound in a non-aqueous solution mixed with a solvent and processing the stacked layer in chalcogen that results in a CZTS/CZTSS thin films that may be deposited on a substrate is disclosed.

  3. Immobilization of oxidases and their analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasinzai, M.

    2007-01-01

    Immobilized enzymes are replacing their soluble counter-parts in nearly every field of application. These enzyme modifications have evolved from a research curiosity into an entire branch of Biotechnology. An immobilization method for flavin containing oxidases and their use in flow injection system is described. An electrochemical detector for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is assembled which is used effectively for the determination of glucose using more common glucose oxidase and the simultaneous determination of sugars. The combination of oxidases with hydrolases have been used for the determination of maltose and starch. (author)

  4. A disposal centre for immobilized nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This report describes a conceptual design of a disposal centre for immobilized nuclear waste. The surface facilities consist of plants for the preparation of steel cylinders containing nuclear waste immobilized in glass, shaft headframe buildings and all necessary support facilities. The underground disposal vault is located on one level at a depth of 1000 m. The waste cylinders are emplaced into boreholes in the tunnel floors. All surface and subsurface facilities are described, operations and schedules are summarized, and cost estimates and manpower requirements are given. (auth)

  5. Radiation Synthesis of Nanogel for Bioactives Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamzah, M. Y. [Polymer Modification Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi (Malaysia)

    2009-07-01

    Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic core nanogel are currently being developed for immobilization and delivery purposes in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Hydrophilic nanogel is produced by using inverse micelles irradiation of polyethelyne glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). The hydrophobic nanogel is produced via irradiation of acrylated form of palm oil. These nanogels will be used to immobilize bio actives such as curcumin, tyhmoquinone, oryzanol and chitosan. Preliminary investigation of the nanogel size using dynamic light scattering (DLS) shows that nanogel with sizes below 100nm can be obtained. (author)

  6. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-01-01

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  7. Radiation Synthesis of Nanogel for Bioactives Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, M.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic core nanogel are currently being developed for immobilization and delivery purposes in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Hydrophilic nanogel is produced by using inverse micelles irradiation of polyethelyne glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). The hydrophobic nanogel is produced via irradiation of acrylated form of palm oil. These nanogels will be used to immobilize bio actives such as curcumin, tyhmoquinone, oryzanol and chitosan. Preliminary investigation of the nanogel size using dynamic light scattering (DLS) shows that nanogel with sizes below 100nm can be obtained. (author)

  8. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  9. Immobilization of spent resin with epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultom, O.; Suryanto; Sayogo; Ramdan

    1997-01-01

    immobilization of spent resin using epoxy resin has been conducted. The spent resin was mixtured with epoxy resin in variation of concentration, i.e., 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 weight percent of spent resin. The mixture were pour into the plastic tube, with a diameter of 40 mm and height of 40 mm. The density, compressive strength and leaching rate were respectively measured by quanta chrome, paul weber apparatus and gamma spectrometer. The results showed that the increasing of waste concentration would be decreased the compressive strength, and increased density by immobilized waste. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from waste product was not detected in experiment (author)

  10. Reflector imaging by diffraction stacking with stacking velocity analysis; Jugo sokudo kaiseki wo tomonau sanran jugoho ni yoru hanshamen imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J; Rokugawa, S; Kato, Y [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokota, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Concerning seismic reflection survey for geometrical arrangement between pits, the scattering stacking method with stacking velocity analysis is compared with the CDP (common depth point horizontal stacking method). The advantages of the CDP supposedly include the following. Since it presumes an average velocity field, it can determine velocities having stacking effects. The method presumes stratification and, since such enables the division of huge quantities of observed data into smaller groups, more data can be calculated in a shorter time period. The method has disadvantages, attributable to its presuming an average velocity field, that accuracy in processing is lower when the velocity field contrast is higher, that accuracy in processing is low unless stratification is employed, and that velocities obtained from stacking velocity analysis are affected by dipped structures. Such shortcomings may be remedied in the scattering stacking method with stacking velocity analysis. Possibilities are that, as far as the horizontal reflection plane is concerned, it may yield stack records higher in S/N ratio than the CDP. Findings relative to dipped reflection planes will be introduced at the presentation. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Relaxation in Thin Polymer Films Mapped across the Film Thickness by Astigmatic Single-Molecule Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Oba, Tatsuya

    2012-06-19

    We have studied relaxation processes in thin supported films of poly(methyl acrylate) at the temperature corresponding to 13 K above the glass transition by monitoring the reorientation of single perylenediimide molecules doped into the films. The axial position of the dye molecules across the thickness of the film was determined with a resolution of 12 nm by analyzing astigmatic fluorescence images. The average relaxation times of the rotating molecules do not depend on the overall thickness of the film between 20 and 110 nm. The relaxation times also do not show any dependence on the axial position within the films for the film thickness between 70 and 110 nm. In addition to the rotating molecules we observed a fraction of spatially diffusing molecules and completely immobile molecules. These molecules indicate the presence of thin (<5 nm) high-mobility surface layer and low-mobility layer at the interface with the substrate. (Figure presented) © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Electrical characterization of 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor structure with Al2O3 stacking layers as dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P. K.; Hwu, J. G.

    2018-02-01

    Interface defects and oxide bulk traps conventionally play important roles in the electrical performance of SiC MOS device. Introducing the Al2O3 stack grown by repeated anodization of Al films can notably lower the leakage current in comparison to the SiO2 structure, and enhance the minority carrier response at low frequency when the number of Al2O3 layers increase. In addition, the interface quality is not deteriorated by the stacking of Al2O3 layers because the stacked Al2O3 structure grown by anodization possesses good uniformity. In this work, the capacitance equivalent thickness (CET) of stacking Al2O3 will be up to 19.5 nm and the oxidation process can be carried out at room temperature. For the Al2O3 gate stack with CET 19.5 nm on n-SiC substrate, the leakage current at 2 V is 2.76 × 10-10 A/cm2, the interface trap density at the flatband voltage is 3.01 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2, and the effective breakdown field is 11.8 MV/cm. Frequency dispersion and breakdown characteristics may thus be improved as a result of the reduction in trap density. The Al2O3 stacking layers are capable of maintaining the leakage current as low as possible even after constant voltage stress test, which will further ameliorate reliability characteristics.

  13. Preparation of Laccase Immobilized Cryogels and Usage for Decolorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Uygun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate (poly(MMA-co-GMA cryogels were synthesized by radical cryopolymerization technique. Then, laccase enzyme was covalently attached to the cryogel and characterized by using swelling studies and SEM and EDX analyses. Kinetic properties and optimum conditions of the immobilized and free laccase were studied and it was found that of the immobilized laccase was lower than that of free laccase. of the immobilized laccase was increased upon immobilization. Optimum pH was found to be 4.0 for each type of laccase, while optimum temperature was shifted to the warmer region after the immobilization. It was also found that thermal stability of the immobilized laccase was higher than that of free laccase. Immobilized laccase could be used for 10 times successive reuse with no significant decrease in its activity. Also, these laccase immobilized cryogels were successfully used for the decolorization of seven different dyes.

  14. Immobilized cells of Candida rugosa possessing fumarase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.; Zhone, L.

    1980-01-01

    Immobilized cells of C. rugosa that possessed fumarase activity were prepared by different methods; the most active immobilized cells were entrapped in polyacrylamide gels. The effects of pH temperature, and divalent cations on the fumarase activity of both immobilized and native cells were the same. Mn/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and Fe/sup 2 +/ did not protect the immobilized enzyme against thermal inactivation. The activity of immobilized fumarase remained constant during 91 days of storage of 4-6 degrees. The immobilized cell column was used for the continuous production of L-malic acid from 1M fumarate at 30 degrees and pH 8.5. The immobilized column operated steadily for 2 months. Half life of the immobilized fumarase at 30 degrees was 95 days.

  15. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  16. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  17. Black Hole Spectroscopy with Coherent Mode Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Yagi, Kent; Blackman, Jonathan; Lehner, Luis; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-21

    The measurement of multiple ringdown modes in gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers will allow for testing the fundamental properties of black holes in general relativity and to constrain modified theories of gravity. To enhance the ability of Advanced LIGO/Virgo to perform such tasks, we propose a coherent mode stacking method to search for a chosen target mode within a collection of multiple merger events. We first rescale each signal so that the target mode in each of them has the same frequency and then sum the waveforms constructively. A crucial element to realize this coherent superposition is to make use of a priori information extracted from the inspiral-merger phase of each event. To illustrate the method, we perform a study with simulated events targeting the ℓ=m=3 ringdown mode of the remnant black holes. We show that this method can significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective target mode compared to that of the single loudest event. Using current estimates of merger rates, we show that it is likely that advanced-era detectors can measure this collective ringdown mode with one year of coincident data gathered at design sensitivity.

  18. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment explores new hardware and software platforms that, in the future, may be more suited to its data intensive workloads. One such alternative hardware platform is the ARM architecture, which is designed to be extremely power efficient and is found in most smartphones and tablets. CERN openlab recently installed a small cluster of ARM 64-bit evaluation prototype servers. Each server is based on a single-socket ARM 64-bit system on a chip, with 32 Cortex-A57 cores. In total, each server has 128 GB RAM connected with four fast memory channels. This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto these new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the "external" packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adj...

  19. Testing system for a fuel cells stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Stefanescu, Ioan; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Lazar, Roxana Elena

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen and electricity together represent one of the most promising ways to realize sustainable energy, whilst fuel cells provide the most efficient conversion devices for converting hydrogen and possibly other fuels into electricity. Thus, the development of fuel cell technology is currently being actively pursued worldwide. Due to its simple operation and other fair characteristics, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is especially suitable as a replacement for the internal combustion engine. The PEMFC is also being developed for decentralized electricity and heat generation in buildings and mobile applications. Starting with 2001 the Institute of Research - Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT - Rm. Valcea developed research activities supported by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research within the National Research Program in order to bridge the gap to European competencies in the area of hydrogen and fuel cells. The paper deals with the testing system designed and developed in ICIT Rm. Valcea as a flexible and versatile tool allowing a large scale of parameter settings and measurements on a single cell or on a fuel cells stack onto a wind range of output power values. (authors)

  20. Weyl magnons in noncoplanar stacked kagome antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    Weyl nodes have been experimentally realized in photonic, electronic, and phononic crystals. However, magnonic Weyl nodes are yet to be seen experimentally. In this paper, we propose Weyl magnon nodes in noncoplanar stacked frustrated kagome antiferromagnets, naturally available in various real materials. Most crucially, the Weyl nodes in the current system occur at the lowest excitation and possess a topological thermal Hall effect, therefore they are experimentally accessible at low temperatures due to the population effect of bosonic quasiparticles. In stark contrast to other magnetic systems, the current Weyl nodes do not rely on time-reversal symmetry breaking by the magnetic order. Rather, they result from explicit macroscopically broken time reversal symmetry by the scalar spin chirality of noncoplanar spin textures and can be generalized to chiral spin liquid states. Moreover, the scalar spin chirality gives a real space Berry curvature which is not available in previously studied magnetic Weyl systems. We show the existence of magnon arc surface states connecting projected Weyl magnon nodes on the surface Brillouin zone. We also uncover the first realization of triply-degenerate nodal magnon point in the noncollinear regime with zero scalar spin chirality.

  1. Lithiation-induced shuffling of atomic stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2014-09-10

    In rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, understanding the atomic-scale mechanism of Li-induced structural evolution occurring at the host electrode materials provides essential knowledge for design of new high performance electrodes. Here, we report a new crystalline-crystalline phase transition mechanism in single-crystal Zn-Sb intermetallic nanowires upon lithiation. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we observed that stacks of atomic planes in an intermediate hexagonal (h-)LiZnSb phase are "shuffled" to accommodate the geometrical confinement stress arising from lamellar nanodomains intercalated by lithium ions. Such atomic rearrangement arises from the anisotropic lithium diffusion and is accompanied by appearance of partial dislocations. This transient structure mediates further phase transition from h-LiZnSb to cubic (c-)Li2ZnSb, which is associated with a nearly "zero-strain" coherent interface viewed along the [001]h/[111]c directions. This study provides new mechanistic insights into complex electrochemically driven crystalline-crystalline phase transitions in lithium-ion battery electrodes and represents a noble example of atomic-level structural and interfacial rearrangements.

  2. Captioning Transformer with Stacked Attention Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Zhu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Image captioning is a challenging task. Meanwhile, it is important for the machine to understand the meaning of an image better. In recent years, the image captioning usually use the long-short-term-memory (LSTM as the decoder to generate the sentence, and these models show excellent performance. Although the LSTM can memorize dependencies, the LSTM structure has complicated and inherently sequential across time problems. To address these issues, recent works have shown benefits of the Transformer for machine translation. Inspired by their success, we develop a Captioning Transformer (CT model with stacked attention modules. We attempt to introduce the Transformer to the image captioning task. The CT model contains only attention modules without the dependencies of the time. It not only can memorize dependencies between the sequence but also can be trained in parallel. Moreover, we propose the multi-level supervision to make the Transformer achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on the challenging MSCOCO dataset and the proposed Captioning Transformer achieves competitive performance compared with some state-of-the-art methods.

  3. Assessment of the LV-S2 & LV-S3 Stack Sampling Probe Locations for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Amidan, Brett G.

    2014-09-30

    This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling locations for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Group 1-2A exhaust stacks with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. The LV-C2, LV-S2, and LV-S3 exhaust stacks were tested together as a group (Test Group 1-2A). This report only covers the results of LV-S2 and LV-S3; LV-C2 will be reported on separately. Federal regulations1 require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to the criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. 2 These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream.

  4. Preparation and characterization of two types of covalently immobilized amyloglucosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN VUJCIC

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Amyloglucosidase from A. niger was covalently immobilized onto poly (GMA-co-EGDMA by the glutaraldehyde and periodate method. The immobilization of amyloglucosidase after periodate oxidation gave a preparate with the highest specific activity reported so far on similar polymers. The obtained immobilized preparates show the same pH optimum, but a higher temperature optimum compared with the soluble enzyme. The kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of soluble starch by free and both immobilized enzymes were determined.

  5. Immobilization of Isolated Lipase From Moldy Copra (Aspergillus Oryzae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dali, Seniwati; Patong, A. B. D. Rauf; Jalaluddin, M. Noor; Pirman; Hamzah, Baharuddin

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme immobilization is a recovery technique that has been studied in several years, using support as a media to help enzyme dissolutions to the reaction substrate. Immobilization method used in this study was adsorption method, using specific lipase from Aspergillus oryzae. Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus oryzae. Enzyme was immobilized by adsorbed on silica gel. Studies on free and immobilized lipase systems for determination of optimum pH, optimum ...

  6. Immobilization of azurin with retention of its native electrochemical properties at alkylsilane self-assembled monolayer modified indium tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashur, Idan; Jones, Anne K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Immobilization of azurin at indium tin oxide causes modification of the native redox properties. ► Azurin was immobilized at alkylsilane self-assembled monolayer on indium tin oxide. ► Native, solution redox properties are retained for the immobilized protein on the SAM. ► Technique should be widely applicable to other redox proteins. - Abstract: Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a promising material for developing spectroelectrochemical methods due to its combination of excellent transparency in the visible region and high conductivity over a broad range of potential. However, relatively few examples of immobilization of redox proteins at ITO with retention of the ability to transfer electrons with the underlying material with native characteristics have been reported. In this work, we utilize an alkylsilane functionalized ITO surface as a biocompatible interface for immobilization of the blue copper protein azurin. Adsorption of azurin at ITO as well as ITO coated with self-assembled monolayers of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and n-decyltrimethoxysilane (DTMS) was achieved, and immobilized protein probed using protein film electrochemistry. The native redox properties of the protein were perturbed by adsorption directly to ITO or to the MPTMS layer on an ITO surface. However, azurin adsorbed at a DTMS covered ITO surface retained native electrochemical properties (E 1/2 = 122 ± 5 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) and could exchange electrons directly with the underlying ITO layer without need for an intervening chemical mediator. These results open new opportunities for immobilizing functional redox proteins at ITO and developing spectroelectrochemical methods for investigating them.

  7. Encapsulated, High-Performance, Stretchable Array of Stacked Planar Micro-Supercapacitors as Waterproof Wearable Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungjun; Yoon, Jangyeol; Lee, Geumbee; Paik, Seung-Ho; Choi, Gukgwon; Kim, Daeil; Kim, Beop-Min; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-06-29

    We report the fabrication of an encapsulated, high-performance, stretchable array of stacked planar micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) as a wearable energy storage device for waterproof applications. A pair of planar all-solid-state MSCs with spray-coated multiwalled carbon nanotube electrodes and a drop-cast UV-patternable ion-gel electrolyte was fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate film using serial connection to increase the operation voltage of the MSC. Additionally, multiple MSCs could be vertically stacked with parallel connections to increase both the total capacitance and the areal capacitance owing to the use of a solid-state patterned electrolyte. The overall device of five parallel-connected stacked MSCs, a microlight-emitting diode (μ-LED), and a switch was encapsulated in thin Ecoflex film so that the capacitance remained at 82% of its initial value even after 4 d in water; the μ-LED was lit without noticeable decrease in brightness under deformation including bending and stretching. Furthermore, an Ecoflex encapsulated oximeter wound around a finger was operated using the stored energy of the MSC array attached to the hand (even in water) to give information on arterial pulse rate and oxygen saturation in the blood. This study suggests potential applications of our encapsulated MSC array in wearable energy storage devices especially in water.

  8. Efficiency of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Bosma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a feedforward control of optimal oxygen excess ratio that maximize net power (improve efficiency of a NedStack P8.0-64 PEM fuel cell stack (FCS system. Net powers profile as a function of oxygen excess ratio for some points of operation are analyzed by using FCS model. The relationships between stack current and the corresponding control input voltage that gives an optimal oxygen excess ratio are used to design a feedforward control scheme. The results of this scheme are compared to the results of a feedforward control using a constant oxygen excess ratio. Simulation results show that optimal oxygen excess ratio improves fuel cell performance compared to the results of constant oxygen excess ratio. The same procedures are performed experimentally for the FCS system. The behaviour of the net power of the fuel cell stack with respect to the variation of oxygen excess ratio is analyzed to obtain optimal values. Data of stack current and the corresponding voltage input to the compressor that gives optimal values of oxygen excess ratio are used to develop a feedforward control. Feedforward control based on constant and optimal oxygen excess ratio control, are implemented in the NedStack P8.0-64 PEM fuel cell stack system by using LabVIEW. Implementation results shows that optimal oxygen excess ratio control improves the fuel cell performance compared to the constant oxygen excess ratio control.

  9. Effects of treatment position and patient immobilization on the variability of patient motion in the treatment of prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, A.; Washington, M.; Wyman, B.; Song, P.; Bauml, J.; Tobias, R.; Vaida, F.; Chen, G.; Vijayakumar, S.; Reese, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: As dose-escalation is being attempted in the treatment of prostate cancer, uncertainties in patient position due to day-to-day setup has become increasingly critical. We present results from an ongoing study of the variability of patient positioning in prone versus supine treatment positions, as well as with and without immobilization using an aquaplast cast. Materials and Methods: We compared the probability and the amount of day-to-day movement of patients with prostate cancer. Patients were divided into three groups: (a) those treated supine without immobilization, (b) those treated supine and immobilized with an aquaplast cast over the abdomen and pelvis, and (c) those treated prone and similarly immobilized in aquaplast. The three components of patient motion - cephalo-caudad, anterior-posterior, and lateral - were examined separately. Portal films, taken at least once a week during treatment, were compared to simulation films and appropriate changes were made on the next day before treatment. This film record was used in our retrospective analysis of patient motion. To study the probability of movement we carried out a Likelihood Ratio test (LR) on a sample of 43 patients (20, 15, and 8 in treatment positions (a), (b), and (c) respectively). To study the amount of movement, templates with outlines of bony landmarks were generated based on the simulation film and overlaid on the portal film to measure the displacement. Results: Our measurements are summarized in the table below, where the p values for the difference in probability of movement (leftmost three columns) comes from the LR test and the amount of movement (rightmost three columns) is expressed as an average accompanied by a root-mean-square, in millimeters. Conclusions: From the data so far analyzed, patients treated supine and immobilized in an aquaplast cast -- group (b) -- exhibit the lowest probability of cephalo-caudad and anterior-posterior movement. In addition, although

  10. Photochemical immobilization of bovine serum albumin on Ti-O and evaluations in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Y.J.; Qi, F.; Huang, N.; Wang, J.; Cheng, J.Y.; Leng, Y.X.

    2008-01-01

    Antithrombogenic biomaterials have been of great interest in the development of artificial organs and devices. In this study, titanium oxide coatings were used as the basis for covalent immobilization of a BSA layer by a photochemical method. BSA was first modified with azidophenyl group on the side chain, so it (AZ-BSA) has the property of photo-reactivity. Simultaneously, an organic monolayer of 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid (APP) was introduced on the Ti-O film by self-assembling, and then UV irradiation was used to couple AZ-BSA with APP. FTIR, XPS and contact angle measurements confirmed the occurrence of the modification. Additionally, a surface with both BSA immobilized and non-BSA immobilized regions was prepared by using a mask when irradiating, thus the interactions of materials and platelets were visualized. Platelet experiments of both qualitative and quantitative analysis showed that BSA immobilized surface was effective to inhibit platelet adhesion in vitro. In vivo study also confirmed better hemocompatibility of BSA immobilized surface after 90 days implantation

  11. Computer-aided design of bromelain and papain covalent immobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Cutiño-Avila, Bessy; Gil Pradas, Dayrom; Aragón Abreu, Carlos; Fernández Marrero, Yuniel; Hernández de la Torre, Martha; Salas Sarduy, Emir; Chávez Planes, María de los Ángeles; Guisán Seijas, José Manuel; Díaz Brito, Joaquín; del Monte-Martínez, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes as immobilized derivatives have been widely used in Food, Agrochemical, Pharmaceutical and Biotechnological industries. Protein immobilization is probably the most used technology to improve the operational stability of these molecules. Bromelain (Ananas comosus) and papain (Carica papaya) are cystein proteases extensively used as immobilized biocatalyst with several applications in therapeutics, racemic mixtures resolution, affinity chromatography and others industrial scenarios. The...

  12. Short-Term Limb Immobilization Affects Cognitive Motor Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Lucette; Meugnot, Aurore

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a brief period of limb immobilization on the cognitive level of action control. A splint placed on the participants' left hand was used as a means of immobilization. We used a hand mental rotation task to investigate the immobilization-induced effects on motor imagery performance (Experiments 1 and 2) and a number mental…

  13. Immobilization of microbial cells: A promising tool for treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The review articles on cell immobilization have been published since 1980 and reflect the general interest in this topic. Immobilized microbial cells create opportunities in a wide range of sectors including environmental pollution control. Compared with suspended microorganism technology, cell immobilization shows many ...

  14. Characterization of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of experimental parameters like pH, temperature and substrate concentration on the activity of the immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary ... of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α-amylase in this study show that immobilization had no significant effect on the enzyme and compared to kinetic ...

  15. Characteristics of immobilized aminoacylase from Aspergillus oryzae on macroporous copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B L; Jiang, P; Qiu, Y B

    1990-01-01

    Aminoacylase from Aspergillus oryzae was adsorbed on functionallized macroporous copolymers where the enzyme showed excellent catalyzing activity and operation stability. Various factors which effect the activity of the immobilized aminoacylase such as temperature, pH and ionic strength were investigated. The continuous operation of the enzyme immobilized on macroporous copolymers was compared with that of the enzyme immobilized on DEAE-Sephadex.

  16. Reliability analysis and initial requirements for FC systems and stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åström, K.; Fontell, E.; Virtanen, S.

    In the year 2000 Wärtsilä Corporation started an R&D program to develop SOFC systems for CHP applications. The program aims to bring to the market highly efficient, clean and cost competitive fuel cell systems with rated power output in the range of 50-250 kW for distributed generation and marine applications. In the program Wärtsilä focuses on system integration and development. System reliability and availability are key issues determining the competitiveness of the SOFC technology. In Wärtsilä, methods have been implemented for analysing the system in respect to reliability and safety as well as for defining reliability requirements for system components. A fault tree representation is used as the basis for reliability prediction analysis. A dynamic simulation technique has been developed to allow for non-static properties in the fault tree logic modelling. Special emphasis has been placed on reliability analysis of the fuel cell stacks in the system. A method for assessing reliability and critical failure predictability requirements for fuel cell stacks in a system consisting of several stacks has been developed. The method is based on a qualitative model of the stack configuration where each stack can be in a functional, partially failed or critically failed state, each of the states having different failure rates and effects on the system behaviour. The main purpose of the method is to understand the effect of stack reliability, critical failure predictability and operating strategy on the system reliability and availability. An example configuration, consisting of 5 × 5 stacks (series of 5 sets of 5 parallel stacks) is analysed in respect to stack reliability requirements as a function of predictability of critical failures and Weibull shape factor of failure rate distributions.

  17. Aspergillus niger PA2 Tyrosinase Covalently Immobilized on a Novel Eco-Friendly Bio-Composite of Chitosan-Gelatin and Its Evaluation for L-DOPA Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pragati; Dubey, Swati; Singh, Mukta; Singh, Rajesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) a copper-containing monooxygenase, isolated from a fungal isolate Aspergillus niger PA2 was subjected for immobilization onto a composite consisting of chitosan and gelatin biopolymers. The homogeneity of the chitosan-gelatin biocomposite film was characterized by X-ray diffraction analyses. To evaluate immobilization efficiency, chitosan-gelatin-Tyr bio-composite films were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and UV-spectroscopy. The rough morphology of the film led to a high loading of enzyme and it could retain its bioactivity for a longer period. The enzyme adsorbed onto the film exhibited 72% of its activity after 10 days and exhibited good repeatability for up to nine times, after intermittent storage. Moreover, the immobilized enzyme exhibited broader pH and temperature profile as compared to free counterpart. Immobilized enzyme was further evaluated for the synthesis of L-DOPA (2,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine) which is a precursor of dopamine and a potent drug for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and for myocardium neurogenic injury. PMID:28066399

  18. Immobilization: A Revolution in Traditional Brewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkajärvi, Ilkka; Linko, Matti

    In nature many micro-organisms tend to bind to solid surfaces. This tendency has long been utilized in a number of processes, for example in producing vinegar and acetic acid in bioreactors filled with wood shavings. Acetobacteria are attached to the surface of these shavings. In modern technical language: they are immobilized. Also yeast cells can be immobilized. In the brewing industry this has been the basis for maintaining efficient, continuous fermentation in bioreactors with very high yeast concentrations. The most dramatic change in brewing over recent years has been the replacement of traditional lagering of several weeks by a continuous process in which the residence time is only about 2h. Continuous primary fermentation is used on a commercial scale in New Zealand. In this process, instead of a carrier, yeast is retained in reactors by returning it partly after separation. In many pilot scale experiments the primary fermentation is shortened from about 1week to 1-2days using immobilized yeast reactors. When using certain genetically modified yeast strains no secondary fermentation is needed, and the total fermentation time in immobilized yeast reactors can therefore be shortened to only 2days.

  19. Silica gel matrix immobilized Chlorophyta hydrodictyon africanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorophyta hydrodictyon africanum was immobilized on a silica gel matrix to improve its mechanical properties. The algae-silica gel adsorbent was used for batch sorption studies of a cationic dye, methylene blue (MB). Optimum adsorption was obtained with a dosage of 0.8 g bio sorbent. Results from sorption studies ...

  20. Isomaltulose production using free and immobilized Serratia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    André

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... After 2 h of reaction time in shake flasks, a high production of ... immobilized cells in calcium alginate was studied in a packed bed bioreactor during seven days in a .... cell biomass was obtained from fermentation in a 6.6 L bioreactor .... carbohydrates were analyzed comparing their retention times with.