WorldWideScience

Sample records for stack tunnel dielectrics

  1. Photo-induced tunneling currents in MOS structures with various HfO2/SiO2 stacking dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Sheng Pang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the current conduction mechanisms of structures with tandem high-k dielectric in illumination are discussed. Samples of Al/SiO2/Si (S, Al/HfO2/SiO2/Si (H, and Al/3HfO2/SiO2/Si (3H were examined. The significant observation of electron traps of sample H compares to sample S is found under the double bias capacitance-voltage (C-V measurements in illumination. Moreover, the photo absorption sensitivity of sample H is higher than S due to the formation of HfO2 dielectric layer, which leads to larger numbers of carriers crowded through the sweep of VG before the domination of tunneling current. Additionally, the HfO2 dielectric layer would block the electrons passing through oxide from valance band, which would result in less electron-hole (e−-h+ pairs recombination effect. Also, it was found that both of the samples S and H show perimeter dependency of positive bias currents due to strong fringing field effect in dark and illumination; while sample 3H shows area dependency of positive bias currents in strong illumination. The non-uniform tunneling current through thin dielectric and through HfO2 stacking layers are importance to MOS(p tunneling photo diodes.

  2. Effect of ion implantation energy for the synthesis of Ge nanocrystals in SiN films with HfO2/SiO2 stack tunnel dielectrics for memory application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloux Florence

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ge nanocrystals (Ge-NCs embedded in SiN dielectrics with HfO2/SiO2 stack tunnel dielectrics were synthesized by utilizing low-energy (≤5 keV ion implantation method followed by conventional thermal annealing at 800°C, the key variable being Ge+ ion implantation energy. Two different energies (3 and 5 keV have been chosen for the evolution of Ge-NCs, which have been found to possess significant changes in structural and chemical properties of the Ge+-implanted dielectric films, and well reflected in the charge storage properties of the Al/SiN/Ge-NC + SiN/HfO2/SiO2/Si metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS memory structures. No Ge-NC was detected with a lower implantation energy of 3 keV at a dose of 1.5 × 1016 cm-2, whereas a well-defined 2D-array of nearly spherical and well-separated Ge-NCs within the SiN matrix was observed for the higher-energy-implanted (5 keV sample for the same implanted dose. The MIS memory structures implanted with 5 keV exhibits better charge storage and retention characteristics compared to the low-energy-implanted sample, indicating that the charge storage is predominantly in Ge-NCs in the memory capacitor. A significant memory window of 3.95 V has been observed under the low operating voltage of ± 6 V with good retention properties, indicating the feasibility of these stack structures for low operating voltage, non-volatile memory devices.

  3. Dielectric Sensors Based on Electromagnetic Energy Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Omar; Kashanianfard, Mani; Ramahi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    We show that metallic wires embedded in narrow waveguide bends and channels demonstrate resonance behavior at specific frequencies. The electromagnetic energy at these resonances tunnels through the narrow waveguide channels with almost no propagation losses. Under the tunneling behavior, high-intensity electromagnetic fields are produced in the vicinity of the metallic wires. These intense field resonances can be exploited to build highly sensitive dielectric sensors. The sensor operation is explained with the help of full-wave simulations. A practical setup consisting of a 3D waveguide bend is presented to experimentally observe the tunneling phenomenon. The tunneling frequency is predicted by determining the input impedance minima through a variational formula based on the Green function of a probe-excited parallel plate waveguide. PMID:25835188

  4. Dielectric Sensors Based on Electromagnetic Energy Tunneling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Siddiqui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that metallic wires embedded in narrow waveguide bends and channels demonstrate resonance behavior at specific frequencies. The electromagnetic energy at these resonances tunnels through the narrow waveguide channels with almost no propagation losses. Under the tunneling behavior, high-intensity electromagnetic fields are produced in the vicinity of the metallic wires. These intense field resonances can be exploited to build highly sensitive dielectric sensors. The sensor operation is explained with the help of full-wave simulations. A practical setup consisting of a 3D waveguide bend is presented to experimentally observe the tunneling phenomenon. The tunneling frequency is predicted by determining the input impedance minima through a variational formula based on the Green function of a probe-excited parallel plate waveguide.

  5. Nanostructured Anodic Multilayer Dielectric Stacked Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, R; Kannadassan, D; Baghini, Maryam Shojaei; Mallick, P S

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3 metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor using anodization technique. High capacitance density of > 3.5 fF/μm2, low quadratic voltage coefficient of capacitance of dielectric stack required for high performance MIM capacitor.

  6. Multibands tunneling in AAA-stacked trilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redouani, Ilham; Jellal, Ahmed; Bahaoui, Abdelhadi; Bahlouli, Hocine

    2018-04-01

    We study the electronic transport through np and npn junctions for AAA-stacked trilayer graphene. Two kinds of gates are considered where the first is a single gate and the second is a double gate. After obtaining the solutions for the energy spectrum, we use the transfer matrix method to determine the three transmission probabilities for each individual cone τ = 0 , ± 1 . We show that the quasiparticles in AAA-stacked trilayer graphene are not only chiral but also labeled by an additional cone index τ. The obtained bands are composed of three Dirac cones that depend on the chirality indexes. We show that there is perfect transmission for normal or near normal incidence, which is a manifestation of the Klein tunneling effect. We analyze also the corresponding total conductance, which is defined as the sum of the conductance channels in each individual cone. Our results are numerically discussed and compared with those obtained for ABA- and ABC-stacked trilayer graphene.

  7. Modelling and characterization of dielectric elastomer stack actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, Henry; Matysek, Marc; Mößinger, Holger; Schlaak, Helmut F

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to establish and evaluate an electrical and mechanical model for dielectric elastomer stack actuators. Based on the structure of an electrically interconnected actuator a simplified electrical and mechanical network is deduced. The electrical model results in a low-pass filter. The model is evaluated by measurements of the electrical impedance and contact, electrode and parallel resistances. Measurement results show good agreement of the model with the electrical behaviour of the real actuator over a wide frequency range, from below 0.1 Hz to above 10 kHz. The mechanical modelling is split into dynamic and static behaviour. The dynamic mechanical behaviour is modelled as a mechanical equivalent network using fractional elements. The static mechanical model uses the uniaxial compressive modulus of the actuator material to describe the static characteristic. The combination of static and dynamic models allows a realistic prediction of the static and dynamic deflection of the actuators under an applied electrical voltage. This electro-mechanical model has been validated in a frequency range of 4 Hz to 4 kHz. (paper)

  8. Nb/NiCu bilayers in single and stacked superconductive tunnel junctions: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, G.P.; Ruotolo, A.; Parlato, L.; Peluso, G.; Ausanio, G.; Carapella, G.; Latempa, R.

    2004-01-01

    We present preliminary experimental results concerning both single and stacked tunnel junctions in which one of the electrodes was formed by a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) bi-layer. In particular, in the stacked configuration a Nb/NiCu bi-layer was used as the intermediate electrode, and it was probed by tunneling on both sides. Tunnel junctions have been characterized in terms of current-voltage characteristics (IVC), and differential conductance. Preliminary steady-state injection-detection measurements performed in the stacked devices at T=4.2 K are also presented and discussed

  9. Optimized electrode configuration for current-in-plane characterization of magnetic tunnel junction stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Kjær, Daniel; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2017-01-01

    The current-in-plane tunneling technique (CIPT) has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction stacks suitable for magnetic random access memories (MRAM) for more than a decade. The MRAM development has now reached the maturity to make the transition from the R&D phase...... of electrodes on a multi-electrode probe to reach up to 36% improvement on the repeatability for the resistance area product and the tunneling magnetoresistance measurement, without any hardware modification....

  10. Optical necklaces generated by the diffraction on a stack of dielectric wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izdebskaya, Yana [Nonlinear Physics Centre, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Department of Physics, V.I. Vernandsky Taurida National University, Simferopol 95007, Crimea (Ukraine)], E-mail: yvi124@rsphysse.anu.edu.au

    2008-05-19

    We demonstrate that the regular ring-shaped arrays of Gaussian beams, or optical necklaces, can be generated using diffraction on a stack of dielectric wedges. A condition for self-similarity and structural stability of the beams has been derived and shows good comparison with experimental data.

  11. Reduction of ambipolar characteristics of vertical channel tunneling field-effect transistor by using dielectric sidewall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chun Woong; Cho, Il Hwan; Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Ambipolar characteristics of tunneling FETs have been improved by introducing a novel structure which contains dielectric sidewall in the gate region. In the ambipolar operation mode, gate field effect on intrinsic-drain junction region can be reduced with dielectric sidewall. As a result, ambipolar state tunneling probability is decreased at the intrinsic-drain junction. Since the sidewall region is located near the drain region, tunneling probability of source-intrinsic region is not affected by dielectric sidewall. This asymmetric characteristics means only ambipolar current of tunneling FETs can be prohibited by dielectric sidewall. Reduction of ambipolar characteristic of proposed structure has been evaluated with dimension and location of dielectric sidewall. Quantitative analysis of ambipolar characteristics is also investigated with tunneling. (paper)

  12. Hidden symmetries in N-layer dielectric stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haihao; Shoufie Ukhtary, M.; Saito, Riichiro

    2017-11-01

    The optical properties of a multilayer system with arbitrary N layers of dielectric media are investigated. Each layer is one of two dielectric media, with a thickness one-quarter the wavelength of light in that medium, corresponding to a central frequency f 0. Using the transfer matrix method, the transmittance T is calculated for all possible 2 N sequences for small N. Unexpectedly, it is found that instead of 2 N different values of T at f 0 (T 0), there are only (N/2+1) discrete values of T 0, for even N, and (N + 1) for odd N. We explain this high degeneracy in T 0 values by finding symmetry operations on the sequences that do not change T 0. Analytical formulae were derived for the T 0 values and their degeneracies as functions of N and an integer parameter for each sequence we call ‘charge’. Additionally, the bandwidth at f 0 and filter response of the transmission spectra are investigated, revealing asymptotic behavior at large N.

  13. Yttrium scandate thin film as alternative high-permittivity dielectric for germanium gate stack formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Cimang, E-mail: cimang@adam.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Lee, Choong Hyun; Nishimura, Tomonori; Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST, CREST, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    We investigated yttrium scandate (YScO{sub 3}) as an alternative high-permittivity (k) dielectric thin film for Ge gate stack formation. Significant enhancement of k-value is reported in YScO{sub 3} comparing to both of its binary compounds, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}, without any cost of interface properties. It suggests a feasible approach to a design of promising high-k dielectrics for Ge gate stack, namely, the formation of high-k ternary oxide out of two medium-k binary oxides. Aggressive scaling of equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) with promising interface properties is presented by using YScO{sub 3} as high-k dielectric and yttrium-doped GeO{sub 2} (Y-GeO{sub 2}) as interfacial layer, for a demonstration of high-k gate stack on Ge. In addition, we demonstrate Ge n-MOSFET performance showing the peak electron mobility over 1000 cm{sup 2}/V s in sub-nm EOT region by YScO{sub 3}/Y-GeO{sub 2}/Ge gate stack.

  14. Effect of the post-deposition annealing on electrical characteristics of MIS structures with HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taube, Andrzej [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Mroczynski, Robert, E-mail: rmroczyn@elka.pw.edu.pl [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Korwin-Mikke, Katarzyna [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Gieraltowska, Sylwia [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Szmidt, Jan [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Piotrowska, Anna [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-09-01

    In this work, we report on effects of post-deposition annealing on electrical characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures with HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} double gate dielectric stacks. Obtained results have shown the deterioration of electro-physical properties of MIS structures, e.g. higher interface traps density in the middle of silicon forbidden band (D{sub itmb}), as well as non-uniform distribution and decrease of breakdown voltage (U{sub br}) values, after annealing above 400 Degree-Sign C. Two potential hypothesis of such behavior were proposed: the formation of interfacial layer between hafnia and silicon dioxide and the increase of crystallinity of HfO{sub 2} due to the high temperature treatment. Furthermore, the analysis of conduction mechanisms in investigated stacks revealed Poole-Frenkel (P-F) tunneling at broad range of electric field intensity.

  15. The Study of Electrical Properties for Multilayer La2O3/Al2O3 Dielectric Stacks and LaAlO3 Dielectric Film Deposited by ALD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing-Yao; Liu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Xing; Zhao, Lu; Fei, Chen-Xi; Liu, He-Lei

    2017-12-01

    The capacitance and leakage current properties of multilayer La 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 dielectric stacks and LaAlO 3 dielectric film are investigated in this paper. A clear promotion of capacitance properties is observed for multilayer La 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 stacks after post-deposition annealing (PDA) at 800 °C compared with PDA at 600 °C, which indicated the recombination of defects and dangling bonds performs better at the high-k/Si substrate interface for a higher annealing temperature. For LaAlO 3 dielectric film, compared with multilayer La 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 dielectric stacks, a clear promotion of trapped charges density (N ot ) and a degradation of interface trap density (D it ) can be obtained simultaneously. In addition, a significant improvement about leakage current property is observed for LaAlO 3 dielectric film compared with multilayer La 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 stacks at the same annealing condition. We also noticed that a better breakdown behavior for multilayer La 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 stack is achieved after annealing at a higher temperature for its less defects.

  16. Optimized electrode configuration for current-in-plane characterization of magnetic tunnel junction stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagliani, A; Kjær, D; Østerberg, F W; Hansen, O; Petersen, D H; Nielsen, P F

    2017-01-01

    The current-in-plane tunneling technique (CIPT) has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction stacks suitable for magnetic random access memories (MRAM) for more than a decade. The MRAM development has now reached the maturity to make the transition from the R and D phase to the pilot production phase. This will require an improvement in the repeatability of the CIPT metrology technique. Here, we present an analytical model that can be used to simulate numerically the repeatability of a CIPT measurement for an arbitrary MTJ stack prior to any CIPT measurement. The model describes mathematically the main sources of error arising when a micro multi-electrode probe is used to perform a CIPT measurement. The numerically simulated repeatability values obtained on four different MTJ stacks are verified by experimental data and the model is used to optimize the choice of electrodes on a multi-electrode probe to reach up to 36% improvement on the repeatability for the resistance area product and the tunneling magnetoresistance measurement, without any hardware modification. (paper)

  17. Silicon passivation and tunneling contact formation by atomic layer deposited Al2O3/ZnO stacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Alonso Garcia, D.; Smit, S.; Bordihn, S.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The passivation of Si by Al2O3/ZnO stacks, which can serve as passivated tunneling contacts or heterojunctions in silicon photovoltaics, was investigated. It was demonstrated that stacks with Al2O3 thicknesses >3 nm lead to lower surface recombination velocities (Seff,max <4 cm s-1) on n- and p-type

  18. Oxide-nitride-oxide dielectric stacks with Si nanoparticles obtained by low-energy ion beam synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou-Sougleridis, V; Dimitrakis, P; Vamvakas, V Em; Normand, P; Bonafos, C; Schamm, S; Mouti, A; Assayag, G Ben; Paillard, V

    2007-01-01

    Formation of a thin band of silicon nanoparticles within silicon nitride films by low-energy (1 keV) silicon ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing is demonstrated. Electrical characterization of metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors reveals that oxide/Si-nanoparticles-nitride/oxide dielectric stacks exhibit enhanced charge transfer characteristics between the substrate and the silicon nitride layer compared to dielectric stacks using unimplanted silicon nitride. Attractive results are obtained in terms of write/erase memory characteristics and data retention, indicating the large potential of the low-energy ion-beam-synthesis technique in SONOS memory technology

  19. Interfacial Cation-Defect Charge Dipoles in Stacked TiO2/Al2O3 Gate Dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Janotti, Anderson; Meng, Andrew C; Tang, Kechao; Van de Walle, Chris G; McIntyre, Paul C

    2018-02-14

    Layered atomic-layer-deposited and forming-gas-annealed TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 dielectric stacks, with the Al 2 O 3 layer interposed between the TiO 2 and a p-type germanium substrate, are found to exhibit a significant interface charge dipole that causes a ∼-0.2 V shift of the flat-band voltage and suppresses the leakage current density for gate injection of electrons. These effects can be eliminated by the formation of a trilayer dielectric stack, consistent with the cancellation of one TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 interface dipole by the addition of another dipole of opposite sign. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the observed interface-dependent properties of TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 dielectric stacks are consistent in sign and magnitude with the predicted behavior of Al Ti and Ti Al point-defect dipoles produced by local intermixing of the Al 2 O 3 /TiO 2 layers across the interface. Evidence for such intermixing is found in both electrical and physical characterization of the gate stacks.

  20. Depth Profiling of La2O3 ∕ HfO2 Stacked Dielectrics for Nanoelectronic Device Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-01-03

    Nanoscale La2O3 /HfO2 dielectric stacks have been studied using high resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The measured distance of the tail-end of the La signal from the dielectric/Si interface suggests that the origin of the threshold voltage shifts and the carrier mobility degradation may not be the same. Up to 20% drop in mobility and 500 mV shift in threshold voltage was observed as the La signal reached the Si substrate. Possible reasons for these changes are proposed, aided by depth profiling and bonding analysis. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  1. Resonant photon tunneling via surface plasmon polaritons through one-dimensional metal-dielectric metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Yanagi, Hisao; Wood, Ben; Pendry, John B.; Fujii, Minoru; Hayashi, Shinji

    2008-01-01

    We report resonant photon tunneling (RPT) through onedimensional metamaterials consisting of alternating layers of metal and dielectric. RPT via a surface plasmon polariton state permits evanescent light waves with large wavenumbers to be conveyed through the metamaterial. This is the mechanism for sub-wavelength imaging recently demonstrated with a super-lens. Furthermore, we find that the RPT peak is shifted from the reflectance dip with increasing the number of Al layers, indicating that t...

  2. Physical and electrical properties of bilayer CeO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} gate dielectric stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, M.M.V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University of Singapore, Block N 4.1Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); GlobalFoundries Singapore Private Limited, 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore); Lee, P.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University of Singapore, Block N 4.1Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tok, A.I.Y., E-mail: MIYTOK@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University of Singapore, Block N 4.1Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A bilayer gate dielectric stack of CeO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} to study the dependency of film growth with varying annealing temperatures is proposed. • The study demonstrates CeO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} bilayer stack with comparable κ-value as that of HfO{sub 2} but with reduced leakage current density of 4 orders of magnitude. • Schottky emission is the dominant leakage conduction mechanism of annealed CeO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} stack due to thermionic effect of interface properties. - Abstract: This study demonstrates a bilayer gate oxide structure of cerium oxide deposited via pulsed laser deposition and titanium oxide using conventional atomic layer deposition. Samples were deposited on p-type Si (100) substrate and exhibit interesting physical and electrical properties such that 600 °C annealed CeO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} samples having κ-value of 18 whereas pure CeO{sub 2} deposited samples have dielectric constant of 17.1 with leakage current density of 8.94 × 10{sup −6} A/cm{sup 2} at 1 V applied voltage. The result shows promising usage of the synthesized rare earth oxides as gate dielectric where ideal κ-value and significant reduction of the leakage current by 5 orders of magnitude is achieved. Leakage current conduction mechanism for as-deposited sample is found to be dominated by Poole–Frenkel (PF) emission; the trap level is found to be at 1.29 eV whereas annealed samples (600 °C and 800 °C) exhibited Schottky emission with trap levels at 1.45 eV and 0.81 eV, respectively.

  3. Analytical model of surface potential profiles and transfer characteristics for hetero stacked tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui Fang; Sun, Wen; Han, Xin Feng

    2018-06-01

    An analytical model of surface potential profiles and transfer characteristics for hetero stacked tunnel field-effect transistors (HS-TFETs) is presented for the first time, where hetero stacked materials are composed of two different bandgaps. The bandgap of the underlying layer is smaller than that of the upper layer. Under different device parameters (upper layer thickness, underlying layer thickness, and hetero stacked materials) and temperature, the validity of the model is demonstrated by the agreement of its results with the simulation results. Moreover, the results show that the HS-TFETs can obtain predominant performance with relatively slow changes of subthreshold swing (SS) over a wide drain current range, steep average subthreshold swing, high on-state current, and large on–off state current ratio.

  4. Resonant photon tunneling via surface plasmon polaritons through one-dimensional metal-dielectric metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Yanagi, Hisao; Wood, Ben; Pendry, John B; Fujii, Minoru; Hayashi, Shinji

    2008-06-23

    We report resonant photon tunneling (RPT) through one-dimensional metamaterials consisting of alternating layers of metal and dielectric. RPT via a surface plasmon polariton state permits evanescent light waves with large wavenumbers to be conveyed through the metamaterial. This is the mechanism for sub-wavelength imaging recently demonstrated with a super-lens. Furthermore, we find that the RPT peak is shifted from the reflectance dip with increasing the number of Al layers, indicating that the shift is caused by the losses in the RPT.

  5. Tunneling currents between carbon nanotubes inside the 3-dimensional potential of a dielectric matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Tsagarakis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the tunneling currents between CNTs dispersed in a dielectric matrix as is normally the case in a tensile stress or toxic gas sensors. Due to the randomness of the immersion process the CNTs are at random angles and configurations between them, thus producing a 3-dimensional potential (3-D. We have produced a method that solves the Laplace equation for this type of problem and uses the WKB formulation to calculate the transmission coefficient between CNTs. We have then shown that the tunneling currents between a pair of CNTs depend critically on their relative angle and configuration. In particular we have shown that the tunneling currents do not occur only along a CNT tip to CNT tip configuration but other more efficient paths exist which give a current higher by two orders of magnitude from what a simple 1D theory would give. On the other hand the tunneling current between non-coplanar CNTs is negligible. We conclude that such phenomena cannot be analyzed by a simple 1-dimensional WKB theory and the percolation threshold necessary for conduction may be lower than the one such a theory would predict.

  6. A threshold-voltage model for small-scaled GaAs nMOSFET with stacked high-k gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaowen, Liu; Jingping, Xu; Lu, Liu; Hanhan, Lu; Yuan, Huang

    2016-02-01

    A threshold-voltage model for a stacked high-k gate dielectric GaAs MOSFET is established by solving a two-dimensional Poisson's equation in channel and considering the short-channel, DIBL and quantum effects. The simulated results are in good agreement with the Silvaco TCAD data, confirming the correctness and validity of the model. Using the model, impacts of structural and physical parameters of the stack high-k gate dielectric on the threshold-voltage shift and the temperature characteristics of the threshold voltage are investigated. The results show that the stacked gate dielectric structure can effectively suppress the fringing-field and DIBL effects and improve the threshold and temperature characteristics, and on the other hand, the influence of temperature on the threshold voltage is overestimated if the quantum effect is ignored. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61176100).

  7. A threshold-voltage model for small-scaled GaAs nMOSFET with stacked high-k gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chaowen; Xu Jingping; Liu Lu; Lu Hanhan; Huang Yuan

    2016-01-01

    A threshold-voltage model for a stacked high-k gate dielectric GaAs MOSFET is established by solving a two-dimensional Poisson's equation in channel and considering the short-channel, DIBL and quantum effects. The simulated results are in good agreement with the Silvaco TCAD data, confirming the correctness and validity of the model. Using the model, impacts of structural and physical parameters of the stack high-k gate dielectric on the threshold-voltage shift and the temperature characteristics of the threshold voltage are investigated. The results show that the stacked gate dielectric structure can effectively suppress the fringing-field and DIBL effects and improve the threshold and temperature characteristics, and on the other hand, the influence of temperature on the threshold voltage is overestimated if the quantum effect is ignored. (paper)

  8. Theory and experiment on electromagnetic-wave-propagation velocities in stacked superconducting tunnel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, S.; Ustinov, A. V.; Kohlstedt, H.

    1994-01-01

    Characteristic velocities of the electromagnetic waves propagating in vertically stacked Josephson transmission are theoretically discussed. An equation for solving n velocities of the waves in an n Josephson-junction stack is derived. The solutions of two- and threefold stacks are especially...... focused on. Furthermore, under the assumption that all parameters of the layers are equal, analytic solutions for a generic N-fold stack are presented. The velocities of the waves in two- and three-junction stacks by Nb-Al-AlOx-Nb systems are experimentally obtained by measuring the cavity resonance...

  9. Palladium Gate All Around - Hetero Dielectric -Tunnel FET based highly sensitive Hydrogen Gas Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Jaya; Chaujar, Rishu

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents a novel highly sensitive Hetero-Dielectric-Gate All Around Tunneling FET (HD-GAA-TFET) based Hydrogen Gas Sensor, incorporating the advantages of band to band tunneling (BTBT) mechanism. Here, the Palladium supported silicon dioxide is used as a sensing media and sensing relies on the interaction of hydrogen with Palladium-SiO2-Si. The high surface to volume ratio in the case of cylindrical GAA structure enhances the fortuities for surface reactions between H2 gas and Pd, and thus improves the sensitivity and stability of the sensor. Behaviour of the sensor in presence of hydrogen and at elevated temperatures is discussed. The conduction path of the sensor which is dependent on sensors radius has also been varied for the optimized sensitivity and static performance analysis of the sensor where the proposed design exhibits a superior performance in terms of threshold voltage, subthreshold swing, and band to band tunneling rate. Stability of the sensor with respect to temperature affectability has also been studied, and it is found that the device is reasonably stable and highly sensitive over the bearable temperature range. The successful utilization of HD-GAA-TFET in gas sensors may open a new door for the development of novel nanostructure gas sensing devices.

  10. Energy harvesting with stacked dielectric elastomer transducers: Nonlinear theory, optimization, and linearized scaling law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutcuoglu, A.; Majidi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Using principles of damped harmonic oscillation with continuous media, we examine electrostatic energy harvesting with a "soft-matter" array of dielectric elastomer (DE) transducers. The array is composed of infinitely thin and deformable electrodes separated by layers of insulating elastomer. During vibration, it deforms longitudinally, resulting in a change in the capacitance and electrical enthalpy of the charged electrodes. Depending on the phase of electrostatic loading, the DE array can function as either an actuator that amplifies small vibrations or a generator that converts these external excitations into electrical power. Both cases are addressed with a comprehensive theory that accounts for the influence of viscoelasticity, dielectric breakdown, and electromechanical coupling induced by Maxwell stress. In the case of a linearized Kelvin-Voigt model of the dielectric, we obtain a closed-form estimate for the electrical power output and a scaling law for DE generator design. For the complete nonlinear model, we obtain the optimal electrostatic voltage input for maximum electrical power output.

  11. SiO2/AlON stacked gate dielectrics for AlGaN/GaN MOS heterojunction field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Terashima, Daiki; Nozaki, Mikito; Yamada, Takahiro; Nakazawa, Satoshi; Ishida, Masahiro; Anda, Yoshiharu; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2018-06-01

    Stacked gate dielectrics consisting of wide bandgap SiO2 insulators and thin aluminum oxynitride (AlON) interlayers were systematically investigated in order to improve the performance and reliability of AlGaN/GaN metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) devices. A significantly reduced gate leakage current compared with that in a single AlON layer was achieved with these structures, while maintaining the superior thermal stability and electrical properties of the oxynitride/AlGaN interface. Consequently, distinct advantages in terms of the reliability of the gate dielectrics, such as an improved immunity against electron injection and an increased dielectric breakdown field, were demonstrated for AlGaN/GaN MOS capacitors with optimized stacked structures having a 3.3-nm-thick AlON interlayer.

  12. Dielectric breakdown of ultrathin aluminum oxide films induced by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magtoto, N. P.; Niu, C.; Ekstrom, B. M.; Addepalli, S.; Kelber, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Dielectric breakdown of 7-Aa-thick Al 2 O 3 (111) films grown on Ni 3 Al(111) under ultrahigh vacuum conditions is induced by increasing the bias voltage on the scanning tunneling microscopy tip under constant current feedback. Breakdown is marked by the precipitous retreat of the tip from the surface, and the formation of an elevated feature in the scanning tunneling microscopy image, typically greater than 5 nm high and ∼100 nm in diameter. Constant height measurements performed at tip/sample distances of 1 nm or less yield no tip/substrate physical interaction, indicating that such features do not result from mass transport. Consistent with this, current/voltage measurements within the affected regions indicate linear behavior, in contrast to a band gap of 1.5 eV observed at unaffected regions of the oxide surface. A threshold electric field value of 11±1 MV cm -1 is required to induce breakdown, in good agreement with extrapolated values from capacitance measurements on thicker oxides. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  13. Quantum-coherence-assisted tunable on- and off-resonance tunneling through a quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianqi; Zeng Ruixi

    2017-01-01

    Quantum-dot-molecular phase coherence (and the relevant quantum-interference-switchable optical response) can be utilized to control electromagnetic wave propagation via a gate voltage, since quantum-dot molecules can exhibit an effect of quantum coherence (phase coherence) when quantum-dot-molecular discrete multilevel transitions are driven by an electromagnetic wave. Interdot tunneling of carriers (electrons and holes) controlled by the gate voltage can lead to destructive quantum interference in a quantum-dot molecule that is coupled to an incident electromagnetic wave, and gives rise to a quantum coherence effect (e.g., electromagnetically induced transparency, EIT) in a quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film. The tunable on- and off-resonance tunneling effect of an incident electromagnetic wave (probe field) through such a quantum-coherent quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film is investigated. It is found that a high gate voltage can lead to the EIT phenomenon of the quantum-dot-molecular systems. Under the condition of on-resonance light tunneling through the present quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film, the probe field should propagate without loss if the probe frequency detuning is zero. Such an effect caused by both EIT and resonant tunneling, which is sensitive to the gate voltage, can be utilized for designing devices such as photonic switching, transistors, and logic gates. (author)

  14. Transparent Flash Memory using Single Ta2O5 Layer for both Charge Trapping and Tunneling Dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti

    2017-06-08

    We report reproducible multibit transparent flash memory in which a single solution-derived Ta2O5 layer is used simultaneously as charge trapping and tunneling layer. This is different from conventional flash cells, where two different dielectric layers are typically used. Under optimized programming/erasing operations, the memory device shows excellent programmable memory characteristics with a maximum memory window of ~10 V. Moreover, the flash memory device shows a stable 2-bit memory performance, good reliability, including data retention for more than 104 sec and endurance performance for more than 100 cycles. The use of a common charge trapping and tunneling layer can simplify advanced flash memory fabrication.

  15. Transparent Flash Memory using Single Ta2O5 Layer for both Charge Trapping and Tunneling Dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Alshammari, Fwzah H.; Salama, Khaled N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    We report reproducible multibit transparent flash memory in which a single solution-derived Ta2O5 layer is used simultaneously as charge trapping and tunneling layer. This is different from conventional flash cells, where two different dielectric layers are typically used. Under optimized programming/erasing operations, the memory device shows excellent programmable memory characteristics with a maximum memory window of ~10 V. Moreover, the flash memory device shows a stable 2-bit memory performance, good reliability, including data retention for more than 104 sec and endurance performance for more than 100 cycles. The use of a common charge trapping and tunneling layer can simplify advanced flash memory fabrication.

  16. Comparative studies of AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMTs with stacked gate dielectrics by the mixed thin film growth method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Bo-Yi; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Liu, Han-Yin; Ho, Chiu-Sheng; Lee, Ching-Sung

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports Al 0.27 Ga 0.73 N/GaN metal–oxide–semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) with stacked Al 2 O 3 /HfO 2 gate dielectrics by using hydrogen peroxideoxidation/sputtering techniques. The Al 2 O 3 employed as a gate dielectric and surface passivation layer effectively suppresses the gate leakage current, improves RF drain current collapse and exhibits good thermal stability. Moreover, by stacking the good insulating high-k HfO 2 dielectric further suppresses the gate leakage, enhances the dielectric breakdown field and power-added efficiency, and decreases the equivalent oxide thickness. The present MOS-HEMT design has demonstrated superior improvements of 10.1% (16.4%) in the maximum drain–source current (I DS,max ), 11.4% (22.5%) in the gate voltage swing and 12.5%/14.4% (21.9%/22.3%) in the two-terminal gate–drain breakdown/turn-on voltages (BV GD /V ON ), and the present design also demonstrates the lowest gate leakage current and best thermal stability characteristics as compared to two reference MOS-HEMTs with a single Al 2 O 3 /(HfO 2 ) dielectric layer of the same physical thickness. (invited paper)

  17. Manipulation of stored charge in anodic aluminium oxide/SiO2 dielectric stacks by the use of pulsed anodisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhong; Ouyang, Zi; Grant, Nicholas; Wan, Yimao; Yan, Di; Lennon, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pulse anodisation was used to grow AAO layers with controllable stored charge. • Stored charge density ranging from −5.2 × 10 11 to 2.5 × 10 12 q/cm 2 was demonstrated. • Enhancement in surface passivation was demonstrated with charge management. • Annealing significantly reduces the positive stored charge and the interface defect. - Abstract: A method of fabricating anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) with the capability of manipulating its stored charge is reported. This method involves the use of a pulsed current source to anodise aluminium layers instead of the typically used constant current/voltage source, with the test structures experiencing positive and negative cycles periodically. By tuning the positive cycle percentage, it is demonstrated that the effective stored charge density can be manipulated in a range from −5.2 × 10 11 to 2.5 × 10 12 q/cm 2 when the AAO is formed over a 12 nm SiO 2 layer. An investigation of the stored charge distribution in the dielectric stacks indicates a positive fixed charge at the SiO 2 /Si interface, a negative fixed charge at the AAO/SiO 2 interface and a positive bulk charge within the AAO layer. The effective stored charge density and interface states were found to be affected by annealing conditions and it is suggested that oxygen annealing can reduce the bulk positive charge while post-metallisation anneal is most effective in reducing silicon interface defects. Charge manipulation using pulsed anodisation is shown to reduce carrier recombination on boron-diffused silicon surfaces highlighting the potential of the process to be used to tune the electrical properties of dielectric layers so that they can reduce surface recombination on silicon surfaces having different dopant polarity and concentrations.

  18. Vacancy-type defects in TiO2/SiO2/SiC dielectric stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, P. G.; Burrows, C. P.; Mahapatra, R.; Wright, N. G.

    2007-07-01

    Open-volume (vacancy-type) point defects have been observed in ˜80-nm-thick titanium dioxide films grown on silicon dioxide/4H silicon carbide substrates as stacks with high dielectric constant for power device applications, using variable-energy positron annihilation spectroscopy. The concentration of vacancies decreases as the titanium dioxide growth temperature is increased in the range from 700to1000°C, whereas grain boundaries form in the polycrystalline material at the highest growth temperatures. It is proposed that the optimal electrical performance for films grown at 800°C reflects a balance between decreasing vacancy concentration and increasing grain boundary formation. The concentration of vacancies at the silicon dioxide/silicon carbide interface appears to saturate after 2.5h oxidation at 1150°C. A supplementary result suggests that the quality of the 10-μm-thick deposited silicon carbide epilayer is compromised at depths of about 2μm and beyond, possibly by the migration of impurities and/or other defects from the standard-grade highly doped 4H silicon carbide wafer beneath the epilayer during oxidation.

  19. Demonstration of hetero-gate-dielectric tunneling field-effect transistors (HG TFETs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Kook

    2016-01-01

    The steady scaling-down of semiconductor device for improving performance has been the most important issue among researchers. Recently, as low-power consumption becomes one of the most important requirements, there have been many researches about novel devices for low-power consumption. Though scaling supply voltage is the most effective way for low-power consumption, performance degradation is occurred for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) when supply voltage is reduced because subthreshold swing (SS) of MOSFETs cannot be lower than 60 mV/dec. Thus, in this thesis, hetero-gate-dielectric tunneling field-effect transistors (HG TFETs) are investigated as one of the most promising alternatives to MOSFETs. By replacing source-side gate insulator with a high- k material, HG TFETs show higher on-current, suppressed ambipolar current and lower SS than conventional TFETs. Device design optimization through simulation was performed and fabrication based on simulation demonstrated that performance of HG TFETs were better than that of conventional TFETs. Especially, enlargement of gate insulator thickness while etching gate insulator at the source side was improved by introducing HF vapor etch process. In addition, the proposed HG TFETs showed higher performance than our previous results by changing structure of sidewall spacer by high- k etching process.

  20. Low threshold optical bistability and superluminal light propagation using a dielectric slab via inter-dot tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taherzadeh, S; Nasehi, R; Mahmoudi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The optical bistability (OB) behavior of a dielectric slab doped with quantum dot (QD) molecules is investigated in the presence of the inter-dot tunneling effect. It is shown that the threshold point of OB reduces by increasing inter-dot tunneling as well as by reducing the slab thickness. It is worth noting that the threshold of OB in a slab doped with QD molecules is smaller, by at least one order of magnitude, in respect to free QD molecules. We find that the inter-dot tunneling induces a negative group delay to the reflected pulse and it propagates in the superluminal region. Such simple control can be used in all optical switching. (paper)

  1. Localized states in advanced dielectrics from the vantage of spin- and symmetry-polarized tunnelling across MgO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, F; Halisdemir, U; Lacour, D; Gallart, M; Boukari, S; Schmerber, G; Davesne, V; Panissod, P; Halley, D; Majjad, H; Henry, Y; Leconte, B; Boulard, A; Spor, D; Beyer, N; Kieber, C; Sternitzky, E; Cregut, O; Ziegler, M; Montaigne, F; Beaurepaire, E; Gilliot, P; Hehn, M; Bowen, M

    2014-08-04

    Research on advanced materials such as multiferroic perovskites underscores promising applications, yet studies on these materials rarely address the impact of defects on the nominally expected materials property. Here, we revisit the comparatively simple oxide MgO as the model material system for spin-polarized solid-state tunnelling studies. We present a defect-mediated tunnelling potential landscape of localized states owing to explicitly identified defect species, against which we examine the bias and temperature dependence of magnetotransport. By mixing symmetry-resolved transport channels, a localized state may alter the effective barrier height for symmetry-resolved charge carriers, such that tunnelling magnetoresistance decreases most with increasing temperature when that state is addressed electrically. Thermal excitation promotes an occupancy switchover from the ground to the excited state of a defect, which impacts these magnetotransport characteristics. We thus resolve contradictions between experiment and theory in this otherwise canonical spintronics system, and propose a new perspective on defects in dielectrics.

  2. Analytical drain current formulation for gate dielectric engineered dual material gate-gate all around-tunneling field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Jaya; Gupta, R. S.; Chaujar, Rishu

    2015-09-01

    In this work, an analytical drain current model for gate dielectric engineered (hetero dielectric)-dual material gate-gate all around tunnel field effect transistor (HD-DMG-GAA-TFET) has been developed. Parabolic approximation has been used to solve the two-dimensional (2D) Poisson equation with appropriate boundary conditions and continuity equations to evaluate analytical expressions for surface potential, electric field, tunneling barrier width and drain current. Further, the analog performance of the device is studied for three high-k dielectrics (Si3N4, HfO2, and ZrO2), and it has been investigated that the problem of lower ION, can be overcome by using the hetero-gate architecture. Moreover, the impact of scaling the gate oxide thickness and bias variations has also been studied. The HD-DMG-GAA-TFET shows an enhanced ION of the order of 10-4 A. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated by comparing it with ATLAS device simulations.

  3. Hetero-gate-dielectric double gate junctionless transistor (HGJLT) with reduced band-to-band tunnelling effects in subthreshold regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Bahniman; Mondal, Partha; Akram, M. W.; Bal, Punyasloka; Salimath, Akshay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    We propose a hetero-gate-dielectric double gate junctionless transistor (HGJLT), taking high-k gate insulator at source side and low-k gate insulator at drain side, which reduces the effects of band-to-band tunnelling (BTBT) in the sub-threshold region. A junctionless transistor (JLT) is turned off by the depletion of carriers in the highly doped thin channel (device layer) which results in a significant band overlap between the valence band of the channel region and the conduction band of the drain region, due to off-state drain bias, that triggers electrons to tunnel from the valence band of the channel region to the conduction band of the drain region leaving behind holes in the channel. These effects of band-to-band tunnelling increase the sub-threshold leakage current, and the accumulation of holes in the channel forms a parasitic bipolar junction transistor (n–p–n BJT for channel JLT) in the lateral direction by the source (emitter), channel (base) and drain (collector) regions in JLT structure in off-state. The proposed HGJLT reduces the subthreshold leakage current and suppresses the parasitic BJT action in off-state by reducing the band-to-band tunnelling probability. (semiconductor devices)

  4. AlN and Al oxy-nitride gate dielectrics for reliable gate stacks on Ge and InGaAs channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Li, H.; Robertson, J. [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-28

    AlN and Al oxy-nitride dielectric layers are proposed instead of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a component of the gate dielectric stacks on higher mobility channels in metal oxide field effect transistors to improve their positive bias stress instability reliability. It is calculated that the gap states of nitrogen vacancies in AlN lie further away in energy from the semiconductor band gap than those of oxygen vacancies in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and thus AlN might be less susceptible to charge trapping and have a better reliability performance. The unfavourable defect energy level distribution in amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is attributed to its larger coordination disorder compared to the more symmetrically bonded AlN. Al oxy-nitride is also predicted to have less tendency for charge trapping.

  5. An EELS sub-nanometer investigation of the dielectric gate stack for the realization of InGaAs based MOSFET devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, P; Paterson, G W; Craven, A J; Holland, M C; Thayne, I G

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a subnanometer investigation of the Ga 2 O 3 /GdGaO dielectric gate stack deposited onto InGaAs is presented. Results regarding the influence of the growth conditions on the interface region from a chemical and morphological point of view are presented. The chemical information reported in this paper has been obtained using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) that was carried out in a scanning transmission electron microscope ((S)TEM) showing both spatial and depth resolution.

  6. Influence of stacking morphology and edge nitrogen doping on the dielectric performance of graphene-polymer nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Almadhoun, Mahmoud N.

    2014-05-13

    We demonstrate that functional groups obtained by varying the preparation route of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) highly influence filler morphology and the overall dielectric performance of rGO-relaxor ferroelectric polymer nanocomposite. Specifically, we show that nitrogen-doping by hydrazine along the edges of reduced graphene oxide embedded in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) results in a dielectric permittivity above 10 000 while maintaining a dielectric loss below 2. This is one of the best-reported dielectric constant/dielectric loss performance values. In contrast, rGO produced by the hydrothermal reduction route shows a much lower enhancement, reaching a maximum dielectric permittivity of 900. Furthermore, functional derivatives present in rGO are found to strongly affect the quality of dispersion and the resultant percolation threshold at low loading levels. However, high leakage currents and lowered breakdown voltages offset the advantages of increased capacitance in these ultrahigh-k systems, resulting in no significant improvement in stored energy density. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  7. Dual material gate doping-less tunnel FET with hetero gate dielectric for enhancement of analog/RF performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sunny; Sarin, R. K.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, charge-plasma-based tunnel FET is proposed by employing dual material gate with hetero gate dielectric technique and it is named hetero-dielectric dual material gate doping-less TFET (HD_DMG_DLTFET). It is compared with conventional doping-less TFET (DLTFET) and dual material gate doping-less TFET (DMG_DLTFET) on the basis of analog and RF performance. The HD_DMG_DLTFET provides better ON state current ({I}\\text{ON}=94 μ \\text{A}/μ \\text{m}), {I}\\text{ON}/{I}\\text{OFF}(≈ 1.36× {10}13), \\text{point} (≈ 3\\text{mV}/\\text{dec}) and average subthreshold slope (\\text{AV}-\\text{SS}=40.40 \\text{mV}/\\text{dec}). The proposed device offers low total gate capacitance (C gg) along with higher drive current. However, with a better transconductance (g m) and cut-off frequency (f T), the HD_DMG_DLTFET can be a good candidate for RF circuitry. The early voltage (V EA) and output conductance (g d) are also moderate for the proposed device with comparison to other devices and therefore can be a candidate for analog devices. From all these simulation results and their study, it is observed that HD_DMG_DLTFET has improved analog/RF performance compared to DLTFET and DMG_DLTFET.

  8. Time-resolved photoluminescence for evaluating laser-induced damage during dielectric stack ablation in silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parola, Stéphanie [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69621 (France); Blanc-Pélissier, Danièle, E-mail: daniele.blanc@insa-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69621 (France); Barbos, Corina; Le Coz, Marine [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69621 (France); Poulain, Gilles [TOTAL MS—New Energies, R& D Division, La Défense (France); Lemiti, Mustapha [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69621 (France)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Ablation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub x} on Si substrates was performed with a nanosecond UV laser. • Ablation thresholds were found in good agreement with COMSOL simulation, around 0.85 and 0.95 J cm{sup −2} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub X}, respectively. • Laser-induced damage was evaluated at room temperature by time-resolved photoluminescence decay with a single photon counting detector. • Minority carrier lifetime in silicon as a function of the ablation fluence was derived from the photoluminescence decay and related to the thickness of the heat affected zone. • Quantitative measurements of laser-induced damage can be used to evaluate laser ablation of dielectrics in photovoltaics. - Abstract: Selective laser ablation of dielectric layers on crystalline silicon wafers was investigated for solar cell fabrication. Laser processing was performed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and bi-layers Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub X}:H with a nanosecond UV laser at various energy densities ranging from 0.4 to 2 J cm{sup −2}. Ablation threshold was correlated to the simulated temperature at the interface between the dielectric coatings and the silicon substrate. Laser-induced damage to the silicon substrate was evaluated by time-resolved photoluminescence. The minority carrier lifetime deduced from time-resolved photoluminescence was related to the depth of the heat affected zone in the substrate.

  9. Nonstoichiometric control of tunnel-filling order, thermal expansion, and dielectric relaxation in tetragonal tungsten Bronzes Ba0.5-xTaO3-x.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fengjuan; Li, Xiaohui; Lu, Fengqi; Wang, Xiaoming; Cao, Jiang; Kuang, Xiaojun; Véron, Emmanuel; Porcher, Florence; Suchomel, Matthew R; Wang, Jing; Allix, Mathieu

    2015-09-21

    Ordering of interpolated Ba(2+) chains and alternate Ta-O rows (TaO)(3+) in the pentagonal tunnels of tetragonal tungsten bronzes (TTB) is controlled by the nonstoichiometry in the highly nonstoichiometric Ba0.5-xTaO3-x system. In Ba0.22TaO2.72, the filling of Ba(2+) and (TaO)(3+) groups is partially ordered along the ab-plane of the simple TTB structure, resulting in a √2-type TTB superstructure (Pbmm), while in Ba0.175TaO2.675, the pentagonal tunnel filling is completely ordered along the b-axis of the simple TTB structure, leading to a triple TTB superstructure (P21212). Both superstructures show completely empty square tunnels favoring Ba(2+) conduction and feature unusual accommodation of Ta(5+) cations in the small triangular tunnels. In contrast with stoichiometric Ba6GaTa9O30, which shows linear thermal expansion of the cell parameters and monotonic decrease of permittivity with temperature within 100-800 K, these TTB superstructures and slightly nonstoichiometric simple TTB Ba0.4TaO2.9 display abnormally broad and frequency-dependent extrinsic dielectric relaxations in 10(3)-10(5) Hz above room temperature, a linear deviation of the c-axis thermal expansion around 600 K, and high dielectric permittivity ∼60-95 at 1 MHz at room temperature.

  10. Manipulation of stored charge in anodic aluminium oxide/SiO{sub 2} dielectric stacks by the use of pulsed anodisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhong, E-mail: z.lu@unsw.edu.au [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Ouyang, Zi [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Grant, Nicholas; Wan, Yimao; Yan, Di [Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Lennon, Alison [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pulse anodisation was used to grow AAO layers with controllable stored charge. • Stored charge density ranging from −5.2 × 10{sup 11} to 2.5 × 10{sup 12} q/cm{sup 2} was demonstrated. • Enhancement in surface passivation was demonstrated with charge management. • Annealing significantly reduces the positive stored charge and the interface defect. - Abstract: A method of fabricating anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) with the capability of manipulating its stored charge is reported. This method involves the use of a pulsed current source to anodise aluminium layers instead of the typically used constant current/voltage source, with the test structures experiencing positive and negative cycles periodically. By tuning the positive cycle percentage, it is demonstrated that the effective stored charge density can be manipulated in a range from −5.2 × 10{sup 11} to 2.5 × 10{sup 12} q/cm{sup 2} when the AAO is formed over a 12 nm SiO{sub 2} layer. An investigation of the stored charge distribution in the dielectric stacks indicates a positive fixed charge at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface, a negative fixed charge at the AAO/SiO{sub 2} interface and a positive bulk charge within the AAO layer. The effective stored charge density and interface states were found to be affected by annealing conditions and it is suggested that oxygen annealing can reduce the bulk positive charge while post-metallisation anneal is most effective in reducing silicon interface defects. Charge manipulation using pulsed anodisation is shown to reduce carrier recombination on boron-diffused silicon surfaces highlighting the potential of the process to be used to tune the electrical properties of dielectric layers so that they can reduce surface recombination on silicon surfaces having different dopant polarity and concentrations.

  11. High-performance III-V MOSFET with nano-stacked high-k gate dielectric and 3D fin-shaped structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Hung; Liao, Wen-Shiang; Yang, Hsin-Chia; Wang, Shea-Jue; Liaw, Yue-Gie; Wang, Hao; Gu, Haoshuang; Wang, Mu-Chun

    2012-08-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) fin-shaped field-effect transistor structure based on III-V metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) fabrication has been demonstrated using a submicron GaAs fin as the high-mobility channel. The fin-shaped channel has a thickness-to-width ratio (TFin/WFin) equal to 1. The nano-stacked high-k Al2O3 dielectric was adopted as a gate insulator in forming a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure to suppress gate leakage. The 3D III-V MOSFET exhibits outstanding gate controllability and shows a high Ion/Ioff ratio > 105 and a low subthreshold swing of 80 mV/decade. Compared to a conventional Schottky gate metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor or planar III-V MOSFETs, the III-V MOSFET in this work exhibits a significant performance improvement and is promising for future development of high-performance n-channel devices based on III-V materials.

  12. Temperature and thickness dependence of tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in exchange-biased Py/IrMn/MgO/Ta stacks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichlová, Helena; Novák, Vít; Kurosaki, Y.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Nishide, A.; Hayakawa, J.; Takahashi, H.; Maryško, Miroslav; Wunderlich, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 7 (2016), 1-5, č. článku 076406. ISSN 2053-1591 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN; European Commission(XE) 610115 - SC2 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * antiferromagnets * tunneling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.068, year: 2016

  13. Fabrication and electrical properties of metal-oxide semiconductor capacitors based on polycrystalline p-Cu{sub x}O and HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} high-{kappa} stack gate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Xiao [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physical Science and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Department of Electromachine Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan, 430056 (China); Fang Guojia, E-mail: gjfang@whu.edu.c [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physical Science and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Yuan Longyan; Liu Nishuang; Long Hao; Zhao Xingzhong [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physical Science and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2010-05-31

    Polycrystalline p-type Cu{sub x}O films were deposited after the growth of HfO{sub 2} dielectric on Si substrate by pulsed laser deposition, and Cu{sub x}O metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} stack gate dielectric were primarily fabricated and investigated. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were applied to analyze crystalline structure and Cu{sup +}/Cu{sup 2+} ratios of Cu{sub x}O films respectively. SiO{sub 2} interlayer formed between the high-{kappa} dielectric and substrate was estimated by the transmission electron microscope. Results of electrical characteristic measurement indicate that the permittivity of HfO{sub 2} is about 22, and the gate leakage current density of MOS capacitor with 11.3 nm HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} stack dielectrics is {approx} 10{sup -4} A/cm{sup 2}. Results also show that the annealing in N{sub 2} can improve the quality of Cu{sub x}O/HfO{sub 2} interface and thus reduce the gate leakage density.

  14. Effect of impurity doping on tunneling conductance in AB-stacked bi-layer graphene: A tight-binding study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, G. C., E-mail: siva1987@iopb.res.in, E-mail: skp@iopb.res.in, E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.in [Physics Enclave, Plot No-664/4825, Lane-4A, Shree Vihar, Bhubaneswar-751031, Odisha (India); Sahu, Sivabrata [School of Applied Sciences (Physics), KIIT University, Bhubaneswar-751024, Odisha (India); Panda, S. K. [K.D. Science College, Pochilima, Hinjilicut,Pin-761101 Ganjam, Orissa (India)

    2016-04-13

    We report here a microscopic tight-binding model calculation for AB-stacked bilayer graphene in presence of biasing potential between the two layers and the impurity effects to study the evolution of the total density of states with special emphasis on opening of band gap near Dirac point. We have calculated the electron Green’s functions for both the A and B sub-lattices by Zubarev technique. The imaginary part of the Green’s function gives the partial and total density of states of electrons. The density of states are computed numerically for 1000 × 1000 grid points of the electron momentum. The evolution of the opening of band gap near van-Hove singularities as well as near Dirac point is investigated by varying the different interlayer hoppings and the biasing potentials. The inter layer hopping splits the density of states at van-Hove singularities and produces a V-shaped gap near Dirac point. Further the biasing potential introduces a U shaped gap near Dirac point with a density minimum at the applied potential(i.e. at V/2).

  15. Effect of impurity doping on tunneling conductance in AB-stacked bi-layer graphene: A tight-binding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, G. C.; Sahu, Sivabrata; Panda, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    We report here a microscopic tight-binding model calculation for AB-stacked bilayer graphene in presence of biasing potential between the two layers and the impurity effects to study the evolution of the total density of states with special emphasis on opening of band gap near Dirac point. We have calculated the electron Green’s functions for both the A and B sub-lattices by Zubarev technique. The imaginary part of the Green’s function gives the partial and total density of states of electrons. The density of states are computed numerically for 1000 × 1000 grid points of the electron momentum. The evolution of the opening of band gap near van-Hove singularities as well as near Dirac point is investigated by varying the different interlayer hoppings and the biasing potentials. The inter layer hopping splits the density of states at van-Hove singularities and produces a V-shaped gap near Dirac point. Further the biasing potential introduces a U shaped gap near Dirac point with a density minimum at the applied potential(i.e. at V/2).

  16. Self-aligned top-gate InGaZnO thin film transistors using SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stack gate dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Wong, Man; Kwok, Hoi Sing

    2013-12-02

    Self-aligned top-gate amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) utilizing SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stack thin films as gate dielectric are developed in this paper. Due to high quality of the high-k Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and good interface between active layer and gate dielectric, the resulting a-IGZO TFT exhibits good electrical performance including field-effect mobility of 9 cm{sup 2}/Vs, threshold voltage of 2.2 V, subthreshold swing of 0.2 V/decade, and on/off current ratio of 1 × 10{sup 7}. With scaling down of the channel length, good characteristics are also obtained with a small shift of the threshold voltage and no degradation of subthreshold swing. - Highlights: • Self-aligned top-gate indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistor is proposed. • SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stack gate dielectric is proposed. • The source/drain areas are hydrogen-doped by CHF{sub 3} plasma. • The devices show good electrical performance and scaling down behavior.

  17. Low-temperature conductivity of tunnel-coupled quantum dots system in YBaCuO and LaSrMnO dielectric films

    CERN Document Server

    Okunev, V D; Isaev, V A; Dyachenko, A T; Klimov, A; Lewandowski, S J

    2002-01-01

    Paper contains new experimental data concerning investigation into the nature of rho(T) approx = const conductivity segments at T < T sub c for YBaCuO and LaSrMnO dielectric films prepared by means of laser deposition and containing nanocrystalline clusters with metallic conductivity. In YBaCuO epitaxial films with a tetragonal structure rho = rho(T) approx = const (T sub c = 10 K) dependences are observed following the effect of (KrF) excimer laser emission on the specimens, while in LaSrMnO amorphous films (T sub c approx = 160 K) - immediately after they are prepared. rho(T) approx = const effect manifests itself if in the optical spectra of specimens there are regions of absorption by free charge carriers and is associated with a tunnel conductivity of a system of quantum points

  18. Electrical characterization of 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor structure with Al2O3 stacking layers as dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P. K.; Hwu, J. G.

    2018-02-01

    Interface defects and oxide bulk traps conventionally play important roles in the electrical performance of SiC MOS device. Introducing the Al2O3 stack grown by repeated anodization of Al films can notably lower the leakage current in comparison to the SiO2 structure, and enhance the minority carrier response at low frequency when the number of Al2O3 layers increase. In addition, the interface quality is not deteriorated by the stacking of Al2O3 layers because the stacked Al2O3 structure grown by anodization possesses good uniformity. In this work, the capacitance equivalent thickness (CET) of stacking Al2O3 will be up to 19.5 nm and the oxidation process can be carried out at room temperature. For the Al2O3 gate stack with CET 19.5 nm on n-SiC substrate, the leakage current at 2 V is 2.76 × 10-10 A/cm2, the interface trap density at the flatband voltage is 3.01 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2, and the effective breakdown field is 11.8 MV/cm. Frequency dispersion and breakdown characteristics may thus be improved as a result of the reduction in trap density. The Al2O3 stacking layers are capable of maintaining the leakage current as low as possible even after constant voltage stress test, which will further ameliorate reliability characteristics.

  19. A comparative study on top-gated and bottom-gated multilayer MoS2 transistors with gate stacked dielectric of Al2O3/HfO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao; Xu, Jingping; Huang, Hao; Zhu, Ziqang; Wang, Hongjiu; Li, Borui; Liao, Lei; Fang, Guojia

    2018-06-15

    Top-gated and bottom-gated transistors with multilayer MoS 2 channel fully encapsulated by stacked Al 2 O 3 /HfO 2 (9 nm/6 nm) were fabricated and comparatively studied. Excellent electrical properties are demonstrated for the TG transistors with high on-off current ratio of 10 8 , high field-effect mobility of 10 2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , and low subthreshold swing of 93 mV dec -1 . Also, enhanced reliability has been achieved for the TG transistors with threshold voltage shift of 10 -3 -10 -2 V MV -1 cm -1 after 6 MV cm -1 gate-biased stressing. All improvement for the TG device can be ascribed to the formed device structure and dielectric environment. Degradation of the performance for the BG transistors should be attributed to reduced gate capacitance density and deteriorated interface properties related to vdW gap with a thickness about 0.4 nm. So, the TG transistor with MoS 2 channel fully encapsulated by stacked Al 2 O 3 /HfO 2 is a promising way to fabricate high-performance ML MoS 2 field-effect transistors for practical electron device applications.

  20. Metal-Insulator-Metal Single Electron Transistors with Tunnel Barriers Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karbasian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Single electron transistors are nanoscale electron devices that require thin, high-quality tunnel barriers to operate and have potential applications in sensing, metrology and beyond-CMOS computing schemes. Given that atomic layer deposition is used to form CMOS gate stacks with low trap densities and excellent thickness control, it is well-suited as a technique to form a variety of tunnel barriers. This work is a review of our recent research on atomic layer deposition and post-fabrication treatments to fabricate metallic single electron transistors with a variety of metals and dielectrics.

  1. Effects of Gate Stack Structural and Process Defectivity on High-k Dielectric Dependence of NBTI Reliability in 32 nm Technology Node PMOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hussin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simulation study on negative bias temperature instability (NBTI induced hole trapping in E′ center defects, which leads to depassivation of interface trap precursor in different geometrical structures of high-k PMOSFET gate stacks using the two-stage NBTI model. The resulting degradation is characterized based on the time evolution of the interface and hole trap densities, as well as the resulting threshold voltage shift. By varying the physical thicknesses of the interface silicon dioxide (SiO2 and hafnium oxide (HfO2 layers, we investigate how the variation in thickness affects hole trapping/detrapping at different stress temperatures. The results suggest that the degradations are highly dependent on the physical gate stack parameters for a given stress voltage and temperature. The degradation is more pronounced by 5% when the thicknesses of HfO2 are increased but is reduced by 11% when the SiO2 interface layer thickness is increased during lower stress voltage. However, at higher stress voltage, greater degradation is observed for a thicker SiO2 interface layer. In addition, the existence of different stress temperatures at which the degradation behavior differs implies that the hole trapping/detrapping event is thermally activated.

  2. Near-field study with a photon scanning tunneling microscope: Comparison between dielectric nanostructure and metallic nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Youcef; Bassou, Ghaouti; Salomon, Laurant; Chekroun, Z.; Djamai, Nesrine

    2007-01-01

    Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) integrates standard optical methods with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques allowing to collect optical information with resolution well beyond the diffraction limit. We study the influence on image formation of several parameters in scanning near-field microscopy. The numerical calculations have been carried out using the differential method. We investigate a 2D-PSTM configuration with a dielectric rectangular object. We will focus on the collection type SNOM in a constant height scanning mode. Various oscillation patterns are observed from both sides of the nanostructure, which we interpret as interference between the diffracted waves scattered by the nanostructure (with the components of the wave vector parallel to the surface) and the evanescent incident wave above the surface. Using an optical near-field analysis and by calculating the electric field intensity distribution, we investigate the probe-sample distance effect. It is found that the distribution of the intensity related to the electric field is depending on sample-probe distance. We noticed the loss of details in the image and the presence of dramatic oscillations. Also, both of the polarization state of the illuminating light effect and the angle of incidence are investigated. We conclude that a differential method provides physical insight into the main features of the different images

  3. Near-field study with a photon scanning tunneling microscope: Comparison between dielectric nanostructure and metallic nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Youcef [Laboratoire d' elaboration et caracterisation des materiaux, Groupe de Microscopie et Microanalyse, Universite Djilali Liabes de Sidi Bel-Abbes, Faculte des sciences (Algeria)], E-mail: mahmoudhamoud@yahoo.com; Bassou, Ghaouti [Laboratoire d' elaboration et caracterisation des materiaux, Groupe de Microscopie et Microanalyse, Universite Djilali Liabes de Sidi Bel-Abbes, Faculte des sciences (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique (LPUB), CNRS UMR 5027, Groupe d' Optique de Champ Proche, Faculte des Sciences Mirande, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47 870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Salomon, Laurant [Laboratoire de Physique (LPUB), CNRS UMR 5027, Groupe d' Optique de Champ Proche, Faculte des Sciences Mirande, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47 870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Chekroun, Z. [Laboratoire d' elaboration et caracterisation des materiaux, Groupe de Microscopie et Microanalyse, Universite Djilali Liabes de Sidi Bel-Abbes, Faculte des sciences (Algeria); Djamai, Nesrine [Laboratoire de telecommunications et de traitement numerique du signal (LTTNS), Universite Djilali Liabes de Sidi Bel-Abbes, Faculte des sciences de l' ingenieur, Departement d' electronique (Algeria)

    2007-08-25

    Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) integrates standard optical methods with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques allowing to collect optical information with resolution well beyond the diffraction limit. We study the influence on image formation of several parameters in scanning near-field microscopy. The numerical calculations have been carried out using the differential method. We investigate a 2D-PSTM configuration with a dielectric rectangular object. We will focus on the collection type SNOM in a constant height scanning mode. Various oscillation patterns are observed from both sides of the nanostructure, which we interpret as interference between the diffracted waves scattered by the nanostructure (with the components of the wave vector parallel to the surface) and the evanescent incident wave above the surface. Using an optical near-field analysis and by calculating the electric field intensity distribution, we investigate the probe-sample distance effect. It is found that the distribution of the intensity related to the electric field is depending on sample-probe distance. We noticed the loss of details in the image and the presence of dramatic oscillations. Also, both of the polarization state of the illuminating light effect and the angle of incidence are investigated. We conclude that a differential method provides physical insight into the main features of the different images.

  4. Fabrication and current–voltage characteristics of NiOx/ZnO based MIIM tunnel diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Aparajita, E-mail: asing044@fiu.edu [BioMEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174, United States of America (United States); Ratnadurai, Rudraskandan [Global Foundaries, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Kumar, Rajesh [BioMEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174 (United States); Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Krishnan, Subramanian [BioMEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174 (United States); Emirov, Yusuf [Advanced Materials Engineering Research Institute, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174 (United States); Bhansali, Shekhar [BioMEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Fabrication of single and bilayer tunnel diodes by sputter deposition. • Current–voltage characteristics study. • Enhanced asymmetry and non-linearity. • Study of tunneling mechanism. - Abstract: Enhanced asymmetric and non-linear characteristics of Ni–NiOx based MIM diode has been reported by the addition of a second insulator layer ZnO to form MIIM configuration. These properties are required for applications like energy-harvesting devices, terahertz electronics, macro electronics, etc. In this work, single insulator layer Ni–NiOx–Cr and double insulator Ni–NiOx–ZnO–Cr tunnel diodes were fabricated and their I–V characteristics were studied. A significant increase by one order of magnitude in asymmetry has been observed in case of bilayer NiOx/ZnO dielectric configuration at low voltages. The sensitivity of the NiOx and NiOx/ZnO dielectric configuration in MIM stack was 11 V{sup −1} and 16 V{sup −1}. The improved performance of the bilayer insulator diode is due to the second insulator which enables resonant tunneling or step-tunneling. Resonant tunneling was found to be dominant through trap assisted tunneling in the NiOx/ZnO diode.

  5. Algebraic stacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deligne, Mumford and Artin [DM, Ar2]) and consider algebraic stacks, then we can cons- truct the 'moduli ... the moduli scheme and the moduli stack of vector bundles. First I will give ... 1–31. © Printed in India. 1 ...... Cultura, Spain. References.

  6. Tunnel magnetoresistance in alumina, magnesia and composite tunnel barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schebaum, Oliver; Drewello, Volker; Auge, Alexander; Reiss, Guenter; Muenzenberg, Markus; Schuhmann, Henning; Seibt, Michael; Thomas, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Using magnetron sputtering, we have prepared Co-Fe-B/tunnel barrier/Co-Fe-B magnetic tunnel junctions with tunnel barriers consisting of alumina, magnesia, and magnesia-alumina bilayer systems. The highest tunnel magnetoresistance ratios we found were 73% for alumina and 323% for magnesia-based tunnel junctions. Additionally, tunnel junctions with a unified layer stack were prepared for the three different barriers. In these systems, the tunnel magnetoresistance ratios at optimum annealing temperatures were found to be 65% for alumina, 173% for magnesia, and 78% for the composite tunnel barriers. The similar tunnel magnetoresistance ratios of the tunnel junctions containing alumina provide evidence that coherent tunneling is suppressed by the alumina layer in the composite tunnel barrier. - Research highlights: → Transport properties of Co-Fe-B/tunnel barrier/Co-Fe-B magnetic tunnel junctions. → Tunnel barrier consists of MgO, Al-Ox, or MgO/Al-Ox bilayer systems. → Limitation of TMR-ratio in composite barrier tunnel junctions to Al-Ox values. → Limitation indicates that Al-Ox layer is causing incoherent tunneling.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Tunneling Current in an Anisotropic Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairurrijal khairurrijal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have developed a model of the tunneling currents through a high-k dielectric stack in MOS capacitors with anisotropic masses. The transmittance was numerically calculated by employing a transfer matrix method and including longitudinal-transverse kinetic energy coupling which is represented by an electron phase velocity in the gate. The transmittance was then applied to calculate tunneling currents in TiN/HfSiOxN/SiO2/p-Si MOS capacitors. The calculated results show that as the gate electron velocity increases, the transmittance decreases and therefore the tunneling current reduces. The tunneling current becomes lower as the effective oxide thickness (EOT of HfSiOxN layer increases. When the incident electron passed through the barriers in the normal incident to the interface, the electron tunneling process becomes easier. It was also shown that the tunneling current was independent of the substrate orientation. Moreover, the model could be used in designing high speed MOS devices with low tunneling currents.

  8. Interlayer tunnel field-effect transistor (ITFET): physics, fabrication and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangwoo; Mou, Xuehao; Fallahazad, Babak; Prasad, Nitin; Wu, Xian; Valsaraj, Amithraj; Movva, Hema C. P.; Kim, Kyounghwan; Tutuc, Emanuel; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-09-01

    The scaling challenges of complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) are increasing with the pace of scaling showing marked signs of slowing down. This slowing has brought about a widespread search for an alternative beyond-CMOS device concept. While the charge tunneling phenomenon has been known for almost a century, and tunneling based transistors have been studied in the past few decades, its possibilities are being re-examined with the emergence of a new class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. By stacking varying 2D materials together, with two electrode layers sandwiching a tunnel dielectric layer, it could be possible to make vertical tunnel transistors without the limitations that have plagued such devices implemented within other material systems. When the two electrode layers are of the same material, under certain conditions, one can achieve resonant tunneling between the two layers, manifesting as negative differential resistance (NDR) in the interlayer current-voltage characteristics. We call this type of device an interlayer tunnel FET (ITFET). We review the basic operation principles of this device, experimental and theoretical studies, and benchmark simulation results for several digital logic gates based on a compact model that we developed. The results are placed in the context of work going on in other groups.

  9. Enhanced voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy in magnetic tunnel junctions with an MgO/PZT/MgO tunnel barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Diana; Li, Xiang; Wong, Kin; Zurbuchen, Mark A.; Robbennolt, Shauna; Yu, Guoqiang; Tolbert, Sarah; Kioussis, Nicholas; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Wang, Kang L.; Chang, Jane P.

    2016-03-01

    Compared with current-controlled magnetization switching in a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), electric field- or voltage-induced magnetization switching reduces the writing energy of the memory cell, which also results in increased memory density. In this work, an ultra-thin PZT film with high dielectric constant was integrated into the tunneling oxide layer to enhance the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect. The growth of MTJ stacks with an MgO/PZT/MgO tunnel barrier was performed using a combination of sputtering and atomic layer deposition techniques. The fabricated MTJs with the MgO/PZT/MgO barrier demonstrate a VCMA coefficient, which is ˜40% higher (19.8 ± 1.3 fJ/V m) than the control sample MTJs with an MgO barrier (14.3 ± 2.7 fJ/V m). The MTJs with the MgO/PZT/MgO barrier also possess a sizeable tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of more than 50% at room temperature, comparable to the control MTJs with an MgO barrier. The TMR and enhanced VCMA effect demonstrated simultaneously in this work make the MgO/PZT/MgO barrier-based MTJs potential candidates for future voltage-controlled, ultralow-power, and high-density magnetic random access memory devices.

  10. Ablation of film stacks in solar cell fabrication processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-04-02

    A dielectric film stack of a solar cell is ablated using a laser. The dielectric film stack includes a layer that is absorptive in a wavelength of operation of the laser source. The laser source, which fires laser pulses at a pulse repetition rate, is configured to ablate the film stack to expose an underlying layer of material. The laser source may be configured to fire a burst of two laser pulses or a single temporally asymmetric laser pulse within a single pulse repetition to achieve complete ablation in a single step.

  11. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  12. Influence of face-centered-cubic texturing of Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer on tunneling magnetoresistance ratio decrease in Co2Fe6B2/MgO-based p-MTJ spin valves stacked with a [Co/Pd](n)-SyAF layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Yasutaka; Lee, Du-Yeong; Lee, Seung-Eun; Chae, Kyo-Suk; Shim, Tae-Hun; Lian, Guoda; Kim, Moon; Park, Jea-Gun

    2015-05-15

    The TMR ratio of Co2Fe6B2/MgO-based p-MTJ spin valves stacked with a [Co/Pd]n-SyAF layer decreased rapidly when the ex situ magnetic annealing temperature (Tex) was increased from 275 to 325 °C, and this decrease was associated with degradation of the Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer rather than the Co2Fe6B2 free layer. At a Tex above 325 °C the amorphous Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer was transformed into a face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline layer textured from [Co/Pd]n-SyAF, abruptly reducing the Δ1 coherence tunneling of perpendicular-spin-torque electrons between the (100) MgO tunneling barrier and the fcc Co2Fe6B2 pinned layer.

  13. Nonvolatile Memories Using Quantum Dot (QD) Floating Gates Assembled on II-VI Tunnel Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, E.; Gogna, M.; Al-Amoody, F.; Karmakar, S.; Ayers, J.; Heller, E.; Jain, F.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents preliminary data on quantum dot gate nonvolatile memories using nearly lattice-matched ZnS/Zn0.95Mg0.05S/ZnS tunnel insulators. The GeO x -cladded Ge and SiO x -cladded Si quantum dots (QDs) are self-assembled site-specifically on the II-VI insulator grown epitaxially over the Si channel (formed between the source and drain region). The pseudomorphic II-VI stack serves both as a tunnel insulator and a high- κ dielectric. The effect of Mg incorporation in ZnMgS is also investigated. For the control gate insulator, we have used Si3N4 and SiO2 layers grown by plasma- enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  14. Transistor memory devices with large memory windows, using multi-stacking of densely packed, hydrophobic charge trapping metal nanoparticle array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Ikjun; Cho, Jinhan; Kim, Beom Joon; Cho, Jeong Ho; Ryu, Sook Won

    2014-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memories have rapidly evolved from low-cost and flexible electronics with relatively low-memory capacities to memory devices that require high-capacity memory such as smart memory cards or solid-state hard drives. Here, we report the high-capacity OFET memories based on the multilayer stacking of densely packed hydrophobic metal NP layers in place of the traditional transistor memory systems based on a single charge trapping layer. We demonstrated that the memory performances of devices could be significantly enhanced by controlling the adsorption isotherm behavior, multilayer stacking structure and hydrophobicity of the metal NPs. For this study, tetraoctylammonium (TOA)-stabilized Au nanoparticles (TOA-Au NPs ) were consecutively layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled with an amine-functionalized poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAD). The formed (PAD/TOA-Au NP ) n films were used as a multilayer stacked charge trapping layer at the interface between the tunneling dielectric layer and the SiO 2 gate dielectric layer. For a single Au NP layer (i.e. PAD/TOA-Au NP ) 1 ) with a number density of 1.82 × 10 12 cm −2 , the memory window of the OFET memory device was measured to be approximately 97 V. The multilayer stacked OFET memory devices prepared with four Au NP layers exhibited excellent programmable memory properties (i.e. a large memory window (ΔV th ) exceeding 145 V, a fast switching speed (1 μs), a high program/erase (P/E) current ratio (greater than 10 6 ) and good electrical reliability) during writing and erasing over a relatively short time scale under an operation voltage of 100 V applied at the gate. (paper)

  15. Super Dielectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromille, Samuel; Phillips, Jonathan

    2014-12-22

    Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 10⁵ at low frequency (dielectric materials (SDM), can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 10⁸ in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 10⁴. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc. ), filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution), herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS) capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å) of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to "short" the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass "supercapacitors" in volumetric energy density.

  16. Super Dielectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Fromille

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 105 at low frequency (<10−2 Hz, herein called super dielectric materials (SDM, can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 108 in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 104. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc., filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution, herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to “short” the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass “supercapacitors” in volumetric energy density.

  17. Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Z; Iwinski, E G; Ni, G X; Zhang, L M; Bao, W; Rodin, A S; Lee, Y; Wagner, M; Liu, M K; Dai, S; Goldflam, M D; Thiemens, M; Keilmann, F; Lau, C N; Castro-Neto, A H; Fogler, M M; Basov, D N

    2015-08-12

    We report experimental signatures of plasmonic effects due to electron tunneling between adjacent graphene layers. At subnanometer separation, such layers can form either a strongly coupled bilayer graphene with a Bernal stacking or a weakly coupled double-layer graphene with a random stacking order. Effects due to interlayer tunneling dominate in the former case but are negligible in the latter. We found through infrared nanoimaging that bilayer graphene supports plasmons with a higher degree of confinement compared to single- and double-layer graphene, a direct consequence of interlayer tunneling. Moreover, we were able to shut off plasmons in bilayer graphene through gating within a wide voltage range. Theoretical modeling indicates that such a plasmon-off region is directly linked to a gapped insulating state of bilayer graphene, yet another implication of interlayer tunneling. Our work uncovers essential plasmonic properties in bilayer graphene and suggests a possibility to achieve novel plasmonic functionalities in graphene few-layers.

  18. Development and preliminary experimental study on micro-stacked insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Chengyan; Yuan Weiqun; Zhang Dongdong; Yan Ping; Wang Jue

    2009-01-01

    High gradient insulating technology is one of the key technologies in new type dielectric wall accelerator(DWA). High gradient insulator, namely micro-stacked insulator, was developed and preliminary experimental study was done. Based on the finite element and particle simulating method, surface electric field distribution and electron movement track of micro-stacked insulator were numerated, and then the optimized design proposal was put forward. Using high temperature laminated method, we developed micro-stacked insulator samples which uses exhaustive fluorinated ethylene propylene(FEP) as dielectric layer and stainless steel as metal layer. Preliminary experiment of vacuum surface flashover in nanosecond pulse voltage was done and micro-stacked insulator exhibited favorable vacuum surface flashover performance with flashover field strength of near 180 kV/cm. (authors)

  19. From surface to volume plasmons in hyperbolic metamaterials: General existence conditions for bulk high-k waves in metal-dielectric and graphene-dielectric multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Sipe, John E.

    2014-01-01

    -dielectric and recently introduced graphene-dielectric stacks. We confirm that short-range surface plasmons in thin metal layers can give rise to hyperbolic metamaterial properties and demonstrate that long-range surface plasmons cannot. We also show that graphene-dielectric multilayers tend to support high- k waves...

  20. Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.

  1. OpenStack essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Radez, Dan

    2015-01-01

    If you need to get started with OpenStack or want to learn more, then this book is your perfect companion. If you're comfortable with the Linux command line, you'll gain confidence in using OpenStack.

  2. Stack gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-04-12

    Hot stack gases transfer contained heat to a gravity flow of pebbles treated with a catalyst, cooled stacked gases and a sulfuric acid mist is withdrawn from the unit, and heat picked up by the pebbles is transferred to air for combustion or other process. The sulfuric acid (or sulfur, depending on the catalyst) is withdrawn in a recovery unit.

  3. Mastering OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Khedher, Omar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators, cloud engineers, and system architects who want to deploy a cloud based on OpenStack in a mid- to large-sized IT infrastructure. If you have a fundamental understanding of cloud computing and OpenStack and want to expand your knowledge, then this book is an excellent checkpoint to move forward.

  4. Tunneling works. Tunnel koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higo, M [Hazam Gumi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-10-25

    A mountain tunneling method for rock-beds used to be applied mainly to construction works in the mountains under few restrictions by environmental problems. However, construction works near residential sreas have been increasing. There are such enviromental problems due to tunneling works as vibration, noise, lowering of ground-water level, and influences on other structures. This report mainly describes the measurement examples of vibration and noise accompanied with blasting and the effects of the measures to lessen such influences. When the tunneling works for the railroad was carried out on the natural ground mainly composed of basalt, vibration of the test blasting was measured at three stations with piezoelectric accelerometers. Then, ordinary blasting, mutistage blasting, and ABM blasting methods were used properly besed on the above results, and only a few complaints were made. In the different works, normal noise and low-frequency sound were mesured at 22 stations around the pit mouth. As countermeasures for noise, sound-proof sheets, walls, and single and double doors were installed and foundto be effective. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, Fritz E-mail: Fritz.Caspers@cern.ch; Moehl, Dieter

    2004-10-11

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10{sup 5} the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some

  6. Stacking the Equiangular Spiral

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A.; Azabi, Y. O.; Rahman, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present an algorithm that adapts the mature Stack and Draw (SaD) methodology for fabricating the exotic Equiangular Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber. (ES-PCF) The principle of Steiner chains and circle packing is exploited to obtain a non-hexagonal design using a stacking procedure based on Hexagonal Close Packing. The optical properties of the proposed structure are promising for SuperContinuum Generation. This approach could make accessible not only the equiangular spiral but also other qua...

  7. Broadband cloaking using composite dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Bing Hwang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel cloaking structure that is able to make a metallic block invisible in a metallic waveguide. Such a cloak is made up of a stack of commonly used dielectric slabs. We carry out the numerical simulation and observe the detour of the vector Poynting power through the cloak. Moreover, the experiment is conducted for measuring the scattering characteristics including the reflection and transmission coefficients. The great improvement in the transmission coefficient in a broad bandwidth after cloaking is demonstrated. Significantly, the theory of mode conversion is developed for explaining the cloaking phenomenon.

  8. Stacking-dependent electronic property of trilayer graphene epitaxially grown on Ru(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que, Yande; Xiao, Wende, E-mail: wdxiao@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: hjgao@iphy.ac.cn; Chen, Hui; Wang, Dongfei; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hong-Jun, E-mail: wdxiao@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: hjgao@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-12-28

    The growth, atomic structure, and electronic property of trilayer graphene (TLG) on Ru(0001) were studied by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy in combined with tight-binding approximation (TBA) calculations. TLG on Ru(0001) shows a flat surface with a hexagonal lattice due to the screening effect of the bottom two layers and the AB-stacking in the top two layers. The coexistence of AA- and AB-stacking in the bottom two layers leads to three different stacking orders of TLG, namely, ABA-, ABC-, and ABB-stacking. STS measurements combined with TBA calculations reveal that the density of states of TLG with ABC- and ABB-stacking is characterized by one and two sharp peaks near to the Fermi level, respectively, in contrast to the V-shaped feature of TLG with ABA-stacking. Our work demonstrates that TLG on Ru(0001) might be an ideal platform for exploring stacking-dependent electronic properties of graphene.

  9. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  10. Stochastic stacking without filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.

    1982-12-01

    The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10 8 per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth

  11. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  12. Laser pulse stacking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  13. Extended Life PZT Stack Test Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Aldrich, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Jones, C.

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric stacks are being sought to be used as actuators for precision positioning and deployment of mechanisms in future planetary missions. Beside the requirement for very high operation reliability, these actuators are required for operation at space environments that are considered harsh compared to normal terrestrial conditions.These environmental conditions include low and high temperatures and vacuum or high pressure. Additionally, the stacks are subjected to high stress and in some applications need to operate with a very long lifetime durability.Many of these requirements are beyond the current industry design margins for nominal terrestrial applications. In order to investigate some of the properties that will indicate the durability of such actuators and their limitations we have developed a new type of test fixture that can be easily integrated in various test chambers for simulating environmental conditions, can provide access for multiple measurements while being exposed to adjustable stress levels. We designed and built two test fixtures and these fixtures were made to be adjustable for testing stacks with different dimensions and can be easily used in small or large numbers. The properties that were measured using these fixtures include impedance, capacitance, dielectric loss factor, leakage current, displacement, breakdown voltage, and lifetime performance. The fixtures characteristics and the test capabilities are presented in this paper.

  14. Homoepitaxial graphene tunnel barriers for spin transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. Friedman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel barriers are key elements for both charge-and spin-based electronics, offering devices with reduced power consumption and new paradigms for information processing. Such devices require mating dissimilar materials, raising issues of heteroepitaxy, interface stability, and electronic states that severely complicate fabrication and compromise performance. Graphene is the perfect tunnel barrier. It is an insulator out-of-plane, possesses a defect-free, linear habit, and is impervious to interdiffusion. Nonetheless, true tunneling between two stacked graphene layers is not possible in environmental conditions usable for electronics applications. However, two stacked graphene layers can be decoupled using chemical functionalization. Here, we demonstrate that hydrogenation or fluorination of graphene can be used to create a tunnel barrier. We demonstrate successful tunneling by measuring non-linear IV curves and a weakly temperature dependent zero-bias resistance. We demonstrate lateral transport of spin currents in non-local spin-valve structures, and determine spin lifetimes with the non-local Hanle effect. We compare the results for hydrogenated and fluorinated tunnel and we discuss the possibility that ferromagnetic moments in the hydrogenated graphene tunnel barrier affect the spin transport of our devices.

  15. Homoepitaxial graphene tunnel barriers for spin transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Adam L.; van't Erve, Olaf M. J.; Robinson, Jeremy T.; Whitener, Keith E.; Jonker, Berend T.

    2016-05-01

    Tunnel barriers are key elements for both charge-and spin-based electronics, offering devices with reduced power consumption and new paradigms for information processing. Such devices require mating dissimilar materials, raising issues of heteroepitaxy, interface stability, and electronic states that severely complicate fabrication and compromise performance. Graphene is the perfect tunnel barrier. It is an insulator out-of-plane, possesses a defect-free, linear habit, and is impervious to interdiffusion. Nonetheless, true tunneling between two stacked graphene layers is not possible in environmental conditions usable for electronics applications. However, two stacked graphene layers can be decoupled using chemical functionalization. Here, we demonstrate that hydrogenation or fluorination of graphene can be used to create a tunnel barrier. We demonstrate successful tunneling by measuring non-linear IV curves and a weakly temperature dependent zero-bias resistance. We demonstrate lateral transport of spin currents in non-local spin-valve structures, and determine spin lifetimes with the non-local Hanle effect. We compare the results for hydrogenated and fluorinated tunnel and we discuss the possibility that ferromagnetic moments in the hydrogenated graphene tunnel barrier affect the spin transport of our devices.

  16. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  17. Energy Tunneling Behavior in Geometrically Separated Wave Guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Omar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, characteristics of energy tunneling channel between the waveguides geometrically separated by a coaxial cable are studied.  The novel aspect of design is use of coaxial channel to connect the waveguides while maintaining the energy tunneling phenomena. As anticipated the tunneling frequency depends upon the length of wire inside the waveguide and the length of the coaxial cable. The tunneling frequency also depends upon the dielectric constant of the material inside the waveguide and coaxial cable.  At tunneling frequency the field strength (E and H in the channel is extremely high, making the channel extremely sensitive to small change in permittivity of dielectric occupying the channel.  The advantage of the proposed design is, its ability to tune to desired tunneling frequency just by changing the length of the coaxial cable without the need to redesign the waveguide height to accommodate the long tunneling wires. This structure can be used as dielectric sensor both for solid or liquid dielectrics just by placing the sample in coaxial cable cavity, contrary to previously report work where the sample has to be placed inside the waveguide.

  18. Effect of an Interfacial Layer on Electron Tunneling through Atomically Thin Al2O3 Tunnel Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Jamie; Sakidja, Ridwan; Goul, Ryan; Wu, Judy Z

    2017-10-25

    Electron tunneling through high-quality, atomically thin dielectric films can provide a critical enabling technology for future microelectronics, bringing enhanced quantum coherent transport, fast speed, small size, and high energy efficiency. A fundamental challenge is in controlling the interface between the dielectric and device electrodes. An interfacial layer (IL) will contain defects and introduce defects in the dielectric film grown atop, preventing electron tunneling through the formation of shorts. In this work, we present the first systematic investigation of the IL in Al 2 O 3 dielectric films of 1-6 Å's in thickness on an Al electrode. We integrated several advanced approaches: molecular dynamics to simulate IL formation, in situ high vacuum sputtering atomic layer deposition (ALD) to synthesize Al 2 O 3 on Al films, and in situ ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling spectroscopy to probe the electron tunneling through the Al 2 O 3 . The IL had a profound effect on electron tunneling. We observed a reduced tunnel barrier height and soft-type dielectric breakdown which indicate that defects are present in both the IL and in the Al 2 O 3 . The IL forms primarily due to exposure of the Al to trace O 2 and/or H 2 O during the pre-ALD heating step of fabrication. As the IL was systematically reduced, by controlling the pre-ALD sample heating, we observed an increase of the ALD Al 2 O 3 barrier height from 0.9 to 1.5 eV along with a transition from soft to hard dielectric breakdown. This work represents a key step toward the realization of high-quality, atomically thin dielectrics with electron tunneling for the next generation of microelectronics.

  19. Low-voltage high-speed programming gate-all-around floating gate memory cell with tunnel barrier engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Afiq; Ezaila Alias, N.; Ismail, Razali

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the memory performances of gate-all-around floating gate (GAA-FG) memory cell implementing engineered tunnel barrier concept of variable oxide thickness (VARIOT) of low-k/high-k for several high-k (i.e., Si3N4, Al2O3, HfO2, and ZrO2) with low-k SiO2 using three-dimensional (3D) simulator Silvaco ATLAS. The simulation work is conducted by initially determining the optimized thickness of low-k/high-k barrier-stacked and extracting their Fowler–Nordheim (FN) coefficients. Based on the optimized parameters the device performances of GAA-FG for fast program operation and data retention are assessed using benchmark set by 6 and 8 nm SiO2 tunnel layer respectively. The programming speed has been improved and wide memory window with 30% increment from conventional SiO2 has been obtained using SiO2/Al2O3 tunnel layer due to its thin low-k dielectric thickness. Furthermore, given its high band edges only 1% of charge-loss is expected after 10 years of ‑3.6/3.6 V gate stress.

  20. Structural, dielectric and a.c. conductivity study of Sb2O3 thin film ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray diffraction; a.c. conductivity; dielectric properties; complex electric modulus. ... the study disordered systems because of the unusual temper- ..... energy. tunnelling model suggested by Wang et al [31], (s) should decrease with increase in ...

  1. Dielectric Actuation of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofan

    Dielectric polymers are widely used in a plurality of applications, such as electrical insulation, dielectric capacitors, and electromechanical actuators. Dielectric polymers with large strain deformations under an electric field are named dielectric elastomers (DE), because of their relative low modulus, high elongation at break, and outstanding resilience. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) are superior to traditional transducers as a muscle-like technology: large strains, high energy densities, high coupling efficiency, quiet operation, and light weight. One focus of this dissertation is on the design of DE materials with high performance and easy processing. UV radiation curing of reactive species is studied as a generic synthesis methodology to provide a platform for material scientists to customize their own DE materials. Oligomers/monomers, crosslinkers, and other additives are mixed and cured at appropriate ratios to control the stress-strain response, suppress electromechanical instability of the resulting polymers, and provide stable actuation strains larger than 100% and energy densities higher than 1 J/g. The processing is largely simplified in the new material system by removal of the prestretching step. Multilayer stack actuators with 11% linear strain are demonstrated in a procedure fully compatible with industrial production. A multifunctional DE derivative material, bistable electroactive polymer (BSEP), is invented enabling repeatable rigid-to-rigid deformation without bulky external structures. Bistable actuation allows the polymer actuator to have two distinct states that can support external load without device failure. Plasticizers are used to lower the glass transition temperature to 45 °C. Interpenetrating polymer network structure is established inside the BSEP to suppress electromechanical instability, providing a breakdown field of 194 MV/m and a stable bistable strain as large as 228% with a 97% strain fixity. The application of BSEP

  2. Realization of a complementary medium using dielectric photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Fang, Anan; Jia, Ziyuan; Ji, Liyu; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2017-12-01

    By exploiting the scaling invariance of photonic band diagrams, a complementary photonic crystal slab structure is realized by stacking two uniformly scaled double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal slabs together. The space cancellation effect in complementary photonic crystals is demonstrated in both numerical simulations and microwave experiments. The refractive index dispersion of double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal is experimentally measured. Using pure dielectrics, our photonic crystal structure will be an ideal platform to explore various intriguing properties related to a complementary medium.

  3. OpenStack cloud security

    CERN Document Server

    Locati, Fabio Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack administrator or developer, or wish to build solutions to protect your OpenStack environment, then this book is for you. Experience of Linux administration and familiarity with different OpenStack components is assumed.

  4. Stacked magnet superconducting bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines

  5. Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.

  6. On the Evaluation of Gate Dielectrics for 4H-SiC Based Power MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nawaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the assessment of gate dielectric for 4H-SiC MOSFETs using technology based two-dimensional numerical computer simulations. Results are studied for variety of gate dielectric candidates with varying thicknesses using well-known Fowler-Nordheim tunneling model. Compared to conventional SiO2 as a gate dielectric for 4H-SiC MOSFETs, high-k gate dielectric such as HfO2 reduces significantly the amount of electric field in the gate dielectric with equal gate dielectric thickness and hence the overall gate current density. High-k gate dielectric further reduces the shift in the threshold voltage with varying dielectric thicknesses, thus leading to better process margin and stable device operating behavior. For fixed dielectric thickness, a total shift in the threshold voltage of about 2.5 V has been observed with increasing dielectric constant from SiO2 (k=3.9 to HfO2 (k=25. This further results in higher transconductance of the device with the increase of the dielectric constant from SiO2 to HfO2. Furthermore, 4H-SiC MOSFETs are found to be more sensitive to the shift in the threshold voltage with conventional SiO2 as gate dielectric than high-k dielectric with the presence of interface state charge density that is typically observed at the interface of dielectric and 4H-SiC MOS surface.

  7. MEAN STACK WEB DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thanh, Nghi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to provide a universal website using JavaScript as the main programming language. It also shows the basic parts anyone need to create a web application. The thesis creates a simple CMS using MEAN stack. MEAN is a collection of JavaScript based technologies used to develop web application. It is an acronym for MongoDB, Express, AngularJS and Node.js. It also allows non-technical users to easily update and manage a website’s content. But the application also lets o...

  8. Die-stacking architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) chip architectures, with their intrinsic capability of reducing the wire length, promise attractive solutions to reduce the delay of interconnects in future microprocessors. 3D memory stacking enables much higher memory bandwidth for future chip-multiprocessor design, mitigating the ""memory wall"" problem. In addition, heterogenous integration enabled by 3D technology can also result in innovative designs for future microprocessors. This book first provides a brief introduction to this emerging technology, and then presents a variety of approaches to design

  9. Super dielectric capacitor using scaffold dielectric

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Patent A capacitor having first and second electrodes and a scaffold dielectric. The scaffold dielectric comprises an insulating material with a plurality of longitudinal channels extending across the dielectric and filled with a liquid comprising cations and anions. The plurality of longitudinal channels are substantially parallel and the liquid within the longitudinal channels generally has an ionic strength of at least 0.1. Capacitance results from the migrations of...

  10. Effect of Additional Structure on Effective Stack Height of Gas Dispersion in Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Takenobu Michioka; Koichi Sada; Kazuki Okabayashi

    2016-01-01

    Wind-tunnel experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of additional structure (building, sea wall and banking) on the effective stack height, which is usually used in safety analyses of nuclear power facilities in Japan. The effective stack heights were estimated with and without the additional structure in addition to the reactor building while varying several conditions such as the source height, the height of additional structure and the distance between the source position and the...

  11. Organic tunnel field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Tietze, Max Lutz

    2017-06-29

    Various examples are provided for organic tunnel field effect transistors (OTFET), and methods thereof. In one example, an OTFET includes a first intrinsic layer (i-layer) of organic semiconductor material disposed over a gate insulating layer; source (or drain) contact stacks disposed on portions of the first i-layer; a second i-layer of organic semiconductor material disposed on the first i-layer surrounding the source (or drain) contact stacks; an n-doped organic semiconductor layer disposed on the second i-layer; and a drain (or source) contact layer disposed on the n-doped organic semiconductor layer. The source (or drain) contact stacks can include a p-doped injection layer, a source (or drain) contact layer, and a contact insulating layer. In another example, a method includes disposing a first i-layer over a gate insulating layer; forming source or drain contact stacks; and disposing a second i-layer, an n-doped organic semiconductor layer, and a drain or source contact.

  12. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  13. Recognition tunneling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lindsay, S.; He, J.; Sankey, O.; Hapala, Prokop; Jelínek, Pavel; Zhang, P.; Chang, S.; Huang, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 26 (2010), 262001/1-262001/12 ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : STM * tunneling current * molecular electronics * DFT calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2010

  14. Inertial polarization of dielectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Zavodovsky, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    It was proved that accelerated motion of a linear dielectric causes its polarization. Accelerated translational motion of a dielectric's plate leads to the positive charge of the surface facing the direction of motion. Metal plates of a capacitor were used to register polarized charges on a dielectric's surface. Potential difference between the capacitor plates is proportional to acceleration, when acceleration is constant potential difference grows with the increase of a dielectric's area, o...

  15. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  16. Optimal Super Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    plate capacitor will reduce the net field to an unprecedented extent. This family of materials can form materials with dielectric values orders of... Capacitor -Increase Area (A)............8 b. Multi-layer Ceramic Capacitor -Decrease Thickness (d) .......10 c. Super Dielectric Material-Increase...circuit modeling, from [44], and B) SDM capacitor charge and discharge ...................................................22 Figure 15. Dielectric

  17. Tunnel - history of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    This book introduces history of tunnel in ancient times, the middle ages and modern times, survey of tunnel and classification of bedrock like environment survey of position, survey of the ground, design of tunnel on basic thing of the design, and design of tunnel of bedrock, analysis of stability of tunnel and application of the data, construction of tunnel like lattice girder and steel fiber reinforced shot crete, and maintenance control and repair of tunnel.

  18. Method of using sacrificial materials for fabricating internal cavities in laminated dielectric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kenneth A [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-02-24

    A method of using sacrificial materials for fabricating internal cavities and channels in laminated dielectric structures, which can be used as dielectric substrates and package mounts for microelectronic and microfluidic devices. A sacrificial mandrel is placed in-between two or more sheets of a deformable dielectric material (e.g., unfired LTCC glass/ceramic dielectric), wherein the sacrificial mandrel is not inserted into a cutout made in any of the sheets. The stack of sheets is laminated together, which deforms the sheet or sheets around the sacrificial mandrel. After lamination, the mandrel is removed, (e.g., during LTCC burnout), thereby creating a hollow internal cavity in the monolithic ceramic structure.

  19. Fatigue responses of lead zirconate titanate stacks under semibipolar electric cycling with mechanical preload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Cooper, Thomas A.; Lin, Hua-Tay; Wereszczak, Andrew A.

    2010-10-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks that had an interdigital internal electrode configuration were tested to more than 108 cycles. A 100 Hz semibipolar sine wave with a field range of +4.5/-0.9 kV/mm was used in cycling with a concurrently-applied 20 MPa preload. Significant reductions in piezoelectric and dielectric responses were observed during the cycling depending on the measuring condition. Extensive partial discharges were also observed. These surface events resulted in the erosion of external electrode and the exposure of internal electrodes. Sections prepared by sequential polishing technique revealed a variety of damage mechanisms including delaminations, pores, and etch grooves. The scale of damage was correlated with the degree of fatigue-induced reduction in piezoelectric and dielectric responses. The results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of using a semibipolar mode to drive a PZT stack under a mechanical preload and illustrate the potential fatigue and damages of the stack in service.

  20. Dielectrics in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur G

    2003-01-01

    Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.

  1. Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…

  2. Spherical Torus Center Stack Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-01-01

    The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device

  3. ``Phantom'' Modes in Ab Initio Tunneling Calculations: Implications for Theoretical Materials Optimization, Tunneling, and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, Sergey V.; Pramanik, Dipankar

    2015-03-01

    Development of low-leakage dielectrics for semiconductor industry, together with many other areas of academic and industrial research, increasingly rely upon ab initio tunneling and transport calculations. Complex band structure (CBS) is a powerful formalism to establish the nature of tunneling modes, providing both a deeper understanding and a guided optimization of materials, with practical applications ranging from screening candidate dielectrics for lowest ``ultimate leakage'' to identifying charge-neutrality levels and Fermi level pinning. We demonstrate that CBS is prone to a particular type of spurious ``phantom'' solution, previously deemed true but irrelevant because of a very fast decay. We demonstrate that (i) in complex materials, phantom modes may exhibit very slow decay (appearing as leading tunneling terms implying qualitative and huge quantitative errors), (ii) the phantom modes are spurious, (iii) unlike the pseudopotential ``ghost'' states, phantoms are an apparently unavoidable artifact of large numerical basis sets, (iv) a presumed increase in computational accuracy increases the number of phantoms, effectively corrupting the CBS results despite the higher accuracy achieved in resolving the true CBS modes and the real band structure, and (v) the phantom modes cannot be easily separated from the true CBS modes. We discuss implications for direct transport calculations. The strategy for dealing with the phantom states is discussed in the context of optimizing high-quality high- κ dielectric materials for decreased tunneling leakage.

  4. Lattices of dielectric resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Trubin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the analytical theory of complex systems composed of a large number of high-Q dielectric resonators. Spherical and cylindrical dielectric resonators with inferior and also whispering gallery oscillations allocated in various lattices are considered. A new approach to S-matrix parameter calculations based on perturbation theory of Maxwell equations, developed for a number of high-Q dielectric bodies, is introduced. All physical relationships are obtained in analytical form and are suitable for further computations. Essential attention is given to a new unified formalism of the description of scattering processes. The general scattering task for coupled eigen oscillations of the whole system of dielectric resonators is described. The equations for the  expansion coefficients are explained in an applicable way. The temporal Green functions for the dielectric resonator are presented. The scattering process of short pulses in dielectric filter structures, dielectric antennas  and lattices of d...

  5. Dielectric elastomer actuators used for pneumatic valve technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giousouf, Metin; Kovacs, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators have been investigated for applications in the field of pneumatic automation technology. We have developed different valve designs with stacked dielectric elastomer actuators and with integrated high voltage converters. The actuators were made using VHB-4910 material and a stacker machine for automated fabrication of the cylindrical actuators. Typical characteristics of pneumatic valves such as flow rate, power consumption and dynamic behaviour are presented. For valve construction the force and stroke parameters of the dielectric elastomer actuator have been measured. Further, benefits for valve applications using dielectric elastomers are shown as well as their potential operational area. Finally, challenges are discussed that are relevant for the use of elastomer actuators in valves for industrial applications. (paper)

  6. Thermal conductivity of thin insulating films determined by tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect measurements and finite-element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Torsten; Martens, Ulrike; Walowski, Jakob; Münzenberg, Markus; Thomas, Andy; Reiss, Günter; Kuschel, Timo

    2018-06-01

    In general, it is difficult to access the thermal conductivity of thin insulating films experimentally by electrical means. Here, we present a new approach utilizing the tunnel magneto-Seebeck effect (TMS) in combination with finite-element modeling (FEM). We detect the laser-induced TMS and the absolute thermovoltage of laser-heated magnetic tunnel junctions with 2.6 nm thin barriers of MgAl2O4 (MAO) and MgO, respectively. A second measurement of the absolute thermovoltage after a dielectric breakdown of the barrier grants insight into the remaining thermovoltage of the stack. Thus, the pure TMS without any parasitic Nernst contributions from the leads can be identified. In combination with FEM via COMSOL, we are able to extract values for the thermal conductivity of MAO (0.7 W (K · m)‑1) and MgO (5.8 W (K · m)‑1), which are in very good agreement with theoretical predictions. Our method provides a new promising way to extract the experimentally challenging parameter of the thermal conductivity of thin insulating films.

  7. Exploring coherent transport through π-stacked systems for molecular electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qian; Solomon, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Understanding electron transport across π-stacked systems can help to elucidate the role of intermolecular tunneling in molecular junctions and potentially with the design of high-efficiency molecular devices. Here we show how conjugation length and substituent groups influence the electron trans...

  8. Modeling fuel cell stack systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lalk, T R [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-06-15

    A technique for modeling fuel cell stacks is presented along with the results from an investigation designed to test the validity of the technique. The technique was specifically designed so that models developed using it can be used to determine the fundamental thermal-physical behavior of a fuel cell stack for any operating and design configuration. Such models would be useful tools for investigating fuel cell power system parameters. The modeling technique can be applied to any type of fuel cell stack for which performance data is available for a laboratory scale single cell. Use of the technique is demonstrated by generating sample results for a model of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack consisting of 125 cells each with an active area of 150 cm{sup 2}. A PEMFC stack was also used in the verification investigation. This stack consisted of four cells, each with an active area of 50 cm{sup 2}. Results from the verification investigation indicate that models developed using the technique are capable of accurately predicting fuel cell stack performance. (orig.)

  9. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a passing cramp? It could be carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway of ... three times more likely to have carpal tunnel syndrome than men. Early diagnosis and treatment are important ...

  10. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  11. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2008-03-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  12. Characterization of dielectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Danny J.; Babinec, Susan; Hagans, Patrick L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Payzant, Edward A.; Daniel, Claus; Sabau, Adrian S.; Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Howe, Jane Y.; Wood, III, David L.; Nembhard, Nicole S.

    2017-06-27

    A system and a method for characterizing a dielectric material are provided. The system and method generally include applying an excitation signal to electrodes on opposing sides of the dielectric material to evaluate a property of the dielectric material. The method can further include measuring the capacitive impedance across the dielectric material, and determining a variation in the capacitive impedance with respect to either or both of a time domain and a frequency domain. The measured property can include pore size and surface imperfections. The method can still further include modifying a processing parameter as the dielectric material is formed in response to the detected variations in the capacitive impedance, which can correspond to a non-uniformity in the dielectric material.

  13. High-performance silicon nanotube tunneling FET for ultralow-power logic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    To increase typically low output drive currents from tunnel field-effect transistors (FETs), we show a silicon vertical nanotube (NT) architecture-based FET's effectiveness. Using core (inner) and shell (outer) gate stacks, the silicon NT tunneling FET shows a sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold slope, ultralow off -state leakage current, higher drive current compared with gate-all-around nanowire silicon tunnel FETs. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  14. High-performance silicon nanotube tunneling FET for ultralow-power logic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2013-03-01

    To increase typically low output drive currents from tunnel field-effect transistors (FETs), we show a silicon vertical nanotube (NT) architecture-based FET\\'s effectiveness. Using core (inner) and shell (outer) gate stacks, the silicon NT tunneling FET shows a sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold slope, ultralow off -state leakage current, higher drive current compared with gate-all-around nanowire silicon tunnel FETs. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  15. Tunneling technologies for the collider ring tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frobenius, P.

    1989-01-01

    The Texas site chosen for the Superconducting Super Collider has been studied, and it has been determined that proven, conventional technology and accepted engineering practice are suitable for constructing the collider tunnels. The Texas National Research Laboratory Commission report recommended that two types of tunneling machines be used for construction of the tunnels: a conventional hard rock tunnel boring machine (TBM) for the Austin chalk and a double shielded, rotary TBM for the Taylor marl. Since the tunneling machines usually set the pace for the project, efficient planning, operation, and coordination of the tunneling system components will be critical to the schedule and cost of the project. During design, tunneling rate prediction should be refined by focusing on the development of an effective tunneling system and evaluating its capacity to meet or exceed the required schedules. 8 refs., 13 figs

  16. Atmospheric diffusion wind tunnel with automatic measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, S; Sakai, J; Murata, E

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel which permits estimates of atmospheric diffusion is described. Smoke from power plant smoke stacks, for example, can be simulated and traced to determine the manner of diffusion in the air as well as the grade of dilution. The wind tunnel is also capable of temperature controlled diffusion tests in which temperature distribution inside the wind tunnel is controlled. A minimum wind velocity of 10 cm can be obtained with accuracy within plus or minus 0.05 percent using a controlled direct current motor; diffusion tests are often made at low wind velocity. Fully automatic measurements can be obtained by using a minicomputer so that the operation and reading of the measuring instruments can be remotely controlled from the measuring chamber. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  17. Simplified design of thin-film polarizing beam splitter using embedded symmetric trilayer stack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A

    2011-07-01

    An analytically tractable design procedure is presented for a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) that uses frustrated total internal reflection and optical tunneling by a symmetric LHL trilayer thin-film stack embedded in a high-index prism. Considerable simplification arises when the refractive index of the high-index center layer H matches the refractive index of the prism and its thickness is quarter-wave. This leads to a cube design in which zero reflection for the p polarization is achieved at a 45° angle of incidence independent of the thicknesses of the identical symmetric low-index tunnel layers L and L. Arbitrarily high reflectance for the s polarization is obtained at subwavelength thicknesses of the tunnel layers. This is illustrated by an IR Si-cube PBS that uses an embedded ZnS-Si-ZnS trilayer stack.

  18. Tunneling magnetoresistance in ferromagnetic planar hetero-nanojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur; Deminov, R. G.; Useinov, Niazbeck Kh H; Tagirov, Lenar R.

    2010-01-01

    as a tunneling barrier between the metallic electrodes, is comparable with the mean-free path of electrons. The dependence of the TMR on the bias voltage, physical parameters of the dielectric barrier, and spin polarization of the electrodes is studied

  19. Inductive dielectric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranovich, Daniel; Popov, Ivan; Ben Ishai, Paul; Feldman, Yuri; Polygalov, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    One of the approaches to bypass the problem of electrode polarization in dielectric measurements is the free electrode method. The advantage of this technique is that, the probing electric field in the material is not supplied by contact electrodes, but rather by electromagnetic induction. We have designed an inductive dielectric analyzer based on a sensor comprising two concentric toroidal coils. In this work, we present an analytic derivation of the relationship between the impedance measured by the sensor and the complex dielectric permittivity of the sample. The obtained relationship was successfully employed to measure the dielectric permittivity and conductivity of various alcohols and aqueous salt solutions. (paper)

  20. Method of making dielectric capacitors with increased dielectric breakdown strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Liu, Shanshan

    2017-05-09

    The invention is directed to a process for making a dielectric ceramic film capacitor and the ceramic dielectric laminated capacitor formed therefrom, the dielectric ceramic film capacitors having increased dielectric breakdown strength. The invention increases breakdown strength by embedding a conductive oxide layer between electrode layers within the dielectric layer of the capacitors. The conductive oxide layer redistributes and dissipates charge, thus mitigating charge concentration and micro fractures formed within the dielectric by electric fields.

  1. Contemporary dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with experimental results of the physical characterization of several important, dielectric materials of great current interest. The experimental tools used for the analysis of these materials include X-ray diffraction, dielectric measurements, magnetic measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer, optical measurements using a UV-Visible spectrometer etc.

  2. Dielectric Modulated FET (DMFET)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Working Principle: Change in Dielectric constant due to immobilization of biomolecules in the nanogap cavity leads to change in effective gate capacitance and thus gate bias for FET. Working Principle: Change in Dielectric constant due to immobilization of biomolecules in the ...

  3. Thermal dielectric function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moneta, M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal dielectric functions ε(k,ω) for homogeneous electron gas were determined and discussed. The ground state of the gas is described by the Fermi-Dirac momentum distribution. The low and high temperature limits of ε(k,ω) were related to the Lindhard dielectric function and to ε(k, omega) derived for Boltzmann and for classical momentum distributions, respectively. (author)

  4. Light in complex dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, F.J.P.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis the properties of light in complex dielectrics are described, with the two general topics of "modification of spontaneous emission" and "Anderson localization of light". The first part focuses on the spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom in a dielectric host with variable

  5. About zone structure of a stack of a cholesteric liquid crystal and isotropic medium layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, A H; Harutyunyan, E M; Matinyan, G K; Harutyunyan, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The optical properties of a stack of metamaterial-based cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) layers and isotropic medium layers are investigated. CLCs with two types of chiral nihility are defined. The peculiarities of the reflection spectra of this system are investigated and it is shown that the reflection spectra of the stacks of CLC layers of these two types differ from each other. The influence of: the CLC sublayer thicknesses; incidence angle; local dielectric (magnetic) anisotropy of the CLC layers; refraction indices and thicknesses of the isotropic media layers on the reflection spectra and other optical characteristics of the system is investigated.

  6. Unidirectional magnetoelectric-field multiresonant tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenetskii, E O; Hollander, E; Joffe, R; Shavit, R

    2015-01-01

    Unidirectional multi-resonant tunneling of the magnetoelectric (ME) field excitations through a subwavelength (regarding the scales of regular electromagnetic radiation) vacuum or isotropic-dielectric regions has been observed in two-port microwave structures having a quasi-2D ferrite disk with magnetic dipolar mode (MDM) oscillations. The excitations manifest themselves as Fano-resonance peaks in the scattering-matrix parameters at the stationary states of the MDM spectrum. The ME near-field excitations are quasimagnetostatic fields ∇-vector × H-vector =0 with non-zero helicity parameter: F=(1/(16π))Im{ E-vector ⋅( ∇-vector × E-vector ) ∗ }. Topological phase properties of ME fields are determined by edge chiral currents of MDM oscillations. We show that while for a given direction of a bias magnetic field (in other words, for a given direction of time), the ME field excitations are considered as ‘forward’ tunneling processes, in the opposite direction of a bias magnetic field (the opposite direction of time), there are ‘backward’ tunneling processes. Unidirectional ME field resonant tunneling is observed due to the distinguishable topology of the ‘forward’ and ‘backward’ ME field excitations. We establish a close connection between the Fano-resonance unidirectional tunneling and the topology of the ME fields in different microwave structures. (paper)

  7. Glassy carbon based supercapacitor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M; Braun, A; Koetz, R; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Considerable effort is being made to develop electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) that store relatively large quantities of electrical energy and possess at the same time a high power density. Our previous work has shown that glassy carbon is suitable as a material for capacitor electrodes concerning low resistance and high capacity requirements. We present the development of bipolar electrochemical glassy carbon capacitor stacks of up to 3 V. Bipolar stacks are an efficient way to meet the high voltage and high power density requirements for traction applications. Impedance and cyclic voltammogram measurements are reported here and show the frequency response of a 1, 2, and 3 V stack. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref..

  8. Time-predictable Stack Caching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar

    completely. Thus, in systems with hard deadlines the worst-case execution time (WCET) of the real-time software running on them needs to be bounded. Modern architectures use features such as pipelining and caches for improving the average performance. These features, however, make the WCET analysis more...... addresses, provides an opportunity to predict and tighten the WCET of accesses to data in caches. In this thesis, we introduce the time-predictable stack cache design and implementation within a time-predictable processor. We introduce several optimizations to our design for tightening the WCET while...... keeping the timepredictability of the design intact. Moreover, we provide a solution for reducing the cost of context switching in a system using the stack cache. In design of these caches, we use custom hardware and compiler support for delivering time-predictable stack data accesses. Furthermore...

  9. Improved Dielectric Films For Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Lewis, Carol R.; Cygan, Peter J.; Jow, T. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Dielectric films made from blends of some commercially available high-dielectric-constant cyanoresins with each other and with cellulose triacetate (CTA) have both high dielectric constants and high breakdown strengths. Dielectric constants as high as 16.2. Films used to produce high-energy-density capacitors.

  10. Dielectric properties of DNA oligonucleotides on the surface of silicon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagraev, N. T., E-mail: bagraev@mail.ioffe.ru [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Chernev, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University—Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Klyachkin, L. E. [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Malyarenko, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Emel’yanov, A. K.; Dubina, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University—Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Planar silicon nanostructures that are formed as a very narrow silicon quantum well confined by δ barriers heavily doped with boron are used to study the dielectric properties of DNA oligonucleotides deposited onto the surface of the nanostructures. The capacitance characteristics of the silicon nanostructures with oligonucleotides deposited onto their surface are determined by recording the local tunneling current–voltage characteristics by means of scanning tunneling microscopy. The results show the possibility of identifying the local dielectric properties of DNA oligonucleotide segments consisting of repeating G–C pairs. These properties apparently give grounds to correlate the segments with polymer molecules exhibiting the properties of multiferroics.

  11. Simulation of dual-gate SOI MOSFET with different dielectric layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jyoti; Chaudhary, R.; Mukhiya, R.; Sharma, R.; Khanna, V. K.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the process design and simulation of silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based dual-gate metal oxide field-effect transistor (DG-MOSFET) stacked with different dielectric layers on the top of gate oxide. A detailed 2D process simulation of SOI-MOSFETs and its electrical characterization has been done using SILVACO® TCAD tool. A variation in transconductance was observed with different dielectric layers, AlN-gate MOSFET having the highest tranconductance value as compared to other three dielectric layers (SiO2, Si3N4 and Al2O3).

  12. Enhancement of dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PbZrO3/PbTiO3 artificial superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Taekjib; Lee, Jaichan

    2005-01-01

    PbZrO 3 (PZO)/PbTiO 3 (PTO) artificial superlattices have been grown on La 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 (LSCO) (100)/MgO (100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition with various stacking periods from 1 to 100 unit cells. The PZO/PTO artificial lattice exhibited a diffraction pattern characteristic of a superlattice structure, i.e., a main diffraction peak with satellite peaks. The electrical properties of the superlattices were investigated as a function of the stacking period. The dielectric constant and remnant polarization improved on decreasing the stacking periodicity. The dielectric constant of the superlattice reached 800 at a stacking period of 1unit cell/1unit cell (PZO 1 /PTO 1 ), which is larger than that of the single PZT solid-solution film. Moreover, the remnant polarization reached a maximum, 2Pr = 38.7 μC/cm 2 , at a 2-unit-cell stacking period. Progressive enhancement of dielectric constant and remnant polarization in artificial PZO/PTO superlattice was accompanied by expansion of the (100)-plane spacing on decreasing the stacking periodicity. These results suggest that the lattice strain developed in the PZO/PTO superlattice may have influence on dielectric constant and ferroelectric behavior.

  13. Low frequency elastic properties of glasses at low temperatures - implications on the tunneling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, A.K.; Hunklinger, S.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the low frequency elastic properties of dielectric, normal conducting and superconducting metallic glasses at audio-frequencies (fapprox.=1 kHz) and temperatures down to 10 mK. Our results are discussed in the framework of the tunneling model of glasses. The major assumption of the tunneling model regarding the tunneling states with long relaxation time has been verified, but discrepancies to high frequency measurements have been found. In addition, our experiments on superconducting metallic glasses seem to indicate that the present treatment of the electron-tunneling state interaction is not sufficient. (orig.)

  14. Stack semantics of type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquand, Thierry; Mannaa, Bassel; Ruch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    We give a model of dependent type theory with one univalent universe and propositional truncation interpreting a type as a stack, generalizing the groupoid model of type theory. As an application, we show that countable choice cannot be proved in dependent type theory with one univalent universe...

  15. V-stack piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelean, Emil V.; Clark, Robert L.

    2001-07-01

    Aeroelastic control of wings by means of a distributed, trailing-edge control surface is of interest with regards to maneuvers, gust alleviation, and flutter suppression. The use of high energy density, piezoelectric materials as motors provides an appealing solution to this problem. A comparative analysis of the state of the art actuators is currently being conducted. A new piezoelectric actuator design is presented. This actuator meets the requirements for trailing edge flap actuation in both stroke and force. It is compact, simple, sturdy, and leverages stroke geometrically with minimum force penalties while displaying linearity over a wide range of stroke. The V-Stack Piezoelectric Actuator, consists of a base, a lever, two piezoelectric stacks, and a pre-tensioning element. The work is performed alternately by the two stacks, placed on both sides of the lever. Pre-tensioning can be readily applied using a torque wrench, obviating the need for elastic elements and this is for the benefit of the stiffness of the actuator. The characteristics of the actuator are easily modified by changing the base or the stacks. A prototype was constructed and tested experimentally to validate the theoretical model.

  16. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  17. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  18. Dielectric Elastomers for Fluidic and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoul, David James

    Dielectric elastomers have demonstrated tremendous potential as high-strain electromechanical transducers for a myriad of novel applications across all engineering disciplines. Because their soft, viscoelastic mechanical properties are similar to those of living tissues, dielectric elastomers have garnered a strong foothold in a plethora of biomedical and biomimetic applications. Dielectric elastomers consist of a sheet of stretched rubber, or elastomer, coated on both sides with compliant electrode materials; application of a voltage generates an electrostatic pressure that deforms the elastomer. They can function as soft generators, sensors, or actuators, and this last function is the focus of this dissertation. Many design configurations are possible, such as stacks, minimum energy structures, interpenetrating polymer networks, shape memory dielectric elastomers, and others; dielectric elastomers are already being applied to many fields of biomedicine. The first part of the original research presented in this dissertation details a PDMS microfluidic system paired with a dielectric elastomer stack actuator of anisotropically prestrained VHB(TM) 4910 (3M(TM)) and single-walled carbon nanotubes. These electroactive microfluidic devices demonstrated active increases in microchannel width when 3 and 4 kV were applied. Fluorescence microscopy also indicated an accompanying increase in channel depth with actuation. The cross-sectional area strains at 3 and 4 kV were approximately 2.9% and 7.4%, respectively. The device was then interfaced with a syringe pump, and the pressure was measured upstream. Linear pressure-flow plots were developed, which showed decreasing fluidic resistance with actuation, from 0.192 psi/(microL/min) at 0 kV, to 0.160 and 0.157 psi/(microL/min) at 3 and 4 kV, respectively. This corresponds to an ~18% drop in fluidic resistance at 4 kV. Active de-clogging was tested in situ with the device by introducing ~50 microm diameter PDMS microbeads and

  19. Dielectric materials for electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Vega, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Part 1 is particularly concerned with physical properties, electrical ageing and modeling with topics such as the physics of charged dielectric materials, conduction mechanisms, dielectric relaxation, space charge, electric ageing and life end models and dielectric experimental characterization. Part 2 concerns some applications specific to dielectric materials: insulating oils for transformers, electrorheological fluids, electrolytic capacitors, ionic membranes, photovoltaic conversion, dielectric thermal control coatings for geostationary satellites, plastics recycling and piezoelectric poly

  20. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David M [Livermore, CA; Sampayan, Stephen [Manteca, CA; Slenes, Kirk [Albuquerque, NM; Stoller, H M [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  1. Optics of dielectric microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    From the work carried out within the ph.d. project two topics have been selected for this thesis, namely emission of radiation by sources in dielectric microstructures, and planar photonic crystal waveguides. The work done within the first topic, emission of radiation by sources in dielectric...... microstructures, will be presented in the part I of this thesis consisting of the chapters 2-5. An introductions is given in chapter 2. In part I three methods are presented for calculating spontaneous and classical emission from sources in dielectric microstructures. The first method presented in chapter 3...... is based on the Fermi Golden Rule, and spontaneous emission from emitters in a passive dielectric microstructure is calculated by summing over the emission into each electromagnetic mode of the radiation field. This method is applied to investigate spontaneous emission in a two-dimensional photonic crystal...

  2. Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is a continuous flow wind-tunnel facility capable of speeds up to Mach 1.2 at stagnation pressures up to one atmosphere. The TDT...

  3. Quantum theory of tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Razavy, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    In this revised and expanded edition, in addition to a comprehensible introduction to the theoretical foundations of quantum tunneling based on different methods of formulating and solving tunneling problems, different semiclassical approximations for multidimensional systems are presented. Particular attention is given to the tunneling of composite systems, with examples taken from molecular tunneling and also from nuclear reactions. The interesting and puzzling features of tunneling times are given extensive coverage, and the possibility of measurement of these times with quantum clocks are critically examined. In addition by considering the analogy between evanescent waves in waveguides and in quantum tunneling, the times related to electromagnetic wave propagation have been used to explain certain aspects of quantum tunneling times. These topics are treated in both non-relativistic as well as relativistic regimes. Finally, a large number of examples of tunneling in atomic, molecular, condensed matter and ...

  4. Road and Railroad Tunnels

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Tunnels in the United States According to the HSIP Tiger Team Report, a tunnel is defined as a linear underground passageway open at both ends. This dataset is based...

  5. Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) is a blow-down, non-vitiated (clean air) free-jet wind tunnel capable of testing large-scale, propulsion systems at Mach 5, 6,...

  6. Vertical melting of a stack of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.; Schakel, A. M. J.

    2001-02-01

    A stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is studied. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a melting-like transition.

  7. Monitoring and Analysis of Ground Settlement Induced by Tunnelling with Slurry Pressure-Balanced Tunnel Boring Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunku Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study of monitoring and analysis of ground settlement caused by tunnelling of stacked twin tunnels for underground metro line construction through the densely populated area using the slurry pressure-balanced TBM is presented. Detailed ground settlement monitoring was carried out for the initial stage of down-track tunnelling in order to estimate trough width factor and volume losses including face, shield, and tail losses. In addition, using the gap model, prediction of volume loss and ground settlement was carried out with consideration of the ground condition, TBM configurations, and actual operation data. The predictions of the gap model were compared with the observed results, and adjustment factors were determined for volume loss estimation. The adjusted factors were applied to predict ground settlement of the up-track tunnel, and its results were compared with the field measurements.

  8. Tunneling spectra of graphene on copper unraveled

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xin; Stradi, Daniele; Liu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    mechanisms, etc. The interpretation of the spectra can be complicated, however. Specifically for graphene grown on copper, there have been conflicting reports of tunneling spectra. A clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the variability is desired. In this work, we have revealed that the root cause...... of the variability in tunneling spectra is the variation in graphene-substrate coupling under various experimental conditions, providing a salutary perspective on the important role of 2D material-substrate interactions. The conclusions are drawn from measured data and theoretical calculations for monolayer, AB......-stacked bilayer, and twisted bilayer graphene coexisting on the same substrates in areas with and without intercalated oxygen, demonstrating a high degree of consistency. The Van Hove singularities of the twisted graphene unambiguously indicate the Dirac energy between them, lending strong evidence to our...

  9. Homoepitaxial graphene tunnel barriers for spin transport (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Adam L.

    2015-09-01

    Tunnel barriers are key elements for both charge-and spin-based electronics, offering devices with reduced power consumption and new paradigms for information processing. Such devices require mating dissimilar materials, raising issues of heteroepitaxy, interface stability, and electronic states that severely complicate fabrication and compromise performance. Graphene is the perfect tunnel barrier. It is an insulator out-of-plane, possesses a defect-free, linear habit, and is impervious to interdiffusion. Nonetheless, true tunneling between two stacked graphene layers is not possible in environmental conditions (magnetic field, temperature, etc.) usable for electronics applications. However, two stacked graphene layers can be decoupled using chemical functionalization. Here, we demonstrate homoepitaxial tunnel barrier devices in which graphene serves as both the tunnel barrier and the high mobility transport channel. Beginning with multilayer graphene, we fluorinate or hydrogenate the top layer to decouple it from the bottom layer, so that it serves as a single monolayer tunnel barrier for both charge and spin injection into the lower graphene transport channel. We demonstrate successful tunneling by measuring non-linear IV curves, and a weakly temperature dependent zero bias resistance. We perform lateral transport of spin currents in non-local spin-valve structures and determine spin lifetimes with the non-local Hanle effect to be commensurate with previous studies (~200 ps). However, we also demonstrate the highest spin polarization efficiencies (~45%) yet measured in graphene-based spin devices [1]. [1] A.L. Friedman, et al., Homoepitaxial tunnel barriers with functionalized graphene-on-graphene for charge and spin transport, Nat. Comm. 5, 3161 (2014).

  10. Helping Students Design HyperCard Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how to teach students to design HyperCard stacks. Highlights include introducing HyperCard, developing storyboards, introducing design concepts and scripts, presenting stacks, evaluating storyboards, and continuing projects. A sidebar presents a HyperCard stack evaluation form. (AEF)

  11. Performance of PZT stacks under high-field electric cycling at various temperatures in heavy-duty diesel engine fuel injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Lee, Sung-Min; Lin, Hua-Tay; Stafford, Randy

    2016-04-01

    Testing and characterization of large prototype lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks present substantial technical challenges to electronic systems. The work in this study shows that an alternative approach can be pursued by using subunits extracted from prototype stacks. Piezoelectric and dielectric integrity was maintained even though the PZT plate specimens experienced an additional loading process involved with the extraction after factory poling. Extracted 10-layer plate specimens were studied by an electric cycle test under an electric field of 3.0/0.0 kV/mm, 100 Hz to 108 cycles, both at room temperature (22°C) and at 50°C. The elevated temperature had a defined impact on the fatigue of PZT stacks. About 48 and 28% reductions were observed in the piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients, respectively, after 108 cycles at 50°C, compared with reductions of 25 and 15% in the respective coefficients at 22°C. At the same time, the loss tangent varied to a limited extent. The evolution of PZT-electrode interfacial layers or nearby dielectric layers should account for the difference in the fatigue rates of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients. But the basic contribution to observed fatigue may result from the buildup of a bias field that finally suppressed the motion of the domain walls. Finally, monitoring of dielectric coefficients can be an effective tool for on-line lifetime prediction of PZT stacks in service if a failure criterion is defined properly.

  12. PRECISION COSMOGRAPHY WITH STACKED VOIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a purely geometrical method for probing the expansion history of the universe from the observation of the shape of stacked voids in spectroscopic redshift surveys. Our method is an Alcock-Paczyński (AP) test based on the average sphericity of voids posited on the local isotropy of the universe. It works by comparing the temporal extent of cosmic voids along the line of sight with their angular, spatial extent. We describe the algorithm that we use to detect and stack voids in redshift shells on the light cone and test it on mock light cones produced from N-body simulations. We establish a robust statistical model for estimating the average stretching of voids in redshift space and quantify the contamination by peculiar velocities. Finally, assuming that the void statistics that we derive from N-body simulations is preserved when considering galaxy surveys, we assess the capability of this approach to constrain dark energy parameters. We report this assessment in terms of the figure of merit (FoM) of the dark energy task force and in particular of the proposed Euclid mission which is particularly suited for this technique since it is a spectroscopic survey. The FoM due to stacked voids from the Euclid wide survey may double that of all other dark energy probes derived from Euclid data alone (combined with Planck priors). In particular, voids seem to outperform baryon acoustic oscillations by an order of magnitude. This result is consistent with simple estimates based on mode counting. The AP test based on stacked voids may be a significant addition to the portfolio of major dark energy probes and its potentialities must be studied in detail.

  13. Docker on OpenStack

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Nitin; Moreira, Belmiro

    2014-01-01

    Project Specification CERN is establishing a large scale private cloud based on OpenStack as part of the expansion of the computing infrastructure for storing the data coming out of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. As the data coming out of the detectors is increasing continuously that needs to be stored in the data center, we need more physical resources (more money) and since Virtual machines takes lot of CPU and memory overhead and minutes for creating the images, booting u...

  14. Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Bruyere, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative 'all modes' failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.

  15. Proton tunneling in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-10-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  16. Proton tunneling in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-01-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  17. Energy tunneling through narrow waveguide channel and design of small antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the conditions for energy tunneling through narrow channel obtained by reducing the height of rectangular waveguide. Tunneling of the energy occurs at the frequency for which the effective dielectric permittivity of the channel becomes equal to zero, so it can be treated as an ENZ (epsilon-near-zero metamaterial. We investigated how geometry of the channel and dielectric permittivity affect the transmission coefficient and field density in the channel. Adding slots in the channel, which are placed orthogonally to the wave propagation, we designed a small antenna with directivity of 5.44 dBi at the frequency of 3 GHz.

  18. Magnetoresistance of galfenol-based magnetic tunnel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobaut, B.; Vinai, G.; Castán-Guerrero, C.; Krizmancic, D.; Panaccione, G.; Torelli, P.; Rafaqat, H.; Roddaro, S.; Rossi, G.; Eddrief, M.; Marangolo, M.

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of ferromagnetic layer magnetization via electrical pulse is driving an intense research due to the important applications that this result will have on memory devices and sensors. In this study we realized a magnetotunnel junction in which one layer is made of Galfenol (Fe 1-x Ga x ) which possesses one of the highest magnetostrictive coefficient known. The multilayer stack has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy and e-beam evaporation. Optical lithography and physical etching have been combined to obtain 20x20 micron sized pillars. The obtained structures show tunneling conductivity across the junction and a tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effect of up to 11.5% in amplitude

  19. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup

    As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation....... An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... in the hydrogen fuel gas supplied to the stack. EIS was used to examine the long-term behavior and monitor the evolution of the impedance of each of the repeating units and the whole stack. The observed impedance was analyzed in detail for one of the repeating units and the whole stack and the losses reported...

  1. Experimental and numerical investigations of oscillations in extracted material parameters for finite Bragg stacks using the NRW method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2012-01-01

    A 1D dielectric finite Bragg stack situated in a rectangular waveguide and illuminated by the fundamental TE10 mode is examined analytically, numerically, and experimentally. Calculated as well as measured scattering parameters are used to extract the effective/equivalent material parameters...... for three specific configurations of its constituent unit cell. Particular attention is devoted to the absence/presence of certain oscillations in the extracted material parameters, depending on the unit cell configuration. The results for the finite Bragg stack are further verified to agree with those...... of an infinite Bragg stack, for which the dispersion equation is used in conjunction with the Floquet-Bloch harmonics expansion to extract the material parameters. It is shown that the extracted material parameters for the finite and infinite Bragg stacks agree for the symmetric unit cell configuration....

  2. Integrating atomic layer deposition and ultra-high vacuum physical vapor deposition for in situ fabrication of tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, Alan J., E-mail: alane@ku.edu, E-mail: jwu@ku.edu; Malek, Gary A.; Lu, Rongtao; Han, Siyuan; Wu, Judy Z., E-mail: alane@ku.edu, E-mail: jwu@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Yu, Haifeng; Zhao, Shiping [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a promising technique for growing ultrathin, pristine dielectrics on metal substrates, which is essential to many electronic devices. Tunnel junctions are an excellent example which require a leak-free, ultrathin dielectric tunnel barrier of typical thickness around 1 nm between two metal electrodes. A challenge in the development of ultrathin dielectric tunnel barriers using ALD is controlling the nucleation of dielectrics on metals with minimal formation of native oxides at the metal surface for high-quality interfaces between the tunnel barrier and metal electrodes. This poses a critical need for integrating ALD with ultra-high vacuum (UHV) physical vapor deposition. In order to address these challenges, a viscous-flow ALD chamber was designed and interfaced to an UHV magnetron sputtering chamber via a load lock. A sample transportation system was implemented for in situ sample transfer between the ALD, load lock, and sputtering chambers. Using this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system, superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Nb-Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions were fabricated with tunnel barriers of thickness varied from sub-nm to ∼1 nm. The suitability of using an Al wetting layer for initiation of the ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier was investigated with ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and electrical transport measurements. With optimized processing conditions, leak-free SIS tunnel junctions were obtained, demonstrating the viability of this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system for the fabrication of tunnel junctions and devices comprised of metal-dielectric-metal multilayers.

  3. Seasonal variations of 222Rn concentrations in the air of a tunnel located in Nagano City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, H.; Tashiro, Y.; Hasegawa, N.; Misawa, C.; Minami, M.

    2000-01-01

    The survey of 222 Rn concentrations in the air of tunnels constructed during World War II at Nagano City has been performed using a solid-state nuclear track detector technique. Concentrations of several thousands Bq m -3 were observed at inner most areas of the tunnel. A seasonal variation was clearly observed; in summer, several times higher concentrations than in winter were observed, which may be due to a stack effect induced by the temperature difference between the tunnel air and the outside air in each season. The concentrations of radon in the tunnel air decrease exponentially towards the openings of the tunnel, which indicates that the radon concentration in the tunnel is basically governed by diffusion and mixing of radon gas with air. (author)

  4. High Gain and High Directive of Antenna Arrays Utilizing Dielectric Layer on Bismuth Titanate Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Wee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high gain and high directive microstrip patch array antenna formed from dielectric layer stacked on bismuth titanate (BiT ceramics have been investigated, fabricated, and measured. The antennas are designed and constructed with a combination of two-, four-, and six-BiT elements in an array form application on microwave substrate. For gain and directivity enhancement, a layer of dielectric was stacked on the BiT antenna array. We measured the gain and directivity of BiT array antennas with and without the dielectric layer and found that the gain of BiT array antenna with the dielectric layer was enhanced by about 1.4 dBi of directivity and 1.3 dB of gain over the one without the dielectric layer at 2.3 GHz. The impedance bandwidth of the BiT array antenna both with and without the dielectric layer is about 500 MHz and 350 MHz, respectively, which is suitable for the application of the WiMAX 2.3 GHz system. The utilization of BiT ceramics that covers about 90% of antenna led to high radiation efficiency, and small-size antennas were produced. In order to validate the proposed design, theoretical and measured results are provided and discussed.

  5. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  6. On dielectric breakdown statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncer, Enis; James, D Randy; Sauers, Isidor; Ellis, Alvin R; Pace, Marshall O

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dielectric breakdown data of some insulating materials and focus on the applicability of the two- and three-parameter Weibull distributions. A new distribution function is also proposed. In order to assess the model distribution's trustworthiness, we employ the Monte Carlo technique and, randomly selecting data-subsets from the whole dielectric breakdown data, determine whether the selected probability functions accurately describe the breakdown data. The utility and strength of the proposed expression are illustrated distinctly by the numerical procedure. The proposed expression is shown to be a valuable alternative to the Weibull ones

  7. Tunneling magnetoresistance in ferromagnetic planar hetero-nanojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur

    2010-05-03

    We present a theoretical study of the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) in nanojunctions between non-identical ferromagnetic metals in the framework of the quasiclassical approach. The lateral size of a dielectric oxide layer, which is considered as a tunneling barrier between the metallic electrodes, is comparable with the mean-free path of electrons. The dependence of the TMR on the bias voltage, physical parameters of the dielectric barrier, and spin polarization of the electrodes is studied. It is demonstrated that a simple enough theory can give high TMR magnitudes of several hundred percent at bias voltages below 0.5 V. A qualitative comparison with the available experimental data is given. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Effects of doping and bias voltage on the screening in AAA-stacked trilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Yawar; Moradian, Rostam; Shirzadi Tabar, Farzad

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the static polarization of AAA-stacked trilayer graphene (TLG) and study its screening properties within the random phase approximation (RPA) in all undoped, doped and biased regimes. We find that the static polarization of undoped AAA-stacked TLG is a combination of the doped and undoped single-layer graphene static polarization. This leads to an enhancement of the dielectric background constant along a Thomas-Fermi screening with the Thomas-Fermi wave vector which is independent of carrier concentrations and a 1/r3 power law decay for the long-distance behavior of the screened Coulomb potential. We show that effects of a bias voltage can be taken into account by a renormalization of the interlayer hopping energy to a new bias-voltage-dependent value, indicating screening properties of AAA-stacked TLG can be tuned electrically. We also find that screening properties of doped AAA-stacked TLG, when μ exceeds √{2}γ, are similar to that of doped SLG only depending on doping. While for μ<√{2}γ, its screening properties are combination of SLG and AA-stacked bilayer graphene screening properties and they are determined by doping and the interlayer hopping energy.

  9. Stacking stability of MoS2 bilayer: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Peng; Guo Huai-Hong; Yang Teng; Zhang Zhi-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The study of the stacking stability of bilayer MoS 2 is essential since a bilayer has exhibited advantages over single layer MoS 2 in many aspects for nanoelectronic applications. We explored the relative stability, optimal sliding path between different stacking orders of bilayer MoS 2 , and (especially) the effect of inter-layer stress, by combining first-principles density functional total energy calculations and the climbing-image nudge-elastic-band (CI-NEB) method. Among five typical stacking orders, which can be categorized into two kinds (I: AA, AB and II: AA', AB', A'B), we found that stacking orders with Mo and S superposing from both layers, such as AA' and AB, is more stable than the others. With smaller computational efforts than potential energy profile searching, we can study the effect of inter-layer stress on the stacking stability. Under isobaric condition, the sliding barrier increases by a few eV/(ucGPa) from AA' to AB', compared to 0.1 eV/(ucGPa) from AB to [AB]. Moreover, we found that interlayer compressive stress can help enhance the transport properties of AA'. This study can help understand why inter-layer stress by dielectric gating materials can be an effective means to improving MoS 2 on nanoelectronic applications. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  10. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  11. Quantum tunneling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.S.; Lai, C.H.; Oh, C.H.; Kwek, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present a calculation of quantum tunneling time based on the transition duration of wave peak from one side of a barrier to the other. In our formulation, the tunneling time comprises a real and an imaginary part. The real part is an extension of the phase tunneling time with quantum corrections whereas the imaginary time is associated with energy derivatives of the probability amplitudes

  12. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  13. Josephson tunneling and nanosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Ovchinnikov, Yurii; Kresin, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Josephson tunneling between nanoclusters is analyzed. The discrete nature of the electronic energy spectra, including their shell ordering, is explicitly taken into account. The treatment considers the two distinct cases of resonant and non-resonant tunneling. It is demonstrated that the current density greatly exceeds the value discussed in the conventional theory. Nanoparticles are shown to be promising building blocks for nanomaterials-based tunneling networks.

  14. About tunnelling times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkhovsky, V.S.; Recami, E.

    1991-08-01

    In this paper, first we critically analyse the main theoretical definitions and calculations of the sub-barrier tunnelling and reflection times. Secondly, we propose a new, physically sensible definition of such durations, on the basis of a recent general formalism (already tested for other types of quantum collisions). At last, we discuss some results regarding temporal evolution of the tunnelling processes, and in particular the ''particle'' speed during tunnelling. (author). 36 refs, 1 fig

  15. Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel advances the study of fundamental flow physics relevant to micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and assesses vehicle performance...

  16. Polymer-mediated tunneling transport between carbon nanotubes in nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Pedro A; Michalak, Tyler

    2014-05-01

    Electron transport in nanocomposites has attracted a good deal of attention for some time now; furthermore, the ability to control its characteristics is a necessary step in the design of multifunctional materials. When conductive nanostructures (for example carbon nanotubes) are inserted in a non-conductive matrix, electron transport below the percolation threshold is dominated by tunneling and thus the conductive characteristics of the composite depends heavily on the characteristics of the tunneling currents between nanoinserts. A parameter-free approach to study tunneling transport between carbon nanotubes across a polymer matrix is presented. The calculation is done with a combination of Density Functional Theory and Green functions (an approach heavily used in molecular electronics) which is shown here to be effective in this non-resonant transport condition. The results show that the method can effectively capture the effect of a dielectric layer in tunneling transport. The current is found to exponentially decrease with the size of the gap for both vacuum and polymer, and that the polymer layer lowers the tunneling barrier enhancing tunneling conduction. For a polyacrylonitrile matrix, a four-fold decrease in the tunneling constant, compared to tunneling in vacuum, is observed, a result that is consistent with available information. The method is very versatile as any DFT functional (or any other quantum mechanics method) can be used and thus the most accurate method for each particular system can be chosen. Furthermore as more methods become available, the calculations can be revised and improved. This approach can be used to design functional materials for fine-tunning the tunneling transport, for instance, the effect of modifying the nanoinsert-matrix interface (for example, by adding functional groups to carbon nanotubes) can be captured and the comparative performance of each interface predicted by simulation.

  17. The untyped stack calculus and Bohm's theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carraro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The stack calculus is a functional language in which is in a Curry-Howard correspondence with classical logic. It enjoys confluence but, as well as Parigot's lambda-mu, does not admit the Bohm Theorem, typical of the lambda-calculus. We present a simple extension of stack calculus which is for the stack calculus what Saurin's Lambda-mu is for lambda-mu.

  18. Flexural characteristics of a stack leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-06-01

    A 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator is at present under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The insulating stack of the machine is of modular construction, each module being 860 mm in length. Each live section stack module contains 8 insulating legs mounted between bulkhead rings. The design, fabrication (from glass discs bonded to stainless steel discs using an epoxy film adhesive) and testing of the stack legs is described. (U.K.)

  19. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro López García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum’s Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015  [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  20. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    López García, Álvaro; Fernández del Castillo, Enol; Orviz Fernández, Pablo

    In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum's Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI) for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015) [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  1. Thin film transistors for flexible electronics: Contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Quevedo-López, Manuel Angel Quevedo

    2011-06-01

    The development of low temperature, thin film transistor processes that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, radiation detectors, etc. In this paper, we review the impact of gate dielectrics, contacts and semiconductor materials on thin film transistors for flexible electronics applications. We present our recent results to fully integrate hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductors comprising inorganic and organic-based materials. In particular, we demonstrate novel gate dielectric stacks and semiconducting materials. The impact of source and drain contacts on device performance is also discussed. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers.

  2. Thin film transistors for flexible electronics: Contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Wondmagegn, Wudyalew T.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Ramí rez-Bon, Rafael; Gnade, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    The development of low temperature, thin film transistor processes that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, radiation detectors, etc. In this paper, we review the impact of gate dielectrics, contacts and semiconductor materials on thin film transistors for flexible electronics applications. We present our recent results to fully integrate hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductors comprising inorganic and organic-based materials. In particular, we demonstrate novel gate dielectric stacks and semiconducting materials. The impact of source and drain contacts on device performance is also discussed. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers.

  3. Effect of Additional Structure on Effective Stack Height of Gas Dispersion in Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenobu Michioka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind-tunnel experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of additional structure (building, sea wall and banking on the effective stack height, which is usually used in safety analyses of nuclear power facilities in Japan. The effective stack heights were estimated with and without the additional structure in addition to the reactor building while varying several conditions such as the source height, the height of additional structure and the distance between the source position and the additional structure. When the source height is equivalent to the reactor building height, the additional structure enhances both the vertical and horizontal gas dispersion widths and decreases the ground gas concentration, and it means that the additional structure does not decrease the effective stack height. When the source height is larger than the reactor height, the additional structures might affect the effective stack height. As the distance between the source and the additional structure decreases, or as the height of the additional structure increases, the structure has a larger effect on the effective stack height.

  4. Energy scavenging strain absorber: application to kinetic dielectric elastomer generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, C.; Beaune, M.; Vu-Cong, T.; Sylvestre, A.

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are light, compliant, silent energy scavengers. They can easily be incorporated into clothing where they could scavenge energy from the human kinetic movements for biomedical applications. Nevertheless, scavengers based on dielectric elastomers are soft electrostatic generators requiring a high voltage source to polarize them and high external strain, which constitutes the two major disadvantages of these transducers. We propose here a complete structure made up of a strain absorber, a DEG and a simple electronic power circuit. This new structure looks like a patch, can be attached on human's wear and located on the chest, knee, elbow… Our original strain absorber, inspired from a sailing boat winch, is able to heighten the external available strain with a minimal factor of 2. The DEG is made of silicone Danfoss Polypower and it has a total area of 6cm per 2.5cm sustaining a maximal strain of 50% at 1Hz. A complete electromechanical analytical model was developed for the DEG associated to this strain absorber. With a poling voltage of 800V, a scavenged energy of 0.57mJ per cycle is achieved with our complete structure. The performance of the DEG can further be improved by enhancing the imposed strain, by designing a stack structure, by using a dielectric elastomer with high dielectric permittivity.

  5. Unusual reflection of electromagnetic radiation from a stack of graphene layers at oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludov, Yu V; Peres, N M R; Vasilevskiy, M I

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction of electromagnetic (EM) radiation with single-layer graphene and a stack of parallel graphene sheets at arbitrary angles of incidence. It is found that the behavior is qualitatively different for transverse magnetic (or p-polarized) and transverse electric (or s-polarized) waves. In particular, the absorbance of single-layer graphene attains a minimum (maximum) for the p (s)-polarization at the angle of total internal reflection when the light comes from a medium with a higher dielectric constant. In the case of equal dielectric constants of the media above and beneath graphene, for grazing incidence graphene is almost 100% transparent to p-polarized waves and acts as a tunable mirror for the s-polarization. These effects are enhanced for a stack of graphene sheets, so the system can work as a broad band polarizer. It is shown further that a periodic stack of graphene layers has the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal, with gaps (or stop bands) at certain frequencies. When an incident EM wave is reflected from this photonic crystal, the tunability of the graphene conductivity renders the possibility of controlling the gaps, and the structure can operate as a tunable spectral-selective mirror. (paper)

  6. California dreaming?[PEM stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosse, J.

    2002-06-01

    Hyundai's Santa Fe FCEV will be on sale by the end of 2002. Hyundai uses PEM stacks that are manufactured by International Fuel Cells (IFC), a division of United Technologies. Santa Fe is equipped with a 65 kW electric powertrain of Enova systems and Shell's new gasoline reformer called Hydrogen Source. Eugene Jang, Senior Engineer - Fuel Cell and Materials at Hyundai stated that the compressor related losses on IFC system are below 3%. The maximum speed offered by the vehicle is estimated as 123km/hr while the petrol equivalent fuel consumption is quoted between 5.6L/100 km and 4.8L/100 km. Santa Fe is a compact vehicle offering better steering response and a pleasant drive. (author)

  7. Dielectric nanoresonators for light manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Jian; Jiang, Ruibin; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Xie, Ya-Ming; Wang, Jianfang; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructures made of dielectric materials with high or moderate refractive indexes can support strong electric and magnetic resonances in the optical region. They can therefore function as nanoresonators. In addition to plasmonic metal nanostructures that have been widely investigated, dielectric nanoresonators provide a new type of building blocks for realizing powerful and versatile nanoscale light manipulation. In contrast to plasmonic metal nanostructures, nanoresonators made of appropriate dielectric materials are low-cost, earth-abundant and have very small or even negligible light energy losses. As a result, they will find potential applications in a number of photonic devices, especially those that require low energy losses. In this review, we describe the recent progress on the experimental and theoretical studies of dielectric nanoresonators. We start from the basic theory of the electromagnetic responses of dielectric nanoresonators and their fabrication methods. The optical properties of individual dielectric nanoresonators are then elaborated, followed by the coupling behaviors between dielectric nanoresonators, between dielectric nanoresonators and substrates, and between dielectric nanoresonators and plasmonic metal nanostructures. The applications of dielectric nanoresonators are further described. Finally, the challenges and opportunities in this field are discussed.

  8. Scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnig, G.; Rohrer, H.

    1983-01-01

    Based on vacuum tunneling, a novel type of microscope, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was developed. It has an unprecedented resolution in real space on an atomic scale. The authors review the important technical features, illustrate the power of the STM for surface topographies and discuss its potential in other areas of science and technology. (Auth.)

  9. Electron tunneling in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamaraev, K.I.; Khajrutdinov, R.F.; Zhdanov, V.P.; Molin, Yu.N.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations are outlined systematically on electron tunnelling in chemical reactions. Mechanism of electron transport to great distances is shown to be characteristic to chemical compounds of a wide range. The function of tunnel reactions is discussed for various fields of chemistry, including radiation chemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry of solids, chemistry of surface and catalysis

  10. Center for dielectric studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, L. E.; Newnham, R. E.; Biggers, J. V.

    1984-05-01

    This report focuses upon the parts of the Center program which have drawn most extensively upon Navy funds. In the basic study of polarization processes in high K dielectrics, major progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms in relaxor ferroelectric in the perovskite structure families. A new effort is also being mounted to obtain more precise evaluation of the internal stress effects in fine grained barium titanate. Related to reliability, studies of the effects of induced macro-defects are described, and preparation for the evaluation of space charge by internal potential distribution measurements discussed. To develop new processing methods for very thin dielectric layers, a new type of single barrier layer multilayer is discussed, and work on the thermal evaporation of oriented crystalline antimony sulphur iodide describe.

  11. First-principles simulations of the leakage current in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures caused by oxygen vacancies in HfO2 high-K gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, L.F.; Wang, Z.O.

    2008-01-01

    HfO 2 high-K gate dielectric has been used as a new gate dielectric in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures. First-principles simulations are used to study the effects of oxygen vacancies on the tunneling current through the oxide. A level which is nearly 1.25 eV from the bottom of the conduction band is introduced into the bandgap due to the oxygen vacancies. The tunneling current calculations show that the tunneling currents through the gate oxide with different defect density possess the typical characteristic of stress-induced leakage current. Further analysis shows that the location of oxygen vacancies will have a marked effect on the tunneling current. The largest increase in the tunneling current caused by oxygen vacancies comes about at the middle oxide field when defects are located at the middle of the oxide. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Dielectric properties of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, S.; Riad, A.S.; El-Shabasy, M.

    2005-01-01

    The temperature dependence of dielectric properties in polyethylene was measured in the frequency range from 10 to 105 Hz. The frequency dependence of the complex impedance in the complex plane could be fitted by semicircles. The system could be represented by an equivalent circuit of a bulk resistance in series with parallel surface resistance-capacitance combination. The relaxation time, has been evaluated from experimental results. Results reveal that the temperature dependence, is a thermally activated process

  13. Dielectric Wakefield Researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Onishchenko, N.I.; Uskov, V.V.; Marshall, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Excitation of wakefield in cylindrical dielectric waveguide/resonator by a sequence of relativistic electron bunches was investigated using an electron linac 'Almaz-2' (4.5 MeV, 6·10 3 bunches of duration 60 ps and charge 0.32 nC each). Energy spectrum of electrons, radial topography and longitudinal distribution of wakefield, and total energy of excited wakefield were measured by means of magnetic analyzer, high frequency probe, and a sensitive calorimeter

  14. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  15. Dielectric lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1983-06-01

    Dielectric lattice gauge theory models are introduced. They involve variables PHI(b)epsilong that are attached to the links b = (x+esub(μ),x) of the lattice and take their values in the linear space g which consists of real linear combinations of matrices in the gauge group G. The polar decomposition PHI(b)=U(b)osub(μ)(x) specifies an ordinary lattice gauge field U(b) and a kind of dielectric field epsilonsub(ij)proportionalosub(i)osub(j)sup(*)deltasub(ij). A gauge invariant positive semidefinite kinetic term for the PHI-field is found, and it is shown how to incorporate Wilson fermions in a way which preserves Osterwalder Schrader positivity. Theories with G = SU(2) and without matter fields are studied in some detail. It is proved that confinement holds, in the sense that Wilson loop expectation values show an area law decay, if the Euclidean action has certain qualitative features which imply that PHI = 0 (i.e. dielectric field identical 0) is the unique maximum of the action. (orig.)

  16. Dielectric lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1984-01-01

    Dielectric lattice gauge theory models are introduced. They involve variables PHI(b)element ofG that are attached to the links b = (x+esub(μ), x) of the lattice and take their values in the linear space G which consists of real linear combinations of matrices in the gauge group G. The polar decomposition PHI(b)=U(b)sigmasub(μ)(x) specifies an ordinary lattice gauge field U(b) and a kind of dielectric field epsilonsub(ij)proportional sigmasub(i)sigmasub(j)sup(*)deltasub(ij). A gauge invariant positive semidefinite kinetic term for the PHI-field is found, and it is shown how to incorporate Wilson fermions in a way which preserves Osterwalder-Schrader positivity. Theories with G = SU(2) and without matter fields are studied in some detail. It is proved that confinement holds, in the sense that Wilson-loop expectation values show an area law decay, if the euclidean action has certain qualitative features which imply that PHI=0 (i.e. dielectric field identical 0) is the unique maximum of the action. (orig.)

  17. Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...... of vector fields....

  18. Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420

  19. 40 CFR 61.44 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.44 Section 61.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Firing § 61.44 Stack sampling. (a) Sources subject to § 61.42(b) shall be continuously sampled, during...

  20. On the "stacking fault" in copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransens, J.R.; Pleiter, F

    2003-01-01

    The results of a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations experiment on In-111 implanted into a properly cut single crystal of copper show that the defect known in the literature as "stacking fault" is not a planar faulted loop but a stacking fault tetrahedron with a size of 10-50 Angstrom.

  1. Learning OpenStack networking (Neutron)

    CERN Document Server

    Denton, James

    2014-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack-based cloud operator with experience in OpenStack Compute and nova-network but are new to Neutron networking, then this book is for you. Some networking experience is recommended, and a physical network infrastructure is required to provide connectivity to instances and other network resources configured in the book.

  2. Status of MCFC stack technology at IHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosaka, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Otsubo, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising option for highly efficient power generation possible to enlarge. IHI has been studying parallel flow MCFC stacks with internal manifolds that have a large electrode area of 1m{sup 2}. IHI will make two 250 kW stacks for MW plant, and has begun to make cell components for the plant. To improve the stability of stack, soft corrugated plate used in the separator has been developed, and a way of gathering current from stacks has been studied. The DC output potential of the plant being very high, the design of electric insulation will be very important. A 20 kW short stack test was conducted in 1995 FY to certificate some of the improvements and components of the MW plant. These activities are presented below.

  3. Modular fuel-cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinakin

    2010-07-13

    A fuel cell assembly having a plurality of fuel cells arranged in a stack. An end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at an end of said stack. The end plate assembly has an inlet area adapted to receive an exhaust gas from the stack, an outlet area and a passage connecting the inlet area and outlet area and adapted to carry the exhaust gas received at the inlet area from the inlet area to the outlet area. A further end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at a further opposing end of the stack. The further end plate assembly has a further inlet area adapted to receive a further exhaust gas from the stack, a further outlet area and a further passage connecting the further inlet area and further outlet area and adapted to carry the further exhaust gas received at the further inlet area from the further inlet area to the further outlet area.

  4. Dielectric properties of lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkova, O. V.; Kibardina, I. N.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of the dielectric characteristics of lunar soil samples are analyzed in the context of dielectric theory. It has been shown that the real component of the dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent of rocks greatly depend on the frequency of the interacting electromagnetic field and the soil temperature. It follows from the analysis that one should take into account diurnal variations in the lunar surface temperature when interpreting the radar-sounding results, especially for the gigahertz radio range.

  5. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  6. Probing Temperature Inside Planar SOFC Short Stack, Modules, and Stack Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Guan, Wanbing; Zhou, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Probing temperature inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack lies at the heart of the development of high-performance and stable SOFC systems. In this article, we report our recent work on the direct measurements of the temperature in three types of SOFC systems: a 5-cell short stack, a 30-cell stack module, and a stack series consisting of two 30-cell stack modules. The dependence of temperature on the gas flow rate and current density was studied under a current sweep or steady-state operation. During the current sweep, the temperature inside the 5-cell stack decreased with increasing current, while it increased significantly at the bottom and top of the 30-cell stack. During a steady-state operation, the temperature of the 5-cell stack was stable while it was increased in the 30-cell stack. In the stack series, the maximum temperature gradient reached 190°C when the gas was not preheated. If the gas was preheated and the temperature gradient was reduced to 23°C in the stack series with the presence of a preheating gas and segmented temperature control, this resulted in a low degradation rate.

  7. The impact of stack geometry and mean pressure on cold end temperature of stack in thermoacoustic refrigeration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantha, Channarong

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the experimental and simulation studies of the influence of stack geometries and different mean pressures on the cold end temperature of the stack in the thermoacoustic refrigeration system. The stack geometry was tested, including spiral stack, circular pore stack and pin array stack. The results of this study show that the mean pressure of the gas in the system has a significant impact on the cold end temperature of the stack. The mean pressure of the gas in the system corresponds to thermal penetration depth, which results in a better cold end temperature of the stack. The results also show that the cold end temperature of the pin array stack decreases more than that of the spiral stack and circular pore stack geometry by approximately 63% and 70%, respectively. In addition, the thermal area and viscous area of the stack are analyzed to explain the results of such temperatures of thermoacoustic stacks.

  8. Tunneling current between graphene layers

    OpenAIRE

    Poklonski, Nikolai A.; Siahlo, Andrei I.; Vyrko, Sergey A.; Popov, Andrey M.; Lozovik, Yurii E.

    2013-01-01

    The physical model that allows to calculate the values of the tunneling current be-tween graphene layers is proposed. The tunneling current according to the pro-posed model is proportional to the area of tunneling transition. The calculated value of tunneling conductivity is in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  9. Anomalous positive flatband voltage shifts in metal gate stacks containing rare-earth oxide capping layers

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.

    2012-03-09

    It is shown that the well-known negative flatband voltage (VFB) shift, induced by rare-earth oxide capping in metal gate stacks, can be completely reversed in the absence of the silicon overlayer. Using TaN metal gates and Gd2O3-doped dielectric, we measure a ∼350 mV negative shift with the Si overlayer present and a ∼110 mV positive shift with the Si overlayer removed. This effect is correlated to a positive change in the average electrostatic potential at the TaN/dielectric interface which originates from an interfacial dipole. The dipole is created by the replacement of interfacial oxygen atoms in the HfO2 lattice with nitrogen atoms from TaN.

  10. Vacuum phonon tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A; Roy, Ajit K

    2010-10-15

    Field-induced phonon tunneling, a previously unknown mechanism of interfacial thermal transport, has been revealed by ultrahigh vacuum inelastic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Using thermally broadened Fermi-Dirac distribution in the STM tip as in situ atomic-scale thermometer we found that thermal vibrations of the last tip atom are effectively transmitted to sample surface despite few angstroms wide vacuum gap. We show that phonon tunneling is driven by interfacial electric field and thermally vibrating image charges, and its rate is enhanced by surface electron-phonon interaction.

  11. Five stacks over the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Following the departure of Communism, Hungary adopted the most ambitious privatisation programme of all the eastern European countries. Within a year the state electricity company, MVM, and the oil and gas company, MOL, were prepared for sale and a consequent injection of foreign capital. Control of prices by central government inhibited investment initially but a new legal framework put in place in 1995 introduced a pricing regime more attractive to external investors. Particular interest was shown in the 2,200MW mixed heavy oil and natural gas power plant at Dunamenti on the Danube, characterised by its five stacks of varying height which reflect the changing technology employed at the plant. The bid was won by Tractabel of Belgium who have been highly successful in improving plant efficiency. However, the impact of privatisation is now being felt in uncertainty over fuel supply. Removing such uncertainty in order to maintain existing investment and provide the additional 4000MW of generating capacity needed to keep pace with demand, is a major problem which the incoming government faces. (UK)

  12. Boron nitride as two dimensional dielectric: Reliability and dielectric breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yanfeng; Pan, Chengbin; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Lian, Xiaojuan; Miao, Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Larcher, Luca [DISMI, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Wu, Ernest [IBM Research Division, Essex Junction, Vermont 05452 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Boron Nitride (BN) is a two dimensional insulator with excellent chemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, which make it especially attractive for logic device applications. Nevertheless, its insulating properties and reliability as a dielectric material have never been analyzed in-depth. Here, we present the first thorough characterization of BN as dielectric film using nanoscale and device level experiments complementing with theoretical study. Our results reveal that BN is extremely stable against voltage stress, and it does not show the reliability problems related to conventional dielectrics like HfO{sub 2}, such as charge trapping and detrapping, stress induced leakage current, and untimely dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we observe a unique layer-by-layer dielectric breakdown, both at the nanoscale and device level. These findings may be of interest for many materials scientists and could open a new pathway towards two dimensional logic device applications.

  13. Dielectric Properties Of Nanoferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankov, Stevan B.; Cvejic, Zeljka N.; Rakic, Srdjan; Srdic, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric properties: permittivity, loss factor, tan delta and ionic conductivity of nanostructured ferrites have been measured. Samples used were nickel, zinc and yttrium doped ferrites mixed in various ratios. The synthesis has been performed using precipitation method and obtained powders were pressed in pellets under varying pressure. X-ray diffractography approach for the refinement of structure and microstructural analysis has been performed. All parameters have been measured in 1 Hz to 100 kHz frequency range and 30 deg. C to 80 deg. C temperature range. Significant improvements in permittivity, loss factor and ionic conductivity comparing to bulk samples have been observed

  14. Dielectric materials and electrostatics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallot-Lavalle, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    An introduction to the physics of electrical insulation, this book presents the physical foundations of this discipline and the resulting applications. It is structured in two parts. The first part presents a mathematical and intuitive approach to dielectrics; various concepts, including polarization, induction, forces and losses are discussed. The second part provides readers with the keys to understanding the physics of solid, liquid and gas insulation. It comprises a phenomenological description of discharges in gas and its resulting applications. Finally, the main electrical properties

  15. Study on the dielectric properties of Al2O3/TiO2 sub-nanometric laminates: effect of the bottom electrode and the total thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Elbahri, M.; Kahouli, A.; Mercey, B.; Lebedev, O.; Donner, W.; Lüders, U.

    2018-02-01

    Dielectrics based on amorphous sub-nanometric laminates of TiO2 and Al2O3 are subject to elevated dielectric losses and leakage currents, in large parts due to the extremely thin individual layer thickness chosen for the creation of the Maxwell-Wagner relaxation and therefore the high apparent dielectric constants. The optimization of performances of the laminate itself being strongly limited by this contradiction concerning its internal structure, we will show in this study that modifications of the dielectric stack of capacitors based on these sub-nanometric laminates can positively influence the dielectric losses and the leakage, as for example the nature of the electrodes, the introduction of thick insulating layers at the laminate/electrode interfaces and the modification of the total laminate thickness. The optimization of the dielectric stack leads to the demonstration of a capacitor with an apparent dielectric constant of 90, combined with low dielectric loss (tan δ) of 7 · 10-2 and with leakage currents smaller than 1  ×  10-6 A cm-2 at 10 MV m-1.

  16. Density of oxidation-induced stacking faults in damaged silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, F.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Verwey, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A model for the relation between density and length of oxidation-induced stacking faults on damaged silicon surfaces is proposed, based on interactions of stacking faults with dislocations and neighboring stacking faults. The model agrees with experiments.

  17. Quantum tunneling with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokieda, M.; Hagino, K.

    2017-05-01

    Using the phenomenological quantum friction models introduced by P. Caldirola [Nuovo Cimento 18, 393 (1941), 10.1007/BF02960144] and E. Kanai [Prog. Theor. Phys. 3, 440 (1948), 10.1143/ptp/3.4.440], M. D. Kostin [J. Chem. Phys. 57, 3589 (1972), 10.1063/1.1678812], and K. Albrecht [Phys. Lett. B 56, 127 (1975), 10.1016/0370-2693(75)90283-X], we study quantum tunneling of a one-dimensional potential in the presence of energy dissipation. To this end, we calculate the tunneling probability using a time-dependent wave-packet method. The friction reduces the tunneling probability. We show that the three models provide similar penetrabilities to each other, among which the Caldirola-Kanai model requires the least numerical effort. We also discuss the effect of energy dissipation on quantum tunneling in terms of barrier distributions.

  18. Wind Tunnel Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NASA Ames Research Center is pleased to offer the services of our premier wind tunnel facilities that have a broad range of proven testing capabilities to customers...

  19. INCAS TRISONIC WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin MUNTEANU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1.2 m x 1.2 m Trisonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel is the largest of the experimental facilities at the National Institute for Aerospace Research - I.N.C.A.S. "Elie Carafoli", Bucharest, Romania. The tunnel has been designed by the Canadian company DSMA (now AIOLOS and since its commissioning in 1978 has performed high speed aerodynamic tests for more than 120 projects of aircraft, missiles and other objects among which the twin jet fighter IAR-93, the jet trainer IAR-99, the MIG-21 Lancer, the Polish jet fighter YRYDA and others. In the last years the wind tunnel has been used mostly for experimental research in European projects such as UFAST. The high flow quality parameters and the wide range of testing capabilities ensure the competitivity of the tunnel at an international level.

  20. The ISI Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    DP /etc/tunnelvisa p zephyr dark -star TCP /etc/tunnelvisa p zephyr dak’star ICMP /etc/tunnelvisa p zephyr quark MDP /etc/tunnelvisa p zephyr quark ...drax-net-yp 128.9.32.2 1 route add quark -net-yp 128.9.32.3 1 route add vlsi-net-yp 128.9.32.4 1 route add darkstar-net-yp 128.9.32.3 1 route add rocky...TCP /etc/tunnel-visa p zephyr quark ICMP /etc/tunnel-visa p zephyr drax tTI)P /etc/tunnel-visa p zephyr drax TCP /etc/tunnel_visa p zephyr drax ICMP

  1. Wind Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This ARDEC facility consists of subsonic, transonic, and supersonic wind tunnels to acquire aerodynamic data. Full-scale and sub-scale models of munitions are fitted...

  2. Water Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s High-Pressure Water Tunnel Facility in Pittsburgh, PA, re-creates the conditions found 3,000 meters beneath the ocean’s surface, allowing scientists to study...

  3. Utilizing Interlayer Excitons in Bilayer WS2 for Increased Photovoltaic Response in Ultrathin Graphene Vertical Cross-Bar Photodetecting Tunneling Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingqiu; Tan, Haijie; Sheng, Yuewen; Fan, Ye; Xu, Wenshuo; Warner, Jamie H

    2018-04-19

    Here we study the layer-dependent photoconductivity in Gr/WS 2 /Gr vertical stacked tunneling (VST) cross-bar devices made using two-dimensional (2D) materials all grown by chemical vapor deposition. The larger number of devices (>100) enables a statistically robust analysis on the comparative differences in the photovoltaic response of monolayer and bilayer WS 2 , which cannot be achieved in small batch devices made using mechanically exfoliated materials. We show a dramatic increase in photovoltaic response for Gr/WS 2 (2L)/Gr compared to monolayers because of the long inter- and intralayer exciton lifetimes and the small exciton binding energy (both interlayer and intralayer excitons) of bilayer WS 2 compared with that of monolayer WS 2 . Different doping levels and dielectric environments of top and bottom graphene electrodes result in a potential difference across a ∼1 nm vertical device, which gives rise to large electric fields perpendicular to the WS 2 layers that cause band structure modification. Our results show how precise control over layer number in all 2D VST devices dictates the photophysics and performance for photosensing applications.

  4. Dynamical stability of slip-stacking particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-09-01

    We study the stability of particles in slip-stacking configuration, used to nearly double proton beam intensity at Fermilab. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We find perturbative solutions for stable particle trajectories. We establish Booster beam quality requirements to achieve 97% slip-stacking efficiency. We show that slip-stacking dynamics directly correspond to the driven pendulum and to the system of two standing-wave traps moving with respect to each other.

  5. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    -filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

  6. Tunable electro-optic filter stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa

    2017-09-05

    A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.

  7. Discharge ignition near a dielectric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobota, A.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Stoffels, W.W.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical breakdown in noble gas near a dielectric is an important issue in lighting industry. In order to investigate the influence of the dielectric on the ignition process, we perform measurements in argon, with pressure varying from 0.1 to 1 bar, using a pin–pin electrode geometry. Here, we

  8. The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels with TunnelSim and TunnelSys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Thomas J.; Galica, Carol A.; Vila, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels is a Web-based, on-line textbook that explains and demonstrates the history, physics, and mathematics involved with wind tunnels and wind tunnel testing. The Web site contains several interactive computer programs to demonstrate scientific principles. TunnelSim is an interactive, educational computer program that demonstrates basic wind tunnel design and operation. TunnelSim is a Java (Sun Microsystems Inc.) applet that solves the continuity and Bernoulli equations to determine the velocity and pressure throughout a tunnel design. TunnelSys is a group of Java applications that mimic wind tunnel testing techniques. Using TunnelSys, a team of students designs, tests, and post-processes the data for a virtual, low speed, and aircraft wing.

  9. Tunnelling of a molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, P.D.; Bulte, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    A quantum-mechanical description of tunnelling is presented for a one-dimensional system with internal oscillator degrees of freedom. The 'charged diatomic molecule' is frustrated on encountering a barrier potential by its centre of charge not being coincident with its centre of mass, resulting in transitions amongst internal states. In an adiabatic limit, the tunnelling of semiclassical coherent-like oscillator states is shown to exhibit the Hartman and Bueuttiker-Landauer times t H and t BL , with the time dependence of the coherent state parameter for the tunnelled state given by α(t) = α e -iω(t+Δt) , Δt = t H - it BL . A perturbation formalism is developed, whereby the exact transfer matrix can be expanded to any desired accuracy in a suitable limit. An 'intrinsic' time, based on the oscillator transition rate during tunnelling, transmission or reflection, is introduced. In simple situations the resulting intrinsic tunnelling time is shown to vanish to lowest order. In the general case a particular (nonzero) parametrisation is inferred, and its properties discussed in comparison with the literature on tunnelling times for both wavepackets and internal clocks. Copyright (1998) CSIRO Australia

  10. Generalized dielectric permittivity tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzdov, G.N.; Barkovskii, L.M.; Fedorov, F.I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors deal with the question of what is to be done with the formalism of the electrodynamics of dispersive media based on the introduction of dielectric-permittivity tensors for purely harmonic fields when Voigt waves and waves of more general form exist. An attempt is made to broaden and generalize the formalism to take into account dispersion of waves of the given type. In dispersive media, the polarization, magnetization, and conduction current-density vectors of point and time are determined by the values of the electromagnetic field vectors in the vicinity of this point (spatial dispersion) in the preceding instants of time (time dispersion). The dielectric-permittivity tensor and other tensors of electrodynamic parameters of the medium are introduced in terms of a set of evolution operators and not the set of harmonic function. It is noted that a magnetic-permeability tensor and an elastic-modulus tensor may be introduced for an acoustic field in dispersive anisotropic media with coupling equations of general form

  11. Study of the tunnelling initiated leakage current through the carbon nanotube embedded gate oxide in metal oxide semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Gargi; Sarkar, C K; Lu, X B; Dai, J Y

    2008-01-01

    The tunnelling currents through the gate dielectric partly embedded with semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure have been investigated. The application of the gate voltage to such an MOS device results in the band bending at the interface of the partly embedded oxide dielectric and the surface of the silicon, initiating tunnelling through the gate oxide responsible for the gate leakage current whenever the thickness of the oxide is scaled. A model for silicon MOS structures, where carbon nanotubes are confined in a narrow layer embedded in the gate dielectric, is proposed to investigate the direct and the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnelling currents of such systems. The idea of embedding such elements in the gate oxide is to assess the possibility for charge storage for memory device applications. Comparing the FN tunnelling onset voltage between the pure gate oxide and the gate oxide embedded with carbon nanotubes, it is found that the onset voltage decreases with the introduction of the nanotubes. The direct tunnelling current has also been studied at very low gate bias, for the thin oxide MOS structure which plays an important role in scaling down the MOS transistors. The FN tunnelling current has also been studied with varying nanotube diameter

  12. Characterization of Piezoelectric Stacks for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher; Aldrich, Jack; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to actuate mechanisms to precision levels in the nanometer range and below. Co-fired multilayer piezoelectric stacks offer the required actuation precision that is needed for such mechanisms. To obtain performance statistics and determine reliability for extended use, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and high temperatures and voltages. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators were driven sinusoidally for up to ten billion cycles. An automated data acquisition system was developed and implemented to monitor each stack's electrical current and voltage waveforms over the life of the test. As part of the monitoring tests, the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current were measured to assess the operation degradation. This paper presents some of the results of this effort.

  13. The stack on software and sovereignty

    CERN Document Server

    Bratton, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive political and design theory of planetary-scale computation proposing that The Stack -- an accidental megastructure -- is both a technological apparatus and a model for a new geopolitical architecture.

  14. Development of Auto-Stacking Warehouse Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsien Hsia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Warehouse automation is a very important issue for the promotion of traditional industries. For the production of larger and stackable products, it is usually necessary to operate a fork-lifter for the stacking and storage of the products by a skilled person. The general autonomous warehouse-truck does not have the ability of stacking objects. In this paper, we develop a prototype of auto-stacking warehouse-truck that can work without direct operation by a skill person. With command made by an RFID card, the stacker truck can take the packaged product to the warehouse on the prior-planned route and store it in a stacking way in the designated storage area, or deliver the product to the shipping area or into the container from the storage area. It can significantly reduce the manpower requirements of the skilled-person of forklift technician and improve the safety of the warehousing area.

  15. A Novel Kind of Transverse Micro-Stack High-Power Diode Bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Zhang; Bi-Feng, Cui; Jian-Jun, Li; Wei-Lling, Guo; Zhi-Qun, Wang; Guang-Di, Shen

    2008-01-01

    Novel transverse micro-stack semiconductor laser bars are put forward to improve the output optical power of semiconductor laser bars at low injection current. More importantly, the novel laser bars have a coupled large optical cavity, which can overcome the problem of catastrophic optical damage and improve light beam quality due to the coherently coupled emitting along the transverse direction. The micro-stack tunnel regeneration tri-active region laser structure was grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition. For a weakly coupled uncoated device, the optical power exceeds 60W under 50A driving current and the slope efficiency reaches 1.55W/A. Further experiments show that the perpendicular divergence of 23° is achieved from transverse strongly coupled devices

  16. A search for the coherently radiating fluxon state in stacks of long intrinsic Josephson junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H J; Bae, M H; Wang, H; Yamashita, T

    2002-01-01

    We studied the motion of fluxons in a stack of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8 sub + subdelta single crystals in a long junction limit. Driven by the tunnelling bias, current Josephson fluxons excite plasma oscillations and move in resonance with the plasma propagation modes. We examined two types of samples in this study; mesa structure (UD1) and a stack of junctions sandwiched between normal-metallic electrodes (DSC1). In a high magnetic field, the hysteresis in the I-V characteristics of both-types of samples vanished. The resulting single I-V curve exhibited a cusp structure at characteristic bias voltages which were believed to be boundaries of different moving fluxon configurations. We studied the sample-geometry dependence of the cusp characteristics by comparing the results from the two types of samples.

  17. Exploring online evolution of network stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Network stacks today follow a one-size-fits-all philosophy. They are mostly kept unmodified due to often prohibitive costs of engineering, deploying and administrating customisation of the networking software, with the Internet stack architecture still largely being based on designs and assumptions made for the ARPANET 40 years ago. We venture that heterogeneous and rapidly changing networks of the future require, in order to be successful, run-time self-adaptation mechanisms at different tim...

  18. Effect of annealing temperature on structural, morphology and dielectric properties of La0.75Ba0.25FeO3 perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, F. B.; Benali, A.; Triki, M.; Dhahri, E.; Graça, M. P. F.; Valente, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the structure, morphology and dielectric properties of La0.75Ba0.25FeO3 compound prepared by the sol-gel method was investigated. The increase of the annealing temperature from 900 to 1100 °C, promotes an increase of the average grain size value. Two dielectric relaxations are detected using the dielectric modulus formalism, attributed to grain and grain boundary relaxations. This behavior was confirmed by both Nyquist and Argand's plots of dielectric impedance and Modulus results at different measuring temperatures. The ac conductivity could be described by Jonscher's power law revealing the presence of both overlapping large polaron tunneling and non-overlapping small polaron tunneling mechanisms.

  19. A Time-predictable Stack Cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspour, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to le...... of a cache for stack allocated data. Our port of the LLVM C++ compiler supports the management of the stack cache. The combination of stack cache instructions and the hardware implementation of the stack cache is a further step towards timepredictable architectures.......Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to less...... precise results of the cache analysis part of the WCET analysis. Splitting the data cache for different data areas enables composable data cache analysis. The WCET analysis tool can analyze the accesses to these different data areas independently. In this paper we present the design and implementation...

  20. StackGAN++: Realistic Image Synthesis with Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Han; Xu, Tao; Li, Hongsheng; Zhang, Shaoting; Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiaolei; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Although Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown remarkable success in various tasks, they still face challenges in generating high quality images. In this paper, we propose Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks (StackGAN) aiming at generating high-resolution photo-realistic images. First, we propose a two-stage generative adversarial network architecture, StackGAN-v1, for text-to-image synthesis. The Stage-I GAN sketches the primitive shape and colors of the object based on given...

  1. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  2. A small biomimetic quadruped robot driven by multistacked dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Canh Toan; Phung, Hoa; Dat Nguyen, Tien; Lee, Choonghan; Kim, Uikyum; Lee, Donghyouk; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Jachoon; Nam, Jae-do; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk

    2014-06-01

    A kind of dielectric elastomer (DE) material, called ‘synthetic elastomer’, has been developed based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) to be used as a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). By stacking single layers of synthetic elastomer, a linear actuator, called a multistacked actuator, is produced, and used by mechatronic and robotic systems to generate linear motion. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of the multistacked dielectric elastomer actuator in a biomimetic legged robot. A miniature robot driven by a biomimetic actuation system with four 2-DOF (two-degree-of-freedom) legged mechanisms is realized. Based on the experimental results, we evaluate the performance of the proposed robot and validate the feasibility of the multistacked actuator in a locomotion system as a replacement for conventional actuators.

  3. A small biomimetic quadruped robot driven by multistacked dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Canh Toan; Phung, Hoa; Nguyen, Tien Dat; Lee, Choonghan; Kim, Uikyum; Lee, Donghyouk; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Jachoon; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Nam, Jae-do

    2014-01-01

    A kind of dielectric elastomer (DE) material, called ‘synthetic elastomer’, has been developed based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) to be used as a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). By stacking single layers of synthetic elastomer, a linear actuator, called a multistacked actuator, is produced, and used by mechatronic and robotic systems to generate linear motion. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of the multistacked dielectric elastomer actuator in a biomimetic legged robot. A miniature robot driven by a biomimetic actuation system with four 2-DOF (two-degree-of-freedom) legged mechanisms is realized. Based on the experimental results, we evaluate the performance of the proposed robot and validate the feasibility of the multistacked actuator in a locomotion system as a replacement for conventional actuators. (paper)

  4. Resonant tunnel magnetoresistance in a double magnetic tunnel junction

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur; Useinov, Niazbeck Kh H; Tagirov, Lenar R.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2011-01-01

    We present quasi-classical approach to calculate a spin-dependent current and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in double magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJ) FML/I/FMW/I/FMR, where the magnetization of the middle ferromagnetic metal layer FMW can

  5. A general centroid determination methodology, with application to multilayer dielectric structures and thermally stimulated current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.; McWhorter, P.J.; Reber, R.A. Jr.; Murray, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    A general methodology is developed to experimentally characterize the spatial distribution of occupied traps in dielectric films on a semiconductor. The effects of parasitics such as leakage, charge transport through more than one interface, and interface trap charge are quantitatively addressed. Charge transport with contributions from multiple charge species is rigorously treated. The methodology is independent of the charge transport mechanism(s), and is directly applicable to multilayer dielectric structures. The centroid capacitance, rather than the centroid itself, is introduced as the fundamental quantity that permits the generic analysis of multilayer structures. In particular, the form of many equations describing stacked dielectric structures becomes independent of the number of layers comprising the stack if they are expressed in terms of the centroid capacitance and/or the flatband voltage. The experimental methodology is illustrated with an application using thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements. The centroid of changes (via thermal emission) in the amount of trapped charge was determined for two different samples of a triple-layer dielectric structure. A direct consequence of the TSC analyses is the rigorous proof that changes in interface trap charge can contribute, though typically not significantly, to thermally stimulated current

  6. Laser amplification in excited dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Sarpe, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    Wide-bandgap dielectrics such as glasses or water are transparent at visible and infrared wavelengths. This changes when they are exposed to ultrashort and highly intense laser pulses. Different interaction mechanisms lead to the appearance of various transient nonlinear optical phenomena. Using...... these, the optical properties of dielectrics can be controlled from the transparent to the metal-like state. Here we expand this range by a yet unexplored mechanism in excited dielectrics: amplification. In a two-colour pump-probe experiment, we show that a 400nm femtosecond laser pulse is coherently...

  7. Interaction between groundwater and TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) excavated tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Font Capó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    A number of problems, e.g. sudden inflows are encountered during tunneling under the piezometric level, especially when the excavation crosses high transmissivity areas. These inflows may drag materials when the tunnel crosses low competent layers, resulting in subsidence, chimney formation and collapses. Moreover, inflows can lead to a decrease in head level because of aquifer drainage. Tunnels can be drilled by a tunnel boring machine (TBM) to minimize inflows and groundwater impacts, restr...

  8. Start-Stop Test Procedures on the PEMFC Stack Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Nygaard, Frederik; Veltzé, Sune

    The test is addressed to investigate the influence on stack durability of a long stop followed by a restart of a stack. Long stop should be defined as a stop in which the anodic compartment is fully filled by air due to stack leakages. In systems, leakage level of the stack is low and time to fil...

  9. Principles for Instructional Stack Development in HyperCard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEneaney, John E.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about obtaining and using HyperCard stacks that introduce users to principles of stack development. The HyperCard stacks described are available for downloading free of charge from a server at Indiana University South Bend. Specific directions are given for stack use, with advice for beginners. A…

  10. Seepage into PEP tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, H.

    1990-01-01

    The current rate of seepage into the PEP tunnel in the vicinity of IR-10 is very low compared to previous years. Adequate means of handling this low flow are in place. It is not clear whether the reduction in the flow is temporary, perhaps due to three consecutive dry years, or permanent due to drainage of a perched water table. During PEP construction a large amount of effort was expended in attempts to seal the tunnel, with no immediate effect. The efforts to ''manage'' the water flow are deemed to be successful. By covering equipment to protect it from dripping water and channeling seepage into the drainage gutters, the seepage has been reduced to a tolerable nuisance. There is no sure, safe procedure for sealing a leaky shotcreted tunnel

  11. Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane. The resulting infrared sensor can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. An alternative embodiment is implemented using a corrugated membrane to permit large deflection without complicated clamping and high deflection voltages. The alternative embodiment also employs a pinhole aperture in a membrane to accommodate environmental temperature variation and a sealed chamber to eliminate environmental contamination of the tunneling electrodes and undesireable accoustic coupling to the sensor.

  12. Instabilities in thin tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konkin, M.K.; Adler, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Tunnel junctions prepared for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy are often plagued by instabilities in the 0-500-meV range. This paper relates the bias at which the instability occurs to the barrier thickness

  13. Accurate characterization and understanding of interface trap density trends between atomic layer deposited dielectrics and AlGaN/GaN with bonding constraint theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanan, Narayanan; Lee, Bongmook; Misra, Veena, E-mail: vmisra@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, 2410 Campus Shore Drive, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Many dielectrics have been proposed for the gate stack or passivation of AlGaN/GaN based metal oxide semiconductor heterojunction field effect transistors, to reduce gate leakage and current collapse, both for power and RF applications. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is preferred for dielectric deposition as it provides uniform, conformal, and high quality films with precise monolayer control of film thickness. Identification of the optimum ALD dielectric for the gate stack or passivation requires a critical investigation of traps created at the dielectric/AlGaN interface. In this work, a pulsed-IV traps characterization method has been used for accurate characterization of interface traps with a variety of ALD dielectrics. High-k dielectrics (HfO{sub 2}, HfAlO, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are found to host a high density of interface traps with AlGaN. In contrast, ALD SiO{sub 2} shows the lowest interface trap density (<2 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}) after annealing above 600 °C in N{sub 2} for 60 s. The trend in observed trap densities is subsequently explained with bonding constraint theory, which predicts a high density of interface traps due to a higher coordination state and bond strain in high-k dielectrics.

  14. Tunneling in axion monodromy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jon; Cottrell, William; Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin,Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-10-06

    The Coleman formula for vacuum decay and bubble nucleation has been used to estimate the tunneling rate in models of axion monodromy in recent literature. However, several of Coleman’s original assumptions do not hold for such models. Here we derive a new estimate with this in mind using a similar Euclidean procedure. We find that there are significant regions of parameter space for which the tunneling rate in axion monodromy is not well approximated by the Coleman formula. However, there is also a regime relevant to large field inflation in which both estimates parametrically agree. We also briefly comment on the applications of our results to the relaxion scenario.

  15. LEP tunnel monorail

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    A monorail from CERN's Large Electron Positron collider (LEP, for short). It ran around the 27km tunnel, transporting equipment and personnel. With its 27-kilometre circumference, LEP was the largest electron-positron accelerator ever built and ran from 1989 to 2000. During 11 years of research, LEP's experiments provided a detailed study of the electroweak interaction. Measurements performed at LEP also proved that there are three – and only three – generations of particles of matter. LEP was closed down on 2 November 2000 to make way for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider in the same tunnel.

  16. Excavating a transfer tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The transfer tunnel being dug here will take the 450 GeV beam from the SPS and inject it into the LHC where the beam energies will be increased to 7 TeV. In order to transfer this beam from the SPS to the LHC, two transfer tunnels are used to circulate the beams in opposite directions. When excavated, the accelerator components, including magnets, beam pipes and cryogenics will be installed and connected to both the SPS and LHC ready for operation to begin in 2008.

  17. Modelling of Leakage Current Through Double Dielectric Gate Stack in Metal Oxide Semiconductor Capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatimah A Noor; Mikrajuddin Abdullah; Sukirno; Khairurrijal

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we have derived analytical expression of leakage current through double barriers in Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) capacitor. Initially, electron transmittance through the MOS capacitor was derived by including the coupling between the transverse and longitudinal energies. The transmittance was then employed to obtain leakage current through the double barrier. In this model, we observed the effect of electron velocity due to the coupling effect and the oxide thickness to the leakage current. The calculated results showed that the leakage current decreases as the electron velocity increases. (author)

  18. Pr-O-Al-N dielectrics for metal insulator semiconductor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkel, Karsten; Torche, Mohamed; Sohal, Rakesh; Karavaev, Konstantin; Burkov, Yevgen; Schwiertz, Carola; Schmeisser, Dieter [Brandenburg University of Technology, Chair of Applied Physics and Sensors, K.-Wachsmann-Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    This work focuses on praseodymium oxide films as a high-k material on silicon and silicon carbide (SiC) in metal insulator semiconductor samples. The electrical results are correlated to spectroscopic findings on this material system. Strong interfacial reactions between the praseodymium oxide and the semiconductor as well as silicon inter-diffusion into the high-k material are observed. The importance of a buffer layer is discussed and its optimisation is addressed, too. In particular the improvement of the performance by the introduction of an aluminium oxynitride buffer layer, which acts as an inter-diffusion barrier and reduces the leakage current, the interface state density and the equivalent oxide thickness is demonstrated. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Gap anisotropy and tunneling currents. [MPS3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarides, N.; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    1996-01-01

    The tunneling Hamiltonian formalism is applied to calculate the tunnelingcurrents through a small superconducting tunnel junction. The formalism isextended to nonconstant tunneling matrix elements. The electrodes of thejunction are assumed to......The tunneling Hamiltonian formalism is applied to calculate the tunnelingcurrents through a small superconducting tunnel junction. The formalism isextended to nonconstant tunneling matrix elements. The electrodes of thejunction are assumed to...

  20. Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Oshige, Ikuya; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio; Asami, Koji

    2008-01-01

    We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes

  1. Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Oshige, Ikuya; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio [Life Science Laboratory, Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Sony Bioinformatics Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Asami, Koji [Laboratory of Molecular Aggregation Analysis, Division of Multidisciplinary Chemistry, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)], E-mail: Yoshihito.Hayashi@jp.sony.com

    2008-05-21

    We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes.

  2. Silicone-based Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Efficient conversion of energy from one form to another (transduction) is an important topic in our daily day, and it is a necessity in moving away from the fossil based society. Dielectric elastomers hold great promise as soft transducers, since they are compliant and light-weight amongst many...... energy efficient solutions are highly sought. These properties allow for interesting products ranging very broadly, e.g. from eye implants over artificial skins over soft robotics to huge wave energy harvesting plants. All these products utilize the inherent softness and compliance of the dielectric...... elastomer transducers. The subject of this thesis is improvement of properties of silicone-based dielectric elastomers with special focus on design guides towards electrically, mechanically, and electromechanically reliable elastomers. Strategies for improving dielectric elastomer performance are widely...

  3. EmuStack: An OpenStack-Based DTN Network Emulation Platform (Extended Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of computing and network virtualization technology, the networking research community shows great interest in network emulation. Compared with network simulation, network emulation can provide more relevant and comprehensive details. In this paper, EmuStack, a large-scale real-time emulation platform for Delay Tolerant Network (DTN, is proposed. EmuStack aims at empowering network emulation to become as simple as network simulation. Based on OpenStack, distributed synchronous emulation modules are developed to enable EmuStack to implement synchronous and dynamic, precise, and real-time network emulation. Meanwhile, the lightweight approach of using Docker container technology and network namespaces allows EmuStack to support a (up to hundreds of nodes large-scale topology with only several physical nodes. In addition, EmuStack integrates the Linux Traffic Control (TC tools with OpenStack for managing and emulating the virtual link characteristics which include variable bandwidth, delay, loss, jitter, reordering, and duplication. Finally, experiences with our initial implementation suggest the ability to run and debug experimental network protocol in real time. EmuStack environment would bring qualitative change in network research works.

  4. Breaking through the tranfer tunnel

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the tunnel boring machine breaking through the transfer tunnel into the LHC tunnel. Proton beams will be transferred from the SPS pre-accelerator to the LHC at 450 GeV through two specially constructed transfer tunnels. From left to right: LHC Project Director, Lyn Evans; CERN Director-General (at the time), Luciano Maiani, and Director for Accelerators, Kurt Hubner.

  5. Control of tunneling in heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volokhov, V M; Tovstun, C A; Ivlev, B

    2007-01-01

    A tunneling current between two rectangular potential wells can be effectively controlled by applying an external ac field. A variation of the ac frequency by 10% may lead to the suppression of the tunneling current by two orders of magnitude, which is a result of quantum interference under the action of the ac field. This effect of destruction of tunneling can be used as a sensitive control of tunneling current across nanosize heterostructures

  6. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  7. Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.

  8. High performance vertical tunneling diodes using graphene/hexagonal boron nitride/graphene hetero-structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwan Lee, Seung; Lee, Jia; Ho Ra, Chang; Liu, Xiaochi; Hwang, Euyheon [Samsung-SKKU Graphene Center (SSGC), Sungkyunkwan University, 2066, Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano-Technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, 2066, Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Sup Choi, Min [Department of Nano Science and Technology, SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano-Technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, 2066, Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nano Technology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, 2066, Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Hee Choi, Jun [Frontier Research Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Zhong, Jianqiang; Chen, Wei [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Jong Yoo, Won, E-mail: yoowj@skku.edu [Samsung-SKKU Graphene Center (SSGC), Sungkyunkwan University, 2066, Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano-Technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, 2066, Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nano Technology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, 2066, Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-03

    A tunneling rectifier prepared from vertically stacked two-dimensional (2D) materials composed of chemically doped graphene electrodes and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) tunneling barrier was demonstrated. The asymmetric chemical doping to graphene with linear dispersion property induces rectifying behavior effectively, by facilitating Fowler-Nordheim tunneling at high forward biases. It results in excellent diode performances of a hetero-structured graphene/h-BN/graphene tunneling diode, with an asymmetric factor exceeding 1000, a nonlinearity of ∼40, and a peak sensitivity of ∼12 V{sup −1}, which are superior to contending metal-insulator-metal diodes, showing great potential for future flexible and transparent electronic devices.

  9. On the nature of high field charge transport in reinforced silicone dielectrics: Experiment and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanhui, E-mail: huangy12@rpi.edu; Schadler, Linda S. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    The high field charge injection and transport properties in reinforced silicone dielectrics were investigated by measuring the time-dependent space charge distribution and the current under dc conditions up to the breakdown field and were compared with the properties of other dielectric polymers. It is argued that the energy and spatial distribution of localized electronic states are crucial in determining these properties for polymer dielectrics. Tunneling to localized states likely dominates the charge injection process. A transient transport regime arises due to the relaxation of charge carriers into deep traps at the energy band tails and is successfully verified by a Monte Carlo simulation using the multiple-hopping model. The charge carrier mobility is found to be highly heterogeneous due to the non-uniform trapping. The slow moving electron packet exhibits a negative field dependent drift velocity possibly due to the spatial disorder of traps.

  10. Quantum-optical input-output relations for dispersive and lossy multilayer dielectric plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruner, T.; Welsch, D.

    1996-01-01

    Using the Green-function approach to the problem of quantization of the phenomenological Maxwell theory, the propagation of quantized radiation through dispersive and absorptive multilayer dielectric plates is studied. Input-output relations are derived, with special emphasis on the determination of the quantum noise generators associated with the absorption of radiation inside the dielectric matter. The input-output relations are used to express arbitrary correlation functions of the outgoing field in terms of correlation functions of the incoming field and those of the noise generators. To illustrate the theory, photons at dielectric tunneling barriers are considered. It is shown that inclusion in the calculations of losses in the photonic band gaps may substantially change the barrier traversal times. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Near-field optical microscopy with a scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbara, A.; Lopez-Rios, T.; Quemerais, P.

    2005-01-01

    A homemade apertureless near-field optical microscope using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is described. The experimental set-up simultaneously provides optical and topographic images of the sample. Technical details and features of the set-up are presented, together with results demonstrating the sub-wavelength resolution achieved as well as its sensitivity to dielectric contrasts. We show that the use of a STM permits to precisely control very small distances between the tip and the sample which is a great advantage to excite localized optical resonances between the tip and the surface

  12. Interconnect Between a Waveguide and a Dielectric Waveguide Comprising an Impedance Matched Dielectric Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrossas, Emmanuel (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Chahat, Nacer (Inventor); Tang, Adrian J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A lens for interconnecting a metallic waveguide with a dielectric waveguide is provided. The lens may be coupled a metallic waveguide and a dielectric waveguide, and minimize a signal loss between the metallic waveguide and the dielectric waveguide.

  13. Bias temperature instability in tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizubayashi, Wataru; Mori, Takahiro; Fukuda, Koichi; Ishikawa, Yuki; Morita, Yukinori; Migita, Shinji; Ota, Hiroyuki; Liu, Yongxun; O'uchi, Shinichi; Tsukada, Junichi; Yamauchi, Hiromi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Masahara, Meishoku; Endo, Kazuhiko

    2017-04-01

    We systematically investigated the bias temperature instability (BTI) of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs). The positive BTI and negative BTI mechanisms in TFETs are the same as those in metal-oxide-semiconductor FETs (MOSFETs). In TFETs, although traps are generated in high-k gate dielectrics by the bias stress and/or the interface state is degraded at the interfacial layer/channel interface, the threshold voltage (V th) shift due to BTI degradation is caused by the traps and/or the degradation of the interface state locating the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) region near the source/gate edge. The BTI lifetime in n- and p-type TFETs is improved by applying a drain bias corresponding to the operation conditions.

  14. Ivar Giaever, Tunneling, and Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Ivar Giaever, Tunneling, and Superconductors Resources with in Superconductors Measured by Electron Tunneling; Physical Review Letters, Vol. 5 Issue 4: 147 - 148 ; August 15, 1960 Electron Tunneling Between Two Superconductors; Physical Review Letters, Vol. 5 Issue 10

  15. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  16. Physics of optimal resonant tunneling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racec, P.N.; Stoica, T.; Popescu, C.; Lepsa, M.I.; Roer, van de T.G.

    1997-01-01

    The optimal resonant tunneling, or the complete tunneling transparence of a biased double-barrier resonant-tunneling (DBRT) structure, is discussed. It is shown that its physics does not rest on the departure from the constant potential within the barriers and well, due to the applied electric

  17. Progress of MCFC stack technology at Toshiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M.; Hayashi, T.; Shimizu, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba is working on the development of MCFC stack technology; improvement of cell characteristics, and establishment of separator technology. For the cell technology, Toshiba has concentrated on both the restraints of NiO cathode dissolution and electrolyte loss from cells, which are the critical issues to extend cell life in MCFC, and great progress has been made. On the other hand, recognizing that the separator is one of key elements in accomplishing reliable and cost-competitive MCFC stacks, Toshiba has been accelerating the technology establishment and verification of an advanced type separator. A sub-scale stack with such a separator was provided for an electric generating test, and has been operated for more than 10,000 hours. This paper presents several topics obtained through the technical activities in the MCFC field at Toshiba.

  18. Development of an Integrated Polymer Microfluidic Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Proyag; Hammacher, Jens; Pease, Mark; Gurung, Sitanshu; Goettert, Jost

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic is a field of considerable interest. While significant research has been carried out to develop microfluidic components, very little has been done to integrate the components into a complete working system. We present a flexible modular system platform that addresses the requirements of a complete microfluidic system. A microfluidic stack system is demonstrated with the layers of the stack being modular for specific functions. The stack and accompanying infrastructure provides an attractive platform for users to transition their design concepts into a working microfluidic system quickly with very little effort. The concept is demonstrated by using the system to carry out a chemilumiscence experiment. Details regarding the fabrication, assembly and experimental methods are presented

  19. Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.

    2012-01-01

    application of advanced methods for detailed electrochemical characterisation during operation. An operating stack is subject to steep compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and significant temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which makes it a complex system...... Fuel Cell A/S was characterised in detail using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An investigation of the optimal geometrical placement of the current probes and voltage probes was carried out in order to minimise measurement errors caused by stray impedances. Unwanted stray impedances...... are particularly problematic at high frequencies. Stray impedances may be caused by mutual inductance and stray capacitance in the geometrical set-up and do not describe the fuel cell. Three different stack geometries were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Impedance measurements were carried...

  20. High power, repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanloo, F; Borovina, D L; Korioth, J L; Krause, R K; Collins, C B [Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Quantum Electronics; Agee, F J [US Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Kingsley, L E [US Army CECOM, Ft. Monmouth, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse power generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switch at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Extensive characterization of these novel pulsers have been performed over the past few years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with rise times and repetition rates in the range of 0.5-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. The progress in the development and use of stacked Blumlein pulse generators is reviewed. The technology and the characteristics of these novel pulsers driving flash x-ray diodes are discussed. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  1. Calculation of tritium release from reactor's stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhadi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for calculation of tritium release from nuclear to environment has been discussed. Part of gas effluent contain tritium in form of HTO vapor released from reactor's stack was sampled using silica-gel. The silica-gel was put in the water to withdraw HTO vapor absorbed by silica-gel. Tritium concentration in the water was measured by liquid scintillation counter of Aloka LSC-703. Tritium concentration in the gas effluent and total release of tritium from reactor's stack during certain interval time were calculated using simple mathematic formula. This method has examined for calculation of tritium release from JRR-3M's stack of JAERI, Japan. From the calculation it was obtained the value of tritium release as much as 4.63 x 10 11 Bq during one month. (author)

  2. Magnetoresistance of galfenol-based magnetic tunnel junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobaut, B., E-mail: benoit.gobaut@elettra.eu [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14 Km 163.5, Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Vinai, G.; Castán-Guerrero, C.; Krizmancic, D.; Panaccione, G.; Torelli, P. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Rafaqat, H. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Roddaro, S. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza S. Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rossi, G. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Eddrief, M.; Marangolo, M. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, CNRS-UMR 7588, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, 75005, Paris (France)

    2015-12-15

    The manipulation of ferromagnetic layer magnetization via electrical pulse is driving an intense research due to the important applications that this result will have on memory devices and sensors. In this study we realized a magnetotunnel junction in which one layer is made of Galfenol (Fe{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}) which possesses one of the highest magnetostrictive coefficient known. The multilayer stack has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy and e-beam evaporation. Optical lithography and physical etching have been combined to obtain 20x20 micron sized pillars. The obtained structures show tunneling conductivity across the junction and a tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effect of up to 11.5% in amplitude.

  3. Tunneling path toward spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Guoxing; Moodera, Jagadeesh S; Muenzenberg, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of quantum tunneling, which was discovered almost a century ago, has led to many subsequent discoveries. One such discovery, spin polarized tunneling, was made 40 years ago by Robert Meservey and Paul Tedrow (Tedrow and Meservey 1971 Phys. Rev. Lett. 26 192), and it has resulted in many fundamental observations and opened up an entirely new field of study. Until the mid-1990s, this field developed at a steady, low rate, after which a huge increase in activity suddenly occurred as a result of the unraveling of successful spin tunneling between two ferromagnets. In the past 15 years, several thousands of papers related to spin polarized tunneling and transport have been published, making this topic one of the hottest areas in condensed matter physics from both fundamental science and applications viewpoints. Many review papers and book chapters have been written in the past decade on this subject. This paper is not exhaustive by any means; rather, the emphases are on recent progress, technological developments and informing the reader about the current direction in which this topic is moving.

  4. Magnetic Fluxtube Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlburg, Russell B.; Antiochos,, Spiro K.; Norton, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of the collision and subsequent interaction of two initially orthogonal, twisted, force free field magnetic fluxtubes. The simulations were carried out using a new three dimensional explicit parallelized Fourier collocation algorithm for solving the viscoresistive equations of compressible magnetohydrodynamics. It is found that, under a wide range of conditions, the fluxtubes can 'tunnel' through each other. Two key conditions must be satisfied for tunneling to occur: the magnetic field must be highly twisted with a field line pitch much greater than 1, and the magnetic Lundquist number must be somewhat large, greater than or equal to 2880. This tunneling behavior has not been seen previously in studies of either vortex tube or magnetic fluxtube interactions. An examination of magnetic field lines shows that tunneling is due to a double reconnection mechanism. Initially orthogonal field lines reconnect at two specific locations, exchange interacting sections and 'pass' through each other. The implications of these results for solar and space plasmas are discussed.

  5. Tunnel nitrogen spill experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageyev, A.I.; Alferov, V.N.; Mulholland, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Energy Saver Safety Analysis Report (SAR) found the tunnel oxygen deficiency considerations emphasized helium spills. These reports concluded the helium quickly warms and because of its low denisty, rises to the apex of the tunnel. The oxygen content below the apex and in all but the immediate vicinity of the helium spill is essentially unchanged and guarantees an undisturbed source of oxygen especially important to fallen personnel. In contrast nitrogen spills warm slower than helium due to the ratio of the enthalpy changes per unit volume spilled spread more uniformly across the tunnel cross-section when warmed because of the much smaller density difference with air, and generally provides a greater hazard than helium spills as a result. In particular there was concern that personnel that might fall to the floor for oxygen deficiency or other reasons might find less, and not more, oxygen with dire consequences. The SAR concluded tunnel nitrogen spills were under-investigated and led to this work

  6. The scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvan, F.

    1986-01-01

    A newly conceived microscope, based on a pure quantum phenomenon, is an ideal tool to study atom by atom the topography and properties of surfaces. Applications are presented: surface ''reconstruction'' of silicon, lamellar compound study, etc... Spectroscopy by tunnel effect will bring important information on electronic properties; it is presented with an application on silicon [fr

  7. Supramolecular tunneling junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimbush, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study a variety of supramolecular tunneling junctions were created. The basis of these junctions was a self-assembled monolayer of heptathioether functionalized ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD) formed on an ultra-flat Au surface, i.e., the bottom electrode. This gave a well-defined hexagonally packed

  8. Magnetic Reversal and Thermal Stability of CoFeB Perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junction Arrays Patterned by Block Copolymer Lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Kun-Hua; Fernandez Martin, Eduardo; almasi, hamid; Wang, Weigang; Navas Otero, David; Ntetsikas, Konstantinos; Moschovas, Dimitrios; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Ross, Caroline A

    2018-01-01

    Dense arrays of pillars, with diameters of 64 and 25 nm, were made from a perpendicular CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction thin film stack using block copolymer lithography. While the soft layer and hard layer in the 64 nm pillars reverse at different

  9. Tunneling in BP-MoS2 heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaochi; Qu, Deshun; Kim, Changsik; Ahmed, Faisal; Yoo, Won Jong

    Tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) is considered to be a leading option for achieving SS mV/dec. In this work, black phosphorus (BP) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) heterojunction devices are fabricated. We find that thin BP flake and MoS2 form normal p-n junctions, tunneling phenomena can be observed when BP thickness increases to certain level. PEO:CsClO4 is applied on the surface of the device together with a side gate electrode patterned together with source and drain electrodes. The Fermi level of MoS2 on top of BP layer can be modulated by the side gating, and this enables to vary the MoS2-BP tunnel diode property from off-state to on-state. Since tunneling is the working mechanism of MoS2-BP junction, and PEO:CsClO4\\ possesses ultra high dielectric constant and small equivalent oxide thickness (EOT), a low SS of 55 mV/dec is obtained from MoS2-BP TFET. This work was supported by the Global Research Laboratory and Global Frontier R&D Programs at the Center for Hybrid Interface Materials, both funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning via the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF).

  10. Nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, William B. (Inventor); Nolcheff, Nick A. (Inventor); Gunaraj, John A. (Inventor); Kontos, Karen B. (Inventor); Weir, Donald S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane having a characteristic curve that is characterized by a nonlinear sweep and a nonlinear lean is provided. The stator is in an axial fan or compressor turbomachinery stage that is comprised of a collection of vanes whose highly three-dimensional shape is selected to reduce rotor-stator and rotor-strut interaction noise while maintaining the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of the vane. The nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane reduces noise associated with the fan stage of turbomachinery to improve environmental compatibility.

  11. Stack Monitoring System At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamrul Faizad Omar; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the current Stack Monitoring System at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) building. A stack monitoring system is a continuous air monitor placed at the reactor top for monitoring the presence of radioactive gaseous in the effluent air from the RTP building. The system consists of four detectors that provide the reading for background, particulate, Iodine and Noble gas. There is a plan to replace the current system due to frequent fault of the system, thus thorough understanding of the current system is required. Overview of the whole system will be explained in this paper. Some current results would be displayed and moving forward brief plan would be mentioned. (author)

  12. Monitoring pilot projects on bored tunnelling : The Second Heinenoord Tunnel and the Botlek Rail Tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.; De Boer, F.; Admiraal, J.B.M.; Van Jaarsveld, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    Two pilot projects for bored tunnelling in soft soil have been undertaken in the Netherlands. The monitoring was commissioned under the authority of the Centre for Underground Construction (COB). A description of the research related to the Second Heinenoord Tunnel and the Botlek Rail Tunnel will be

  13. Bottom-up Fabrication of Multilayer Stacks of 3D Photonic Crystals from Titanium Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrin, Roman; Pasquarelli, Robert M; Waleczek, Martin; Lee, Hooi Sing; Zierold, Robert; do Rosário, Jefferson J; Dyachenko, Pavel N; Montero Moreno, Josep M; Petrov, Alexander Yu; Janssen, Rolf; Eich, Manfred; Nielsch, Kornelius; Schneider, Gerold A

    2016-04-27

    A strategy for stacking multiple ceramic 3D photonic crystals is developed. Periodically structured porous films are produced by vertical convective self-assembly of polystyrene (PS) microspheres. After infiltration of the opaline templates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of titania and thermal decomposition of the polystyrene matrix, a ceramic 3D photonic crystal is formed. Further layers with different sizes of pores are deposited subsequently by repetition of the process. The influence of process parameters on morphology and photonic properties of double and triple stacks is systematically studied. Prolonged contact of amorphous titania films with warm water during self-assembly of the successive templates is found to result in exaggerated roughness of the surfaces re-exposed to ALD. Random scattering on rough internal surfaces disrupts ballistic transport of incident photons into deeper layers of the multistacks. Substantially smoother interfaces are obtained by calcination of the structure after each infiltration, which converts amorphous titania into the crystalline anatase before resuming the ALD infiltration. High quality triple stacks consisting of anatase inverse opals with different pore sizes are demonstrated for the first time. The elaborated fabrication method shows promise for various applications demanding broadband dielectric reflectors or titania photonic crystals with a long mean free path of photons.

  14. Resonant tunnelling and negative differential conductance in graphene transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britnell, L.; Gorbachev, R. V.; Geim, A. K.; Ponomarenko, L. A.; Mishchenko, A.; Greenaway, M. T.; Fromhold, T. M.; Novoselov, K. S.; Eaves, L.

    2013-04-01

    The chemical stability of graphene and other free-standing two-dimensional crystals means that they can be stacked in different combinations to produce a new class of functional materials, designed for specific device applications. Here we report resonant tunnelling of Dirac fermions through a boron nitride barrier, a few atomic layers thick, sandwiched between two graphene electrodes. The resonance occurs when the electronic spectra of the two electrodes are aligned. The resulting negative differential conductance in the device characteristics persists up to room temperature and is gate voltage-tuneable due to graphene’s unique Dirac-like spectrum. Although conventional resonant tunnelling devices comprising a quantum well sandwiched between two tunnel barriers are tens of nanometres thick, the tunnelling carriers in our devices cross only a few atomic layers, offering the prospect of ultra-fast transit times. This feature, combined with the multi-valued form of the device characteristics, has potential for applications in high-frequency and logic devices.

  15. Quantum-dot size and thin-film dielectric constant: precision measurement and disparity with simple models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinolds, Darcy D W; Brown, Patrick R; Harris, Daniel K; Bulovic, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2015-01-14

    We study the dielectric constant of lead sulfide quantum dot (QD) films as a function of the volume fraction of QDs by varying the QD size and keeping the ligand constant. We create a reliable QD sizing curve using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), thin-film SAXS to extract a pair-distribution function for QD spacing, and a stacked-capacitor geometry to measure the capacitance of the thin film. Our data support a reduced dielectric constant in nanoparticles.

  16. The influence of carbon doping on the performance of Gd2O3 as high-k gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhter, P.; Yehezkel, S.; Shriki, A.; Eizenberg, M.; Chaudhuri, A. R.; Osten, H. J.; Laha, A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the approaches for overcoming the issue of leakage current in modern metal-oxide-semiconductor devices is utilizing the high dielectric constants of lanthanide based oxides. We investigated the effect of carbon doping directly into Gd 2 O 3 layers on the performance of such devices. It was found that the amount of carbon introduced into the dielectric is above the solubility limit; carbon atoms enrich the oxide-semiconductor interface and cause a significant shift in the flat band voltage of the stack. Although the carbon atoms slightly degrade this interface, this method has a potential for tuning the flat band voltage of such structures

  17. Measuring fire size in tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qihui

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of fire size Q′ has been introduced in longitudinally ventilated tunnel as the ratio of flame height to the height of tunnel. The analysis in this article has shown that Q′ controls both the critical velocity and the maximum ceiling temperature in the tunnel. Before the fire flame reaches tunnel ceiling (Q′ 1.0), Fr approaches a constant value. This is also a well-known phenomenon in large tunnel fires. Tunnel ceiling temperature shows the opposite trend. Before the fire flame reaches the ceiling, it increases very slowly with the fire size. Once the flame has hit the ceiling of tunnel, temperature rises rapidly with Q′. The good agreement between the current prediction and three different sets of experimental data has demonstrated that the theory has correctly modelled the relation among the heat release rate of fire, ventilation flow and the height of tunnel. From design point of view, the theoretical maximum of critical velocity for a given tunnel can help to prevent oversized ventilation system. -- Highlights: • Fire sizing is an important safety measure in tunnel design. • New measure of fire size a function of HRR of fire, tunnel height and ventilation. • The measure can identify large and small fires. • The characteristics of different fire are consistent with observation in real fires

  18. Electric-field-control of magnetic anisotropy of Co0.6Fe0.2B0.2/oxide stacks using reduced voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Koji; Abraham, David W.; Gajek, Martin J.; Worledge, D. C.

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated purely electrical manipulation of the magnetic anisotropy of a Co0.6Fe0.2B0.2 film by applying only 8 V across the CoFeB/oxide stack. A clear transition from in-plane to perpendicular anisotropy was observed. The quantitative relationship between interface anisotropy energy and the applied electric-field was determined from the linear voltage dependence of the saturation field. By comparing the dielectric stacks of MgO/Al2O3 and MgO/HfO2/Al2O3, enhanced voltage control was also demonstrated, due to the higher dielectric constant of the HfO2. These results suggest the feasibility of purely electrical control of magnetization with small voltage bias for spintronics applications.

  19. Solar drying of sweet pepper and garlic using the tunnel greenhouse drier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condori, M.; Echazu, R.; Saravia, L. [Universidad Nacional de Salta, Inst. de Investigacion en Energia no Convencional, Salta (Argentina)

    2001-04-01

    A new low cost design for a forced convection greenhouse drier, the Tunnel Greenhouse Drier, has been built and tested. Its main parts are: a plastic greenhouse cover containing a drying tunnel made with transparent plastic walls; a line of carts with several stacked trays containing the product and moved manually inside the tunnel and an electrical fan that moves the hot air from the greenhouse into the tunnel. The trays receive solar radiation through the transparent walls, increasing the product temperature. Heat losses from the tunnel are low since the greenhouse temperatures are higher than ambient temperature. The main advantages of this drier are: (a) an almost continuous production since some carts with dried product come out of the tunnel every day, while the same amount of fresh product is introduced by the other tunnel extreme; (b) lower labor cost since the product handling is partly mechanized; (c) a conventional heater can be easily installed to keep a constant production rate; (d) the energy consumption is lower than in other drier types; (e) the installation can be used as a greenhouse for small production when it is not used as a drier. The prototype was built in the north of Argentina, and red sweet pepper and garlic were used as load. The drier thermal efficiency, considered as a solar collector, was calculated using the measured experimental data, and a linear relation between the drier temperature and the solar radiation was obtained. (Author)

  20. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASUDEB DATTA

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... Preliminaries. Lower bound theorem. On going work. Definitions. An n-simplex is a convex hull of n + 1 affinely independent points. (called vertices) in some Euclidean space R. N . Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta. Indian Institute of Science. 2 / 27 ...

  1. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlampová, Andrea; Malá, Zdeňka; Pantůčková, Pavla; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2013), s. 3-18 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/10/1219 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013

  2. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart

  3. Scaling the CERN OpenStack cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T.; Bompastor, B.; Bukowiec, S.; Castro Leon, J.; Denis, M. K.; van Eldik, J.; Fermin Lobo, M.; Fernandez Alvarez, L.; Fernandez Rodriguez, D.; Marino, A.; Moreira, B.; Noel, B.; Oulevey, T.; Takase, W.; Wiebalck, A.; Zilli, S.

    2015-12-01

    CERN has been running a production OpenStack cloud since July 2013 to support physics computing and infrastructure services for the site. In the past year, CERN Cloud Infrastructure has seen a constant increase in nodes, virtual machines, users and projects. This paper will present what has been done in order to make the CERN cloud infrastructure scale out.

  4. Stacking non-BPS D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Caceres, Elena; Goldstein, Kevin; Lowe, David A. . lowe@het.brown.edu

    2001-08-01

    We present a candidate supergravity solution for a stacked configuration of stable non-BPS D-branes in Type II string theory compactified on T 4 /Z 2 . This gives a supergravity description of nonabelian tachyon condensation on the brane woldvolume. (author)

  5. Trace interpolation by slant-stack migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, M.

    1990-01-01

    The slant-stack migration formula based on the radon transform is studied with respect to the depth steep Δz of wavefield extrapolation. It can be viewed as a generalized trace-interpolation procedure including wave extrapolation with an arbitrary step Δz. For Δz > 0 the formula yields the familiar plane-wave decomposition, while for Δz > 0 it provides a robust tool for migration transformation of spatially under sampled wavefields. Using the stationary phase method, it is shown that the slant-stack migration formula degenerates into the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral in the far-field approximation. Consequently, even a narrow slant-stack gather applied before the diffraction stack can significantly improve the representation of noisy data in the wavefield extrapolation process. The theory is applied to synthetic and field data to perform trace interpolation and dip reject filtration. The data examples presented prove that the radon interpolator works well in the dip range, including waves with mutual stepouts smaller than half the dominant period

  6. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, Zdeňka; Šlampová, Andrea; Křivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2015), s. 15-35 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.482, year: 2015

  7. 40 CFR 61.53 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.53 Section 61.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Mercury ore processing facility. (1) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under...

  8. 40 CFR 61.33 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.33 Section 61.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under § 61.13, each owner or operator...

  9. OpenStack cloud computing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook full of practical and applicable recipes that will enable you to use the full capabilities of OpenStack like never before.This book is aimed at system administrators and technical architects moving from a virtualized environment to cloud environments with familiarity of cloud computing platforms. Knowledge of virtualization and managing linux environments is expected.

  10. Toward advising SME's on stacked funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwerda, Kirsten; van Teeffelen, Lex; de Graaf, Frank Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses new funding issues faced by SMEs. Over a period of nine months, the authors conducted a preliminary study into the problems surrounding stacked funding faced by SMEs and their financial advisers. The study includes a short literature review, the outcomes of three round table

  11. Photoswitchable Intramolecular H-Stacking of Perylenebisimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiaobing; Kulago, Artem; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control over the formation of H- or J-type aggregates of chromophores is of fundamental importance for developing responsive organic optoelectronic materials. In this study, the first example of photoswitching between a nonstacked and an intramolecularly H-stacked arrangement of

  12. Optoelectronic interconnects for 3D wafer stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David; Carson, John C.; Lome, Louis S.

    1996-01-01

    Wafer and chip stacking are envisioned as means of providing increased processing power within the small confines of a three-dimensional structure. Optoelectronic devices can play an important role in these dense 3-D processing electronic packages in two ways. In pure electronic processing, optoelectronics can provide a method for increasing the number of input/output communication channels within the layers of the 3-D chip stack. Non-free space communication links allow the density of highly parallel input/output ports to increase dramatically over typical edge bus connections. In hybrid processors, where electronics and optics play a role in defining the computational algorithm, free space communication links are typically utilized for, among other reasons, the increased network link complexity which can be achieved. Free space optical interconnections provide bandwidths and interconnection complexity unobtainable in pure electrical interconnections. Stacked 3-D architectures can provide the electronics real estate and structure to deal with the increased bandwidth and global information provided by free space optical communications. This paper will provide definitions and examples of 3-D stacked architectures in optoelectronics processors. The benefits and issues of these technologies will be discussed.

  13. OpenStack Object Storage (Swift) essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kapadia, Amar; Varma, Sreedhar

    2015-01-01

    If you are an IT administrator and you want to enter the world of cloud storage using OpenStack Swift, then this book is ideal for you. Basic knowledge of Linux and server technology is beneficial to get the most out of the book.

  14. Breakthrough in current-in-plane tunneling measurement precision by application of multi-variable fitting algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Østerberg, Frederik W; Hansen, Ole; Shiv, Lior; Nielsen, Peter F; Petersen, Dirch H

    2017-09-01

    We present a breakthrough in micro-four-point probe (M4PP) metrology to substantially improve precision of transmission line (transfer length) type measurements by application of advanced electrode position correction. In particular, we demonstrate this methodology for the M4PP current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) technique. The CIPT method has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stacks suitable for magnetic random-access memories for more than a decade. On two MTJ stacks, the measurement precision of resistance-area product and tunneling magnetoresistance was improved by up to a factor of 3.5 and the measurement reproducibility by up to a factor of 17, thanks to our improved position correction technique.

  15. Breakthrough in current-in-plane tunneling measurement precision by application of multi-variable fitting algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Hansen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We present a breakthrough in micro-four-point probe (M4PP) metrology to substantially improve precision of transmission line (transfer length) type measurements by application of advanced electrode position correction. In particular, we demonstrate this methodology for the M4PP current-in-plane t......We present a breakthrough in micro-four-point probe (M4PP) metrology to substantially improve precision of transmission line (transfer length) type measurements by application of advanced electrode position correction. In particular, we demonstrate this methodology for the M4PP current......-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) technique. The CIPT method has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stacks suitable for magnetic random-access memories for more than a decade. On two MTJ stacks, the measurement precision of resistance-area product and tunneling magnetoresistance...

  16. Electrical actuation of dielectric droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, N; Bahadur, V; Garimella, S V

    2008-01-01

    Electrical actuation of liquid droplets at the microscale offers promising applications in the fields of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip devices. Much prior research has targeted the electrical actuation of electrically conducting liquid droplets; however, the actuation of dielectric droplets has remained relatively unexplored, despite the advantages associated with the use of a dielectric droplet. This paper presents modeling and experimental results on the electrical actuation of dielectric droplets between two flat plates. A first-order analytical model, based on the energy-minimization principle, is developed to estimate the electrical actuation force on a dielectric droplet as it moves between two flat plates. Two versions of this analytical model are benchmarked for their suitability and accuracy against a detailed numerical model. The actuation force prediction is then combined with available semi-analytical expressions for predicting the forces opposing droplet motion to develop a model that predicts transient droplet motion under electrical actuation. Electrical actuation of dielectric droplets is experimentally demonstrated by moving transformer oil droplets between two flat plates under the influence of an actuation voltage. Droplet velocities and their dependence on the plate spacing and the applied voltage are experimentally measured and showed reasonable agreement with predictions from the models developed

  17. Design of double gate vertical tunnel field effect transistor using HDB and its performance estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema; Chauhan, Sudakar Singh

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the double gate vertical tunnel field-effect transistor using homo/hetero dielectric buried oxide (HDB) to obtain the optimized device characteristics. In this concern, the existence of double gate, HDB and electrode work-function engineering enhances DC performance and Analog/RF performance. The use of electrostatic doping helps to achieve higher on-current owing to occurrence of higher tunneling generation rate of charge carriers at the source/epitaxial interface. Further, lightly doped drain region and high- k dielectric below channel and drain region are responsible to suppress the ambipolar current. Simulated results clarifies that proposed device have achieved the tremendous performance in terms of driving current capability, steeper subthreshold slope (SS), drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL), hot carrier effects (HCEs) and high frequency parameters for better device reliability.

  18. Tunnel boring machine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, K.K.; McDonald, R.; Saunders, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that characterization of Yucca Mountain for a potential repository requires construction of an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Mechanical excavating methods have been proposed for construction of the ESF as they offer a number of advantages over drilling and blasting at the Yucca Mountain site, including; less ground disturbance and therefore a potential for less adverse effects on the integrity of the site, creation of a more stable excavation cross section requiring less ground support, and an inherently safer and cleaner working environment. The tunnel boring machine (TBM) provides a proven technology for excavating the welded and unwelded Yucca Mountain tuffs. The access ramps and main underground tunnels form the largest part of the ESF underground construction work, and have been designed for excavation by TBM

  19. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy eQuindeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8]O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us to develop a characteristic transfer function that has only one parameter viz. the characteristic switching time and fully predicts the resistive states of this type of memristor.

  20. Engineering Prototype for a Compact Medical Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zografos, Anthony; Hening, Andy; Joshkin, Vladimir; Leung, Kevin; Pearson, Dave; Pearce-Percy, Henry; Rougieri, Mario; Parker, Yoko; Weir, John [CPAC, Livermore, CA (United States); Blackfield, Donald; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Poole, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Hamm, Robert W. [R and M Technical Enterprises, Pleasanton, CA (United States); Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Gelnhausen (Germany)

    2011-12-13

    A compact accelerator system architecture based on the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) for medical proton beam therapy has been developed by the Compact Particle Acceleration Corporation (CPAC). The major subsystems are a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) injector linac, a pulsed kicker to select the desired proton bunches, and a DWA linear accelerator incorporating a high gradient insulator (HGI) with stacked Blumleins to produce the required acceleration energy. The Blumleins are switched with solid state laser-driven optical switches integrated into the Blumlein assemblies. Other subsystems include a high power pulsed laser, fiber optic distribution system, electrical charging system, and beam diagnostics. An engineering prototype has been constructed and characterized, and these results will be used within the next three years to develop an extremely compact 150 MeV system capable of modulating energy, beam current, and spot size on a shot-to-shot basis. This paper presents the details the engineering prototype, experimental results, and commercialization plans.

  1. Engineering Prototype for a Compact Medical Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zografos, Anthony; Hening, Andy; Joshkin, Vladimir; Leung, Kevin; Pearson, Dave; Pearce-Percy, Henry; Rougieri, Mario; Parker, Yoko; Weir, John; Blackfield, Donald; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Poole, Brian; Hamm, Robert W.; Becker, Reinard

    2011-01-01

    A compact accelerator system architecture based on the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) for medical proton beam therapy has been developed by the Compact Particle Acceleration Corporation (CPAC). The major subsystems are a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) injector linac, a pulsed kicker to select the desired proton bunches, and a DWA linear accelerator incorporating a high gradient insulator (HGI) with stacked Blumleins to produce the required acceleration energy. The Blumleins are switched with solid state laser-driven optical switches integrated into the Blumlein assemblies. Other subsystems include a high power pulsed laser, fiber optic distribution system, electrical charging system, and beam diagnostics. An engineering prototype has been constructed and characterized, and these results will be used within the next three years to develop an extremely compact 150 MeV system capable of modulating energy, beam current, and spot size on a shot-to-shot basis. This paper presents the details the engineering prototype, experimental results, and commercialization plans.

  2. Stronger multilayer acrylic dielectric elastomer actuators with silicone gel coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gih-Keong; La, Thanh-Giang; Sheng-Wei Foong, Ervin; Shrestha, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Multilayer dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) perform worst off than single-layer DEAs due to higher susceptibility to electro-thermal breakdown. This paper presents a hot-spot model to predict the electro-thermal breakdown field of DEAs and its dependence on thermal insulation. To inhibit the electrothermal breakdown, silicone gel coating was applied as barrier coating to multilayer acrylic DEA. The gel coating helps suppress the electro-thermally induced puncturing of DEA membrane at the hot spot. As a result, the gel-coated DEAs, in either a single layer or a multilayer stack, can produce 30% more isometric stress change as compared to those none-coated. These gel-coated acrylic DEAs show great potential to make stronger artificial muscles.

  3. Hawking Radiation As Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Maulik K.; Wilczek, Frank

    2000-01-01

    We present a short and direct derivation of Hawking radiation as a tunneling process, based on particles in a dynamical geometry. The imaginary part of the action for the classically forbidden process is related to the Boltzmann factor for emission at the Hawking temperature. Because the derivation respects conservation laws, the exact spectrum is not precisely thermal. We compare and contrast the problem of spontaneous emission of charged particles from a charged conductor

  4. Tunnel blasting - recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.E.

    1999-05-01

    While tunnelling machines are more efficient than previously, there are still areas where blasting is a more efficient method of advance. Drilling and design methods are increasingly sophisticated, as is choice of explosive. Explosive deployment must be carefully calculated so as to avoid desensitisation. Nitroglycerine may be used as slurries; bulk mixing on site of ANFO is also practised in mining in the UK. Electric detonators, Nonel tubes, and electronic detonators are also increasingly employed.

  5. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  6. Primary Tunnel Junction Thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekola, Jukka P.; Holmqvist, Tommy; Meschke, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    We describe the concept and experimental demonstration of primary thermometry based on a four-probe measurement of a single tunnel junction embedded within four arrays of junctions. We show that in this configuration random sample specific and environment-related errors can be avoided. This method relates temperature directly to Boltzmann constant, which will form the basis of the definition of temperature and realization of official temperature scales in the future

  7. Materials Fundamentals of Gate Dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Demkov, Alexander A

    2006-01-01

    This book presents materials fundamentals of novel gate dielectrics that are being introduced into semiconductor manufacturing to ensure the continuous scalling of the CMOS devices. This is a very fast evolving field of research so we choose to focus on the basic understanding of the structure, thermodunamics, and electronic properties of these materials that determine their performance in device applications. Most of these materials are transition metal oxides. Ironically, the d-orbitals responsible for the high dielectric constant cause sever integration difficulties thus intrinsically limiting high-k dielectrics. Though new in the electronics industry many of these materials are wel known in the field of ceramics, and we describe this unique connection. The complexity of the structure-property relations in TM oxides makes the use of the state of the art first-principles calculations necessary. Several chapters give a detailed description of the modern theory of polarization, and heterojunction band discont...

  8. Laser amplification in excited dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Thomas; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Sarpe, Cristian; Zielinski, Bastian; Götte, Nadine; Senftleben, Arne; Balling, Peter; Baumert, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Wide-bandgap dielectrics such as glasses or water are transparent at visible and infrared wavelengths. This changes when they are exposed to ultrashort and highly intense laser pulses. Different interaction mechanisms lead to the appearance of various transient nonlinear optical phenomena. Using these, the optical properties of dielectrics can be controlled from the transparent to the metal-like state. Here we expand this range by a yet unexplored mechanism in excited dielectrics: amplification. In a two-colour pump-probe experiment, we show that a 400 nm femtosecond laser pulse is coherently amplified inside an excited sapphire sample on a scale of a few micrometres. Simulations strongly support the proposed two-photon stimulated emission process, which is temporally and spatially controllable. Consequently, we expect applications in all fields that demand strongly localized amplification.

  9. Dielectric function of semiconductor superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Guoyi.

    1990-08-01

    We present a calculation of the dielectric function for semiconductor GaAs/Ga 1-x Al x As superlattice taking account of the extension of the electron envelope function and the difference of both the dielectric constant and width between GaAs and Ga 1-x Al x As layers. In the appropriate limits, our results exactly reduce to the well-known results of the quasi two-dimensional electron gas obtained by Lee and Spector and of the period array of two-dimensional electron layers obtained by Das Sarma and Quinn. By means of the dielectric function of the superlattice, the dispersion relation of the collective excitation and the screening property of semiconductor superlattice are discussed and compared with the results of the quasi two-dimensional system and with the results of the periodic array of the two-dimensional electron layers. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs

  10. Hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, P.; Hoefer, M. A.; El, G. A.

    2018-03-01

    A notion of hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling is introduced in which a dark soliton is incident upon an evolving, broad potential barrier that arises from an appropriate variation of the input signal. The barriers considered include smooth rarefaction waves and highly oscillatory dispersive shock waves. Both the soliton and the barrier satisfy the same one-dimensional defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, which admits a convenient dispersive hydrodynamic interpretation. Under the scale separation assumption of nonlinear wave (Whitham) modulation theory, the highly nontrivial nonlinear interaction between the soliton and the evolving hydrodynamic barrier is described in terms of self-similar, simple wave solutions to an asymptotic reduction of the Whitham-NLS partial differential equations. One of the Riemann invariants of the reduced modulation system determines the characteristics of a soliton interacting with a mean flow that results in soliton tunneling or trapping. Another Riemann invariant yields the tunneled soliton's phase shift due to hydrodynamic interaction. Soliton interaction with hydrodynamic barriers gives rise to effects that include reversal of the soliton propagation direction and spontaneous soliton cavitation, which further suggest possible methods of dark soliton control in optical fibers.

  11. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  12. Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco

    2015-01-01

    A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.

  13. Dielectric behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    dielectric loss (tan δ) as functions of frequency and temperature. Ion core type ... Since the data on dielectric properties of strontium tartrate trihydrate (STT) do not ... through 'AE' make 15-amp dimmerstat, the rate of heating was maintained ...

  14. The Dielectric Constant of Lubrication Oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carey, A

    1998-01-01

    The values of the dielectric constant of simple molecules is discussed first, along with the relationship between the dielectric constant and other physical properties such as boiling point, melting...

  15. Fracturing of hard rocks by microwave treatment and potential applications in mechanised tunnelling

    OpenAIRE

    YANLONG ZHENG

    2018-01-01

    Extremely hard and abrasive rocks have posed great challenges to mechanical excavators such as tunnel boring machines and roadheaders by increasing the cutter wear and decreasing the penetration rates. Microwave treatment prior to mechanical rock breakage has been recognised as a promising technology. This PhD project measures/derives the dielectric properties of commonly encountered rocks and minerals and investigates the effect of microwave treatment on the physical and mechanical propertie...

  16. Tunnel field-effect transistor with two gated intrinsic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose and validate (using simulations a novel design of silicon tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET, based on a reverse-biased p+-p-n-n+ structure. 2D device simulation results show that our devices have significant improvements of switching performance compared with more conventional devices based on p-i-n structure. With independent gate voltages applied to two gated intrinsic regions, band-to-band tunneling (BTBT could take place at the p-n junction, and no abrupt degenerate doping profile is required. We developed single-side-gate (SSG structure and double-side-gate (DSG structure. SSG devices with HfO2 gate dielectric have a point subthreshold swing of 9.58 mV/decade, while DSG devices with polysilicon gate electrode material and HfO2 gate dielectric have a point subthreshold swing of 16.39 mV/decade. These DSG devices have ON-current of 0.255 μA/μm, while that is lower for SSG devices. Having two nano-scale independent gates will be quite challenging to realize with good uniformity across the wafer and the improved behavior of our TFET makes it a promising steep-slope switch candidate for further investigations.

  17. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on tunable functionalized copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2015-01-01

    system, with respect to functionalization, is achieved. It is investigated how the different functionalization variables affect essential DE properties, including dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, elastic modulus and dielectric breakdown strength, and the optimal degree of chemical......%) was obtained without compromising other vital DE properties such as elastic modulus, gel fraction, dielectric and viscous loss and electrical breakdown strength....

  18. Geometric phase from dielectric matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    2005-10-01

    The dielectric property of the anisotropic optical medium is found by considering the polarized photon as two component spinor of spherical harmonics. The Geometric Phase of a polarized photon has been evaluated in two ways: the phase two-form of the dielectric matrix through a twist and the Pancharatnam phase (GP) by changing the angular momentum of the incident polarized photon over a closed triangular path on the extended Poincare sphere. The helicity in connection with the spin angular momentum of the chiral photon plays the key role in developing these phase holonomies. (author)

  19. Charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen Knøster; McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1999-01-01

    At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries such that the mat......At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries...

  20. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks

  1. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-11-06

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks.

  2. Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Rafiq, Kazi; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Matsunaga, Tae; Tani, Johji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Morishita, Asahiro; Oryu, Makoto; Iwama, Hisakazu; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments.

  3. IPv4 to IPv6 Transition: Optimal Routing Protocol within Dual Stack and Tunneling

    OpenAIRE

    Aparna Sivaprakash; S. Kayalvizhi

    2016-01-01

    The number of global internet users has been growing exponentially, necessitating a much larger number of unique IP addresses for all the connected networking devices. The prevalent IP version 4 is not able to meet the current requirement for IP addresses. To meet the future IP address requirement, a new version IPv6 has been introduced since 1999. However IPv6 is not backward compatible with IPv4.since it is not possible to migrate all the networking devices to ...

  4. ONKALO 3D tunnel seismic investigations at Olkiluoto in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, C.; Enescu, N.; Balu, L.; Jacome, M.

    2011-02-01

    POSIVA Oy conducts bedrock investigations at the spent nuclear fuel final disposal site at Olkiluoto, in western Finland. The excavation of the access tunnel to the repository hosts the ONKALO underground rock characterization facility. The investigations carried out at ONKALO focus on the bedrock and groundwater conditions prevailing on the final disposal site and how construction work affects them. Tunnel seismic investigations were carried out in July 2009, as an extension of similar work performed in December 2007. The main objective of the tunnel seismic investigations have been to demonstrate the possibility to detect, locate and image cost effectively steeply and gently dipping fractures, at the side and/or below the tunnel and to characterize the volume of rock surrounding a 250 m long segment of the ONKALO tunnel. The survey was conducted at a depth of 350 m, over a 240 m long line of 3-components receivers, spaced at 3m intervals. Seismic signals were produced along two lines, on the tunnel wall and floor, with source points spaced at 1m. A timedistributed swept-impact, the Vibsist-250 hydraulic source, was used. The source was hosted on a mini excavator. Receiver holes approximately 0.4 m deep were drilled prior to the survey, horizontally into the tunnel wall. One of the procedures used for data stacking and migration is based on a proprietary method combining the DMO (Dip Move Out) correction and an expression of the Radon Transform. Horizontal and vertical migrated profiles were computed both for the P wave and S wave reflected wave fields. A true 3D migration technique (Image Point migration) was used to create 3D migrated sections oriented to incremental azimuths around the tunnel, the result being a cylindrical imaging volume. A general conclusion is that seismic surveys along the tunnel can economically be used for rock mass characterization. High quality results can be obtained by operations in tunnel working conditions, provided that due

  5. Electrical and optical properties of a kind of ferroelectric oxide films comprising of PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shimin; Ma, Guohong; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Wenchao; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chu, Junhao; Dai, Ning; Shi, Wangzhou; Hu, Gujin

    2017-07-01

    A type of ferroelectric oxide films, consisting of three PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 stacks with different periodic thicknesses, has been designed and fabricated on F-doped transparent conductive tin oxide substrates by using one single precursor solution and spinning-coating process. These films exhibit superior ferroelectric, dielectric, and optical performance. Each PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 multilayer has a high reflectivity band with ˜110 nm photonic band width and average reflectivity of >80%, a dielectric constant of 530 and dielectric tunability of ˜28% at 1 MHz, a remnant polarization of 36 μC/cm2, and a polarization loss of cycles, rendering their perspective application in photonic band-gap engineering, microwave tunable devices, and integrated optoelectronics.

  6. Cellulose Triacetate Dielectric Films For Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Jow, T. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Cellulose triacetate investigated for use as dielectric material in high-energy-density capacitors for pulsed-electrical-power systems. Films of cellulose triacetate metalized on one or both sides for use as substrates for electrodes and/or as dielectrics between electrodes in capacitors. Used without metalization as simple dielectric films. Advantages include high breakdown strength and self-healing capability.

  7. AB stacked few layer graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal Rh(1 1 1) and electronic structure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordatos, Apostolis; Kelaidis, Nikolaos; Giamini, Sigiava Aminalragia; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Xenogiannopoulou, Evangelia; Tsipas, Polychronis; Kordas, George; Dimoulas, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Growth of non-defective few layer graphene on Rh(1 1 1) substrates using an ambient- pressure CVD method. • Control of graphene stacking order via the cool-down rate. • Graphene is grown with a mainly AB-stacking geometry on single-crystalline Rhodium for a slow cool-down rate and non-AB for a very fast cool-down. • Good epitaxial orientation of the surface is presented through the RHEED data and confirmed with ARPES characterization for the lower cool-down rate, where graphene's ΓK direction a perfectly aligned with the ΓK direction of the Rh(1 1 1) single crystal. - Abstract: Graphene synthesis on single crystal Rh(1 1 1) catalytic substrates is performed by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) at 1000 °C and atmospheric pressure. Raman analysis shows full substrate coverage with few layer graphene. It is found that the cool-down rate strongly affects the graphene stacking order. When lowered, the percentage of AB (Bernal) -stacked regions increases, leading to an almost full AB stacking order. When increased, the percentage of AB-stacked graphene regions decreases to a point where almost a full non AB-stacked graphene is grown. For a slow cool-down rate, graphene with AB stacking order and good epitaxial orientation with the substrate is achieved. This is indicated mainly by Raman characterization and confirmed by Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) imaging. Additional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) topography data confirm that the grown graphene is mainly an AB-stacked structure. The electronic structure of the graphene/Rh(1 1 1) system is examined by Angle resolved Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (ARPES), where σ and π bands of graphene, are observed. Graphene's ΓK direction is aligned with the ΓK direction of the substrate, indicating no significant contribution from rotated domains.

  8. AB stacked few layer graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal Rh(1 1 1) and electronic structure characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordatos, Apostolis [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, 15310 (Greece); Kelaidis, Nikolaos, E-mail: n.kelaidis@inn.demokritos.gr [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, 15310 (Greece); Giamini, Sigiava Aminalragia [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, 15310 (Greece); University of Athens, Department of Physics, Section of Solid State Physics, Athens, 15684 Greece (Greece); Marquez-Velasco, Jose [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, 15310 (Greece); National Technical University of Athens, Department of Physics, Athens, 15784 Greece (Greece); Xenogiannopoulou, Evangelia; Tsipas, Polychronis; Kordas, George; Dimoulas, Athanasios [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Athens, 15310 (Greece)

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • Growth of non-defective few layer graphene on Rh(1 1 1) substrates using an ambient- pressure CVD method. • Control of graphene stacking order via the cool-down rate. • Graphene is grown with a mainly AB-stacking geometry on single-crystalline Rhodium for a slow cool-down rate and non-AB for a very fast cool-down. • Good epitaxial orientation of the surface is presented through the RHEED data and confirmed with ARPES characterization for the lower cool-down rate, where graphene's ΓK direction a perfectly aligned with the ΓK direction of the Rh(1 1 1) single crystal. - Abstract: Graphene synthesis on single crystal Rh(1 1 1) catalytic substrates is performed by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) at 1000 °C and atmospheric pressure. Raman analysis shows full substrate coverage with few layer graphene. It is found that the cool-down rate strongly affects the graphene stacking order. When lowered, the percentage of AB (Bernal) -stacked regions increases, leading to an almost full AB stacking order. When increased, the percentage of AB-stacked graphene regions decreases to a point where almost a full non AB-stacked graphene is grown. For a slow cool-down rate, graphene with AB stacking order and good epitaxial orientation with the substrate is achieved. This is indicated mainly by Raman characterization and confirmed by Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) imaging. Additional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) topography data confirm that the grown graphene is mainly an AB-stacked structure. The electronic structure of the graphene/Rh(1 1 1) system is examined by Angle resolved Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (ARPES), where σ and π bands of graphene, are observed. Graphene's ΓK direction is aligned with the ΓK direction of the substrate, indicating no significant contribution from rotated domains.

  9. Mechanisms for plasma etching of HfO{sub 2} gate stacks with Si selectivity and photoresist trimming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoeb, Juline; Kushner, Mark J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    To minimize leakage currents resulting from the thinning of the insulator in the gate stack of field effect transistors, high-dielectric constant (high-k) metal oxides, and HfO{sub 2} in particular, are being implemented as a replacement for SiO{sub 2}. To speed the rate of processing, it is desirable to etch the gate stack (e.g., metal gate, antireflection layers, and dielectric) in a single process while having selectivity to the underlying Si. Plasma etching using Ar/BCl{sub 3}/Cl{sub 2} mixtures effectively etches HfO{sub 2} while having good selectivity to Si. In this article, results from integrated reactor and feature scale modeling of gate-stack etching in Ar/BCl{sub 3}/Cl{sub 2} plasmas, preceded by photoresist trimming in Ar/O{sub 2} plasmas, are discussed. It was found that BCl{sub n} species react with HfO{sub 2}, which under ion impact, form volatile etch products such as B{sub m}OCl{sub n} and HfCl{sub n}. Selectivity to Si is achieved by creating Si-B bonding as a precursor to the deposition of a BCl{sub n} polymer which slows the etch rate relative to HfO{sub 2}. The low ion energies required to achieve this selectivity then challenge one to obtain highly anisotropic profiles in the metal gate portion of the stack. Validation was performed with data from literature. The effect of bias voltage and key reactant probabilities on etch rate, selectivity, and profile are discussed.

  10. Semiclassical description of resonant tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.B.; Rouben, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A semiclassical formula is calculated for the tunneling current of electrons trapped in a potential well which can tunnel into and across a wide quantum well. The tunneling current is measured at the second interface of this well and the calculations idealized an experimental situation where a strong magnetic field tilted with respect to an electric field was used. It is shown that the contribution to the tunneling current, due to trajectories which begin at the first interface and end on the second, is dominant for periodic orbits which hit both walls of the quantum well. (author)

  11. Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.

  12. Radiation-Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack - RTIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tak-kwong; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides reconfigurable circuitry and 2-Gb of error-corrected or 1-Gb of triple-redundant digital memory in a small package. RTIMS uses circuit stacking of heterogeneous components and radiation shielding technologies. A reprogrammable field-programmable gate array (FPGA), six synchronous dynamic random access memories, linear regulator, and the radiation mitigation circuits are stacked into a module of 42.7 42.7 13 mm. Triple module redundancy, current limiting, configuration scrubbing, and single- event function interrupt detection are employed to mitigate radiation effects. The novel self-scrubbing and single event functional interrupt (SEFI) detection allows a relatively soft FPGA to become radiation tolerant without external scrubbing and monitoring hardware

  13. Development of on-site PAFC stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, K.; Matsumoto, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Amagasaki (Japan); Horiuchi, H.; Ohtani, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell) has been researched for commercial use and demonstration plants have been installed in various sites. However, PAFC don`t have a enough stability yet, so more research and development must be required in the future. Especially, cell stack needs a proper state of three phases (liquid, gas and solid) interface. It is very difficult technology to keep this condition for a long time. In the small size cell with the electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2}, gas flow and temperature distributions show uniformity. But in the large size cell with the electrode area of 4000 cm{sup 2}, the temperature distributions show non-uniformity. These distributions would cause to be shorten the cell life. Because these distributions make hot-spot and gas poverty in limited parts. So we inserted thermocouples in short-stack for measuring three-dimensional temperature distributions and observed effects of current density and gas utilization on temperature.

  14. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen [Pinole, CA

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  15. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  16. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F; Shyu, F L

    2010-01-01

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  17. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  18. 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the operation of a 30 cell high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. This prototype stack has been developed at the Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, as a proof-of-concept for a low pressure cathode air cooled HTPEM stack. The membranes used are Celtec...

  19. Role of stacking disorder in ice nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Laura; Hudait, Arpa; Peters, Baron; Grünwald, Michael; Gotchy Mullen, Ryan; Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria

    2017-11-08

    The freezing of water affects the processes that determine Earth's climate. Therefore, accurate weather and climate forecasts hinge on good predictions of ice nucleation rates. Such rate predictions are based on extrapolations using classical nucleation theory, which assumes that the structure of nanometre-sized ice crystallites corresponds to that of hexagonal ice, the thermodynamically stable form of bulk ice. However, simulations with various water models find that ice nucleated and grown under atmospheric temperatures is at all sizes stacking-disordered, consisting of random sequences of cubic and hexagonal ice layers. This implies that stacking-disordered ice crystallites either are more stable than hexagonal ice crystallites or form because of non-equilibrium dynamical effects. Both scenarios challenge central tenets of classical nucleation theory. Here we use rare-event sampling and free energy calculations with the mW water model to show that the entropy of mixing cubic and hexagonal layers makes stacking-disordered ice the stable phase for crystallites up to a size of at least 100,000 molecules. We find that stacking-disordered critical crystallites at 230 kelvin are about 14 kilojoules per mole of crystallite more stable than hexagonal crystallites, making their ice nucleation rates more than three orders of magnitude higher than predicted by classical nucleation theory. This effect on nucleation rates is temperature dependent, being the most pronounced at the warmest conditions, and should affect the modelling of cloud formation and ice particle numbers, which are very sensitive to the temperature dependence of ice nucleation rates. We conclude that classical nucleation theory needs to be corrected to include the dependence of the crystallization driving force on the size of the ice crystallite when interpreting and extrapolating ice nucleation rates from experimental laboratory conditions to the temperatures that occur in clouds.

  20. A Late Pleistocene sea level stack

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt Rachel M; Lisiecki Lorraine E

    2016-01-01

    Late Pleistocene sea level has been reconstructed from ocean sediment core data using a wide variety of proxies and models. However, the accuracy of individual reconstructions is limited by measurement error, local variations in salinity and temperature, and assumptions particular to each technique. Here we present a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of individual reconstructions. Specifically, we perform principal componen...

  1. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from 'H' and 'F' area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system

  2. Electrical and materials properties of ZrO2 gate dielectrics grown by atomic layer chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Charles M.; Triplett, Baylor B.; McIntyre, Paul C.; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Haukka, Suvi; Tuominen, Marko

    2001-04-01

    Structural and electrical properties of gate stack structures containing ZrO2 dielectrics were investigated. The ZrO2 films were deposited by atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (ALCVD) after different substrate preparations. The structure, composition, and interfacial characteristics of these gate stacks were examined using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ZrO2 films were polycrystalline with either a cubic or tetragonal crystal structure. An amorphous interfacial layer with a moderate dielectric constant formed between the ZrO2 layer and the substrate during ALCVD growth on chemical oxide-terminated silicon. Gate stacks with a measured equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 1.3 nm showed leakage values of 10-5 A/cm2 at a bias of -1 V from flatband, which is significantly less than that seen with SiO2 dielectrics of similar EOT. A hysteresis of 8-10 mV was seen for ±2 V sweeps while a midgap interface state density (Dit) of ˜3×1011 states/cm eV was determined from comparisons of measured and ideal capacitance curves.

  3. Dielectric waveguide amplifiers and lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    The performance of semiconductor amplifiers and lasers has made them the preferred choice for optical gain on a micro-chip. In the past few years, we have demonstrated that also rare-earth-ion-doped dielectric waveguides show remarkable performance, ranging from a small-signal gain per unit length

  4. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    India's annual coal production is used in about 72 power- generating plants and ... performance of this material as cracking catalyst was investigated with ... Chemically, the FA was silica to an extent of 55–70%, followed by ... Cu, Pb, Cd, Ag, Mn, Fe, Ti, Na, Mo, S, P, Zn and Cl in different ... two-probe method. The dielectric ...

  5. Dielectric polarization in random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshaw, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of dielectric polarization in random media is systematically formulated in terms of response kernels. The primary response kernel K(12) governs the mean dielectric response at the point r 1 to the external electric field at the point r 2 in an infinite system. The inverse of K(12) is denoted by L(12);. it is simpler and more fundamental than K(12) itself. Rigorous expressions are obtained for the effective dielectric constant epsilon( in terms of L(12) and K(12). The latter expression involves the Onsger-Kirkwood function (epsilon(-epsilon 0 (2epsilon(+epsilon 0 )/epsilon 0 epsilon( (where epsilon 0 is an arbitrary reference value), and appears to be new to the random medium context. A wide variety of series representations for epsilon( are generated by means of general perturbation expansions for K(12) and L(12). A discussion is given of certain pitfalls in the theory, most of which are related to the fact that the response kernels are long ranged. It is shown how the dielectric behavior of nonpolar molecular fluids may be treated as a special case of the general theory. The present results for epsilon( apply equally well to other effective phenomenological coefficients of the same generic type, such as thermal and electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and diffusion coefficients

  6. Improved di-electric composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R C

    1915-03-29

    An improved di-electric composition is disclosed composed of pitch or bitumen which is melted, and to which is added, while molten, a quantity of finely ground or pulverized spent shale, the whole being mixed or stirred to make a homogeneous composition, substantially as described.

  7. Electrochemical Detection in Stacked Paper Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyuan; Lillehoj, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Paper-based electrochemical biosensors are a promising technology that enables rapid, quantitative measurements on an inexpensive platform. However, the control of liquids in paper networks is generally limited to a single sample delivery step. Here, we propose a simple method to automate the loading and delivery of liquid samples to sensing electrodes on paper networks by stacking multiple layers of paper. Using these stacked paper devices (SPDs), we demonstrate a unique strategy to fully immerse planar electrodes by aqueous liquids via capillary flow. Amperometric measurements of xanthine oxidase revealed that electrochemical sensors on four-layer SPDs generated detection signals up to 75% higher compared with those on single-layer paper devices. Furthermore, measurements could be performed with minimal user involvement and completed within 30 min. Due to its simplicity, enhanced automation, and capability for quantitative measurements, stacked paper electrochemical biosensors can be useful tools for point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  8. Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weides, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al 2 O 3 tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or π coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, π) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-π Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-π junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum Φ 0 . Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T → 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)

  9. Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weides, M.P.

    2006-07-01

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or {pi} coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, {pi}) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-{pi} Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-{pi} junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}. Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T {yields} 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)

  10. Engineers win award for Swiss tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A Derby engineering consultancy has won the Tunnelling Industry Award 2003 for Excellence in Tunnel Design, offered by the British Tunnelling Society, for its work on the LHC in Geneva, Switzerland (1/2 page).

  11. Thermovoltages in vacuum tunneling investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, D. H.; Rettenberger, Armin; Grand, Jean Yves; Läuger, K.; Leiderer, Paul; Dransfeld, Klaus; Möller, Rolf

    1995-01-01

    By heating the tunneling tip of a scanning tunneling microscope the thermoelectric properties of a variable vacuum barrier have been investigated. The lateral variation of the observed thermovoltage will be discussed for polycrystalline gold, stepped surfaces of silver, as well as for copper islands on silver.

  12. Investigation of the dielectric properties of shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martemyanov, Sergey M.

    2011-01-01

    The article is dedicated to investigation of the dielectric properties of oil shale. Investigations for samples prepared from shale mined at the deposit in Jilin Province in China were done. The temperature and frequency dependences of rock characteristics needed to calculate the processes of their thermal processing are investigated. Frequency dependences for the relative dielectric constant and dissipation factor of rock in the frequency range from 0,1 Hz to 1 MHz are investigated. The temperature dependences for rock resistance, dielectric capacitance and dissipation factor in the temperature range from 20 to 600°C are studied. Key words: shale, dielectric properties, relative dielectric constant, dissipation factor, temperature dependence, frequency dependence

  13. Enhancements to AERMOD's building downwash algorithms based on wind-tunnel and Embedded-LES modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monbureau, E. M.; Heist, D. K.; Perry, S. G.; Brouwer, L. H.; Foroutan, H.; Tang, W.

    2018-04-01

    Knowing the fate of effluent from an industrial stack is important for assessing its impact on human health. AERMOD is one of several Gaussian plume models containing algorithms to evaluate the effect of buildings on the movement of the effluent from a stack. The goal of this study is to improve AERMOD's ability to accurately model important and complex building downwash scenarios by incorporating knowledge gained from a recently completed series of wind tunnel studies and complementary large eddy simulations of flow and dispersion around simple structures for a variety of building dimensions, stack locations, stack heights, and wind angles. This study presents three modifications to the building downwash algorithm in AERMOD that improve the physical basis and internal consistency of the model, and one modification to AERMOD's building pre-processor to better represent elongated buildings in oblique winds. These modifications are demonstrated to improve the ability of AERMOD to model observed ground-level concentrations in the vicinity of a building for the variety of conditions examined in the wind tunnel and numerical studies.

  14. Guanine base stacking in G-quadruplex nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2013-01-01

    G-quadruplexes constitute a class of nucleic acid structures defined by stacked guanine tetrads (or G-tetrads) with guanine bases from neighboring tetrads stacking with one another within the G-tetrad core. Individual G-quadruplexes can also stack with one another at their G-tetrad interface leading to higher-order structures as observed in telomeric repeat-containing DNA and RNA. In this study, we investigate how guanine base stacking influences the stability of G-quadruplexes and their stacked higher-order structures. A structural survey of the Protein Data Bank is conducted to characterize experimentally observed guanine base stacking geometries within the core of G-quadruplexes and at the interface between stacked G-quadruplex structures. We couple this survey with a systematic computational examination of stacked G-tetrad energy landscapes using quantum mechanical computations. Energy calculations of stacked G-tetrads reveal large energy differences of up to 12 kcal/mol between experimentally observed geometries at the interface of stacked G-quadruplexes. Energy landscapes are also computed using an AMBER molecular mechanics description of stacking energy and are shown to agree quite well with quantum mechanical calculated landscapes. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a structural explanation for the experimentally observed preference of parallel G-quadruplexes to stack in a 5′–5′ manner based on different accessible tetrad stacking modes at the stacking interfaces of 5′–5′ and 3′–3′ stacked G-quadruplexes. PMID:23268444

  15. Magnetic tunnel junctions with monolayer hexagonal boron nitride tunnel barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piquemal-Banci, M.; Galceran, R.; Bouzehouane, K.; Anane, A.; Petroff, F.; Fert, A.; Dlubak, B.; Seneor, P. [Unité Mixte de Physique, CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Palaiseau 91767 (France); Caneva, S.; Martin, M.-B.; Weatherup, R. S.; Kidambi, P. R.; Robertson, J.; Hofmann, S. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB21PZ (United Kingdom); Xavier, S. [Thales Research and Technology, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, Palaiseau 91767 (France)

    2016-03-07

    We report on the integration of atomically thin 2D insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) tunnel barriers into Co/h-BN/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The h-BN monolayer is directly grown by chemical vapor deposition on Fe. The Conductive Tip Atomic Force Microscopy (CT-AFM) measurements reveal the homogeneity of the tunnel behavior of our h-BN layers. As expected for tunneling, the resistance depends exponentially on the number of h-BN layers. The h-BN monolayer properties are also characterized through integration into complete MTJ devices. A Tunnel Magnetoresistance of up to 6% is observed for a MTJ based on a single atomically thin h-BN layer.

  16. A theory of piezoelectric, elastic, and dielectric properties of the KH2PO4 family crystals under the strain u6. Phase transition and the piezoelectric effect in the KH2PO4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levits'kij, R.R.; Lyisnij, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the dielectric, piezoelectric and elastic properties of ferroelectrics and antiferroelectrics of the KH 2 PO 4 family, we consider an extended proton tunneling model that takes into account the shear strain u 6 . In the four-particle cluster approximation for the short-range interactions and the mean field approximation for the long-range interaction we calculate the transverse components of the dielectric susceptibility tensor of the KH 2 PO 4 family ferroelectrics

  17. Fire spread simulation of a full scale cable tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtanen, R.

    1999-11-01

    A fire simulation of a full scale tunnel was performed by using the commercial code EFFLUENT as the simulation platform. Estimation was made for fire spread on the stacked cable trays, possibility of fire spread to the cable trays on the opposite wall of the tunnel, detection time of smoke detectors in the smouldering phase and response of sprinkler heads in the flaming phase. According to the simulation, the rise of temperature in the smouldering phase is minimal, only of the order 1 deg C. The estimates of optical density of smoke show that normal smoke detectors should give an alarm within 2-4 minutes from the beginning of the smouldering phase, depending on the distance to the detector (in this case it was assumed that the thermal source connected to the smoke source was 50 W). The flow conditions at smoke detectors may be challenging, because the velocity magnitude is rather low at this phase. At 4 minutes the maximum velocity at the detectors is 0.12 m/s. During the flaming phase (beginning from 11 minutes) fire spreads on the stacked cable trays in an expected way, although the ignition criterion seems to perform poorly when ignition of new objects is considered. The Upper cable trays are forced to ignite by boundary condition definitions according to the experience found from ti full scale experiment and an earlier simulation. After 30 minutes the hot layer in the room becomes so hot that it speeds up the fire spread and the rate of heat release of burning objects. Further, the hot layer ignites the cable trays on the opposite wall of the tunnel after 45 minutes. It is estimated that the sprinkler heads would be activated at 20-22 minutes near the fire source and at 24-28 minutes little further from the fire source when fast sprinkler heads are used. The slow heads are activated between 26-32 minutes. (orig.)

  18. Gyrotropic Zener tunneling and nonlinear IV curves in the zero-energy Landau level of graphene in a strong magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Antti; Kumar, Manohar; Hakonen, Pertti; Sonin, Edouard

    2018-01-12

    We have investigated tunneling current through a suspended graphene Corbino disk in high magnetic fields at the Dirac point, i.e. at filling factor ν = 0. At the onset of the dielectric breakdown the current through the disk grows exponentially before ohmic behaviour, but in a manner distinct from thermal activation. We find that Zener tunneling between Landau sublevels dominates, facilitated by tilting of the source-drain bias potential. According to our analytic modelling, the Zener tunneling is strongly affected by the gyrotropic force (Lorentz force) due to the high magnetic field.

  19. Defect driven tailoring of colossal dielectricity of Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, S.; Mondal, A. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Dey, K. [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ray, R., E-mail: juphyruma@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxides (RGO) are prepared by two chemical routes. • Defects in RGO are characterized by Raman, FTIR and XPS studies. • Defects tailor colossal dielectricity in RGO. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is prepared in two different chemical routes where reduction of graphene oxide is performed by hydrazine hydrate and through high pressure in hydrothermal reactor. Samples are characterized by X-ray powdered diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and tunneling electron microscopy (TEM). Types of defects are probed by Raman, FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). UV–vis absorption reveals different optical band gaps of the two RGOs. Conductivity mechanism is studied through I–V measurements displaying different characteristic features which are addressed due to the presence of defects appeared in different synthesis. Significantly high value (∼10{sup 4}) of dielectric permittivity at 10 MHz is attractive for technological application which could be tuned by the defects present in RGO.

  20. Two-phase mixed media dielectric with macro dielectric beads for enhancing resistivity and breakdown strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Steven; Meyer, Glenn A; Tang, Vincent; Guethlein, Gary

    2014-06-10

    A two-phase mixed media insulator having a dielectric fluid filling the interstices between macro-sized dielectric beads packed into a confined volume, so that the packed dielectric beads inhibit electro-hydrodynamically driven current flows of the dielectric liquid and thereby increase the resistivity and breakdown strength of the two-phase insulator over the dielectric liquid alone. In addition, an electrical apparatus incorporates the two-phase mixed media insulator to insulate between electrical components of different electrical potentials. And a method of electrically insulating between electrical components of different electrical potentials fills a confined volume between the electrical components with the two-phase dielectric composite, so that the macro dielectric beads are packed in the confined volume and interstices formed between the macro dielectric beads are filled with the dielectric liquid.

  1. Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study spin tunnelling in molecular magnets as an instance of a mesoscopic phenomenon, with special emphasis on the molecule Fe8. We show that the tunnel splitting between various pairs of Zeeman levels in this molecule oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field, vanishing completely at special points in the ...

  2. Hawking temperature from tunnelling formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, P.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the attempt to understand Hawking radiation as tunnelling across black hole horizons produces a Hawking temperature double the standard value. It is explained here how one can obtain the standard value in the same tunnelling approach.

  3. Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    cathode air cooled 30 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack developed at the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University. This fuel cell stack uses PEMEAS Celtec P-1000 membranes, runs on pure hydrogen in a dead end anode configuration with a purge valve. The cooling of the stack is managed by running......The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system consists of a prototype...... the stack at a high stoichiometric air flow. This is possible because of the PBI fuel cell membranes used, and the very low pressure drop in the stack. The model consists of a discrete thermal model dividing the stack into three parts: inlet, middle and end and predicting the temperatures in these three...

  4. Influence of Chemical Composition and Structure in Silicon Dielectric Materials on Passivation of Thin Crystalline Silicon on Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calnan, Sonya; Gabriel, Onno; Rothert, Inga; Werth, Matteo; Ring, Sven; Stannowski, Bernd; Schlatmann, Rutger

    2015-09-02

    In this study, various silicon dielectric films, namely, a-SiOx:H, a-SiNx:H, and a-SiOxNy:H, grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were evaluated for use as interlayers (ILs) between crystalline silicon and glass. Chemical bonding analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that high values of oxidant gases (CO2 and/or N2), added to SiH4 during PECVD, reduced the Si-H and N-H bond density in the silicon dielectrics. Various three layer stacks combining the silicon dielectric materials were designed to minimize optical losses between silicon and glass in rear side contacted heterojunction pn test cells. The PECVD grown silicon dielectrics retained their functionality despite being subjected to harsh subsequent processing such as crystallization of the silicon at 1414 °C or above. High values of short circuit current density (Jsc; without additional hydrogen passivation) required a high density of Si-H bonds and for the nitrogen containing films, additionally, a high N-H bond density. Concurrently high values of both Jsc and open circuit voltage Voc were only observed when [Si-H] was equal to or exceeded [N-H]. Generally, Voc correlated with a high density of [Si-H] bonds in the silicon dielectric; otherwise, additional hydrogen passivation using an active plasma process was required. The highest Voc ∼ 560 mV, for a silicon acceptor concentration of about 10(16) cm(-3), was observed for stacks where an a-SiOxNy:H film was adjacent to the silicon. Regardless of the cell absorber thickness, field effect passivation of the buried silicon surface by the silicon dielectric was mandatory for efficient collection of carriers generated from short wavelength light (in the vicinity of the glass-Si interface). However, additional hydrogen passivation was obligatory for an increased diffusion length of the photogenerated carriers and thus Jsc in solar cells with thicker absorbers.

  5. Tunneling Ionization of Diatomic Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Jens Søren Sieg

    2016-01-01

    When a molecule is subject to a strong laser field, there is a probability that an electron can escape, even though the electrons are bound by a large potential barrier. This is possible because electrons are quantum mechanical in nature, and they are therefore able to tunnel through potential...... barriers, an ability classical particles do not possess. Tunnelling is a fundamental quantum mechanical process, a process that is distinctly non-classical, so solving this tunnelling problem is not only relevant for molecular physics, but also for quantum theory in general. In this dissertation the theory...... of tunneling ionizaion of molecules is presented and the results of numerical calculations are shown. One perhaps surprising result is, that the frequently used Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down for weak fields when describing tunneling ionization. An analytic theory applicable in the weak-field limit...

  6. Tunneling from the past horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Subeom; Yeom, Dong-han

    2018-04-01

    We investigate a tunneling and emission process of a thin-shell from a Schwarzschild black hole, where the shell was initially located beyond the Einstein-Rosen bridge and finally appears at the right side of the Penrose diagram. In order to obtain such a solution, we should assume that the areal radius of the black hole horizon increases after the tunneling. Hence, there is a parameter range such that the tunneling rate is exponentially enhanced, rather than suppressed. We may have two interpretations regarding this. First, such a tunneling process from the past horizon is improbable by physical reasons; second, such a tunneling is possible in principle, but in order to obtain a stable Einstein-Rosen bridge, one needs to restrict the parameter spaces. If such a process is allowed, this can be a nonperturbative contribution to Einstein-Rosen bridges as well as eternal black holes.

  7. Thin Co/Ni-based bottom pinned spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory stacks with high annealing tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczak, Y., E-mail: Yoann.Tomczak@imec.be [IMEC Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Swerts, J.; Mertens, S.; Lin, T.; Couet, S.; Sankaran, K.; Pourtois, G.; Kim, W.; Souriau, L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Kar, G.; Furnemont, A. [IMEC Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Liu, E. [Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-01-25

    Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) is considered as a replacement for next generation embedded and stand-alone memory applications. One of the main challenges in the STT-MRAM stack development is the compatibility of the stack with CMOS process flows in which thermal budgets up to 400 °C are applied. In this letter, we report on a perpendicularly magnetized MgO-based tunnel junction (p-MTJ) on a thin Co/Ni perpendicular synthetic antiferromagnetic layer with high annealing tolerance. Tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) loss after annealing occurs when the reference layer loses its perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to reduction of the CoFeB/MgO interfacial anisotropy. A stable Co/Ni based p-MTJ stack with TMR values of 130% at resistance-area products of 9 Ω μm{sup 2} after 400 °C anneal is achieved via moment control of the Co/Ta/CoFeB reference layer. Thinning of the CoFeB polarizing layer down to 0.8 nm is the key enabler to achieve 400 °C compatibility with limited TMR loss. Thinning the Co below 0.6 nm leads to a loss of the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling strength through Ru. Insight into the thickness and moment engineering of the reference layer is displayed to obtain the best magnetic properties and high thermal stability for thin Co/Ni SAF-based STT-MRAM stacks.

  8. Interface Engineering and Gate Dielectric Engineering for High Performance Ge MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, germanium has attracted intensive interests for its promising applications in the microelectronics industry. However, to achieve high performance Ge channel devices, several critical issues still have to be addressed. Amongst them, a high quality gate stack, that is, a low defect interface layer and a dielectric layer, is of crucial importance. In this work, we first review the existing methods of interface engineering and gate dielectric engineering and then in more detail we discuss and compare three promising approaches (i.e., plasma postoxidation, high pressure oxidation, and ozone postoxidation. It has been confirmed that these approaches all can significantly improve the overall performance of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET device.

  9. Experimental Demonstration of Effective Medium Approximation Breakdown in Deeply Subwavelength All-Dielectric Multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Takayama, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of anomalous breakdown of the effective medium approximation in all-dielectric deeply subwavelength thickness (d∼λ/160-λ/30) multilayers, as recently predicted theoretically [H. H. Sheinfux et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 243901 (2014)]. Multilayer...... stacks are composed of alternating alumina and titania layers fabricated using atomic layer deposition. For light incident on such multilayers at angles near the total internal reflection, we observe pronounced differences in the reflectance spectra for structures with 10- vs 20-nm thick layers, as well...

  10. Design and analysis of all-dielectric broadband nonpolarizing parallel-plate beam splitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenliang; Xiong, Shengming; Zhang, Yundong

    2007-06-01

    Past research on the all-dielectric nonpolarizing beam splitter is reviewed. With the aid of the needle thin-film synthesis method and the conjugate graduate refine method, three different split ratio nonpolarizing parallel-plate beam splitters over a 200 nm spectral range centered at 550 nm with incidence angles of 45 degrees are designed. The chosen materials component and the initial stack are based on the Costich and Thelen theories. The results of design and analysis show that the designs maintain a very low polarization ratio in the working range of the spectrum and has a reasonable angular field.

  11. Dielectric coatings on metal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaros, S.S.; Baker, P.; Milam, D.

    1976-01-01

    Large aperture, beryllium substrate-based mirrors have been used to focus high intensity pulsed laser beams. Finished surfaces have high reflectivity, low wavefront distortion, and high laser damage thresholds. This paper describes the development of a series of metallic coatings, surface finishing techniques, and dielectric overcoatings to meet specified performance requirements. Beryllium substrates were coated with copper, diamond-machined to within 5 micro-inches to final contour, nickel plated, and abrasively figured to final contour. Bond strengths for several bonding processes are presented. Dielectric overcoatings were deposited on finished multimetallic substrates to increase both reflectivity and the damage thresholds. Coatings were deposited using both high and low temperature processes which induce varying stresses in the finished coating substrate system. Data are presented to show the evolution of wavefront distortion, reflectivity, and damage thresholds throughout the many steps involved in fabrication

  12. Artificial dispersion via high-order homogenization: magnetoelectric coupling and magnetism from dielectric layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Guenneau, Sébastien; Gralak, Boris

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a high-order homogenization (HOH) algorithm for periodic multi-layered stacks. The mathematical tool of choice is a transfer matrix method. Expressions for effective permeability, permittivity and magnetoelectric coupling are explored by frequency power expansions. On the physical side, this HOH uncovers a magnetoelectric coupling effect (odd-order approximation) and artificial magnetism (even-order approximation) in moderate contrast photonic crystals. Comparing the effective parameters' expressions of a stack with three layers against that of a stack with two layers, we note that the magnetoelectric coupling effect vanishes while the artificial magnetism can still be achieved in a centre-symmetric periodic structure. Furthermore, we numerically check the effective parameters through the dispersion law and transmission property of a stack with two dielectric layers against that of an effective bianisotropic medium: they are in good agreement throughout the low-frequency (acoustic) band until the first stop band, where the analyticity of the logarithm function of the transfer matrix () breaks down. PMID:24101891

  13. NSF tandem stack support structure deflection characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-12-01

    Results are reported of load tests carried out on the glass legs of the insulating stack of the 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator now under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The tests to investigate the vulnerability of the legs when subjected to tensile stresses were designed to; establish the angle of rotation of the pads from which the stresses in the glass legs may be calculated, proof-test the structure and at the same time reveal any asymmetry in pad rotations or deflections, and to confirm the validity of the computer design analysis. (UK)

  14. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yeong -Shyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Pyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephens, Elizabeth V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  15. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  16. Displacive phase transformations and generalized stacking faults

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paidar, Václav; Ostapovets, Andriy; Duparc, O. H.; Khalfallah, O.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 490-492 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials, ISPMA /12./. Praha, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ab-initio calculations * close-packed structures * generalized stacking faults * homogeneous deformation * lattice deformation * many-body potentials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  17. Fluctuation Dominated Josephson Tunneling with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naaman, O.; Teizer, W.; Dynes, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate Josephson tunneling in vacuum tunnel junctions formed between a superconducting scanning tunneling microscope tip and a Pb film, for junction resistances in the range 50--300 k Omega. We show that the superconducting phase dynamics is dominated by thermal fluctuations, and that the Josephson current appears as a peak centered at small finite voltage. In the presence of microwave fields (f=15.0 GHz) the peak decreases in magnitude and shifts to higher voltages with increasing rf power, in agreement with theory

  18. Tunneling junction as an open system. Normal tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The method of the tunneling Hamiltonian is reformulated in the case of normal tunneling by introducing two independent particle baths. Due to the baths, it becomes possible to realize a final stationary state where the electron numbers of the two electrodes in the tunneling system are maintained constant and where there exists a stationary current. The effect of the bath-system couplings on the current-voltage characteristics of the junction is discussed in relation to the usual expression of the current as a function of voltage. (Auth.)

  19. Frequency driven inversion of tunnel magnetoimpedance and observation of positive tunnel magnetocapacitance in magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parui, Subir; Ribeiro, Mário; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Llopis, Roger; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Sun, Xiangnan; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance for modern computation of non-volatile high-frequency memories makes ac-transport measurements of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) crucial for exploring this regime. Here, we demonstrate a frequency-mediated effect in which the tunnel magnetoimpedance reverses its sign in a classical Co/Al 2 O 3 /NiFe MTJ, whereas we only observe a gradual decrease in the tunnel magnetophase. Such effects are explained by the capacitive coupling of a parallel resistor and capacitor in the equivalent circuit model of the MTJ. Furthermore, we report a positive tunnel magnetocapacitance effect, suggesting the presence of a spin-capacitance at the two ferromagnet/tunnel-barrier interfaces. Our results are important for understanding spin transport phenomena at the high frequency regime in which the spin-polarized charge accumulation due to spin-dependent penetration depth at the two interfaces plays a crucial role.

  20. Frequency driven inversion of tunnel magnetoimpedance and observation of positive tunnel magnetocapacitance in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parui, Subir, E-mail: s.parui@nanogune.eu, E-mail: l.hueso@nanogune.eu; Ribeiro, Mário; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Llopis, Roger [CIC nanoGUNE, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar [CIC nanoGUNE, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Sun, Xiangnan [CIC nanoGUNE, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, 100190 Beijing (China); Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E., E-mail: s.parui@nanogune.eu, E-mail: l.hueso@nanogune.eu [CIC nanoGUNE, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-08-01

    The relevance for modern computation of non-volatile high-frequency memories makes ac-transport measurements of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) crucial for exploring this regime. Here, we demonstrate a frequency-mediated effect in which the tunnel magnetoimpedance reverses its sign in a classical Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiFe MTJ, whereas we only observe a gradual decrease in the tunnel magnetophase. Such effects are explained by the capacitive coupling of a parallel resistor and capacitor in the equivalent circuit model of the MTJ. Furthermore, we report a positive tunnel magnetocapacitance effect, suggesting the presence of a spin-capacitance at the two ferromagnet/tunnel-barrier interfaces. Our results are important for understanding spin transport phenomena at the high frequency regime in which the spin-polarized charge accumulation due to spin-dependent penetration depth at the two interfaces plays a crucial role.

  1. Electronic States of High-k Oxides in Gate Stack Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chiyu

    In this dissertation, in-situ X-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy have been employed to study the interface chemistry and electronic structure of potential high-k gate stack materials. In these gate stack materials, HfO2 and La2O3 are selected as high-k dielectrics, VO2 and ZnO serve as potential channel layer materials. The gate stack structures have been prepared using a reactive electron beam system and a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition system. Three interrelated issues represent the central themes of the research: 1) the interface band alignment, 2) candidate high-k materials, and 3) band bending, internal electric fields, and charge transfer. 1) The most highlighted issue is the band alignment of specific high-k structures. Band alignment relationships were deduced by analysis of XPS and UPS spectra for three different structures: a) HfO2/VO2/SiO2/Si, b) HfO 2-La2O3/ZnO/SiO2/Si, and c) HfO 2/VO2/ HfO2/SiO2/Si. The valence band offset of HfO2/VO2, ZnO/SiO2 and HfO 2/SiO2 are determined to be 3.4 +/- 0.1, 1.5 +/- 0.1, and 0.7 +/- 0.1 eV. The valence band offset between HfO2-La2O3 and ZnO was almost negligible. Two band alignment models, the electron affinity model and the charge neutrality level model, are discussed. The results show the charge neutrality model is preferred to describe these structures. 2) High-k candidate materials were studied through comparison of pure Hf oxide, pure La oxide, and alloyed Hf-La oxide films. An issue with the application of pure HfO2 is crystallization which may increase the leakage current in gate stack structures. An issue with the application of pure La2O3 is the presence of carbon contamination in the film. Our study shows that the alloyed Hf-La oxide films exhibit an amorphous structure along with reduced carbon contamination. 3) Band bending and internal electric fields in the gate stack structure were observed by XPS and UPS and indicate the charge transfer during the growth and process. The oxygen

  2. Asymmetric Dielectric Elastomer Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brian K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide a dielectric elastomer composite material comprising a plurality of elastomer-coated electrodes arranged in an assembly. Embodiments of the invention provide improved force output over prior DEs by producing thinner spacing between electrode surfaces. This is accomplished by coating electrodes directly with uncured elastomer in liquid form and then assembling a finished component (which may be termed an actuator) from coated electrode components.

  3. Coherent multimoded dielectric wakefield accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J.

    1998-01-01

    There has recently been a study of the potential uses of multimode dielectric structures for wakefield acceleration [1]. This technique is based on adjusting the wakefield modes of the structure to constructively interfere at certain delays with respect to the drive bunch, thus providing an accelerating gradient enhancement over single mode devices. In this report we examine and attempt to clarify the issues raised by this work in the light of the present state of the art in wakefield acceleration

  4. Impact of device engineering on analog/RF performances of tunnel field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayvargiya, V.; Reniwal, B. S.; Singh, P.; Vishvakarma, S. K.

    2017-06-01

    The tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) and its analog/RF performance is being aggressively studied at device architecture level for low power SoC design. Therefore, in this paper we have investigated the influence of the gate-drain underlap (UL) and different dielectric materials for the spacer and gate oxide on DG-TFET (double gate TFET) and its analog/RF performance for low power applications. Here, it is found that the drive current behavior in DG-TFET with a UL feature while implementing dielectric material for the spacer is different in comparison to that of DG-FET. Further, hetero gate dielectric-based DG-TFET (HGDG-TFET) is more resistive against drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) as compared to DG-TFET with high-k (HK) gate dielectric. Along with that, as compared to DG-FET, this paper also analyses the attributes of UL and dielectric material on analog/RF performance of DG-TFET in terms of transconductance (gm ), transconductance generation factor (TGF), capacitance, intrinsic resistance (Rdcr), cut-off frequency (F T), and maximum oscillation frequency (F max). The LK spacer-based HGDG-TFET with a gate-drain UL has the potential to improve the RF performance of device.

  5. Energy storage in ceramic dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    Historically, multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLC's) have not been considered for energy storage applications for two primary reasons. First, physically large ceramic capacitors were very expensive and, second, total energy density obtainable was not nearly so high as in electrolytic capacitor types. More recently, the fabrication technology for MLC's has improved significantly, permitting both significantly higher energy density and significantly lower costs. Simultaneously, in many applications, total energy storage has become smaller, and the secondary requirements of very low effective series resistance and effective series inductance (which, together, determine how efficiently the energy may be stored and recovered) have become more important. It is therefore desirable to reexamine energy storage in ceramics for contemporary commercial and near-commercial dielectrics. Stored energy is proportional to voltage squared only in the case of paraelectric insulators, because only they have capacitance that is independent of bias voltage. High dielectric constant materials, however, are ferroics (that is ferroelectric and/or antiferroelectric) and display significant variation of effective dielectric constant with bias voltage

  6. Dielectric-filled radiofrequency linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehl, R J; Keinigs, R K; Pogue, E W [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    High current, high brightness electron beam accelerators promise to open up dramatic new applications. Linear induction accelerators are currently viewed as the appropriate technology for these applications. A concept by Humphries and Hwang may permit radiofrequency accelerators to fulfill the same functions with greater simplicity and enhanced flexibility. This concept involves the replacement of vacuum rf cavities with dielectric filled ones. Simple analysis indicates that the resonant frequencies are reduced by a factor of ({epsilon}{sub 0}/{epsilon}){sup 1/2} while the stored energy is increased by {epsilon}/{epsilon}{sub 0}. For a high dielectric constant like water, this factor can approach 80. A series of numerical calculations of simple pill-box cavities was performed. Eigenfunctions and resonant frequencies for a full system configuration, including dielectric material, vacuum beamline, and a ceramic window separating the two have been computed. These calculations are compared with the results of a small experimental cavity which have been constructed and operated. Low power tests show excellent agreement. (author). 4 figs., 8 refs.

  7. AA stacking, tribological and electronic properties of double-layer graphene with krypton spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Andrey M; Lebedeva, Irina V; Knizhnik, Andrey A; Lozovik, Yurii E; Potapkin, Boris V; Poklonski, Nikolai A; Siahlo, Andrei I; Vyrko, Sergey A

    2013-10-21

    Structural, energetic, and tribological characteristics of double-layer graphene with commensurate and incommensurate krypton spacers of nearly monolayer coverage are studied within the van der Waals-corrected density functional theory. It is shown that when the spacer is in the commensurate phase, the graphene layers have the AA stacking. For this phase, the barriers to relative in-plane translational and rotational motion and the shear mode frequency of the graphene layers are calculated. For the incommensurate phase, both of the barriers are found to be negligibly small. A considerable change of tunneling conductance between the graphene layers separated by the commensurate krypton spacer at their relative subangstrom displacement is revealed by the use of the Bardeen method. The possibility of nanoelectromechanical systems based on the studied tribological and electronic properties of the considered heterostructures is discussed.

  8. Analytical Modeling of Triple-Metal Hetero-Dielectric DG SON TFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Aman; Dash, Dinesh Kumar; Banerjee, Pritha; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a 2-D analytical model of triple-metal hetero-dielectric DG TFET is presented by combining the concepts of triple material gate engineering and hetero-dielectric engineering. Three metals with different work functions are used as both front- and back gate electrodes to modulate the barrier at source/channel and channel/drain interface. In addition to this, front gate dielectric consists of high-K HfO2 at source end and low-K SiO2 at drain side, whereas back gate dielectric is replaced by air to further improve the ON current of the device. Surface potential and electric field of the proposed device are formulated solving 2-D Poisson's equation and Young's approximation. Based on this electric field expression, tunneling current is obtained by using Kane's model. Several device parameters are varied to examine the behavior of the proposed device. The analytical model is validated with TCAD simulation results for proving the accuracy of our proposed model.

  9. Computerized plutonium laboratory-stack monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, R.G.; DeVore, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has recently designed and constructed a Plutonium Research and Development Facility to meet design criteria imposed by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. A primary objective of the design criteria is to assure environmental protection and to reliably monitor plutonium effluent via the ventilation exhaust systems. A state-of-the-art facility exhaust air monitoring system is described which establishes near ideal conditions for evaluating plutonium activity in the stack effluent. Total and static pressure sensing manifolds are incorporated to measure average velocity and integrated total discharge air volume. These data are logged at a computer which receives instrument data through a multiplex scanning system. A multipoint isokinetic sampling assembly with associated instrumentation is described. Continuous air monitors have been designed to sample from the isokinetic sampling assembly and transmit both instantaneous and integrated stack effluent concentration data to the computer and various cathode ray tube displays. The continuous air monitors also serve as room air monitors in the plutonium facility with the primary objective of timely evacuation of personnel if an above tolerance airborne plutonium concentration is detected. Several continuous air monitors are incorporated in the ventilation system to assist in identification of release problem areas

  10. Control of heteroepitaxial stacking by substrate miscut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonham, S.W.; Flynn, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    We report studies of fcc epitaxial crystals, grown on Nb(110), in which the Nb surface offers a template for selection between the two alternative stackings, ABCA hor-ellipsis and ACBA hor-ellipsis of the fcc close-packed planes. The Nb templates were grown epitaxially about 500 Angstrom thick on sapphire (11 bar 20), and the fcc material studied was Cu 3 Au. From symmetry it is not possible for the perfect bcc (110) surface to cause any such selection, which is here attributed instead to vicinal miscut: the logarithm of the stacking ratio must be even in miscut along [001] and odd in miscut along [1 bar 10]. We find that the measured selectivity is small for miscuts less than about 0.5 degree, but approaches a factor 10 3 for miscuts along [1 bar 10] greater than about 1 degree. A mechanism for the selection process is discussed in terms of fingered mesostructures that grow on Nb(110) in this regime, as observed first by Zhou, Bonham, and Flynn. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  11. Generalized stacking fault energies of alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lu, Song; Hu, Qing-Miao; Kwon, Se Kyun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2014-07-02

    The generalized stacking fault energy (γ surface) provides fundamental physics for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms. Using the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation, we calculate the γ surface for the disordered Cu-Al, Cu-Zn, Cu-Ga, Cu-Ni, Pd-Ag and Pd-Au alloys. Studying the effect of segregation of the solute to the stacking fault planes shows that only the local chemical composition affects the γ surface. The calculated alloying trends are discussed using the electronic band structure of the base and distorted alloys.Based on our γ surface results, we demonstrate that the previous revealed 'universal scaling law' between the intrinsic energy barriers (IEBs) is well obeyed in random solid solutions. This greatly simplifies the calculations of the twinning measure parameters or the critical twinning stress. Adopting two twinnability measure parameters derived from the IEBs, we find that in binary Cu alloys, Al, Zn and Ga increase the twinnability, while Ni decreases it. Aluminum and gallium yield similar effects on the twinnability.

  12. Calculation of the Spontaneous Polarization and the Dielectric Constant as a Function of Temperature for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Yurtseven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the spontaneous polarization P is calculated in the ferroelectric phase of KH2PO4 (KDP at atmospheric pressure (TC = 122 K. Also, the dielectric constant ε is calculated at various temperatures in the paraelectric phase of KDP at atmospheric pressure. For this calculation of P and ε, by fitting the observed Raman frequencies of the soft mode, the microscopic parameters of the pure tunnelling model are obtained. In this model, the proton-lattice interaction is not considered and the collective proton mode is identified with the soft-mode response of the system. Our calculations show that the spontaneous polarization decreases continuously in the ferroelectric phase as approaching the transition temperature TC. Also, the dielectric constant decreases with increasing temperature and it diverges in the vicinity of the transition temperature (TC = 122 K for KDP according to the Curie-Weiss law.

  13. Terahertz-frequency dielectric response of liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Møller, Uffe; Cooke, David

    The dielectric response of liquids spans many decades in frequency. The dielectric response of a polar liquid is typically determined by relaxational dynamics of the dipolar moments of the liquid. In contrast, the dielectric response of a nonpolar liquid is determined by much weaker collision......-induced dipole moments. In the polar liquid water the fastest relaxational dynamics is found at terahertz frequencies, just below the first intermolecular vibrational and librational modes. In this presentation we will discuss optical terahertz spectroscopic techniques for measurement of the full dielectric...... function of liquids at terahertz frequencies. We will review the current understanding of the high-frequency dielectric spectrum of water, and discuss the relation between the dielectric spectrum and the thermodynamic properties of certain aqueous solutions....

  14. Tunneling of Atoms, Nuclei and Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    This is a brief review of few relevant topics on tunneling of composite particles and how the coupling to intrinsic and external degrees of freedom affects tunneling probabilities. I discuss the phenomena of resonant tunneling, different barriers seen by subsystems, damping of resonant tunneling by level bunching and continuum effects due to particle dissociation. (author)

  15. Computational Multiqubit Tunnelling in Programmable Quantum Annealers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-25

    ARTICLE Received 3 Jun 2015 | Accepted 26 Nov 2015 | Published 7 Jan 2016 Computational multiqubit tunnelling in programmable quantum annealers...state itself. Quantum tunnelling has been hypothesized as an advantageous physical resource for optimization in quantum annealing. However, computational ...qubit tunnelling plays a computational role in a currently available programmable quantum annealer. We devise a probe for tunnelling, a computational

  16. 78 FR 46117 - National Tunnel Inspection Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The Fort McHenry Tunnel handles a daily traffic volume of more than... vehicular, transit, and rail tunnels in the New York City metropolitan area. Although it is still too early... congestion along alternative routes, and save users both dollars and fuel. If these tunnels were closed due...

  17. Een systeem voor classificatie van korte tunnels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The most difficult problems in the lighting of tunnels occur in daylight and in particular in the entrance of the tunnel, while drivers approaching the tunnel must be able to look into the tunnel from the outside to detect the road course and eventual obstacles. A classification should The made on

  18. Tunnel fire testing and modeling the Morgex North tunnel experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Borghetti, Fabio; Gandini, Paolo; Frassoldati, Alessio; Tavelli, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to cast light on all aspects of tunnel fires, based on experimental activities and theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. In particular, the authors describe a transient full-scale fire test (~15 MW), explaining how they designed and performed the experimental activity inside the Morgex North tunnel in Italy. The entire organization of the experiment is described, from preliminary evaluations to the solutions found for management of operational difficulties and safety issues. This fire test allowed the collection of different measurements (temperature, air velocity, smoke composition, pollutant species) useful for validating and improving CFD codes and for testing the real behavior of the tunnel and its safety systems during a diesel oil fire with a significant heat release rate. Finally, the fire dynamics are compared with empirical correlations, CFD simulations, and literature measurements obtained in other similar tunnel fire tests. This book will be of interest to all ...

  19. Apparent tunneling in chemical reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Billing, G. D.

    2000-01-01

    A necessary condition for tunneling in a chemical reaction is that the probability of crossing a barrier is non-zero, when the energy of the reactants is below the potential energy of the barrier. Due to the non-classical nature (i.e, momentum uncertainty) of vibrational states this is, however......, not a sufficient condition in order to establish genuine tunneling as a result of quantum dynamics. This proposition is illustrated for a two-dimensional model potential describing dissociative sticking of N-2 on Ru(s). It is suggested that the remarkable heavy atom tunneling, found in this system, is related...

  20. Tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmire, W.H.; Munzer, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current status of tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is presented in this paper. The Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a key part of the YMP, has been long in development and construction is ongoing. This is a progress report on the tunneling aspects of the ESF as of January 1, 1996. For purposes of discussion in this summary, the tunneling has progressed in four general phases. The paper describes: tunneling in jointed rock under low stress; tunneling through the Bow Ridge Fault and soft rock; tunneling through the Imbricate Fault Zone; and Tunneling into the candidate repository formation

  1. Development of a dielectric ceramic based on diatomite-titania part two: dielectric properties characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros Jamilson Pinto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric properties of sintered diatomite-titania ceramics are presented. Specific capacitance, dissipation factor, quality factor and dielectric constant were determined as a function of sintering temperature, titania content and frequency; the temperature coefficient of capacitance was measured as a function of frequency. Besides leakage current, the dependence of the insulation resistance and the dielectric strength on the applied dc voltage were studied. The results show that diatomite-titania compositions can be used as an alternative dielectric.

  2. Description of gasket failure in a 7 cell PEMFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husar, Attila; Serra, Maria [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Parc Tecnologic de Barcelona, Edifici U, C. Llorens i Artigas, 4-6, 2a Planta, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kunusch, Cristian [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial Control e Instrumentacion, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNLP (Argentina)

    2007-06-10

    This article presents the data and the description of a fuel cell stack that failed due to gasket degradation. The fuel cell under study is a 7 cell stack. The unexpected change in several variables such as temperature, pressure and voltage indicated the possible failure of the stack. The stack was monitored over a 6 h period in which data was collected and consequently analyzed to conclude that the fuel cell stack failed due to a crossover leak on the anode inlet port located on the cathode side gasket of cell 2. This stack failure analysis revealed a series of indicators that could be used by a super visional controller in order to initiate a shutdown procedure. (author)

  3. Simple Stacking Methods for Silicon Micro Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmario Scotti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present two simple methods, with parallel and serial gas flows, for the stacking of microfabricated silicon fuel cells with integrated current collectors, flow fields and gas diffusion layers. The gas diffusion layer is implemented using black silicon. In the two stacking methods proposed in this work, the fluidic apertures and gas flow topology are rotationally symmetric and enable us to stack fuel cells without an increase in the number of electrical or fluidic ports or interconnects. Thanks to this simplicity and the structural compactness of each cell, the obtained stacks are very thin (~1.6 mm for a two-cell stack. We have fabricated two-cell stacks with two different gas flow topologies and obtained an open-circuit voltage (OCV of 1.6 V and a power density of 63 mW·cm−2, proving the viability of the design.

  4. Tunnel magnetoresistance in asymmetric double-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Useinov, N.Kh.; Petukhov, D.A.; Tagirov, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    The spin-polarized tunnel conductance and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) through a planar asymmetric double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction (DBMTJ) have been calculated using quasi-classical model. In DBMTJ nanostructure the magnetization of middle ferromagnetic metal layer can be aligned parallel or antiparallel with respect to the fixed magnetizations of the top and bottom ferromagnetic electrodes. The transmission coefficients of an electron to pass through the barriers have been calculated in terms of quantum mechanics. The dependencies of tunnel conductance and TMR on the applied voltage have been calculated in case of non-resonant transmission. Estimated in the framework of our model, the difference between the spin-channels conductances at low voltages was found relatively large. This gives rise to very high magnitude of TMR. - Highlights: • The spin-polarized conductance through the junction is calculated. • Dependencies of the tunnel conductance vs applied bias are shown. • Bias voltage dependence of tunnel magnetoresistance for the structure is shown

  5. Tunneling through landsliding zone; Jisuberi chitainai no tunnel seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konbu, A; Hatabu, K; Kano, T [Tekken Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    At the new tunnel construction site of the Shirakata tunnel on the Obama line in Yamaguchi Prefecture, a landsliding occurred at about 60 meters to the upper portion obliquely to the right hand side of the shaft when the excavation progressed to about 10 meters from the starting side. The landslide caused displacement at the shaft opening and change in the supports. As a result of the re-investigation, it was confirmed that the slide face went through the tunnel cross section. The measures taken were removal of the upper soil and an adoption of the all ground fastening (AGF) method (injection type long tip fastening method) as an auxiliary construction to stop loosening of the natural ground associated with the tunnel excavation. The result was a completion of tunneling the landsliding zone without a problem. This paper reports the AGF method adopted in the above construction, together with the construction works and natural ground conditions. The AGF method is about the same as the pipe roof method with regard to the natural ground accepting mechanism and the materials used. The difference is building an improved body in a limited area in the natural ground around the steel pipes by injecting the fixing material. The use of this method caused no problems in subsidence and displacement in the surrounding ground, and completed the tunneling construction without an unusual event. 1 ref., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Band alignments and improved leakage properties of (La2O3)0.5(SiO2)0.5/SiO2/GaN stacks for high-temperature metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L. G.; Xu, B.; Guo, H. X.; Xia, Y. D.; Yin, J.; Liu, Z. G.

    2009-06-01

    The band alignments of (La2O3)0.5(SiO2)0.5(LSO)/GaN and LSO/SiO2/GaN gate dielectric stacks were investigated comparatively by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band offsets for LSO/GaN stack and LSO/SiO2/GaN stack are 0.88 and 1.69 eV, respectively, while the corresponding conduction band offsets are found to be 1.40 and 1.83 eV, respectively. Measurements of the leakage current density as function of temperature revealed that the LSO/SiO2/GaN stack has much lower leakage current density than that of the LSO/GaN stack, especially at high temperature. It is concluded that the presence of a SiO2 buffer layer increases band offsets and reduces the leakage current density effectively.

  7. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    Silicone elastomers have been heavily investigated as candidates for dielectric elastomers and are as such almost ideal candidates with their inherent softness and compliance but they suffer from low dielectric permittivity. This shortcoming has been sought optimized by many means during recent...... years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we investigate the electrical breakdown phenomena of various types of permittivity-enhanced silicone elastomers. Two types...... of silicone elastomers are investigated and different types of breakdown are discussed. Furthermore the use of voltage stabilizers in silicone-based dielectric elastomers is investigated and discussed....

  8. Development of the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kotani, Ikuo [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Kobe (Japan); Morotomi, Isamu [Kansai Electric Power Co., Hyogo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Kansai Electric Power Co. and Mitsubishi Electric Co. have been developing the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack operated under the ambient pressure. The new cell design have been developed, so that the large scale cell (1 m{sup 2} size) was adopted for the stack. To confirm the performance and the stability of the 1 m{sup 2} scale cell design, the short stack study had been performed.

  9. Stacked Heterogeneous Neural Networks for Time Series Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Leon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid model for time series forecasting is proposed. It is a stacked neural network, containing one normal multilayer perceptron with bipolar sigmoid activation functions, and the other with an exponential activation function in the output layer. As shown by the case studies, the proposed stacked hybrid neural model performs well on a variety of benchmark time series. The combination of weights of the two stack components that leads to optimal performance is also studied.

  10. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on dipolar copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DES) are a promising new transducer technology, but high driving voltages limit their current commercial potential. One method used to lower driving voltage is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric...

  11. New transport phenomena probed by dielectric spectroscopy of oxidized and non-oxidized porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, B.; Axelrod, E.; Sa' ar, A. [Racah Institute of Physics and the Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2007-05-15

    Dielectric spectroscopy accompanied by infrared (IR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy have been utilized to reveal the correlation between transport, optical and structural properties of oxidized porous silicon (PS). Three relaxation processes at low-, mid- and high-temperatures were observed, including dc-conductivity at high-temperatures. Both the low-T relaxation and the dc conductivity were found to be thermally activated processes that involve tunneling and hopping in between the nanocrystals in oxidized PS. We have found that the dc-conductivity is limited by geometrical constrictions along the transport channels, which are not effected by the oxidation process and are characterized by activation energies of about {proportional_to}0.85 eV. The low-T relaxation process involves thermal activation followed by tunneling in between neighbor nanocrystals, with somewhat lower activation energies. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. FUNDAMENTAL TUNNELING PROCESSES IN MOSa SOLAR CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Balberg , I.; Hanak , J.; Weakliem , H.; Gal , E.

    1981-01-01

    In previous studies of tunneling through a MOSa tunnel junction, where Sa was a-Si : H, it was shown that their characteristics resemble those of MOSc devices where Sc was crystalline silicon. In the present work we would like to report a demonstration of fundamental tunneling processes in such tunnel junctions. In particular, the transition from semiconductor controlled regime to tunneling controlled regime can be clearly distinguished. The present results represent one of the rare cases whe...

  13. Destructive quantum interference in spin tunneling problems

    OpenAIRE

    von Delft, Jan; Henley, Christopher L.

    1992-01-01

    In some spin tunneling problems, there are several different but symmetry-related tunneling paths that connect the same initial and final configurations. The topological phase factors of the corresponding tunneling amplitudes can lead to destructive interference between the different paths, so that the total tunneling amplitude is zero. In the study of tunneling between different ground state configurations of the Kagom\\'{e}-lattice quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet, this occurs when the spi...

  14. 13th Australian tunnelling conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The theme of the conference was 'Engineering in a changing environment'. Topics covered include Australian tunnelling projects, design and development of ground support, tunnelling, international projects, fire and life safety, mining projects, risk management in tunnelling, and tunnel boring machine tunnelling. Papers of particular interest to the coal industry are: improving roadway development in underground coal mine (G. Lewis and G. Gibson), and polymer-based alternative to steel mesh for coal mine strata reinforcement (C. Lukey and others).

  15. Microstructure and chemical analysis of Hf-based high-k dielectric layers in metal-insulator-metal capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangadurai, P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Kaplan, W.D., E-mail: kaplan@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2010-05-31

    The microstructure and chemistry of the high-k gate dielectric significantly influences the performance of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. In particular, the local structure, chemistry, and inter-layer mixing are important phenomena to be understood. In the present study, high resolution and analytical transmission electron microscopy are combined to study the local structure, morphology, and chemistry in MIM capacitors containing a Hf-based high-k dielectric. The gate dielectric, bottom and gate electrodes were deposited on p-type Si(100) wafers by electron beam evaporation. Four chemically distinguishable sub-layers were identified within the dielectric stack. One is an unintentionally formed 4.0 nm thick interfacial layer of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} at the interface between the Ta electrode and the dielectric. The other three layers are based on HfN{sub x}O{sub y} and HfTiO{sub y}, and intermixing between the nearby sub-layers including deposited SiO{sub 2}. Hf-rich clusters were found in the HfN{sub x}O{sub y} layer adjacent to the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer.

  16. Controllable spin filter composed of ferromagnetic AB-stacking bilayer graphenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yong; Liang, Qifeng; Dong, Jinming

    2011-01-01

    The electron's tunneling and spin transport in the normal/ferromagnetic/normal (N/FM/N) AB-stacking bilayer graphene (BLG) junction have been studied using Landauer-Buettiker formula. It is found that the resonant conductance peaks could be split well into spin-up and down ones by the exchange field in its FM barrier, leading to a very large spin polarization. More importantly, if a perpendicular electric field is also applied on the FM barrier, a completely spin-polarized flow can be realized by changing its barrier height, making the N/FM/N AB-stacking BLG junction act as a controllable spin filter. -- Highlights: → A study of spin transport in the ferromagnetic bilayer graphene junctions. → A serious of resonant conductance peaks could appear by tuning the barrier height. → The exchange splitting in FM barrier leads to a large spin polarization P. → P=±1 can be realized if a perpendicular electric field is applied to the FM barrier.

  17. On the tunneling of full-vector X-Waves through a slab under frustrated total reflection condition

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Tunneling of full-vector X-Waves through a dielectric slab under frustrated total reflection condition is investigated. Full-vector X-Waves are obtained by superimposing transverse electric and magnetic polarization components, which are derived from the scalar X-Wave solution. The analysis of reflection and transmission at the dielectric interfaces is carried out analytically in a straightforward fashion using vector Bessel beam expansion. Investigation of the fields propagating away from the farther end of the slab (transmitted fields) shows an advanced (superluminal) transmission of the X-Wave peak. Additionally, a similar advanced reflection is also observed. The apparent tunneling of the peak is shown to be due to the phase shift in the fields' spectra and not to be causally related to the incident peak. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. On the tunneling of full-vector X-Waves through a slab under frustrated total reflection condition

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Tunneling of full-vector X-Waves through a dielectric slab under frustrated total reflection condition is investigated. Full-vector X-Waves are obtained by superimposing transverse electric and magnetic polarization components, which are derived from the scalar X-Wave solution. The analysis of reflection and transmission at the dielectric interfaces is carried out analytically in a straightforward fashion using vector Bessel beam expansion. Investigation of the fields propagating away from the farther end of the slab (transmitted fields) shows an advanced (superluminal) transmission of the X-Wave peak. Additionally, a similar advanced reflection is also observed. The apparent tunneling of the peak is shown to be due to the phase shift in the fields\\' spectra and not to be causally related to the incident peak. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Tunnelling instability via perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graffi, S. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Matematica); Grecchi, V. (Moderna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Matematica); Jona-Lasinio, G. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies)

    1984-10-21

    The semiclassical limit of low lying states in a multiwell potential is studied by rigorous perturbative techniques. In particular tunnelling instability and localisation of wave functions is obtained in a simple way under small deformations of symmetric potentials.

  20. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  1. Electron tunneling in proteins program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagras, Muhammad A; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A

    2016-06-05

    We developed a unique integrated software package (called Electron Tunneling in Proteins Program or ETP) which provides an environment with different capabilities such as tunneling current calculation, semi-empirical quantum mechanical calculation, and molecular modeling simulation for calculation and analysis of electron transfer reactions in proteins. ETP program is developed as a cross-platform client-server program in which all the different calculations are conducted at the server side while only the client terminal displays the resulting calculation outputs in the different supported representations. ETP program is integrated with a set of well-known computational software packages including Gaussian, BALLVIEW, Dowser, pKip, and APBS. In addition, ETP program supports various visualization methods for the tunneling calculation results that assist in a more comprehensive understanding of the tunneling process. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Shaft and tunnel sealing considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Shukla, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Much of the emphasis of previous repository sealing research has been placed on plugging small diameter boreholes. It is increasingly evident that equal emphasis should now be given to shafts and tunnels which constitute more significant pathways between a repository and the biosphere. The paper discusses differences in requirements for sealing shafts and tunnels as compared with boreholes and the implications for seal design. Consideration is given to a design approach for shaft and tunnel seals based on a multiple component design concept, taking into account the requirements for retrievability of the waste. A work plan is developed for the future studies required to advance shaft and tunnel sealing technology to a level comparable with the existing technology for borehole sealing

  3. Organic tunnel field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Tietze, Max Lutz; Lussem, Bjorn; Liu, Shiyi

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided for organic tunnel field effect transistors (OTFET), and methods thereof. In one example, an OTFET includes a first intrinsic layer (i-layer) of organic semiconductor material disposed over a gate insulating layer

  4. Bijzondere belastingen in tunnels : Eindrapport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, D.J.; Weerheijm, J.; Vervuurt, A.; Burggraaf, H.; Roekaerts, D.; Meijers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Verkeerstunnels en overkapte wegen (landtunnels) komen de milieukundige en stedenbouwkundige inpassing ten goede en maken meervoudig ruimtegebruik in de stad mogelijk. Het aantal tunnels en overkappingen groeit dan ook. Dit maakt het vervoer van explosiegevaarlijke stoffen en onder hoge druk

  5. Free Surface Water Tunnel (FSWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Free Surface Water Tunnel consists of the intake plenum, the test section and the exit plenum. The intake plenum starts with a perforated pipe that...

  6. Turbostratic stacked CVD graphene for high-performance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kohei; Ikuta, Takashi; Maehashi, Kenzo

    2018-03-01

    We have fabricated turbostratic stacked graphene with high-transport properties by the repeated transfer of CVD monolayer graphene. The turbostratic stacked CVD graphene exhibited higher carrier mobility and conductivity than CVD monolayer graphene. The electron mobility for the three-layer turbostratic stacked CVD graphene surpassed 10,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, which is five times greater than that for CVD monolayer graphene. The results indicate that the high performance is derived from maintenance of the linear band dispersion, suppression of the carrier scattering, and parallel conduction. Therefore, turbostratic stacked CVD graphene is a superior material for high-performance devices.

  7. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for sampling stack gases emanating from the purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion cascade system utilized to enrich uranium for determining the presence and extent of uranium in the stack gases in the form of gaseous uranium hexafluoride, is described comprising the steps of removing a side stream of gases from the stack gases, contacting the side stream of the stack gases with a stream of air sufficiently saturated with moisture for reacting with and converting any gaseous uranium hexafluroide contracted thereby in the side stream of stack gases to particulate uranyl fluoride. Thereafter contacting the side stream of stack gases containing the particulate uranyl fluoride with moving filter means for continuously intercepting and conveying the intercepted particulate uranyl fluoride away from the side stream of stack gases, and continually scanning the moving filter means with radiation monitoring means for sensing the presence and extent of particulate uranyl fluoride on the moving filter means which is indicative of the extent of particulate uranyl fluoride in the side stream of stack gases which in turn is indicative of the presence and extent of uranium hexafluoride in the stack gases

  8. Highly Efficient, Durable Regenerative Solid Oxide Stack, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a highly efficient regenerative solid oxide stack design. Novel structural elements allow direct internal...

  9. Direct, coherent and incoherent intermediate state tunneling and scanning tunnel microscopy (STM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbritter, J.

    1997-01-01

    Theory and experiment in tunneling are still qualitative in nature, which hold true also for the latest developments in direct-, resonant-, coherent- and incoherent-tunneling. Those tunnel processes have recently branched out of the field of ''solid state tunnel junctions'' into the fields of scanning tunnel microscopy (STM), single electron tunneling (SET) and semiconducting resonant tunnel structures (RTS). All these fields have promoted the understanding of tunneling in different ways reaching from the effect of coherence, of incoherence and of charging in tunneling, to spin flip or inelastic effects. STM allows not only the accurate measurements of the tunnel current and its voltage dependence but, more importantly, the easy quantification via the (quantum) tunnel channel conductance and the distance dependence. This new degree of freedom entering exponentially the tunnel current allows an unique identification of individual tunnel channels and their quantification. In STM measurements large tunnel currents are observed for large distances d > 1 nm explainable by intermediate state tunneling. Direct tunneling with its reduced tunnel time and reduced off-site Coulomb charging bridges distances below 1 nm, only. The effective charge transfer process with its larger off-site and on-site charging at intermediate states dominates tunnel transfer in STM, biology and chemistry over distances in the nm-range. Intermediates state tunneling becomes variable range hopping conduction for distances larger than d > 2 nm, for larger densities of intermediate states n 1 (ε) and for larger temperatures T or voltages U, still allowing high resolution imaging

  10. Features of the effect of the parameters of resonance systems with different configurations on the current-voltage characteristics of resonant-tunneling nanostructures in a subterahertz frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanyan, A.A.; Volchkov, N.A.; Dravin, V.A.; Kazakov, I.P.; Karuzskij, A.L.; Murzin, V.N.; Perestoronin, A.V.; Tskhovrebov, A.M.; Shmelev, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Features of the effect of a subterahertz microwave field on the current characteristics of a resonant-tunneling diode in resonance systems with different configurations have been studied. Changes in the current characteristics of the resonant-tunneling diode under variation of the electrophysical parameters of dielectric and microstrip resonators, in particular high-Q-factor superconducting microstrip resonators, have been experimentally studied and analyzed [ru

  11. Quantum resonances in physical tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.; Truax, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    It has recently been emphasized that the probability of quantum tunneling is a critical function of the shape of the potential. Applying this observation to physical systems, we point out that in principal information on potential surfaces can be obtained by studying tunneling rates. This is especially true in cases where only spectral data is known, since many potentials yield the same spectrum. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  12. Durable solid oxide electrolysis cells and stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Chen

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of this project was to make a substantial contribution to development of a cost competitive electrolysis technology based on solid oxide cells. The strategy was to address what had been identified as the key issues in previous research projects. Accordingly five lines of work were carried out in the here reported project: 1) Cell and stack element testing and post test characterization to identify major degradation mechanisms under electrolysis operation. 2) Development of interconnects and coatings to allow stable electrolysis operation at approx850 deg. C or above. 3) Development of seals with reduced Si emission. 4) Development of durable SOEC cathodes. 5) Modeling. Good progress has been made on several of the planned activities. The outcome and most important achievements of the current project are listed for the five lines of the work. (LN)

  13. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00529764; The ATLAS collaboration; Stewart, Graeme; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  14. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Stewart, Graeme A.; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  15. Stacked generalization: an introduction to super learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Balzer, Laura B

    2018-04-10

    Stacked generalization is an ensemble method that allows researchers to combine several different prediction algorithms into one. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, the method has evolved several times into a host of methods among which is the "Super Learner". Super Learner uses V-fold cross-validation to build the optimal weighted combination of predictions from a library of candidate algorithms. Optimality is defined by a user-specified objective function, such as minimizing mean squared error or maximizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Although relatively simple in nature, use of Super Learner by epidemiologists has been hampered by limitations in understanding conceptual and technical details. We work step-by-step through two examples to illustrate concepts and address common concerns.

  16. Manifold seal structure for fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William P.

    1988-01-01

    The seal between the sides of a fuel cell stack and the gas manifolds is improved by adding a mechanical interlock between the adhesive sealing strip and the abutting surface of the manifolds. The adhesive is a material which can flow to some extent when under compression, and the mechanical interlock is formed providing small openings in the portion of the manifold which abuts the adhesive strip. When the manifolds are pressed against the adhesive strips, the latter will flow into and through the manifold openings to form buttons or ribs which mechanically interlock with the manifolds. These buttons or ribs increase the bond between the manifolds and adhesive, which previously relied solely on the adhesive nature of the adhesive.

  17. Dielectric anomaly and relaxation natures in a Zn-Cr pillar−layered metal−organic framework with cages and channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Chen; Yao, Zhi-Yuan; Liu, Shao-Xian; Luo, Hong-Bin [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zou, Yang, E-mail: zouyang@njtech.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Li [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ren, Xiao-Ming, E-mail: xmren@njtech.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering and College of Chemistry & Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-06-15

    A bimetallic metal–organic framework (MOF) with the formula [Zn{sub 3}btc{sub 2}(Cr{sub 3}O(isonic){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(OH))]·(DMF){sub 15.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8} (H{sub 3}btc=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid; isonic=isonicotinicate) shows a pillar-layered structure. The monolayer consists of hexagon-like rings formed by the [Zn(isonic){sub 2}(btc){sub 2}] tetrahedral and the consecutive monolayers are pillared by trigonal–prismatic clusters of [Cr{sub 3}O(isonic){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(OH)]through the remaining binding sites of the Zn{sup 2+} ions. DMF and water molecules are confined in the cages and channels. TGA indicates that the lattice DMF and water molecules begin to be released at temperatures above 363 K. Dielectric measurements were carried out in the range of 173–363 K and 1–10{sup 7} Hz for three successive thermal cycles. The dielectric spectroscopy obtained in the first thermal cycle was different from that observed in the next two thermal cycles, while the dielectric spectra in the last two thermal cycles were almost identical. The dielectric nature of this MOF is discussed in detail for each thermal cycle. Since MOFs are unique host–guest systems in which the structure of the host framework is designable and the guests are exchangeable, it is no doubt those MOFs are materials with a variety of dielectric natures. This study gives a fresh impetus to achieve MOFs–based dielectric materials. - Graphical abstract: The bimetallic MOF [Zn{sub 3}btc{sub 2}(Cr{sub 3}O(isonic){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(OH))]·(DMF){sub 15.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}1, shows a pillar-layered open-framework structure. The dielectric spectra of 1 are almost identical in the last two thermal cycles, whereas significantly different from that observed in the first thermal cycle. The novel dielectric anomaly associated with a stacked structure transformation of the disordered guests. - Highlights: • A bimetallic metal-organic framework shows a pillar-layered structure.

  18. Magnetic field dependent atomic tunneling in non-magnetic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.; Enss, C.; Hunklinger, S.

    2003-01-01

    The low-temperature properties of insulating glasses are governed by atomic tunneling systems (TSs). Recently, strong magnetic field effects in the dielectric susceptibility have been discovered in glasses at audio frequencies at very low temperatures. Moreover, it has been found that the amplitude of two-pulse polarization echoes generated in non-magnetic multi-component glasses at radio frequencies and at very low temperatures shows a surprising non-monotonic magnetic field dependence. The magnitude of the latter effect indicates that virtually all TSs are affected by the magnetic field, not only a small subset of systems. We have studied the variation of the magnetic field dependence of the echo amplitude as a function of the delay time between the two excitation pulses and at different frequencies. Our results indicate that the evolution of the phase of resonant TSs is changed by the magnetic field

  19. Magnetic field dependent atomic tunneling in non-magnetic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, S.; Enss, C.; Hunklinger, S.

    2003-05-01

    The low-temperature properties of insulating glasses are governed by atomic tunneling systems (TSs). Recently, strong magnetic field effects in the dielectric susceptibility have been discovered in glasses at audio frequencies at very low temperatures. Moreover, it has been found that the amplitude of two-pulse polarization echoes generated in non-magnetic multi-component glasses at radio frequencies and at very low temperatures shows a surprising non-monotonic magnetic field dependence. The magnitude of the latter effect indicates that virtually all TSs are affected by the magnetic field, not only a small subset of systems. We have studied the variation of the magnetic field dependence of the echo amplitude as a function of the delay time between the two excitation pulses and at different frequencies. Our results indicate that the evolution of the phase of resonant TSs is changed by the magnetic field.

  20. Axial Ge/Si nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Sanuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daych, Shadi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of semiconductor nanowires allows doping and composition modulation along their axis and the realization of axial 1 D heterostructures. This provides additional flexibility in energy band-edge engineering along the transport direction which is difficult to attain by planar materials growth and processing techniques. We report here on the design, growth, fabrication, and characterization of asymmetric heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistors (HTFETs) based on 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial NWs for high on-current operation and low ambipolar transport behavior. We discuss the optimization of band-offsets and Schottky barrier heights for high performance HTFETs and issues surrounding their experimental realization. Our HTFET devices with 10 nm PECVD SiN{sub x} gate dielectric resulted in a measured current drive exceeding 100 {mu}A/{mu}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios.

  1. Coherence in a transmon qubit with epitaxial tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weides, Martin [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Kline, Jeffrey; Vissers, Michael; Sandberg, Martin; Pappas, David [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Wisbey, David [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri 63103 (United States); Johnson, Blake; Ohki, Thomas [Raytheon BBN Technologies, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Transmon qubits based on epitaxial tunnel junctions and interdigitated capacitors were developed. This multileveled qubit, patterned by use of all-optical lithography, is a step towards scalable qubits with a high integration density. The relaxation time T{sub 1} is.72-.86 {mu} sec and the ensemble dephasing time T{sub 2}{sup *} is slightly larger than T{sub 1}. The dephasing time T{sub 2} (1.36 {mu} sec) is nearly energy-relaxation-limited. Qubit spectroscopy yields weaker level splitting than observed in qubits with amorphous barriers in equivalent-size junctions. The qubit's inferred microwave loss closely matches the weighted losses of the individual elements (junction, wiring dielectric, and interdigitated capacitor), determined by independent resonator measurements.

  2. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2015-01-01

    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  3. Concept design of the high voltage transmission system for the collider tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, L.S.

    1992-03-01

    In order to provide electrical service to the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) 54-mile-circumference collider of 125 MVA at 69 kV or 155 MVA at 138 kV of distributed power, it must be demonstrated that the concept design for a high-voltage transmission system can meet the distribution requirements of the collider electrical system with its cryogenic system's large motor loads and its pulsed power technical systems. It is a practical design, safe for operating personnel and cost-effective. The normal high-voltage transmission techniques of overhead and underground around the 54-mile collider tunnel could not be applied because of technical and physical constraints, or was environmentally unacceptable. The approach taken to solve these problems is the installation of 69-kV or 138-kV exposed solid dielectric transmission cable inside the collider tunnel with the superconducting magnets, cryogenic piping, electrical medium, and low-voltage distribution systems, and electronic/instrumentation wiring systems. This mixed-use approach has never been attempted in a collider tunnel. Research into all aspects of the engineering and installation problems and consultation with transmission cable manufacturers, electrical utilities, and European entities with similar installations -- such as the Channel Tunnel -- demonstrate that the concept design is feasible and practical. This paper presents a history of the evolution of the concept design. Design studies are underway to determine the system configuration and voltages. Included in this report are tunnel transmission cable system considerations and evaluation of solid dielectric high-voltage cable design

  4. Concept design of the high-voltage transmission system for the collider tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide electrical service to the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) 54-mile-circumference collider of 125 MVA at 69 kV or 155 MVA at 138 kV of distributed power, it must be demonstrated that the concept design for a high-voltage transmission system can meet the distribution requirements of the collider electrical system with its cryogenic system's large motor loads and its pulsed power technical systems. It is a practical design, safe for operating personnel and cost-effective. The normal high-voltage transmission techniques of overhead and underground around the 54-mile collider tunnel could not be applied because of technical and physical constraints, or was environmentally unacceptable. The approach taken to solve these problems is the installation of 69-kV or 138-kV exposed solid dielectric transmission cable inside the collider tunnel with the superconducting magnets, cryogenic piping, electrical medium, and low-voltage distribution systems, and electronic/instrumentation wiring systems. This mixed-use approach has never been attempted in a collider tunnel. Research into all aspects of the engineering and installation problems and consultation with transmission cable manufacturers, electrical utilities, and European entities with similar installations-such as the Channel Tunnel-demonstrate that the concept design is feasible and practical. This paper presents a history of the evolution of the concept design. Design studies are underway to determine the system configuration and voltages. Included in this report are tunnel transmission cable system considerations and evaluation of solid dielectric high-voltage cable design

  5. Ferroelectric dielectrics integrated on silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Defay, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    This book describes up-to-date technology applied to high-K materials for More Than Moore applications, i.e. microsystems applied to microelectronics core technologies.After detailing the basic thermodynamic theory applied to high-K dielectrics thin films including extrinsic effects, this book emphasizes the specificity of thin films. Deposition and patterning technologies are then presented. A whole chapter is dedicated to the major role played in the field by X-Ray Diffraction characterization, and other characterization techniques are also described such as Radio frequency characterizat

  6. Ionic Structure at Dielectric Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yufei

    The behavior of ions in liquids confined between macromolecules determines the outcome of many nanoscale assembly processes in synthetic and biological materials such as colloidal dispersions, emulsions, hydrogels, DNA, cell membranes, and proteins. Theoretically, the macromolecule-liquid boundary is often modeled as a dielectric interface and an important quantity of interest is the ionic structure in a liquid confined between two such interfaces. The knowledge gleaned from the study of ionic structure in such models can be useful in several industrial applications, such as biosensors, lithium-ion batteries double-layer supercapacitors for energy storage and seawater desalination. Electrostatics plays a critical role in the development of such functional materials. Many of the functions of these materials, result from charge and composition heterogeneities. There are great challenges in solving electrostatics problems in heterogeneous media with arbitrary shapes because electrostatic interactions remains unknown but depend on the particular density of charge distributions. Charged molecules in heterogeneous media affect the media's dielectric response and hence the interaction between the charges is unknown since it depends on the media and on the geometrical properties of the interfaces. To determine the properties of heterogeneous systems including crucial effects neglected in classical mean field models such as the hard core of the ions, the dielectric mismatch and interfaces with arbitrary shapes. The effect of hard core interactions accounts properly for short range interactions and the effect of local dielectric heterogeneities in the presence of ions and/or charged molecules for long-range interactions are both analyzed via an energy variational principle that enables to update charges and the medium's response in the same simulation time step. In particular, we compute the ionic structure in a model system of electrolyte confined by two planar dielectric

  7. Tunnelling without barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution in flat and curved space-time of quantum fields in theories with relative flat potential and its consequences are considered. It is shown that bubble nucleation, a quantum mechanical tunnelling process, may occur in flat space-time, having a bounce solution, even if V(phi) has no barrier. It is shown that bubble nucleation can also occur in curved space-time even though there is no bounce solution in the standard formalism for the bubble nucleation rate in curved space-time. Additionally, bubbles can nucleate during the slow rolling period on the potential in flat and curved space-time, in this case also there is no bounce solution. It is known in the new inflationary scenario that energy density perturbations caused by quantum fluctuations of the scalar field can satisfy the presently observed bounds on density perturbations. Bubble nucleation during the slow rolling period also gives rise to density perturbations. For a model potential density perturbations by bubbles are calculated at the horizon reentering. By applying the bound from the almost isotropic microwave black body radiation on these density perturbations, a constraint on the model potential is obtained. Finally, some further implications on the galaxy formation and applications in more realistic potential are discussed

  8. High thermal conductivity lossy dielectric using a multi layer configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    2003-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for loss dielectrics. A loss dielectric includes at least one high dielectric loss layer and at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. A method of manufacturing a loss dielectric includes providing at least one high dielectric loss layer and providing at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. The systems and methods provide advantages because the loss dielectrics are less costly and more environmentally friendly than the available alternatives.

  9. A high stability and repeatability electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zhigang; Wang, Jihao; Lu, Qingyou, E-mail: qxl@ustc.edu.cn [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hou, Yubin [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-12-15

    We present a home built electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ECSTM) with very high stability and repeatability. Its coarse approach is driven by a closely stacked piezo motor of GeckoDrive type with four rigid clamping points, which enhances the rigidity, compactness, and stability greatly. It can give high clarity atomic resolution images without sound and vibration isolations. Its drifting rates in XY and Z directions in solution are as low as 84 pm/min and 59 pm/min, respectively. In addition, repeatable coarse approaches in solution within 2 mm travel distance show a lateral deviation less than 50 nm. The gas environment can be well controlled to lower the evaporation rate of the cell, thus reducing the contamination and elongating the measurement time. Atomically resolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} image on Au (111) work electrode is demonstrated to show the performance of the ECSTM.

  10. A high stability and repeatability electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhigang; Wang, Jihao; Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2014-12-01

    We present a home built electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ECSTM) with very high stability and repeatability. Its coarse approach is driven by a closely stacked piezo motor of GeckoDrive type with four rigid clamping points, which enhances the rigidity, compactness, and stability greatly. It can give high clarity atomic resolution images without sound and vibration isolations. Its drifting rates in XY and Z directions in solution are as low as 84 pm/min and 59 pm/min, respectively. In addition, repeatable coarse approaches in solution within 2 mm travel distance show a lateral deviation less than 50 nm. The gas environment can be well controlled to lower the evaporation rate of the cell, thus reducing the contamination and elongating the measurement time. Atomically resolved SO4(2-) image on Au (111) work electrode is demonstrated to show the performance of the ECSTM.

  11. Linear nanometric tunnel junction sensors with exchange pinned sensing layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, D. C.; Silva, A. V.; Cardoso, S.; Ferreira, R.; Paz, E.; Deepack, F. L.; Freitas, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Highly sensitive nanosensors with high spatial resolution provide the necessary features for high accuracy imaging of isolated magnetic nanoparticles. In this work, we report the fabrication and characterization of MgO-barrier magnetic tunnel junction nanosensors, with two exchange-pinned electrodes. The perpendicular magnetization configuration for field sensing is set using a two-step annealing process, where the second annealing temperature was optimized to yield patterned sensors responses with improved linearity. The optimized circular nanosensors show sensitivities up to 0.1%/Oe, larger than previously reported for nanometric sensors and comparable to micrometric spin-valves. Our strategy avoids the use of external permanent biasing or demagnetizing fields (large for smaller structures) to achieve a linear response, enabling the control of the linear operation range using only the stack and thus providing a small footprint device

  12. Linear nanometric tunnel junction sensors with exchange pinned sensing layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, D. C., E-mail: dleitao@inesc-mn.pt; Silva, A. V.; Cardoso, S. [INESC-MN and IN, Rua Alves Redol 9, 1000-029 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1000-029 Lisboa (Portugal); Ferreira, R.; Paz, E.; Deepack, F. L. [INL, Av. Mestre Jose Veiga, 4715-31 Braga (Portugal); Freitas, P. P. [INESC-MN and IN, Rua Alves Redol 9, 1000-029 Lisboa (Portugal); INL, Av. Mestre Jose Veiga, 4715-31 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-05-07

    Highly sensitive nanosensors with high spatial resolution provide the necessary features for high accuracy imaging of isolated magnetic nanoparticles. In this work, we report the fabrication and characterization of MgO-barrier magnetic tunnel junction nanosensors, with two exchange-pinned electrodes. The perpendicular magnetization configuration for field sensing is set using a two-step annealing process, where the second annealing temperature was optimized to yield patterned sensors responses with improved linearity. The optimized circular nanosensors show sensitivities up to 0.1%/Oe, larger than previously reported for nanometric sensors and comparable to micrometric spin-valves. Our strategy avoids the use of external permanent biasing or demagnetizing fields (large for smaller structures) to achieve a linear response, enabling the control of the linear operation range using only the stack and thus providing a small footprint device.

  13. Scanning Tunneling Optical Resonance Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila; Wilt, Dave; Raffaelle, Ryne; Gennett, Tom; Tin, Padetha; Lau, Janice; Castro, Stephanie; Jenkins, Philip; Scheiman, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Scanning tunneling optical resonance microscopy (STORM) is a method, now undergoing development, for measuring optoelectronic properties of materials and devices on the nanoscale by means of a combination of (1) traditional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with (2) tunable laser spectroscopy. In STORM, an STM tip probing a semiconductor is illuminated with modulated light at a wavelength in the visible-to-near-infrared range and the resulting photoenhancement of the tunneling current is measured as a function of the illuminating wavelength. The photoenhancement of tunneling current occurs when the laser photon energy is sufficient to excite charge carriers into the conduction band of the semiconductor. Figure 1 schematically depicts a proposed STORM apparatus. The light for illuminating the semiconductor specimen at the STM would be generated by a ring laser that would be tunable across the wavelength range of interest. The laser beam would be chopped by an achromatic liquid-crystal modulator. A polarization-maintaining optical fiber would couple the light to the tip/sample junction of a commercial STM. An STM can be operated in one of two modes: constant height or constant current. A STORM apparatus would be operated in the constant-current mode, in which the height of the tip relative to the specimen would be varied in order to keep the tunneling current constant. In this mode, a feedback control circuit adjusts the voltage applied to a piezoelectric actuator in the STM that adjusts the height of the STM tip to keep the tunneling current constant. The exponential relationship between the tunneling current and tip-to-sample distance makes it relatively easy to implement this mode of operation. The choice of method by which the photoenhanced portion of the tunneling current would be measured depends on choice of the frequency at which the input illumination would be modulated (chopped). If the frequency of modulation were low enough (typically tunneling current

  14. Electronic noise of superconducting tunnel junction detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochum, J.; Kraus, H.; Gutsche, M.; Kemmather, B.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Moessbauer, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The optimal signal to noise ratio for detectors based on superconducting tunnel junctions is calculated and compared for the cases of a detector consisting of one single tunnel junction, as well as of series and of parallel connections of such tunnel junctions. The influence of 1 / f noise and its dependence on the dynamical resistance of tunnel junctions is discussed quantitatively. A single tunnel junction yields the minimum equivalent noise charge. Such a tunnel junction exhibits the best signal to noise ratio if the signal charge is independent of detector size. In case, signal charge increases with detector size, a parallel or a series connection of tunnel junctions would provide the optimum signal to noise ratio. The equivalent noise charge and the respective signal to noise ratio are deduced as functions of tunnel junction parameters such as tunneling time, quasiparticle lifetime, etc. (orig.)

  15. Microscopic theory of the Coulomb based exchange coupling in magnetic tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalov, O G; Beloborodov, I S

    2017-05-04

    We study interlayer exchange coupling based on the many-body Coulomb interaction between conduction electrons in magnetic tunnel junction. This mechanism complements the known interaction between magnetic layers based on virtual electron hopping (or spin currents). We find that these two mechanisms have different behavior on system parameters. The Coulomb based coupling may exceed the hopping based exchange. We show that the Coulomb based exchange interaction, in contrast to the hopping based coupling, depends strongly on the dielectric constant of the insulating layer. The dependence of the interlayer exchange interaction on the dielectric properties of the insulating layer in magnetic tunnel junction is similar to magneto-electric effect where electric and magnetic degrees of freedom are coupled. We calculate the interlayer coupling as a function of temperature and electric field for magnetic tunnel junction with ferroelectric layer and show that the exchange interaction between magnetic leads has a sharp decrease in the vicinity of the ferroelectric phase transition and varies strongly with external electric field.

  16. Thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) and dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2001-10-09

    Oct 9, 2001 ... Measurements of TSDC and dielectric constant, ε′, have been ... Keywords. Semiconducting glass; TSDC; trap energy; dielectric constant. 1. ... determination of mean depth of the internal charge, activation ... thermal charging, viz. (i) internal ... the basis of d.c. conductivity and short range Na+ ion motion.

  17. Dielectric spectroscopy of watermelons for quality sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Stuart O.; Guo, Wen-chuan; Trabelsi, Samir; Kays, Stanley J.

    2007-07-01

    Dielectric properties of four small-sized watermelon cultivars, grown and harvested to provide a range of maturities, were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and an impedance analyser over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Probe measurements were made on the external surface of the melons and also on tissue samples from the edible internal tissue. Moisture content and soluble solids content (SSC) were measured for internal tissue samples, and SSC (sweetness) was used as the quality factor for correlation with the dielectric properties. Individual dielectric constant and loss factor correlations with SSC were low, but a high correlation was obtained between the SSC and permittivity from a complex-plane plot of dielectric constant and loss factor, each divided by SSC. However, SSC prediction from the dielectric properties by this relationship was not as high as expected (coefficient of determination about 0.4). Permittivity data (dielectric constant and loss factor) for the melons are presented graphically to show their relationships with frequency for the four melon cultivars and for external surface and internal tissue measurements. A dielectric relaxation for the external surface measurements, which may be attributable to a combination of bound water, Maxwell-Wagner, molecular cluster or ion-related effects, is also illustrated. Coefficients of determination for complex-plane plots, moisture content and SSC relationship, and penetration depth are also shown graphically. Further studies are needed for determining the practicality of sensing melon quality from their dielectric properties.

  18. Dielectric material options for integrated capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhl, G.; Lehnert, W.; Lukosius, M.; Wenger, C.; Baristiran Kaynak, C.; Blomberg, T.; Haukka, S.; Baumann, P.K.; Besling, W.F.A.; Roest, A.L.; Riou, B.; Lhostis, S.; Halimaou, A.; Roozeboom, F.; Langereis, E.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Zauner, A.; Rushworth, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Future MIM capacitor generations will require significantly increased specific capacitances by utilization of high-k dielectric materials. In order to achieve high capacitance per chip area, these dielectrics have to be deposited in three-dimensional capacitor structures by ALD or AVD (atomic vapor

  19. Analysis of electron interactions in dielectric gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivet, Aurelio; Duque, Daniel; Vega, Lourdes F.

    2007-01-01

    We present and discuss results concerning electron interactions processes of dielectric gases and their relationship with the macroscopic behavior of these gases, in particular, with their dielectric strength. Such analysis is based on calculating energies of reactions for molecular ionization, dissociative ionization, parent negative ion formation, and dissociative electron attachment processes. We hypothesize that the estimation of the required energy for a reduced number of processes that take place in electrically stressed gases could be related to the gas' capability to manage the electron flow during an electrical discharge. All calculations were done with semiempirical quantum chemistry methods, including an initial optimization of molecular geometry and heat of formation of the dielectric gases and all of species that appear during electron interaction reactions. The performance of semiempirical methods Austin model 1 and Parametric model 3 (PM3) was compared for several compounds, PM3 being superior in most cases. Calculations performed for a sample of nine dielectric gases show that electron attachment and detachment processes occur in different energy bands that do not overlap for any value of the dielectric strength. We have also analyzed the relationship between dielectric strength and two physical properties: electron affinity and ionization energy. Calculations performed for 43 dielectric gases show no clear correlation between them, although certain guidelines for the qualitative estimation of dielectric strength can still be assessed

  20. Aging of Dielectric Properties below Tg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    The dielectric loss at 1Hz in TPP is studied during a temperature step from one equilibrium state to another. In the applied cryostate the temperature can be equilibrated on a timescale of 1 second. The aging time dependence of the dielectric loss is studied below Tg applying temperature steps...