WorldWideScience

Sample records for stack instrumental methods

  1. Laser pulse stacking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  2. Simple Stacking Methods for Silicon Micro Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmario Scotti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present two simple methods, with parallel and serial gas flows, for the stacking of microfabricated silicon fuel cells with integrated current collectors, flow fields and gas diffusion layers. The gas diffusion layer is implemented using black silicon. In the two stacking methods proposed in this work, the fluidic apertures and gas flow topology are rotationally symmetric and enable us to stack fuel cells without an increase in the number of electrical or fluidic ports or interconnects. Thanks to this simplicity and the structural compactness of each cell, the obtained stacks are very thin (~1.6 mm for a two-cell stack. We have fabricated two-cell stacks with two different gas flow topologies and obtained an open-circuit voltage (OCV of 1.6 V and a power density of 63 mW·cm−2, proving the viability of the design.

  3. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for sampling stack gases emanating from the purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion cascade system utilized to enrich uranium for determining the presence and extent of uranium in the stack gases in the form of gaseous uranium hexafluoride, is described comprising the steps of removing a side stream of gases from the stack gases, contacting the side stream of the stack gases with a stream of air sufficiently saturated with moisture for reacting with and converting any gaseous uranium hexafluroide contracted thereby in the side stream of stack gases to particulate uranyl fluoride. Thereafter contacting the side stream of stack gases containing the particulate uranyl fluoride with moving filter means for continuously intercepting and conveying the intercepted particulate uranyl fluoride away from the side stream of stack gases, and continually scanning the moving filter means with radiation monitoring means for sensing the presence and extent of particulate uranyl fluoride on the moving filter means which is indicative of the extent of particulate uranyl fluoride in the side stream of stack gases which in turn is indicative of the presence and extent of uranium hexafluoride in the stack gases

  4. Seismic data enhancement with Common Reflection Surface (CRS) stack method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baykulov, M.; Brink, H.J.; Gajewski, D.; Yoon, Mi-Kyung [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik

    2008-10-23

    We present the results of partial stacking of prestack seismic reflection data based on the kinematic wavefield attributes computed during the automatic CRS stack. The resulting CRS supergathers are more regularised and have better signal to noise ratio compared to original CMP gathers. The improved data can be used in any conventional processing tool instead of the original data, providing enhanced images of better quality. The CRS supergather method is especially suited for low fold seismic reflection data. Application of the new method to synthetic and real low fold data shows a clear improvement of seismograms as well as time and depth-migrated sections. (orig.)

  5. Continued SOFC cell and stack technology and improved production methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandel, M.; Brodersen, K.; Phair, J. (and others)

    2009-05-15

    Within this project significant results are obtained on a number of very diverse areas ranging from development of cell production, metallic creep in interconnect to assembling and test of stacks with foot print larger than 500 cm2. Out of 38 milestones 28 have been fulfilled and 10 have been partly fulfilled. This project has focused on three main areas: 1) The continued cell development and optimization of manufacturing processes aiming at production of large foot-print cells, improving cell performance and development environmentally more benign production methods. 2) Stack technology - especially stacks with large foot print and improving the stack design with respect to flow geometry and gas leakages. 3) Development of stack components with emphasis on sealing (for 2G as well as 3G), interconnect (coat, architecture and creep) and test development. Production of cells with a foot print larger than 500 cm2 is very difficult due to the brittleness of the cells and great effort has been put into this topic. Eight cells were successfully produced making it possible to assemble and test a real stack thereby giving valuable results on the prospects of stacks with large foot print. However, the yield rate is very low and a significant development to increase this yield lies ahead. Several lessons were learned on the stack level regarding 'large foot print' stacks. Modelling studies showed that the width of the cell primarily is limited by production and handling of the cell whereas the length (in the flow direction) is limited by e.g. pressure drop and necessary manifolding. The optimal cell size in the flow direction was calculated to be between approx20 cm and < 30 cm. From an economical point of view the production yield is crucial and stacks with large foot print cell area are only feasible if the cell production yield is significantly enhanced. Co-casting has been pursued as a production technique due to the possibilities in large scale production

  6. Method for applying a thin film barrier stack to a device with microstructures, and device provided with such a thin film barrier stack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A method for applying a thin film barrier stack to a device with microstructures, such as, for instance, an OLED, wherein the thin film barrier stack forms a barrier to at least moisture and oxygen, wherein the stack is built up from a combination of org. and inorg. layers, characterized in that a

  7. Element stacking method for topology optimization with material-dependent boundary and loading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Park, Y.K.; Kim, Y.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A new topology optimization scheme, called the element stacking method, is developed to better handle design optimization involving material-dependent boundary conditions and selection of elements of different types. If these problems are solved by existing standard approaches, complicated finite...... element models or topology optimization reformulation may be necessary. The key idea of the proposed method is to stack multiple elements on the same discretization pixel and select a single or no element. In this method, stacked elements on the same pixel have the same coordinates but may have...... independent degrees of freedom. Some test problems are considered to check the effectiveness of the proposed stacking method....

  8. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes from palm oil on stacking and non-stacking substrate by thermal-CVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaiah, M.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.; Khusaimi, Z.; Azhan, H.; Fadzlinatul, M. Y.; Salifairus, M. J.; Asli, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    Palm oil has been used as the carbon source to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on silicon substrates using the thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Meanwhile, silicon has been applied using two techniques, which are stacked technique and non-stacked technique. The CNTs were grown at the constant time of 30 minutes with various synthesis temperatures of 750 °C, 850 °C and 950 °C. The CNTs were characterized using micro-Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was found that the density, growth rate, diameter and length of the CNTs produced were affected by the synthesis temperature. Moreover, the structure slightly changes were observed between CNTs obtained in SS and NSS. The synthesize temperature of 750 °C was considered as the suitable temperature for the production of CNTs due to low ID/IG ratio, which for stacked is 0.89 and non-stacked are 0.90. The possible explanation for the different morphology of the produced CNTs was also discussed.

  9. Very Weak Signals (VWS detected by stacking method according to different astronomical periodicities (HiCum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Ruymbeke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A stacking method to detect very weak signals is introduced in this paper. This method is to stack observed data in different well known periodicities according to the astronomical clock since majority geophysical observations are time based. We validated this method by applying it in four different cases. Interactions behind the observed parameters become obviously after it is stacked in two diurnal and semidiurnal tidal periodical waves. Amplitude and phase variations will be also measurable when a sliding windows stacking is used. This could be an important reference to find precursors before some earthquakes and volcanic events, corresponding to attenuations of medium patterns.

  10. An Exact Method for the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The double travelling salesman problem with multiple stacks (DTSPMS) is a pickup and delivery problem in which all pickups must be completed before any deliveries can be made. The problem originates from a real-life application where a 40 foot container (configured as 3 columns of 11 rows) is used...

  11. An Exact Method for the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ehrgott, Matthias

    The double travelling salesman problem with multiple stacks (DTSPMS) is a pickup and delivery problem in which all pickups must be completed before any deliveries can be made. The problem originates from a real-life application where a 40 foot container (configured as 3 columns of 11 rows) is used...

  12. A stacking method and its applications to Lanzarote tide gauge records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; van Ruymbeke, Michel; Cadicheanu, Nicoleta

    2009-12-01

    A time-period analysis tool based on stacking is introduced in this paper. The original idea comes from the classical tidal analysis method. It is assumed that the period of each major tidal component is precisely determined based on the astronomical constants and it is unchangeable with time at a given point in the Earth. We sum the tidal records at a fixed tidal component center period T then take the mean of it. The stacking could significantly increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) if a certain number of stacking circles is reached. The stacking results were fitted using a sinusoidal function, the amplitude and phase of the fitting curve is computed by the least squares methods. The advantage of the method is that: (1) an individual periodical signal could be isolated by stacking; (2) one can construct a linear Stacking-Spectrum (SSP) by changing the stacking period Ts; (3) the time-period distribution of the singularity component could be approximated by a Sliding-Stacking approach. The shortcoming of the method is that in order to isolate a low energy frequency or separate the nearby frequencies, we need a long enough series with high sampling rate. The method was tested with a numeric series and then it was applied to 1788 days Lanzarote tide gauge records as an example.

  13. Development of a Three Dimensional Neural Sensing Device by a Stacking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a new stacking method for assembling a 3-D microprobe array. To date, 3-D array structures have usually been assembled with vertical spacers, snap fasteners and a supporting platform. Such methods have achieved 3-D structures but suffer from complex assembly steps, vertical interconnection for 3-D signal transmission, low structure strength and large implantable opening. By applying the proposed stacking method, the previous techniques could be replaced by 2-D wire bonding. In this way, supporting platforms with slots and vertical spacers were no longer needed. Furthermore, ASIC chips can be substituted for the spacers in the stacked arrays to achieve system integration, design flexibility and volume usage efficiency. To avoid overflow of the adhesive fluid during assembly, an anti-overflow design which made use of capillary action force was applied in the stacking method as well. Moreover, presented stacking procedure consumes only 35 minutes in average for a 4 × 4 3-D microprobe array without requiring other specially made assembly tools. To summarize, the advantages of the proposed stacking method for 3-D array assembly include simplified assembly process, high structure strength, smaller opening area and integration ability with active circuits. This stacking assembly technique allows an alternative method to create 3-D structures from planar components.

  14. Instrumental methods of analysis, 7th edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, H.H.; Merritt, L.L. Jr.; Dean, J.A.; Settle, F.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have prepared an organized and generally polished product. The book is fashioned to be used as a textbook for an undergraduate instrumental analysis course, a supporting textbook for graduate-level courses, and a general reference work on analytical instrumentation and techniques for professional chemists. Four major areas are emphasized: data collection and processing, spectroscopic instrumentation and methods, liquid and gas chromatographic methods, and electrochemical methods. Analytical instrumentation and methods have been updated, and a thorough citation of pertinent recent literature is included

  15. Frequency domain method for the stack of seismic and radar data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H; Sato, M [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Xu, S

    1997-10-22

    With relation to the stacking method of elastic wave and radar wave, the frequency domain stacking method using the Fourier conversion was proposed as a method for automatically removing errors in time correction leaving advantages of the conventional horizontal stacking method. Concerning an example of wave motion with the same wave form and time difference, as a result of the analysis conducted by this method, it was found that not only effects are kept of suppressing random noise and regular noise in the conventional horizontal stacking method, but the resolution in the original wave motion data is kept. In the example, amplitude of the noise was a half of the wave motion signal, but if it is more than 0.85 times of the wave motion signal, favorable result cannot be obtained in this method. In the analysis in the area where time correction is very difficult and the correction cannot be made completely, it is useful also for the time domain stacking method to acquire data on high resolution of elastic wave and radar wave. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Stacking gels: A method for maximising output for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng See

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, the gold standard of molecular typing methods, has a major disadvantage of an unusually long electrophoretic time. From the original protocol of 6 days, it was modified to 3 days and subsequently to a single day. We describe the procedure of stacking five to six gels one on top of another in order to increase and maximize the output in a shorter time without compromising the resolution and reproducibility. All the variables that affect pulsed field gels during electrophoresis were taken into consideration. We firstly optimized the parameters to be used and secondly determined whether stacking of five to six gels had any effect on the molecular separation during electrophoresis in comparison with a single gel run. DNA preparation, restriction, electrophoresis, staining and gel documentation was carried out based on previously published methods. Gels were analysed using BioNumerics and dice coefficient and unweighted pair group methods were used to generate dendrograms based on 1.5% tolerance values. Identical band profiles and band resolution-separation were seen in the PFGE patterns with single gel and multiple stacking gels. Cluster analysis further strengthened the fact that results from stacking gels were reproducible and comparable with a single gel run. This method of stacking gels saves time and maximizes the output at the same time. The run time for a single gel was about 28 hours, but with six stacked gels the run time was 54 hours compared with 28 x 6 = 168 hours if they were run separately as single gels thus saving time of 67.86%. Beside the big factor of saving time, stacking gels save resources (electricity, reagents, water, chemicals and working time by increasing the sample throughput in a shorter time without compromising on quality of data. But optimization of working parameters is vital depending on the PFGE system used.

  17. Pixe method as microanalytical instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabacniks, M.H.

    1986-02-01

    The PIXE method (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) as analytical method presenting the evolution, the theoretical fundaments, the detection limit, the optimization for operational conditions is evaluated. The applications of the method to air pollution control and aerosol studies in regions such as Antartic, Amazon and other regions are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Progress in the study of PCHE performance with various stacking methods; PCHEs and test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Eun Ho; Yoon, Sung Ho; Kim, Moo Hwan; Park, Gun Yeop

    2012-01-01

    Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) is famous with its superior compactness and relatively higher resistance to pressure which came from its manufacturing process. PCHE is made by diffusion bonding of thin metal plates having various flow channel shapes on them. Diffusion bonding makes stack of plates become a monolithic block by grain growth between the surfaces of each plates near the melting temperature of material. With these characteristics, it has become a promising heat exchanger type in oil and gas industry, power plant and chemical reactors fields, despite of its relatively short history than others. From many researches, it is known that the flow channel and the stacking method of plates are the major design factors of PCHE. Flow channels have been studied by relatively many researchers, and there are several well known channel types like zigzag channel, S shape fin, and airfoil fin shape. On the other hands, there is little research about stacking method so called 'bank type'. By Kim et al., it was showed that stacking method of PCHE influences the heat transfer rate and pressure drop, but the comparison of the different stacking method was not conducted. In this research, heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of PCHEs with various bank types will be studied. And this article will introduce three kinds of PCHEs fabricated by different bank types, and the test facility for performance test of these heat exchangers

  19. 40 CFR 60.1300 - What test methods must I use to stack test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to the Administrator for approval under § 60.8(b) to use a reference method with minor changes in... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What test methods must I use to stack test? 60.1300 Section 60.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  20. A Force Sensorless Method for CFRP/Ti Stack Interface Detection during Robotic Orbital Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastics and titanium (CFRP/Ti stacks is one of the most important activities in aircraft assembly. It is favorable to use different drilling parameters for each layer due to their dissimilar machining properties. However, large aircraft parts with changing profiles lead to variation of thickness along the profiles, which makes it challenging to adapt the cutting parameters for different materials being drilled. This paper proposes a force sensorless method based on cutting force observer for monitoring the thrust force and identifying the drilling material during the drilling process. The cutting force observer, which is the combination of an adaptive disturbance observer and friction force model, is used to estimate the thrust force. An in-process algorithm is developed to monitor the variation of the thrust force for detecting the stack interface between the CFRP and titanium materials. Robotic orbital drilling experiments have been conducted on CFRP/Ti stacks. The estimate error of the cutting force observer was less than 13%, and the stack interface was detected in 0.25 s (or 0.05 mm before or after the tool transited it. The results show that the proposed method can successfully detect the CFRP/Ti stack interface for the cutting parameters adaptation.

  1. Real-time trajectory analysis using stacked invariance methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kitts, B.

    1998-01-01

    Invariance methods are used widely in pattern recognition as a preprocessing stage before algorithms such as neural networks are applied to the problem. A pattern recognition system has to be able to recognise objects invariant to scale, translation, and rotation. Presumably the human eye implements some of these preprocessing transforms in making sense of incoming stimuli, for example, placing signals onto a log scale. This paper surveys many of the commonly used invariance methods, and asse...

  2. Digital processing method for monitoring the radioactivity of stack releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialettes, H.; Leblanc, P.; Perotin, J.P.; Lazou, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The digital processing method proposed is adapted for data supplied by a fixed-filter detector normally used for analogue processing (integrator system). On the basis of the raw data (pulses) from the detector, the technique makes it possible to determine the rate of activity released whereas analogue processing gives only the released activity. Furthermore, the method can be used to develop alarm systems on the basis of a possible exposure rate at the point of fall-out, and by including in the program a coefficient which allows for atmospheric diffusion conditions at any given time one can improve the accuracy of the results. In order to test the digital processing method and demonstrate its advantages over analogue processing, various atmospheric contamination situations were simulated in a glove-box and analysed simultaneously, using both systems, from the pulses transmitted by the same sampling and fixed-filter detection unit. The experimental results confirm the advantages foreseen in the theoretical research. (author)

  3. Improved exact method for the double TSP with multiple stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    and delivery problems. The results suggest an impressive improvement, and we report, for the first time, optimal solutions to several unsolved instances from the literature containing 18 customers. Instances with 28 customers are also shown to be solvable within a few percent of optimality. © 2011 Wiley...... the first delivery, and the container cannot be repacked once packed. In this paper we improve the previously proposed exact method of Lusby et al. (Int Trans Oper Res 17 (2010), 637–652) through an additional preprocessing technique that uses the longest common subsequence between the respective pickup...

  4. Computerized method and system for designing an aerodynamic focusing lens stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Eric [San Francisco, CA; Riot, Vincent [Oakland, CA; Coffee, Keith [Diablo Grande, CA; Woods, Bruce [Livermore, CA; Tobias, Herbert [Kensington, CA; Birch, Jim [Albany, CA; Weisgraber, Todd [Brentwood, CA

    2011-11-22

    A computerized method and system for designing an aerodynamic focusing lens stack, using input from a designer related to, for example, particle size range to be considered, characteristics of the gas to be flowed through the system, the upstream temperature and pressure at the top of a first focusing lens, the flow rate through the aerodynamic focusing lens stack equivalent at atmosphere pressure; and a Stokes number range. Based on the design parameters, the method and system determines the total number of focusing lenses and their respective orifice diameters required to focus the particle size range to be considered, by first calculating for the orifice diameter of the first focusing lens in the Stokes formula, and then using that value to determine, in iterative fashion, intermediate flow values which are themselves used to determine the orifice diameters of each succeeding focusing lens in the stack design, with the results being output to a designer. In addition, the Reynolds numbers associated with each focusing lens as well as exit nozzle size may also be determined to enhance the stack design.

  5. Establishment of effective maintenance method based on the superior inspection technique for the deteriorating hot laboratory exhaust stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizukoshi, Yasutaka; Yasu, Tetsunori

    2012-06-01

    The Materials Monitoring Facility is equipped with an exhaust stack to emit air from a controlled area (the hot laboratory) into the atmosphere. Cracks and exfoliation have been observed for the surface of the exhaust stack, which is made of reinforced concrete and was constructed on the seacoast about 25 years ago, so exposed to a salt-corrosive condition. In order to get details of the present condition of the exhaust stack, an inspection was carried out using an electromagnetic wave radar method and chloride content method. Cracks and exfoliation were observed for the whole stack surface, especially for high positions. Moreover, salt damage was observed for the outer surface of the exhaust stack, and it was estimated that the infiltration of the chloride content was about 17 mm. Based on this detailed inspection of the exhaust stack, maintenance and repair work were carried out. (author)

  6. Method for the manufacture of a thin-layer battery stack on a three-dimensional substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the manufacture of a thin-layer battery stack on a three-dimensional substrate. The invention further relates to a thin-layer battery stack on a three-dimensional substrate obtainable by such a method. Moreover, the invention relates to a device comprising such

  7. Computational and instrumental methods in EPR

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    Computational and Instrumental Methods in EPR Prof. Bender, Fordham University Prof. Lawrence J. Berliner, University of Denver Electron magnetic resonance has been greatly facilitated by the introduction of advances in instrumentation and better computational tools, such as the increasingly widespread use of the density matrix formalism. This volume is devoted to both instrumentation and computation aspects of EPR, while addressing applications such as spin relaxation time measurements, the measurement of hyperfine interaction parameters, and the recovery of Mn(II) spin Hamiltonian parameters via spectral simulation. Key features: Microwave Amplitude Modulation Technique to Measure Spin-Lattice (T1) and Spin-Spin (T2) Relaxation Times Improvement in the Measurement of Spin-Lattice Relaxation Time in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Quantitative Measurement of Magnetic Hyperfine Parameters and the Physical Organic Chemistry of Supramolecular Systems New Methods of Simulation of Mn(II) EPR Spectra: Single Cryst...

  8. Finite Element Method in the Three Dimensions Deformation Computation ofKartini Reactor Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyono; Syarip; Wibisono, I

    2000-01-01

    The calculation of the Kartini reactor stack i.e. one of the nuclearinstallations in P3TM-BATAN Yogyakarta by using SAP 90 software have beendone. The calculation is done as a safety review of building towards theearthquake style in Yogyakarta. The 3-dimension deformation calculation isperformed by the numeric method i.e. finite element method with the form ofelements is the shell. The result obtained showed that the construction oftower safe to the existing earthquake, where the moment exerted as a resultof earthquake style was different under the moment having been kept by thebuilding structure. By knowing the deformation on the stack it is expectedcould be used for concluding the strength of the whole reactor building.(author)

  9. Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect 131I Measurement Methods from the Stack to Outdoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Suhariyono

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The radioisotope production facility at PUSPIPTEK Serpong produces and processes 131I that can disperse to the settlements (community and the environment around the Serpong Nuclear Area (SNA. 131I is produced routinely for medical uses in hospitals and pharmacies, for both domestic uses and export. 131I is a beta and gamma emitting radioactive material and can cause thyroid cancer. The problem was that there was so far no research and in-depth assessment of the aerial dispersion of 131I radioactivity emitted from the radioisotope production stack to the environment at actual conditions. The research was conducted through simultaneous measurement of 131I radioactivity in the stack of the 131I radioisotope production facility, Serpong, and outdoor in house courtyards around SNA in normal condition (no accident based on the variations of the distance and wind direction. Direct measurements were carried out with a portable in-situ NaI(Tl detector at outdoor, and with a LaBr3 detector in the stack. Indirect measurements were carried out by using charcoal filter and vacuum pump in the stack and outdoor. The direct measurement method has many advantages over the indirect measurement. The direct measurement method was found to be more accurate, less expensive, easier to operate, needing just one operator in its implementation, portable, and can be operated continuously and for long durations. The overall activity concentrations of 131I on average obtained by either direct or indirect method were still below the upper limit of 131I activity concentration in the air (530 Bq/m3 stipulated by the Regulation of the Chairman of BAPETEN (Perka BAPETEN No. 7/2013. 

  10. Scaling of Engineered Vascular Grafts Using 3D Printed Guides and the Ring Stacking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Xu, Zhengfan; Lam, Mai T

    2017-03-27

    Coronary artery disease remains a leading cause of death, affecting millions of Americans. With the lack of autologous vascular grafts available, engineered grafts offer great potential for patient treatment. However, engineered vascular grafts are generally not easily scalable, requiring manufacture of custom molds or polymer tubes in order to customize to different sizes, constituting a time-consuming and costly practice. Human arteries range in lumen diameter from about 2.0-38 mm and in wall thickness from about 0.5-2.5 mm. We have created a method, termed the "Ring Stacking Method," in which variable size rings of tissue of the desired cell type, demonstrated here with vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), can be created using guides of center posts to control lumen diameter and outer shells to dictate vessel wall thickness. These tissue rings are then stacked to create a tubular construct, mimicking the natural form of a blood vessel. The vessel length can be tailored by simply stacking the number of rings required to constitute the length needed. With our technique, tissues of tubular forms, similar to a blood vessel, can be readily manufactured in a variety of dimensions and lengths to meet the needs of the clinic and patient.

  11. Intelligent inversion method for pre-stack seismic big data based on MapReduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Wu, Qinghua

    2018-01-01

    Seismic exploration is a method of oil exploration that uses seismic information; that is, according to the inversion of seismic information, the useful information of the reservoir parameters can be obtained to carry out exploration effectively. Pre-stack data are characterised by a large amount of data, abundant information, and so on, and according to its inversion, the abundant information of the reservoir parameters can be obtained. Owing to the large amount of pre-stack seismic data, existing single-machine environments have not been able to meet the computational needs of the huge amount of data; thus, the development of a method with a high efficiency and the speed to solve the inversion problem of pre-stack seismic data is urgently needed. The optimisation of the elastic parameters by using a genetic algorithm easily falls into a local optimum, which results in a non-obvious inversion effect, especially for the optimisation effect of the density. Therefore, an intelligent optimisation algorithm is proposed in this paper and used for the elastic parameter inversion of pre-stack seismic data. This algorithm improves the population initialisation strategy by using the Gardner formula and the genetic operation of the algorithm, and the improved algorithm obtains better inversion results when carrying out a model test with logging data. All of the elastic parameters obtained by inversion and the logging curve of theoretical model are fitted well, which effectively improves the inversion precision of the density. This algorithm was implemented with a MapReduce model to solve the seismic big data inversion problem. The experimental results show that the parallel model can effectively reduce the running time of the algorithm.

  12. On-line and real-time diagnosis method for proton membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack by the superposition principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hyun; Kim, Jonghyeon; Yoo, Seungyeol

    2016-09-01

    The critical cell voltage drop in a stack can be followed by stack defect. A method of detecting defective cell is the cell voltage monitoring. The other methods are based on the nonlinear frequency response. In this paper, the superposition principle for the diagnosis of PEMFC stack is introduced. If critical cell voltage drops exist, the stack behaves as a nonlinear system. This nonlinearity can explicitly appear in the ohmic overpotential region of a voltage-current curve. To detect the critical cell voltage drop, a stack is excited by two input direct test-currents which have smaller amplitude than an operating stack current and have an equal distance value from the operating current. If the difference between one voltage excited by a test current and the voltage excited by a load current is not equal to the difference between the other voltage response and the voltage excited by the load current, the stack system acts as a nonlinear system. This means that there is a critical cell voltage drop. The deviation from the value zero of the difference reflects the grade of the system nonlinearity. A simulation model for the stack diagnosis is developed based on the SPP, and experimentally validated.

  13. Instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes goals and accomplishments of the research program entitled Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation, during the period January 15, 1989 through July 15, 1991. This program is very closely integrated with the radiopharmaceutical program entitled Quantitative Studies in Radiopharmaceutical Science. Together, they constitute the PROGRAM OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND QUANTITATIVE IMAGING RESEARCH within The Franklin McLean Memorial Research Institute (FMI). The program addresses problems involving the basic science and technology that underlie the physical and conceptual tools of radiotracer methodology as they relate to the measurement of structural and functional parameters of physiologic importance in health and disease. The principal tool is quantitative radionuclide imaging. The objective of this program is to further the development and transfer of radiotracer methodology from basic theory to routine clinical practice. The focus of the research is on the development of new instruments and radiopharmaceuticals, and the evaluation of these through the phase of clinical feasibility. 234 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Analytical chromatography. Methods, instrumentation and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashin, Ya I; Yashin, A Ya

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art and the prospects in the development of main methods of analytical chromatography, viz., gas, high performance liquid and ion chromatographic techniques, are characterised. Achievements of the past 10-15 years in the theory and general methodology of chromatography and also in the development of new sorbents, columns and chromatographic instruments are outlined. The use of chromatography in the environmental control, biology, medicine, pharmaceutics, and also for monitoring the quality of foodstuffs and products of chemical, petrochemical and gas industries, etc. is considered.

  15. Method of decontaminating radioactive-contaminated instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Megumu; Fujii, Masaaki; Kitaguchi, Hiroshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety processing of liquid wastes by recovering radioactive metal ions remaining in the electrolytes after the decontamination procedure thereby decreasing the radioactivity. Method: In a decontamination tank containing electrolytes consisting of diluted hydrochloric acid and diluted sulfuric acid, are provided a radioactive contaminated instrument connected to an anode and a collector electrode made of stainless steel connected to a cathode respectively. Upon applying electrical current, the portion of the mother material to be decontaminated is polished electrolytically into metal ions and they are deposited as metal on the collection electrode. After completion of the decontamination, an ultrasonic wave generator is operated to strip and remove the oxide films. Thereafter, the anode is replaced with the carbon electrode and electrical current is supplied continuously, whereby the remaining metal ions are deposited and recovered as the metal on the collection electrode. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Method of decontaminating radioactive-contaminated instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, M; Fujii, M; Kitaguchi, H

    1982-03-29

    Purpose: To enable safety processing of liquid wastes by recovering radioactive metal ions remaining in the electrolytes after the decontamination procedure thereby decreasing the radioactivity. Method: In a decontamination tank containing electrolytes consisting of diluted hydrochloric acid and diluted sulfuric acid, are provided a radioactive contaminated instrument connected to an anode and a collector electrode made of stainless steel connected to a cathode respectively. Upon applying electrical current, the portion of the mother material to be decontaminated is polished electrolytically into metal ions and they are deposited as metal on the collection electrode. After completion of the decontamination, an ultrasonic wave generator is operated to strip and remove the oxide films. Thereafter, the anode is replaced with the carbon electrode and electrical current is supplied continuously, whereby the remaining metal ions are deposited and recovered as the metal on the collection electrode.

  17. Comparison of three methods reducing the beam parameter product of a laser diode stack for long range laser illumination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Yves; Poyet, Jean-Michel; Metzger, Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    Laser diode stacks are interesting laser sources for active imaging illuminators. They allow the accumulation of large amounts of energy in multi-pulse mode, which is well suited for long-range image recording. Even when laser diode stacks are equipped with fast-axis collimation (FAC) and slow-axis collimation (SAC) microlenses, their beam parameter product (BPP) are not compatible with a direct use in highly efficient and compact illuminators. This is particularly true when narrow divergences are required such as for long range applications. To overcome these difficulties, we conducted investigations in three different ways. A first near infrared illuminator based on the use of conductively cooled mini-bars was designed, realized and successfully tested during outdoor experimentations. This custom specified stack was then replaced in a second step by an off-the-shelf FAC + SAC micro lensed stack where the brightness was increased by polarization overlapping. The third method still based on a commercial laser diode stack uses a non imaging optical shaping principle resulting in a virtually restacked laser source with enhanced beam parameters. This low cost, efficient and low alignment sensitivity beam shaping method allows obtaining a compact and high performance laser diode illuminator for long range active imaging applications. The three methods are presented and compared in this paper.

  18. A Novel Multimodal Biometrics Recognition Model Based on Stacked ELM and CCA Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucheng Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometrics combine a variety of biological features to have a significant impact on identification performance, which is a newly developed trend in biometrics identification technology. This study proposes a novel multimodal biometrics recognition model based on the stacked extreme learning machines (ELMs and canonical correlation analysis (CCA methods. The model, which has a symmetric structure, is found to have high potential for multimodal biometrics. The model works as follows. First, it learns the hidden-layer representation of biological images using extreme learning machines layer by layer. Second, the canonical correlation analysis method is applied to map the representation to a feature space, which is used to reconstruct the multimodal image feature representation. Third, the reconstructed features are used as the input of a classifier for supervised training and output. To verify the validity and efficiency of the method, we adopt it for new hybrid datasets obtained from typical face image datasets and finger-vein image datasets. Our experimental results demonstrate that our model performs better than traditional methods.

  19. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, M. de.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  20. THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION WITH THE DIRECT METHOD ON STACKED SPECTRA OF SDSS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Brett H.; Martini, Paul, E-mail: andrews@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    The relation between galaxy stellar mass and gas-phase metallicity is a sensitive diagnostic of the main processes that drive galaxy evolution, namely cosmological gas inflow, metal production in stars, and gas outflow via galactic winds. We employed the direct method to measure the metallicities of {approx}200,000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that were stacked in bins of (1) stellar mass and (2) both stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) to significantly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the weak [O III] {lambda}4363 and [O II] {lambda}{lambda}7320, 7330 auroral lines required to apply the direct method. These metallicity measurements span three decades in stellar mass from log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 7.4-10.5, which allows the direct method mass-metallicity relation to simultaneously capture the high-mass turnover and extend a full decade lower in mass than previous studies that employed more uncertain strong line methods. The direct method mass-metallicity relation rises steeply at low mass (O/H {proportional_to} M{sub *} {sup 1/2}) until it turns over at log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 8.9 and asymptotes to 12 + log(O/H) = 8.8 at high mass. The direct method mass-metallicity relation has a steeper slope, a lower turnover mass, and a factor of two to three greater dependence on SFR than strong line mass-metallicity relations. Furthermore, the SFR-dependence appears monotonic with stellar mass, unlike strong line mass-metallicity relations. We also measure the N/O abundance ratio, an important tracer of star formation history, and find the clear signature of primary and secondary nitrogen enrichment. N/O correlates tightly with oxygen abundance, and even more so with stellar mass.

  1. A simplified technique for polymethyl methacrylate cranioplasty: combined cotton stacking and finger fracture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Woon-Man; Lin, Muh-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is one of the most frequently used cranioplasty materials. However, limitations exist with PMMA cranioplasty including longer operative time, greater blood loss and a higher infection rate. To reduce these disadvantages, it is proposed to introduce a new surgical method for PMMA cranioplasty. Retrospective review of nine patients who received nine PMMA implants using combined cotton stacking and finger fracture method from January 2008 to July 2011. The definitive height of skull defect was quantified by computer-based image analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans. Aesthetic outcomes as measured by post-reduction radiographs and cranial index of symmetry (CIS), cranial nerve V and VII function and complications (wound infection, hardware extrusions, meningitis, osteomyelitis and brain abscess) were evaluated. The mean operation time for implant moulding was 24.56 ± 4.6 minutes and 178.0 ± 53 minutes for skin-to-skin. Average blood loss was 169 mL. All post-operative radiographs revealed excellent reduction. The mean CIS score was 95.86 ± 1.36%, indicating excellent symmetry. These results indicate the safety, practicability, excellent cosmesis, craniofacial symmetry and stability of this new surgical technique.

  2. Monitoring Mining Subsidence Using A Combination of Phase-Stacking and Offset-Tracking Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdong Fan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An approach to study the mechanism of mining-induced subsidence, using a combination of phase-stacking and sub-pixel offset-tracking methods, is reported. In this method, land subsidence with a small deformation gradient was calculated using time-series differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (D-InSAR data, whereas areas with greater subsidence were calculated by a sub-pixel offset-tracking method. With this approach, time-series data for mining subsidence were derived in Yulin area using 11 TerraSAR-X (TSX scenes from 13 December 2012 to 2 April 2013. The maximum mining subsidence and velocity values were 4.478 m and 40 mm/day, respectively, which were beyond the monitoring capabilities of D-InSAR and advanced InSAR. The results were compared with the GPS field survey data, and the root mean square errors (RMSE of the results in the strike and dip directions were 0.16 m and 0.11 m, respectively. Four important results were obtained from the time-series subsidence in this mining area: (1 the mining-induced subsidence entered the residual deformation stage within about 44 days; (2 the advance angle of influence changed from 75.6° to 80.7°; (3 the prediction parameters of mining subsidence; (4 three-dimensional deformation. This method could be used to predict the occurrence of mining accidents and to help in the restoration of the ecological environment after mining activities have ended.

  3. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  4. A pulse stacking method of particle counting applied to position sensitive detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilier, E.

    1976-03-01

    A position sensitive particle counting system is described. A cyclic readout imaging device serves as an intermediate information buffer. Pulses are allowed to stack in the imager at very high counting rates. Imager noise is completely discriminated to provide very wide dynamic range. The system has been applied to a detector using cascaded microchannel plates. Pulse height spread produced by the plates causes some loss of information. The loss is comparable to the input loss of the plates. The improvement in maximum counting rate is several hundred times over previous systems that do not permit pulse stacking. (Auth.)

  5. Method of detecting stacks with leaky fuel elements in liquid-metal-cooled reactor and apparatus for effecting same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristarkhov, N.N.; Efimov, I.A.; Zaistev, B.I.; Peters, I.G.; Tymosh, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a method of detecting stacks with leaky fuel elements in a liquid-metal-cooled reactor, consisting in that prior to withdrawing a coolant sample, gas is accumulated in the coolant of the stack being controlled, the reactor being shut down, separated from the sample by means of an inert carrier gas, and the radioactivity of the separated gas is measured. An apparatus for carrying out said method comprises a sampler in the form of a tube parallel to the reactor axis in the hole of a rotating plug and adapted to move along the reactor axis. Made in the top portion of the tube are holes for the introduction of the inert carrier gas and the removal thereof together with the gases evolved from the coolant, while the bottom portion of the tube is provided with a sealing member

  6. Instrument design optimization with computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael H. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Using Finite Element Analysis to approximate the solution of differential equations, two different instruments in experimental Hall C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are analyzed. The time dependence of density uctuations from the liquid hydrogen (LH2) target used in the Qweak experiment (2011-2012) are studied with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the simulation results compared to data from the experiment. The 2.5 kW liquid hydrogen target was the highest power LH2 target in the world and the first to be designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. The first complete magnetic field simulation of the Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) is presented with a focus on primary electron beam deflection downstream of the target. The SHMS consists of a superconducting horizontal bending magnet (HB) and three superconducting quadrupole magnets. The HB allows particles scattered at an angle of 5:5 deg to the beam line to be steered into the quadrupole magnets which make up the optics of the spectrometer. Without mitigation, remnant fields from the SHMS may steer the unscattered beam outside of the acceptable envelope on the beam dump and limit beam operations at small scattering angles. A solution is proposed using optimal placement of a minimal amount of shielding iron around the beam line.

  7. Improved GLR method to instrument failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hak Yeoung; Chang, Soon Heung

    1985-01-01

    The generalized likehood radio(GLR) method performs statistical tests on the innovations sequence of a Kalman-Buchy filter state estimator for system failure detection and its identification. However, the major drawback of the convensional GLR is to hypothesize particular failure type in each case. In this paper, a method to solve this drawback is proposed. The improved GLR method is applied to a PWR pressurizer and gives successful results in detection and identification of any failure. Furthmore, some benefit on the processing time per each cycle of failure detection and its identification can be accompanied. (Author)

  8. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  9. Application of Instrumented Charpy Method in Characterisation of Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Alar, Željko; Mandić, Davor; Dugorepec, Andrija; Sakoman, Matija

    2015-01-01

    Testing of absorbed impact energy according to the Charpy method is carried out to determine the behaviour of a material under the impact load. Instrumented Charpy method allows getting the force displacement curve through the entire test, That curve can be related to force-displacement curve which is obtained by the static tensile test. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of forces obtained by the static tensile test with the forces obtained by the instrumented Charpy method...

  10. Three-dimensional stacked structured ASIC devices and methods of fabrication thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Subhash L.; Teifel, John; Flores, Richard S.; Jarecki Jr., Robert L.; Bauer, Todd

    2015-11-19

    A 3D stacked sASIC is provided that includes a plurality of 2D reconfigurable structured structured ASIC (sASIC) levels interconnected through hard-wired arrays of 3D vias. The 2D sASIC levels may contain logic, memory, analog functions, and device input/output pad circuitry. During fabrication, these 2D sASIC levels are stacked on top of each other and fused together with 3D metal vias. Such 3D vias may be fabricated as through-silicon vias (TSVs). They may connect to the back-side of the 2D sASIC level, or they may be connected to top metal pads on the front-side of the 2D sASIC level.

  11. Algebraic stacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deligne, Mumford and Artin [DM, Ar2]) and consider algebraic stacks, then we can cons- truct the 'moduli ... the moduli scheme and the moduli stack of vector bundles. First I will give ... 1–31. © Printed in India. 1 ...... Cultura, Spain. References.

  12. Turbidity threshold sampling: Methods and instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand Eads; Jack Lewis

    2001-01-01

    Traditional methods for determining the frequency of suspended sediment sample collection often rely on measurements, such as water discharge, that are not well correlated to sediment concentration. Stream power is generally not a good predictor of sediment concentration for rivers that transport the bulk of their load as fines, due to the highly variable routing of...

  13. Analytical techniques for instrument design - matrix methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    We take the traditional Cooper-Nathans approach, as has been applied for many years for steady-state triple-axis spectrometers, and consider its generalisation to other inelastic scattering spectrometers. This involves a number of simple manipulations of exponentials of quadratic forms. In particular, we discuss a toolbox of matrix manipulations that can be performed on the 6- dimensional Cooper-Nathans matrix: diagonalisation (Moller-Nielsen method), coordinate changes e.g. from (Δk I ,Δk F to ΔE, ΔQ ampersand 2 dummy variables), integration of one or more variables (e.g. over such dummy variables), integration subject to linear constraints (e.g. Bragg's Law for analysers), inversion to give the variance-covariance matrix, and so on. We show how these tools can be combined to solve a number of important problems, within the narrow-band limit and the gaussian approximation. We will argue that a generalised program that can handle multiple different spectrometers could (and should) be written in parallel to the Monte-Carlo packages that are becoming available. We will also discuss the complementarity between detailed Monte-Carlo calculations and the approach presented here. In particular, Monte-Carlo methods traditionally simulate the real experiment as performed in practice, given a model scattering law, while the Cooper-Nathans method asks the inverse question: given that a neutron turns up in a particular spectrometer configuration (e.g. angle and time of flight), what is the probability distribution of possible scattering events at the sample? The Monte-Carlo approach could be applied in the same spirit to this question

  14. Methods and instrumentation for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelkern, M.A.; Phelps, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on positron emission tomography (PET), a technique for the noninvasive measurement of local tissue concentrations of injected radioactive tracers. Tracer kinetics techniques can be applied to this information to quantify physiologic function in human tissue. In the tracer method, a pharmaceutical is labeled by a radioactive atom. When introduced into the subject that molecule follows a physiologic pathway. The space- and time-dependent distribution of the radionuclide is obtained via an imaging technique. If the radiopharmaceutical is sufficiently analogous to a natural substrate or other substance of interest, a quantitative image can be translated into a physiologic measurement

  15. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  16. Analytical techniques for instrument design - Matrix methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The authors take the traditional Cooper-Nathans approach, as has been applied for many years for steady-state triple-axis spectrometers, and consider its generalization to other inelastic scattering spectrometers. This involves a number of simple manipulations of exponentials of quadratic forms. In particular, they discuss a toolbox of matrix manipulations that can be performed on the 6-dimensional Cooper-Nathans matrix. They show how these tools can be combined to solve a number of important problems, within the narrow-band limit and the gaussian approximation. They will argue that a generalized program that can handle multiple different spectrometers could (and should) be written in parallel to the Monte-Carlo packages that are becoming available. They also discuss the complementarity between detailed Monte-Carlo calculations and the approach presented here. In particular, Monte-Carlo methods traditionally simulate the real experiment as performed in practice, given a model scattering law, while the Cooper-Nathans method asks the inverse question: given that a neutron turns up in a particular spectrometer configuration (e.g. angle and time of flight), what is the probability distribution of possible scattering events at the sample? The Monte-Carlo approach could be applied in the same spirit to this question

  17. Method to deterministically study photonic nanostructures in different experimental instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husken, B.H.; Woldering, L.A.; Blum, Christian; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Vos, Willem L.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experimental method to recover a single, deterministically fabricated nanostructure in various experimental instruments without the use of artificially fabricated markers, with the aim to study photonic structures. Therefore, a detailed map of the spatial surroundings of the

  18. Method and apparatus for continuous fluid leak monitoring and detection in analytical instruments and instrument systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Karl K [Pasco, WA; Moore, Ronald J [West Richland, WA

    2010-07-13

    A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.

  19. Advanced Measuring (Instrumentation Methods for Nuclear Installations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiu-kuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear technology has been widely used in the world. The research of measurement in nuclear installations involves many aspects, such as nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycle, safety and security, nuclear accident, after action, analysis, and environmental applications. In last decades, many advanced measuring devices and techniques have been widely applied in nuclear installations. This paper mainly introduces the development of the measuring (instrumentation methods for nuclear installations and the applications of these instruments and methods.

  20. Fault Localization Method by Partitioning Memory Using Memory Map and the Stack for Automotive ECU Software Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanhyo Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the usage of the automotive Electronic Control Unit (ECU and its software in cars is increasing. Therefore, as the functional complexity of such software increases, so does the likelihood of software-related faults. Therefore, it is important to ensure the reliability of ECU software in order to ensure automobile safety. For this reason, systematic testing methods are required that can guarantee software quality. However, it is difficult to locate a fault during testing with the current ECU development system because a tester performs the black-box testing using a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL simulator. Consequently, developers consume a large amount of money and time for debugging because they perform debugging without any information about the location of the fault. In this paper, we propose a method for localizing the fault utilizing memory information during black-box testing. This is likely to be of use to developers who debug automotive software. In order to observe whether symbols stored in the memory have been updated, the memory is partitioned by a memory map and the stack, thus the fault candidate region is reduced. A memory map method has the advantage of being able to finely partition the memory, and the stack method can partition the memory without a memory map. We validated these methods by applying these to HiL testing of the ECU for a body control system. The preliminary results indicate that a memory map and the stack reduce the possible fault locations to 22% and 19% of the updated memory, respectively.

  1. Falsification Testing of Instrumental Variables Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, Steven D

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate how falsification tests can be used to evaluate instrumental variables methods applicable to a wide variety of comparative effectiveness research questions. Brief conceptual review of instrumental variables and falsification testing principles and techniques accompanied by an empirical application. Sample STATA code related to the empirical application is provided in the Appendix. Comparative long-term risks of sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones for management of type 2 diabetes. Outcomes include mortality and hospitalization for an ambulatory care-sensitive condition. Prescribing pattern variations are used as instrumental variables. Falsification testing is an easily computed and powerful way to evaluate the validity of the key assumption underlying instrumental variables analysis. If falsification tests are used, instrumental variables techniques can help answer a multitude of important clinical questions. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  2. Repairing method of color TV with measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This book concentrates on repairing method of color TV with measuring instrument, which deals with direction and sorts of measuring instrument for service, application and basic technique of an oscilloscope and a synchroscope, constituent of TV and wave reading, everything for test skill for service man, service technique by electronic voltmeter, service technique by sweep generator and maker generator, dot-bar generator and support skill for color TV and color bar generator and application technology of color circuit.

  3. Optimum stacking sequence design of laminated composite circular plates with curvilinear fibres by a layer-wise optimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenanou, A.; Houmat, A.

    2018-05-01

    The optimum stacking sequence design for the maximum fundamental frequency of symmetrically laminated composite circular plates with curvilinear fibres is investigated for the first time using a layer-wise optimization method. The design variables are two fibre orientation angles per layer. The fibre paths are constructed using the method of shifted paths. The first-order shear deformation plate theory and a curved square p-element are used to calculate the objective function. The blending function method is used to model accurately the geometry of the circular plate. The equations of motion are derived using Lagrange's method. The numerical results are validated by means of a convergence test and comparison with published values for symmetrically laminated composite circular plates with rectilinear fibres. The material parameters, boundary conditions, number of layers and thickness are shown to influence the optimum solutions to different extents. The results should serve as a benchmark for optimum stacking sequences of symmetrically laminated composite circular plates with curvilinear fibres.

  4. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  5. A Mixed Methods Portrait of Urban Instrumental Music Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to learn about the ways that instrumental music teachers in Chicago navigated the urban landscape. The design of the study most closely resembles Creswell and Plano Clark's (2007) two-part Triangulation Convergence Mixed Methods Design, with the addition of an initial exploratory focus group component.…

  6. Application of Instrumented Charpy Method in Characterisation of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Alar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Testing of absorbed impact energy according to the Charpy method is carried out to determine the behaviour of a material under the impact load. Instrumented Charpy method allows getting the force displacement curve through the entire test, That curve can be related to force-displacement curve which is obtained by the static tensile test. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of forces obtained by the static tensile test with the forces obtained by the instrumented Charpy method. Experimental part of the work contains testing of the mechanical properties of S275J0 steel by the static tensile test and Impact test on instrumented Charpy pendulum.

  7. Reaction sintering of two-dimensional silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite by sheet stacking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Katsumi; Mukai, Hideki; Imai, Masamitsu; Hashimoto, Kazuaki; Toda, Yoshitomo; Hyuga, Hideki; Kondo, Naoki; Kita, Hideki; Yano, Toyohiko

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensionally plain woven SiC fiber-reinforced SiC composite has been developed by reaction sintering using a sheet stacking method in order to further increase mechanical and thermal properties of the composite and to obtain flexibility of manufacturing process of 2D woven SiC/SiC composites which can be applied to the fabrication of larger parts. In addition, sinterability and mechanical properties of the composite were investigated. In this study, relative density of the composites was about 90-93% and a dense composite could be obtained by reaction sintering using the sheet stacking method. The bulk density and maximum bending strength of SiC/SiC composite with a C/SiC weight ratio of 0.6 were higher than that of the composite with C/SiC ratios of 0.5 or 0.7. The values were 2.9 g/cm 3 and 200 MPa, respectively. However, the composites obtained in this study fractured in almost brittle manner due to the lower fiber volume fraction

  8. Performance evaluation methods and instrumentation for mine ventilation fans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Man; WANG Xue-rong

    2009-01-01

    Ventilation fans are one of the most important pieces of equipment in coal mines. Their performance plays an important role in the safety of staff and production. Given the actual requirements of coal mine production, we instituted a research project on the measurement methods of key performance parameters such as wind pressure, amount of ventilation and power. At the end a virtual instrument for mine ventilation fans performance evaluation was developed using a USB interface. The practical perform-ance and analytical results of our experiments show that it is feasible, reliable and effective to use the proposed instrumentation for mine ventilation performance evaluation.

  9. Instrumentation and measurement method for the ATLAS test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Byong Jo; Chu, In Chul; Eu, Dong Jin; Kang, Kyong Ho; Kim, Yeon Sik; Song, Chul Hwa; Baek, Won Pil

    2007-03-15

    An integral effect test loop for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the ATLAS is constructed by thermal-hydraulic safety research division in KAERI. The ATLAS facility has been designed to have the length scale of 1/2 and area scale of 1/144 compared with the reference plant, APR1400 which is a Korean evolution type nuclear reactors. A total 1300 instrumentations is equipped in the ATLAS test facility. In this report, the instrumentation of ATLAS test facility and related measurement methods were introduced.

  10. Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, M Alan; Rassen, Jeremy A; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-06-01

    Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been proposed as a potential approach to the common problem of uncontrolled confounding in comparative studies of medical interventions, but IV methods are unfamiliar to many researchers. The goal of this article is to provide a non-technical, practical introduction to IV methods for comparative safety and effectiveness research. We outline the principles and basic assumptions necessary for valid IV estimation, discuss how to interpret the results of an IV study, provide a review of instruments that have been used in comparative effectiveness research, and suggest some minimal reporting standards for an IV analysis. Finally, we offer our perspective of the role of IV estimation vis-à-vis more traditional approaches based on statistical modeling of the exposure or outcome. We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial.

  11. Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, M. Alan; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Summary Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been proposed as a potential approach to the common problem of uncontrolled confounding in comparative studies of medical interventions, but IV methods are unfamiliar to many researchers. The goal of this article is to provide a non-technical, practical introduction to IV methods for comparative safety and effectiveness research. We outline the principles and basic assumptions necessary for valid IV estimation, discuss how to interpret the results of an IV study, provide a review of instruments that have been used in comparative effectiveness research, and suggest some minimal reporting standards for an IV analysis. Finally, we offer our perspective of the role of IV estimation vis-à-vis more traditional approaches based on statistical modeling of the exposure or outcome. We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial. PMID:20354968

  12. Hybrid Instruments and the Indirect Credit Method - Does it work?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedermann-Ondrej, Nadine

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of double non-taxation of hybrid instruments in cross border transactions where the country of the investor has implemented the indirect credit method for mitigation or elimination of double taxation. From an isolated perspective a double non-taxation cannot be obtained because typically no taxes are paid in the foreign country due to the classification as debt and therefore even in the case of a classification as a dividend in the country of the investor n...

  13. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  14. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  15. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  16. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  17. A construction method of reinforced-concrete very high stacks and natural draft cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Takao; Hosokawa, Osamu

    1978-01-01

    The new Shimizu flex-lip system was developed by the Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd. for constructing very high (about 200 m) towers made of reinforced concrete. Utilizing this system, towers of any shape, circular, triangular, square and polygonal, can be constructed. The wall thickness can be varied from 200 mm to 1 m. The diameter of towers can be enlarged from 3 m to any valve and the inclination of tower walls can be designed in any way between +1/5 and -1/5. The advantage of this system is to use the jack down mechanism, to test concrete strength without sampling, to reduce the connections of reinforcing steel bars and to adopt the continuous, and to use automatic measuring system using laser for checking up positional error. The design and analysis of high tower structures were systemized and automated with the development of the flex-lip construction method. The several past records of having applied this method to industrial areas are shown. As for natural draft cooling towers, the Shimizu jump-up system has been studied for the cooling water capacity of 60,000 m 3 /h. The towers are 120 m high, 110 m in diameter at the bottom and 65 m in diameter at the top. The advantage of this construction method, the plan of concrete jump-up and the construction test are explained. (Nakai, Y.)

  18. Experimental and numerical investigations of oscillations in extracted material parameters for finite Bragg stacks using the NRW method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2012-01-01

    A 1D dielectric finite Bragg stack situated in a rectangular waveguide and illuminated by the fundamental TE10 mode is examined analytically, numerically, and experimentally. Calculated as well as measured scattering parameters are used to extract the effective/equivalent material parameters...... for three specific configurations of its constituent unit cell. Particular attention is devoted to the absence/presence of certain oscillations in the extracted material parameters, depending on the unit cell configuration. The results for the finite Bragg stack are further verified to agree with those...... of an infinite Bragg stack, for which the dispersion equation is used in conjunction with the Floquet-Bloch harmonics expansion to extract the material parameters. It is shown that the extracted material parameters for the finite and infinite Bragg stacks agree for the symmetric unit cell configuration....

  19. New method of experimental evaluation of stacking fault energy in d-transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekhtyar, A.I.; Kozyrsky, G.Ya.; Kononenko, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    The positron-electron annihilation method is the most useful to study the electron structure near the dislocation cores. It follows from the analysis of angular correlation curves for γ-quanta of d-transition metals that sp- and spd-electrons may be treated as two Fermi-gases It has been concluded that d-like electrons reveal the behavior of both the collectivized and localized type. The splitting width, ω, of edge dislocations in various d-metals has been determined. Interesting data have been obtained for Mo single crystals deformed under different conditions: cold working (tensile test at room temperature); warm working (rolling at 300 deg C); hot working (creep at 1360 deg C)

  20. Spherical Torus Center Stack Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-01-01

    The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device

  1. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  2. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  3. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  4. Stacking interactions between carbohydrate and protein quantified by combination of theoretical and experimental methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Wimmerová

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate-receptor interactions are an integral part of biological events. They play an important role in many cellular processes, such as cell-cell adhesion, cell differentiation and in-cell signaling. Carbohydrates can interact with a receptor by using several types of intermolecular interactions. One of the most important is the interaction of a carbohydrate's apolar part with aromatic amino acid residues, known as dispersion interaction or CH/π interaction. In the study presented here, we attempted for the first time to quantify how the CH/π interaction contributes to a more general carbohydrate-protein interaction. We used a combined experimental approach, creating single and double point mutants with high level computational methods, and applied both to Ralstonia solanacearum (RSL lectin complexes with α-L-Me-fucoside. Experimentally measured binding affinities were compared with computed carbohydrate-aromatic amino acid residue interaction energies. Experimental binding affinities for the RSL wild type, phenylalanine and alanine mutants were -8.5, -7.1 and -4.1 kcal x mol(-1, respectively. These affinities agree with the computed dispersion interaction energy between carbohydrate and aromatic amino acid residues for RSL wild type and phenylalanine, with values -8.8, -7.9 kcal x mol(-1, excluding the alanine mutant where the interaction energy was -0.9 kcal x mol(-1. Molecular dynamics simulations show that discrepancy can be caused by creation of a new hydrogen bond between the α-L-Me-fucoside and RSL. Observed results suggest that in this and similar cases the carbohydrate-receptor interaction can be driven mainly by a dispersion interaction.

  5. Extending the frontiers of mass spectrometric instrumentation and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieffer, Gregg Martin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is two-fold: developing novel analysis methods using mass spectrometry and the implementation and characterization of a novel ion mobility mass spectrometry instrumentation. The novel mass spectrometry combines ion trap for ion/ion reactions coupled to an ion mobility cell. The long term goal of this instrumentation is to use ion/ion reactions to probe the structure of gas phase biomolecule ions. The three ion source - ion trap - ion mobility - qTOF mass spectrometer (IT - IM - TOF MS) instrument is described. The analysis of the degradation products in coal (Chapter 2) and the imaging plant metabolites (Appendix III) fall under the methods development category. These projects use existing commercial instrumentation (JEOL AccuTOF MS and Thermo Finnigan LCQ IT, respectively) for the mass analysis of the degraded coal products and the plant metabolites, respectively. The coal degradation paper discusses the use of the DART ion source for fast and easy sample analysis. The sample preparation consisted of a simple 50 fold dilution of the soluble coal products in water and placing the liquid in front of the heated gas stream. This is the first time the DART ion source has been used for analysis of coal. Steven Raders under the guidance of John Verkade came up with the coal degradation projects. Raders performed the coal degradation reactions, worked up the products, and sent them to me. Gregg Schieffer developed the method and wrote the paper demonstrating the use of the DART ion source for the fast and easy sample analysis. The plant metabolite imaging project extends the use of colloidal graphite as a sample coating for atmospheric pressure LDI. DC Perdian and I closely worked together to make this project work. Perdian focused on building the LDI setup whereas Schieffer focused on the MSn analysis of the metabolites. Both Perdian and I took the data featured in the paper. Perdian was the primary writer of the paper and used it as a

  6. New methods of magnet-based instrumentation for NOTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdeburg, Richard; Hauth, Daniel; Kaehler, Georg

    2013-12-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has displaced open surgery as the standard of care for many clinical conditions. NOTES has been described as the next surgical frontier with the objective of incision-free abdominal surgery. The principal challenge of NOTES procedures is the loss of triangulation and instrument rigidity, which is one of the fundamental concepts of laparoscopic surgery. To overcome these problems necessitates the development of new instrumentation. material and methods: We aimed to assess the use of a very simple combination of internal and external magnets that might allow the vigorous multiaxial traction/counter-traction required in NOTES procedures. The magnet retraction system consisted of an external magnetic assembly and either small internal magnets attached by endoscopic clips to the designated tissue (magnet-clip-approach) or an endoscopic grasping forceps in a magnetic deflector roll (magnet-trocar-approach). We compared both methods regarding precision, time and efficacy by performing transgastric partial uterus resections with better results for the magnet-trocar-approach. This proof-of-principle animal study showed that the combination of external and internal magnets generates sufficient coupling forces at clinically relevant abdominal wall thicknesses, making them suitable for use and evaluation in NOTES procedures, and provides the vigorous multiaxial traction/counter-traction required by the lack of additional abdominal trocars.

  7. Methods and instrumentation for quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revermann, T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of novel instrumentation and analytical methodology for quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) is described in this thesis. Demanding only small quantities of reagents and samples, microfluidic instrumentation is highly advantageous. Fast separations at high voltages

  8. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  9. Radiation effect characterization and test methods of single-chip and multi-chip stacked 16Mbit DRAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBel, K.A.; Gates, M.M.; Moran, A.K.; Kim, H.S.; Seidleck, C.M.; Marshall, P.; Kinnison, J.; Carkhuff, B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents radiation effects characterization performed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) on spaceflight candidate 16Mbit DRAMs. This includes heavy ion, proton, and Co60 irradiations on single-chip devices as well as proton irradiation of a stacked DRAM module. Lastly, a discussion of test methodology is undertaken

  10. Preparation and characterization of porphyrin-polythiophene stacked films as prepared by electrochemical method under stirring condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawa, Kosuke; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Sunao

    2008-01-01

    Porphyrin-polythiophene (pTh) stacked films consisting of meso-tetrathienylporphyrin (TThP) and bithiophene (BiTh) were prepared on transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes by sequential electrochemical scanning of applied potential between 0 and + 2 V vs Ag wire in the electrolyte solution of BiTh and TThP under stirring condition. First, the pTh films were prepared by electrochemical polymerization and then TThP was incorporated into the as-prepared pTh film by subsequent electrochemical scanning as described above in the TThP solution. The operation of solution stirring during electrochemical scanning achieved the formation of robust stacked films. UV/Vis and fluorescence spectra confirmed that the amount of TThP moiety increased with increasing the number of electrochemical scanning cycles in the TThP solution. In order to evaluate the incorporation profile of TThP, surface analyses and depth profiles of stacked films were carried out by XPS spectroscopy. The results suggested that all films formed porphyrin-polythiophene stacked structure precisely, and that TThP was exclusively incorporated around the outermost region of the pTh film

  11. Method to deterministically study photonic nanostructures in different experimental instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husken, B H; Woldering, L A; Blum, C; Vos, W L

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experimental method to recover a single, deterministically fabricated nanostructure in various experimental instruments without the use of artificially fabricated markers, with the aim to study photonic structures. Therefore, a detailed map of the spatial surroundings of the nanostructure is made during the fabrication of the structure. These maps are made using a series of micrographs with successively decreasing magnifications. The graphs reveal intrinsic and characteristic geometric features that can subsequently be used in different setups to act as markers. As an illustration, we probe surface cavities with radii of 65 nm on a silica opal photonic crystal with various setups: a focused ion beam workstation; a scanning electron microscope (SEM); a wide field optical microscope and a confocal microscope. We use cross-correlation techniques to recover a small area imaged with the SEM in a large area photographed with the optical microscope, which provides a possible avenue to automatic searching. We show how both structural and optical reflectivity data can be obtained from one and the same nanostructure. Since our approach does not use artificial grids or markers, it is of particular interest for samples whose structure is not known a priori, like samples created solely by self-assembly. In addition, our method is not restricted to conducting samples.

  12. Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.

  13. Instrumental performance of an etude after three methods of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Ark, S

    1997-12-01

    For 80 fifth-grade students three practice conditions (mental, mental with physical simulation, and physical with singing) produced significant mean differences in instrumental performance of an etude. No significant differences were found for traditional, physical practice.

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup

    As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation....... An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... in the hydrogen fuel gas supplied to the stack. EIS was used to examine the long-term behavior and monitor the evolution of the impedance of each of the repeating units and the whole stack. The observed impedance was analyzed in detail for one of the repeating units and the whole stack and the losses reported...

  15. Spectrometric methods used in the calibration of radiodiagnostic measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, W [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Recently a set of parameters for checking the quality of radiation for use in diagnostic radiology was established at the calibration facility of Nederlands Meetinstituut (NMI). The establishment of the radiation quality required re-evaluation of the correction factors for the primary air-kerma standards. Free-air ionisation chambers require several correction factors to measure air-kerma according to its definition. These correction factors were calculated for the NMi free-air chamber by Monte Carlo simulations for monoenergetic photons in the energy range from 10 keV to 320 keV. The actual correction factors follow from weighting these mono-energetic correction factors with the air-kerma spectrum of the photon beam. This paper describes the determination of the photon spectra of the X-ray qualities used for the calibration of dosimetric instruments used in radiodiagnostics. The detector used for these measurements is a planar HPGe-detector, placed in the direct beam of the X-ray machine. To convert the measured pulse height spectrum to the actual photon spectrum corrections must be made for fluorescent photon escape, single and multiple compton scattering inside the detector, and detector efficiency. From the calculated photon spectra a number of parameters of the X-ray beam can be calculated. The calculated first and second half value layer in aluminum and copper are compared with the measured values of these parameters to validate the method of spectrum reconstruction. Moreover the spectrum measurements offer the possibility to calibrate the X-ray generator in terms of maximum high voltage. The maximum photon energy in the spectrum is used as a standard for calibration of kVp-meters.

  16. Determination of hexavalent chromium concentration in industrial waste incinerator stack gas by using a modified ion chromatography with post-column derivatization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yuichi; Tokumura, Masahiro; Iwazaki, Yuta; Wang, Qi; Amagai, Takashi; Horii, Yuichi; Otsuka, Hideyuki; Tanikawa, Noboru; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Oguchi, Masahiro

    2017-06-16

    An ion chromatography with post-column derivatization with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (IC-DPC) analytical method was modified to enable measurement of trace-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in air. One of the difficulties in determining trace levels of Cr(VI) in air with conventional IC-DPC methods is co-elution of the solvent and ion peaks due to high concentrations of ionic compounds in the extract. However, by using gradient elution rather than isocratic elution we were able to fully resolve the Cr(VI) ion peak from the solvent peak without the need for diluting the extract, which would have reduced the minimum quantifiable level of the method. With this method, we were able to detect Cr(VI) in air at concentrations of 5.3ng/m 3 (assuming a sampling volume of 1m 3 and a final solution volume of 10mL). Recovery tests at three different concentrations of Cr(VI) (50, 250, 1000ng) were performed with or without fly ash; recovery rates at all the concentrations of Cr(VI), with or without fly ash, ranged from 68% to 110% (mean±relative standard deviation, 96%±11%), and there were no differences in recovery rates with respect to the presence or absence of fly ash. Finally, we used the developed method to determine the concentration of Cr(VI) in stack gases collected from eight industrial waste incinerators located in Japan. The concentration of Cr(VI) in the stack gases ranged from below the method quantification limit to 3100ng/m 3 . The highest concentrations of Cr(VI) detected in the stack gases were two to three orders of magnitude higher than that in ambient air in Japan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Authentication method for safeguards instruments securing data transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Neumann, G.; Gartner, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the worldwide increase in nuclear fuel cycle activities, the need arises to reduce inspection effort by increasing the inspection efficiency per facility. Therefore, more and more advanced safeguards instruments will be designed for automatic operation. In addition, sensoring and recording devices may be well separated from each other within the facility, while the data transmission medium is a cable. The basic problem is the authenticity of the transmitted information. It has to be ensured that no potential adversary is able to falsify the transmitted safeguards data, i.e. the data transmission is secured. At present, predominantly C/S-devices are designed for automatic and remote interrogation. Also in other areas of safeguards instrumentation authentication will become a major issue, in particular, where the facility operator may offer his process instrumentation to be used also for safeguards purposes. In this paper possibilities to solve the problem of authentication are analysed

  18. METHODS FOR DESCRIPTION OF EDUCATION AND SCIENTIFIC SERVICES IN INFORMATION AND EDUCATION ON THE BASIS OF INTEROPERABILITY STACK EIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Pavlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methodology for description of scientifi c and educational services in education and information on the basis of interoperability stack EIF (European Interoperability Framework. The passage describes operation factors to depict services on every level of the methodology, tools used to describe the services and the content. We also provide the link between methodology of description with the life span of the service. The article presents an example of service description according to the methodology considering the current education and professional standards, ITIL recommendations, ontology on the OWL basis and WSDL-description. 

  19. Development of a method to measure the concentration of 14C in the stack air of nuclear power plants by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, K.; Erlandsson, B.; Hellborg, R.; Haakansson, K.; Wiebert, A.; Skog, G.

    1993-04-01

    C-14, a pure low-energetic beta-emitter, is produced through various nuclear reactions in nuclear power plants. Some of this C-14 is air-borne and is transported via the ventilation system through the stack of the power station and is integrated in living matter in the surroundings of the plant. The long half-life of the isotope (T1/2=5730 years) and the biological importance of carbon may lead to a not negligible contribution of the radiation dose for those living in the neighbourhood of nuclear power plants. C-14 has earlier been measured radiometrically with mainly two different methods, using proportional counters or liquid scintillators. In this report a new method is described, using an accelerator based technique. accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). This technique has at least three advantages over the radiometrical methods. It requires only a few litres of gas per sample, which is 100-1000 times less compared to the radiometrical methods. It is insensitive to the beta and gamma rays from other radioactive isotopes in the stack air. The measuring time with AMS, about 20 minutes per sample, is considerably shorter compared to the radiometrical methods, which demand several hours per sample. The integrity of the AMS method is high and it might be convenient for regulatory supervision. (22 refs.)

  20. New developments in radiation protection instrumentation via active electronic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    New developments in electronics and radiation detectors are improving on real-time data acquisition of radiation exposure and contamination conditions. Recent developments in low power circuit designs, hybrid and integrated circuits, and microcomputers have all contributed to smaller and lighter radiation detection instruments that are, at the same time, more sensitive and provide more information (e.g., radioisotope identification) than previous devices. New developments in radiation detectors, such as cadmium telluride, gas scintillation proportional counters, and imaging counters (both charged particle and photon) promise higher sensitivities and expanded uses over present instruments. These developments are being applied in such areas as health physics, waste management, environmental monitoring, in vivo measurements, and nuclear safeguards

  1. Optical Methods and Instrumentation in Brain Imaging and Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of optical approaches used in brain imaging and therapy. It covers a variety of imaging techniques including diffuse optical imaging, laser speckle imaging, photoacoustic imaging and optical coherence tomography. A number of laser-based therapeutic approaches are reviewed, including photodynamic therapy, fluorescence guided resection and photothermal therapy. Fundamental principles and instrumentation are discussed for each imaging and therapeutic technique. Represents the first publication dedicated solely to optical diagnostics and therapeutics in the brain Provides a comprehensive review of the principles of each imaging/therapeutic modality Reviews the latest advances in instrumentation for optical diagnostics in the brain Discusses new optical-based therapeutic approaches for brain diseases

  2. Guide on Economic Instruments & Non-market Valuation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Bartczak, Anna; Czajkowski, Mikołaj

    The aim of this guidance document is to provide forest practitioners, decision makers and forest owners insights into the various economic instruments available to enhance the non-market ecosystem provision of forests such as a high quality biodiversity; enhanced carbon sequestration; improved...... with ecosystem degradation and iii) by recognising the substantial economic and welfare benefits of better management of ecosystems in forests. Ecosystem services contribute to economic welfare in two ways: • by contributing to the generation of income and wellbeing; and • by preventing damages that inflict...... initiatives it is therefore essential to consider trade offs and synergies between the complex interplay between ecosystem goods and services within an ecosystem,...

  3. A Geometrical Method for Sound-Hole Size and Location Enhancement in Lute Family Musical Instruments: The Golden Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Jafari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new analytical approach, the Golden Method, to enhance sound-hole size and location in musical instruments of the lute family in order to obtain better sound damping characteristics based on the concept of the golden ratio and the instrument geometry. The main objective of the paper is to increase the capability of lute family musical instruments in keeping a note for a certain time at a certain level to enhance the instruments’ orchestral characteristics. For this purpose, a geometry-based analytical method, the Golden Method is first described in detail in an itemized feature. A new musical instrument is then developed and tested to confirm the ability of the Golden Method in optimizing the acoustical characteristics of musical instruments from a damping point of view by designing the modified sound-hole. Finally, the new-developed instrument is tested, and the obtained results are compared with those of two well-known instruments to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the suggested method is able to increase the sound damping time by at least 2.4% without affecting the frequency response function and other acoustic characteristics of the instrument. This methodology could be used as the first step in future studies on design, optimization and evaluation of musical instruments of the lute family (e.g., lute, oud, barbat, mandolin, setar, and etc..

  4. Tritium instrumentation for a fusion reactor power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, K.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1976-09-01

    A review of tritium instrumentation is presented. This includes a discussion of currently available in-plant instrumentation and methods required for sampling stacks, monitoring process streams and reactor coolants, analyzing occupational work areas for air and surface contamination, and personnel monitoring. Off-site instrumentation and collection techniques are also presented. Conclusions are made concerning the adequacy of existing instrumentation in relation to the monitoring needs for fusion reactors

  5. Instrumental and statistical methods for the comparison of class evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszewski, Elisa Anne

    Trace evidence is a major field within forensic science. Association of trace evidence samples can be problematic due to sample heterogeneity and a lack of quantitative criteria for comparing spectra or chromatograms. The aim of this study is to evaluate different types of instrumentation for their ability to discriminate among samples of various types of trace evidence. Chemometric analysis, including techniques such as Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering, Principal Components Analysis, and Discriminant Analysis, was employed to evaluate instrumental data. First, automotive clear coats were analyzed by using microspectrophotometry to collect UV absorption data. In total, 71 samples were analyzed with classification accuracy of 91.61%. An external validation was performed, resulting in a prediction accuracy of 81.11%. Next, fiber dyes were analyzed using UV-Visible microspectrophotometry. While several physical characteristics of cotton fiber can be identified and compared, fiber color is considered to be an excellent source of variation, and thus was examined in this study. Twelve dyes were employed, some being visually indistinguishable. Several different analyses and comparisons were done, including an inter-laboratory comparison and external validations. Lastly, common plastic samples and other polymers were analyzed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and their pyrolysis products were then analyzed using multivariate statistics. The classification accuracy varied dependent upon the number of classes chosen, but the plastics were grouped based on composition. The polymers were used as an external validation and misclassifications occurred with chlorinated samples all being placed into the category containing PVC.

  6. Geology Structure Identification Using Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM Method of Tomography Result in North West Java Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudra Irawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available North West Java Basin is a tertiary sedimentary basin which is located in the right of the western part of the Java island. North West Java Basin is geodynamic where currently located at the rear position of the path of the volcanic arc of Java that is the result of the India-Australia plate subduction to the south towards the Eurasian plate (Explanation of Sunda in the north. Geology structure observation is difficult to be conducted at Quaternary volcanicfield due to the classical problem at tropical region. In the study interpretation of fault structures can be done on a cross-section of Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM used prayer namely Hardware Key Device, ie Central Processing Unit: RedHat Enterprise Linux AS 5.0, prayer Monitor 24-inch pieces, Server: SGI altix 450/SuSe Linux Enterprise Server 9.0, 32 GB, 32 X 2,6 GHz Procesor, network: Gigabyte 1 Gb/s, and the software used is paradigm, product: Seismic Processing and Imaging. The third fault obtained in this study in accordance with the geological information derived from previous research conducted by geologists. The second general direction is northwest-southeast direction represented by Baribis fault, fault-fault in the Valley Cimandiri and Gunung Walat. This direction is often known as the directions Meratus (Meratus Trend. Meratus directions interpreted as directions that follow the pattern of continuous arc Cretaceous age to Meratus in Kalimantan.

  7. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  8. Methods For Calculating Thyroid Doses to The Residents Of Ozersk Due to 131I Releases From The Stacks of The Mayak Production Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovny, Sergey I.; Mokrov, Y.; Stukalov, Pavel M.; Beregich, D. A.; Teplyakov, I. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was established in the late 1940s in accordance with a special Decree of the USSR Government for the production of nuclear weapons. In early years of MPA operation, due to the lack of experience and absence of effective methods of RW management, the enterprise had extensive routine (designed) and non-routine (accidental) releases of gaseous radioactive wastes to the atmosphere. These practices resulted in additional technogenic radiation exposure of residents inhabiting populated areas near the MPA. The primary objective of ongoing studies under JCCRER Project 1.4 is to estimate doses to the residents of Ozersk due to releases of radioactive substances from the stacks of MPA. Preliminary scoping studies have demonstrated that releases of radioactive iodine (131I) from the stacks of the Mayak Radiochemical Plant represented the major contribution to the dose to residents of Ozersk and of other nearby populated areas. The behavior of 131I in the environment and of 131I migration through biological food chains (vegetation-cows-milk-humans) indicated a need for use of special mathematical models to perform the estimation of radiation doses to the population. The goal of this work is to select an appropriate model of the iodine migration in biological food chains and to justify numerical values of the model parameters.

  9. Instrumental methods for analysis of some elements in flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrodzki, P.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Malec, P.; Krosniak, M.; Knap, W.

    1993-10-01

    For ten various brands of flour contents of chosen (heavy) elements were determined by means of ICP, GF-AAS, PIXE and ASV/CSV methods. General performance of participating laboratories as well as pros and cons of different analytical methods were compared and discussed. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs, 7 tabs

  10. Validation of method in instrumental NAA for food products sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfian; Siti Suprapti; Setyo Purwanto

    2010-01-01

    NAA is a method of testing that has not been standardized. To affirm and confirm that this method is valid. it must be done validation of the method with various sample standard reference materials. In this work. the validation is carried for food product samples using NIST SRM 1567a (wheat flour) and NIST SRM 1568a (rice flour). The results show that the validation method for testing nine elements (Al, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ca, Fe, Se and Zn) in SRM 1567a and eight elements (Al, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ca, Se and Zn ) in SRM 1568a pass the test of accuracy and precision. It can be conclude that this method has power to give valid result in determination element of the food products samples. (author)

  11. A Workshop on Methods for Neutron Scattering Instrument Design. Introduction and Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, Rex P.

    1996-09-01

    The future of neutron and x-ray scattering instrument development and international cooperation was the focus of the workshop on ''Methods for Neutron Scattering Instrument Design'' September 23-25 at the E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These proceedings are a collection of a portion of the invited and contributed presentations

  12. Instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation. Progress report, January 15-September 14, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.N.

    1986-09-01

    This document reports progress under grant entitled ''Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.'' Individual reports are presented on projects entitled the physical aspects of radionuclide imaging, image reconstruction and quantitative evaluation, PET-related instrumentation for improved quantitation, improvements in the FMI cyclotron for increased utilization, and methodology for quantitative evaluation of diagnostic performance

  13. THE REGULATION OF MONEY CIRCULATION ON THE BASIS OF USING METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mishchenko; S. Naumenkova

    2013-01-01

    In the article it was researched the instruments and mechanism of safeguarding stability of money market on the basis of implementing the optimal monetary policy regime. It was determined the main directions of appliance the monetary policy methods and instruments to guiding money market stability and it was also investigated the influence of transmission mechanism on providing the soundness of money circulations.

  14. Ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring method on instrument transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartalović Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sonic and ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring have been applied since the early days of these phenomena monitoring. Modern measurement and partial discharge acoustic (ultrasonic and sonic monitoring method has been rapidly evolving as a result of new electronic component design, information technology and updated software solutions as well as the development of knowledge in the partial discharge diagnosis. Electrical discharges in the insulation system generate voltage-current pulses in the network and ultrasonic waves that propagate through the insulation system and structure. Amplitude-phase-frequency analysis of these signals reveals information about the intensity, type and location of partial discharges. The paper discusses the possibility of ultrasonic method selectivity improvement and the increase of diagnosis reliability in the field. Measurements were performed in the laboratory and in the field while a number of transformers were analysed for dissolved gases in the oil. A comparative review of methods for the partial discharge detection is also presented in this paper.

  15. Radon/radon-daughter measurement methods and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radon-daughter measurement equipment and techniques have been continuously improved over the last 25 years. Improvements have been in the areas of accuracy, time and convenience. We now have miniaturized scalers and detectors available for measuring the alpha particle count rates from aerosol samples collected on filter papers. We also have small lightweight efficient pumps for conveniently collecting samples and we have various counting methods which allow us to choose between making very precise measurements or nominal measurements. Radon-daughter measurement methods used in uranium mines and mills are discussed including a personal radon-daughter-exposure integrating device which can be worn by miners

  16. Magnetic characterisation of recording materials: design, instrumentation and experimental methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samwel, E.O.

    1995-01-01

    The progress being made in the field of magnetic recording is extremely fast. The need to keep this progress going, leads to new types of recording materials which require advanced measurement systems and measurement procedures. Furthermore, the existing measurement methods need to be reviewed as

  17. Preparation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Zhenghua; Yan Chang; Sun Kaiwen; Han Zili [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Fangyang, E-mail: liufangyang@csu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Jin [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lai Yanqing, E-mail: laiyanqingcsu@163.com [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li Jie; Liu Yexiang [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Earth-abundant Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} is a promising alternative photovoltaic material which has been examined as absorber layer of thin film solar cells. In this study, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films have been successfully fabricated by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The prepared CZTS thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Hall effect measurements and photoelectrochemical tests. Results reveal that the thin films have kesterite structured Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and the p-type conductivity with a carrier concentration in the order of 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and an optical band gap of 1.5 eV, which are suitable for applications in thin film solar cells.

  18. OpenStack essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Radez, Dan

    2015-01-01

    If you need to get started with OpenStack or want to learn more, then this book is your perfect companion. If you're comfortable with the Linux command line, you'll gain confidence in using OpenStack.

  19. Stack gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-04-12

    Hot stack gases transfer contained heat to a gravity flow of pebbles treated with a catalyst, cooled stacked gases and a sulfuric acid mist is withdrawn from the unit, and heat picked up by the pebbles is transferred to air for combustion or other process. The sulfuric acid (or sulfur, depending on the catalyst) is withdrawn in a recovery unit.

  20. Mastering OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Khedher, Omar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators, cloud engineers, and system architects who want to deploy a cloud based on OpenStack in a mid- to large-sized IT infrastructure. If you have a fundamental understanding of cloud computing and OpenStack and want to expand your knowledge, then this book is an excellent checkpoint to move forward.

  1. Method of charging instruments into liquid metal coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To alleviate the thermal shock of a reactor charging machine when charging the machine into liquid metal coolant after the machine is preheated in cover gas. Method: When a reactor fueling machine reaches at the lowermost portion the position immediately above liquid metal coolant surface level, the machine is stopped moving down. The reactor fueling machine is heated at the lowermost portion by thermal radiation from the surface of the liquid metal coolant. After the machine is thus preheated in cover gas, it is again steadily moved down by a winch and charged into the liquid metal coolant. Therefore, the thermal shock of the machine becomes low when charging the machine into the liquid metal coolant to eliminate the damage and deformation at the machine. (Yoshihara, H.)

  2. Fatigue resistance of engine-driven rotary nickel-titanium instruments produced by new manufacturing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola Maria; Plotino, Gianluca; Somma, Francesco; Garala, Manish; De Luca, Massimo; Testarelli, Luca

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cyclic fatigue resistance is increased for nickel-titanium instruments manufactured by using new processes. This was evaluated by comparing instruments produced by using the twisted method (TF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and those using the M-wire alloy (GTX; Dentsply Tulsa-Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) with instruments produced by a traditional NiTi grinding process (K3, SybronEndo). Tests were performed with a specific cyclic fatigue device that evaluated cycles to failure of rotary instruments inside curved artificial canals. Results indicated that size 06-25 TF instruments showed a significant increase (p 0.05) in the mean number of cycles to failure when compared with size 06-20 GT series X instruments. The new manufacturing process produced nickel-titanium rotary files (TF) significantly more resistant to fatigue than instruments produced with the traditional NiTi grinding process. Instruments produced with M-wire (GTX) were not found to be more resistant to fatigue than instruments produced with the traditional NiTi grinding process.

  3. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, Fritz E-mail: Fritz.Caspers@cern.ch; Moehl, Dieter

    2004-10-11

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10{sup 5} the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some

  4. Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Bruyere, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative 'all modes' failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.

  5. Evaluation of surface characteristics of rotary nickel-titanium instruments produced by different manufacturing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, U; Gurel, M

    2017-02-01

    Instrument fracture is a serious concern in endodontic practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface quality of new and used rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments manufactured by the traditional grinding process and twisting methods. Total 16 instruments of two rotary NiTi systems were used in this study. Eight Twisted Files (TF) (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) and 8 Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) instruments were evaluated. New and used of 4 experimental groups were evaluated using an atomic force microscopy (AFM). New and used instruments were analyzed on 3 points along a 3 mm. section at the tip of the instrument. Quantitative measurements according to the topographical deviations were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed with paired samples t-test and independent samples t-test. Mean root mean square (RMS) values for new and used TF 25.06 files were 10.70 ± 2.80 nm and 21.58 ± 6.42 nm, respectively, and the difference between them was statistically significant (P instruments produced by twisting method (TF 25.06) had better surface quality than the instruments produced by traditional grinding process (Mtwo 25.06 files).

  6. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ''Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.'' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging

  7. A method for the deliberate and deliberative selection of policy instrument mixes for climate change adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen L. P. Mees

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Policy instruments can help put climate adaptation plans into action. Here, we propose a method for the systematic assessment and selection of policy instruments for stimulating adaptation action. The multi-disciplinary set of six assessment criteria is derived from economics, policy, and legal studies. These criteria are specified for the purpose of climate adaptation by taking into account four challenges to the governance of climate adaptation: uncertainty, spatial diversity, controversy, and social complexity. The six criteria and four challenges are integrated into a step-wise method that enables the selection of instruments starting from a generic assessment and ending with a specific assessment of policy instrument mixes for the stimulation of a specific adaptation measure. We then apply the method to three examples of adaptation measures. The method's merits lie in enabling deliberate choices through a holistic and comprehensive set of adaptation specific criteria, as well as deliberative choices by offering a stepwise method that structures an informed dialog on instrument selection. Although the method was created and applied by scientific experts, policy-makers can also use the method.

  8. Tundish Cover Flux Thickness Measurement Method and Instrumentation Based on Computer Vision in Continuous Casting Tundish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thickness of tundish cover flux (TCF plays an important role in continuous casting (CC steelmaking process. Traditional measurement method of TCF thickness is single/double wire methods, which have several problems such as personal security, easily affected by operators, and poor repeatability. To solve all these problems, in this paper, we specifically designed and built an instrumentation and presented a novel method to measure the TCF thickness. The instrumentation was composed of a measurement bar, a mechanical device, a high-definition industrial camera, a Siemens S7-200 programmable logic controller (PLC, and a computer. Our measurement method was based on the computer vision algorithms, including image denoising method, monocular range measurement method, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT, and image gray gradient detection method. Using the present instrumentation and method, images in the CC tundish can be collected by camera and transferred to computer to do imaging processing. Experiments showed that our instrumentation and method worked well at scene of steel plants, can accurately measure the thickness of TCF, and overcome the disadvantages of traditional measurement methods, or even replace the traditional ones.

  9. THE REGULATION OF MONEY CIRCULATION ON THE BASIS OF USING METHODS AND INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mishchenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article it was researched the instruments and mechanism of safeguarding stability of money market on the basis of implementing the optimal monetary policy regime. It was determined the main directions of appliance the monetary policy methods and instruments to guiding money market stability and it was also investigated the influence of transmission mechanism on providing the soundness of money circulations.

  10. Seismic characterization of geothermal reservoirs by application of the common-reflection-surface stack method and attribute analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Pussak

    2015-01-01

    An important contribution of geosciences to the renewable energy production portfolio is the exploration and utilization of geothermal resources. For the development of a geothermal project at great depths a detailed geological and geophysical exploration program is required in the first phase. With the help of active seismic methods high-resolution images of the geothermal reservoir can be delivered. This allows potential transport routes for fluids to be identified as well as regions with h...

  11. A novel method for identifying a graph-based representation of 3-D microvascular networks from fluorescence microscopy image stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Sepideh; Xu, Xiaoyin; Ben-Zvi, Ayal; Lacoste, Baptiste; Gu, Chenghua; Miller, Eric L

    2015-02-01

    A novel approach to determine the global topological structure of a microvasculature network from noisy and low-resolution fluorescence microscopy data that does not require the detailed segmentation of the vessel structure is proposed here. The method is most appropriate for problems where the tortuosity of the network is relatively low and proceeds by directly computing a piecewise linear approximation to the vasculature skeleton through the construction of a graph in three dimensions whose edges represent the skeletal approximation and vertices are located at Critical Points (CPs) on the microvasculature. The CPs are defined as vessel junctions or locations of relatively large curvature along the centerline of a vessel. Our method consists of two phases. First, we provide a CP detection technique that, for junctions in particular, does not require any a priori geometric information such as direction or degree. Second, connectivity between detected nodes is determined via the solution of a Binary Integer Program (BIP) whose variables determine whether a potential edge between nodes is or is not included in the final graph. The utility function in this problem reflects both intensity-based and structural information along the path connecting the two nodes. Qualitative and quantitative results confirm the usefulness and accuracy of this method. This approach provides a mean of correctly capturing the connectivity patterns in vessels that are missed by more traditional segmentation and binarization schemes because of imperfections in the images which manifest as dim or broken vessels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Method for Modeling the Virtual Instrument Automatic Test System Based on the Petri Net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Min; CHEN Guang-ju

    2005-01-01

    Virtual instrument is playing the important role in automatic test system. This paper introduces a composition of a virtual instrument automatic test system and takes the VXIbus based a test software platform which is developed by CAT lab of the UESTC as an example. Then a method to model this system based on Petri net is proposed. Through this method, we can analyze the test task scheduling to prevent the deadlock or resources conflict. At last, this paper analyzes the feasibility of this method.

  13. Stacking the Equiangular Spiral

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A.; Azabi, Y. O.; Rahman, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present an algorithm that adapts the mature Stack and Draw (SaD) methodology for fabricating the exotic Equiangular Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber. (ES-PCF) The principle of Steiner chains and circle packing is exploited to obtain a non-hexagonal design using a stacking procedure based on Hexagonal Close Packing. The optical properties of the proposed structure are promising for SuperContinuum Generation. This approach could make accessible not only the equiangular spiral but also other qua...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... being measured and a sufficient distance from the surface to allow the light sensing element in the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods of measurement; light measuring... § 75.1719-3 Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments. (a) Compliance with § 75.1719-1(d...

  15. Method of case hardening depth testing by using multifunctional ultrasonic testing instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salchak, Y A; Sednev, D A; Ardashkin, I B; Kroening, M

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes usability of ultrasonic case hardening depth control applying standard instrument of ultrasonic inspections. The ultrasonic method of measuring the depth of the hardened layer is proposed. Experimental series within the specified and multifunctional ultrasonic equipment are performed. The obtained results are compared with the results of a referent method of analysis. (paper)

  16. Tunable electro-optic filter stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa

    2017-09-05

    A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.

  17. Calibration method based on direct radioactivity measurement for radioactive gas monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Ohi, Yoshihiro; Chida, Tohru; Wu, Youyang.

    1993-01-01

    A calibration method for radioactive gas monitoring instruments was studied. In the method, gaseous radioactivity standards were provided on the basis of the direct radioactivity measurement by the diffusion-in long proportional counter method (DLPC method). The radioactivity concentration of the gas mixture through a monitoring instrument was determined by sampling the known volume of the gas mixture into the proportional counter used for the DLPC method. Since oxygen in the gas mixture decreased the counting efficiency in a proportional counter, the influence on calibration was experimentally estimated. It was not serious and able to be easily corrected. By the present method, the relation between radioactivity concentration and ionization current was determined for a gas-flow ionization chamber with 1.5 l effective volume. It showed good agreement with the results in other works. (author)

  18. Pre-validation methods for developing a patient reported outcome instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Mayret M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures that reflect patients' assessment of their health are of increasing importance as outcome measures in randomised controlled trials. The methodological approach used in the pre-validation development of new instruments (item generation, item reduction and question formatting should be robust and transparent. The totality of the content of existing PRO instruments for a specific condition provides a valuable resource (pool of items that can be utilised to develop new instruments. Such 'top down' approaches are common, but the explicit pre-validation methods are often poorly reported. This paper presents a systematic and generalisable 5-step pre-validation PRO instrument methodology. Methods The method is illustrated using the example of the Aberdeen Glaucoma Questionnaire (AGQ. The five steps are: 1 Generation of a pool of items; 2 Item de-duplication (three phases; 3 Item reduction (two phases; 4 Assessment of the remaining items' content coverage against a pre-existing theoretical framework appropriate to the objectives of the instrument and the target population (e.g. ICF; and 5 qualitative exploration of the target populations' views of the new instrument and the items it contains. Results The AGQ 'item pool' contained 725 items. Three de-duplication phases resulted in reduction of 91, 225 and 48 items respectively. The item reduction phases discarded 70 items and 208 items respectively. The draft AGQ contained 83 items with good content coverage. The qualitative exploration ('think aloud' study resulted in removal of a further 15 items and refinement to the wording of others. The resultant draft AGQ contained 68 items. Conclusions This study presents a novel methodology for developing a PRO instrument, based on three sources: literature reporting what is important to patient; theoretically coherent framework; and patients' experience of completing the instrument. By systematically accounting for all items dropped

  19. A new method for the radiation representation of musical instruments in auralizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Otondo, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the representation of sound sources that vary their directivity in time in auralizations is introduced. A recording method with multi-channel anechoic recordings is proposed in connection with the use of a multiple virtual source reproduction system in auralizations. Listening ex...... to be significant. Further applications of the method are considered for ensembles within room auralizations as well as in the field of studio recording techniques for large instruments....

  20. PRECISION COSMOGRAPHY WITH STACKED VOIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a purely geometrical method for probing the expansion history of the universe from the observation of the shape of stacked voids in spectroscopic redshift surveys. Our method is an Alcock-Paczyński (AP) test based on the average sphericity of voids posited on the local isotropy of the universe. It works by comparing the temporal extent of cosmic voids along the line of sight with their angular, spatial extent. We describe the algorithm that we use to detect and stack voids in redshift shells on the light cone and test it on mock light cones produced from N-body simulations. We establish a robust statistical model for estimating the average stretching of voids in redshift space and quantify the contamination by peculiar velocities. Finally, assuming that the void statistics that we derive from N-body simulations is preserved when considering galaxy surveys, we assess the capability of this approach to constrain dark energy parameters. We report this assessment in terms of the figure of merit (FoM) of the dark energy task force and in particular of the proposed Euclid mission which is particularly suited for this technique since it is a spectroscopic survey. The FoM due to stacked voids from the Euclid wide survey may double that of all other dark energy probes derived from Euclid data alone (combined with Planck priors). In particular, voids seem to outperform baryon acoustic oscillations by an order of magnitude. This result is consistent with simple estimates based on mode counting. The AP test based on stacked voids may be a significant addition to the portfolio of major dark energy probes and its potentialities must be studied in detail.

  1. FJ-2207 measuring instrument detection pipe surface a level of pollution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangong

    2010-01-01

    On the pipe surface contamination were detected α level of pollution is a frequently encountered dose-detection work. Because the pipeline surface arc, while the measuring probe for the plane, which for accurate measurement difficult. In this paper, on the FJ-2207-type pipe surface contamination measuring instrument measuring pollution levels in the α method was studied. Introduced the FJ-2207 measuring instrument detection pipe surface α pollution levels. Studied this measuring instrument on the same sources of surface, plane α level of radioactivity measured differences in the results obtained control of the apparatus when the direct measurement of the surface correction factor, and gives 32-216 specifications commonly used pipe direct measurement of the amendment factor. Convenient method, test results are reliable for the accurate measurement of pipe pollution levels in the surface of α as a reference and learning. (authors)

  2. USAGE OF PICTOGRAMS TO INTRODUCE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS TO EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunsu YILMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine and investigate the perception ability of musical instruments of educable mentally retarded children with the support of visual elements. The research is conducted for every children individually in a special education and rehabilitation centre. The problematic of this research is the level of perception ability of musical instruments with visual support on mild mentally retarded children. In this research, perception ability of defining pictograms by music is introduced as an alternative method. It is researched that how educable mentally retarded children perceive pictograms by music tools. In this case, it is aimed to introduce musical instruments to educable mentally retarded children by pictograms with music. The research is applied with a qualitative approach. Data were obtained with the recorder, then they were turned into texts and analyzed with content analysis method.

  3. A new method for the assessment of the surface topography of NiTi rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F; Barbosa, I; Scelza, P; Russano, D; Neff, J; Montagnana, M; Zaccaro Scelza, M

    2017-09-01

    To describe a new method for the assessment of nanoscale alterations in the surface topography of nickel-titanium endodontic instruments using a high-resolution optical method and to verify the accuracy of the technique. Noncontact three-dimensional optical profilometry was used to evaluate defects on a size 25, .08 taper reciprocating instrument (WaveOne ® ), which was subjected to a cyclic fatigue test in a simulated root canal in a clear resin block. For the investigation, an original procedure was established for the analysis of similar areas located 3 mm from the tip of the instrument before and after canal preparation to enable the repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements with precision. All observations and analysis were taken in areas measuring 210 × 210 μm provided by the software of the equipment. The three-dimensional high-resolution image analysis showed clear alterations in the surface topography of the examined cutting blade and flute of the instrument, before and after use, with the presence of surface irregularities such as deformations, debris, grooves, cracks, steps and microcavities. Optical profilometry provided accurate qualitative nanoscale evaluation of similar surfaces before and after the fatigue test. The stability and repeatability of the technique enables a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of wear on the surface of endodontic instruments. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  5. Stochastic stacking without filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.

    1982-12-01

    The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10 8 per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth

  6. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  7. Applying the Mixed Methods Instrument Development and Construct Validation Process: the Transformative Experience Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Stewart, Victoria C.; Pugh, Kevin J.

    2018-01-01

    Onwuegbuzie and colleagues proposed the Instrument Development and Construct Validation (IDCV) process as a mixed methods framework for creating and validating measures. Examples applying IDCV are lacking. We provide an illustrative case integrating the Rasch model and cognitive interviews applied to the development of the Transformative…

  8. Bayesian methods for meta-analysis of causal relationships estimated using genetic instrumental variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Stephen; Thompson, Simon G; Thompson, Grahame

    2010-01-01

    Genetic markers can be used as instrumental variables, in an analogous way to randomization in a clinical trial, to estimate the causal relationship between a phenotype and an outcome variable. Our purpose is to extend the existing methods for such Mendelian randomization studies to the context o...

  9. Field astrobiology research instruments and methods in moon-mars analogue site.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foing, B.H.; Stoker, C.; Zavaleta, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D.; Page, J.; Pletser, V.; Hendrikse, J.; Oliveira Lebre Direito, M.S.; Kotler, M.; Martins, Z.; Orzechowska, G.; Thiel, C.S.; Clarke, J.; Gross, J.; Wendt, L.; Borst, A.; Peters, S.; Wilhelm, M.-B.; Davies, G.R.; EuroGeoMars 2009 Team, ILEWG

    2011-01-01

    We describe the field demonstration of astrobiology instruments and research methods conducted in and from the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah during the EuroGeoMars campaign 2009 coordinated by ILEWG, ESA/ESTEC and NASA Ames, with the contribution of academic partners. We discuss the

  10. A review of modern instrumental methods of elemental analysis of petroleum related material. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a review is presented of the state of the art in elemental analysis of petroleum-related materials (crude oil, gasoline, additives, and lubricants) using modern instrumental analysis techniques. The major instrumental techniques used for elemental analysis of petroleum products include atomic absorption spectrometry (both with flame and with graphite furnace atomizer), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, ion chromatography, microelemental methods, neutron activation, spark source mass spectrometry, and x-ray fluorescence. Each of these techniques is compared for its advantages, disadvantages, and typical applications in the petroleum field

  11. New highly sensitive method of simultaneous instrumental neutron activation determination of 12 microelements in vine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoniya, N.I.

    1977-01-01

    The main principles and methods of simultaneous multi-element instrumental neutron activation determination of microelements in vine seeds are presented. The methods permit to carry out quantitative evaluation for every single corn of the seeds. It is shown that the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis with the utilization of a semiconductor spectrometer of high resolution and mini electronic computer permit to carry out serial determinations of 12 microelements in the individual corns of vine seeds of different sorts. This method will permit to determine the missing or excess content of this or that biologically important microelement in soils, plants, fruit and genetic material - seeds, and so to determine the optimum conditions of growing plants by applying microelement fertilizers as extra nutrient means

  12. Design and operation of dust measuring instrumentation based on the beta-radiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilienfeld, P.

    1975-01-01

    The theory, instrument design aspects and applications of beta-radiation attenuation for the measurement of the mass concentration of airborne particulates are reviewed. Applicable methods of particle collection, beta sensing configurations, source ( 63 Ni, 14 C, 147 Pr, 85 Kr) and detector design criteria, electronic signal processing, digital control and instrument programming techniques are treated. Advantages, limitations and error sources of beta-attenuation instrumentation are analyzed. Applications to industrial dust measurements, source testing, ambient monitoring, and particle size analysis are the major areas of practical utilization of this technique, and its inherent capability for automated and unattended operation provides compatibility with process control synchronization and alarm, telemetry, and incorporation into pollution monitoring network sensing stations. (orig.) [de

  13. Using a method based on Potts Model to segment a micro-CT image stack of trabecular bones of femoral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Pedro H.A. de; Cabral, Manuela O.M., E-mail: andrade.pha@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Vieira, Jose W.; Correia, Filipe L. de B., E-mail: jose.wilson59@uol.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R. De A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Exposure Computational Models are composed basically of an anthropomorphic phantom, a Monte Carlo (MC) code, and an algorithm simulator of the radioactive source. Tomographic phantoms are developed from medical images and must be pre-processed and segmented before being coupled to a MC code (which simulates the interaction of radiation with matter). This work presents a methodology used for treatment of micro-CT images stack of a femur, obtained from a 30 year old female skeleton provided by the Imaging Laboratory for Anthropology of the University of Bristol, UK. These images contain resolution of 60 micrometers and from these a block containing only 160 x 60 x 160 pixels of trabecular tissues and bone marrow was cut and saved as ⁎.sgi file (header + ⁎.raw file). The Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica (Recife-PE, Brazil) developed a software named Digital Image Processing (DIP), in which a method for segmentation based on a physical model for particle interaction known as Potts Model (or q-Ising) was implemented. This model analyzes the statistical dependence between sites in a network. In Potts Model, when the values of spin variables at neighboring sites are identical, it is assigned an 'energy of interaction' between them. Otherwise, it is said that the sites do not interact. Making an analogy between network sites and the pixels of a digital image and, moreover, between the spins variables and the intensity of the gray scale, it was possible to apply this model to obtain texture descriptors and segment the image. (author)

  14. Using a method based on Potts Model to segment a micro-CT image stack of trabecular bones of femoral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Pedro H.A. de; Cabral, Manuela O.M.; Lima, Fernando R. De A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure Computational Models are composed basically of an anthropomorphic phantom, a Monte Carlo (MC) code, and an algorithm simulator of the radioactive source. Tomographic phantoms are developed from medical images and must be pre-processed and segmented before being coupled to a MC code (which simulates the interaction of radiation with matter). This work presents a methodology used for treatment of micro-CT images stack of a femur, obtained from a 30 year old female skeleton provided by the Imaging Laboratory for Anthropology of the University of Bristol, UK. These images contain resolution of 60 micrometers and from these a block containing only 160 x 60 x 160 pixels of trabecular tissues and bone marrow was cut and saved as ⁎.sgi file (header + ⁎.raw file). The Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica (Recife-PE, Brazil) developed a software named Digital Image Processing (DIP), in which a method for segmentation based on a physical model for particle interaction known as Potts Model (or q-Ising) was implemented. This model analyzes the statistical dependence between sites in a network. In Potts Model, when the values of spin variables at neighboring sites are identical, it is assigned an 'energy of interaction' between them. Otherwise, it is said that the sites do not interact. Making an analogy between network sites and the pixels of a digital image and, moreover, between the spins variables and the intensity of the gray scale, it was possible to apply this model to obtain texture descriptors and segment the image. (author)

  15. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  16. Experimental innovations in surface science a guide to practical laboratory methods and instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John T

    2015-01-01

    This book is a new edition of a classic text on experimental methods and instruments in surface science. It offers practical insight useful to chemists, physicists, and materials scientists working in experimental surface science. This enlarged second edition contains almost 300 descriptions of experimental methods. The more than 50 active areas with individual scientific and measurement concepts and activities relevant to each area are presented in this book. The key areas covered are: Vacuum System Technology, Mechanical Fabrication Techniques, Measurement Methods, Thermal Control, Delivery of Adsorbates to Surfaces, UHV Windows, Surface Preparation Methods, High Area Solids, Safety. The book is written for researchers and graduate students.

  17. Rare earths analysis of rock samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis, internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silachyov, I.

    2016-01-01

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of long-lived rare earth elements (REE) in rock samples is considered in this work. Two different methods are statistically compared: the well established external standard method carried out using standard reference materials, and the internal standard method (ISM), using Fe, determined through X-ray fluorescence analysis, as an element-comparator. The ISM proved to be the more precise method for a wide range of REE contents and can be recommended for routine practice. (author)

  18. Evaluation of two disinfection/sterilization methods on silicon rubber-based composite finishing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Vánia A; Pereira, Leandro O; Hirata JUNIOR, Raphael; Perez, Cesar R

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of disinfection/sterilization methods and their effects on polishing capacity, micomorphology, and composition of two different composite fiishing and polishing instruments. Two brands of finishing and polishing instruments (Jiffy and Optimize), were analyzed. For the antimicrobial test, 60 points (30 of each brand) were used for polishing composite restorations and submitted to three different groups of disinfection/sterilization methods: none (control), autoclaving, and immersion in peracetic acid for 60 minutes. The in vitro tests were performed to evaluate the polishing performance on resin composite disks (Amelogen) using a 3D scanner (Talyscan) and to evaluate the effects on the points' surface composition (XRF) and micromorphology (MEV) after completing a polishing and sterilizing routine five times. Both sterilization/disinfection methods were efficient against oral cultivable organisms and no deleterious modification was observed to point surface.

  19. Determination of the stacking fault energies of face centured cubic metals and alloys by X-rays diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, J.F.A.; Padilha, A.F.; Imakuma, K.

    1988-03-01

    An X-rays diffraction method was applied to measure the Stacking Fault Energies (SFE) of the AISI 304, AISI 316, AISI 347 and DIN-WERKSTOFF 1.4970 Austenitic Stainless Steels. The SFE determination plays an important role in the research of the mecanichal behaviour of the Metal and Alloys, their deformation mechanisms, stability of micro-structure and electronic configuration. The method is based on the relationship between the SFE and the ratio of the Mean Square Strains to the Stacking-Fault probability. The Mean Square Strain was evaluated by Fourier Analysis of X-rays Diffaction profiles, corrected to reduce instrumental effects, followed by the application of the Warren-Averbach method to the Fourier Coefficients. The Stacking-Fault probabilities were derived from the changes of peak separations between cold-worked and annealed specimens. (author) [pt

  20. An ergonomics based design research method for the arrangement of helicopter flight instrument panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alppay, Cem; Bayazit, Nigan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the arrangement of displays in flight instrument panels of multi-purpose civil helicopters following a user-centered design method based on ergonomics principles. Our methodology can also be described as a user-interface arrangement methodology based on user opinions and preferences. This study can be outlined as gathering user-centered data using two different research methods and then analyzing and integrating the collected data to come up with an optimal instrument panel design. An interview with helicopter pilots formed the first step of our research. In that interview, pilots were asked to provide a quantitative evaluation of basic interface arrangement principles. In the second phase of the research, a paper prototyping study was conducted with same pilots. The final phase of the study entailed synthesizing the findings from interviews and observational studies to formulate an optimal flight instrument arrangement methodology. The primary results that we present in our paper are the methodology that we developed and three new interface arrangement concepts, namely relationship of inseparability, integrated value and locational value. An optimum instrument panel arrangement is also proposed by the researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Intercomparison of two comparative reactivity method instruments inf the Mediterranean basin during summer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannoni, N.; Dusanter, S.; Gros, V.; Sarda Esteve, R.; Michoud, V.; Sinha, V.; Locoge, N.; Bonsang, B.

    2015-09-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) plays a key role in the atmosphere, as it initiates most of the oxidation processes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and can ultimately lead to the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). There are still uncertainties associated with the OH budget assessed using current models of atmospheric chemistry and direct measurements of OH sources and sinks have proved to be valuable tools to improve our understanding of the OH chemistry. The total first order loss rate of OH, or total OH reactivity, can be directly measured using three different methods, such as the following: total OH loss rate measurement, laser-induced pump and probe technique and comparative reactivity method. Observations of total OH reactivity are usually coupled to individual measurements of reactive compounds in the gas phase, which are used to calculate the OH reactivity. Studies using the three methods have highlighted that a significant fraction of OH reactivity is often not explained by individually measured reactive compounds and could be associated to unmeasured or unknown chemical species. Therefore accurate and reproducible measurements of OH reactivity are required. The comparative reactivity method (CRM) has demonstrated to be an advantageous technique with an extensive range of applications, and for this reason it has been adopted by several research groups since its development. However, this method also requires careful corrections to derive ambient OH reactivity. Herein we present an intercomparison exercise of two CRM instruments, CRM-LSCE (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement) and CRM-MD (Mines Douai), conducted during July 2013 at the Mediterranean site of Ersa, Cape Corsica, France. The intercomparison exercise included tests to assess the corrections needed by the two instruments to process the raw data sets as well as OH reactivity observations. The observation was divided in three parts: 2 days of plant

  2. A multi-criteria evaluation method for climate change mitigation policy instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konidari, Popi; Mavrakis, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated multi-criteria analysis method for the quantitative evaluation of climate change mitigation policy instruments. The method consists of: (i) a set of criteria supported by sub-criteria, all of which describe the complex framework under which these instruments are selected by policy makers and implemented, (ii) an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) process for defining weight coefficients for criteria and sub-criteria according to the preferences of three stakeholders groups and (iii) a Multi-Attribute Theory (MAUT)/Simple Multi-Attribute Ranking Technique (SMART) process for assigning grades to each instrument that is evaluated for its performance under a specific sub-criterion. Arguments for the selected combination of these standard methods and definitions for criteria/sub-criteria are quoted. Consistency and robustness tests are performed. The functionality of the proposed method is tested by assessing the aggregate performances of the EU emission trading scheme at Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom. Conclusions are discussed

  3. Sparse feature learning for instrument identification: Effects of sampling and pooling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yoonchang; Lee, Subin; Nam, Juhan; Lee, Kyogu

    2016-05-01

    Feature learning for music applications has recently received considerable attention from many researchers. This paper reports on the sparse feature learning algorithm for musical instrument identification, and in particular, focuses on the effects of the frame sampling techniques for dictionary learning and the pooling methods for feature aggregation. To this end, two frame sampling techniques are examined that are fixed and proportional random sampling. Furthermore, the effect of using onset frame was analyzed for both of proposed sampling methods. Regarding summarization of the feature activation, a standard deviation pooling method is used and compared with the commonly used max- and average-pooling techniques. Using more than 47 000 recordings of 24 instruments from various performers, playing styles, and dynamics, a number of tuning parameters are experimented including the analysis frame size, the dictionary size, and the type of frequency scaling as well as the different sampling and pooling methods. The results show that the combination of proportional sampling and standard deviation pooling achieve the best overall performance of 95.62% while the optimal parameter set varies among the instrument classes.

  4. Validation parameters of instrumental method for determination of total bacterial count in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Mikulec

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of flow citometry as rapid, instrumental and routine microbiological method is used for determination of total bacterial count in milk. The results of flow citometry are expressed as individual bacterial cells count. Problems regarding the interpretation of the results of total bacterial count can be avoided by transformation of the results of flow citometry method onto the scale of reference method (HRN ISO 6610:2001.. The method of flow citometry, like any analitycal method, according to the HRN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 standard, requires validation and verification. This paper describes parameters of validation: accuracy, precision, specificity, range, robustness and measuring uncertainty for the method of flow citometry.

  5. Reference Proteome Extracts for Mass Spec Instrument Performance Validation and Method Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Mike; Urh, Marjeta; Saveliev, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Biological samples of high complexity are required to test protein mass spec sample preparation procedures and validate mass spec instrument performance. Total cell protein extracts provide the needed sample complexity. However, to be compatible with mass spec applications, such extracts should meet a number of design requirements: compatibility with LC/MS (free of detergents, etc.)high protein integrity (minimal level of protein degradation and non-biological PTMs)compatibility with common sample preparation methods such as proteolysis, PTM enrichment and mass-tag labelingLot-to-lot reproducibility Here we describe total protein extracts from yeast and human cells that meet the above criteria. Two extract formats have been developed: Intact protein extracts with primary use for sample preparation method development and optimizationPre-digested extracts (peptides) with primary use for instrument validation and performance monitoring

  6. Precision of GNSS instruments by static method comparing in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomír Labant

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tablet paper describes comparison of measuring accuracy two apparatus from the firm Leica. One of them recieve signals onlyfrom GPS satelites and another instrument is working with GPS and also with GLONASS satelites. Measuring is carry out by RTK staticmethod with 2 minutes observations. Measurement processing is separated to X, Y (position and h (heigh. Adjustment of directobservations is used as a adjusting method.

  7. Instruments and methods of scintillation spectra processing for radiation control tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antropov, S.Yu.; Ermilov, A.P.; Ermilov, S.A.; Komarov, N.A.; Krokhin, I.I.

    2005-01-01

    On gamma-spectrometer the response function could be calculated on the base of sensitivity data, energy resolution and form of Compton spectrum part. On the scintillation gamma-spectrometer with Na-I(Tl) crystal 63x63 mm the method allows to divide the 5-10 components mixtures, and on the beta-spectrometer of 2-3 component mixtures. The approach is realized in the 'Progress' program-instrumental complexes

  8. OpenStack cloud security

    CERN Document Server

    Locati, Fabio Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack administrator or developer, or wish to build solutions to protect your OpenStack environment, then this book is for you. Experience of Linux administration and familiarity with different OpenStack components is assumed.

  9. Developments in FT-ICR MS instrumentation, ionization techniques, and data interpretation methods for petroleomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunju; Ahmed, Arif; Islam, Annana; Kim, Sunghwan

    2015-01-01

    Because of the increasing importance of heavy and unconventional crude oil as an energy source, there is a growing need for petroleomics: the pursuit of more complete and detailed knowledge of the chemical compositions of crude oil. Crude oil has an extremely complex nature; hence, techniques with ultra-high resolving capabilities, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), are necessary. FT-ICR MS has been successfully applied to the study of heavy and unconventional crude oils such as bitumen and shale oil. However, the analysis of crude oil with FT-ICR MS is not trivial, and it has pushed analysis to the limits of instrumental and methodological capabilities. For example, high-resolution mass spectra of crude oils may contain over 100,000 peaks that require interpretation. To visualize large data sets more effectively, data processing methods such as Kendrick mass defect analysis and statistical analyses have been developed. The successful application of FT-ICR MS to the study of crude oil has been critically dependent on key developments in FT-ICR MS instrumentation and data processing methods. This review offers an introduction to the basic principles, FT-ICR MS instrumentation development, ionization techniques, and data interpretation methods for petroleomics and is intended for readers having no prior experience in this field of study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Stacked magnet superconducting bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines

  11. Unexpected but Most Welcome: Mixed Methods for the Validation and Revision of the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Pierre-Marc; Jacob, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Although combining methods is nothing new, more contributions about why and how to mix methods for validation purposes are needed. This article presents a case of validating the inferences drawn from the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument, an instrument that purports to measure stakeholder participation in evaluation. Although the…

  12. Instrumentation to Measure the Capacitance of Biosensors by Sinusoidal Wave Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Kumar KATHUROJU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro Controller based instrumentation to measure the capacitance of biosensors is developed. It is based on frequency domain technique with sinusoidal wave input. Changes in the capacitance of biosensor because of the analyte specific reaction are calculated by knowing the current flowing through the sample. A dedicated 8-bit microcontroller (AT89C52 and its associated peripherals are employed for the hardware and application specific software is developed in ‘C’ language. The paper describes the methodology, instrumentation details along with a specific application to glucose sensing. The measurements are conducted with glucose oxidase based capacitance biosensor and the obtained results are compared with the conventional method of sugar measurements using the UV-Visible spectroscopy (Phenol-Sulphuric acid assay method. Measurement accuracy of the instrument is found to be ± 5 %. Experiments are conducted on glucose sensor with different bias voltages. It is found that for bias voltages varying from 0.5 to 0.7 Volt, the measurements are good for this application.

  13. Studies on the instrumental neutron activation analysis by cadmium ratio method and pair comparator method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, H E; Lu, W D; Wu, S C

    1977-12-01

    The cadmium ratio method and pair comparator method provide a solution for the effects on the effective activation factors resulting from the variation of neutron spectrum at different irradiation positions as usually encountered in the single comparator method. The relations between the activation factors and neutron spectrum in terms of cadmium ratio of the comparator Au or of the activation factor of Co-Au pair for the elements, Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, La, Ce, Sm, and Th have been determined. The activation factors of the elements at any irradiation position can then be obtained from the cadmium ratio of the comparator and/or the activation factor of the comparator pair. The relations determined should be able to apply to different reactors and/or different positions of a reactor. It is shown that, for the isotopes /sup 46/Sc, /sup 51/Cr, /sup 56/Mn, /sup 60/Co, /sup 140/La, /sup 141/Ce, /sup 153/Sm and /sup 233/Pa, the thermal neutron activation factors determined by these two methods were generally in agreement with theoretical values. Their I/sub 0//sigma/sub th/ values appeared to agree with literature values also. The methods were applied to determine the contents of elements Sc, Cr, Mn, La, Ce, Sm, and Th in U.S.G.S. Standard Rock G-2, and the results were also in agreement with literature values. The cadmium ratio method and pair comparator method improved the single comparator method, and they are more suitable to analysis for multi-elements of a large number of samples.

  14. A method for automating calibration and records management for instrumentation and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.M. Jr.; Rushton, R.O.; Burns, R.E. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Current industry requirements are becoming more stringent on quality assurance records and documentation for calibration of instruments and dosimetry. A novel method is presented here that will allow a progressive automation scheme to be used in pursuit of that goal. This concept is based on computer-controlled irradiators that can act as stand-alone devices or be interfaced to other components via a computer local area network. In this way, complete systems can be built with modules to create a records management system to meet the needs of small laboratories or large multi-building calibration groups. Different database engines or formats can be used simply by replacing a module. Modules for temperature and pressure monitoring or shipping and receiving can be added, as well as equipment modules for direct IEEE-488 interface to electrometers and other instrumentation

  15. A method for automating calibration and records management for instrumentation and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, J.M. Jr.; Rushton, R.O.; Burns, R.E. Jr. [Atlan-Tech, Inc., Roswell, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Current industry requirements are becoming more stringent on quality assurance records and documentation for calibration of instruments and dosimetry. A novel method is presented here that will allow a progressive automation scheme to be used in pursuit of that goal. This concept is based on computer-controlled irradiators that can act as stand-alone devices or be interfaced to other components via a computer local area network. In this way, complete systems can be built with modules to create a records management system to meet the needs of small laboratories or large multi-building calibration groups. Different database engines or formats can be used simply by replacing a module. Modules for temperature and pressure monitoring or shipping and receiving can be added, as well as equipment modules for direct IEEE-488 interface to electrometers and other instrumentation.

  16. Calculation of tritium release from reactor's stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhadi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for calculation of tritium release from nuclear to environment has been discussed. Part of gas effluent contain tritium in form of HTO vapor released from reactor's stack was sampled using silica-gel. The silica-gel was put in the water to withdraw HTO vapor absorbed by silica-gel. Tritium concentration in the water was measured by liquid scintillation counter of Aloka LSC-703. Tritium concentration in the gas effluent and total release of tritium from reactor's stack during certain interval time were calculated using simple mathematic formula. This method has examined for calculation of tritium release from JRR-3M's stack of JAERI, Japan. From the calculation it was obtained the value of tritium release as much as 4.63 x 10 11 Bq during one month. (author)

  17. Reliability of the input admittance of bowed-string instruments measured by the hammer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailin; Woodhouse, Jim

    2014-12-01

    The input admittance at the bridge, measured by hammer testing, is often regarded as the most useful and convenient measurement of the vibrational behavior of a bowed string instrument. However, this method has been questioned, due especially to differences between human bowing and hammer impact. The goal of the research presented here is to investigate the reliability and accuracy of this classic hammer method. Experimental studies were carried out on cellos, with three different driving conditions and three different boundary conditions. Results suggest that there is nothing fundamentally different about the hammer method, compared to other kinds of excitation. The third series of experiments offers an opportunity to explore the difference between the input admittance measuring from one bridge corner to another and that of single strings. The classic measurement is found to give a reasonable approximation to that of all four strings. Some possible differences between the hammer method and normal bowing and implications of the acoustical results are also discussed.

  18. A postprocessing method in the HMC framework for predicting gene function based on biological instrumental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shou; Fu, Ping; Zheng, Wenbin

    2018-03-01

    Predicting gene function based on biological instrumental data is a complicated and challenging hierarchical multi-label classification (HMC) problem. When using local approach methods to solve this problem, a preliminary results processing method is usually needed. This paper proposed a novel preliminary results processing method called the nodes interaction method. The nodes interaction method revises the preliminary results and guarantees that the predictions are consistent with the hierarchy constraint. This method exploits the label dependency and considers the hierarchical interaction between nodes when making decisions based on the Bayesian network in its first phase. In the second phase, this method further adjusts the results according to the hierarchy constraint. Implementing the nodes interaction method in the HMC framework also enhances the HMC performance for solving the gene function prediction problem based on the Gene Ontology (GO), the hierarchy of which is a directed acyclic graph that is more difficult to tackle. The experimental results validate the promising performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art methods on eight benchmark yeast data sets annotated by the GO.

  19. Improved retrieval of cloud base heights from ceilometer using a non-standard instrument method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Dong, Zipeng; Li, Zhanqing; Hu, Shuzhen; Chen, Tianmeng; Tao, Fa; Wang, Yuzhao

    2018-04-01

    Cloud-base height (CBH) is a basic cloud parameter but has not been measured accurately, especially under polluted conditions due to the interference of aerosol. Taking advantage of a comprehensive field experiment in northern China in which a variety of advanced cloud probing instruments were operated, different methods of detecting CBH are assessed. The Micro-Pulse Lidar (MPL) and the Vaisala ceilometer (CL51) provided two types of backscattered profiles. The latter has been employed widely as a standard means of measuring CBH using the manufacturer's operational algorithm to generate standard CBH products (CL51 MAN) whose quality is rigorously assessed here, in comparison with a research algorithm that we developed named value distribution equalization (VDE) algorithm. It was applied to both the profiles of lidar backscattering data from the two instruments. The VDE algorithm is found to produce more accurate estimates of CBH for both instruments and can cope with heavy aerosol loading conditions well. By contrast, CL51 MAN overestimates CBH by 400 m and misses many low level clouds under such conditions. These findings are important given that CL51 has been adopted operationally by many meteorological stations in China.

  20. MEAN STACK WEB DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thanh, Nghi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to provide a universal website using JavaScript as the main programming language. It also shows the basic parts anyone need to create a web application. The thesis creates a simple CMS using MEAN stack. MEAN is a collection of JavaScript based technologies used to develop web application. It is an acronym for MongoDB, Express, AngularJS and Node.js. It also allows non-technical users to easily update and manage a website’s content. But the application also lets o...

  1. Die-stacking architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) chip architectures, with their intrinsic capability of reducing the wire length, promise attractive solutions to reduce the delay of interconnects in future microprocessors. 3D memory stacking enables much higher memory bandwidth for future chip-multiprocessor design, mitigating the ""memory wall"" problem. In addition, heterogenous integration enabled by 3D technology can also result in innovative designs for future microprocessors. This book first provides a brief introduction to this emerging technology, and then presents a variety of approaches to design

  2. Effect of freezing method and frozen storage duration on instrumental quality of lamb throughout display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muela, E; Sañudo, C; Campo, M M; Medel, I; Beltrán, J A

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of freezing method (FM) (air blast freezer, freezing tunnel, or nitrogen chamber) and frozen storage duration (FSD) (1, 3, or 6 months) on the instrumental measurements of quality of thawed lamb, aged for a total of 72 h, throughout a 10-d display period, compared to the quality of fresh meat. pH, colour, lipid oxidation, thawing, and cooking losses in Longissimus thoracis and lumborum muscle, were determined following standard methods. FM affected yellowness, FSD redness and thawing losses, and both affected oxidation (increased as freezing rate decreased and/or as storage duration increased). When compared with fresh meat, the main differences appeared on oxidation (where a significant interaction between treatment (3FM x 3FSD + fresh meat) with display duration was detected), and on total losses (thaw + cook losses). Oxidation was lower in fresh meat, but values were not significantly different from those stored frozen for 1 month. Fresh meat had smaller total losses than did thawed meat, but losses were not significantly different from meat frozen in the freezing tunnel and stored frozen for 1 month. Display duration had a greater effect on instrumental quality parameters than did FM or FSD. pH, b*, and oxidation increased, and L* and a* decreased with an increase in the number of days on display. In conclusion, neither freezing method nor frozen storage up to 6 months influenced extensively the properties of lamb when instrumental measurements of quality were measured in meat that had been displayed for 1d after thawing. The small deterioration shown in this study should not give consumers concerns about frozen meat. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel single-step, multipoint calibration method for instrumented Lab-on-Chip systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Patou, François; Zulfiqar, Azeem

    2014-01-01

    for instrument-based PoC blood biomarker analysis systems. Motivated by the complexity of associating high-accuracy biosensing using silicon nanowire field effect transistors with ease of use for the PoC system user, we propose a novel one-step, multipoint calibration method for LoC-based systems. Our approach...... specifically addresses the important interfaces between a novel microfluidic unit to integrate the sensor array and a mobile-device hardware accessory. A multi-point calibration curve is obtained by generating a defined set of reference concentrations from a single input. By consecutively splitting the flow...

  4. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis and multivariate statistical methods to archaeological Syrian ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E. H.; Othman, I.; Sarhil, A.; Al-Somel, N.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been utilized in the analysis of thirty-seven archaeological ceramics fragment samples collected from Tal AI-Wardiate site, Missiaf town, Hamma city, Syria. 36 chemical elements were determined. These elemental concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and factor analysis in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. Factor analysis confirms that samples were correctly classified by cluster analysis. The results showed that samples can be considered to be manufactured using three different sources of raw material. (author)

  5. Trace elements in cigarette tobacco by a method of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin Ibrahim

    1986-01-01

    A total of ten cigarette brands were investigated for determining the trace elemental concentrations in tobacco so as to assess their role in the induction of related diseases through smoking. A method instrumental Neutron Activation analysis was employed due to high sensitivity, speed and ability to analyse sample for a wide spectrum of elements simultaneously. A total of 18 elements were detected of which the majority are toxic elements. A full result and conclusion will be reported in the forthcoming paper. (A.J.)

  6. A Method of Separation Assurance for Instrument Flight Procedures at Non-Radar Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sheila R.; Consiglio, Maria

    2002-01-01

    A method to provide automated air traffic separation assurance services during approach to or departure from a non-radar, non-towered airport environment is described. The method is constrained by provision of these services without radical changes or ambitious investments in current ground-based technologies. The proposed procedures are designed to grant access to a large number of airfields that currently have no or very limited access under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR), thus increasing mobility with minimal infrastructure investment. This paper primarily addresses a low-cost option for airport and instrument approach infrastructure, but is designed to be an architecture from which a more efficient, albeit more complex, system may be developed. A functional description of the capabilities in the current NAS infrastructure is provided. Automated terminal operations and procedures are introduced. Rules of engagement and the operations are defined. Results of preliminary simulation testing are presented. Finally, application of the method to more terminal-like operations, and major research areas, including necessary piloted studies, are discussed.

  7. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.

  9. Instrumental neutron activation analysis as a routine method for rock analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.J.

    1977-06-01

    Instrumental neutron activation methods for the analysis of geological samples have been developed. Special emphasis has been laid on the improvement of sensitivity and accuracy in order to maximize tha quality of the analyses. Furthermore, the procedures have been automated as far as possible in order to minimize the cost of the analysis. A short review of the basic literature is given followed by a description of the principles of the method. All aspects concerning the sensitivity are discussed thoroughly in view of the analyst's possibility of influencing them. Experimentally determined detection limits for Na, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Rb, Zr, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U are given. The errors of the method are discussed followed by actions taken to avoid them. The most significant error was caused by flux deviation, but this was avoided by building a rotating sample holder for rotating the samples during irradiation. A scheme for the INAA of 32 elements is proposed. The method has been automated as far as possible and an automatic γ-spectrometer and a computer program for the automatic calculation of the results are described. Furthermore, a completely automated uranium analyzer based on delayed neutron counting is described. The methods are discussed in view of their applicability to rock analysis. It is stated that the sensitivity varies considerably from element to element and instrumental activation analysis is an excellent method for the analysis of some specific elements like lanthanides, thorium and uranium but less so for many other elements. The accuracy is good varying from 2% to 10% for most elements. Instrumental activation analysis for most elements is rather an expensive method there being, however, a few exceptions. The most important of these is uranium. The analysis of uranium by delayed neutron counting is an inexpensive means for the analysis of large numbers of samples needed for

  10. Assessing Mucoadhesion in Polymer Gels: The Effect of Method Type and Instrument Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Bassi da Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of mucoadhesion has been widely studied using a wide variety of methods, which are influenced by instrumental variables and experiment design, making the comparison between the results of different studies difficult. The aim of this work was to standardize the conditions of the detachment test and the rheological methods of mucoadhesion assessment for semisolids, and introduce a texture profile analysis (TPA method. A factorial design was developed to suggest standard conditions for performing the detachment force method. To evaluate the method, binary polymeric systems were prepared containing poloxamer 407 and Carbopol 971P®, Carbopol 974P®, or Noveon® Polycarbophil. The mucoadhesion of systems was evaluated, and the reproducibility of these measurements investigated. This detachment force method was demonstrated to be reproduceable, and gave different adhesion when mucin disk or ex vivo oral mucosa was used. The factorial design demonstrated that all evaluated parameters had an effect on measurements of mucoadhesive force, but the same was not observed for the work of adhesion. It was suggested that the work of adhesion is a more appropriate metric for evaluating mucoadhesion. Oscillatory rheology was more capable of investigating adhesive interactions than flow rheology. TPA method was demonstrated to be reproducible and can evaluate the adhesiveness interaction parameter. This investigation demonstrates the need for standardized methods to evaluate mucoadhesion and makes suggestions for a standard study design.

  11. Development of an Integrated Polymer Microfluidic Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Proyag; Hammacher, Jens; Pease, Mark; Gurung, Sitanshu; Goettert, Jost

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic is a field of considerable interest. While significant research has been carried out to develop microfluidic components, very little has been done to integrate the components into a complete working system. We present a flexible modular system platform that addresses the requirements of a complete microfluidic system. A microfluidic stack system is demonstrated with the layers of the stack being modular for specific functions. The stack and accompanying infrastructure provides an attractive platform for users to transition their design concepts into a working microfluidic system quickly with very little effort. The concept is demonstrated by using the system to carry out a chemilumiscence experiment. Details regarding the fabrication, assembly and experimental methods are presented

  12. Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.

    2012-01-01

    application of advanced methods for detailed electrochemical characterisation during operation. An operating stack is subject to steep compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and significant temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which makes it a complex system...... Fuel Cell A/S was characterised in detail using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An investigation of the optimal geometrical placement of the current probes and voltage probes was carried out in order to minimise measurement errors caused by stray impedances. Unwanted stray impedances...... are particularly problematic at high frequencies. Stray impedances may be caused by mutual inductance and stray capacitance in the geometrical set-up and do not describe the fuel cell. Three different stack geometries were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Impedance measurements were carried...

  13. A method for retrieving endodontic or atypical nonendodontic separated instruments from the root canal: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Jardel Camilo do Carmo; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Dantas, Andrea Abi Rached; Jordão-Basso, Keren Cristina Fagundes; Keine, Katia Cristina; Ruchaya, Prashant Jay; Faria, Gisele; Leonardo, Renato de Toledo

    2014-11-01

    This clinical report presents a new method for retrieving separated instruments from the root canal with minimally invasive procedures. The presence of separated instrument in root canal may interfere in the endodontic treatment prognosis. There are several recommended methods to retrieve separated instruments, but some are difficult in clinically practice. This study describes two cases of separated instrument removal from the root canal using a stainless-steel prepared needle associated with a K-file. Case 1 presented a fractured gutta-percha condenser within the mandibular second premolar, it was separated during incorrect intracanal medication calcium hydroxide placement. Case 2 had a fractured sewing needle within the upper central incisor that the patient used to remove food debris from the root canal. After cervical preparation, the fractured instruments were fitted inside a prepared needle and then an endodontic instrument (#25 K-file) was adapted with clockwise turning motion between the needle inner wall and the fragment. The endodontic or atypical nonendodontic separated instrument may be easily pull on of the root canal using a single and low cost device. The methods for retrieving separated instruments from root canal are difficult and destructive procedures. The present case describes a simple method to solve this problem.

  14. Comparative studies of AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMTs with stacked gate dielectrics by the mixed thin film growth method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Bo-Yi; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Liu, Han-Yin; Ho, Chiu-Sheng; Lee, Ching-Sung

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports Al 0.27 Ga 0.73 N/GaN metal–oxide–semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) with stacked Al 2 O 3 /HfO 2 gate dielectrics by using hydrogen peroxideoxidation/sputtering techniques. The Al 2 O 3 employed as a gate dielectric and surface passivation layer effectively suppresses the gate leakage current, improves RF drain current collapse and exhibits good thermal stability. Moreover, by stacking the good insulating high-k HfO 2 dielectric further suppresses the gate leakage, enhances the dielectric breakdown field and power-added efficiency, and decreases the equivalent oxide thickness. The present MOS-HEMT design has demonstrated superior improvements of 10.1% (16.4%) in the maximum drain–source current (I DS,max ), 11.4% (22.5%) in the gate voltage swing and 12.5%/14.4% (21.9%/22.3%) in the two-terminal gate–drain breakdown/turn-on voltages (BV GD /V ON ), and the present design also demonstrates the lowest gate leakage current and best thermal stability characteristics as compared to two reference MOS-HEMTs with a single Al 2 O 3 /(HfO 2 ) dielectric layer of the same physical thickness. (invited paper)

  15. A new, simple and precise method for measuring cyclotron proton beam energies using the activity vs. depth profile of zinc-65 in a thick target of stacked copper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, A.H.; Chan, S.; Cryer, D.; Burrage, J.W.; Siddiqui, S.A.; Price, R.I.

    2015-01-01

    The proton beam energy of an isochronous 18 MeV cyclotron was determined using a novel version of the stacked copper-foils technique. This simple method used stacked foils of natural copper forming ‘thick’ targets to produce Zn radioisotopes by the well-documented (p,x) monitor-reactions. Primary beam energy was calculated using the "6"5Zn activity vs. depth profile in the target, with the results obtained using "6"2Zn and "6"3Zn (as comparators) in close agreement. Results from separate measurements using foil thicknesses of 100, 75, 50 or 25 µm to form the stacks also concurred closely. Energy was determined by iterative least-squares comparison of the normalized measured activity profile in a target-stack with the equivalent calculated normalized profile, using ‘energy’ as the regression variable. The technique exploits the uniqueness of the shape of the activity vs. depth profile of the monitor isotope in the target stack for a specified incident energy. The energy using "6"5Zn activity profiles and 50-μm foils alone was 18.03±0.02 [SD] MeV (95%CI=17.98–18.08), and 18.06±0.12 MeV (95%CI=18.02–18.10; NS) when combining results from all isotopes and foil thicknesses. When the beam energy was re-measured using "6"5Zn and 50-μm foils only, following a major upgrade of the ion sources and nonmagnetic beam controls the results were 18.11±0.05 MeV (95%CI=18.00–18.23; NS compared with ‘before’). Since measurement of only one Zn monitor isotope is required to determine the normalized activity profile this indirect yet precise technique does not require a direct beam-current measurement or a gamma-spectroscopy efficiency calibrated with standard sources, though a characteristic photopeak must be identified. It has some advantages over published methods using the ratio of cross sections of monitor reactions, including the ability to determine energies across a broader range and without need for customized beam degraders. - Highlights: • Simple

  16. A method of estimating GPS instrumental biases with a convolution algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Ma, Guanyi; Lu, Weijun; Wan, Qingtao; Fan, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaolan; Li, Jinghua; Li, Changhua

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a method of deriving the instrumental differential code biases (DCBs) of GPS satellites and dual frequency receivers. Considering that the total electron content (TEC) varies smoothly over a small area, one ionospheric pierce point (IPP) and four more nearby IPPs were selected to build an equation with a convolution algorithm. In addition, unknown DCB parameters were arranged into a set of equations with GPS observations in a day unit by assuming that DCBs do not vary within a day. Then, the DCBs of satellites and receivers were determined by solving the equation set with the least-squares fitting technique. The performance of this method is examined by applying it to 361 days in 2014 using the observation data from 1311 GPS Earth Observation Network (GEONET) receivers. The result was crosswise-compared with the DCB estimated by the mesh method and the IONEX products from the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). The DCB values derived by this method agree with those of the mesh method and the CODE products, with biases of 0.091 ns and 0.321 ns, respectively. The convolution method's accuracy and stability were quite good and showed improvements over the mesh method.

  17. Automatic Recognition Method for Optical Measuring Instruments Based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Le; LIN Yuchi; HAO Liguo

    2008-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive study of various algorithms, the automatic recognition of traditional ocular optical measuring instruments is realized. Taking a universal tools microscope (UTM) lens view image as an example, a 2-layer automatic recognition model for data reading is established after adopting a series of pre-processing algorithms. This model is an optimal combination of the correlation-based template matching method and a concurrent back propagation (BP) neural network. Multiple complementary feature extraction is used in generating the eigenvectors of the concurrent network. In order to improve fault-tolerance capacity, rotation invariant features based on Zernike moments are extracted from digit characters and a 4-dimensional group of the outline features is also obtained. Moreover, the operating time and reading accuracy can be adjusted dynamically by setting the threshold value. The experimental result indicates that the newly developed algorithm has optimal recognition precision and working speed. The average reading ratio can achieve 97.23%. The recognition method can automatically obtain the results of optical measuring instruments rapidly and stably without modifying their original structure, which meets the application requirements.

  18. Reflector imaging by diffraction stacking with stacking velocity analysis; Jugo sokudo kaiseki wo tomonau sanran jugoho ni yoru hanshamen imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J; Rokugawa, S; Kato, Y [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokota, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Concerning seismic reflection survey for geometrical arrangement between pits, the scattering stacking method with stacking velocity analysis is compared with the CDP (common depth point horizontal stacking method). The advantages of the CDP supposedly include the following. Since it presumes an average velocity field, it can determine velocities having stacking effects. The method presumes stratification and, since such enables the division of huge quantities of observed data into smaller groups, more data can be calculated in a shorter time period. The method has disadvantages, attributable to its presuming an average velocity field, that accuracy in processing is lower when the velocity field contrast is higher, that accuracy in processing is low unless stratification is employed, and that velocities obtained from stacking velocity analysis are affected by dipped structures. Such shortcomings may be remedied in the scattering stacking method with stacking velocity analysis. Possibilities are that, as far as the horizontal reflection plane is concerned, it may yield stack records higher in S/N ratio than the CDP. Findings relative to dipped reflection planes will be introduced at the presentation. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  19. The potential of soft computing methods in NPP instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, R.; Chaker, N.; Kaestner, W.; Traichel, A.; Wagenknecht, M.; Gocht, U.

    2002-01-01

    The method of signal processing by soft computing include the application of fuzzy logic, synthetic neural networks, and evolutionary algorithms. The article contains an outline of the objectives and results of the application of fuzzy logic and methods of synthetic neural networks in nuclear measurement and control. The special requirements to be met by the software in safety-related areas with respect to reliability, evaluation, and validation are described. Possible uses may be in off-line applications in modeling, simulation, and reliability analysis as well as in on-line applications (real-time systems) for instrumentation and control. Safety-related aspects of signal processing are described and analyzed for the fuzzy logic and synthetic neural network concepts. Application are covered in selected examples. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of methods and instruments for 222Rn/220Rn progeny measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanyang; Shang Bing; Wu Yunyun; Zhou Qingzhi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, comparisons were made among three methods of measurement (grab measurement, continuous measurement and integrating measurement) and also measurement of different instruments for a radon/thoron mixed chamber. Taking the optimized five-segment method as a comparison criterion, for the equilibrium-equivalent concentration of 222 Rn, measured results of Balm and 24 h integrating detectors are 31% and 29% higher than the criterion, the results of Wl x, however, is 20% lower; and for 220 Rn progeny, the results of Fiji-142, Kf-602D, BWLM and 24 h integrating detector are 86%, 18%, 28% and 36% higher than the criterion respectively, except that of WLx, which is 5% lower. For the differences shown, further research is needed. (authors)

  1. Comparison of neutron activation analysis with other instrumental methods for elemental analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regge, P. de; Lievens, F.; Delespaul, I.; Monsecour, M.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of instrumental methods, including neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry and emission spectrometry, for the analysis of heavy metals in airborne particulate matter is described. The merits and drawbacks of each method for the routine analysis of a large number of samples are discussed. The sample preparation technique, calibration and statistical data relevant to each method are given. Concordant results are obtained by the different methods for Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Less good agreement is obtained for Fe, Mn and V. The results are not in agreement for the elements Cd and Cr. Using data obtained on the dust sample distributed by Euratom-ISPRA within the framework of an interlaboratory comparison, the accuracy of each method for the various elements is estimated. Neutron activation analysis was found to be the most sensitive and accurate of the non-destructive analysis methods. Only atomic absorption spectrometry has a comparable sensitivity, but requires considerable preparation work. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is less sensitive and shows biases for Cr and V. Automatic emission spectrometry with simultaneous measurement of the beam intensities by photomultipliers is the fastest and most economical technique, though at the expense of some precision and sensitivity. (author)

  2. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  3. Detailed characterizations of a Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) instrument: experiments vs. modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, V.; Hansen, R. F.; Locoge, N.; Stevens, P. S.; Dusanter, S.

    2015-04-01

    The Hydroxyl radical (OH) is an important oxidant in the daytime troposphere that controls the lifetime of most trace gases, whose oxidation leads to the formation of harmful secondary pollutants such as ozone (O3) and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). In spite of the importance of OH, uncertainties remain concerning its atmospheric budget and integrated measurements of the total sink of OH can help reducing these uncertainties. In this context, several methods have been developed to measure the first-order loss rate of ambient OH, called total OH reactivity. Among these techniques, the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) is promising and has already been widely used in the field and in atmospheric simulation chambers. This technique relies on monitoring competitive OH reactions between a reference molecule (pyrrole) and compounds present in ambient air inside a sampling reactor. However, artefacts and interferences exist for this method and a thorough characterization of the CRM technique is needed. In this study, we present a detailed characterization of a CRM instrument, assessing the corrections that need to be applied on ambient measurements. The main corrections are, in the order of their integration in the data processing: (1) a correction for a change in relative humidity between zero air and ambient air, (2) a correction for the formation of spurious OH when artificially produced HO2 react with NO in the sampling reactor, and (3) a correction for a deviation from pseudo first-order kinetics. The dependences of these artefacts to various measurable parameters, such as the pyrrole-to-OH ratio or the bimolecular reaction rate constants of ambient trace gases with OH are also studied. From these dependences, parameterizations are proposed to correct the OH reactivity measurements from the abovementioned artefacts. A comparison of experimental and simulation results is then discussed. The simulations were performed using a 0-D box model including either (1) a

  4. Fuel flow distribution in SOFC stacks revealed by impedance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation. An oper......As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation...... utilizations. The fuel flow distribution provides important information about the operating limits of the stack when high electrical efficiency is required....

  5. Using method triangulation to validate a new instrument (CPWQ-com) assessing cancer patients' satisfaction with communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Lundstrøm, Louise Hyldborg; Petersen, Morten Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    Patients' perceptions of care including the communication with health care staff is recognized as an important aspect of the quality of cancer care. Using mixed methods, we developed and validated a short instrument assessing this communication.......Patients' perceptions of care including the communication with health care staff is recognized as an important aspect of the quality of cancer care. Using mixed methods, we developed and validated a short instrument assessing this communication....

  6. Methods and instrumentation for investigating Hall sensors during their irradiation in nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshakova, I.; Holyaka, R.; Makido, E.; Marusenkov, A.; Shurygin, F.; Yerashok, V.; Moreau, P. J.; Vayakis, G.; Duran, I.; Stockel, J.; Chekanov, V.; Konopleva, R.; Nazarkin, I.; Kulikov, S.; Leroy, C.

    2009-01-01

    Present work discusses the issues of creating the instrumentation for testing the semiconductor magnetic field sensors during their irradiation with neutrons in nuclear reactors up to fluences similar to neutron fluences in steady-state sensor locations in ITER. The novelty of the work consists in Hall sensor parameters being investigated: first, directly during the irradiation (in real time), and, second, at high irradiation levels (fast neutron fluence > 10 18 n/cm 2 ). Developed instrumentation has been successfully tested and applied in the research experiments on radiation stability of magnetic sensors in IBR-2 (JINR, Dubna) and VVR-M (PNPI, Saint-Petersburg) reactors. The 'Remote-Rad' bench consists of 2 heads (head 1 and head 2) bearing investigated sensors put in a ceramic setting, of electronic unit, of personal computer and of signal lines. Each head contains 6 Hall sensors and a coil for generating test magnetic field. Moreover head 1 contains thermocouples for temperature measurement while the temperature of head 2 is measured by thermo-resistive method. The heads are placed in the reactor channel

  7. A fully Bayesian method for jointly fitting instrumental calibration and X-ray spectral models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jin; Yu, Yaming; Van Dyk, David A.; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Drake, Jeremy; Ratzlaff, Pete; Connors, Alanna; Meng, Xiao-Li

    2014-01-01

    Owing to a lack of robust principled methods, systematic instrumental uncertainties have generally been ignored in astrophysical data analysis despite wide recognition of the importance of including them. Ignoring calibration uncertainty can cause bias in the estimation of source model parameters and can lead to underestimation of the variance of these estimates. We previously introduced a pragmatic Bayesian method to address this problem. The method is 'pragmatic' in that it introduced an ad hoc technique that simplified computation by neglecting the potential information in the data for narrowing the uncertainty for the calibration product. Following that work, we use a principal component analysis to efficiently represent the uncertainty of the effective area of an X-ray (or γ-ray) telescope. Here, however, we leverage this representation to enable a principled, fully Bayesian method that coherently accounts for the calibration uncertainty in high-energy spectral analysis. In this setting, the method is compared with standard analysis techniques and the pragmatic Bayesian method. The advantage of the fully Bayesian method is that it allows the data to provide information not only for estimation of the source parameters but also for the calibration product—here the effective area, conditional on the adopted spectral model. In this way, it can yield more accurate and efficient estimates of the source parameters along with valid estimates of their uncertainty. Provided that the source spectrum can be accurately described by a parameterized model, this method allows rigorous inference about the effective area by quantifying which possible curves are most consistent with the data.

  8. MODERN INSTRUMENTAL METHODS TO CONTROL THE SEED QUALITY IN ROOT VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Musaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard methods of analysis don’t meet all modern requirements to determine the seed a quality. These methods can’t unveil inner deficiencies that are very important to control seed viability. The capabilities of new instrumental method to analyze the seed quality of root vegetables were regarded in the article. The method of micro-focus radiography is distinguished from other existing methods by more sensitivity, rapidity and easiness to be performed. Based on practical importance the visualization of inner seed structure, it allows determining far before seed germination the degree of endosperm development and embryo; the presence of inner damages and infections, occupation and damage caused by pests. The use of micro-focus radiography enables to detect the degree of seed quality difference for some traits such as monogermity and self-fertilization that are economically valuable for breeding program in red beet. With the aid of the method the level of seed development, damage and inner deficiencies in carrot and parsnip can be revealed. In X-ray projection seeds of inbred lines of radish significantly differed from variety population ones for their underdevelopment in the inner structure. The advantage of the method is that seeds rest undamaged after quality analyzing and both can be used for further examination with the use of other methods or be sown; that is quite important for breeders, when handling with small quantity or collectable plant breeding material. The results radiography analyses can be saved and archived that enables to watch for seed qualities in dynamic; this data can be also used at possible arbitration cases. 

  9. Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…

  10. On the measurement of the stacking-fault energies of face centered cubic metal and austenitic stainless steels by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, J.F.A.

    1985-01-01

    An X-rays diffraction method was applied to measure the Stacking-Fault Energies (SFE) of the AISI 304, AISI 316, AISI 347 and DIN-WERKSTOFF 1.4970 Austenitic Stainless Steels. The SFE determination plays an important role in the research of the mechanical behaviour of the Metal and Alloys, their deformation mechanisms, stability of microstructure amd electronic configuration. The method is based on the relationship between the SFE and the ratio of the Mean Square Strain to the Stacking-Fault probability. The Mean Square Strain was evaluated by Fourier Analysis of X-rays Diffraction profiles, corrected to reduce instrumental effects, followed by the application of the Warren-Averbach method to the Fourier Coefficients. The Stacking-Fault probabilities were derived from the changes of peak separations between cold-worked and annealed specimens. (author) [pt

  11. Quality evaluation of fish and other seafood by traditional and nondestructive instrumental methods: Advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, Abdo; Karoui, Romdhane

    2017-06-13

    Although being one of the most vulnerable and perishable products, fish and other seafoods provide a wide range of health-promoting compounds. Recently, the growing interest of consumers in food quality and safety issues has contributed to the increasing demand for sensitive and rapid analytical technologies. Several traditional physicochemical, textural, sensory, and electrical methods have been used to evaluate freshness and authentication of fish and other seafood products. Despite the importance of these standard methods, they are expensive and time-consuming, and often susceptible to large sources of variation. Recently, spectroscopic methods and other emerging techniques have shown great potential due to speed of analysis, minimal sample preparation, high repeatability, low cost, and, most of all, the fact that these techniques are noninvasive and nondestructive and, therefore, could be applied to any online monitoring system. This review describes firstly and briefly the basic principles of multivariate data analysis, followed by the most commonly traditional methods used for the determination of the freshness and authenticity of fish and other seafood products. A special focus is put on the use of rapid and nondestructive techniques (spectroscopic techniques and instrumental sensors) to address several issues related to the quality of these products. Moreover, the advantages and limitations of each technique are reviewed and some perspectives are also given.

  12. Microwave measurement of electrical fields in different media – principles, methods and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. Kliment Ohridski, Faculty of Physics, James Bourchier blvd., Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Faculty of Physics, James Bourchier blvd., Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria))" >Dankov, Plamen I

    2014-01-01

    This paper, presented in the frame of 4th International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'2010, Kiten, Bulgaria), is a brief review of the principles, methods and instrumentation of the microwave measurements of electrical fields in different media. The main part of the paper is connected with the description of the basic features of many field sensors and antennas – narrow-, broadband and ultra-wide band, miniaturized, reconfigurable and active sensors, etc. The main features and applicability of these sensors for determination of electric fields in different media is discussed. The last part of the paper presents the basic principles for utilization of electromagnetic 3-D simulators for E-field measurement purposes. Two illustrative examples have been given – the determination of the dielectric anisotropy of multi-layer materials and discussion of the selectivity of hairpin-probe for determination of the electron density in dense gaseous plasmas.

  13. [Research on fractal tones generating method for tinnitus rehabilitation based on musical instrument digital interface technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; He, Peiyu; Pan, Fan

    2014-08-01

    Tinnitus is a subjective sensation of sound without external stimulation. It has become ubiquitous and has therefore aroused much attention in recent years. According to the survey, ameliorating tinnitus based on special music and reducing pressure have good effects on the treatment of it. Meantime, vicious cycle chains between tinnitus and bad feelings have been broken. However, tinnitus therapy has been restricted by using looping music. Therefore, a method of generating fractal tones based on musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) technology and pink noise has been proposed in this paper. The experimental results showed that the fractal fragments were self-similar, incompletely reduplicate, and no sudden changes in pitches and would have a referential significance for tinnitus therapy.

  14. Comparison of fine particle measurements from a direct-reading instrument and a gravimetric sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Young; Magari, Shannon R; Herrick, Robert F; Smith, Thomas J; Christiani, David C

    2004-11-01

    Particulate air pollution, specifically the fine particle fraction (PM2.5), has been associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in general population studies. Occupational exposure to fine particulate matter can exceed ambient levels by a large factor. Due to increased interest in the health effects of particulate matter, many particle sampling methods have been developed In this study, two such measurement methods were used simultaneously and compared. PM2.5 was sampled using a filter-based gravimetric sampling method and a direct-reading instrument, the TSI Inc. model 8520 DUSTTRAK aerosol monitor. Both sampling methods were used to determine the PM2.5 exposure in a group of boilermakers exposed to welding fumes and residual fuel oil ash. The geometric mean PM2.5 concentration was 0.30 mg/m3 (GSD 3.25) and 0.31 mg/m3 (GSD 2.90)from the DUSTTRAK and gravimetric method, respectively. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient for the gravimetric and DUSTTRAK PM2.5 concentrations was 0.68. Linear regression models indicated that log, DUSTTRAK PM2.5 concentrations significantly predicted loge gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations (p gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations was found to be modified by surrogate measures for seasonal variation and type of aerosol. PM2.5 measurements from the DUSTTRAK are well correlated and highly predictive of measurements from the gravimetric sampling method for the aerosols in these work environments. However, results from this study suggest that aerosol particle characteristics may affect the relationship between the gravimetric and DUSTTRAK PM2.5 measurements. Recalibration of the DUSTTRAK for the specific aerosol, as recommended by the manufacturer, may be necessary to produce valid measures of airborne particulate matter.

  15. Eddy Covariance Method for CO2 Emission Measurements: CCS Applications, Principles, Instrumentation and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rod; Feese, Kristin

    2013-04-01

    The Eddy Covariance method is a micrometeorological technique for direct high-speed measurements of the transport of gases, heat, and momentum between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. Gas fluxes, emission and exchange rates are carefully characterized from single-point in-situ measurements using permanent or mobile towers, or moving platforms such as automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, etc. Since the early 1990s, this technique has been widely used by micrometeorologists across the globe for quantifying CO2 emission rates from various natural, urban and agricultural ecosystems [1,2], including areas of agricultural carbon sequestration. Presently, over 600 eddy covariance stations are in operation in over 120 countries. In the last 3-5 years, advancements in instrumentation and software have reached the point when they can be effectively used outside the area of micrometeorology, and can prove valuable for geological carbon capture and sequestration, landfill emission measurements, high-precision agriculture and other non-micrometeorological industrial and regulatory applications. In the field of geological carbon capture and sequestration, the magnitude of CO2 seepage fluxes depends on a variety of factors. Emerging projects utilize eddy covariance measurement to monitor large areas where CO2 may escape from the subsurface, to detect and quantify CO2 leakage, and to assure the efficiency of CO2 geological storage [3,4,5,6,7,8]. Although Eddy Covariance is one of the most direct and defensible ways to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes, the method is mathematically complex, and requires careful setup, execution and data processing tailor-fit to a specific site and a project. With this in mind, step-by-step instructions were created to introduce a novice to the conventional Eddy Covariance technique [9], and to assist in further understanding the method through more advanced references such as graduate-level textbooks, flux networks guidelines, journals

  16. Instrumentation and methods evaluations for shallow land burial of waste materials: water erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostetler, D.D.; Murphy, E.M.; Childs, S.W.

    1981-08-01

    The erosion of geologic materials by water at shallow-land hazardous waste disposal sites can compromise waste containment. Erosion of protective soil from these sites may enhance waste transport to the biosphere through water, air, and biologic pathways. The purpose of this study was to review current methods of evaluating soil erosion and to recommend methods for use at shallow-land, hazardous waste burial sites. The basic principles of erosion control are: minimize raindrop impact on the soil surface; minimize runoff quantity; minimize runoff velocity; and maximize the soil's resistance to erosion. Generally soil erosion can be controlled when these principles are successfully applied at waste disposal sites. However, these erosion control practices may jeopardize waste containment. Typical erosion control practices may enhance waste transport by increasing subsurface moisture movement and biologic uptake of hazardous wastes. A two part monitoring program is recommended for US Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous waste disposal sites. The monitoring programs and associated measurement methods are designed to provide baseline data permitting analysis and prediction of long term erosion hazards at disposal sites. These two monitoring programs are: (1) site reconnaissance and tracking; and (2) site instrumentation. Some potential waste transport problems arising from erosion control practices are identified. This report summarizes current literature regarding water erosion prediction and control

  17. Trace interpolation by slant-stack migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, M.

    1990-01-01

    The slant-stack migration formula based on the radon transform is studied with respect to the depth steep Δz of wavefield extrapolation. It can be viewed as a generalized trace-interpolation procedure including wave extrapolation with an arbitrary step Δz. For Δz > 0 the formula yields the familiar plane-wave decomposition, while for Δz > 0 it provides a robust tool for migration transformation of spatially under sampled wavefields. Using the stationary phase method, it is shown that the slant-stack migration formula degenerates into the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral in the far-field approximation. Consequently, even a narrow slant-stack gather applied before the diffraction stack can significantly improve the representation of noisy data in the wavefield extrapolation process. The theory is applied to synthetic and field data to perform trace interpolation and dip reject filtration. The data examples presented prove that the radon interpolator works well in the dip range, including waves with mutual stepouts smaller than half the dominant period

  18. Optoelectronic interconnects for 3D wafer stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David; Carson, John C.; Lome, Louis S.

    1996-01-01

    Wafer and chip stacking are envisioned as means of providing increased processing power within the small confines of a three-dimensional structure. Optoelectronic devices can play an important role in these dense 3-D processing electronic packages in two ways. In pure electronic processing, optoelectronics can provide a method for increasing the number of input/output communication channels within the layers of the 3-D chip stack. Non-free space communication links allow the density of highly parallel input/output ports to increase dramatically over typical edge bus connections. In hybrid processors, where electronics and optics play a role in defining the computational algorithm, free space communication links are typically utilized for, among other reasons, the increased network link complexity which can be achieved. Free space optical interconnections provide bandwidths and interconnection complexity unobtainable in pure electrical interconnections. Stacked 3-D architectures can provide the electronics real estate and structure to deal with the increased bandwidth and global information provided by free space optical communications. This paper will provide definitions and examples of 3-D stacked architectures in optoelectronics processors. The benefits and issues of these technologies will be discussed.

  19. Emission quantification using the tracer gas dispersion method: The influence of instrument, tracer gas species and source simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker

    2018-01-01

    The tracer gas dispersion method (TDM) is a remote sensing method used for quantifying fugitive emissions by relying on the controlled release of a tracer gas at the source, combined with concentration measurements of the tracer and target gas plumes. The TDM was tested at a wastewater treatment...... plant for plant-integrated methane emission quantification, using four analytical instruments simultaneously and four different tracer gases. Measurements performed using a combination of an analytical instrument and a tracer gas, with a high ratio between the tracer gas release rate and instrument...... precision (a high release-precision ratio), resulted in well-defined plumes with a high signal-to-noise ratio and a high methane-to-tracer gas correlation factor. Measured methane emission rates differed by up to 18% from the mean value when measurements were performed using seven different instrument...

  20. Modeling fuel cell stack systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lalk, T R [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-06-15

    A technique for modeling fuel cell stacks is presented along with the results from an investigation designed to test the validity of the technique. The technique was specifically designed so that models developed using it can be used to determine the fundamental thermal-physical behavior of a fuel cell stack for any operating and design configuration. Such models would be useful tools for investigating fuel cell power system parameters. The modeling technique can be applied to any type of fuel cell stack for which performance data is available for a laboratory scale single cell. Use of the technique is demonstrated by generating sample results for a model of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack consisting of 125 cells each with an active area of 150 cm{sup 2}. A PEMFC stack was also used in the verification investigation. This stack consisted of four cells, each with an active area of 50 cm{sup 2}. Results from the verification investigation indicate that models developed using the technique are capable of accurately predicting fuel cell stack performance. (orig.)

  1. Applicability of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy as method to determine thickness and composition of stacks of metal thin films: A comparison with imaging and profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrielink, J.A.M.; Tiggelaar, R.M.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Lefferts, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the applicability of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) for fast, accurate and non-destructive determination of the thickness of a variety of single-layer and multi-layer metal thin films deposited on glass and silicon is investigated. Data obtained with XRF is compared with information from profilometry and images from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whereas thickness determinations based on profilometry and cross-sectional SEM-imaging have restrictions with respect to thickness of metal stacks or hardness of the metals, XRF has no such limitations. Moreover, XRF can discriminate between sublayers in a multi-layer film, and can also be utilized for compositional analysis and density estimations. Good agreement between thickness data obtained with XRF, profilometry and SEM-images is found, under the justifiable assumption that the density of sputter-deposited and evaporated thin films is ca. 5% below that of bulk metals. Similar XRF-results are found for non-patterned areas (64 mm 2 metal) as well as lithographically patterned areas containing a series of small metal lines (total metal surface ca. 8 mm 2 ). As a consequence, it is concluded that XRF is a versatile technique for analysis, verification, control or evaluation of the thickness, density or (elemental) composition of thin metal film line-patterns, during their fabrication as well as prior or post to applications.

  2. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  3. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2008-03-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  4. Proceedings of a workshop on methods for neutron scattering instrumentation design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P.

    1997-09-01

    The future of neutron and x-ray scattering instrument development and international cooperation was the focus of the workshop. The international gathering of about 50 participants representing 15 national facilities, universities and corporations featured oral presentations, posters, discussions and demonstrations. Participants looked at a number of issues concerning neutron scattering instruments and the tools used in instrument design. Objectives included: (1) determining the needs of the neutron scattering community in instrument design computer code and information sharing to aid future instrument development, (2) providing for a means of training scientists in neutron scattering and neutron instrument techniques, and (3) facilitating the involvement of other scientists in determining the characteristics of new instruments that meet future scientific objectives, and (4) fostering international cooperation in meeting these needs. The scope of the meeting included: (1) a review of x-ray scattering instrument design tools, (2) a look at the present status of neutron scattering instrument design tools and models of neutron optical elements, and (3) discussions of the present and future needs of the neutron scattering community. Selected papers were abstracted separately for inclusion to the Energy Science and Technology Database

  5. Proceedings of a workshop on methods for neutron scattering instrumentation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, R.P. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The future of neutron and x-ray scattering instrument development and international cooperation was the focus of the workshop. The international gathering of about 50 participants representing 15 national facilities, universities and corporations featured oral presentations, posters, discussions and demonstrations. Participants looked at a number of issues concerning neutron scattering instruments and the tools used in instrument design. Objectives included: (1) determining the needs of the neutron scattering community in instrument design computer code and information sharing to aid future instrument development, (2) providing for a means of training scientists in neutron scattering and neutron instrument techniques, and (3) facilitating the involvement of other scientists in determining the characteristics of new instruments that meet future scientific objectives, and (4) fostering international cooperation in meeting these needs. The scope of the meeting included: (1) a review of x-ray scattering instrument design tools, (2) a look at the present status of neutron scattering instrument design tools and models of neutron optical elements, and (3) discussions of the present and future needs of the neutron scattering community. Selected papers were abstracted separately for inclusion to the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Computerized plutonium laboratory-stack monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, R.G.; DeVore, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has recently designed and constructed a Plutonium Research and Development Facility to meet design criteria imposed by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. A primary objective of the design criteria is to assure environmental protection and to reliably monitor plutonium effluent via the ventilation exhaust systems. A state-of-the-art facility exhaust air monitoring system is described which establishes near ideal conditions for evaluating plutonium activity in the stack effluent. Total and static pressure sensing manifolds are incorporated to measure average velocity and integrated total discharge air volume. These data are logged at a computer which receives instrument data through a multiplex scanning system. A multipoint isokinetic sampling assembly with associated instrumentation is described. Continuous air monitors have been designed to sample from the isokinetic sampling assembly and transmit both instantaneous and integrated stack effluent concentration data to the computer and various cathode ray tube displays. The continuous air monitors also serve as room air monitors in the plutonium facility with the primary objective of timely evacuation of personnel if an above tolerance airborne plutonium concentration is detected. Several continuous air monitors are incorporated in the ventilation system to assist in identification of release problem areas

  7. Calculation of AC losses in large HTS stacks and coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zermeno, Victor; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a homogenization method to model a stack of HTS tapes under AC applied transport current or magnetic field. The idea is to find an anisotropic bulk equivalent for the stack of tapes, where the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting...... allowing for overcritical current densities to be considered. The method presented here allowed for a computational speedup factor of up to 2 orders of magnitude when compared to full 2-D simulations taking into account the actual structure of the stacks without compromising accuracy....

  8. Field estimation of soil water content. A practical guide to methods, instrumentation and sensor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    During a period of five years, an international group of soil water instrumentation experts were contracted by the International Atomic Energy Agency to carry out a range of comparative assessments of soil water sensing methods under laboratory and field conditions. The detailed results of those studies are published elsewhere. Most of the devices examined worked well some of the time, but most also performed poorly in some circumstances. The group was also aware that the choice of a water measurement technology is often made for economic, convenience and other reasons, and that there was a need to be able to obtain the best results from any device used. The choice of a technology is sometimes not made by the ultimate user, or even if it is, the main constraint may be financial rather than technical. Thus, this guide is presented in a way that allows the user to obtain the best performance from any instrument, while also providing guidance as to which instruments perform best under given circumstances. That said, this expert group of the IAEA reached several important conclusions: (1) the field calibrated neutron moisture meter (NMM) remains the most accurate and precise method for soil profile water content determination in the field, and is the only indirect method capable of providing accurate soil water balance data for studies of crop water use, water use efficiency, irrigation efficiency and irrigation water use efficiency, with a minimum number of access tubes; (2) those electromagnetic sensors known as capacitance sensors exhibit much more variability in the field than either the NMM or direct soil water measurements, and they are not recommended for soil water balance studies for this reason (impractically large numbers of access tubes and sensors are required) and because they are rendered inaccurate by changes in soil bulk electrical conductivity (including temperature effects) that often occur in irrigated soils, particularly those containing

  9. Cluster cosmological analysis with X ray instrumental observables: introduction and testing of AsPIX method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valotti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cosmology is one of the fundamental pillars of astrophysics, as such it contains many unsolved puzzles. To investigate some of those puzzles, we analyze X-ray surveys of galaxy clusters. These surveys are possible thanks to the bremsstrahlung emission of the intra-cluster medium. The simultaneous fit of cluster counts as a function of mass and distance provides an independent measure of cosmological parameters such as Ω m , σ s , and the dark energy equation of state w0. A novel approach to cosmological analysis using galaxy cluster data, called top-down, was developed in N. Clerc et al. (2012). This top-down approach is based purely on instrumental observables that are considered in a two-dimensional X-ray color-magnitude diagram. The method self-consistently includes selection effects and scaling relationships. It also provides a means of bypassing the computation of individual cluster masses. My work presents an extension of the top-down method by introducing the apparent size of the cluster, creating a three-dimensional X-ray cluster diagram. The size of a cluster is sensitive to both the cluster mass and its angular diameter, so it must also be included in the assessment of selection effects. The performance of this new method is investigated using a Fisher analysis. In parallel, I have studied the effects of the intrinsic scatter in the cluster size scaling relation on the sample selection as well as on the obtained cosmological parameters. To validate the method, I estimate uncertainties of cosmological parameters with MCMC method Amoeba minimization routine and using two simulated XMM surveys that have an increasing level of complexity. The first simulated survey is a set of toy catalogues of 100 and 10000 deg 2 , whereas the second is a 1000 deg 2 catalogue that was generated using an Aardvark semi-analytical N-body simulation. This comparison corroborates the conclusions of the Fisher analysis. In conclusion, I find that a cluster diagram that accounts

  10. Electronic structure of the rotation twin stacking fault in β-ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northrup, J.E.; Cohen, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The electronic structure of the rotation twin stacking fault in β-ZnS is calculated with the self-consistent pseudopotential method. The stacking fault creates a potential barrier of approx.0.07 eV and induces the localization of stacking-fault resonances near the top of the valence band. Stacking-fault states are also predicted to exist in the various gaps in the projected valence-band structure

  11. Influence of different manufacturing methods on the cyclic fatigue of rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Renata C V; Lopes, Hélio P; Elias, Carlos N; Amaral, Georgiana; Vieira, Victor T L; De Martin, Alexandre S

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, by static and dynamic cyclic fatigue tests, the number of cycles to fracture (NCF) 2 types of rotary NiTi instruments: Twisted File (SybronEndo, Orange, CA), which is manufactured by a proprietary twisting process, and RaCe files (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), which are manufactured by grinding. Twenty Twisted Files (TFs) and 20 RaCe files #25/.006 taper instruments were allowed to rotate freely in an artificial curved canal at 310 rpm in a static or a dynamic model until fracture occurred. Measurements of the fractured fragments showed that fracture occurred at the point of maximum flexure in the midpoint of the curved segment. The NCF was significantly lower for RaCe instruments compared with TFs. The NCF was also lower for instruments subjected to the static test compared with the dynamic model in both groups. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed ductile morphologic characteristics on the fractured surfaces of all instruments and no plastic deformation in their helical shafts. Rotary NiTi endodontic instruments manufactured by twisting present greater resistance to cyclic fatigue compared with instruments manufactured by grinding. The fracture mode observed in all instruments was of the ductile type. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of river habitants by the k(0)-standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Toyoshima, T.; Matsushita, R.; Fukuda, A.; Hibino, K.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of metal concentrations in samples use reference materials for determination, which means elements out of the references are not possible to be determined. The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with k(O)-standardization method makes possible to determine metals without use of reference materials, which is very attractive for environmental sample analysis, River habitants would be available as a bio-indicator from which river water quality or metal contamination level could be evaluated. We analyzed river fishes and river insects by INAA with k(O)-standardization to examine the possibility of these habitants as a bio-indicator of water system. Small fishes, Oryzias latipes and Gambusia affinis were collected at 3 different rivers every month and river insects, families of Heptageniidae, Baetidae, Perlidae, Hydropsychidae, Psephenidae were collected at a fixed point of the river. The dried samples were irradiated at the research reactor, JRR-4 (3.5MW), JAERI for 10 min and 3 h. 17 elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba, Ce and Sm) were determined by the NAA-k(0) method, showing effectiveness of the present method for environmental sample analysis. The metals observed in the fishes were the highest in Ca and the lowest in Sc, ranging from 10 5 mg/kg-dry weigh in Ca to 10 -2 mg/kg-dry weight in Sc. The differences in metal concentrations were examined by statistical analysis with t-test. Ca, Na and Br concentrations differ between species, Oryzias latipes and Gambusia, and Fe, Sc, Co, Zn and Se concentrations differ among rivers. No difference was observed on K, Rb and Sr concentrations.

  13. Injection Methods and Instrumentation for Serial X-ray Free Electron Laser Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel

    Scientists have used X-rays to study biological molecules for nearly a century. Now with the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL), new methods have been developed to advance structural biology. These new methods include serial femtosecond crystallography, single particle imaging, solution scattering, and time resolved techniques. The XFEL is characterized by high intensity pulses, which are only about 50 femtoseconds in duration. The intensity allows for scattering from microscopic particles, while the short pulses offer a way to outrun radiation damage. XFELs are powerful enough to obliterate most samples in a single pulse. While this allows for a "diffract and destroy" methodology, it also requires instrumentation that can position microscopic particles into the X-ray beam (which may also be microscopic), continuously renew the sample after each pulse, and maintain sample viability during data collection. Typically these experiments have used liquid microjets to continuously renew sample. The high flow rate associated with liquid microjets requires large amounts of sample, most of which runs to waste between pulses. An injector designed to stream a viscous gel-like material called lipidic cubic phase (LCP) was developed to address this problem. LCP, commonly used as a growth medium for membrane protein crystals, lends itself to low flow rate jetting and so reduces the amount of sample wasted significantly. This work discusses sample delivery and injection for XFEL experiments. It reviews the liquid microjet method extensively, and presents the LCP injector as a novel device for serial crystallography, including detailed protocols for the LCP injector and anti-settler operation.

  14. Clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods of pre-surgical diagnosis of the parathyroid glands cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia G. Mokrysheva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgraund. When defining symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT, differential diagnosis between a benign and malignant neoplasm of parathyroid glands (PG may be challenging. The diagnosis of carcinoma or a benign tumor determines the extent of the surgical intervention and further observation tactics. Aims. The purpose of the study is to determine the clinical and laboratory and instrumental predictors of PG cancer. Materials and methods. A retrospective study included 385 patients with PHPT (273 with adenomas of the PG, 66 with hyperplasia, and 19 patients with cancer of the PG, who had been examined and operated from 2000 to 2014. The primary goal of the study was to define the level of ionized calcium (Ca++, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and the volume of the tumor PG specific for cancer of the PG. The level of parathyroid hormone (PTH was determined by electrochemoluminescent method on the Roche analyzer Cobas 6000; ionized calcium (Ca++ ion-selective method. The size of the PG was determined by the ellipse formula: V(cm3 = (A × B × C × 0.49 by ultrasound investigation using the Valuson E8 device from General Electric. Results. The group of patients with PG carcinoma showed the increased level of Ca++ of more than 1.60 mmol/l (p = 0.004 and increased level of PTH of more than 600 pg/ml (p = 0.03. The size of tumors of more than 6 cm3 is more typical to malignant neoplasm compared to the adenoma of the PG (p = 0.01. Conclusions. The group of patients with PHPT that are at risk of having PG carcinoma include individuals that have a combination of the following indicators: PTH levels of more than 600 pg/ml, an increase in ionized calcium of more than 1.60 mmol/l, the tumor size of more than 6 cm3.

  15. A damage detection method for instrumented civil structures using prerecorded Green’s functions and cross-correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Heckman, Vanessa; Kohler, Monica; Heaton, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Automated damage detection methods have application to instrumented structures that are susceptible to types of damage that are difficult or costly to detect. The presented method has application to the detection of brittle fracture of welded beam-column connections in steel moment-resisting frames (MRFs), where locations of potential structural damage are known a priori. The method makes use of a prerecorded catalog of Green’s function templates and a cross-correlation method ...

  16. Reliability analysis and initial requirements for FC systems and stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åström, K.; Fontell, E.; Virtanen, S.

    In the year 2000 Wärtsilä Corporation started an R&D program to develop SOFC systems for CHP applications. The program aims to bring to the market highly efficient, clean and cost competitive fuel cell systems with rated power output in the range of 50-250 kW for distributed generation and marine applications. In the program Wärtsilä focuses on system integration and development. System reliability and availability are key issues determining the competitiveness of the SOFC technology. In Wärtsilä, methods have been implemented for analysing the system in respect to reliability and safety as well as for defining reliability requirements for system components. A fault tree representation is used as the basis for reliability prediction analysis. A dynamic simulation technique has been developed to allow for non-static properties in the fault tree logic modelling. Special emphasis has been placed on reliability analysis of the fuel cell stacks in the system. A method for assessing reliability and critical failure predictability requirements for fuel cell stacks in a system consisting of several stacks has been developed. The method is based on a qualitative model of the stack configuration where each stack can be in a functional, partially failed or critically failed state, each of the states having different failure rates and effects on the system behaviour. The main purpose of the method is to understand the effect of stack reliability, critical failure predictability and operating strategy on the system reliability and availability. An example configuration, consisting of 5 × 5 stacks (series of 5 sets of 5 parallel stacks) is analysed in respect to stack reliability requirements as a function of predictability of critical failures and Weibull shape factor of failure rate distributions.

  17. Assessing learning outcomes in middle-division classical mechanics: The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Marcos D.; Doughty, Leanne; Turnbull, Anna M.; Pepper, Rachel E.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2017-06-01

    Reliable and validated assessments of introductory physics have been instrumental in driving curricular and pedagogical reforms that lead to improved student learning. As part of an effort to systematically improve our sophomore-level classical mechanics and math methods course (CM 1) at CU Boulder, we have developed a tool to assess student learning of CM 1 concepts in the upper division. The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument (CCMI) builds on faculty consensus learning goals and systematic observations of student difficulties. The result is a 9-question open-ended post test that probes student learning in the first half of a two-semester classical mechanics and math methods sequence. In this paper, we describe the design and development of this instrument, its validation, and measurements made in classes at CU Boulder and elsewhere.

  18. Assessing learning outcomes in middle-division classical mechanics: The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D. Caballero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and validated assessments of introductory physics have been instrumental in driving curricular and pedagogical reforms that lead to improved student learning. As part of an effort to systematically improve our sophomore-level classical mechanics and math methods course (CM 1 at CU Boulder, we have developed a tool to assess student learning of CM 1 concepts in the upper division. The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument (CCMI builds on faculty consensus learning goals and systematic observations of student difficulties. The result is a 9-question open-ended post test that probes student learning in the first half of a two-semester classical mechanics and math methods sequence. In this paper, we describe the design and development of this instrument, its validation, and measurements made in classes at CU Boulder and elsewhere.

  19. Trace elements determination in silicon and ferrosilicon reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Edson Goncalves; Vasconcellos, Marina Beatriz Agostini; Saiki, Mitiko; Iamashita, Celia Omine

    2002-01-01

    The use of certified reference materials, CRM, is of uppermost importance in the rastreability realization of the measurement process. At times, CRM use is restricted by the non existence of a suitable CRM with similarity to the sample in respect to matrix composition or with element levels in different orders of magnitude. IPT Chemical Division launched a project to prepare a metallic silicon CRM, due to the requirements of the industries in this field. To characterize this new CRM, IPEN Nuclear Reactor Center is able to perform instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, a very suitable method for silicon matrix samples because they produce basically the short lived radionuclide 3 1 Si under thermal neutrons flux, which after radioactive decay, does not interfere in the determination of other elements. In this paper, it is presented the determination of As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Eu, Fe, La, Mn, Na Nb, Sb, Sm, Sc, Th, Tb, U, V, W and Yb in silicon CRM NBS SRM 57; ferrosilicon CRM IPT 56; IPT 70; NBS SRM 58a; NBS SRM 59a and silicon RM under preparation IPT 132. From the results, the accuracy and the precision of the process were assessed. (author)

  20. Waste minimization methods for treating analytical instrumentation effluents at the source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, J.A.; Barnhart, C.

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to reduce the amount of hazardous waste being generated by the Savannah River Siste Defense Waste Processing Technology-analytical Laboratory (DWPT-AL). A detailed characterization study was performed on 12 of the liquid effluent streams generated within the DWPT-AL. Two of the streams were not hazardous, and are now being collected separately from the 10 hazardous streams. A secondary goal of the project was to develop in-line methods using primarily adsorption/ion exchange columns to treat liquid effluent as it emerges from the analytical instrument as a slow, dripping flow. Samples from the 10 hazardous streams were treated by adsorption in an experimental apparatus that resembled an in-line or at source column apparatus. The layered adsorbent bed contained activated carbon and ion exchange resin. The column technique did not work on the first three samples of the spectroscopy waste stream, but worked well on the next three samples which were treated in a different column. It was determined that an unusual form of mercury was present in the first three samples. Similarly, two samples of a combined waste stream were rendered nonhazardous, but the last two samples contained acetylnitrile that prevented analysis. The characteristics of these streams changed from the initial characterization study; therefore, continual, in-deptch stream characterization is the key to making this project successful

  1. The alignment of the LHC low beta triplets. Review of instrumentation and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coosemans, W.; Mainaud Durand, H.; Marin, A.; Quesnel, J-P.

    2003-01-01

    Alignment tolerances for the LHC insertions are particularly stringent regarding the low beta quadrupoles, which induce strict positioning tolerances, in a severe environment (high radiation fluxes and magnetic fields): positioning of one inner triplet with respect to the other (left/right side): ±0.5 mm (3σ), stability of the positioning of one quadrupole inside its triplet: a few microns. We propose to continuously monitor the relative position of the quadrupoles of one inner triplet with respect to a reference frame materialized by a wire and a water surface, and to use common references to link a triplet on one side to the triplet on the other side of the experiment. When the offset between real and reference position becomes too great, the quadrupole will be moved using remote motorized jacks. Instrumentation (HLS, WPS, radial measuring system, etc.) and methods will be detailed as well as the first results obtained on a cryo-magnet prototype named TAP used as test facility. The TAP is equipped with HLS linked by two types of hydraulic networks (two pipes with air and water separated, one pipe half filled), WPS and one inclinometer. It is installed on three polyurethane motorized jacks in order to study and compare servo positioning using the different sensors. (author)

  2. Fast principal component analysis for stacking seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Bai, Min

    2018-04-01

    Stacking seismic data plays an indispensable role in many steps of the seismic data processing and imaging workflow. Optimal stacking of seismic data can help mitigate seismic noise and enhance the principal components to a great extent. Traditional average-based seismic stacking methods cannot obtain optimal performance when the ambient noise is extremely strong. We propose a principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm for stacking seismic data without being sensitive to noise level. Considering the computational bottleneck of the classic PCA algorithm in processing massive seismic data, we propose an efficient PCA algorithm to make the proposed method readily applicable for industrial applications. Two numerically designed examples and one real seismic data are used to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  3. Use of the mathematical modelling method for the investigation of dynamic characteristics of acoustical measuring instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Y. M.; Lagunov, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    The schematic diagram of a noise measuring device is presented that uses pulse expansion modeling according to the peak or any other measured values, to obtain instrument readings at a very low noise error.

  4. Stacking by electroinjection with discontinuous buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Zak K

    2002-08-01

    The work presented here demonstrates that electroinjection can be performed using discontinuous buffers, which can result in better stacking than that obtained by hydrodynamic injection. The sample can be concentrated at the tip of the capillary leaving practically the whole capillary for sample separation. This results in several advantages, such as better sample concentration, higher plate number and shorter time of stacking. However, sample introduction by electromigration is suited for samples free or low in salt content. Samples, which are high in salt content, are better introduced by the hydrodynamic injection for stacking by the discontinuous buffers. Different simple methods to introduce the discontinuity in the buffer for electroinjection are discussed.

  5. A comprehensive review of sensors and instrumentation methods in devices for musical expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Carolina Brum; Wanderley, Marcelo M

    2014-07-25

    Digital Musical Instruments (DMIs) are musical instruments typically composed of a control surface where user interaction is measured by sensors whose values are mapped to sound synthesis algorithms. These instruments have gained interest among skilled musicians and performers in the last decades leading to artistic practices including musical performance, interactive installations and dance. The creation of DMIs typically involves several areas, among them: arts, design and engineering. The balance between these areas is an essential task in DMI design so that the resulting instruments are aesthetically appealing, robust, and allow responsive, accurate and repeatable sensing. In this paper, we review the use of sensors in the DMI community as manifested in the proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME 2009-2013). Focusing on the sensor technologies and signal conditioning techniques used by the NIME community. Although it has been claimed that specifications for artistic tools are harder than those for military applications, this study raises a paradox showing that in most of the cases, DMIs are based on a few basic sensors types and unsophisticated engineering solutions, not taking advantage of more advanced sensing, instrumentation and signal processing techniques that could dramatically improve their response. We aim to raise awareness of limitations of any engineering solution and to assert the benefits of advanced electronics instrumentation design in DMIs. For this, we propose the use of specialized sensors such as strain gages, advanced conditioning circuits and signal processing tools such as sensor fusion. We believe that careful electronic instrumentation design may lead to more responsive instruments.

  6. A Comprehensive Review of Sensors and Instrumentation Methods in Devices for Musical Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Brum Medeiros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital Musical Instruments (DMIs are musical instruments typically composed of a control surface where user interaction is measured by sensors whose values are mapped to sound synthesis algorithms. These instruments have gained interest among skilled musicians and performers in the last decades leading to artistic practices including musical performance, interactive installations and dance. The creation of DMIs typically involves several areas, among them: arts, design and engineering. The balance between these areas is an essential task in DMI design so that the resulting instruments are aesthetically appealing, robust, and allow responsive, accurate and repeatable sensing. In this paper, we review the use of sensors in the DMI community as manifested in the proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME 2009–2013. Focusing on the sensor technologies and signal conditioning techniques used by the NIME community. Although it has been claimed that specifications for artistic tools are harder than those for military applications, this study raises a paradox showing that in most of the cases, DMIs are based on a few basic sensors types and unsophisticated engineering solutions, not taking advantage of more advanced sensing, instrumentation and signal processing techniques that could dramatically improve their response. We aim to raise awareness of limitations of any engineering solution and to assert the benefits of advanced electronics instrumentation design in DMIs. For this, we propose the use of specialized sensors such as strain gages, advanced conditioning circuits and signal processing tools such as sensor fusion. We believe that careful electronic instrumentation design may lead to more responsive instruments.

  7. The instruments in the first psychological laboratory in Mexico: antecedents, influence, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rogelio

    2014-11-01

    Enrique O. Aragón established the first psychological laboratory in Mexico in 1916. This laboratory was inspired by Wundt's laboratory and by those created afterward in Germany and the United States. It was equipped with state-of-the art instruments imported from Germany in 1902 from Ernst Zimmermann who supplied instruments for Wundt's laboratory. Although previous authors have described the social events leading to the creation of the laboratory, there are limited descriptions of the instruments, their use, and their influence. With the aid of archival resources, the initial location of the laboratory was determined. The analysis of instruments revealed a previously overlooked relation with a previous laboratory of experimental physiology. The influence of the laboratory was traced by describing the careers of 4 students, 3 of them women, who worked with the instruments during the first 2 decades of the 20th century, each becoming accomplished scholars. In addition, this article, by identifying and analyzing the instruments shown in photographs of the psychological laboratory and in 1 motion film, provides information of the class demonstrations and the experiments conducted in this laboratory.

  8. Beam diagnostic instruments of TARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shin-ichi.

    1987-09-01

    The paper summarizes the beam diagnostic instruments of the low energy ion accumulation ring; TARN. With these monitors, position, profiles, bunch structure, intensity, emittance and momentum spread were measured to evaluate the injection and stacking experiments. The monitors provide the sensitivity of a few μA for the nondestructive and a few nA for the destructive monitors. Discussions on monitor probe and electronics are presented on the basis of an achievement of the beam stacking experiments. (author)

  9. Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.

  10. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  11. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  12. Data Quality Control: Challenges, Methods, and Solutions from an Eco-Hydrologic Instrumentation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiriksson, D.; Jones, A. S.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Cox, C.; Dastrup, D.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few decades, advances in electronic dataloggers and in situ sensor technology have revolutionized our ability to monitor air, soil, and water to address questions in the environmental sciences. The increased spatial and temporal resolution of in situ data is alluring. However, an often overlooked aspect of these advances are the challenges data managers and technicians face in performing quality control on millions of data points collected every year. While there is general agreement that high quantities of data offer little value unless the data are of high quality, it is commonly understood that despite efforts toward quality assurance, environmental data collection occasionally goes wrong. After identifying erroneous data, data managers and technicians must determine whether to flag, delete, leave unaltered, or retroactively correct suspect data. While individual instrumentation networks often develop their own QA/QC procedures, there is a scarcity of consensus and literature regarding specific solutions and methods for correcting data. This may be because back correction efforts are time consuming, so suspect data are often simply abandoned. Correction techniques are also rarely reported in the literature, likely because corrections are often performed by technicians rather than the researchers who write the scientific papers. Details of correction procedures are often glossed over as a minor component of data collection and processing. To help address this disconnect, we present case studies of quality control challenges, solutions, and lessons learned from a large scale, multi-watershed environmental observatory in Northern Utah that monitors Gradients Along Mountain to Urban Transitions (GAMUT). The GAMUT network consists of over 40 individual climate, water quality, and storm drain monitoring stations that have collected more than 200 million unique data points in four years of operation. In all of our examples, we emphasize that scientists

  13. The Signal Validation method of Digital Process Instrumentation System on signal conditioner for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hee Gun; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Jung Seon; Shon, Chang Ho; Park, Heui Youn; Koo, In Soo

    2005-01-01

    The function of PIS(Process Instrumentation System) for SMART is to acquire the process data from sensor or transmitter. The PIS consists of signal conditioner, A/D converter, DSP(Digital Signal Process) and NIC(Network Interface Card). So, It is fully digital system after A/D converter. The PI cabinet and PDAS(Plant Data Acquisition System) in commercial plant is responsible for data acquisition of the sensor or transmitter include RTD, TC, level, flow, pressure and so on. The PDAS has the software that processes each sensor data and PI cabinet has the signal conditioner, which is need for maintenance and test. The signal conditioner has the potentiometer to adjust the span and zero for test and maintenance. The PIS of SMART also has the signal conditioner which has the span and zero adjust same as the commercial plant because the signal conditioner perform the signal condition for AD converter such as 0∼10Vdc. But, To adjust span and zero is manual test and calibration. So, This paper presents the method of signal validation and calibration, which is used by digital feature in SMART. There are I/E(current to voltage), R/E(resistor to voltage), F/E(frequency to voltage), V/V(voltage to voltage). Etc. In this paper show only the signal validation and calibration about I/E converter that convert level, pressure, flow such as 4∼20mA into signal for AD conversion such as 0∼10Vdc

  14. Development of a quality instrument for assessing the spontaneous reports of ADR/ADE using Delphi method in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lixun; Jiang, Ling; Shen, Aizong; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The frequently low quality of submitted spontaneous reports is of an increasing concern; to our knowledge, no validated instrument exists for assessing case reports' quality comprehensively enough. This work was conducted to develop such a quality instrument for assessing the spontaneous reports of adverse drug reaction (ADR)/adverse drug event (ADE) in China. Initial evaluation indicators were generated using systematic and literature data analysis. Final indicators and their weights were identified using Delphi method. The final quality instrument was developed by adopting the synthetic scoring method. A consensus was reached after four rounds of Delphi survey. The developed quality instrument consisted of 6 first-rank indicators, 18 second-rank indicators, and 115 third-rank indicators, and each rank indicator has been weighted. It evaluates the quality of spontaneous reports of ADR/ADE comprehensively and quantitatively on six parameters: authenticity, duplication, regulatory, completeness, vigilance level, and reporting time frame. The developed instrument was tested with good reliability and validity, which can be used to comprehensively and quantitatively assess the submitted spontaneous reports of ADR/ADE in China.

  15. Development and preliminary experimental study on micro-stacked insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Chengyan; Yuan Weiqun; Zhang Dongdong; Yan Ping; Wang Jue

    2009-01-01

    High gradient insulating technology is one of the key technologies in new type dielectric wall accelerator(DWA). High gradient insulator, namely micro-stacked insulator, was developed and preliminary experimental study was done. Based on the finite element and particle simulating method, surface electric field distribution and electron movement track of micro-stacked insulator were numerated, and then the optimized design proposal was put forward. Using high temperature laminated method, we developed micro-stacked insulator samples which uses exhaustive fluorinated ethylene propylene(FEP) as dielectric layer and stainless steel as metal layer. Preliminary experiment of vacuum surface flashover in nanosecond pulse voltage was done and micro-stacked insulator exhibited favorable vacuum surface flashover performance with flashover field strength of near 180 kV/cm. (authors)

  16. Qualitative to Quantitative and Spectrum to Report: An Instrument-Focused Research Methods Course for First-Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alyssa C.; Boucher, Michelle A.; Pulliam, Curtis R.

    2015-01-01

    Our Introduction to Research Methods course is a first-year majors course built around the idea of helping students learn to work like chemists, write like chemists, and think like chemists. We have developed this course as a hybrid hands-on/ lecture experience built around instrumentation use and report preparation. We take the product from one…

  17. Glassy carbon based supercapacitor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M; Braun, A; Koetz, R; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Considerable effort is being made to develop electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) that store relatively large quantities of electrical energy and possess at the same time a high power density. Our previous work has shown that glassy carbon is suitable as a material for capacitor electrodes concerning low resistance and high capacity requirements. We present the development of bipolar electrochemical glassy carbon capacitor stacks of up to 3 V. Bipolar stacks are an efficient way to meet the high voltage and high power density requirements for traction applications. Impedance and cyclic voltammogram measurements are reported here and show the frequency response of a 1, 2, and 3 V stack. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref..

  18. Time-predictable Stack Caching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar

    completely. Thus, in systems with hard deadlines the worst-case execution time (WCET) of the real-time software running on them needs to be bounded. Modern architectures use features such as pipelining and caches for improving the average performance. These features, however, make the WCET analysis more...... addresses, provides an opportunity to predict and tighten the WCET of accesses to data in caches. In this thesis, we introduce the time-predictable stack cache design and implementation within a time-predictable processor. We introduce several optimizations to our design for tightening the WCET while...... keeping the timepredictability of the design intact. Moreover, we provide a solution for reducing the cost of context switching in a system using the stack cache. In design of these caches, we use custom hardware and compiler support for delivering time-predictable stack data accesses. Furthermore...

  19. Dose assessment for potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford Site: NESHAP compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the assessment results for the registered stacks on the Hanford Site for potential emissions, i.e. emissions with no control devices in place. Further, the document will identify those stacks requiring continuous monitoring, i.e. the effective dose equivalent from potential emissions >0.1 mrem/yr. The stack assessment of potential emissions was performed on 84 registered stacks on the Hanford Site. These emission sources represent individual point sources presently registered under Washington Administrative code 246-247 with the Washington Department of Health. The methods used in assessing the potential emissions from the stacks are described

  20. Electrochemical Detection in Stacked Paper Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyuan; Lillehoj, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Paper-based electrochemical biosensors are a promising technology that enables rapid, quantitative measurements on an inexpensive platform. However, the control of liquids in paper networks is generally limited to a single sample delivery step. Here, we propose a simple method to automate the loading and delivery of liquid samples to sensing electrodes on paper networks by stacking multiple layers of paper. Using these stacked paper devices (SPDs), we demonstrate a unique strategy to fully immerse planar electrodes by aqueous liquids via capillary flow. Amperometric measurements of xanthine oxidase revealed that electrochemical sensors on four-layer SPDs generated detection signals up to 75% higher compared with those on single-layer paper devices. Furthermore, measurements could be performed with minimal user involvement and completed within 30 min. Due to its simplicity, enhanced automation, and capability for quantitative measurements, stacked paper electrochemical biosensors can be useful tools for point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  1. [Ablation on the undersurface of a LASIK flap. Instrument and method for continuous eye tracking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneri, S; Azar, D T

    2007-02-01

    The risk of iatrogenic keratectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) increases with thinner posterior stromal beds. Ablations on the undersurface of a LASIK flap could only be performed without the guidance of an eye tracker, which may lead to decentration. A new method for laser ablation with flying spot lasers on the undersurface of a LASIK flap was developed that enables the use of an active eye tracker by utilizing a novel instrument. The first clinical results are reported. Patients wishing an enhancement procedure were eligible for a modified repeat LASIK procedure if the flaps cut in the initial procedure were thick enough to perform the intended additional ablation on the undersurface leaving at least 90 microm of flap thickness behind. (1) The horizontal axis and the center of the entrance pupil were marked on the epithelial side of the flap using gentian violet dye. (2) The flap was reflected on a newly designed flap holder which had a donut-shaped black marking. (3) The eye tracker was centered on the mark visible in transparency on the flap. (4) Ablation with a flying spot Bausch & Lomb Technolas 217z laser was performed on the undersurface of the flap with a superior hinge taking into account that in astigmatic ablations the cylinder axis had to be mirrored according to the formula: axis on the undersurface=180 degrees -axis on the stromal bed. (5) The flap was repositioned. Detection of the marking on the modified flap holder and continuous tracking instead of the real pupil was possible in all of the 12 eyes treated with this technique. It may be necessary to cover the real pupil during ablation in order not to confuse the eye tracker. Ablation could be performed without decentration or loss of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. Refractive results in minor corrections were good without nomogram adjustment. Using this novel flap holder with a marking that is tracked instead of the real pupil, centered ablations with a flying spot laser

  2. Advanced Instrumentation and Control Methods for Small and Medium Reactors with IRIS Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wesley Hines; Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Michael Doster; Robert M. Edwards; Kenneth D. Lewis; Paul Turinsky; Jamie Coble

    2011-05-31

    Development and deployment of small-scale nuclear power reactors and their maintenance, monitoring, and control are part of the mission under the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) program. The objectives of this NERI-consortium research project are to investigate, develop, and validate advanced methods for sensing, controlling, monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis of these reactors, and to demonstrate the methods with application to one of the proposed integral pressurized water reactors (IPWR). For this project, the IPWR design by Westinghouse, the International Reactor Secure and Innovative (IRIS), has been used to demonstrate the techniques developed under this project. The research focuses on three topical areas with the following objectives. Objective 1 - Develop and apply simulation capabilities and sensitivity/uncertainty analysis methods to address sensor deployment analysis and small grid stability issues. Objective 2 - Develop and test an autonomous and fault-tolerant control architecture and apply to the IRIS system and an experimental flow control loop, with extensions to multiple reactor modules, nuclear desalination, and optimal sensor placement strategy. Objective 3 - Develop and test an integrated monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis system for SMRs using the IRIS as a test platform, and integrate process and equipment monitoring (PEM) and process and equipment prognostics (PEP) toolboxes. The research tasks are focused on meeting the unique needs of reactors that may be deployed to remote locations or to developing countries with limited support infrastructure. These applications will require smaller, robust reactor designs with advanced technologies for sensors, instrumentation, and control. An excellent overview of SMRs is described in an article by Ingersoll (2009). The article refers to these as deliberately small reactors. Most of these have modular characteristics, with multiple units deployed at the same plant site. Additionally, the topics focus

  3. Factor analysis methods and validity evidence: A systematic review of instrument development across the continuum of medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across the continuum of medical education had not been previously identified. Therefore, the purpose for this study was critical review of instrument development articles employing exploratory factor or principal component analysis published in medical education (2006--2010) to describe and assess the reporting of methods and validity evidence based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and factor analysis best practices. Data extraction of 64 articles measuring a variety of constructs that have been published throughout the peer-reviewed medical education literature indicate significant errors in the translation of exploratory factor analysis best practices to current practice. Further, techniques for establishing validity evidence tend to derive from a limited scope of methods including reliability statistics to support internal structure and support for test content. Instruments reviewed for this study lacked supporting evidence based on relationships with other variables and response process, and evidence based on consequences of testing was not evident. Findings suggest a need for further professional development within the medical education researcher community related to (1) appropriate factor analysis methodology and reporting and (2) the importance of pursuing multiple sources of reliability and validity evidence to construct a well-supported argument for the inferences made from the instrument. Medical education researchers and educators should be cautious in adopting instruments from the literature and carefully review available evidence. Finally, editors and reviewers are encouraged to recognize

  4. Stack semantics of type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquand, Thierry; Mannaa, Bassel; Ruch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    We give a model of dependent type theory with one univalent universe and propositional truncation interpreting a type as a stack, generalizing the groupoid model of type theory. As an application, we show that countable choice cannot be proved in dependent type theory with one univalent universe...

  5. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  6. V-stack piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelean, Emil V.; Clark, Robert L.

    2001-07-01

    Aeroelastic control of wings by means of a distributed, trailing-edge control surface is of interest with regards to maneuvers, gust alleviation, and flutter suppression. The use of high energy density, piezoelectric materials as motors provides an appealing solution to this problem. A comparative analysis of the state of the art actuators is currently being conducted. A new piezoelectric actuator design is presented. This actuator meets the requirements for trailing edge flap actuation in both stroke and force. It is compact, simple, sturdy, and leverages stroke geometrically with minimum force penalties while displaying linearity over a wide range of stroke. The V-Stack Piezoelectric Actuator, consists of a base, a lever, two piezoelectric stacks, and a pre-tensioning element. The work is performed alternately by the two stacks, placed on both sides of the lever. Pre-tensioning can be readily applied using a torque wrench, obviating the need for elastic elements and this is for the benefit of the stiffness of the actuator. The characteristics of the actuator are easily modified by changing the base or the stacks. A prototype was constructed and tested experimentally to validate the theoretical model.

  7. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  8. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  9. Methods and Models of Market Risk Stress-Testing of the Portfolio of Financial Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Karminsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid instability of financial markets and macroeconomic situation the necessity of improving bank risk-management instrument arises. New economic reality defines the need for searching for more advanced approaches of estimating banks vulnerability to exceptional, but plausible events. Stress-testing belongs to such instruments. The paper reviews and compares the models of market risk stress-testing of the portfolio of different financial instruments. These days the topic of the paper is highly acute due to the fact that now stress-testing is becoming an integral part of anticrisis risk-management amid macroeconomic instability and appearance of new risks together with close interest to the problem of risk-aggregation. The paper outlines the notion of stress-testing and gives coverage of goals, functions of stress-tests and main criteria for market risk stress-testing classification. The paper also stresses special aspects of scenario analysis. Novelty of the research is explained by elaborating the programme of aggregated complex multifactor stress-testing of the portfolio risk based on scenario analysis. The paper highlights modern Russian and foreign models of stress-testing both on solo-basis and complex. The paper lays emphasis on the results of stress-testing and revaluations of positions for all three complex models: methodology of the Central Bank of stress-testing portfolio risk, model relying on correlations analysis and copula model. The models of stress-testing on solo-basis are different for each financial instrument. Parametric StressVaR model is applicable to shares and options stress-testing;model based on "Grek" indicators is used for options; for euroobligation regional factor model is used. Finally some theoretical recommendations about managing market risk of the portfolio are given.

  10. Hydro-ball in-core instrumentation system and method of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tower, S.N.; Veronesi, L.; Braun, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an instrumentation system. It is for a pressure vessel of nuclear reactor, the vessel having an outer enclosure defined by a generally cylindrical sidewall with a generally vertical central axis and upper and lower edges, and top and bottom heads secured in sealed relationship to the upper and lower edges, respectively, of the cylindrical sidewall, and the vessel enclosing therein a core including elongated fuel element assemblies mounted in parallel axial relationship

  11. Frame, methods and instruments for energy planning in the new economic order of electricity economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigler, H.

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of the new economic order of the electricity economy causes new focal tasks for the individual market participants and therefore new requirements for planning. As a precondition for energy planning, the Internal Market Electricity Directive and the ElWOG are examined and the tasks for the market participants are derived. Liberalization raises the risks for the enterprises. Increasing competition sets up higher requirements for planning. The planning instruments have no longer the destination of minimum costs but have to maximize the results of the enterprise. Price fixing requires a raised alignment to marginal costs considerations. Increasing electricity trade requires the introduction of new planning instruments. Further new tasks refer to electricity transfer via other networks and especially to congestion management. New chances but also new risks arise for the renewable energy sources. From the market result new requirements for the planning instruments. The basics in this respect are prepared and concrete examples from practice are submitted. Models of enterprises are developed, which consist of a technical and a business part. Central importance has the modeling of competition in the liberalized market. A model of competition between enterprises in the electricity market is developed. (author)

  12. The method to Certify Performance of Long-Lived In-Core Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Kyung-ho; Cha, Kyoon-ho; Moon, Sang-rae [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Rh ICI (In-Core Instrumentation) used in OPR1000 generates the relatively large signal but its lifetime is below 6 years. Rh ICI consists of 5 detectors which is a type of SPND (Self Powered Neutron Detector), a couple of thermo-couple, one background wire and several fillers. The short lifetime of Rh detector causes increase of procurement price and space shortage of spent fuel pool. Also, it makes operators be exposed by more radiations. KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.) CRI (Central Research Institute) is developing the LLICI (Long-Lived In-Core Instrumentation) based on vanadium to solve these problems. LLICI is the detector which is a type of SPND based on Vanadium and has the lifetime of about 10 years. The short lifetime of OPR1000's Rh ICI and long cycle operation strategy cause increase of procurement price, space shortage of spent fuel pool and more radiation exposed to operators. KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.) CRI (Central Research Institute) is developing the LLICI (Long-Lived In-Core Instrumentation) to solve these problems.

  13. Method for controlling a coolant liquid surface of cooling system instruments in an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monta, Kazuo.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To prevent coolant inventory within a cooling system loop in an atomic power plant from being varied depending on loads thereby relieving restriction of varied speed of coolant flow rate to lowering of a liquid surface due to short in coolant. Structure: Instruments such as a superheater, an evaporator, and the like, which constitute a cooling system loop in an atomic power plant, have a plurality of free liquid surface of coolant. Portions whose liquid surface is controlled and portions whose liquid surface is varied are adjusted in cross-sectional area so that the sum total of variation in coolant inventory in an instrument such as a superheater provided with an annulus portion in the center thereof and an inner cylindrical portion and a down-comer in the side thereof comes equal to that of variation in coolant inventory in an instrument such as an evaporator similar to the superheater. which is provided with an overflow pipe in its inner cylindrical portion or down-comer, thereby minimizing variation in coolant inventory of the entire coolant due to loads thus minimizing variation in varied speed of the coolant. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. On the relationship between the irregular reflector and the data processing by stacking; Hanshamen keijo to jugo shori ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J; Yokota, T; Miyazaki, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Rokukawa, S [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    An examination was made on the possibility of data processing by stacking with scattered waves assumed in a seismic exploration analysis (diffraction stacking method). In the examination, a CDP stacking method and the diffraction stacking method were compared through numerical experiments in the case of imaging a flat reflection surface and an irregular reflection surface. As a result, it was revealed that the CDP stacking method for stacking mirror reflection waves was merely a processing to raise S/N ratio while the diffraction stacking method for stacking with scattered waves assumed contained a migrational aspect as well as an aspect to raise S/N ratio. Consequently, it was shown that, if an oscillator was properly arranged, a structural imaging was possible not by the shape of a reflection surface but by the diffraction stacking method. Additionally, the diffraction stacking method revealed that the imaging effect varied by frequency with the stacking effect decreased at high frequencies, and that no stacking effect decreased at low frequencies but resolution lowered in horizontal direction. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Comparison of real-time instruments and gravimetric method when measuring particulate matter in a residential building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuocheng; Calderón, Leonardo; Patton, Allison P; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Senick, Jennifer; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-11-01

    This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM 2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the Northeastern US and compared performance of those instruments. PM 2.5 24-hr average concentrations were determined using a Personal Modular Impactor (PMI) with 2.5 µm cut (SKC Inc., Eighty Four, PA) and a direct reading pDR-1500 (Thermo Scientific, Franklin, MA) as well as its filter. 1-hr average PM 2.5 concentrations were measured in the same apartments with an Aerotrak Optical Particle Counter (OPC) (model 8220, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN) and a DustTrak DRX mass monitor (model 8534, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN). OPC and DRX measurements were compared with concurrent 1-hr mass concentration from the pDR-1500. The pDR-1500 direct reading showed approximately 40% higher particle mass concentration compared to its own filter (n = 41), and 25% higher PM 2.5 mass concentration compared to the PMI 2.5 filter. The pDR-1500 direct reading and PMI 2.5 in non-smoking homes (self-reported) were not significantly different (n = 10, R 2 = 0.937), while the difference between measurements for smoking homes was 44% (n = 31, R 2 = 0.773). Both OPC and DRX data had substantial and significant systematic and proportional biases compared with pDR-1500 readings. However, these methods were highly correlated: R 2 = 0.936 for OPC versus pDR-1500 reading and R 2 = 0.863 for DRX versus pDR-1500 reading. The data suggest that accuracy of aerosol mass concentrations from direct-reading instruments in indoor environments depends on the instrument, and that correction factors can be used to reduce biases of these real-time monitors in residential green buildings with similar aerosol properties. This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM 2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the northeastern United States and compared performance of those instruments. The data show that while the use of real

  16. A Systematic Review of Statistical Methods Used to Test for Reliability of Medical Instruments Measuring Continuous Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafdzah Zaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Reliability measures precision or the extent to which test results can be replicated. This is the first ever systematic review to identify statistical methods used to measure reliability of equipment measuring continuous variables. This studyalso aims to highlight the inappropriate statistical method used in the reliability analysis and its implication in the medical practice.   Materials and Methods: In 2010, five electronic databases were searched between 2007 and 2009 to look for reliability studies. A total of 5,795 titles were initially identified. Only 282 titles were potentially related, and finally 42 fitted the inclusion criteria. Results: The Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC is the most popular method with 25 (60% studies having used this method followed by the comparing means (8 or 19%. Out of 25 studies using the ICC, only 7 (28% reported the confidence intervals and types of ICC used. Most studies (71% also tested the agreement of instruments. Conclusion: This study finds that the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient is the most popular method used to assess the reliability of medical instruments measuring continuous outcomes. There are also inappropriate applications and interpretations of statistical methods in some studies. It is important for medical researchers to be aware of this issue, and be able to correctly perform analysis in reliability studies.

  17. Standard test method for verifying the alignment of X-Ray diffraction instrumentation for residual stress measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the preparation and use of a flat stress-free test specimen for the purpose of checking the systematic error caused by instrument misalignment or sample positioning in X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, or both. 1.2 This test method is applicable to apparatus intended for X-ray diffraction macroscopic residual stress measurement in polycrystalline samples employing measurement of a diffraction peak position in the high-back reflection region, and in which the θ, 2θ, and ψ rotation axes can be made to coincide (see Fig. 1). 1.3 This test method describes the use of iron powder which has been investigated in round-robin studies for the purpose of verifying the alignment of instrumentation intended for stress measurement in ferritic or martensitic steels. To verify instrument alignment prior to stress measurement in other metallic alloys and ceramics, powder having the same or lower diffraction angle as the material to be measured should be prepared in similar fashion...

  18. Vertical melting of a stack of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.; Schakel, A. M. J.

    2001-02-01

    A stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is studied. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a melting-like transition.

  19. Improved methods for signal processing in measurements of mercury by Tekran® 2537A and 2537B instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Jesse L.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric Hg measurements are commonly carried out using Tekran® Instruments Corporation's model 2537 Hg vapor analyzers, which employ gold amalgamation preconcentration sampling and detection by thermal desorption (TD) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). A generally overlooked and poorly characterized source of analytical uncertainty in those measurements is the method by which the raw Hg atomic fluorescence (AF) signal is processed. Here I describe new software-based methods for processing the raw signal from the Tekran® 2537 instruments, and I evaluate the performances of those methods together with the standard Tekran® internal signal processing method. For test datasets from two Tekran® instruments (one 2537A and one 2537B), I estimate that signal processing uncertainties in Hg loadings determined with the Tekran® method are within ±[1 % + 1.2 pg] and ±[6 % + 0.21 pg], respectively. I demonstrate that the Tekran® method can produce significant low biases (≥ 5 %) not only at low Hg sample loadings (< 5 pg) but also at tropospheric background concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and total mercury (THg) (˜ 1 to 2 ng m-3) under typical operating conditions (sample loadings of 5-10 pg). Signal processing uncertainties associated with the Tekran® method can therefore represent a significant unaccounted for addition to the overall ˜ 10 to 15 % uncertainty previously estimated for Tekran®-based GEM and THg measurements. Signal processing bias can also add significantly to uncertainties in Tekran®-based gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and particle-bound mercury (PBM) measurements, which often derive from Hg sample loadings < 5 pg. In comparison, estimated signal processing uncertainties associated with the new methods described herein are low, ranging from within ±0.053 pg, when the Hg thermal desorption peaks are defined manually, to within ±[2 % + 0.080 pg] when peak definition is automated. Mercury limits of detection (LODs

  20. Instrument and method for X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and crystal texture analysis without sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith (Inventor); Martins, Jose Vanderlei (Inventor); Arzoumanian, Zaven (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence instrument for analyzing samples having no sample preparation includes a X-ray source configured to output a collimated X-ray beam comprising a continuum spectrum of X-rays to a predetermined coordinate and a photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer disposed to receive X-rays output from an unprepared sample disposed at the predetermined coordinate upon exposure of the unprepared sample to the collimated X-ray beam. The X-ray source and the photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer are arranged in a reflection geometry relative to the predetermined coordinate.

  1. Cultural Heritage Digitalization on Traditional Sundanese Music Instrument Using Augmented Reality Markerless Marker Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Arifitama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research into cultural heritage which implements augmented reality technology is limited. Most recent research on cultural heritage are limited on storing data and information in the form of databases, this creates a disadvantage for people who wants to see and feel at the same moment on actual cultural heritage objects. This paper, proposes a solution which could merge the existing cultural object with people using augmented reality technology. This technology would preserve traditional instrument in the form of 3D object which can be digitally protected. The result showed that the use of augmented reality on preserving cultural heritage would benefit people who try to protect their culture.

  2. Instrument and method for focusing X-rays, gamma rays and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A crystal diffraction instrument is described with an improved crystalline structure having a face for receiving a beam of photons or neutrons and diffraction planar spacing along that face with the spacing increasing progressively along the face to provide a decreasing Bragg angle and thereby increasing the usable area and acceptance angle. The increased planar spacing is provided by the use of a temperature differential across the crystalline structure, by assembling a plurality of crystalline structure with different compositions, by an individual crystalline structure with a varying composition and thereby a changing planar spacing along its face, and by combinations of these techniques. (Auth.)

  3. Laminate for use in instrument dials or hands and method of making laminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westland, J.M.; Crowther, A.

    1981-01-01

    A translucent sheet of PVC has a coating e.g. of black ink or luminous material, with apertures and optionally luminous or non-luminous indicia. Behind the apertures there are tritium-activated luminous indicia or markings which are covered by an opaque white sheet. A self-adhesive protective film may be temporarily applied to the coating. The laminated structure may be used for faces or hands in time-pieces or other instruments. The use of the white sheet and protective film prevents operatives coming into contact with luminous materials. (author)

  4. Spontaneous Synthesis of Highly Crystalline TiO2 Compact/Mesoporous Stacked Films by a Low-Temperature Steam-Annealing Method for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanehira, Yoshitaka; Numata, Youhei; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2018-05-23

    Highly crystalline TiO 2 nanostructured films were synthesized by a simple steam treatment of a TiCl 4 precursor film under a saturated water vapor atmosphere at 125 °C, here referred to as the steam-annealing method. In a single TiO 2 film preparation step, a bilayer structure comprising a compact bottom layer and a mesoporous surface layer was formed. The mesoporous layer was occupied by bipyramidal nanoparticles, with a composite phase of anatase and brookite crystals. Despite the low-temperature treatment process, the crystallinity of the TiO 2 film was high, comparable with that of the TiO 2 film sintered at 500 °C. The compact double-layered TiO 2 film was applied to perovskite solar cells (PSCs) as an electron-collecting layer. The PSC exhibited a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.9% with an open-circuit voltage ( V OC ) of 1.15 V. The PCE and V OC were higher than those of PSCs using a TiO 2 film formed by 500 °C sintering.

  5. An improved method for determining the purity of jet fuels in a POZ-TU instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zrelov, V N; Fedotkin, B I; Krasnaya, L V; Nikitin, L V; Postinkova, N G

    1983-01-01

    The possibility is studied of real time testing for the content of mechanical impurities (Cm.t.) in jet fuels (RT) in a POZ-TU instrument. Based on the obtained data, a four point scale of gray standards is developed for determining the mechanical impurity content, which is four rounded, gray stamps of different intensity, which corresponds to a mechanical impurity content of 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 milligrams per liter. A white indicator filtering element is built into the POZ-TU for determining the mechanical impurity content, and 50 cubic centimeters of the jet fuel are pumped through it over the course of several seconds. The mechanical impurities are placed on the indicator element, forming an imprint, the intensity of the color of which corresponds to the content of mechanical impurities in the jet fuel. The indicator element is extracted from the instrument and the prints are compared with the scale of gray standards, from which the content of the mechanical impurities is determined.

  6. Helping Students Design HyperCard Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how to teach students to design HyperCard stacks. Highlights include introducing HyperCard, developing storyboards, introducing design concepts and scripts, presenting stacks, evaluating storyboards, and continuing projects. A sidebar presents a HyperCard stack evaluation form. (AEF)

  7. Docker on OpenStack

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Nitin; Moreira, Belmiro

    2014-01-01

    Project Specification CERN is establishing a large scale private cloud based on OpenStack as part of the expansion of the computing infrastructure for storing the data coming out of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. As the data coming out of the detectors is increasing continuously that needs to be stored in the data center, we need more physical resources (more money) and since Virtual machines takes lot of CPU and memory overhead and minutes for creating the images, booting u...

  8. Nuclear medicine and imaging research. Instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation. Progress report, January 15, 1984-January 14, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.D.

    1984-09-01

    This program addresses problems involving the basic science and technology of radioactive tracer methods as they relate to nuclear medicine and imaging. The broad goal is to develop new instruments and methods for image formation, processing, quantitation and display, so as to maximize the diagnostic information per unit of absorbed radiation dose to the patient. Project I addresses problems associated with the quantitative imaging of single-photon emitters; Project II addresses similar problems associated with the quantitative imaging of positron emitters; Project III addresses methodological problems associated with the quantitative evaluation of the efficacy of diagnostic imaging procedures

  9. A development and integration of the concentration database for relative method, k0 method and absolute method in instrumental neutron activation analysis using Microsoft Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoh Siew Sin

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is offen used to determine and calculate the concentration of an element in the sample by the National University of Malaysia, especially students of Nuclear Science Program. The lack of a database service leads consumers to take longer time to calculate the concentration of an element in the sample. This is because we are more dependent on software that is developed by foreign researchers which are costly. To overcome this problem, a study has been carried out to build an INAA database software. The objective of this study is to build a database software that help the users of INAA in Relative Method and Absolute Method for calculating the element concentration in the sample using Microsoft Excel 2010 and Microsoft Access 2010. The study also integrates k 0 data, k 0 Concent and k 0 -Westcott to execute and complete the system. After the integration, a study was conducted to test the effectiveness of the database software by comparing the concentrations between the experiments and in the database. Triple Bare Monitor Zr-Au and Cr-Mo-Au were used in Abs-INAA as monitor to determine the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f). Calculations involved in determining the concentration are the net peak area (N p ), the measurement time (t m ), the irradiation time (t irr ), k-factor (k), thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f), the parameters of the neutron flux distribution epithermal (α) and detection efficiency (ε p ). For Com-INAA databases, reference material IAEA-375 Soil was used to calculate the concentration of elements in the sample. CRM, SRM are also used in this database. After the INAA database integration, a verification process was to examine the effectiveness of the Abs-INAA was carried out by comparing the sample concentration between the in database and the experiment. The result of the experimental concentration value of INAA database software performed with high accuracy and precision. ICC

  10. Optimization of hole generation in Ti/CFRP stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Y. N.; Pashkov, A. E.; Chashhin, N. S.

    2018-03-01

    The article aims to describe methods for improving the surface quality and hole accuracy in Ti/CFRP stacks by optimizing cutting methods and drill geometry. The research is based on the fundamentals of machine building, theory of probability, mathematical statistics, and experiment planning and manufacturing process optimization theories. Statistical processing of experiment data was carried out by means of Statistica 6 and Microsoft Excel 2010. Surface geometry in Ti stacks was analyzed using a Taylor Hobson Form Talysurf i200 Series Profilometer, and in CFRP stacks - using a Bruker ContourGT-Kl Optical Microscope. Hole shapes and sizes were analyzed using a Carl Zeiss CONTURA G2 Measuring machine, temperatures in cutting zones were recorded with a FLIR SC7000 Series Infrared Camera. Models of multivariate analysis of variance were developed. They show effects of drilling modes on surface quality and accuracy of holes in Ti/CFRP stacks. The task of multicriteria drilling process optimization was solved. Optimal cutting technologies which improve performance were developed. Methods for assessing thermal tool and material expansion effects on the accuracy of holes in Ti/CFRP/Ti stacks were developed.

  11. VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT: REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE GUIDES, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A.

    2008-12-17

    This document proposes to provide a listing of available sources which can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. A comprehensive listing of the articles, papers, and books reviewed is given in Appendix 1. Available validation documents and guides are listed in the appendix; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approaches to validation and varying descriptions of validation at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on validation and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered up for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. Unless otherwise specified, all documents were published in English.

  12. Online calibration method for condition monitoring of nuclear reactor instrumentations based on electrical signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaiful Bakhri

    2013-01-01

    Electrical signature analysis currently becomes an alternative in condition monitoring in nuclear power plants not only for stationary components such as sensors, measurement and instrumentation channels, and other components but also for dynamic components such as electric motors, pumps, generator or actuators. In order to guarantee the accuracy, the calibration of monitoring system is a necessary which practically is performed offline, under limited schedules and certain tight procedures. This research aims to introduce online calibration technique for electrical signature condition monitoring in order that the accuracy can be maintained continuously which in turn increases the reactor safety as a whole. The research was performed step by stepin detail from the conventional technique, online calibration using baseline information and online calibration using differential gain adjustment. Online calibration based on differential gain adjustment provides better results than other techniques even tough under extreme gain insertion as well as external disturbances such as supply voltages. (author)

  13. Microcontroller based instrumentation for the fuel pin preparation facility by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhasini, B.; Prabhakar Rao, J.; Srinivas, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    The fuel pin preparation facility by Sol-Gel route has been set up at Chemistry Group at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam. Sol-Gel, a solution-gelation process involves conversion of solutions of nitrates of uranium-plutonium (at 0 deg C) into gel microspheres. To measure the exact quantities of the above solutions and to ensure their temperatures, a variety of sensors have been used at various stages in the plant. To monitor and acquire the data of process parameters used in the production and for an automated operation of the plant, a PC (master)-microcontroller (slave) based instrumentation has been developed along with acquisition software and a GU interface developed in Visual Basic. (author)

  14. New instruments and methods for high precision thermocouple and platinum resistance thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradi, F.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the development of measuring instruments for the following purposes: 1) Measurement of the super-heated steam temperature, close to 550 0 C, in a tube at approximately 200 Kg/cm 2 , with a total accuracy of +-0.1 0 C. 2) Measurement of the super-heated water temperature, close to 350 0 C, still with a total accuracy of +-0.1 0 C. 3) Measurement of temperature differences between the inlet and the outlet of the water in the supply channel. The mean temperature was close to 15 0 C and the differential span was required to be 0.5 0 C with a total accuracy of +-0.005 0 C. (orig./RW) [de

  15. Neutron and synchrotron radiation for condensed matter studies. Volume 1: theory, instruments and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruchel, J.; Hodeau, J.L.; Lehmann, M.S.; Regnard, J.R.; Schlenker, C.

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the basic information required by a research scientist wishing to undertake studies using neutrons or synchrotron radiation at a Large Facility. These lecture notes result from 'HERCULES', a course that has been held in Grenoble since 1991 to train young scientists in these fields. They cover the production of neutrons and synchrotron radiation and describe all aspects of instrumentation. In addition, this work outlines the basics of the various fields of research pursued at these Large Facilities. It consists of a series of chapters written by experts in the particular fields. While following a progression and constituting a lecture course on neutron and x-ray scattering, these chapters can also be read independently. This first volume will be followed by two further volumes concerned with the applications to solid state physics and chemistry, and to biology and soft condensed matter properties

  16. Comparation of instrumental and sensory methods in fermented milk beverages texture quality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Hardi

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The texture of the curd of fermented dairy products is one of the primary factors of their overall quality. The flow properties of fermented dairy products have characteristic of thixotropic (pseudoplastic type of liquids. At the same time, these products are viscoelastic systems, i.e. they are capable of texture renewal after applied deformation. Complex analysis of some of the properties is essentional for the system description . The aim of the present work was to completely describe the texture of fermented milk beverages . Three basic parameters were taken into consideration: structure, hardness (consistency and stability of the curd. The description model of these three parameters was applied on the basis of the experimental results obteined. Results obtained by present model were compared with the results of sensory analysis. Influence of milk fat content and skimmed milk powder addition on acidophilus milk texture quality was also examined using this model. It was shawn that, by using this model – on the basis of instrumental and sensory analyses, a complete and objective determination of texture quality of the fermented milk beverages can be obtained. High degree of correlation between instrumental and sensory results (r =0.8975 is obtained results of this work indicated that both factors (milk fat content and skimmed milk powder addition had an influence on texture quality. Samples with higher milk fat content had a better texture properties in comparsion with low fat content samples. Texture of all examined samples was improved by increasing skimmed milk powder content. Optimal amounts of skimmed milk powder addition with regard to milk fat content, in milk, is determined using the proposed model.

  17. Evaluation of Rock Powdering Methods to Obtain Fine-grained Samples for CHEMIN, a Combined XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Sarrazin, P.; Feldman, S.; Blake, D. F.; Bearman, G.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature XRD/XRF (X-ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument, CHEMIN, is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed to enable remote XRD analysis is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For powder XRD analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a two-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results even with poorly prepared powder, the quality of the data will improve and the time required for data collection will be reduced if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. A variety of methods have been proposed for XRD sample preparation. Chipera et al. presented grain size distributions and XRD results from powders generated with an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL. The USDC was shown to be an effective instrument for sampling rock to produce powder suitable for XRD. In this paper, we compare powder prepared using the USDC with powder obtained with a miniaturized rock crusher developed at JPL and with powder obtained with a rotary tungsten carbide bit to powders obtained from a laboratory bench-scale Retsch mill (provides benchmark mineralogical data). These comparisons will allow assessment of the suitability of these methods for analysis by an XRD/XRF instrument such as CHEMIN.

  18. Preference-based disease-specific health-related quality of life instrument for glaucoma: a mixed methods study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratov, Sergei; Podbielski, Dominik W; Jack, Susan M; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Mitchell, Levine A H; Baltaziak, Monika; Xie, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A primary objective of healthcare services is to improve patients' health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Glaucoma, which affects a substantial proportion of the world population, has a significant detrimental impact on HRQoL. Although there are a number of glaucoma-specific questionnaires to measure HRQoL, none is preference-based which prevent them from being used in health economic evaluation. The proposed study is aimed to develop a preference-based instrument that is capable of capturing important effects specific to glaucoma and treatments on HRQoL and is scored based on the patients' preferences. Methods A sequential, exploratory mixed methods design will be used to guide the development and evaluation of the HRQoL instrument. The study consists of several stages to be implemented sequentially: item identification, item selection, validation and valuation. The instrument items will be identified and selected through a literature review and the conduct of a qualitative study. Validation will be conducted to establish psychometric properties of the instrument followed by a valuation exercise to derive utility scores for the health states described. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Trillium Health Partners Research Ethics Board (ID number 753). All personal information will be de-identified with the identification code kept in a secured location including the rest of the study data. Only qualified and study-related personnel will be allowed to access the data. The results of the study will be distributed widely through peer-reviewed journals, conferences and internal meetings. PMID:28186941

  19. VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT: REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE GUIDES, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-05-27

    Method validation is the process of evaluating whether an analytical method is acceptable for its intended purpose. For pharmaceutical methods, guidelines from the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) provide a framework for performing such valications. In general, methods for regulatory compliance must include studies on specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, range, detection limit, quantitation limit, and robustness. Elements of these guidelines are readily adapted to the issue of validation for beryllium sampling and analysis. This document provides a listing of available sources which can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. A comprehensive listing of the articles, papers and books reviewed is given in the Appendix. Available validation documents and guides are listed therein; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approches to validation and varying descriptions of the valication process at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on valication and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered up for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. Unless otherwise specified, all referenced documents were published in English.

  20. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  1. Semiparametric methods for estimation of a nonlinear exposure‐outcome relationship using instrumental variables with application to Mendelian randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, James R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mendelian randomization, the use of genetic variants as instrumental variables (IV), can test for and estimate the causal effect of an exposure on an outcome. Most IV methods assume that the function relating the exposure to the expected value of the outcome (the exposure‐outcome relationship) is linear. However, in practice, this assumption may not hold. Indeed, often the primary question of interest is to assess the shape of this relationship. We present two novel IV methods for investigating the shape of the exposure‐outcome relationship: a fractional polynomial method and a piecewise linear method. We divide the population into strata using the exposure distribution, and estimate a causal effect, referred to as a localized average causal effect (LACE), in each stratum of population. The fractional polynomial method performs metaregression on these LACE estimates. The piecewise linear method estimates a continuous piecewise linear function, the gradient of which is the LACE estimate in each stratum. Both methods were demonstrated in a simulation study to estimate the true exposure‐outcome relationship well, particularly when the relationship was a fractional polynomial (for the fractional polynomial method) or was piecewise linear (for the piecewise linear method). The methods were used to investigate the shape of relationship of body mass index with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. PMID:28317167

  2. Stacking fault growth of FCC crystal: The Monte-Carlo simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Jianmin; Ming Naiben

    1988-03-01

    The Monte-Carlo method has been used to simulate the growth of the FCC (111) crystal surface, on which is presented the outcrop of a stacking fault. The comparison of the growth rates has been made between the stacking fault containing surface and the perfect surface. The successive growth stages have been simulated. It is concluded that the outcrop of stacking fault on the crystal surface can act as a self-perpetuating step generating source. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs

  3. Generalized diffraction-stack migration and filtering of coherent noise

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2014-01-27

    We reformulate the equation of reverse-time migration so that it can be interpreted as summing data along a series of hyperbola-like curves, each one representing a different type of event such as a reflection or multiple. This is a generalization of the familiar diffraction-stack migration algorithm where the migration image at a point is computed by the sum of trace amplitudes along an appropriate hyperbola-like curve. Instead of summing along the curve associated with the primary reflection, the sum is over all scattering events and so this method is named generalized diffraction-stack migration. This formulation leads to filters that can be applied to the generalized diffraction-stack migration operator to mitigate coherent migration artefacts due to, e.g., crosstalk and aliasing. Results with both synthetic and field data show that generalized diffraction-stack migration images have fewer artefacts than those computed by the standard reverse-time migration algorithm. The main drawback is that generalized diffraction-stack migration is much more memory intensive and I/O limited than the standard reverse-time migration method. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  4. Stacked generalization: an introduction to super learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Balzer, Laura B

    2018-04-10

    Stacked generalization is an ensemble method that allows researchers to combine several different prediction algorithms into one. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, the method has evolved several times into a host of methods among which is the "Super Learner". Super Learner uses V-fold cross-validation to build the optimal weighted combination of predictions from a library of candidate algorithms. Optimality is defined by a user-specified objective function, such as minimizing mean squared error or maximizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Although relatively simple in nature, use of Super Learner by epidemiologists has been hampered by limitations in understanding conceptual and technical details. We work step-by-step through two examples to illustrate concepts and address common concerns.

  5. On use of ZPR research reactors and associated instrumentation and measurement methods for reactor physics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, J.P. [CEA,DEN, DER, SPEX, Experimental Physics Service, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Blaise, P. [CEA, DEN, DER, SPEX Experimental Programs Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    The French atomic and alternative energies -CEA- is strongly involved in research and development programs concerning the use of nuclear energy as a clean and reliable source of energy and consequently is working on the present and future generation of reactors on various topics such as ageing plant management, optimization of the plutonium stockpile, waste management and innovative systems exploration. Core physics studies are an essential part of this comprehensive R and D effort. In particular, the Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) of CEA: EOLE, MINERVE and MASURCA play an important role in the validation of neutron (as well photon) physics calculation tools (codes and nuclear data). The experimental programs defined in the CEA's ZPR facilities aim at improving the calculation routes by reducing the uncertainties of the experimental databases. They also provide accurate data on innovative systems in terms of new materials (moderating and decoupling materials) and new concepts (ADS, ABWR, new MTR (e.g. JHR), GENIV) involving new fuels, absorbers and coolant materials. Conducting such interesting experimental R and D programs is based on determining and measuring main parameters of phenomena of interest to qualify calculation tools and nuclear data 'libraries'. Determining these parameters relies on the use of numerous and different experimental techniques using specific and appropriate instrumentation and detection tools. Main ZPR experimental programs at CEA, their objectives and challenges will be presented and discussed. Future development and perspectives regarding ZPR reactors and associated programs will be also presented. (authors)

  6. Portable dynamic light scattering instrument and method for the measurement of blood platelet suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth; Brown, Keddie; Labrie, Audrey; Marziali, Andre; Glatter, Otto

    2006-01-01

    No routine test exists to determine the quality of blood platelet transfusions although every year millions of patients require platelet transfusions to survive cancer chemotherapy, surgery or trauma. A new, portable dynamic light scattering instrument is described that is suitable for the measurement of turbid solutions of large particles under temperature-controlled conditions. The challenges of small sample size, short light path through the sample and accurate temperature control have been solved with a specially designed temperature-controlled sample holder for small diameter, disposable capillaries. Efficient heating and cooling is achieved with Peltier elements in direct contact with the sample capillary. Focusing optical fibres are used for light delivery and collection of scattered light. The practical use of this new technique was shown by the reproducible measurement of latex microspheres and the temperature-induced morphological changes of human blood platelets. The measured parameters for platelet transfusions are platelet size, number of platelet-derived microparticles and the response of platelets to temperature changes. This three-dimensional analysis provides a high degree of confidence for the determination of platelet quality. The experimental data are compared to a matrix and facilitate automated, unbiased quality testing

  7. Method of exchanging cables of neutron monitoring instrumentation tube and folding device of the cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamaki, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a wide range monitor (WRNM) is used instead of a conventional neutron source range monitor (SRM) or an intermediate range monitor (IRM). The WRNM is always fixed to a predetermined position in a reactor core while containing a detection section in a dry tube, different from a conventional monitor. Accordingly, driving devices for the conventional detection section such as in SRM and IRM are not necessary but, when the reactor is operated for a long period of time, it is sometimes necessary to be replaced with new WRNM. According to the present invention, the cable of the detector placed in a neutron instrumentation tube is connected to a cable take-up drum in a take-up device passing through a cask. Then, the cable is taken-up by driving the take-up drum by a driving motor and the WRNM detection section attached to the top end of the cable is contained in the cask. With this constitution, replacing and processing operation for the detection section can be facilitated and operator's exposure dose can be reduced. (I.S.)

  8. Instrumentation device at the outside of reactor and method of using the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichige, Masayuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides instrumentation device at the outside of a reactor capable of measuring conditions of inside of a reactor, such as the power of the reactor, distribution of voids or water level while considering hysteresis of neutrons or γ-rays from the inside to the outside of the reactor. Namely, a plurality of radiation detectors are disposed being elongated in vertical direction at a predetermined distance on the outer circumference of a reactor pressure vessel. The detectors detect intensity of radiation rays and the detection time at a plurality of positions of the outer side of the reactor. An amplifier amplifies the detected signals. A signal processing device determines the positions and the time of the emitted radiation rays based on the amplified detected signals. An analysis device analyzes spacial distribution and time distribution of the energy and the intensity of the radiation rays (neutron or γ-rays) based on the signals of predetermined radiation rays at the outer side of the reactor. Then, spacial and time variation components and the power distribution, water level, change of the water level, void distribution are calculated while considering decay of the radiation rays based on the distribution of material densities of incore structures. (I.S.)

  9. Application of instrumented microhardness method to follow the thermal ageing of cast duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezakhanlou, R.; Massoud, J.P.

    1993-03-01

    During the thermal ageing of cast duplex stainless steel the ferrite hardness largely increases. The measurement of the ferrite phase hardness can give us an indication of the level of the ageing process. But in order to have a representative value of the ferrite hardness, the applied load must be low enough. For this reason, we have used the instrumented microhardness (IMH) test which consists to measure continuously the applied load and the indentation depth during the operation. The mechanical analysis of the so called indentation curve allows us to calculate the hardness and the young modulus of the indented material for loads as low as 2 g. The results confirm the Vickers microhardness measurement under 50 g loads i.e. a sharp increase of the ferrite hardness (x 2.3 as compared to the as received state) for the highly aged sample. It should be noted that the results obtained with the IMH are completely independent of the operator. (authors). 18 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Methods and Instruments for the Estimation of Production Changes in Economic Evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, W.H.J.; van der Berg, B.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the indirect costs of paid work that result from mental illness. It provides an overview of monetary valuation methods and approaches to measure and value production gains and losses. The methods are applied to mental illness, although they have also been applied to other

  11. Instrumental charged-particle activation analysis of several selected elements in biological materials using the internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Masumoto, K.

    1987-01-01

    In order to study instrumental charged-particle activation analysis using the internal standard method, simultaneous determinations of several selected elements such as Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Zn, As, Sr, Zr and Mo, in oyster tissue, brewer's yeast and mussel were carried out by using the respective (p, n) reactions and a personal computer-based gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a micro-robot for sample changing. In the determination constant amounts of Y and La were added to the sample and comparative standard as exotic internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of the above elements could be determined accurately and precisely. (author)

  12. Using cognitive pre-testing methods in the development of a new evidenced-based pressure ulcer risk assessment instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Coleman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in development methods of Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Instruments has led to inconsistent inclusion of risk factors and concerns about content validity. A new evidenced-based Risk Assessment Instrument, the Pressure Ulcer Risk Primary Or Secondary Evaluation Tool - PURPOSE-T was developed as part of a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR funded Pressure Ulcer Research Programme (PURPOSE: RP-PG-0407-10056. This paper reports the pre-test phase to assess and improve PURPOSE-T acceptability, usability and confirm content validity. Methods A descriptive study incorporating cognitive pre-testing methods and integration of service user views was undertaken over 3 cycles comprising PURPOSE-T training, a focus group and one-to-one think-aloud interviews. Clinical nurses from 2 acute and 2 community NHS Trusts, were grouped according to job role. Focus group participants used 3 vignettes to complete PURPOSE-T assessments and then participated in the focus group. Think-aloud participants were interviewed during their completion of PURPOSE-T. After each pre-test cycle analysis was undertaken and adjustment/improvements made to PURPOSE-T in an iterative process. This incorporated the use of descriptive statistics for data completeness and decision rule compliance and directed content analysis for interview and focus group data. Data were collected April 2012-June 2012. Results Thirty-four nurses participated in 3 pre-test cycles. Data from 3 focus groups, 12 think-aloud interviews incorporating 101 PURPOSE-T assessments led to changes to improve instrument content and design, flow and format, decision support and item-specific wording. Acceptability and usability were demonstrated by improved data completion and appropriate risk pathway allocation. The pre-test also confirmed content validity with clinical nurses. Conclusions The pre-test was an important step in the development of the preliminary PURPOSE-T and the

  13. Characteristic and Competency Measurement Instrument Development for Maintenance Staff of Mechanical Expertise with SECI Method: A Case of Manufacturing Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatmavidya, P. A.; Soesanto, R. P.; Kurniawati, A.; Andrawina, L.

    2018-03-01

    Human resource is an important factor for a company to gain competitiveness, therefore competencies of each individual in a company is a basic characteristic that is taken into account. The increasing employee’s competency will affect directly to the company's performance. The purpose of this research is to improve the quality of human resources of maintenance staff in manufacturing company by designing competency measurement instrument that aims to assess the competency of employees. The focus of this research is the mechanical expertise of maintenance staff. SECI method is used in this research for managing knowledge that is held by senior employees regarding employee competence of mechanical expertise. The SECI method converts the knowledge of a person's tacit knowledge into an explicit knowledge so that the knowledge can be used by others. The knowledge that is gathered from SECI method is converted into a list of competence and break down into the detailed competency. Based on the results of this research, it is known that 11 general competencies, 17 distinctive competencies, 20 indicators, and 20 item list for assessing the competencies are developed. From the result of competency breakdown, the five-level instrument of measurement is designed which can assist in assessing employee’s competency for mechanical expertise.

  14. Generalized stacking fault energies of alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lu, Song; Hu, Qing-Miao; Kwon, Se Kyun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2014-07-02

    The generalized stacking fault energy (γ surface) provides fundamental physics for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms. Using the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation, we calculate the γ surface for the disordered Cu-Al, Cu-Zn, Cu-Ga, Cu-Ni, Pd-Ag and Pd-Au alloys. Studying the effect of segregation of the solute to the stacking fault planes shows that only the local chemical composition affects the γ surface. The calculated alloying trends are discussed using the electronic band structure of the base and distorted alloys.Based on our γ surface results, we demonstrate that the previous revealed 'universal scaling law' between the intrinsic energy barriers (IEBs) is well obeyed in random solid solutions. This greatly simplifies the calculations of the twinning measure parameters or the critical twinning stress. Adopting two twinnability measure parameters derived from the IEBs, we find that in binary Cu alloys, Al, Zn and Ga increase the twinnability, while Ni decreases it. Aluminum and gallium yield similar effects on the twinnability.

  15. Instrumentation and method for measuring NIR light absorbed in tissue during MR imaging in medical NIRS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllylä, Teemu S.; Sorvoja, Hannu S. S.; Nikkinen, Juha; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Myllylä, Risto A.

    2011-07-01

    Our goal is to provide a cost-effective method for examining human tissue, particularly the brain, by the simultaneous use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Due to its compatibility requirements, MRI poses a demanding challenge for NIRS measurements. This paper focuses particularly on presenting the instrumentation and a method for the non-invasive measurement of NIR light absorbed in human tissue during MR imaging. One practical method to avoid disturbances in MR imaging involves using long fibre bundles to enable conducting the measurements at some distance from the MRI scanner. This setup serves in fact a dual purpose, since also the NIRS device will be less disturbed by the MRI scanner. However, measurements based on long fibre bundles suffer from light attenuation. Furthermore, because one of our primary goals was to make the measuring method as cost-effective as possible, we used high-power light emitting diodes instead of more expensive lasers. The use of LEDs, however, limits the maximum output power which can be extracted to illuminate the tissue. To meet these requirements, we improved methods of emitting light sufficiently deep into tissue. We also show how to measure NIR light of a very small power level that scatters from the tissue in the MRI environment, which is characterized by strong electromagnetic interference. In this paper, we present the implemented instrumentation and measuring method and report on test measurements conducted during MRI scanning. These measurements were performed in MRI operating rooms housing 1.5 Tesla-strength closed MRI scanners (manufactured by GE) in the Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology at the Oulu University Hospital.

  16. Reconstructing the Surface Permittivity Distribution from Data Measured by the CONSERT Instrument aboard Rosetta: Method and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plettemeier, D.; Statz, C.; Hegler, S.; Herique, A.; Kofman, W. W.

    2014-12-01

    One of the main scientific objectives of the Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission (CONSERT) aboard Rosetta is to perform a dielectric characterization of comet 67P/Chuyurmov-Gerasimenko's nucleus by means of a bi-static sounding between the lander Philae launched onto the comet's surface and the orbiter Rosetta. For the sounding, the lander part of CONSERT will receive and process the radio signal emitted by the orbiter part of the instrument and transmit a signal to the orbiter to be received by CONSERT. CONSERT will also be operated as bi-static RADAR during the descent of the lander Philae onto the comet's surface. From data measured during the descent, we aim at reconstructing a surface permittivity map of the comet at the landing site and along the path below the descent trajectory. This surface permittivity map will give information on the bulk material right below and around the landing site and the surface roughness in areas covered by the instrument along the descent. The proposed method to estimate the surface permittivity distribution is based on a least-squares based inversion approach in frequency domain. The direct problem of simulating the wave-propagation between lander and orbiter at line-of-sight and the signal reflected on the comet's surface is modelled using a dielectric physical optics approximation. Restrictions on the measurement positions by the descent orbitography and limitations on the instrument dynamic range will be dealt with by application of a regularization technique where the surface permittivity distribution and the gradient with regard to the permittivity is projected in a domain defined by a viable model of the spatial material and roughness distribution. The least-squares optimization step of the reconstruction is performed in such domain on a reduced set of parameters yielding stable results. The viability of the proposed method is demonstrated by reconstruction results based on simulated data.

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns for New Instrument Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  18. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Characterisation methods and instruments. Experiences from the construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, Karl-Erik; Stenberg, Leif

    2005-12-01

    This report describes the different investigation methods used during the Aespoe HRL construction phase which commenced 1990 and ended 1995. The investigation methods are described with respect to performance, errors, uncertainty and usefulness in determined, analysed and/or calculated parameter values or other kind of geoscientific information. Moreover, other comments of the different methods, like those related to the practical performance of the measurements or tests are given. The practical performance is a major task as most of the investigations were conducted in parallel with the construction work. Much of the wide range of investigations carried out during the tunnelling work required special efforts of the personnel involved. Experiences and comments on these operations are presented in the report. The pre-investigation methods have been evaluated by comparing predictions based on pre-investigation models with data and results from the construction phase and updated geoscientific models. In 1997 a package of reports describe the general results of the pre-investigations. The investigation methods are in this report evaluated with respect to usefulness for underground characterisation of a rock volume, concerning geological, geohydrological, hydrochemical and rock mechanical properties. The report describes out opinion of the methods after the construction phase, i.e. the same platform of knowledge as for the package of reports of 1997. The evaluation of usefulness of the underground investigation methods are structured according to the key issues used for the preinvestigation modelling and predictions, i.e. Geological-structural model, Groundwater flow (hydrogeology), Groundwater chemistry (hydrochemistry), Transport of solutes and Mechanical stability models (or rock mechanics). The investigation methods selected for the different subjects for which the predictions were made are presented. Some of the subjects were slightly modified or adjusted during

  19. An instrument for small-animal imaging using time-resolved diffuse and fluorescence optical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montcel, Bruno; Poulet, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    We describe time-resolved optical methods that use diffuse near-infrared photons to image the optical properties of tissues and their inner fluorescent probe distribution. The assembled scanner uses picosecond laser diodes at 4 wavelengths, an 8-anode photo-multiplier tube and time-correlated single photon counting. Optical absorption and reduced scattering images as well as fluorescence emission images are computed from temporal profiles of diffuse photons. This method should improve the spatial resolution and the quantification of fluorescence signals. We used the diffusion approximation of the radiation transport equation and the finite element method to solve the forward problem. The inverse problem is solved with an optimization algorithm such as ART or conjugate gradient. The scanner and its performances are presented, together with absorption, scattering and fluorescent images obtained with it

  20. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Characterisation methods and instruments. Experiences from the construction phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This report describes the different investigation methods used during the Aespoe HRL construction phase which commenced 1990 and ended 1995. The investigation methods are described with respect to performance, errors, uncertainty and usefulness in determined, analysed and/or calculated parameter values or other kind of geoscientific information. Moreover, other comments of the different methods, like those related to the practical performance of the measurements or tests are given. The practical performance is a major task as most of the investigations were conducted in parallel with the construction work. Much of the wide range of investigations carried out during the tunnelling work required special efforts of the personnel involved. Experiences and comments on these operations are presented in the report. The pre-investigation methods have been evaluated by comparing predictions based on pre-investigation models with data and results from the construction phase and updated geoscientific models. In 1997 a package of reports describe the general results of the pre-investigations. The investigation methods are in this report evaluated with respect to usefulness for underground characterisation of a rock volume, concerning geological, geohydrological, hydrochemical and rock mechanical properties. The report describes out opinion of the methods after the construction phase, i.e. the same platform of knowledge as for the package of reports of 1997. The evaluation of usefulness of the underground investigation methods are structured according to the key issues used for the preinvestigation modelling and predictions, i.e. Geological-structural model, Groundwater flow (hydrogeology), Groundwater chemistry (hydrochemistry), Transport of solutes and Mechanical stability models (or rock mechanics). The investigation methods selected for the different subjects for which the predictions were made are presented. Some of the subjects were slightly modified or adjusted during

  1. New teaching methods in use at UC Irvine's optical engineering and instrument design programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Donn M.; Rowe, T. Scott; Jo, Joshua; Dimas, David

    2012-10-01

    New teaching methods reach geographically dispersed students with advances in Distance Education. Capabilities include a new "Hybrid" teaching method with an instructor in a classroom and a live WebEx simulcast for remote students. Our Distance Education Geometric and Physical Optics courses include Hands-On Optics experiments. Low cost laboratory kits have been developed and YouTube type video recordings of the instructor using these tools guide the students through their labs. A weekly "Office Hour" has been developed using WebEx and a Live Webcam the instructor uses to display his live writings from his notebook for answering students' questions.

  2. Continued maturing of SOFC cell production technology and development and demonstration of SOFC stacks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-08-15

    The overall objective of the 6385 project was to develop stack materials, components and stack technology including industrial relevant manufacturing methods for cells components and stacks. Furthermore, the project should include testing and demonstration of the stacks under relevant operating conditions. A production of 6.829 cells, twenty 75-cell stacks and a number of small stacks was achieved. Major improvements were also made in the manufacturing methods and in stack design. Two test and demonstration activities were included in the project. The first test unit was established at H.C. OErsted power plant at the Copenhagen waterfront in order to perform test of SOFC stacks. The unit will be used for tests in other projects. The second demonstration unit is the alpha prototype demonstration in a system running on natural gas in Finland. The alpha prototype demonstration system with 24 TOFC (Topsoe Fuel Cell) stacks was established and started running in October 2007 and operational experience was gained in the period from October 2007 to February 2008. (auther)

  3. Use of instrumental nuclear activation methods in the study of particles from major air pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, G.E.; Zoller, W.H.; Gladney, E.S.; Greenberg, R.R.

    1974-01-01

    Nuclear methods have been used effectively in the study of particles emitted by a coal-fired power plant and a municipal incinerator. In the coal-fired plant there is appreciable fractionation of only five of the observed elements. By contrast, particles from the incinerator are highly enriched in several trace elements

  4. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  5. Nuclear medicine and imaging research. Instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation. Progress report, January 15, 1985-January 14, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.D.

    1985-09-01

    This program of research addresses problems involving the basic science and technology of radioactive tracer methods as they relate to nuclear medicine and imaging. The broad goal is to develop new instruments and methods for image formation, processing, quantitation, and display, so as to maximize the diagnostic information per unit of absorbed radiation dose to the patient. These developments are designed to meet the needs imposed by new radiopharmaceuticals developed to solve specific biomedical problems, as well as to meet the instrumentation needs associated with radiopharmaceutical production and quantitative clinical feasibility studies of the brain with PET VI. Project I addresses problems associated with the quantitative imaging of single-photon emitters; Project II addresses similar problems associated with the quantitative imaging of positron emitters; Project III addresses methodological problems associated with the quantitative evaluation of the efficacy of diagnostic imaging procedures. The original proposal covered work to be carried out over the three-year contract period. This report covers progress made during Year Three. 36 refs., 1 tab

  6. Higuchi’s Method applied to detection of changes in timbre of digital sound synthesis of string instruments with the functional transformation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanapen, Manorth; Kunsombat, Cherdsak; Chiangga, Surasak

    2017-09-01

    The functional transformation method (FTM) is a powerful tool for detailed investigation of digital sound synthesis by the physical modeling method, the resulting sound or measured vibrational characteristics at discretized points on real instruments directly solves the underlying physical effect of partial differential equation (PDE). In this paper, we present the Higuchi’s method to examine the difference between the timbre of tone and estimate fractal dimension of musical signals which contains information about their geometrical structure that synthesizes by FTM. With the Higuchi’s method we obtain the whole process is not complicated, fast processing, with the ease of analysis without expertise in the physics or virtuoso musicians and the easiest way for the common people can judge that sounds similarly presented.

  7. The operation and monitoring of sewage disposal by stack injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D.A. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co. (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A system that uses turbine exhaust to evaporate sewage, was described. The Alyeska Pipeline Service developed the system for isolated pump stations located in permafrost areas. The pumps moving the crude oil in the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) were driven by simple cycle gas turbine engines which produce large amounts of waste heat. The waste heat was used to evaporate the sewage effluent, effectively destroying all pathogens in it. The process, known as `stack injection`, was recently upgraded to increase efficiency and safety. Stack injection was being used at five pump stations. Methods used to control operation of the stack injection system, and field data used to redesign the system were reviewed. 3 figs., 3 refs.

  8. A new instrumental method for the analysis of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.N. dos.

    1975-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous elemental analysis of the rare earths is proposed and empirically verified. It is based on the analysis of the escape peaks, generated by the characteristic X-rays of these elements in a xenon proportional counter. The peaks are well resolved and intense, in contrast to the photopeak which is lost in the background. The spectra are generated by a radioisotope such as Co 57 , and the equipment is simple, portable and low cost, although resolution challenges that of the best solid state detectors. Since X-rays are utilized, matrix, granulometric or mineralogical effects are minimal, and the method is rapid, sensitive, non-destructive and requires little or no sample preparation. The results are preliminary and an improvement in resolution of up to fourfold seems possible; precision is better than 0,1% in concentrated samples and sensitivity is about 20 μg

  9. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Positron annihilation spectroscopy in materials structure studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafutin, Viktor I.; Prokop'ev, Evgenii P.

    2002-01-01

    A relatively new method of materials structure analysis — positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) — is reviewed. Measurements of positron lifetimes, the determination of positron 3γ- and 2γ-annihilation probabilities, and an investigation of the effects of different external factors on the fundamental characteristics of annihilation constitute the basis for this promising method. The ways in which the positron annihilation process operates in ionic crystals, semiconductors, metals and some condensed matter systems are analyzed. The scope of PAS is described and its prospects for the study of the electronic and defect structures are discussed. The applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy in radiation physics and chemistry of various substances as well as in physics and chemistry of solutions are exemplified.

  10. The Place of Nailfold Capillaroscopy Among Instrumental Methods for Assessment of Some Peripheral Ischaemic Syndromes in Rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambova, Sevdalina N

    2016-01-01

    Micro- and macrovascular pathology is a frequent finding in a number of common rheumatic diseases. Secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is among the most common symptoms in systemic sclerosis and several other systemic autoimmune diseases including a broad differential diagnosis. It should be also differential from other peripheral vascular syndromes such as embolism, thrombosis, etc., some of which lead to clinical manifestation of the blue toe syndrome. The current review discusses the instrumental methods for vascular assessments. Nailfold capillaroscopy is the only method among the imaging techniques that can be used for morphological assessment of the nutritive capillaries in the nailfold area. Laser-Doppler flowmetry and laser-Doppler imaging are methods for functional assessment of microcirculation, while thermography and plethysmography reflect both blood flow in peripheral arteries and microcirculation. Doppler ultrasound and angiography visualize peripheral arteries. The choice of the appropriate instrumental method is guided by the clinical presentation. The main role of capillaroscopy is to provide differential diagnosis between primary and secondary RP. In rheumatology, capillaroscopic changes in systemic sclerosis have been recently defined as diagnostic. The appearance of abnormal capillaroscopic pattern inherits high positive predictive value for the development of a connective tissue disease that is higher than the predictive value of antinuclear antibodies. In cases of abrupt onset of peripheral ischaemia, clinical signs of critical ischaemia, unilateral or lower limb involvement, Doppler ultrasound and angiography are indicated. The most common causes for such clinical picture that may be referred to rheumatologic consultation are the antiphospholipid syndrome, mimickers of vasculitides such as atherosclerosis with cholesterol emboli, and neoplasms.

  11. The untyped stack calculus and Bohm's theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carraro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The stack calculus is a functional language in which is in a Curry-Howard correspondence with classical logic. It enjoys confluence but, as well as Parigot's lambda-mu, does not admit the Bohm Theorem, typical of the lambda-calculus. We present a simple extension of stack calculus which is for the stack calculus what Saurin's Lambda-mu is for lambda-mu.

  12. Flexural characteristics of a stack leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-06-01

    A 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator is at present under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The insulating stack of the machine is of modular construction, each module being 860 mm in length. Each live section stack module contains 8 insulating legs mounted between bulkhead rings. The design, fabrication (from glass discs bonded to stainless steel discs using an epoxy film adhesive) and testing of the stack legs is described. (U.K.)

  13. The use of instrumental neutron activation analysis method in bio-sorption determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamidova, Kh.M.; Mutavalieva, Z.S.; Muchamedshina, N.M.; Mirzagatova, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Recently, much attention is paid to the research and development of effective metal remediation methods. In industry, for the removal of metals from the industrial solutions and wastes, the expensive ion-exchange resin method of metal sorption is used today. The microbiological methods are much less expensive, are available and provide its application in natural conditions. The search for molybdenum bio sorbent was performed amongst Actinomyces strains. The 18 of Streptomyces strains were used. The data showed that all investigated strains uptake the molybdenum from the solution in various degrees. The molybdenum determination was performed using neutron activation analysis technique. In a nuclear reactor, the samples were treated with a steady flow of neutrons (5.1·10 13 ) n·cm -2 sec -1 in 20 hours. The samples were stored for 6-7 days before analysis. The Actinomyces biomass uptake capacity was up to 94.5 %. The 8 cultures have the most high uptake capacity that varied from 87.4 to 94.5 %. Streptomyces sp. 39 and Streptomyces sp.32 have the lowest bio-sorption capacity amongst studied strains, which was 46.6% and 40 % respectively, whereas the bio sorption capacity of other cultures varied from 55.8 to 64.1%. The influence of some physical and chemical parameters (culture age, pH, temperature) on molybdenum bio-sorption was studied. Data showed that the change in pH, temperature and cultivation period lead to the increase of bio-sorption capacity

  14. A direct method for calculating instrument noise levels in side-by-side seismometer evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, L. Gary

    1989-01-01

    The subject of determining the inherent system noise levels present in modem broadband closed loop seismic sensors has been an evolving topic ever since closed loop systems became available. Closed loop systems are unique in that the system noise can not be determined via a blocked mass test as in older conventional open loop seismic sensors. Instead, most investigators have resorted to performing measurements on two or more systems operating in close proximity to one another and to analyzing the outputs of these systems with respect to one another to ascertain their relative noise levels.The analysis of side-by-side relative performance is inherently dependent on the accuracy of the mathematical modeling of the test configuration. This report presents a direct approach to extracting the system noise levels of two linear systems with a common coherent input signal. The mathematical solution to the problem is incredibly simple; however the practical application of the method encounters some difficulties. Examples of expected accuracies are presented as derived by simulating real systems performance using computer generated random noise. In addition, examples of the performance of the method when applied to real experimental test data are shown.

  15. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro López García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum’s Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015  [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  16. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    López García, Álvaro; Fernández del Castillo, Enol; Orviz Fernández, Pablo

    In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum's Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI) for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015) [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  17. Model and Design of a Power Driver for Piezoelectric Stack Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaberge M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A power driver has been developed to control piezoelectric stack actuators used in automotive application. An FEM model of the actuator has been implemented starting from experimental characterization of the stack and mechanical and piezoelectric parameters. Experimental results are reported to show a correct piezoelectric actuator driving method and the possibility to obtain a sensorless positioning control.

  18. Rapid instrumental and separation methods for monitoring radionuclides in food and environmental samples. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, I.S.; Shukla, V.K.; Singh, A.N.; Nair, C.K.G.; Hingorani, S.B.; Dey, N.N.; Jha, S.K.; Rao, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    When activity levels are low, the direct gamma counting of milk and water samples take very long time, initial concentration step increases the sensitivity. 131 I in aqueous samples can be concentrated by absorption on AgCI in acidic condition. In case of milk, initial treatment with TCA, separation of precipitated casin and stirring the acidified (dil. HNO 3 ) clear solution with about 500 mg AgCI gives all the 131 I (more than 95%) picked up by AgCI which can be counted in a well crystal gamma spectrometer. In case of water samples acidification and direct stirring with AgCI all 131 I gets absorbed on to AgCI. About half an hour stirring has been found sufficient to give reproducible result. The total time required will be about 3 hrs. In case of 137 Cs, the aqueous solution should be stirred with ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) after acidification with HNO 3 . After an hour of AMP settling time, decantation, filtration and centrifuging one can get the AMP ready for counting in a gamma spectrometer having a well type detector. The analysis can be completed within 2 hrs. AgCI concentration of 131 I and AMP concentration of 137 Cs reduces the counting time significantly. These methods have been used for sea water and milk samples analysis. Methods are being standardised for solvent extraction separation of Pu, Am and Cm from preconcentrated environmental samples and direct counting of organic extract by liquid scintillation counting. For Pu determination, solvent extraction by TTA, back extraction and reextraction to 5% D2EHPA and direct liquid scintillation counting of Pu-alphas is planned. This will reduce the time required for Pu analysis to a significant extent. After bringing the sample to solution, this separation step can be carried out within 1 1/2 to 2 hrs. With Instagel scintillator cocktail in the packard 1550 LSS, Pu-239 counting had 70% efficiency with 5.3 cpm background. Pu-239 estimated in a few sediment sample gave results by both LSS method and Si

  19. Method of production of a diaphragm for instruments in particle optics and diaphragm fabricated by this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrik, J.; Krohne, P.

    1975-01-01

    The production method of, e.g., a circular diaphragm for an electron microscope is based on copper plate as supporting material. A light-sensitive, electrically insulating layer is coated on this. After exposing and freeing the positions of this layer, e.g., the circular interior as well as the cross-piece to the exterior of the diaghragm, a galvanic building-up of a noble metal layer follows, e.g. gold, on these now free positions. After freeing the remaining non-exposed material, an etching-protective lacquer is coated on the positions of the supporting material which are to be maintained. The remaining parts of the supporting material are then removed by positive etching. (DG/LH) [de

  20. Optimization and development of the instrumental parameters for a method of multielemental analysis through atomic spectroscopy emission, for the determination of My, Fe Mn and Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzoni Vindas, E.

    1998-01-01

    This study optimized the instrumental parameters of a method of multielemental (sequential) analysis, through atomic emission, for the determination of My, Fe,Mn and Cr. It used the factorial design at two levels and the method of Simplex optimization, that permitted the determination of the four cations under the same instrumental conditions. The author studied an analytic system, in which the conditions were not lineal between instrumental answers and the concentration, having to make adjustment of the calibration curves in homocedastic and heterocedastic conditions. (S. Grainger)

  1. Quantitative assessment of probability of failing safely for the safety instrumented system using reliability block diagram method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jianghong; Pang, Lei; Zhao, Shoutang; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Models of PFS for SIS were established by using the reliability block diagram. • The more accurate calculation of PFS for SIS can be acquired by using SL. • Degraded operation of complex SIS does not affect the availability of SIS. • The safe undetected failure is the largest contribution to the PFS of SIS. - Abstract: The spurious trip of safety instrumented system (SIS) brings great economic losses to production. How to ensure the safety instrumented system is reliable and available has been put on the schedule. But the existing models on spurious trip rate (STR) or probability of failing safely (PFS) are too simplified and not accurate, in-depth studies of availability to obtain more accurate PFS for SIS are required. Based on the analysis of factors that influence the PFS for the SIS, using reliability block diagram method (RBD), the quantitative study of PFS for the SIS is carried out, and gives some application examples. The results show that, the common cause failure will increase the PFS; degraded operation does not affect the availability of the SIS; if the equipment was tested and repaired one by one, the unavailability of the SIS can be ignored; the corresponding occurrence time of independent safe undetected failure should be the system lifecycle (SL) rather than the proof test interval and the independent safe undetected failure is the largest contribution to the PFS for the SIS

  2. Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.

  3. California dreaming?[PEM stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosse, J.

    2002-06-01

    Hyundai's Santa Fe FCEV will be on sale by the end of 2002. Hyundai uses PEM stacks that are manufactured by International Fuel Cells (IFC), a division of United Technologies. Santa Fe is equipped with a 65 kW electric powertrain of Enova systems and Shell's new gasoline reformer called Hydrogen Source. Eugene Jang, Senior Engineer - Fuel Cell and Materials at Hyundai stated that the compressor related losses on IFC system are below 3%. The maximum speed offered by the vehicle is estimated as 123km/hr while the petrol equivalent fuel consumption is quoted between 5.6L/100 km and 4.8L/100 km. Santa Fe is a compact vehicle offering better steering response and a pleasant drive. (author)

  4. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 3, Inorganic instrumental methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The methods cover: C in solutions, F (electrode), elements by atomic emission spectrometry, inorganic anions by ion chromatography, Hg in water/solids/sludges, As, Se, Bi, Pb, data calculations for SST (single shell tank?) samples, Sb, Tl, Ag, Pu, O/M ratio, ignition weight loss, pH value, ammonia (N), Cr(VI), alkalinity, U, C sepn. from soil/sediment/sludge, Pu purif., total N, water, C and S, surface Cl/F, leachable Cl/F, outgassing of Ge detector dewars, gas mixing, gas isotopic analysis, XRF of metals/alloys/compounds, H in Zircaloy, H/O in metals, inpurity extraction, reduced/total Fe in glass, free acid in U/Pu solns, density of solns, Kr/Xe isotopes in FFTF cover gas, H by combustion, MS of Li and Cs isotopes, MS of lanthanide isotopes, GC operation, total Na on filters, XRF spectroscopy QC, multichannel analyzer operation, total cyanide in water/solid/sludge, free cyanide in water/leachate, hydrazine conc., ICP-MS, {sup 99}Tc, U conc./isotopes, microprobe analysis of solids, gas analysis, total cyanide, H/N{sub 2}O in air, and pH in soil.

  5. In-core Instrument Subcritical Verification (INCISV) - Core Design Verification Method - 358

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prible, M.C.; Heibel, M.D.; Conner, S.L.; Sebastiani, P.J.; Kistler, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    According to the standard on reload startup physics testing, ANSI/ANS 19.6.1, a plant must verify that the constructed core behaves sufficiently close to the designed core to confirm that the various safety analyses bound the actual behavior of the plant. A large portion of this verification must occur before the reactor operates at power. The INCISV Core Design Verification Method uses the unique characteristics of a Westinghouse Electric Company fixed in-core self powered detector design to perform core design verification after a core reload before power operation. A Vanadium self powered detector that spans the length of the active fuel region is capable of confirming the required core characteristics prior to power ascension; reactivity balance, shutdown margin, temperature coefficient and power distribution. Using a detector element that spans the length of the active fuel region inside the core provides a signal of total integrated flux. Measuring the integrated flux distributions and changes at various rodded conditions and plant temperatures, and comparing them to predicted flux levels, validates all core necessary core design characteristics. INCISV eliminates the dependence on various corrections and assumptions between the ex-core detectors and the core for traditional physics testing programs. This program also eliminates the need for special rod maneuvers which are infrequently performed by plant operators during typical core design verification testing and allows for safer startup activities. (authors)

  6. Simulations Of Transverse Stacking In The NSLS-II Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliller, R. III; Shaftan, T.

    2011-01-01

    The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac and a 3 GeV booster. The linac needs to deliver 15 nC in 80 - 150 bunches to the booster every minute to achieve current stability goals in the storage ring. This is a very stringent requirement that has not been demonstrated at an operating light source. We have developed a scheme to transversely stack two bunch trains in the NSLS-II booster in order to alleviate the charge requirements on the linac. This scheme has been outlined previously. In this paper we show particle tracking simulations of the tracking scheme. We show simulations of the booster ramp with a stacked beam for a variety of lattice errors and injected beam parameters. In all cases the performance of the proposed stacking method is sufficient to reduce the required charge from the linac. For this reason the injection system of the NSLS-II booster is being designed to include this feature. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac and a 3 GeV booster. The injectors must provide 7.5nC in bunch trains 80-150 bunches long every minute for top off operation of the storage ring. Top off then requires that the linac deliver 15nC of charge once losses in the injector chain are taken into consideration. This is a very stringent requirement that has not been demonstrated at an operating light source. For this reason we have developed a method to transversely stack two bunch trains in the booster while maintaining the charge transport efficiency. This stacking scheme has been discussed previously. In this paper we show the simulations of the booster ramp with a single bunch train in the booster. Then we give a brief overview of the stacking scheme. Following, we show the results of stacking two bunch trains in the booster with varying beam emittances and train separations. The behavior of the beam through the ramp is examined showing that it is possible to stack two bunch trains in the booster.

  7. Instrumentation and calibration methods for the multichannel measurement of phase and amplitude in optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissilae, Ilkka; Noponen, Tommi; Kotilahti, Kalle; Katila, Toivo; Lipiaeinen, Lauri; Tarvainen, Tanja; Schweiger, Martin; Arridge, Simon

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we describe the multichannel implementation of an intensity modulated optical tomography system developed at Helsinki University of Technology. The system has two time-multiplexed wavelengths, 16 time-multiplexed source fibers and 16 parallel detection channels. The gain of the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) is individually adjusted during the measurement sequence to increase the dynamic range of the system by 10 4 . The PMT used has a high quantum efficiency in the near infrared (8% at 800 nm), a fast settling time, and low hysteresis. The gain of the PMT is set so that the dc anode current is below 80 nA, which allows the measurement of phase independently of the intensity. The system allows measurements of amplitude at detected intensities down to 1 fW, which is sufficient for transmittance measurements of the female breast, the forearm, and the brain of early pre-term infants. The mean repeatability of phase and the logarithm of amplitude (ln A) at 100 MHz were found to be 0.08 deg. and 0.004, respectively, in a measurement of a 7 cm phantom with an imaging time of 5 s per source and source optical power of 8 mW. We describe a three-step method of calibrating the phase and amplitude measurements so that the absolute absorption and scatter in tissue may be measured. A phantom with two small cylindrical targets and a second phantom with three rods are measured and reconstructions made from the calibrated data are shown and compared with reconstructions from simulated data

  8. Retrofitting of an improved stack monitoring system in Rajasthan atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, K.

    1985-01-01

    The problems encountered in the measurement of inert gas activities, iodine activity and tritium activity released through the stack in RAPS are described and the considerations for the development of improved instruments outlined. The new approach provides for better accuracy of measurement of all the relevant radioactive parameters in the stack at one centralised place. The construction work in the station for the newly conceived stack activity monitoring system is completed and the earlier equipment used is installed in the room temporarily. Development prototypes of stack inert gas monitoring system and iodine monitoring system as described in Section 5 are made and evaluated. Fabrication of new equipment for retrofitting in RAPS is in progress and these will replace the equipment temporarily installed in the station

  9. D.P.M. METHOD - A PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENT OF A STRATEGIC BUSINESS UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Florin Tudor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the uncertain economic conditions, the market dynamics, the fundamental changes in the attitudes and aspirations of the consumers along with the strong growth of the political role and interventions in the economy, currently characterizing both Romania and other countries of the world, it can be said that the need for strategic planning was never so acute as now. The strategic planning process is an ongoing organizational activity by which managers can make decisions about their present and future position. A number of analytical portfolio tools exist to aid managers in the formulation of the strategy. The use of these tools within the broader context of the overall strategic planning process allows managers to determine the obstacles and opportunities existing in the company’s environment and to define and pursue appropriate strategies for growth and profitability. The present paper aims to highlight from a theoretical standpoint the D.P.M. method, its strategic consequences, advantages and disadvantages. After conducting this analysis I have found that restricting the business portfolio analysis to the D.P.M. matrix is not a very wise decision. The D.P.M. matrix among with other marketing tools of business portfolio analysis have some advantages and disadvantages and is trying to provide, at a time, a specific diagnosis of a company’s business portfolio. Therefore, the recommendation for the Romanian managers consists in a combined use of a wide range of tools and techniques for business portfolio analysis. This leads to a better understanding of the whole mix of product markets, included in portfolio analysis, the strategic position held by each business within a market, the performance potential of business portfolio and the financial aspects related to the resource allocation process for the businesses within the portfolio. It should also be noted that the tools and techniques specific to business portfolio

  10. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by instrumental neutron activation analysis with the k0-standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugassa, I.; Sarmani, S.B.; Samat, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k 0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E 1+α epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the γ-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for

  11. Reviews in Modern Astronomy 12, Astronomical Instruments and Methods at the turn of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielicke, Reinhard E.

    The yearbook series Reviews in Modern Astronomy of the Astronomische Gesellschaft (AG) was established in 1988 in order to bring the scientific events of the meetings of the society to the attention of the worldwide astronomical community. Reviews in Modern Astronomy is devoted exclusively to the invited Reviews, the Karl Schwarzschild Lectures, the Ludwig Biermann Award Lectures, and the highlight contributions from leading scientists reporting on recent progress and scientific achievements at their respective research institutes. Volume 12 continues the yearbook series with 16 contributions which were presented during the International Scientific Conference of the AG on ``Astronomical Instruments and Methods at the Turn of the 21st Century'' at Heidelberg from September 14 to 19, 1998

  12. Element distribution study of drinking water and well sediments using the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vircavs, M.; Taure, I.; Eglite, G.; Brike, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The method of instrumental activation analysis was used to estimate the distribution of major, minor and trace elements in well sediments, Riga tap water and well water used for drinking and for preparation of food. The chemical composition of drinking water (tap and well water) varies considerably in different districts of Riga and in different wells. The greatest concentration differences for Zn, Fe and Al are observed in tap water. Median concentrations of determined elements are smaller than maximum permissible concentrations (MPC). However, in some cases the concentration of Al and Fe higher than their MPC for tap water. The highest concentration ratios were observed for Ti, Cr and Zn in well sediments. (author). 19 refs, 2 tabs

  13. Study of Material Moisture Measurement Method and Instrument by the Combination of Fast Neutron Absorption and γ Absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Chaoqin; Gong Yalin; Zhang Wei; Shang Qingmin; Li Yanfeng; Gou Qiangyuan; Yin Deyou

    2010-01-01

    To solve the problem of on-line sinter moisture measurement in the iron making plant, we developed material moisture measurement method and instrument by the combination of fast neutron absorption and y-absorption. It overcomes the present existed problems of other moisture meters for the sinter. Compare with microwave moisture meter, the measurement dose not affected by conductance and magnetism of material; to infrared moisture meter, the measurement result dose not influenced by colour and light-reflect performance of material surface, dose not influenced by changes of material kind; to slow neutron scatter moisture meter, the measurement dose not affected by density of material and thickness of hopper wall; to the moisture measurement meter which combined by slow neutron penetrate through and y-absorption, there are definite math model and good linear relation between the measurement values, and the measurement dose not affected by material thickness, changes of material form and component. (authors)

  14. Method for evaluating the system instrumentation for loose part detection in the primary cooling circuit of French PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardin, J.P.; Donnette, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of the loose part detection system is to trigger an alarm whenever it is warranted, to localize, and to provide information on the type of loose part involved and the damages it may provoke. It is therefore indispensable to have efficient instrumentation, beginning with the sensors which must provide us with a response to all mechanical impacts in natural trapping areas (reactor vessel and steam generator water box). A series of mass- and energy-calibrated impacts have been generated on 45 points in the primary cooling system of a nuclear plant unit in the startup phase. This test provided insights into the relationship between sensor signals and various impact parameters such as velocity of impact or loose part mass. Once these parameters were known, it was possible to define a method for evaluating the detection threshold of sensors depending on the way they are mounted. (author)

  15. Numerical model for stack gas diffusion in terrain with buildings. Variations in air flow and gas concentration with additional building near stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sada, Koichi; Michioka, Takenobu; Ichikawa, Yoichi; Komiyama, Sumito; Numata, Kunio

    2009-01-01

    A numerical simulation method for predicting atmospheric flow and stack gas diffusion using a calculation domain of several km around a stack under complex terrain conditions containing buildings has been developed. The turbulence closure technique using a modified k-ε-type model without a hydrostatic approximation was used for flow calculation, and some of the calculation grids near the ground were treated as buildings using a terrain-following coordinate system. Stack gas diffusion was predicted using the Lagrangian particle model, that is, the stack gas was represented by trajectories of released particles. The developed numerical model was applied to a virtual terrain and building conditions in this study prior to the applications of a numerical model for real terrain and building conditions. The height of the additional building (H a ), located about 200 m leeward from the stack, was varied (i.e., H a =0, 20, 30 and 50 m), and its effects on airflow and the concentration of stack gas at a released height of 75 m were calculated. Furthermore, effective stack height, which was used in the safety analysis of atmospheric diffusion for nuclear facilities in Japan, was evaluated from the calculated ground-level concentration of stack gas. The cavity region behind the additional building was calculated, and turbulence near the cavity was observed to decrease when the additional building was present. According to these flow variations with the additional building, tracer gas tended to diffuse to the ground surface rapidly with the additional building at the leeward position of the cavity, and the ground-level stack gas concentration along the plume axis also increased with the height of the additional building. However, the variations in effective stack height with the height of the additional building were relatively small and ranged within several m in this study. (author)

  16. The extended wedge method: atomic force microscope friction calibration for improved tolerance to instrument misalignments, tip offset, and blunt probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, H S; Burris, D L

    2013-05-01

    One of the major challenges in understanding and controlling friction is the difficulty in bridging the length and time scales of macroscale contacts and those of the single asperity interactions they comprise. While the atomic force microscope (AFM) offers a unique ability to probe tribological surfaces in a wear-free single-asperity contact, instrument calibration challenges have limited the usefulness of this technique for quantitative nanotribological studies. A number of lateral force calibration techniques have been proposed and used, but none has gained universal acceptance due to practical considerations, configuration limitations, or sensitivities to unknowable error sources. This paper describes a simple extension of the classic wedge method of AFM lateral force calibration which: (1) allows simultaneous calibration and measurement on any substrate, thus eliminating prior tip damage and confounding effects of instrument setup adjustments; (2) is insensitive to adhesion, PSD cross-talk, transducer/piezo-tube axis misalignment, and shear-center offset; (3) is applicable to integrated tips and colloidal probes; and (4) is generally applicable to any reciprocating friction coefficient measurement. The method was applied to AFM measurements of polished carbon (99.999% graphite) and single crystal MoS2 to demonstrate the technique. Carbon and single crystal MoS2 had friction coefficients of μ = 0.20 ± 0.04 and μ = 0.006 ± 0.001, respectively, against an integrated Si probe. Against a glass colloidal sphere, MoS2 had a friction coefficient of μ = 0.005 ± 0.001. Generally, the measurement uncertainties ranged from 10%-20% and were driven by the effect of actual frictional variation on the calibration rather than calibration error itself (i.e., due to misalignment, tip-offset, or probe radius).

  17. A Contribution To The Development And Analysis Of A Combined Current-Voltage Instrument Transformer By Using Modern CAD Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chundeva-Blajer, Marija M.

    2004-01-01

    The principle aim and task of the thesis is the analysis and development of 20 kV combined current-voltage instrument transformer (CCVIT) by using modern CAD techniques. CCVIT is a complex electromagnetic system comprising of four windings and two magnetic cores in one insulation housing for simultaneous transformation of high voltages and currents to measurable signal values by standard instruments. The analytical design methods can be applied on simple electromagnetic configurations, which is not the case with the CCVIT. There is mutual electromagnetic influence between the voltage measurement core (VMC) and the current measurement core (CMC). After the analytical CCVIT design had been done, exact determination of its metrological characteristics has been accomplished by using the numerical finite element method implemented in the FEM-3D program package. The FEM-3D calculation is made in 19 cross-sectional layers of the z-axis of the CCVIT three-dimensional domain. By FEM-3D application the three-dimensional CCVIT magnetic field distribution is derived. This is the basis for calculation of the initial metrological characteristics of the CCVIT (VMC is accuracy class 3 and CMC is accuracy class 1). By using the stochastic optimization technique based on genetic algorithm the CCVIT optimal design is achieved. The objective function is the minimum of the metrological parameters (VIM voltage error and CMC current error). There are I I independent input variables during the optimization process by which the optimal project is derived. The optimal project is adapted for realization of a prototype and the optimized project is derived. Full comparative analysis of the metrological and the electromagnetic characteristics of the three projects is accomplished. By application of the program package MATLAB/SIMULINK the CCVIT transient phenomena is analyzed for different regimes in the three design projects. In the Instrument Transformer Factory of EMO A. D.-Ohrid a CCVIT

  18. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  19. Radar Target Recognition Based on Stacked Denoising Sparse Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feixiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction is a key step in radar target recognition. The quality of the extracted features determines the performance of target recognition. However, obtaining the deep nature of the data is difficult using the traditional method. The autoencoder can learn features by making use of data and can obtain feature expressions at different levels of data. To eliminate the influence of noise, the method of radar target recognition based on stacked denoising sparse autoencoder is proposed in this paper. This method can extract features directly and efficiently by setting different hidden layers and numbers of iterations. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to the K-nearest neighbor method and the traditional stacked autoencoder.

  20. Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...... of vector fields....

  1. Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420

  2. 40 CFR 61.44 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.44 Section 61.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Firing § 61.44 Stack sampling. (a) Sources subject to § 61.42(b) shall be continuously sampled, during...

  3. On the "stacking fault" in copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransens, J.R.; Pleiter, F

    2003-01-01

    The results of a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations experiment on In-111 implanted into a properly cut single crystal of copper show that the defect known in the literature as "stacking fault" is not a planar faulted loop but a stacking fault tetrahedron with a size of 10-50 Angstrom.

  4. Learning OpenStack networking (Neutron)

    CERN Document Server

    Denton, James

    2014-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack-based cloud operator with experience in OpenStack Compute and nova-network but are new to Neutron networking, then this book is for you. Some networking experience is recommended, and a physical network infrastructure is required to provide connectivity to instances and other network resources configured in the book.

  5. Status of MCFC stack technology at IHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosaka, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Otsubo, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising option for highly efficient power generation possible to enlarge. IHI has been studying parallel flow MCFC stacks with internal manifolds that have a large electrode area of 1m{sup 2}. IHI will make two 250 kW stacks for MW plant, and has begun to make cell components for the plant. To improve the stability of stack, soft corrugated plate used in the separator has been developed, and a way of gathering current from stacks has been studied. The DC output potential of the plant being very high, the design of electric insulation will be very important. A 20 kW short stack test was conducted in 1995 FY to certificate some of the improvements and components of the MW plant. These activities are presented below.

  6. Modular fuel-cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinakin

    2010-07-13

    A fuel cell assembly having a plurality of fuel cells arranged in a stack. An end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at an end of said stack. The end plate assembly has an inlet area adapted to receive an exhaust gas from the stack, an outlet area and a passage connecting the inlet area and outlet area and adapted to carry the exhaust gas received at the inlet area from the inlet area to the outlet area. A further end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at a further opposing end of the stack. The further end plate assembly has a further inlet area adapted to receive a further exhaust gas from the stack, a further outlet area and a further passage connecting the further inlet area and further outlet area and adapted to carry the further exhaust gas received at the further inlet area from the further inlet area to the further outlet area.

  7. Method for the Analysis of Temporal Change of Physical Structure in the Instrumentation and Control Life-Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goering, Markus [Vattenfall Europe Nuclear Energy GmbH, Hamburg, (Germany); Fay, Alexander [Helmut Schmidt Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The design of computer-based instrumentation and control (I and C) systems is determined by the allocation of I and C functions to I and C systems and components. Due to the characteristics of computer-based technology, component failures can negatively affect several I and C functions, so that the reliability proof of the I and C systems requires the accomplishment of I and C system design analyses throughout the I and C life-cycle. On one hand, this paper proposes the restructuring of the sequential IEC 61513 I and C life-cycle according to the V-model, so as to adequately integrate the concept of verification and validation. On the other hand, based on a meta model for the modeling of I and C systems, this paper introduces a method for the modeling and analysis of the effects with respect to the superposition of failure combinations and event sequences on the I and C system design, i.e. the temporal change of physical structure is analyzed. In the first step, the method is concerned with the modeling of the I and C systems. In the second step, the method considers the analysis of temporal change of physical structure, which integrates the concepts of the diversity and defense-in-depth analysis, fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, and failure mode and effects analysis.

  8. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis of uranium in burn-up measurements using. gamma. -ray spectrometric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, H E; Lu, W D

    1975-12-01

    In uranium burnup measurements, the amount of uranium in the irradiated sample needs to be determined, and the application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for this purpose is investigated. The method uses the gamma-ray activities of /sup 239/Np and some short-lived fission products of half-lives no longer than a few days to determine the quantities of /sup 238/U and /sup 235/U respectively. The advantages of the method include: (1) the amounts of both /sup 235/U and /sup 238/U of the sample can be simultaneously determined with good accuracy, (2) the same sample may be used to determine both the fission numbers and the amount of uranium remaining simultaneously or one after another, thus the exact amount of the sample is not necessarily known, (3) since the amount of the sample needed for the determination is usually small, i.e., about 10 ..mu..g, it should be easily handled even for high-level burnup samples. The error of the method is about 3 percent for a single measurement. The burnup values measured for an irradiated natural uranium sample from three aliquots using several fission products are in good agreement. The effective cross section for /sup 235/U deduced from the burnup and the integrated flux from a cobalt monitor is found to be 589 +- 19 barn which is in agreement with the literature value of 577 +- 1 barn.

  9. Method for the Analysis of Temporal Change of Physical Structure in the Instrumentation and Control Life-Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goering, Markus; Fay, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The design of computer-based instrumentation and control (I and C) systems is determined by the allocation of I and C functions to I and C systems and components. Due to the characteristics of computer-based technology, component failures can negatively affect several I and C functions, so that the reliability proof of the I and C systems requires the accomplishment of I and C system design analyses throughout the I and C life-cycle. On one hand, this paper proposes the restructuring of the sequential IEC 61513 I and C life-cycle according to the V-model, so as to adequately integrate the concept of verification and validation. On the other hand, based on a meta model for the modeling of I and C systems, this paper introduces a method for the modeling and analysis of the effects with respect to the superposition of failure combinations and event sequences on the I and C system design, i.e. the temporal change of physical structure is analyzed. In the first step, the method is concerned with the modeling of the I and C systems. In the second step, the method considers the analysis of temporal change of physical structure, which integrates the concepts of the diversity and defense-in-depth analysis, fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, and failure mode and effects analysis

  10. Validation of an analytical method for determining halothane in urine as an instrument for evaluating occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Chamorro, Rita Maria; Jaime Novas, Arelis; Diaz Padron, Heliodora

    2010-01-01

    The occupational exposure to harmful substances may impose the apparition of determined significative changes in the normal physiology of the organism when the adequate security measures are not taken in time in a working place where the risk may be present. Among the chemical risks that may affect the workers' health are the inhalable anesthetic agents. With the objective to take the first steps for the introduction of an epidemiological surveillance system to this personnel, an analytical method for determining this anesthetic in urine was validated with the instrumental conditions created in our laboratory. To carry out this validation the following parameters were taken into account: specificity, lineament, precision, accuracy, detection limit and quantification limit, and the uncertainty of the method was calculated. In the validation procedure it was found that the technique is specific and precise, the detection limit was of 0,118 μg/L, and of the quantification limit of 0,354 μg/L. The global uncertainty was of 0,243, and the expanded of 0,486. The validated method, together with the posterior introduction of the biological exposure limits, will serve as an auxiliary means of diagnosis which will allow us a periodical control of the personnel exposure

  11. Calibration of a laboratory spectrophotometer for specular light by means of stacked glass plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W. A.; Richardson, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Stacked glass plates have been used to calibrate a laboratory spectrophotometer, over the spectral range 0.5-2.5 microns, for specular light. The uncalibrated instrument was characterized by systematic errors when used to measure the reflectance and transmittance of stacked glass plates. Calibration included first, a determination of the reflectance of a standard composed of barium sulfate paint deposited on an aluminum plate; second, the approximation of the reflectance and transmittance residuals between observed and computed values by means of cubic equations; and, finally, the removal of the systematic errors by a computer. The instrument, after calibration, was accurate to 1% when used to measure the reflectance and transmittance of stacked glass plates.

  12. Instrumental methods in electrochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pletcher, D; Peat, R

    2010-01-01

    Using 372 references and 211 illustrations, this book underlines the fundamentals of electrochemistry essential to the understanding of laboratory experiments. It treats not only the fundamental concepts of electrode reactions, but also covers the methodology and practical application of the many versatile electrochemical techniques available.Underlines the fundamentals of electrochemistry essential to the understanding of laboratory experimentsTreats the fundamental concepts of electrode reactionsCovers the methodology and practical application of the many ve

  13. Development of method for experimental determination of wheel–rail contact forces and contact point position by using instrumented wheelset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bižić, Milan B; Petrović, Dragan Z; Tomić, Miloš C; Djinović, Zoran V

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a unique method for experimental determination of wheel–rail contact forces and contact point position by using the instrumented wheelset (IWS). Solutions of key problems in the development of IWS are proposed, such as the determination of optimal locations, layout, number and way of connecting strain gauges as well as the development of an inverse identification algorithm (IIA). The base for the solution of these problems is the wheel model and results of FEM calculations, while IIA is based on the method of blind source separation using independent component analysis. In the first phase, the developed method was tested on a wheel model and a high accuracy was obtained (deviations of parameters obtained with IIA and really applied parameters in the model are less than 2%). In the second phase, experimental tests on the real object or IWS were carried out. The signal-to-noise ratio was identified as the main influential parameter on the measurement accuracy. Тhе obtained results have shown that the developed method enables measurement of vertical and lateral wheel–rail contact forces Q and Y and their ratio Y / Q with estimated errors of less than 10%, while the estimated measurement error of contact point position is less than 15%. At flange contact and higher values of ratio Y / Q or Y force, the measurement errors are reduced, which is extremely important for the reliability and quality of experimental tests of safety against derailment of railway vehicles according to the standards UIC 518 and EN 14363. The obtained results have shown that the proposed method can be successfully applied in solving the problem of high accuracy measurement of wheel–rail contact forces and contact point position using IWS. (paper)

  14. Probing Temperature Inside Planar SOFC Short Stack, Modules, and Stack Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Guan, Wanbing; Zhou, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Probing temperature inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack lies at the heart of the development of high-performance and stable SOFC systems. In this article, we report our recent work on the direct measurements of the temperature in three types of SOFC systems: a 5-cell short stack, a 30-cell stack module, and a stack series consisting of two 30-cell stack modules. The dependence of temperature on the gas flow rate and current density was studied under a current sweep or steady-state operation. During the current sweep, the temperature inside the 5-cell stack decreased with increasing current, while it increased significantly at the bottom and top of the 30-cell stack. During a steady-state operation, the temperature of the 5-cell stack was stable while it was increased in the 30-cell stack. In the stack series, the maximum temperature gradient reached 190°C when the gas was not preheated. If the gas was preheated and the temperature gradient was reduced to 23°C in the stack series with the presence of a preheating gas and segmented temperature control, this resulted in a low degradation rate.

  15. The impact of stack geometry and mean pressure on cold end temperature of stack in thermoacoustic refrigeration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantha, Channarong

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the experimental and simulation studies of the influence of stack geometries and different mean pressures on the cold end temperature of the stack in the thermoacoustic refrigeration system. The stack geometry was tested, including spiral stack, circular pore stack and pin array stack. The results of this study show that the mean pressure of the gas in the system has a significant impact on the cold end temperature of the stack. The mean pressure of the gas in the system corresponds to thermal penetration depth, which results in a better cold end temperature of the stack. The results also show that the cold end temperature of the pin array stack decreases more than that of the spiral stack and circular pore stack geometry by approximately 63% and 70%, respectively. In addition, the thermal area and viscous area of the stack are analyzed to explain the results of such temperatures of thermoacoustic stacks.

  16. Tracking-by-detection of surgical instruments in minimally invasive surgery via the convolutional neural network deep learning-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zijian; Voros, Sandrine; Weng, Ying; Chang, Faliang; Li, Ruijian

    2017-12-01

    Worldwide propagation of minimally invasive surgeries (MIS) is hindered by their drawback of indirect observation and manipulation, while monitoring of surgical instruments moving in the operated body required by surgeons is a challenging problem. Tracking of surgical instruments by vision-based methods is quite lucrative, due to its flexible implementation via software-based control with no need to modify instruments or surgical workflow. A MIS instrument is conventionally split into a shaft and end-effector portions, while a 2D/3D tracking-by-detection framework is proposed, which performs the shaft tracking followed by the end-effector one. The former portion is described by line features via the RANSAC scheme, while the latter is depicted by special image features based on deep learning through a well-trained convolutional neural network. The method verification in 2D and 3D formulation is performed through the experiments on ex-vivo video sequences, while qualitative validation on in-vivo video sequences is obtained. The proposed method provides robust and accurate tracking, which is confirmed by the experimental results: its 3D performance in ex-vivo video sequences exceeds those of the available state-of -the-art methods. Moreover, the experiments on in-vivo sequences demonstrate that the proposed method can tackle the difficult condition of tracking with unknown camera parameters. Further refinements of the method will refer to the occlusion and multi-instrumental MIS applications.

  17. Five stacks over the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Following the departure of Communism, Hungary adopted the most ambitious privatisation programme of all the eastern European countries. Within a year the state electricity company, MVM, and the oil and gas company, MOL, were prepared for sale and a consequent injection of foreign capital. Control of prices by central government inhibited investment initially but a new legal framework put in place in 1995 introduced a pricing regime more attractive to external investors. Particular interest was shown in the 2,200MW mixed heavy oil and natural gas power plant at Dunamenti on the Danube, characterised by its five stacks of varying height which reflect the changing technology employed at the plant. The bid was won by Tractabel of Belgium who have been highly successful in improving plant efficiency. However, the impact of privatisation is now being felt in uncertainty over fuel supply. Removing such uncertainty in order to maintain existing investment and provide the additional 4000MW of generating capacity needed to keep pace with demand, is a major problem which the incoming government faces. (UK)

  18. The software developing method for multichannel computer-aided system for physical experiments control, realized by resources of national instruments LabVIEW instrumental package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorskaya, E.A.; Samojlov, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    This work is describing the method of developing the computer-aided control system in integrated environment of LabVIEW. Using the object-oriented design of complex systems, the hypothetical model for methods of developing the software for computer-aided system for physical experiments control was constructed. Within the framework of that model architecture solutions and implementations of suggested method were described. (author)

  19. Comparative Assessment of the Heart's Functioning by Using the Akabane Test and Classical Methods of Instrumental Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Muzhikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture physicians have studied the application of reflexotherapy to cardiology. However, no one has investigated the connection of ancient Chinese diagnostic methods with modern tools. A total of 102 patients (54 men and 48 women with heart pathology, namely, sick-sinus syndrome, Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, and atrioventricular blockade, were studied using the usual instrumental methods (transesophageal electrophysiological study of the heart, echocardiography, after which they underwent Akabane thermopuncture testing as in traditional Chinese medicine. The results of cardio examination from one side of the Akabane test with that from the other side were compared by means of a multiple stepwise regression analysis. We revealed the effects on the characteristic pattern of acupuncture channel lesions inherent in a definite heart pathology, i.e., the most vulnerable acupuncture channel (AC, of such factors as disturbances of the contractile, conductive, or automatic heart functions, and changes in the chambers' size or circulation volume. Сhanges in the indices of the left and the right branches of these channels usually reflect the opposing natures of the changes in these indicators, which should be considered in reflexotherapy. The main value of the Akabane test along with the use of mathematical analysis lies in early, quick, and inexpensive detection of the above-mentioned heart disturbances.

  20. From the components to the stack. Developing and designing 5kW HT-PEFC stacks; Von der Komponente zum Stack. Entwicklung und Auslegung von HT-PEFC-Stacks der 5 kW-Klasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendzulla, Anne

    2010-12-22

    The aim of the present project is to develop a stack design for a 5-kW HTPEFC system. First, the state of the art of potential materials and process designs will be discussed for each component. Then, using this as a basis, three potential stack designs with typical attributes will be developed and assessed in terms of practicality with the aid of a specially derived evaluation method. Two stack designs classified as promising will be discussed in detail, constructed and then characterized using short stack tests. Comparing the stack designs reveals that both designs are fundamentally suitable for application in a HT-PEFC system with on-board supply. However, some of the performance data differ significantly for the two stack designs. The preferred stack design for application in a HT-PEFC system is characterized by robust operating behaviour and reproducible high-level performance data. Moreover, in compact constructions (120 W/l at 60 W/kg), the stack design allows flexible cooling with thermal oil or air, which can be adapted to suit specific applications. Furthermore, a defined temperature gradient can be set during operation, allowing the CO tolerance to be increased by up to 10 mV. The short stack design developed within the scope of the present work therefore represents an ideal basis for developing a 5-kW HT-PEFC system. Topics for further research activities include improving the performance by reducing weight and/or volume, as well as optimizing the heat management. The results achieved within the framework of this work clearly show that HTPEFC stacks have the potential to play a decisive role in increasing efficiency in the future, particularly when combined with an on-board supply system. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Entwicklung eines Stackkonzeptes fuer ein 5 kW-HT-PEFC System. Dazu wird zunaechst fuer jede Komponente der Stand der Technik moeglicher Materialien und Prozesskonzepte diskutiert. Darauf aufbauend werden drei

  1. Characterisation and Modelling of a High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk; Schaltz, Erik

    2009-01-01

    temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. A Labview virtual instrument has been developed to perform the signal generation and data acquisition which is needed to perform EIS. The typical output of an EIS measurement on a fuel cell, is a Nyquist plot, which shows the imaginary and real part of the impedance...

  2. Seismic fragility of ventilation stack of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, S.S.; Yugai, T.Z.; Kalinkin, I.V.; Vizir, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    Fragility study of safety related elements is necessary step in seismic PSA of nuclear power plant (NPP). In present work fragility was analyzed after the example of the ventilation stack of NPP. Ventilation stack, considered in present work, is a separately erected construction with height of 100 m made of cast-in-place reinforced concrete. In accordance with IAEA terminology fragility of element is defined as conditional probability of its failure at given level of seismic loading. Failure of a ventilation stack was considered as development of the plastic hinge in some section of a shaft. Seismic ground acceleration a, which corresponds to failure, could be defined as limit seismic acceleration of ventilation stack [a]. Limit seismic acceleration [a] was considered as random value. Sources of its variation are connected with stochastic nature of factors determining it (properties of construction materials, soils etc.), and also with uncertainties of existing analytical techniques. Random value [a] was assumed to be distributed lognormally. Median m[a] and logarithmically standard deviation β of this distribution were defined by 'scaling method' developed by R.P. Kennedy et al. Using this values fragility curves were plotted for different levels of confidence probability. (author)

  3. Density of oxidation-induced stacking faults in damaged silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, F.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Verwey, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A model for the relation between density and length of oxidation-induced stacking faults on damaged silicon surfaces is proposed, based on interactions of stacking faults with dislocations and neighboring stacking faults. The model agrees with experiments.

  4. Black Hole Spectroscopy with Coherent Mode Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Yagi, Kent; Blackman, Jonathan; Lehner, Luis; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-21

    The measurement of multiple ringdown modes in gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers will allow for testing the fundamental properties of black holes in general relativity and to constrain modified theories of gravity. To enhance the ability of Advanced LIGO/Virgo to perform such tasks, we propose a coherent mode stacking method to search for a chosen target mode within a collection of multiple merger events. We first rescale each signal so that the target mode in each of them has the same frequency and then sum the waveforms constructively. A crucial element to realize this coherent superposition is to make use of a priori information extracted from the inspiral-merger phase of each event. To illustrate the method, we perform a study with simulated events targeting the ℓ=m=3 ringdown mode of the remnant black holes. We show that this method can significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective target mode compared to that of the single loudest event. Using current estimates of merger rates, we show that it is likely that advanced-era detectors can measure this collective ringdown mode with one year of coincident data gathered at design sensitivity.

  5. Remote Sensing Image Classification Based on Stacked Denoising Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Focused on the issue that conventional remote sensing image classification methods have run into the bottlenecks in accuracy, a new remote sensing image classification method inspired by deep learning is proposed, which is based on Stacked Denoising Autoencoder. First, the deep network model is built through the stacked layers of Denoising Autoencoder. Then, with noised input, the unsupervised Greedy layer-wise training algorithm is used to train each layer in turn for more robust expressing, characteristics are obtained in supervised learning by Back Propagation (BP neural network, and the whole network is optimized by error back propagation. Finally, Gaofen-1 satellite (GF-1 remote sensing data are used for evaluation, and the total accuracy and kappa accuracy reach 95.7% and 0.955, respectively, which are higher than that of the Support Vector Machine and Back Propagation neural network. The experiment results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the accuracy of remote sensing image classification.

  6. Assessment for potential radionuclide emissions from stacks and diffuse and fugitive sources on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Schmidt, J.W.; Gleckler, B.P.; Rhoads, K.

    1995-06-01

    By using the six EPA-approved methods, instead of only the original back calculation method for assessing the 84 WHC registered stacks, the number of stacks requiring continuous monitoring was reduced from 32 to 19 stacks. The intercomparison between results showed that no correlation existed between back calculations and release fractions. Also the NDA, upstream air samples, and powder release fraction method results were at least three orders of magnitude lower then the back calculations results. The most surprising results of the assessment came from NDA. NDA was found to be an easy method for assessing potential emissions. For the nine stacks assessed by NDA, all nine of the stacks would have required continuous monitoring when assessed by back calculations. However, when NDA was applied all stacks had potential emissions that would cause an EDE below the > 0.1 mrem/y standard. Apparent DFs for the HEPA filter systems were calculated for eight nondesignated stacks with emissions above the detection limit. These apparent DFs ranged from 0.5 to 250. The EDE dose to the MEI was calculated to be 0.028 mrem/y for diffuse and fugitive emissions from the Hanford Sited. This is well below the > 0.1 mrem/y standard

  7. Comparison of source moment tensor recovered by diffraction stacking migration and source time reversal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Diffraction stacking migration is an automatic location methods and widely used in microseismic monitoring of the hydraulic fracturing. It utilizes the stacking of thousands waveform to enhance signal-to-noise ratio of weak events. For surface monitoring, the diffraction stacking method is suffered from polarity reverse among receivers due to radiation pattern of moment source. Joint determination of location and source mechanism has been proposed to overcome the polarity problem but needs significantly increased computational calculations. As an effective method to recover source moment tensor, time reversal imaging based on wave equation can locate microseismic event by using interferometry on the image to extract source position. However, the time reversal imaging is very time consuming compared to the diffraction stacking location because of wave-equation simulation.In this study, we compare the image from diffraction stacking and time reversal imaging to check if the diffraction stacking can obtain similar moment tensor as time reversal imaging. We found that image produced by taking the largest imaging value at each point along time axis does not exhibit the radiation pattern, while with the same level of calculation efficiency, the image produced for each trial origin time can generate radiation pattern similar to time reversal imaging procedure. Thus it is potential to locate the source position by the diffraction stacking method for general moment tensor sources.

  8. Dynamical stability of slip-stacking particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-09-01

    We study the stability of particles in slip-stacking configuration, used to nearly double proton beam intensity at Fermilab. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We find perturbative solutions for stable particle trajectories. We establish Booster beam quality requirements to achieve 97% slip-stacking efficiency. We show that slip-stacking dynamics directly correspond to the driven pendulum and to the system of two standing-wave traps moving with respect to each other.

  9. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    -filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

  10. Study on the polarity, solubility, and stacking characteristics of asphaltenes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Long-li

    2014-07-01

    The structure and transformation of fused aromatic ring system in asphaltenes play an important role in the character of asphaltenes, and in step affect the properties of heavy oils. Polarity, solubility and structural characteristics of asphaltenes derived from Tahe atmospheric residue (THAR) and Tuo-826 heavy crude oil (Tuo-826) were analyzed for study of their internal relationship. A fractionation method was used to separate the asphaltenes into four sub-fractions, based on their solubility in the mixed solvent, for the study of different structural and physical-chemical properties, such as polarity, solubility, morphology, stacking characteristics, and mean structural parameters. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation can present the intuitive morphology of asphaltene molecules, and shows that the structure of asphaltenes is in local order as well as long range disorder. The analysis results showed that n-heptane asphaltenes of THAR and Tuo-826 had larger dipole moment values, larger fused aromatic ring systems, larger mean number of stacking layers, and less interlayer spacing between stacking layers than the corresponding n-pentane asphaltenes. The sub-fractions that were inclined to precipitate from the mixture of n-heptane and tetrahydrofuran had larger polarity and less solubility. From the first sub-fraction to the fourth sub-fraction, polarity, mean stacking numbers, and average layer size from the TEM images follow a gradual decrease. The structural parameters derived from TEM images could reflect the largest fused aromatic ring system in asphaltene molecule, yet the parameters derived from 1H NMR data reflected the mean message of poly-aromatic ring systems. The structural parameters derived from TEM images were more consistent with the polarity variation of sub-fractions than those derived from 1H NMR data, which indicates that the largest fused aromatic ring system will play a more important role in the stacking characteristics of

  11. Characterization of Piezoelectric Stacks for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher; Aldrich, Jack; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to actuate mechanisms to precision levels in the nanometer range and below. Co-fired multilayer piezoelectric stacks offer the required actuation precision that is needed for such mechanisms. To obtain performance statistics and determine reliability for extended use, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and high temperatures and voltages. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators were driven sinusoidally for up to ten billion cycles. An automated data acquisition system was developed and implemented to monitor each stack's electrical current and voltage waveforms over the life of the test. As part of the monitoring tests, the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current were measured to assess the operation degradation. This paper presents some of the results of this effort.

  12. The stack on software and sovereignty

    CERN Document Server

    Bratton, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive political and design theory of planetary-scale computation proposing that The Stack -- an accidental megastructure -- is both a technological apparatus and a model for a new geopolitical architecture.

  13. Development of Auto-Stacking Warehouse Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsien Hsia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Warehouse automation is a very important issue for the promotion of traditional industries. For the production of larger and stackable products, it is usually necessary to operate a fork-lifter for the stacking and storage of the products by a skilled person. The general autonomous warehouse-truck does not have the ability of stacking objects. In this paper, we develop a prototype of auto-stacking warehouse-truck that can work without direct operation by a skill person. With command made by an RFID card, the stacker truck can take the packaged product to the warehouse on the prior-planned route and store it in a stacking way in the designated storage area, or deliver the product to the shipping area or into the container from the storage area. It can significantly reduce the manpower requirements of the skilled-person of forklift technician and improve the safety of the warehousing area.

  14. Re-fabrication and Instrumentation - resume and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleeman, Hans-Joerg; Oberlaender, Barbara C.

    2005-01-01

    The special technique ''re-fabrication and instrumentation'' applied at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) makes further testing and measuring of irradiated fuel rods in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) possible. Machines, necessary for such operations, were designed and produced at IFE in the years 1991-92. Hot Lab-operations called ''re-fabrication'' include all modifications necessary to load an irradiated fuel rod, commercial or experimental, into the Halden reactor for further testing. ''Instrumentation'' includes all operations necessary to fit instruments into an irradiated fuel rod segment to measure for instance the temperature in the centreline of the fuel stack, pressure increase in the fuel rod and/or changes of the rod length during reactor experiments. The machines used are referred to as: ''Cutting and Grinding Unit'' for machining of the canning; ''Freezing and Drilling Unit'' for drilling of the centreline thermocouple hole in the active fuel stack;''Welding and Drying Unit'' a TIG welding machine for the circumferential welds and the seal welding; and a hydraulic ''Encapsulation Bench''. The ''Welding and Drilling Unit'' includes also a ''He-leak test chamber'' and a ''Hydraulic Press''. In addition, different types of PIE methods are used in quality assurance and documenting of the work done with the fuel rod. For example neutron radiography, visual inspection, dimension measurement, free volume measurements, equipment to measure the flow capability through the fuel stack and different function tests of the measuring devices. This paper will give an overview of the work done so far with this equipment and give information about new equipment which will be installed soon to deal with even more complicated test fuel designs. (Author)

  15. Re-fabrication and Instrumentation - resume and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleeman, Hans-Joerg; Oberlaender, Barbara C.

    2005-01-01

    The special technique ''re-fabrication and instrumentation'' applied at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) makes further testing and measuring of irradiated fuel rods in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) possible. Machines, necessary for such operations, were designed and produced at IFE in the years 1991-92. Hot Lab-operations called ''re-fabrication'' include all modifications necessary to load an irradiated fuel rod, commercial or experimental, into the Halden reactor for further testing. ''Instrumentation'' includes all operations necessary to fit instruments into an irradiated fuel rod segment to measure for instance the temperature in the centreline of the fuel stack, pressure increase in the fuel rod and/or changes of the rod length during reactor experiments. The machines used are referred to as: ''Cutting and Grinding Unit'' for machining of the canning; ''Freezing and Drilling Unit'' for drilling of the centreline thermocouple hole in the active fuel stack;''Welding and Drying Unit'' a TIG welding machine for the circumferential welds and the seal welding; and a hydraulic ''Encapsulation Bench''. The ''Welding and Drilling Unit'' includes also a ''He-leak test chamber'' and a ''Hydraulic Press''. In addition, different types of PIE methods are used in quality assurance and documenting of the work done with the fuel rod. For example neutron radiography, visual inspection, dimension measurement, free volume measurements, equipment to measure the flow capability through the fuel stack and different function tests of the measuring devices. This paper will give an overview of the work done so far with this equipment and give information about new equipment which will be installed soon to deal with even more complicated test fuel designs. (Author)

  16. Exploring online evolution of network stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Network stacks today follow a one-size-fits-all philosophy. They are mostly kept unmodified due to often prohibitive costs of engineering, deploying and administrating customisation of the networking software, with the Internet stack architecture still largely being based on designs and assumptions made for the ARPANET 40 years ago. We venture that heterogeneous and rapidly changing networks of the future require, in order to be successful, run-time self-adaptation mechanisms at different tim...

  17. STACKING ON COMMON REFLECTION SURFACE WITH MULTIPARAMETER TRAVELTIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes V. Luis A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Commonly seismic images are displayed in time domain because the model in depth can be known only in well logs. To produce seismic sections, pre and post stack processing approaches use time or depth velocity models whereas the common reflection method does not, instead it requires a set of parameters established for the first layer. A set of synthetic data of an anticline model, with sources and receivers placed on a flat topography, was used to observe the performance of this method. As result, a better reflector recovering compared against conventional processing sequence was observed.
    The procedure was extended to real data, using a dataset acquired on a zone characterized by mild topography and quiet environment reflectors in the Eastern Colombia planes, observing an enhanced and a better continuity of the reflectors in the CRS stacked section.

  18. Taxonomy of multi-focal nematode image stacks by a CNN based image fusion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Wang, Xueping; Zhang, Hongzhong

    2018-03-01

    In the biomedical field, digital multi-focal images are very important for documentation and communication of specimen data, because the morphological information for a transparent specimen can be captured in form of a stack of high-quality images. Given biomedical image stacks containing multi-focal images, how to efficiently extract effective features from all layers to classify the image stacks is still an open question. We present to use a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) image fusion based multilinear approach for the taxonomy of multi-focal image stacks. A deep CNN based image fusion technique is used to combine relevant information of multi-focal images within a given image stack into a single image, which is more informative and complete than any single image in the given stack. Besides, multi-focal images within a stack are fused along 3 orthogonal directions, and multiple features extracted from the fused images along different directions are combined by canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Because multi-focal image stacks represent the effect of different factors - texture, shape, different instances within the same class and different classes of objects, we embed the deep CNN based image fusion method within a multilinear framework to propose an image fusion based multilinear classifier. The experimental results on nematode multi-focal image stacks demonstrated that the deep CNN image fusion based multilinear classifier can reach a higher classification rate (95.7%) than that by the previous multilinear based approach (88.7%), even we only use the texture feature instead of the combination of texture and shape features as in the previous work. The proposed deep CNN image fusion based multilinear approach shows great potential in building an automated nematode taxonomy system for nematologists. It is effective to classify multi-focal image stacks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Time-predictable Stack Cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspour, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to le...... of a cache for stack allocated data. Our port of the LLVM C++ compiler supports the management of the stack cache. The combination of stack cache instructions and the hardware implementation of the stack cache is a further step towards timepredictable architectures.......Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to less...... precise results of the cache analysis part of the WCET analysis. Splitting the data cache for different data areas enables composable data cache analysis. The WCET analysis tool can analyze the accesses to these different data areas independently. In this paper we present the design and implementation...

  20. StackGAN++: Realistic Image Synthesis with Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Han; Xu, Tao; Li, Hongsheng; Zhang, Shaoting; Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiaolei; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Although Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown remarkable success in various tasks, they still face challenges in generating high quality images. In this paper, we propose Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks (StackGAN) aiming at generating high-resolution photo-realistic images. First, we propose a two-stage generative adversarial network architecture, StackGAN-v1, for text-to-image synthesis. The Stage-I GAN sketches the primitive shape and colors of the object based on given...

  1. A “4-cell” modular passive DMFC (direct methanol fuel cell) stack for portable applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Luwen; He, Mingyan; Hu, Yue; Zhang, Yufeng; Liu, Xiaowei; Wang, Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    A “4-cell” modular passive DMFC (direct methanol fuel cell) stack, which can be freely combined and applied to various electronic devices, is designed, fabricated and tested. Two PCB (printed circuit board) based accessories are designed and fabricated for electrically connecting and mechanically assembling the “4-cell” modules. The maximum power density of the “4-cell” module is 27 mW cm −2 at 5 M methanol concentration. The steady-state performances of the modular stacks with different numbers of modules are tested. The extra power loss of the multiple module stacks due to inter-module electrical connections is predicted by mathematical fitting method. The fitting results indicate that the efficiencies of the multiple module stacks are all above 90% up to 10 modules. The dynamic performances of the modular stacks are also investigated for portable applications. The results show that the modular stacks exhibit good responsiveness and reproducibility at high loading current (>100 mA). Finally, the modular stacks are successfully applied to drive the experimental fan and charge the mobile phone. - Highlights: • A “4-cell” modular passive DMFC (direct methanol fuel cell) stack is designed, fabricated and tested. • This modular DMFC stack can assemble more single cells with high efficiency. • The modular stack exhibit good responsiveness and reproducibility for portable application

  2. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  3. Captioning Transformer with Stacked Attention Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Zhu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Image captioning is a challenging task. Meanwhile, it is important for the machine to understand the meaning of an image better. In recent years, the image captioning usually use the long-short-term-memory (LSTM as the decoder to generate the sentence, and these models show excellent performance. Although the LSTM can memorize dependencies, the LSTM structure has complicated and inherently sequential across time problems. To address these issues, recent works have shown benefits of the Transformer for machine translation. Inspired by their success, we develop a Captioning Transformer (CT model with stacked attention modules. We attempt to introduce the Transformer to the image captioning task. The CT model contains only attention modules without the dependencies of the time. It not only can memorize dependencies between the sequence but also can be trained in parallel. Moreover, we propose the multi-level supervision to make the Transformer achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on the challenging MSCOCO dataset and the proposed Captioning Transformer achieves competitive performance compared with some state-of-the-art methods.

  4. The use of a combination of instrumental methods to assess change in sensory crispness during storage of a "Honeycrisp" apple breeding family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsueh-Yuan; Vickers, Zata M; Tong, Cindy B S

    2018-04-01

    Loss of crispness in apple fruit during storage reduces the fruit's fresh sensation and consumer acceptance. Apple varieties that maintain crispness thus have higher potential for longer-term consumer appeal. To efficiently phenotype crispness, several instrumental methods have been tested, but variable results were obtained when different apple varieties were assayed. To extend these studies, we assessed the extent to which instrumental measurements correlate to and predict sensory crispness, with a focus on crispness maintenance. We used an apple breeding family derived from a cross between "Honeycrisp" and "MN1764," which segregates for crispness maintenance. Three types of instrumental measurements (puncture, snapping, and mechanical-acoustic tests) and sensory evaluation were performed on fruit at harvest and after 8 weeks of cold storage. Overall, 20 genotypes from the family and the 2 parents were characterized by 19 force and acoustic measures. In general, crispness was more related to force than to acoustic measures. Force linear distance and maximum force as measured by the mechanical-acoustic test were best correlated with sensory crispness and change in crispness, respectively. The correlations varied by apple genotype. The best multiple linear regression model to predict change in sensory crispness between harvest and storage of fruit of this breeding family incorporated both force and acoustic measures. This work compared the abilities of instrumental tests to predict sensory crispness maintenance of apple fruit. The use of an instrumental method that is highly correlated to sensory crispness evaluation can enhance the efficiency and reduce the cost of measuring crispness for breeding purposes. This study showed that sensory crispness and change in crispness after storage of an apple breeding family were reliably predicted with a combination of instrumental measurements and multiple variable analyses. The strategy potentially can be applied to other

  5. Correlation and Stacking of Relative Paleointensity and Oxygen Isotope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurcock, P. C.; Channell, J. E.; Lee, D.

    2012-12-01

    The transformation of a depth-series into a time-series is routinely implemented in the geological sciences. This transformation often involves correlation of a depth-series to an astronomically calibrated time-series. Eyeball tie-points with linear interpolation are still regularly used, although these have the disadvantages of being non-repeatable and not based on firm correlation criteria. Two automated correlation methods are compared: the simulated annealing algorithm (Huybers and Wunsch, 2004) and the Match protocol (Lisiecki and Lisiecki, 2002). Simulated annealing seeks to minimize energy (cross-correlation) as "temperature" is slowly decreased. The Match protocol divides records into intervals, applies penalty functions that constrain accumulation rates, and minimizes the sum of the squares of the differences between two series while maintaining the data sequence in each series. Paired relative paleointensity (RPI) and oxygen isotope records, such as those from IODP Site U1308 and/or reference stacks such as LR04 and PISO, are warped using known warping functions, and then the un-warped and warped time-series are correlated to evaluate the efficiency of the correlation methods. Correlations are performed in tandem to simultaneously optimize RPI and oxygen isotope data. Noise spectra are introduced at differing levels to determine correlation efficiency as noise levels change. A third potential method, known as dynamic time warping, involves minimizing the sum of distances between correlated point pairs across the whole series. A "cost matrix" between the two series is analyzed to find a least-cost path through the matrix. This least-cost path is used to nonlinearly map the time/depth of one record onto the depth/time of another. Dynamic time warping can be expanded to more than two dimensions and used to stack multiple time-series. This procedure can improve on arithmetic stacks, which often lose coherent high-frequency content during the stacking process.

  6. Report on the calculations of the height of the stack for PUSPATI laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This report outlines the method used in the calculation of the required stack height in order to ensure adequate dispersion and dilution of radioactive materials emitted through the stack under routine as well as accident conditions. The calculations were based on the most predominant radioactive material 1-131, possibly to be discharged from the establishment. Some general assumptions were considered and these include maximum activity of 1-131, production efficiency, filter decontamination factor, MPCa value, topography, meteorological conditions, building wake effect, downwash and plume rise. The calculations have indicated that a stack of 40 meters in height is adequate.

  7. Start-Stop Test Procedures on the PEMFC Stack Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Nygaard, Frederik; Veltzé, Sune

    The test is addressed to investigate the influence on stack durability of a long stop followed by a restart of a stack. Long stop should be defined as a stop in which the anodic compartment is fully filled by air due to stack leakages. In systems, leakage level of the stack is low and time to fil...

  8. Principles for Instructional Stack Development in HyperCard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEneaney, John E.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about obtaining and using HyperCard stacks that introduce users to principles of stack development. The HyperCard stacks described are available for downloading free of charge from a server at Indiana University South Bend. Specific directions are given for stack use, with advice for beginners. A…

  9. Non-destructive determination of nitrogen in malting barleys by instrumental photon activation analysis and its comparison with the Dumas method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Ivana; Mizera, Jiří; Dostálek, P.; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 1 (2018), s. 4-8 ISSN 0046-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nitrogen * instrumental photon activation analysis * Dumas method * malting barley Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing OBOR OECD: Food and beverages Impact factor: 0.859, year: 2016

  10. Measuring fusion excitation functions with RIBs: A thorough analysis of the stacked target technique and the related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Marchetta, C.; Shotter, A. C.; Lattuada, M.; Torresi, D.; Privitera, V.; Romano, L.; Ruiz, C.; Zadro, M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of the stacked target technique to measure fusion cross-sections of reactions induced by low intensity radioactive beams offers considerable advantages since several reaction energies may be simultaneously measured. The main disadvantage of the method is the degradation of the beam quality as it passes through the stack due to statistical nature of energy loss processes and any non-uniformity of the stacked targets. This degradation can lead to ambiguities of associating effective beam energies to reaction product yields for the targets within the stack. A detailed investigation of these ambiguities has been performed and some of the obtained results are presented

  11. Spam comments prediction using stacking with ensemble learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Arif; On, Byung-Won; Lee, Ingyu; Ashraf, Imran; Choi, Gyu Sang

    2018-01-01

    Illusive comments of product or services are misleading for people in decision making. The current methodologies to predict deceptive comments are concerned for feature designing with single training model. Indigenous features have ability to show some linguistic phenomena but are hard to reveal the latent semantic meaning of the comments. We propose a prediction model on general features of documents using stacking with ensemble learning. Term Frequency/Inverse Document Frequency (TF/IDF) features are inputs to stacking of Random Forest and Gradient Boosted Trees and the outputs of the base learners are encapsulated with decision tree to make final training of the model. The results exhibits that our approach gives the accuracy of 92.19% which outperform the state-of-the-art method.

  12. Scale Marking Method on the Circumference of Circle Elements for Astronomical Instruments in the Early Joseon Dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young Sook; Lee, Yong Sam

    2015-03-01

    During the reign of King Sejong (世宗, 1418-1450) in the Joseon Dynasty, there were lots of astronomical instruments, including miniaturized ones. Those instruments utilized the technical know-how acquired through building contemporary astronomical instruments previously developed in the Song(宋), Jin(金), and Yuan(元) dynasties of China. In those days, many astronomical instruments had circles, rings, and spheres carved with a scale of 365.25, 100, and 24 parts, respectively, on their circumference. These were called the celestial-circumference degree, hundred-interval (Baekgak), and 24 direction, respectively. These scales are marked by the angular distance, not by the angle. Therefore, these circles, rings, and spheres had to be optimized in size to accomodate proper scales. Assuming that the scale system is composed of integer multiples of unit length, we studied the sizes of circles by referring to old articles and investigating existing artifacts. We discovered that the star chart of Cheonsang yeolcha bunyajido was drawn with a royal standard ruler (周尺) based on the unit length of 207 mm. Interestingly, its circumference was marked by the unit scale of 3 puns per 1 du (or degree) like Honsang (a celestial globe). We also found that Hyeonju ilgu (a equatorial sundial) has a Baekgak disk on a scale of 1 pun per 1 gak (that is an interval of time similar to a quarter). This study contributes to the analysis of specifications of numerous circular elements from old Korean astronomical instruments.

  13. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  14. Intercomparison and intercalibration of passive/active radon and active radon progeny instruments and methods in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Tu, Keng W.

    1993-06-01

    An intercomparison and intercalibration exercise for radon and radon progeny measurements made with active and passive instruments was held at EML from October 22--30,1992. Twenty-five participants submitted 96 passive integrating devices, eight active devices for radon, and seven integrating devices for potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC). In addition, 40 grab samples for radon progeny analysis were taken by five groups that participated in person during the intercomparison. The results reported to EML indicate that the majority of the participants (70%) obtained mean results within 10% of the EML reference value. Although the instruments used in this exercise are based on different principles of collection and detection, they all appear reliable. However, in some instances there seemed to be some minor problems with quality control and calibration bias. Also, the large counting errors for the PAEC experienced by some of the participants can be minimized by using higher sampling air flow rates without sacrificing instrument portability

  15. EmuStack: An OpenStack-Based DTN Network Emulation Platform (Extended Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of computing and network virtualization technology, the networking research community shows great interest in network emulation. Compared with network simulation, network emulation can provide more relevant and comprehensive details. In this paper, EmuStack, a large-scale real-time emulation platform for Delay Tolerant Network (DTN, is proposed. EmuStack aims at empowering network emulation to become as simple as network simulation. Based on OpenStack, distributed synchronous emulation modules are developed to enable EmuStack to implement synchronous and dynamic, precise, and real-time network emulation. Meanwhile, the lightweight approach of using Docker container technology and network namespaces allows EmuStack to support a (up to hundreds of nodes large-scale topology with only several physical nodes. In addition, EmuStack integrates the Linux Traffic Control (TC tools with OpenStack for managing and emulating the virtual link characteristics which include variable bandwidth, delay, loss, jitter, reordering, and duplication. Finally, experiences with our initial implementation suggest the ability to run and debug experimental network protocol in real time. EmuStack environment would bring qualitative change in network research works.

  16. Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS) Method for Airborne Aerosol Light Extinction Measurement: Instrument Validation and First Results from Field Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, A.; Perim de Faria, J.; Berg, M.; Bundke, U.; Freedman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring the direct impact of aerosol particles on climate requires the continuous measurement of aerosol optical parameters like the aerosol extinction coefficient on a regular basis. Remote sensing and ground-based networks are well in place (e.g., AERONET, ACTRIS), whereas the regular in situ measurement of vertical profiles of atmospheric aerosol optical properties remains still an important challenge in quantifying climate change. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. Recently, a compact and robust family of optical instruments based on the cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) technique has become available for measuring aerosol light extinction. While this technique was successfully deployed for ground-based atmospheric measurements under various conditions, its suitability for operation aboard aircraft in the free and upper free troposphere still has to be demonstrated. In this work, the modifications of a CAPS PMex instrument for measuring aerosol light extinction on aircraft, the results from subsequent laboratory tests for evaluating the modified instrument prototype, and first results from a field deployment aboard a research aircraft will be covered. In laboratory studies, the instrument showed excellent agreement (deviation CAPS PMex instrument response within 10% deviation. During the field deployment, aerosol extinction coefficients and associated aerosol size distributions have been measured and will be presented as comparison studies between measured and calculated data.

  17. Results of evaluation of quality control measurement instrument of x-ray diagnostic equipment by non-invasive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Flavio T. van der; Elbern, Alvin W.

    1996-01-01

    This work shows the results of the tests realized on Santa Rita Hospital (Porto Alegre), using a non invasive quality control measurement instrument, developed in this University for fast measurement of essential parameters of X-rays diagnostic equipment. In the tests we used a diagnostics Siemens X ray, model Heliofos 4E as our standard equipment. The linearity test of sensor probe and the exposure rate calibration was performed, with a Palmer Dosimeter. For the kVp and exposure time we used a RTI commercial instrument. (author)

  18. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  19. Multiple Segmentation of Image Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Jonathan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for the simultaneous construction of multiple image segmentations by combining a recently proposed “convolution of mixtures of Gaussians” model with a multi-layer hidden Markov random field structure. The resulting method constructs for a single image several, alternative...

  20. A comparison of nickel-titanium rotary instruments manufactured using different methods and cross-sectional areas: ability to resist cyclic fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, So-Ram; Chang, Seok-Woo; Lee, Yoon; Gu, Yu; Son, Won-Jun; Lee, Woocheol; Baek, Seung-Ho; Bae, Kwang-Shik; Choi, Gi-Woon; Lim, Sang-Min; Kum, Kee-Yeon

    2010-04-01

    This study examined the effect of the manufacturing methods (ground, electropolished, and twisted) and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments on their cyclic fatigue resistance. A total of 80 NiTi rotary instruments (ISO 25/.06 taper) from 4 brands (K3, ProFile, RaCe, and TF) were rotated in a simulated root canal with pecking motion until fracture. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated. The CSA at 3 mm from the tip of new instruments of each brand was calculated. The correlation between the CSA and NCF was evaluated. All fractured surfaces were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope to determine the fracture mode. The TF instruments were the most resistant to fatigue failure. The resistance to cyclic failure increased with decreasing CSA. All fractured surfaces showed the coexistence of ductile and brittle properties. The CSA had a significant effect on the fatigue resistance of NiTi rotary instruments. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Detailed characterization of a Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) instrument for ambient OH reactivity measurements: experiments vs. modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Vincent; Locoge, Nadine; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    The Hydroxyl radical (OH) is the main daytime oxidant in the troposphere, leading to the oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and the formation of harmful pollutants such as ozone (O3) and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). While OH plays a key role in tropospheric chemistry, recent studies have highlighted that there are still uncertainties associated with the OH budget, i.e the identification of sources and sinks and the quantification of production and loss rates of this radical. It has been demonstrated that ambient measurements of the total OH loss rate (also called total OH reactivity) can be used to identify and reduce these uncertainties. In this context, the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM), developed by Sinha et al. (ACP, 2008), is a promising technique to measure total OH reactivity in ambient air and has already been used during several field campaigns. This technique relies on monitoring competitive reactions of OH with ambient trace gases and a reference compound (pyrrole) in a sampling reactor to derive ambient OH reactivity. However, this technique requires a complex data processing chain that has yet to be carefully investigated in the laboratory. In this study, we present a detailed characterization of a CRM instrument developed at Mines Douai, France. Experiments have been performed to investigate the dependence of the CRM response on humidity, ambient NOx levels, and the pyrrole-to-OH ratio inside the sampling reactor. Box modelling of the chemistry occurring in the reactor has also been performed to assess our theoretical understanding of the CRM measurement. This work shows that the CRM response is sensitive to both humidity and NOx, which can be accounted for during data processing using parameterizations depending on the pyrrole-to-OH ratio. The agreement observed between laboratory studies and model results suggests a good understanding of the chemistry occurring in the sampling reactor and gives confidence in the CRM

  2. Advanced Instrumentation and Control Methods for Small and Medium Reactors with IRIS Demonstration. Final Report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, J. Wesley; Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Doster, J. Michael; Edwards, Robert M.; Lewis, Kenneth D.; Turinsky, Paul; Coble, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Development and deployment of small-scale nuclear power reactors and their maintenance, monitoring, and control are part of the mission under the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) program. The objectives of this NERI-consortium research project are to investigate, develop, and validate advanced methods for sensing, controlling, monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis of these reactors, and to demonstrate the methods with application to one of the proposed integral pressurized water reactors (IPWR). For this project, the IPWR design by Westinghouse, the International Reactor Secure and Innovative (IRIS), has been used to demonstrate the techniques developed under this project. The research focuses on three topical areas with the following objectives. Objective 1 - Develop and apply simulation capabilities and sensitivity/uncertainty analysis methods to address sensor deployment analysis and small grid stability issues. Objective 2 - Develop and test an autonomous and fault-tolerant control architecture and apply to the IRIS system and an experimental flow control loop, with extensions to multiple reactor modules, nuclear desalination, and optimal sensor placement strategy. Objective 3 - Develop and test an integrated monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis system for SMRs using the IRIS as a test platform, and integrate process and equipment monitoring (PEM) and process and equipment prognostics (PEP) toolboxes. The research tasks are focused on meeting the unique needs of reactors that may be deployed to remote locations or to developing countries with limited support infrastructure. These applications will require smaller, robust reactor designs with advanced technologies for sensors, instrumentation, and control. An excellent overview of SMRs is described in an article by Ingersoll (2009). The article refers to these as deliberately small reactors. Most of these have modular characteristics, with multiple units deployed at the same plant site. Additionally, the topics focus

  3. ANIMMA 2009 - International Conference on Advancements in Nuclear Instrumentation, Measurement Methods and their Applications - Compilation of slides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabre, A.; Lyoussi, A.; Martin-Deidier, L.; Caverni, J.P.; Deconinck, F.; Cesarsky, C.; Kjems, J.; Spiro, M.; Abdallah, J.; Mandic, I.; Cindro, V.; Gorisek, A.; Kramberger, G.; Mikuz, M.; Hartert, J.; Bronner, J.; Franz, S.; Minano, M.; Fleta, C.; Garcia, C.; Lacasta, C.; Lozano, M.; Marco, R.; Marti, I.; Garcia, S.; Pellegrini, G.; Soldevila, U.; Ullan, M.; Larsen, R.; Downing, R.; Saunders, C.; Pavlicek, V.; Jezynski, T.; Rehlich, K.; An Liu, Z.; Nomachi, M.; Le Du, P.; Benekos, N.; Cortes Gonzales, A.; Coggeshall, J.; Liss, A.M.; Baudot, J.; Barbier, R.; Brogna, A.; Chabanat, E.; Claus, G.; Colledani, C.; Depasse, P.; Degerli, Y.; De Masi, R.; Deveaux, M.; Dorokhov, A.; Doziere, G.; Dritsa, C.; Dulinski, W.; Estre, N.; Fang, X.C.; Fontaine, J.C.; Gelin, M.; Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Hu-Guo, C.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Minano, M.; Bruynseraede, Y.; Benekos, N.; Collazuol, G.M.; Baudot, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Alami, R.; Marie, F.; Fontana, A.; Duval, P.Y.; Rosca, A.; Copic, K.; Iracane, D.; Rempe, J.; Shippen, D.; Choo, K.N.; Breitkreutz, H.; Petry, W.; Itagaki, W.; Zaristkiy, S.; Jammes, C.; Imel, G.; Ritter, G.; Casoli, P.; Blaise, P.; Lecouey, J.L.; Rohrmoser, A.; Bignan, G.; Bruynseraede, Y.; March, R.; Janulyte, A.; Morichi, M.; Adams, J.; Popov, V.; Costley, A.; Moreau, P.; Sabot, R.; Leyrat, J.P.; Angelone, M.; Flament, O.; Thfoin, I.; Boullis, B.; Rouquerol, J.; Nonell, A.; Simon, A.C.; Lyoussi, A.; De Bruycker, A.; Ducros, G.; Katsuyama, K.; Barat, E.; Swinhoe, M.; Dogny, S.; Carrel, F.; Granier, G.; Raoux, A.C.; Pluquet, A.; Ahlen, S.; Butchins, L.; Porta, A.; Valkovic, V.; Dazeley, S.; Furuta, H.; Quiter, B.; Piccotti, A.; Swinhoe, M.; Bruggeman, M.; Ruddy, F.; El kanawati, W.; Cabrera-Palmer, B.; Sweet, M.; Parrat, D.; Cavedon, J.M.; Babu, C.; Baskaran, B.; Villard, J.F.; Buimistriuc, G.; Rosenkrantz, E.; Coulon, R.; Schyns, M.; Bronson, F.; Giraud, A.; Vuillemard, C.; Ait Abderrahim, H.; Marie, F.; Beeley, P.; Andre, J.; Turpin, L.; Waker, A.; Pafilis, C.; Townsend, D.; Chatal, J.F.; Gao, W.; Kawachi, N.; Townsend, D.; Le Foulher, F.; Magne, S.; Valkovic, V.; Rottner, B.; Lebrun, A.; Ianakiev, K.; Giot, M.; Flescher, H.

    2009-01-01

    The program of this conference is focused on instrumentation, but emphasizes the latest developments in all measurement stages: nuclear radiation detection and in-pile measurements, modelling, electronics, signal acquisition and analysis, radiotherapy, interpretation and associated training activities. This document is composed of the program of the conference and of the slides of about 102 presentations

  4. Progress of MCFC stack technology at Toshiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M.; Hayashi, T.; Shimizu, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba is working on the development of MCFC stack technology; improvement of cell characteristics, and establishment of separator technology. For the cell technology, Toshiba has concentrated on both the restraints of NiO cathode dissolution and electrolyte loss from cells, which are the critical issues to extend cell life in MCFC, and great progress has been made. On the other hand, recognizing that the separator is one of key elements in accomplishing reliable and cost-competitive MCFC stacks, Toshiba has been accelerating the technology establishment and verification of an advanced type separator. A sub-scale stack with such a separator was provided for an electric generating test, and has been operated for more than 10,000 hours. This paper presents several topics obtained through the technical activities in the MCFC field at Toshiba.

  5. High power, repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanloo, F; Borovina, D L; Korioth, J L; Krause, R K; Collins, C B [Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Quantum Electronics; Agee, F J [US Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Kingsley, L E [US Army CECOM, Ft. Monmouth, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse power generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switch at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Extensive characterization of these novel pulsers have been performed over the past few years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with rise times and repetition rates in the range of 0.5-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. The progress in the development and use of stacked Blumlein pulse generators is reviewed. The technology and the characteristics of these novel pulsers driving flash x-ray diodes are discussed. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  6. Instruments for Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Dwight G.

    1972-01-01

    Presents information regarding available instruments for industries and agencies who must monitor numerous aquatic parameters. Charts denote examples of parameters sampled, testing methods, range and accuracy of test methods, cost analysis, and reliability of instruments. (BL)

  7. Scale Marking Method on the Circumference of Circle Elements for Astronomical Instruments in the Early Joseon Dynasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Hee Mihn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the reign of King Sejong (世宗, 1418-1450 in the Joseon Dynasty, there were lots of astronomical instruments, including miniaturized ones. Those instruments utilized the technical know-how acquired through building contemporary astronomical instruments previously developed in the Song(宋, Jin(金, and Yuan(元 dynasties of China. In those days, many astronomical instruments had circles, rings, and spheres carved with a scale of 365.25, 100, and 24 parts, respectively, on their circumference. These were called the celestial-circumference degree, hundred-interval (Baekgak, and 24 direction, respectively. These scales are marked by the angular distance, not by the angle. Therefore, these circles, rings, and spheres had to be optimized in size to accomodate proper scales. Assuming that the scale system is composed of integer multiples of unit length, we studied the sizes of circles by referring to old articles and investigating existing artifacts. We discovered that the star chart of Cheonsang yeolcha bunyajido was drawn with a royal standard ruler (周尺 based on the unit length of 207 mm. Interestingly, its circumference was marked by the unit scale of 3 puns per 1 du (or degree like Honsang (a celestial globe. We also found that Hyeonju ilgu (a equatorial sundial has a Baekgak disk on a scale of 1 pun per 1 gak (that is an interval of time similar to a quarter. This study contributes to the analysis of specifications of numerous circular elements from old Korean astronomical instruments.

  8. Development of the novel control algorithm for the small proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack without external humidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Wook; Lee, Jong-Hak; Cho, Kwan-Seok; Choi, Woojin [Department of Electrical Engineering, Soongsil University, 1-1 Sangdo-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-743 (Korea); Park, Kyung-Won [Department of Chemical/Environmental Engineering, Soongsil University, 1-1 Sangdo-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-743 (Korea)

    2010-09-15

    Small PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell systems do not require humidification and have great commercialization possibilities. However, methods for controlling small PEM fuel cell stacks have not been clearly established. In this paper, a control method for small PEM fuel cell systems using a dual closed loop with a static feed-forward structure is defined and realized using a microcontroller. The fundamental elements that need to be controlled in fuel cell systems include the supply of air and hydrogen, water management inside the stack, and heat management of the stack. For small PEM fuel cell stacks operated without a separate humidifier, fans are essential for air supply, heat management, and water management of the stack. A purge valve discharges surplus water from the stack. The proposed method controls the fan using a dual closed loop with a static feed-forward structure, thereby improving system efficiency and operation stability. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by experiments using a 150-W PEM fuel cell stack. We expect the proposed algorithm to be widely used for controlling small PEM fuel cell stacks. (author)

  9. Multibands tunneling in AAA-stacked trilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redouani, Ilham; Jellal, Ahmed; Bahaoui, Abdelhadi; Bahlouli, Hocine

    2018-04-01

    We study the electronic transport through np and npn junctions for AAA-stacked trilayer graphene. Two kinds of gates are considered where the first is a single gate and the second is a double gate. After obtaining the solutions for the energy spectrum, we use the transfer matrix method to determine the three transmission probabilities for each individual cone τ = 0 , ± 1 . We show that the quasiparticles in AAA-stacked trilayer graphene are not only chiral but also labeled by an additional cone index τ. The obtained bands are composed of three Dirac cones that depend on the chirality indexes. We show that there is perfect transmission for normal or near normal incidence, which is a manifestation of the Klein tunneling effect. We analyze also the corresponding total conductance, which is defined as the sum of the conductance channels in each individual cone. Our results are numerically discussed and compared with those obtained for ABA- and ABC-stacked trilayer graphene.

  10. Nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, William B. (Inventor); Nolcheff, Nick A. (Inventor); Gunaraj, John A. (Inventor); Kontos, Karen B. (Inventor); Weir, Donald S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane having a characteristic curve that is characterized by a nonlinear sweep and a nonlinear lean is provided. The stator is in an axial fan or compressor turbomachinery stage that is comprised of a collection of vanes whose highly three-dimensional shape is selected to reduce rotor-stator and rotor-strut interaction noise while maintaining the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of the vane. The nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane reduces noise associated with the fan stage of turbomachinery to improve environmental compatibility.

  11. Stack Monitoring System At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamrul Faizad Omar; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the current Stack Monitoring System at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) building. A stack monitoring system is a continuous air monitor placed at the reactor top for monitoring the presence of radioactive gaseous in the effluent air from the RTP building. The system consists of four detectors that provide the reading for background, particulate, Iodine and Noble gas. There is a plan to replace the current system due to frequent fault of the system, thus thorough understanding of the current system is required. Overview of the whole system will be explained in this paper. Some current results would be displayed and moving forward brief plan would be mentioned. (author)

  12. Microseismic event location by master-event waveform stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Dahm, T.

    2016-12-01

    Waveform stacking location methods are nowadays extensively used to monitor induced seismicity monitoring assoiciated with several underground industrial activities such as Mining, Oil&Gas production and Geothermal energy exploitation. In the last decade a significant effort has been spent to develop or improve methodologies able to perform automated seismological analysis for weak events at a local scale. This effort was accompanied by the improvement of monitoring systems, resulting in an increasing number of large microseismicity catalogs. The analysis of microseismicity is challenging, because of the large number of recorded events often characterized by a low signal-to-noise ratio. A significant limitation of the traditional location approaches is that automated picking is often done on each seismogram individually, making little or no use of the coherency information between stations. In order to improve the performance of the traditional location methods, in the last year, alternative approaches have been proposed. These methods exploits the coherence of the waveforms recorded at different stations and do not require any automated picking procedure. The main advantage of this methods relies on their robustness even when the recorded waveforms are very noisy. On the other hand, like any other location method, the location performance strongly depends on the accuracy of the available velocity model. When dealing with inaccurate velocity models, in fact, location results can be affected by large errors. Here we will introduce a new automated waveform stacking location method which is less dependent on the knowledge of the velocity model and presents several benefits, which improve the location accuracy: 1) it accounts for phase delays due to local site effects, e.g. surface topography or variable sediment thickness 2) theoretical velocity model are only used to estimate travel times within the source volume, and not along the whole source-sensor path. We

  13. Resistive switching mechanism of ZnO/ZrO2-stacked resistive random access memory device annealed at 300 °C by sol-gel method with forming-free operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wen-Yi; You, Hsin-Chiang; Wu, Cheng-Yen

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we used a sol-gel process to fabricate a ZnO-ZrO2-stacked resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) device and investigated its switching mechanism. The Gibbs free energy in ZnO, which is higher than that in ZrO2, facilitates the oxidation and reduction reactions of filaments in the ZnO layer. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the device revealed a forming-free operation because of nonlattice oxygen in the oxide layer. In addition, the device can operate under bipolar or unipolar conditions with a reset voltage of 0 to ±2 V, indicating that in this device, Joule heating dominates at reset and the electric field dominates in the set process. Furthermore, the characteristics reveal why the fabricated device exhibits a greater discrete distribution phenomenon for the set voltage than for the reset voltage. These results will enable the fabrication of future ReRAM devices with double-layer oxide structures with improved characteristics.

  14. Perbandingan Post Stack TIME Migration Metode Finite Difference dan Metode Kirchoff dengan Parameter Gap Dekonvolusi Data Seismik Darat 2d Line “Srda”

    OpenAIRE

    Dynza Anggary, Sheyza Rery; Danusaputro, Hernowo; Harmoko, Udi

    2015-01-01

    Analysis on Post Stack Time Migration (Post-STM) with finite difference method and Kirchoff method with determine gap parameter on deconvolution after stack had been applied to 2D land seismic at line “SRDA”. This research had purpose to applied seismic data processing to get subsurface imaging with high signal-to-noise ratio and analyze how the gap parameter corresponding on deconvolution after stack, and to determine which the appropriate method of migration between migration finite differe...

  15. Operational measurements of stack flow rates in a nuclear power plant with ultrasonic anemometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, E.; Kirtzel, H.-J.; Ebenhoech, E.

    2003-01-01

    The calculation of the impact of radio nuclides within the surroundings of nuclear power stations requires quantitative measurements of the stack emission. As a standard method, propeller anemometers have been installed inside the stack, but due to the wear and tear of the moving parts in such conventional sensors the servicing and maintenance are costly and may cause restrictions in the operation of the stack. As an alternative to propeller anemometers ultrasonic sensors have been applied which employ no moving parts and are almost free of maintenance. Furthermore, any shifts in internal calibration parameters can be identified by the sensor electronics with on-line plausibility checks. The tests have proven that ultrasonic systems are able to measure adequately and reliably the flow inside the stack. (orig.)

  16. Methods and apparatus for cleaning objects in a chamber of an optical instrument by generating reactive ions using photon radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Delgado, Gildardo R.; Hollenshead, Jeromy T.; Umstadter, Karl R.; Starodub, Elena; Zhuang, Guorong V.

    2015-10-13

    An optical instrument, including a chamber, an object exposed to an interior of the chamber, a source of low-pressure gas, the gas comprising at least one of low-pressure molecular hydrogen gas, low-pressure molecular oxygen and a low-pressure noble gas, the source of low pressure gas being fluidly coupled to the chamber, a low voltage source electrically coupled between the object and a remaining portion of the instrument that is exposed to the interior of the chamber so as to maintain the object at a low voltage relative to the remaining portion, and an EUV/VUV light source adapted to direct EUV/VUV light through the low pressure gas in the chamber onto the object. In such a system, when the EUV/VUV light source is activated ions of the low-pressure gas are formed and directed to the object. The ions may be ions of Hydrogen, Oxygen or a noble gas.

  17. New Methods for Retrieval of Chlorophyll Red Fluorescence from Hyperspectral Satellite Instruments: Simulations and Application to GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Joanna; Yoshida, Yasuko; Guanter, Luis; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Global satellite measurements of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) from chlorophyll over land and ocean have proven useful for a number of different applications related to physiology, phenology, and productivity of plants and phytoplankton. Terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence is emitted throughout the red and far-red spectrum, producing two broad peaks near 683 and 736nm. From ocean surfaces, phytoplankton fluorescence emissions are entirely from the red region (683nm peak). Studies using satellite-derived SIF over land have focused almost exclusively on measurements in the far red (wavelengths greater than 712nm), since those are the most easily obtained with existing instrumentation. Here, we examine new ways to use existing hyperspectral satellite data sets to retrieve red SIF (wavelengths less than 712nm) over both land and ocean. Red SIF is thought to provide complementary information to that from the far red for terrestrial vegetation. The satellite instruments that we use were designed to make atmospheric trace-gas measurements and are therefore not optimal for observing SIF; they have coarse spatial resolution and only moderate spectral resolution (0.5nm). Nevertheless, these instruments, the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY), offer a unique opportunity to compare red and far-red terrestrial SIF at regional spatial scales. Terrestrial SIF has been estimated with ground-, aircraft-, or satellite-based instruments by measuring the filling-in of atmospheric andor solar absorption spectral features by SIF. Our approach makes use of the oxygen (O2) gamma band that is not affected by SIF. The SIF-free O2 gamma band helps to estimate absorption within the spectrally variable O2 B band, which is filled in by red SIF. SIF also fills in the spectrally stable solar Fraunhofer lines (SFLs) at wavelengths both inside and just outside the O2 B band, which further helps

  18. Using an innovative mixed method methodology to investigate the appropriateness of a quantitative instrument in an African context: Antiretroviral treatment and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, Minrie; Chepuka, Lignet M; Chilemba, Winnie; Chimwaza, Angela F; Kululanga, Lucy I; Kgositau, Mabedi; Manyedi, Eva; Shaibu, Sheila; Wright, Susan C D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between quality of life (QoL) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) has mainly been studied using quantitative scales often not appropriate for use in other contexts and without taking peoples' lived experiences into consideration. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of HIV and AIDS yet there is paucity in research done on QoL. This research report is intended to give an account of the use of a mixed method convergent parallel design as a novice approach to evaluate an instrument's context specificity, appropriateness and usefulness in another context for which it was designed. Data were collected through a qualitative exploration of the experiences of QoL of people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in Africa since being on ART, as well as the quantitative measurements obtained from the HIV/AIDS-targeted quality of life (HAT-QoL) instrument. This study was conducted in three African countries. Permission and ethical approval to conduct the study were obtained. Purposive voluntary sampling was used to recruit PLHA through mediators working in community-based HIV/AIDS organisations and health clinics. Interviews were analysed through open coding and the quantitative data through descriptive statistics and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. A much wider range and richness of experiences were expressed than measured by the HAT-QoL instrument. Although an effective instrument for use in the USA, it was found not to be sensitive, appropriate and useful in an African context in its present form. The recommendations focus on adapting the instrument using the data from the in-depth interviews or to develop a context-sensitive instrument that could measure QoL of PLHA in Africa.

  19. AIC-based diffraction stacking for local earthquake locations at the Sumatran Fault (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriyana, Andri; Bauer, Klaus; Muksin, Umar; Weber, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We present a new workflow for the localization of seismic events which is based on a diffraction stacking approach. In order to address the effects from complex source radiation patterns, we suggest to compute diffraction stacking from a characteristic function (CF) instead of stacking the original waveform data. A new CF, which is called in the following mAIC (modified from Akaike Information Criterion) is proposed. We demonstrate that both P- and S-wave onsets can be detected accurately. To avoid cross-talk between P and S waves due to inaccurate velocity models, we separate the P and S waves from the mAIC function by making use of polarization attributes. Then, the final image function is represented by the largest eigenvalue as a result of the covariance analysis between P- and S-image functions. Results from synthetic experiments show that the proposed diffraction stacking provides reliable results. The workflow of the diffraction stacking method was finally applied to local earthquake data from Sumatra, Indonesia. Recordings from a temporary network of 42 stations deployed for nine months around the Tarutung pull-apart basin were analysed. The seismic event locations resulting from the diffraction stacking method align along a segment of the Sumatran Fault. A more complex distribution of seismicity is imaged within and around the Tarutung basin. Two lineaments striking N-S were found in the centre of the Tarutung basin which support independent results from structural geology.

  20. Dual stacked partial least squares for analysis of near-infrared spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Yiming [Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing (China); Xie, Qiong, E-mail: yimbi@163.com [Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing (China); Peng, Silong; Tang, Liang; Hu, Yong; Tan, Jie [Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing (China); Zhao, Yuhui [School of Economics and Business, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, 066000 Qinhuangdao City (China); Li, Changwen [Food Research Institute of Tianjin Tasly Group, 300410 Tianjin (China)

    2013-08-20

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Dual stacking steps are used for multivariate calibration of near-infrared spectra. •A selective weighting strategy is introduced that only a subset of all available sub-models is used for model fusion. •Using two public near-infrared datasets, the proposed method achieved competitive results. •The method can be widely applied in many fields, such as Mid-infrared spectra data and Raman spectra data. -- Abstract: A new ensemble learning algorithm is presented for quantitative analysis of near-infrared spectra. The algorithm contains two steps of stacked regression and Partial Least Squares (PLS), termed Dual Stacked Partial Least Squares (DSPLS) algorithm. First, several sub-models were generated from the whole calibration set. The inner-stack step was implemented on sub-intervals of the spectrum. Then the outer-stack step was used to combine these sub-models. Several combination rules of the outer-stack step were analyzed for the proposed DSPLS algorithm. In addition, a novel selective weighting rule was also involved to select a subset of all available sub-models. Experiments on two public near-infrared datasets demonstrate that the proposed DSPLS with selective weighting rule provided superior prediction performance and outperformed the conventional PLS algorithm. Compared with the single model, the new ensemble model can provide more robust prediction result and can be considered an alternative choice for quantitative analytical applications.

  1. Dual stacked partial least squares for analysis of near-infrared spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Yiming; Xie, Qiong; Peng, Silong; Tang, Liang; Hu, Yong; Tan, Jie; Zhao, Yuhui; Li, Changwen

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Dual stacking steps are used for multivariate calibration of near-infrared spectra. •A selective weighting strategy is introduced that only a subset of all available sub-models is used for model fusion. •Using two public near-infrared datasets, the proposed method achieved competitive results. •The method can be widely applied in many fields, such as Mid-infrared spectra data and Raman spectra data. -- Abstract: A new ensemble learning algorithm is presented for quantitative analysis of near-infrared spectra. The algorithm contains two steps of stacked regression and Partial Least Squares (PLS), termed Dual Stacked Partial Least Squares (DSPLS) algorithm. First, several sub-models were generated from the whole calibration set. The inner-stack step was implemented on sub-intervals of the spectrum. Then the outer-stack step was used to combine these sub-models. Several combination rules of the outer-stack step were analyzed for the proposed DSPLS algorithm. In addition, a novel selective weighting rule was also involved to select a subset of all available sub-models. Experiments on two public near-infrared datasets demonstrate that the proposed DSPLS with selective weighting rule provided superior prediction performance and outperformed the conventional PLS algorithm. Compared with the single model, the new ensemble model can provide more robust prediction result and can be considered an alternative choice for quantitative analytical applications

  2. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASUDEB DATTA

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... Preliminaries. Lower bound theorem. On going work. Definitions. An n-simplex is a convex hull of n + 1 affinely independent points. (called vertices) in some Euclidean space R. N . Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta. Indian Institute of Science. 2 / 27 ...

  3. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlampová, Andrea; Malá, Zdeňka; Pantůčková, Pavla; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2013), s. 3-18 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/10/1219 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013

  4. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart

  5. Scaling the CERN OpenStack cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T.; Bompastor, B.; Bukowiec, S.; Castro Leon, J.; Denis, M. K.; van Eldik, J.; Fermin Lobo, M.; Fernandez Alvarez, L.; Fernandez Rodriguez, D.; Marino, A.; Moreira, B.; Noel, B.; Oulevey, T.; Takase, W.; Wiebalck, A.; Zilli, S.

    2015-12-01

    CERN has been running a production OpenStack cloud since July 2013 to support physics computing and infrastructure services for the site. In the past year, CERN Cloud Infrastructure has seen a constant increase in nodes, virtual machines, users and projects. This paper will present what has been done in order to make the CERN cloud infrastructure scale out.

  6. Stacking non-BPS D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Caceres, Elena; Goldstein, Kevin; Lowe, David A. . lowe@het.brown.edu

    2001-08-01

    We present a candidate supergravity solution for a stacked configuration of stable non-BPS D-branes in Type II string theory compactified on T 4 /Z 2 . This gives a supergravity description of nonabelian tachyon condensation on the brane woldvolume. (author)

  7. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, Zdeňka; Šlampová, Andrea; Křivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2015), s. 15-35 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.482, year: 2015

  8. 40 CFR 61.53 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.53 Section 61.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Mercury ore processing facility. (1) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under...

  9. 40 CFR 61.33 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.33 Section 61.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under § 61.13, each owner or operator...

  10. OpenStack cloud computing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook full of practical and applicable recipes that will enable you to use the full capabilities of OpenStack like never before.This book is aimed at system administrators and technical architects moving from a virtualized environment to cloud environments with familiarity of cloud computing platforms. Knowledge of virtualization and managing linux environments is expected.

  11. Toward advising SME's on stacked funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwerda, Kirsten; van Teeffelen, Lex; de Graaf, Frank Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses new funding issues faced by SMEs. Over a period of nine months, the authors conducted a preliminary study into the problems surrounding stacked funding faced by SMEs and their financial advisers. The study includes a short literature review, the outcomes of three round table

  12. Photoswitchable Intramolecular H-Stacking of Perylenebisimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiaobing; Kulago, Artem; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control over the formation of H- or J-type aggregates of chromophores is of fundamental importance for developing responsive organic optoelectronic materials. In this study, the first example of photoswitching between a nonstacked and an intramolecularly H-stacked arrangement of

  13. OpenStack Object Storage (Swift) essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kapadia, Amar; Varma, Sreedhar

    2015-01-01

    If you are an IT administrator and you want to enter the world of cloud storage using OpenStack Swift, then this book is ideal for you. Basic knowledge of Linux and server technology is beneficial to get the most out of the book.

  14. Safety Evaluation of Radioactive Material Transport Package under Stacking Test Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Chan; Seo, Ki Seog; Yoo, Seong Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive waste transport package was developed to transport eight drums of low and intermediate level waste(LILW) in accordance with the IAEA and domestic related regulations. The package is classified with industrial package IP-2. IP-2 package is required to undergo a free drop test and a stacking test. After free drop and stacking tests, it should prevent the loss or dispersal of radioactive contents, and loss of shielding integrity which would result in more than 20 % increase in the radiation level at any external surface of the package. The objective of this study is to establish the safety test method and procedure for stacking test and to prove the structural integrities of the IP-2 package. Stacking test and analysis were performed with a compressive load equal to five times the weight of the package for a period of 24 hours using a full scale model. Strains and displacements were measured at the corner fitting of the package during the stacking test. The measured strains and displacements were compared with the analysis results, and there were good agreements. It is very difficult to measure the deflection at the container base, so the maximum deflection of the container base was calculated by the analysis method. The maximum displacement at the corner fitting and deflection at the container base were less than their allowable values. Dimensions of the test model, thickness of shielding material and bolt torque were measured before and after the stacking test. Throughout the stacking test, it was found that there were no loss or dispersal of radioactive contents and no loss of shielding integrity. Thus, the package was shown to comply with the requirements to maintain structural integrity under the stacking condition.

  15. A method and instruments to identify the torque, the power and the efficiency of an internal combustion engine of a wheeled vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. V.; Kozlov, K. E.; Belogusev, V. N.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method and instruments to identify the torque, the power, and the efficiency of internal combustion engines in transient conditions. This method, in contrast to the commonly used non-demounting methods based on inertia and strain gauge dynamometers, allows controlling the main performance parameters of internal combustion engines in transient conditions without inaccuracy connected with the torque loss due to its transfer to the driving wheels, on which the torque is measured with existing methods. In addition, the proposed method is easy to create, and it does not use strain measurement instruments, the application of which does not allow identifying the variable values of the measured parameters with high measurement rate; and therefore the use of them leads to the impossibility of taking into account the actual parameters when engineering the wheeled vehicles. Thus the use of this method can greatly improve the measurement accuracy and reduce costs and laboriousness during testing of internal combustion engines. The results of experiments showed the applicability of the proposed method for identification of the internal combustion engines performance parameters. In this paper, it was determined the most preferred transmission ratio when using the proposed method.

  16. Refabricated and instrumented fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, K.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel for power reactors capabilities evaluation is strongly based on the intimate knowledge of its behaviour under irradiation. This knowledge can be acquired from refabricated and instrumented fuel rods irradiated at different levels in commercial reactors. This paper presents the development and qualification of a new technique called RECTO related to a double-instrumented rod re-fabrication process developed by CEA/LECA hot laboratory facility at CADARACHE. The technique development includes manufacturing of the properly dimensioned cavity in the fuel pellet stack to house the thermocouple and the use of a newly designed pressure transducer. An analytic irradiation of such a double-instrumented fuel rod will be performed in OSIRIS test reactor starting October 2004. (Author)

  17. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  18. The computational optimization of heat exchange efficiency in stack chimneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Goch, T.A.J.

    2012-02-15

    For many industrial processes, the chimney is the final step before hot fumes, with high thermal energy content, are discharged into the atmosphere. Tapping into this energy and utilizing it for heating or cooling applications, could improve sustainability, efficiency and/or reduce operational costs. Alternatively, an unused chimney, like the monumental chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology, could serve as an 'energy channeler' once more; it can enhance free cooling by exploiting the stack effect. This study aims to identify design parameters that influence annual heat exchange in such stack chimney applications and optimize these parameters for specific scenarios to maximize the performance. Performance is defined by annual heat exchange, system efficiency and costs. The energy required for the water pump as compared to the energy exchanged, defines the system efficiency, which is expressed in an efficiency coefficient (EC). This study is an example of applying building performance simulation (BPS) tools for decision support in the early phase of the design process. In this study, BPS tools are used to provide design guidance, performance evaluation and optimization. A general method for optimization of simulation models will be studied, and applied in two case studies with different applications (heating/cooling), namely; (1) CERES case: 'Eindhoven University of Technology monumental stack chimney equipped with a heat exchanger, rejects heat to load the cold source of the aquifer system on the campus of the university and/or provides free cooling to the CERES building'; and (2) Industrial case: 'Heat exchanger in an industrial stack chimney, which recoups heat for use in e.g. absorption cooling'. The main research question, addressing the concerns of both cases, is expressed as follows: 'what is the optimal set of design parameters so heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually for the cases in which a

  19. Analysing Protocol Stacks for Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We show an approach, CaPiTo, to model service-oriented applications using process algebras such that, on the one hand, we can achieve a certain level of abstraction without being overwhelmed by the underlying implementation details and, on the other hand, we respect the concrete industrial...... standards used for implementing the service-oriented applications. By doing so, we will be able to not only reason about applications at different levels of abstractions, but also to build a bridge between the views of researchers on formal methods and developers in industry. We apply our approach...... to the financial case study taken from Chapter 0-3. Finally, we develop a static analysis to analyse the security properties as they emerge at the level of concrete industrial protocols....

  20. Geographic determination of the growing origins of Jamaican and international coffee using instrumental neutron activation analysis and other methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, J.M.R.; Hoo Fung, L.A.; Grant, Ch.N.

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether elemental analysis could distinguish the growing origins of Jamaican versus international coffee and identify intra-island growing regions. Twenty-four samples of roasted and ground coffee and soluble coffee were collected and analysed using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Sixteen elements were selected for statistical evaluation. Soluble clustered discretely from roasted and ground samples. The distinction among roasted and ground samples was not as discrete. Geographic growing regions could be determined by statistical analysis; separating the growing sub-regions in Jamaica would require additional analyses. (author)

  1. Pre-stack estimation of time-lapse seismic velocity changes : an example from the Sleipner CO2-sequestration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaderi, A.; Landro, M.; Ghaderi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is being injected into a shallow sand formation at around a 1,000 metre depth at the Sleipner Field located in the North Sea. It is expected that the CO 2 injected in the bottom of the formation, will form a plume consisting of CO 2 accumulating in thin lenses during migration up through the reservoir. Several studies have been published using stacked seismic data from 1994, 1999, 2001 and 2002. A thorough analysis of post-stack seismic data from the Sleipner CO2-Sequestration Pilot Project was conducted. Interpretation of seismic data is usually done on post-stack data. For a given subsurface reflection point, seismic data are acquired for various incidence angles, typically 40 angles. These 40 seismic signals are stacked together in order to reduce noise. The term pre-stack refers to seismic data prior to this step. For hydrocarbon-related 4-dimensional seismic studies, travel time shift estimations have been used. This paper compared pre-stack and post-stack estimation of average velocity changes based on measured 4-dimensional travel time shifts. It is more practical to compare estimated velocity changes than the actual travel time changes, since the time shifts vary with offset for pre-stack time-lapse seismic analysis. It was concluded that the pre-stack method gives smaller velocity changes when estimated between two key horizons. Therefore, pre-stack travel time analysis in addition to conventional post-stack analysis is recommended. 6 refs., 12 figs

  2. The neuron net method for processing the clear pixels and method of the analytical formulas for processing the cloudy pixels of POLDER instrument images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, I.; Mukai, S.; Vasilyev, A.

    Data of remote measurements of reflected radiance with the POLDER instrument on board of ADEOS satellite are used for retrieval of the optical thickness, single scattering albedo and phase function parameter of cloudy and clear atmosphere. The method of perceptron neural network that from input values of multiangle radiance and Solar incident angle allows to obtain surface albedo, the optical thickness, single scattering albedo and phase function parameter in case of clear sky. Two last parameters are determined as optical average for atmospheric column. The calculation of solar radiance with using the MODTRAN-3 code with taking into account multiple scattering is accomplished for neural network learning. All mentioned parameters were randomly varied on the base of statistical models of possible measured parameters variation. Results of processing one frame of remote observation that consists from 150,000 pixels are presented. The methodology elaborated allows operative determining optical characteristics as cloudy as clear atmosphere. Further interpretation of these results gives the possibility to extract the information about total contents of atmospheric aerosols and absorbing gases in the atmosphere and create models of the real cloudiness An analytical method of interpretation that based on asymptotic formulas of multiple scattering theory is applied to remote observations of reflected radiance in case of cloudy pixel. Details of the methodology and error analysis were published and discussed earlier. Here we present results of data processing of pixel size 6x6 km In many studies the optical thickness is evaluated earlier in the assumption of the conservative scattering. But in case of true absorption in clouds the large errors in parameter obtained are possible. The simultaneous retrieval of two parameters at every wavelength independently is the advantage comparing with earlier studies. The analytical methodology is based on the transfer theory asymptotic

  3. Influence factors of the inter-nanowire thermal contact resistance in the stacked nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongxu; Huang, Congliang; Zhong, Jinxin; Lin, Zizhen

    2018-05-01

    The inter-nanowire thermal contact resistance is important for tuning the thermal conductivity of a nanocomposite for thermoelectric applications. In this paper, the stacked copper nanowires are applied for studying the thermal contact resistance. The stacked copper nanowires are firstly made by the cold-pressing method, and then the nanowire stacks are treated by sintering treatment. With the effect of the volumetric fraction of nanowires in the stack and the influence of the sintering-temperature on the thermal contact resistance discussed, results show that: The thermal conductivity of the 150-nm copper nanowires can be enlarged almost 2 times with the volumetric fraction increased from 32 to 56% because of the enlarged contact-area and contact number of a copper nanowire. When the sintering temperature increases from 293 to 673 K, the thermal conductivity of the stacked 300-nm nanowires could be enlarged almost 2.5 times by the sintering treatment, because of the improved lattice property of the contact zone. In conclusion, application of a high volumetric fraction or/and a sintering-treatment are effectivity to tune the inter-nanowire thermal contact resistance, and thus to tailor the thermal conductivity of a nanowire network or stack.

  4. Reliability prediction of large fuel cell stack based on structure stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. F.; Liu, B.; Wu, C. W.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the reliability of Proton Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack by designing the clamping force and the thickness difference between the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and the gasket. The stack reliability is directly determined by the component reliability, which is affected by the material property and contact stress. The component contact stress is a random variable because it is usually affected by many uncertain factors in the production and clamping process. We have investigated the influences of parameter variation coefficient on the probability distribution of contact stress using the equivalent stiffness model and the first-order second moment method. The optimal contact stress to make the component stay in the highest level reliability is obtained by the stress-strength interference model. To obtain the optimal contact stress between the contact components, the optimal thickness of the component and the stack clamping force are optimally designed. Finally, a detailed description is given how to design the MEA and gasket dimensions to obtain the highest stack reliability. This work can provide a valuable guidance in the design of stack structure for a high reliability of fuel cell stack.

  5. Moving object detection in top-view aerial videos improved by image stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, Michael; Krüger, Wolfgang; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2017-08-01

    Image stacking is a well-known method that is used to improve the quality of images in video data. A set of consecutive images is aligned by applying image registration and warping. In the resulting image stack, each pixel has redundant information about its intensity value. This redundant information can be used to suppress image noise, resharpen blurry images, or even enhance the spatial image resolution as done in super-resolution. Small moving objects in the videos usually get blurred or distorted by image stacking and thus need to be handled explicitly. We use image stacking in an innovative way: image registration is applied to small moving objects only, and image warping blurs the stationary background that surrounds the moving objects. Our video data are coming from a small fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that acquires top-view gray-value images of urban scenes. Moving objects are mainly cars but also other vehicles such as motorcycles. The resulting images, after applying our proposed image stacking approach, are used to improve baseline algorithms for vehicle detection and segmentation. We improve precision and recall by up to 0.011, which corresponds to a reduction of the number of false positive and false negative detections by more than 3 per second. Furthermore, we show how our proposed image stacking approach can be implemented efficiently.

  6. Stacking fault density and bond orientational order of fcc ruthenium nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Okkyun; Sakata, Osami; Kim, Jae Myung; Hiroi, Satoshi; Song, Chulho; Kumara, Loku Singgappulige Rosantha; Ohara, Koji; Dekura, Shun; Kusada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    We investigated crystal structure deviations of catalytic nanoparticles (NPs) using synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The samples were fcc ruthenium (Ru) NPs with diameters of 2.4, 3.5, 3.9, and 5.4 nm. We analyzed average crystal structures by applying the line profile method to a stacking fault model and local crystal structures using bond orientational order (BOO) parameters. The reflection peaks shifted depending on rules that apply to each stacking fault. We evaluated the quantitative stacking faults densities for fcc Ru NPs, and the stacking fault per number of layers was 2-4, which is quite large. Our analysis shows that the fcc Ru 2.4 nm-diameter NPs have a considerably high stacking fault density. The B factor tends to increase with the increasing stacking fault density. A structural parameter that we define from the BOO parameters exhibits a significant difference from the ideal value of the fcc structure. This indicates that the fcc Ru NPs are highly disordered.

  7. Testing the sampling efficiency of a nuclear power station stack monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L.H. [Instrumentinvest, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The test method comprises the injection of known amounts of monodisperse particles in the stack air stream, at a suitable point upstream of the sampling installation. To find a suitable injection polls, the gas flow was mapped by means of a tracer gas, released in various points in the stack base. The resulting concentration distributions at the stack sampler level were observed by means of an array of gas detectors. An injection point that produced symmetrical distribution over the stack area, and low concentrations at the stack walls was selected for the particle tests. Monodisperse particles of 6, 10, and 19 {mu}m aerodynamic diameter, tagged with dysprosium, were dispersed in the selected injection point. Particle concentration at the sampler level was measured. The losses to the stack walls were found to be less than 10 %. The particle concentrations at the four sampler inlets were calculated from the observed gas distribution. The amount calculated to be aspirated into the sampler piping was compared with the quantity collected by the sampling train ordinary filter, to obtain the sampling line transmission efficiency. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  8. Nanocomposite Materials of Alternately Stacked C60 Monolayer and Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ishikawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized the novel nanocomposite consisting alternately of a stacked single graphene sheet and a C60 monolayer by using the graphite intercalation technique in which alkylamine molecules help intercalate large C60 molecules into the graphite. Moreover, it is found that the intercalated C60 molecules can rotate in between single graphene sheets by using C13 NMR measurements. This preparation method provides a general way for intercalating huge fullerene molecules into graphite, which will lead to promising materials with novel mechanical, physical, and electrical properties.

  9. Nanocomposite Materials of Alternately Stacked C60 Monolayer and Graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Miura, K.; Kamiya, S.; Yoshimoto, S.; Suzuki, M.; Kuwahara, D.; Sasaki, N.

    2010-01-01

    We synthesized the novel nanocomposite consisting alternately of a stacked single graphene sheet and a C 60 monolayer by using the graphite intercalation technique in which alkylamine molecules help intercalate large C 60 molecules into the graphite. Moreover, it is found that the intercalated C 60 molecules can rotate in between single graphene sheets by using C 13 NMR measurements. This preparation method provides a general way for intercalating huge fullerene molecules into graphite, which will lead to promising materials with novel mechanical, physical, and electrical properties.

  10. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks

  11. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-11-06

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks.

  12. Nuclear medicine and image research: instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation. Comprehensive 3-year progress report, January 15, 1983-January 14, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.D.

    1985-09-01

    This program of research addresses problems involving the basic science and technology of radioactive tracer methods as they relate to nuclear medicine and imaging. The broad goal is to develop new instruments and methods for image formation, processing, quantitation, and display, so as to maximize the diagnostic information per unit of absorbed radiation dose to the patient. Project I addresses problems with the quantitative imaging a single-photon emitters; Project II addresses similar problems associated with the quantitative imaging of positron emitters; Project III addresses methodological problems associated with the quantitative evaluation of the efficacy of diagnostic imaging procedures

  13. Analysis for trace mercury concentration. I. Critical evaluation of current procedures. II. A proposed method for determination by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, R.

    1975-01-01

    Current methods of sample pretreatments, digestion, lyophilization and extraction, have been found to lead to considerable loss of mercury, at an initial mercury concentration of 1 μg/g, and less. Storage of solutions of mercury at concentrations of less than 1 μg/ml, in glass, Teflon and polyethylene containers, leads to losses by adsorption. Electrochemical reduction of mercury to the metal, and subsequent volatilization, is postulated as the mechanism of loss from the samples studied during lyophilization. A method of instrumental neutron activation analysis, which obviates the above pretreatments, has been developed for mercury concentrations as low as 1 ng/ml

  14. Ab-initio calculation of electronic structure and optical properties of AB-stacked bilayer α-graphyne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Somayeh

    2016-09-01

    Monolayer α-graphyne is a new two-dimensional carbon allotrope with many special features. In this work the electronic properties of AA- and AB-stacked bilayers of this material and then the optical properties are studied, using first principle plane wave method. The electronic spectrum has two Dirac cones for AA stacked bilayer α-graphyne. For AB-stacked bilayer, the interlayer interaction changes the linear bands into parabolic bands. The optical spectra of the most stable AB-stacked bilayer closely resemble to that of the monolayer, except for small shifts of peak positions and increasing of their intensity. For AB-stacked bilayer, a pronounced peak has been found at low energies under the perpendicular polarization. This peak can be clearly ascribed to the transitions at the Dirac point as a result of the small degeneracy lift in the band structure.

  15. Instrumentation for environmental monitoring: biomedical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    An update is presented to Volume four of the six-volume series devoted to a survey of instruments useful for measurements in biomedicine related to environmental research and monitoring. Results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Methods of detection and analysis of gaseous organic pollutants and metals, including Ni and As are presented. Instrument techniques and notes are included on atomic spectrometry and uv and visible absorption instrumentation

  16. [Detection of recombinant-DNA in foods from stacked genetically modified plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, E Iu; Chernyshova, O N

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction method was applied to the detection and quantification of MON863 and MON810 in stacked genetically modified maize MON 810xMON 863. The limit of detection was approximately 0,1%. The accuracy of the quantification, measured as bias from the accepted value and the relative repeatability standard deviation, which measures the intra-laboratory variability, were within 25% at each GM-level. A method verification has demonstrated that the MON 863 and the MON810 methods can be equally applied in quantification of the respective events in stacked MON810xMON 863.

  17. TYCHO Brahe's Empiric Methods, His Instruments, His Sudden Escape from Denmark and a New Theory About His Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thykier, C.

    1992-07-01

    Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was born a noble being, a son of Otto Brahe, and a member of the Royal Danish Council. Very early he developed a great interest in science and especially astronomy. In 1575 Tycho visited the learned Prince Wilhelm II in Kassel. Here he was inspired by the famous instrument maker Burgi to build new precise astronomical instruments, and on the recommendation of Wilhelm King Frederic II of Denmark was given the island Hven (which at that time belonged to Denmark) as an entailed estate. At 26 years old, Tycho became famous for his work DE NOVA STELLA on the supernova that brightened up in 1572, and since this phenomenon kept its position fixed among the stars, it immediately invalidated the Aristotelian dogma of the invariability of the fixed-star world. In 1577 Tycho observed the great comet and followed its celestial motion by means of a quadrant and a sextant. He then came to the conclusion that the comet orbit moved far out among the planets, in contradiction to the Aristotelian dogma of the crystal spheres for the planets. However, Tycho's great contribution to science was his construction of the observatory buildings Uraniborg and Stjerneborg ("Star Castle") with their equipment of ancient sighting instruments and his use of these instruments without telescopes for observations of the planets over a period of almost 20 years. Tycho's work is collected in 15 volumes, OPERA OMNIA by J. L. E. Dreyer. Tycho also mapped Hven correctly and he triangulated both sides of Oresund relative to Hven. When Tycho moved to Prague in 1599 he lived there for a couple of years and met Kepler who became his assistant and collaborator. Kepler was the one who analyzed Tycho's material and derived the Keplerian laws for the motions of the planets. On this basis Newton derived the law of gravitation. Tycho Brahe has been considered the father of modern empirical science. In 1596 he was accused of negligence of his administrative duties and several other things

  18. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumentation is developed for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to meet several different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives. This paper addresses instrumentation development for data needs that are related either directly or indirectly to a repository site, but does not touch on instrumentation for work with waste forms or other materials. Consequently, this implies a relatively large scale for the measurements, and an in situ setting for instrument performance. In this context, instruments are needed for site characterization to define phenomena, develop models, and obtain parameter values, and for later design and performance confirmation testing in the constructed repository. The former set of applications is more immediate, and is driven by the needs of program design and performance assessment activities. A host of general technical and nontechnical issues have arisen to challenge instrumentation development. Instruments can be classed into geomechanical, geohydrologic, or other specialty categories, but these issues cut across artificial classifications. These issues are outlined. Despite this imposing list of issues, several case histories are cited to evaluate progress in the area

  19. APPLICATION OF THE SPECTROMETRIC METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE DOSE RATE FOR CREATING CALIBRATION HIGHLY SENSITIVE INSTRUMENTS BASED ON SCINTILLATION DETECTION UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Lukashevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Devices based on scintillation detector are highly sensitive to photon radiation and are widely used to measure the environment dose rate. Modernization of the measuring path to minimize the error in measuring the response of the detector to gamma radiation has already reached its technological ceiling and does not give the proper effect. More promising for this purpose are new methods of processing the obtained spectrometric information. The purpose of this work is the development of highly sensitive instruments based on scintillation detection units using a spectrometric method for calculating dose rate.In this paper we consider the spectrometric method of dosimetry of gamma radiation based on the transformation of the measured instrumental spectrum. Using predetermined or measured functions of the detector response to the action of gamma radiation of a given energy and flux density, a certain function of the energy G(E is determined. Using this function as the core of the integral transformation from the field to dose characteristic, it is possible to obtain the dose value directly from the current instrumentation spectrum. Applying the function G(E to the energy distribution of the fluence of photon radiation in the environment, the total dose rate can be determined without information on the distribution of radioisotopes in the environment.To determine G(E by Monte-Carlo method instrumental response function of the scintillator detector to monoenergetic photon radiation sources as well as other characteristics are calculated. Then the whole full-scale energy range is divided into energy ranges for which the function G(E is calculated using a linear interpolation.Spectrometric method for dose calculation using the function G(E, which allows the use of scintillation detection units for a wide range of dosimetry applications is considered in the article. As well as describes the method of calculating this function by using Monte-Carlo methods

  20. Formation of stacking faults and the screw dislocation-driven growth: a case study of aluminum nitride nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fei; Estruga, Marc; Forticaux, Audrey; Morin, Stephen A; Wu, Qiang; Hu, Zheng; Jin, Song

    2013-12-23

    Stacking faults are an important class of crystal defects commonly observed in nanostructures of close packed crystal structures. They can bridge the transition between hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) and cubic zinc blende (ZB) phases, with the most known example represented by the "nanowire (NW) twinning superlattice". Understanding the formation mechanisms of stacking faults is crucial to better control them and thus enhance the capability of tailoring physical properties of nanomaterials through defect engineering. Here we provide a different perspective to the formation of stacking faults associated with the screw dislocation-driven growth mechanism of nanomaterials. With the use of NWs of WZ aluminum nitride (AlN) grown by a high-temperature nitridation method as the model system, dislocation-driven growth was first confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile numerous stacking faults and associated partial dislocations were also observed and identified to be the Type I stacking faults and the Frank partial dislocations, respectively, using high-resolution TEM. In contrast, AlN NWs obtained by rapid quenching after growth displayed no stacking faults or partial dislocations; instead many of them had voids that were associated with the dislocation-driven growth. On the basis of these observations, we suggest a formation mechanism of stacking faults that originate from dislocation voids during the cooling process in the syntheses. Similar stacking fault features were also observed in other NWs with WZ structure, such as cadmium sulfide (CdS) and zinc oxide (ZnO).

  1. Radiation-Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack - RTIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tak-kwong; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides reconfigurable circuitry and 2-Gb of error-corrected or 1-Gb of triple-redundant digital memory in a small package. RTIMS uses circuit stacking of heterogeneous components and radiation shielding technologies. A reprogrammable field-programmable gate array (FPGA), six synchronous dynamic random access memories, linear regulator, and the radiation mitigation circuits are stacked into a module of 42.7 42.7 13 mm. Triple module redundancy, current limiting, configuration scrubbing, and single- event function interrupt detection are employed to mitigate radiation effects. The novel self-scrubbing and single event functional interrupt (SEFI) detection allows a relatively soft FPGA to become radiation tolerant without external scrubbing and monitoring hardware

  2. Development of on-site PAFC stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, K.; Matsumoto, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Amagasaki (Japan); Horiuchi, H.; Ohtani, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell) has been researched for commercial use and demonstration plants have been installed in various sites. However, PAFC don`t have a enough stability yet, so more research and development must be required in the future. Especially, cell stack needs a proper state of three phases (liquid, gas and solid) interface. It is very difficult technology to keep this condition for a long time. In the small size cell with the electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2}, gas flow and temperature distributions show uniformity. But in the large size cell with the electrode area of 4000 cm{sup 2}, the temperature distributions show non-uniformity. These distributions would cause to be shorten the cell life. Because these distributions make hot-spot and gas poverty in limited parts. So we inserted thermocouples in short-stack for measuring three-dimensional temperature distributions and observed effects of current density and gas utilization on temperature.

  3. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen [Pinole, CA

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  4. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F; Shyu, F L

    2010-01-01

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  5. Calibration transfer of a Raman spectroscopic quantification method for the assessment of liquid detergent compositions between two at-line instruments installed at two liquid detergent production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouckaert, D; Uyttersprot, J-S; Broeckx, W; De Beer, T

    2017-09-01

    Calibration transfer of partial least squares (PLS) quantification models is established between two Raman spectrometers located at two liquid detergent production plants. As full recalibration of existing calibration models is time-consuming, labour-intensive and costly, it is investigated whether the use of mathematical correction methods requiring only a handful of standardization samples can overcome the dissimilarities in spectral response observed between both measurement systems. Univariate and multivariate standardization approaches are investigated, ranging from simple slope/bias correction (SBC), local centring (LC) and single wavelength standardization (SWS) to more complex direct standardization (DS) and piecewise direct standardization (PDS). The results of these five calibration transfer methods are compared reciprocally, as well as with regard to a full recalibration. Four PLS quantification models, each predicting the concentration of one of the four main ingredients in the studied liquid detergent composition, are aimed at transferring. Accuracy profiles are established from the original and transferred quantification models for validation purposes. A reliable representation of the calibration models performance before and after transfer is thus established, based on β-expectation tolerance intervals. For each transferred model, it is investigated whether every future measurement that will be performed in routine will be close enough to the unknown true value of the sample. From this validation, it is concluded that instrument standardization is successful for three out of four investigated calibration models using multivariate (DS and PDS) transfer approaches. The fourth transferred PLS model could not be validated over the investigated concentration range, due to a lack of precision of the slave instrument. Comparing these transfer results to a full recalibration on the slave instrument allows comparison of the predictive power of both Raman

  6. 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the operation of a 30 cell high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. This prototype stack has been developed at the Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, as a proof-of-concept for a low pressure cathode air cooled HTPEM stack. The membranes used are Celtec...

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples by k{sub 0} standardization method using short lived nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oura, Yasuji; Kanzaki, Chinatsu; Ebihara, Mitsuru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, V, and Mn contents in geochemical and cosmochemical samples were analyzed by both k{sub 0} standardization INAA and conventional INAA by a comparison method. The contents of Mg, Al, and Mn by k{sub 0} method were consistent with recommended values and ones by comparison methods. For Ti and V their values are slightly higher than recommended ones. The values by k{sub 0} method were reliable within {+-}10%. (author)

  8. Role of stacking disorder in ice nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Laura; Hudait, Arpa; Peters, Baron; Grünwald, Michael; Gotchy Mullen, Ryan; Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria

    2017-11-08

    The freezing of water affects the processes that determine Earth's climate. Therefore, accurate weather and climate forecasts hinge on good predictions of ice nucleation rates. Such rate predictions are based on extrapolations using classical nucleation theory, which assumes that the structure of nanometre-sized ice crystallites corresponds to that of hexagonal ice, the thermodynamically stable form of bulk ice. However, simulations with various water models find that ice nucleated and grown under atmospheric temperatures is at all sizes stacking-disordered, consisting of random sequences of cubic and hexagonal ice layers. This implies that stacking-disordered ice crystallites either are more stable than hexagonal ice crystallites or form because of non-equilibrium dynamical effects. Both scenarios challenge central tenets of classical nucleation theory. Here we use rare-event sampling and free energy calculations with the mW water model to show that the entropy of mixing cubic and hexagonal layers makes stacking-disordered ice the stable phase for crystallites up to a size of at least 100,000 molecules. We find that stacking-disordered critical crystallites at 230 kelvin are about 14 kilojoules per mole of crystallite more stable than hexagonal crystallites, making their ice nucleation rates more than three orders of magnitude higher than predicted by classical nucleation theory. This effect on nucleation rates is temperature dependent, being the most pronounced at the warmest conditions, and should affect the modelling of cloud formation and ice particle numbers, which are very sensitive to the temperature dependence of ice nucleation rates. We conclude that classical nucleation theory needs to be corrected to include the dependence of the crystallization driving force on the size of the ice crystallite when interpreting and extrapolating ice nucleation rates from experimental laboratory conditions to the temperatures that occur in clouds.

  9. A Late Pleistocene sea level stack

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt Rachel M; Lisiecki Lorraine E

    2016-01-01

    Late Pleistocene sea level has been reconstructed from ocean sediment core data using a wide variety of proxies and models. However, the accuracy of individual reconstructions is limited by measurement error, local variations in salinity and temperature, and assumptions particular to each technique. Here we present a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of individual reconstructions. Specifically, we perform principal componen...

  10. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from 'H' and 'F' area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system

  11. The Kodály and Rajkó Methods: Voices, Instruments, Ethnicity, and the Globalization of Hungarian Music Education in the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Hooker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music is one of the fields in which Hungary has distinguished itself around the world, and music education is an arena in which Hungarian methods have had a profound impact. The basic principles of Hungarian music-pedagogical methods, developed by Zoltán Kodály (1882–1967 and his disciples and thus known as the Kodály method, are systematic instruction in sight-singing using “movable-do” solfège and rhythmic syllables, with the ideal of developing music literacy in all children through high-quality music, mainly classical and folk repertoire for choirs. Another type of well-known Hungarian music, so-called “Gypsy music,” is specifically denied legitimacy both in Kodály’s writings and those of some of his students, for two reasons: much of it is primarily instrumental instead of vocal, and it is considered “bad.” Yet Romani (Gypsy musicians from Hungary have also become famous internationally, some from quite a young age. The Rajkó Ensemble, established in 1952 as the Gypsy Orchestra of the Young Communists’ League, brought Hungarian and Hungarian-Gypsy music to over a hundred countries over the years. Interviews with Rajkó members, some conducted by the author and some previously published, reveal those musicians struggling to claim the legitimacy not only of their music but of their music pedagogy, implicitly comparing the Rajkó method to the Kodály method. After a brief discussion of the Kodály method and its history, this essay gives some examples of how that method has dealt with talented Romani youth in Hungary; compares the Kodály method to methods of teaching instrumental music in Roma communities and in the Rajkó Ensemble; and considers how American ideals of multicultural education challenge some of Kodály’s tenets.

  12. Extended Life PZT Stack Test Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Aldrich, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Jones, C.

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric stacks are being sought to be used as actuators for precision positioning and deployment of mechanisms in future planetary missions. Beside the requirement for very high operation reliability, these actuators are required for operation at space environments that are considered harsh compared to normal terrestrial conditions.These environmental conditions include low and high temperatures and vacuum or high pressure. Additionally, the stacks are subjected to high stress and in some applications need to operate with a very long lifetime durability.Many of these requirements are beyond the current industry design margins for nominal terrestrial applications. In order to investigate some of the properties that will indicate the durability of such actuators and their limitations we have developed a new type of test fixture that can be easily integrated in various test chambers for simulating environmental conditions, can provide access for multiple measurements while being exposed to adjustable stress levels. We designed and built two test fixtures and these fixtures were made to be adjustable for testing stacks with different dimensions and can be easily used in small or large numbers. The properties that were measured using these fixtures include impedance, capacitance, dielectric loss factor, leakage current, displacement, breakdown voltage, and lifetime performance. The fixtures characteristics and the test capabilities are presented in this paper.

  13. Relationship between stacking process and resolution; Jugo shori to bunkaino ni kansuru kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J; Rokugawa, S; Kato, Y [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Yokota, T; Miyazaki, T [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    This paper evaluates influences of stacking of incident angles against the reflecting surface on the resolution. Basic equations for evaluating the influences were deduced. A simple evaluation method has been provided using these equations. The present evaluation method is considered to be useful for acquisition design, processing, and interpretation of data as an indicator. According to the equations introduced in this study, there are some demerits for stacking traces whose incident angles were large. A total reflection region often appears due to the decreased resolution, and the vertical resolution decreases prior to stacking. Occasionally, it is not effective to remove traces having large incident angles from the viewpoint of resolution. In practice, the selection of most suitable trace through trial and error is not easy due to difference in individual regions. An evaluation method must be discussed, by which the optimal trace can be selected automatically during the data processing. 6 refs., 15 figs.

  14. Prototype particulate stack sampler with single-cut nozzle and microcomputer calculating/display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eler, J.C.; Littlefield, L.G.; Tillery, M.I.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype particulate stack sampler (PPSS) has been developed to improve on the existing EPA Method 5 sampling apparatus. Its primary features are (1) higher sampling rate (56 1/min); (2) display (on demand) of all required variables and calculated values by a microcomputer-based calculating and display system; (3) continuous stack gas moisture determination; (4) a virtual impactor nozzle with 3 μm mass median diameter cutpoint which collects fine and coarse particle fractions on separate glass fiber filters; (5) a variable-area inlet to maintain isokinetic sampling conditions; and (6) conversion to stainless steel components from the glass specified by EPA Method 5. The basic sampling techniques of EPA Method 5 have been retained; however, versatility in the form of optional in-stack filters and general modernization of the stack sampler have been provided in the prototype design. Laboratory testing with monodisperse dye aerosols has shown the present variable inlet, virtual impactor nozzle to have a collection efficiency which is less than 77% and significant wall losses. This is primarily due to lack of symmetry in this rectangular jet impactor and short transition lengths dictated by physical design constraints (required passage of the nozzle through a 7.6 cm (3 in) diameter stack port). Electronic components have shown acceptable service in laboratory testing although no field testing of the prototype under a broad range of temperature, humidity, and SO 2 concentration has been undertaken

  15. Guanine base stacking in G-quadruplex nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2013-01-01

    G-quadruplexes constitute a class of nucleic acid structures defined by stacked guanine tetrads (or G-tetrads) with guanine bases from neighboring tetrads stacking with one another within the G-tetrad core. Individual G-quadruplexes can also stack with one another at their G-tetrad interface leading to higher-order structures as observed in telomeric repeat-containing DNA and RNA. In this study, we investigate how guanine base stacking influences the stability of G-quadruplexes and their stacked higher-order structures. A structural survey of the Protein Data Bank is conducted to characterize experimentally observed guanine base stacking geometries within the core of G-quadruplexes and at the interface between stacked G-quadruplex structures. We couple this survey with a systematic computational examination of stacked G-tetrad energy landscapes using quantum mechanical computations. Energy calculations of stacked G-tetrads reveal large energy differences of up to 12 kcal/mol between experimentally observed geometries at the interface of stacked G-quadruplexes. Energy landscapes are also computed using an AMBER molecular mechanics description of stacking energy and are shown to agree quite well with quantum mechanical calculated landscapes. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a structural explanation for the experimentally observed preference of parallel G-quadruplexes to stack in a 5′–5′ manner based on different accessible tetrad stacking modes at the stacking interfaces of 5′–5′ and 3′–3′ stacked G-quadruplexes. PMID:23268444

  16. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-15

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  17. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  18. LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  19. Dose assessment from potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. The Compliance Order required RL to (1) evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which points are subject to the continuous emission sampling requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61 (40 CFR 61), Subpart H, and (2) continuously sample radionuclide emissions in accordance with requirements in 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required RL to provide a written Compliance Plan to meet the requirements of the Compliance Order. A Compliance Plan was submitted to EPA, Region 10, on April 30, 1993. The Compliance Plan specified that a dose assessment would be performed for 84 Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health on the Hanford Site. Any stack identified in the assessment as having potential emissions to cause an effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a maximum exposed individual (MEI) greater than 0.1 mrem y -1 must have a compliant sampling system. In addition, a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) was signed on. February 7, 1994. The FFCA required that all unregistered stacks on the Hanford Site be assessed. This requirement increased the number of stacks to be assessed to 123 stacks. Six methods for performing the assessments are described. An initial assessment using only the HEPA filtration factor for back calculations identified 32 stacks that would have emissions which would cause an EDE to the MEI greater than 0.1 mrem y -1 . When the other methods were applied the number was reduced to 20 stacks. The paper discusses reasons for these overestimates

  20. A sensor-less methanol concentration control system based on feedback from the stack temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Myung-Gi; Mehmood, Asad; Ha, Heung Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new sensor-less methanol control algorithm based on feedback from the stack temperature is developed. • Feasibility of the algorithm is tested using a DMFC system with a recirculating fuel loop. • The algorithm precisely controls the methanol concentration without the use of methanol sensors. • The sensor-less controller shortens the time that the DMFC system requires to go from start-up to steady-state. • This controller is effective in handling unexpected changes in the methanol concentration and stack temperature. - Abstract: A sensor-less methanol concentration control system based on feedback from the stack temperature (SLCCF) has been developed. The SLCCF algorithm is embedded into an in-house LabVIEW program that has been developed to control the methanol concentration in the feed of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). This control method utilizes the close correlation between the stack temperature and the methanol concentration in the feed. Basically, the amounts of methanol to be supplied to the re-circulating feed stream are determined by estimating the methanol consumption rates under given operating conditions, which are then adjusted by a proportional–integral controller and supplied into the feed stream to maintain the stack temperature at a set value. The algorithm is designed to control the methanol concentration and the stack temperature for both start-up and normal operation processes. Feasibility tests with a 200 W-class DMFC system under various operating conditions confirm that the algorithm successfully maintains the methanol concentration in the feed as well as the stack temperature at set values, and the start-up time required for the DMFC system to reach steady-state operating conditions is reduced significantly compared with conventional sensor-less methods