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Sample records for stack emission testing

  1. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  2. Power station stack gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunwick, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    There are increasing awareness and pressure to reduce emissions of acid rain and photochemical smog. There is a need to produce new control system and equipment to capture those emissions. The most visible form of pollutions are the chimney smoke, dust and particles of fly ash from mineral matter in the fuel. Acid gases are hard on structures and objects containing limestone. Coal fired power generation is likely to be able to sustain its competitive advantage as a clean source of electricity in comparison with nuclear power and natural gas

  3. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart

  4. Extended Life PZT Stack Test Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Aldrich, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Jones, C.

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric stacks are being sought to be used as actuators for precision positioning and deployment of mechanisms in future planetary missions. Beside the requirement for very high operation reliability, these actuators are required for operation at space environments that are considered harsh compared to normal terrestrial conditions.These environmental conditions include low and high temperatures and vacuum or high pressure. Additionally, the stacks are subjected to high stress and in some applications need to operate with a very long lifetime durability.Many of these requirements are beyond the current industry design margins for nominal terrestrial applications. In order to investigate some of the properties that will indicate the durability of such actuators and their limitations we have developed a new type of test fixture that can be easily integrated in various test chambers for simulating environmental conditions, can provide access for multiple measurements while being exposed to adjustable stress levels. We designed and built two test fixtures and these fixtures were made to be adjustable for testing stacks with different dimensions and can be easily used in small or large numbers. The properties that were measured using these fixtures include impedance, capacitance, dielectric loss factor, leakage current, displacement, breakdown voltage, and lifetime performance. The fixtures characteristics and the test capabilities are presented in this paper.

  5. Start-Stop Test Procedures on the PEMFC Stack Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Nygaard, Frederik; Veltzé, Sune

    The test is addressed to investigate the influence on stack durability of a long stop followed by a restart of a stack. Long stop should be defined as a stop in which the anodic compartment is fully filled by air due to stack leakages. In systems, leakage level of the stack is low and time to fil...

  6. 40 CFR 63.7296 - What emission limitations must I meet for battery stacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for battery stacks? 63.7296 Section 63.7296 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., Quenching, and Battery Stacks Emission Limitations and Work Practice Standards § 63.7296 What emission limitations must I meet for battery stacks? You must not discharge to the atmosphere any emissions from any...

  7. Dose assessment for potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford Site: NESHAP compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the assessment results for the registered stacks on the Hanford Site for potential emissions, i.e. emissions with no control devices in place. Further, the document will identify those stacks requiring continuous monitoring, i.e. the effective dose equivalent from potential emissions >0.1 mrem/yr. The stack assessment of potential emissions was performed on 84 registered stacks on the Hanford Site. These emission sources represent individual point sources presently registered under Washington Administrative code 246-247 with the Washington Department of Health. The methods used in assessing the potential emissions from the stacks are described

  8. Parametric Sensitivity Tests- European PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    performed based on test procedures proposed by a European project, Stack-Test. The sensitivity of a Nafion-based low temperature PEMFC stack’s performance to parametric changes was the main objective of the tests. Four crucial parameters for fuel cell operation were chosen; relative humidity, temperature......As fuel cells are increasingly commercialized for various applications, harmonized and industry-relevant test procedures are necessary to benchmark tests and to ensure comparability of stack performance results from different parties. This paper reports the results of parametric sensitivity tests......, pressure, and stoichiometry at varying current density. Furthermore, procedures for polarization curve recording were also tested both in ascending and descending current directions....

  9. Testing system for a fuel cells stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Stefanescu, Ioan; Raceanu, Mircea; Enache, Adrian; Lazar, Roxana Elena

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen and electricity together represent one of the most promising ways to realize sustainable energy, whilst fuel cells provide the most efficient conversion devices for converting hydrogen and possibly other fuels into electricity. Thus, the development of fuel cell technology is currently being actively pursued worldwide. Due to its simple operation and other fair characteristics, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is especially suitable as a replacement for the internal combustion engine. The PEMFC is also being developed for decentralized electricity and heat generation in buildings and mobile applications. Starting with 2001 the Institute of Research - Development for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT - Rm. Valcea developed research activities supported by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research within the National Research Program in order to bridge the gap to European competencies in the area of hydrogen and fuel cells. The paper deals with the testing system designed and developed in ICIT Rm. Valcea as a flexible and versatile tool allowing a large scale of parameter settings and measurements on a single cell or on a fuel cells stack onto a wind range of output power values. (authors)

  10. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – March 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in March 2017, and the report became available in June 2017

  11. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in December 2016, and the report became available in January 2017

  12. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – July 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in July 2016, and the report became available in August 2016.

  13. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – June 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in March 2017, and the report became available in June 2017

  14. Boiler briquette coal versus raw coal: Part I--Stack gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, S; Bai, Z; Liu, W; Zhu, T; Wang, T; Qing, S; Zhang, J

    2001-04-01

    Stack gas emissions were characterized for a steam-generating boiler commonly used in China. The boiler was tested when fired with a newly formulated boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) and when fired with conventional raw coal (R-coal). The stack gas emissions were analyzed to determine emission rates and emission factors and to develop chemical source profiles. A dilution source sampling system was used to collect PM on both Teflon membrane filters and quartz fiber filters. The Teflon filters were analyzed gravimetrically for PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for trace elements. The quartz fiber filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) using a thermal/optical reflectance technique. Sulfur dioxide was measured using the standard wet chemistry method. Carbon monoxide was measured using an Orsat combustion analyzer. The emission rates of the R-coal combustion (in kg/hr), determined using the measured stack gas concentrations and the stack gas emission rates, were 0.74 for PM10, 0.38 for PM2.5, 20.7 for SO2, and 6.8 for CO, while those of the BB-coal combustion were 0.95 for PM10, 0.30 for PM2.5, 7.5 for SO2, and 5.3 for CO. The fuel-mass-based emission factors (in g/kg) of the R-coal, determined using the emission rates and the fuel burn rates, were 1.68 for PM10, 0.87 for PM2.5, 46.7 for SO2, and 15 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 2.51 for PM10, 0.79 for PM2.5, 19.9 for SO2, and 14 for CO. The task-based emission factors (in g/ton steam generated) of the R-coal, determined using the fuel-mass-based emission factors and the coal/steam conversion factors, were 0.23 for PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5, 6.4 for SO2, and 2.0 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 0.30 for PM10, 0.094 for PM2.5, 2.4 for SO2, and 1.7 for CO. PM10 and PM2.5 elemental compositions are also presented for both types of coal tested in the study.

  15. Boiler Briquette Coal versus Raw Coal: Part I-Stack Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Su; Bai, Zhipeng; Liu, Weili; Zhu, Tan; Wang, Tongjian; Qing, Sheng; Zhang, Junfeng

    2001-04-01

    Stack gas emissions were characterized for a steam-generating boiler commonly used in China. The boiler was tested when fired with a newly formulated boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) and when fired with conventional raw coal (R-coal). The stack gas emissions were analyzed to determine emission rates and emission factors and to develop chemical source profiles. A dilution source sampling system was used to collect PM on both Teflon membrane filters and quartz fiber filters. The Teflon filters were analyzed gravimetrically for PM 10 and PM 2.5 mass concentrations and by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for trace elements. The quartz fiber filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) using a thermal/optical reflectance technique. Sulfur dioxide was measured using the standard wet chemistry method. Carbon monoxide was measured using an Orsat combustion analyzer. The emission rates of the R-coal combustion (in kg/hr), determined using the measured stack gas concentrations and the stack gas emission rates, were 0.74 for PM 10 , 0.38 for PM 25 , 20.7 for SO 2 , and 6.8 for CO, while those of the BB-coal combustion were 0.95 for PM 10 , 0.30 for PM 2 5 , 7.5 for SO 2 , and 5.3 for CO. The fuel-mass-based emission factors (in g/kg) of the R-coal, determined using the emission rates and the fuel burn rates, were 1.68 for PM 10 , 0.87 for PM 25 , 46.7 for SO 2 , and 15 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 2.51 for PM 10 , 0.79 for PM 2.5 , 19.9 for SO 2 , and 14 for CO. The task-based emission factors (in g/ton steam generated) of the R-coal, determined using the fuel-mass-based emission factors and the coal/ steam conversion factors, were 0.23 for PM 10 , 0.12 for PM 2.5 , 6.4 for SO 2 , and 2.0 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 0.30 for PM 10 , 0.094 for PM 2.5 , 2.4 for SO 2 , and 1.7 for CO. PM 10 and PM 2.5 elemental compositions are also presented for both types of coal tested in the study.

  16. Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks

  17. Tank exhaust comparison with 40 CFR 61.93, Subpart H, and other referenced guidelines for Tank Farms National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) designated stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emission Standards other than Radon from US Department of Energy (DOE) Facilities (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) on December 15, 1989. The regulations specify procedures, equipment, and test methods that.are to be used to measure radionuclide emissions from exhaust stacks that are designated as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant (NESHAP) stacks. Designated NESHAP stacks are those that have the potential to cause any member of the public to receive an effective dose equivalent (EDE) greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/year, assuming all emission controls were removed. Tank Farms currently has 33 exhaust stacks, 15 of which are designated NESHAP stacks. This document assesses the compliance status of the monitoring and sampling systems for the designated NESHAP stacks.

  18. Revisiting the Fundamentals and Capabilities of the Stack Compression Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, L.M.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martin, P.A.F.

    2011-01-01

    performance by comparing the flow curves obtained from its utilisation with those determined by means of compressive testing carried out on solid cylinder specimens of the same material. Results show that mechanical testing of materials by means of the stack compression test is capable of meeting...... the increasing demand of accurate and reliable flow curves for sheet metals....

  19. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Topical report for Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-21

    Under contract with the US Department of Energy (DE-AC22-92PCO0367), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Radian Corporation has conducted a test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPS). Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical charactization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions.

  20. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  1. Dynamic stack testing and HiL simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolf, G. [GRandalytics, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The applications for fuel cell and stack deployment have changed rapidly over the years, from stationary backup supplies to highly dynamic automotive power systems. As a result, testing must keep up in order to ensure mature products of high quality. A new breed of stack test stations has been designed, based on a newly developed single cell, high dynamic hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulator in order to meet the growing demand of realistic fuel cell testing scenarios for aviation and automotive industries. The paper described and illustrated the test station architecture and outline of communication nodes. The paper also described the voltage monitor and presented schematics of voltage monitoring modules. The basic requirements of the architecture that were presented included low latency; flexible communication with simulation targets and other data input/output nodes; scalability to various stack sizes; and, safety and reliability. It was concluded that first tests with the voltage monitoring system not only confirmed the design, high throughput and signal quality, but also suggested another application, namely a stack impedance spectrometer for each individual cell. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  2. 40 CFR 75.16 - Special provisions for monitoring emissions from common, bypass, and multiple stacks for SO2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions from common, bypass, and multiple stacks for SO2 emissions and heat input determinations. 75.16... emissions from common, bypass, and multiple stacks for SO2 emissions and heat input determinations. (a... maintain an SO2 continuous emission monitoring system and flow monitoring system in the duct to the common...

  3. Assessment for potential radionuclide emissions from stacks and diffuse and fugitive sources on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Schmidt, J.W.; Gleckler, B.P.; Rhoads, K.

    1995-06-01

    By using the six EPA-approved methods, instead of only the original back calculation method for assessing the 84 WHC registered stacks, the number of stacks requiring continuous monitoring was reduced from 32 to 19 stacks. The intercomparison between results showed that no correlation existed between back calculations and release fractions. Also the NDA, upstream air samples, and powder release fraction method results were at least three orders of magnitude lower then the back calculations results. The most surprising results of the assessment came from NDA. NDA was found to be an easy method for assessing potential emissions. For the nine stacks assessed by NDA, all nine of the stacks would have required continuous monitoring when assessed by back calculations. However, when NDA was applied all stacks had potential emissions that would cause an EDE below the > 0.1 mrem/y standard. Apparent DFs for the HEPA filter systems were calculated for eight nondesignated stacks with emissions above the detection limit. These apparent DFs ranged from 0.5 to 250. The EDE dose to the MEI was calculated to be 0.028 mrem/y for diffuse and fugitive emissions from the Hanford Sited. This is well below the > 0.1 mrem/y standard

  4. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company's management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring

  5. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-04

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company`s management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring.

  6. Radiated Emissions Test Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    1. Draft Department of Transportation (DOT) Test Plan to Develop : Interference Tolerance Masks for GNSS Receivers in the L1 : Radiofrequency Band (1559 1610 MHz) provides high level : overview of radiated emissions test setup : 2. Presenta...

  7. Evaluation of field emission properties from multiple-stacked Si quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Daichi; Makihara, Katsunori; Ohta, Akio; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-stacked Si quantum dots (QDs) with ultrathin SiO 2 interlayers were formed on ultrathin SiO 2 layers by repeating a process sequence consisting of the formation of Si-QDs by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using a SiH 4 gas and the surface oxidation and subsequent surface modification by remote hydrogen and oxygen plasmas, respectively. To clarify the electron emission mechanism from multiple-stacked Si-QDs covered with an ultrathin Au top electrode, the energy distribution of the emitted electrons and its electric field dependence was measured using a hemispherical electron energy analyzer in an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system under DC bias application to the multiple-stacked Si-QD structure. At − 6 V and over, the energy distributions reached a peak at ~ 2.5 eV with a tail toward the higher energy side. While the electron emission intensity was increased exponentially with an increase in the applied DC bias, there was no significant increase in the emission peak energy. The observed emission characteristics can be interpreted in terms of field emissions from the second and/or third topmost Si-QDs resulting from the electric concentration there. - Highlights: • Electron field emission from 6-fold stack of Si-QDs has been evaluated. • AFM measurements show the local electron emission from individual Si-QDs. • Impact of applied bias on the electron emission energy distribution was investigated.

  8. Dose assessment from potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. The Compliance Order required RL to (1) evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which points are subject to the continuous emission sampling requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61 (40 CFR 61), Subpart H, and (2) continuously sample radionuclide emissions in accordance with requirements in 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required RL to provide a written Compliance Plan to meet the requirements of the Compliance Order. A Compliance Plan was submitted to EPA, Region 10, on April 30, 1993. The Compliance Plan specified that a dose assessment would be performed for 84 Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health on the Hanford Site. Any stack identified in the assessment as having potential emissions to cause an effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a maximum exposed individual (MEI) greater than 0.1 mrem y -1 must have a compliant sampling system. In addition, a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) was signed on. February 7, 1994. The FFCA required that all unregistered stacks on the Hanford Site be assessed. This requirement increased the number of stacks to be assessed to 123 stacks. Six methods for performing the assessments are described. An initial assessment using only the HEPA filtration factor for back calculations identified 32 stacks that would have emissions which would cause an EDE to the MEI greater than 0.1 mrem y -1 . When the other methods were applied the number was reduced to 20 stacks. The paper discusses reasons for these overestimates

  9. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  10. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr

  11. SOFC - Manufacture of stacks for test and demonstration related activities, stack and system tests and identification of end user requirements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Joachim; Primdahl, S.; Boegh Elmose, H.; Weineisen, H.; Richter, A.

    2008-11-15

    The aim of the project was to solve the technical challenges in relation to stack functionality in connection with operation of multi stack assemblies under realistic operating conditions. It was the intention to make a targeted effort with the aim of developing a high performance stack technology suitable for both small and large units. An important part of the project was the testing of stack assemblies up to 10 kW power range with relevant fuel and realistic operation condition in the test facility at HC OErstedvaerket. The manufacturing of stacks in the project was as planned a number of stacks (70 kW) for use in demonstration projects both for single stacks and for multi stack assemblies. The start up of the work on the SOFC test facility at HC OErstedsvaerket (HCV) was delayed due to a late delivery of the unit from the PSO 6385 project. A number of unforeseen events during the project have meant that the SOFC test facility at HCV has not until now been ready for performing tests. The experience gained from the operation of a 20 kW Alpha unit in a co-operation between TOFC and Waertsilae now provides an important contribution to the future multi stack assemblies. The work on identification of end user requirements has resulted in a number of different development priorities for the m-CHP and the Distributed Generation market segments. (au)

  12. 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the operation of a 30 cell high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. This prototype stack has been developed at the Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, as a proof-of-concept for a low pressure cathode air cooled HTPEM stack. The membranes used are Celtec...

  13. Practical acoustic emission testing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended for non-destructive testing (NDT) technicians who want to learn practical acoustic emission testing based on level 1 of ISO 9712 (Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of personnel) criteria. The essential aspects of ISO/DIS 18436-6 (Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Requirements for training and certification of personnel, Part 6: Acoustic Emission) are explained, and readers can deepen their understanding with the help of practice exercises. This work presents the guiding principles of acoustic emission measurement, signal processing, algorithms for source location, measurement devices, applicability of testing methods, and measurement cases to support not only researchers in this field but also and especially NDT technicians.

  14. Mechanical testing of adherence of stacked layers in tubular geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, L.A.; Schuring, E.W.; Van Delft, Y.C. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    For the development of new molecular separation technologies strong robust tubular membrane systems are required. The fragile membranes, however, need a strong defect free support such as a porous asymmetric ceramic tube. Mechanical failure of these ceramic membrane systems during manufacturing and operation is mainly caused by delamination of the stacked layers. Therefore development is focused on improving the adherence. As no standard mechanical test for tubular samples is available yet, a new tensile test was developed to facilitate the current research. The most important components in the new equipment is a test tool with a curvature matching that of the test sample and a sample casing that align and guide the test tool during the tensile test. With this tensile test the manufacturing procedure for the ECN standard tubular {alpha}-alumina support was optimized. Firing the asymmetric support at 1300C resulted in the highest mechanical strength for the support system with cohesive fracture in the support tube. With the test developed the process condition could be identified where the material of the support tube is the weakest link in the support system.

  15. Solid Oxide Cell and Stack Testing, Safety and Quality Assurance (SOCTESQA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auer, C.; Lang, M.; Couturier, K.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU-funded project “SOCTESQA” partners from Europe and Singapore are working together to develop uniform and industry wide test procedures and protocols for solid oxide cells and stacks SOC cell/stack assembly. New application fields which are based on the operation of the SOC cell/stack as......In the EU-funded project “SOCTESQA” partners from Europe and Singapore are working together to develop uniform and industry wide test procedures and protocols for solid oxide cells and stacks SOC cell/stack assembly. New application fields which are based on the operation of the SOC cell...

  16. Potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford site, Part 1: Dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    On February 3, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires RL to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission monitoring requirements in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, and to continuously monitor radionuclide emissions in accordance with requirements in 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required RL to provide a written Compliance Plan to meet the requirements of the Compliance Order. A Compliance Plan was submitted to EPA, Region 10, on April 30, 1993. The Compliance Plan specified that a dose assessment would be performed for 84 Westinghouse Hanford Company stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health on the Hanford Site. Stacks that have the potential emissions to cause an effective dose equivalent to a maximum exposed individual greater than 0.1 mrem/y must be monitored continuously for radionuclide emissions. Five methods were approved by EPA, Region 10 for performing the assessments: Release Fractions from Appendix D of 40 CFR 61, Back Calculations Using A HEPA Filtration Factor, Nondestructive Assay of HEPA Filters, A Spill Release Fraction, and Upstream of HEPA Filter Air Concentrations. The first two methods were extremely conservative for estimating releases. The third method, which used a state-of-the-art portable gamma spectrometer, yielded surprising results from the distribution of radionuclides on the HEPA filters. All five methods are described. Assessments using a HEPA Filtration Factor for back calculations identified 32 stacks that would have emissions that would cause an EDE to the MEI greater than 0.1 mrem y{sup {minus}1}. The number was reduced to 15 stacks when the other methods were applied. The paper discusses reasons for the overestimates.

  17. Potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford site, Part 2: Dose assessment methodology using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In September 1992, the Westinghouse Hanford Company began developing an in situ measurement method to assess gamma radiation emanating from high-efficiency particulate air filters using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscopy. The purpose of the new method was to assess radioactive exhaust stack air emissions from empirical data rather than from theoretical models and to determine the potential unabated dose to an offsite theoretical maximally exposed individual. In accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants{close_quotes}, stacks that have the potential to emit {ge} 1 {mu}Sv y{sup {minus}1} (0.1 mrem y{sup {minus}1}) to the maximally exposed individual are considered {open_quotes}major{close_quotes} and must meet the continuous monitoring requirements. After the method was tested and verified, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, approved its use in June 1993. Of the 125 stacks operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 22 were targeted for evaluation by this method, and 15 were assessed. (The method could not be applied at seven stacks because of excessive background radiation or because no gamma emitting particles appear in the emission stream.) The most significant result from this study was the redesignation of the T Plant main stack. The stack was assessed as being {open_quotes}minor{close_quotes}, and it now only requires periodic confirmatory measurements and meets federally imposed sampling requirements.

  18. LAB3 Cosmic Ray Test Stand Analysis of Steel Stack Supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cease, H.

    1998-01-01

    A cosmic ray test stand is being constructed at Lab 3. The stand consists of two stacks of steel plates one resting on top of the other. The top stack is composed of 6 plates of steel making an overall stack size of 34.5-inch x 40-inch x 99-inch. The bottom stack also has 6 layers of plate making an overall size of approximately 49.5-inch x 82-inch x 99-inch. The bottom stack is supported with three support legs. See drawing 3823.000ME-900428 for the individual plate orientation. The minimum support leg size and necessary welds between plates are determined.

  19. 40 CFR 75.82 - Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at common and multiple stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Hg Mass Emission Provisions § 75.82 Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at common and multiple stacks. (a) Unit...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1300 - What test methods must I use to stack test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to the Administrator for approval under § 60.8(b) to use a reference method with minor changes in... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What test methods must I use to stack test? 60.1300 Section 60.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  1. Theoretical analysis of stack gas emission velocity measurement by optical scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yang; Dong Feng-Zhong; Ni Zhi-Bo; Pang Tao; Zeng Zong-Yong; Wu Bian; Zhang Zhi-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical analysis for an online measurement of the stack gas flow velocity based on the optical scintillation method with a structure of two parallel optical paths is performed. The causes of optical scintillation in a stack are first introduced. Then, the principle of flow velocity measurement and its mathematical expression based on cross correlation of the optical scintillation are presented. The field test results show that the flow velocity measured by the proposed technique in this article is consistent with the value tested by the Pitot tube. It verifies the effectiveness of this method. Finally, by use of the structure function of logarithmic light intensity fluctuations, the theoretical explanation of optical scintillation spectral characteristic in low frequency is given. The analysis of the optical scintillation spectrum provides the basis for the measurement of the stack gas flow velocity and particle concentration simultaneously. (general)

  2. Characterization of cotton gin PM10 emissions based on EPA stack sampling methodologies and particle size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A project to characterize cotton gin emissions in terms of stack sampling was conducted during the 2008 through 2011 ginning seasons. The impetus behind the project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. EPA AP-42 emission factors ar...

  3. Study of medical isotope production facility stack emissions and noble gas isotopic signature using automatic gamma-spectra analysis platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Hoffmann, Emmy; Ungar, Kurt; Dolinar, George; Miley, Harry; Mekarski, Pawel; Schrom, Brian; Hoffman, Ian; Lawrie, Ryan; Loosz, Tom

    2013-04-01

    The nuclear industry emissions of the four CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) relevant radioxenon isotopes are unavoidably detected by the IMS along with possible treaty violations. Another civil source of radioxenon emissions which contributes to the global background is radiopharmaceutical production companies. To better understand the source terms of these background emissions, a joint project between HC, ANSTO, PNNL and CRL was formed to install real-time detection systems to support 135Xe, 133Xe, 131mXe and 133mXe measurements at the ANSTO and CRL 99Mo production facility stacks as well as the CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) primary coolant monitoring system at CRL. At each site, high resolution gamma spectra were collected every 15 minutes using a HPGe detector to continuously monitor a bypass feed from the stack or CANDU primary coolant system as it passed through a sampling cell. HC also conducted atmospheric monitoring for radioxenon at approximately 200 km distant from CRL. A program was written to transfer each spectrum into a text file format suitable for the automatic gamma-spectra analysis platform and then email the file to a server. Once the email was received by the server, it was automatically analysed with the gamma-spectrum software UniSampo/Shaman to perform radionuclide identification and activity calculation for a large number of gamma-spectra in a short period of time (less than 10 seconds per spectrum). The results of nuclide activity together with other spectrum parameters were saved into the Linssi database. This database contains a large amount of radionuclide information which is a valuable resource for the analysis of radionuclide distribution within the noble gas fission product emissions. The results could be useful to identify the specific mechanisms of the activity release. The isotopic signatures of the various radioxenon species can be determined as a function of release time. Comparison of 133mXe and 133Xe activity

  4. Test Plan for Long-Term Operation of a Ten-Cell High Temperature Electrolysis Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-01-01

    This document defines a test plan for a long-term (2500 Hour) test of a ten-cell high-temperature electrolysis stack to be performed at INL during FY09 under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. This test was originally planned for FY08, but was removed from our work scope as a result of the severe budget cuts in the FY08 NHI Program. The purpose of this test is to evaluate stack performance degradation over a relatively long time period and to attempt to identify some of the degradation mechanisms via post-test examination. This test will be performed using a planar ten-cell Ceramatec stack, with each cell having dimensions of 10 cm x 10 cm. The specific makeup of the stack will be based on the results of a series of shorter duration ten-cell stack tests being performed during FY08, funded by NGNP. This series of tests was aimed at evaluating stack performance with different interconnect materials and coatings and with or without brazed edge rails. The best performing stack from the FY08 series, in which five different interconnect/coating/edge rail combinations were tested, will be selected for the FY09 long-term test described herein

  5. Test of Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Fuel Cell Stack at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.; Jakupca, Ian J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes performance characterization tests of a 64 cell hydrogen oxygen PEM fuel cell stack at NASA Glenn Research Center in February 2003. The tests were part of NASA's ongoing effort to develop a regenerative fuel cell for aerospace energy storage applications. The purpose of the tests was to verify capability of this stack to operate within a regenerative fuel cell, and to compare performance with earlier test results recorded by the stack developer. Test results obtained include polarization performance of the stack at 50 and 100 psig system pressure, and a steady state endurance run at 100 psig. A maximum power output of 4.8 kWe was observed during polarization runs, and the stack sustained a steady power output of 4.0 kWe during the endurance run. The performance data obtained from these tests compare reasonably close to the stack developer's results although some additional spread between best to worst performing cell voltages was observed. Throughout the tests, the stack demonstrated the consistent performance and repeatable behavior required for regenerative fuel cell operation.

  6. Potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford Site, Part 2: Dose assessment methodology using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscoy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    In September 1992, the Westinghouse Hanford Company began developing an in situ measurement method to assess gamma radiation emanating from high-efficiency particulate air filters using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscopy. The purpose of the new method was to assess radioactive exhaust stack air emissions from empirical data rather than from theoretical models and to determine the potential unabated dose to an offsite theoretical maximally exposed individual. In accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants'', stacks that have the potential to emit ≥ 0.1 mrem per year to the maximally exposed individual are considered ''major'' and must meet the continuous monitoring requirements. After the method was tested and verified, the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, approved its use in June 1993. Of the 125 stacks operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 22 were targeted for evaluation by this method; and 15 were assessed. The most significant,result from this study was the redesignation. of the T Plant main stack. The stack was assessed as being ''minor'', and it now only requires periodic confirmatory measurements and meets federally imposed sampling requirements

  7. Safety Evaluation of Radioactive Material Transport Package under Stacking Test Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Chan; Seo, Ki Seog; Yoo, Seong Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive waste transport package was developed to transport eight drums of low and intermediate level waste(LILW) in accordance with the IAEA and domestic related regulations. The package is classified with industrial package IP-2. IP-2 package is required to undergo a free drop test and a stacking test. After free drop and stacking tests, it should prevent the loss or dispersal of radioactive contents, and loss of shielding integrity which would result in more than 20 % increase in the radiation level at any external surface of the package. The objective of this study is to establish the safety test method and procedure for stacking test and to prove the structural integrities of the IP-2 package. Stacking test and analysis were performed with a compressive load equal to five times the weight of the package for a period of 24 hours using a full scale model. Strains and displacements were measured at the corner fitting of the package during the stacking test. The measured strains and displacements were compared with the analysis results, and there were good agreements. It is very difficult to measure the deflection at the container base, so the maximum deflection of the container base was calculated by the analysis method. The maximum displacement at the corner fitting and deflection at the container base were less than their allowable values. Dimensions of the test model, thickness of shielding material and bolt torque were measured before and after the stacking test. Throughout the stacking test, it was found that there were no loss or dispersal of radioactive contents and no loss of shielding integrity. Thus, the package was shown to comply with the requirements to maintain structural integrity under the stacking condition.

  8. Potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford Site. Part 1: Dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-06-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. The Compliance Plan specified that a dose assessment would be performed for 84 Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health (WAC 246-247) on the Hanford Site. Stacks that have the potential emissions to cause an effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a maximum exposed individual (MEI) greater than 0.1 mrem y -1 must be monitored continuously for radionuclide emissions. Five methods were approved by EPA, Region 10 for performing the assessments: Release Fractions from Appendix D of 40 CFR 61, Back Calculations Using A HEPA Filtration Factor, Nondestructive Assay of HEPA Filters, A Spill Release Fraction, and Upstream of HEPA Filter Air Concentrations. The first two methods were extremely conservative for estimating releases. The third method which used a state-of-the-art portable gamma spectrometer, yielded surprising results from the distribution of radionuclides on the HEPA filters. All five methods are described

  9. Stacking the Cosmic Web in fluorescent Ly α emission with MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Sofia G.; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Lilly, Simon; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Pezzulli, Gabriele; Schaye, Joop; Wisotzki, Lutz; Bacon, Roland; Inami, Hanae; Akhlaghi, Mohammad; Tacchella, Sandro; Richard, Johan; Bouche, Nicolas F.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Carollo, Marcella

    2018-04-01

    Cosmological simulations suggest that most of the matter in the Universe is distributed along filaments connecting galaxies. Illuminated by the cosmic UV background (UVB), these structures are expected to glow in fluorescent Ly α emission with a surface brightness (SB) that is well below current limits for individual detections. Here, we perform a stacking analysis of the deepest MUSE/VLT data using three-dimensional regions (subcubes) with orientations determined by the position of neighbouring Ly α galaxies at 3 < z < 4. Our method increase the probability of detecting filamentary Ly α emission, provided that these structures are Lyman-limit systems (LLSs). By stacking 390 oriented subcubes we reach a 2σ sensitivity level of SB ≈ 0.44 × 10-20 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 in an aperture of 1 arcsec2 × 6.25 Å, three times below the expected fluorescent Ly α signal from the Haardt & Madau UVB at z ˜ 3.5. No detectable emission is found on intergalactic scales, implying that at least two thirds of our subcubes do not contain oriented LLSs. On the other hand, significant emission is detected in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) in the direction of the neighbours. The signal is stronger for galaxies with a larger number of neighbours and appears to be independent of any other galaxy properties. We estimate that preferentially oriented satellite galaxies cannot contribute significantly to this signal, suggesting instead that gas densities in the CGM are typically larger in the direction of neighbouring galaxies on cosmological scales.

  10. Solid Oxide Cell and Stack Testing, Safety and Quality Assurance (SOCTESQA)

    OpenAIRE

    Auer, Corinna; Lang, Michael; Couturier, Karine; Nielsen, Eva Ravn; Mc Phail, Stephen; Tsotridis, Georgios; FU, Qingxi; Chan, Siew Hwa

    2015-01-01

    The market penetration of fuel and electrolysis cell energy systems in Europe requires the development of reliable assessment, testing and prediction of performance and durability of solid oxide cells and stacks (SOC). To advance in this field the EU-project “SOCTESQA” was launched in May 2014. Partners from different countries in Europe and one external party from Singapore are working together to develop uniform and industry wide test procedures and protocols for SOC cell/stack assembly. In...

  11. SOCTESQA - Solid Oxide Cell and Stack Testing, Safety and Quality Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Michael; Auer, Corinna; Couturier, Karine; Nielsen, Eva Ravn; Mc Phail, Stephen; Kotsionopoulos, Nikolaos; FU, Qingxi; Liu, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    For the successful market penetration of high temperature solid oxide fuel/electrolysis cell energy systems it is necessary to increase the quality assurance and the reliable assessment of the corresponding cells and stacks. Therefore in May 2014 the EU-funded project SOCTESQA was launched. Partners from different countries in Europe and one external party from Singapore are working together to develop uniform and industry wide test procedures and programs for solid oxide cell/stack (SOC) ass...

  12. Testing the sampling efficiency of a nuclear power station stack monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L.H. [Instrumentinvest, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The test method comprises the injection of known amounts of monodisperse particles in the stack air stream, at a suitable point upstream of the sampling installation. To find a suitable injection polls, the gas flow was mapped by means of a tracer gas, released in various points in the stack base. The resulting concentration distributions at the stack sampler level were observed by means of an array of gas detectors. An injection point that produced symmetrical distribution over the stack area, and low concentrations at the stack walls was selected for the particle tests. Monodisperse particles of 6, 10, and 19 {mu}m aerodynamic diameter, tagged with dysprosium, were dispersed in the selected injection point. Particle concentration at the sampler level was measured. The losses to the stack walls were found to be less than 10 %. The particle concentrations at the four sampler inlets were calculated from the observed gas distribution. The amount calculated to be aspirated into the sampler piping was compared with the quantity collected by the sampling train ordinary filter, to obtain the sampling line transmission efficiency. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  13. Emission shaping in fluorescent proteins: role of electrostatics and π-stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Woo; Rhee, Young Min

    2016-02-07

    For many decades, simulating the excited state properties of complex systems has been an intriguing but daunting task due to its high computational cost. Here, we apply molecular dynamics based techniques with interpolated potential energy surfaces toward calculating fluorescence spectra of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its variants in a statistically meaningful manner. With the GFP, we show that the diverse electrostatic tuning can shape the emission features in many different ways. By computationally modulating the electrostatic interactions between the chromophore phenoxy oxygen and its nearby residues, we demonstrate that we indeed can shift the emission to the blue or to the red side in a predictable manner. We rationalize the shifting effects of individual residues in the GFP based on the responses of both the adiabatic and the diabatic electronic states of the chromophore. We next exhibit that the yellow emitting variant, the Thr203Tyr mutant, generates changes in the electrostatic interactions and an additional π-stacking interaction. These combined effects indeed induce a red shift to emit the fluorescence into the yellow region. With the series of demonstrations, we suggest that our approach can provide sound rationales and useful insights in understanding different responses of various fluorescent complexes, which may be helpful in designing new light emitting proteins and other related systems in future studies.

  14. Progress in the study of PCHE performance with various stacking methods; PCHEs and test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Eun Ho; Yoon, Sung Ho; Kim, Moo Hwan; Park, Gun Yeop

    2012-01-01

    Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) is famous with its superior compactness and relatively higher resistance to pressure which came from its manufacturing process. PCHE is made by diffusion bonding of thin metal plates having various flow channel shapes on them. Diffusion bonding makes stack of plates become a monolithic block by grain growth between the surfaces of each plates near the melting temperature of material. With these characteristics, it has become a promising heat exchanger type in oil and gas industry, power plant and chemical reactors fields, despite of its relatively short history than others. From many researches, it is known that the flow channel and the stacking method of plates are the major design factors of PCHE. Flow channels have been studied by relatively many researchers, and there are several well known channel types like zigzag channel, S shape fin, and airfoil fin shape. On the other hands, there is little research about stacking method so called 'bank type'. By Kim et al., it was showed that stacking method of PCHE influences the heat transfer rate and pressure drop, but the comparison of the different stacking method was not conducted. In this research, heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of PCHEs with various bank types will be studied. And this article will introduce three kinds of PCHEs fabricated by different bank types, and the test facility for performance test of these heat exchangers

  15. Parametric Sensitivity Tests—European Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Test Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    performed based on test procedures proposed by a European project, Stack-Test. The sensitivity of a Nafion-based low temperature PEMFC stack’s performance to parametric changes was the main objective of the tests. Four crucial parameters for fuel cell operation were chosen; relative humidity, temperature......As fuel cells are increasingly commercialized for various applications, harmonized and industry-relevant test procedures are necessary to benchmark tests and to ensure comparability of stack performance results from different parties. This paper reports the results of parametric sensitivity tests......, pressure, and stoichiometry at varying current density. Furthermore, procedures for polarization curve recording were also tested both in ascending and descending current directions....

  16. Stack and area tritium monitoring systems for the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, G.G.; Meixler, L.D.; Sirsingh, R.A.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the TFTR Tritium Stack and Area Monitoring Systems which have been developed to provide the required level of reliability in a cost effective manner consistent with the mission of the Tritium Handling System on TFTR. Personnel protection, environmental responsibility, and tritium containing system integrity have been the considerations in system design. During the Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) experiments on TFTR, tritium will be used for the first time as one of the fuels. Area monitors provide surveillance of the air in various rooms at TFTR. Stack monitors monitor the air at the TFTR test site that is exhausted through the HVAC systems, from the room exhaust stacks and the tritium systems process vents. The philosophies for the implementation of the Stack and Area Tritium Monitoring Systems at TFTR are to use hardwired controls wherever personnel protection is involved, and to take advantage of modern intelligent controllers to provide a distributed system to support the functions of tracking, displaying, and archiving concentration levels of tritium for all of the monitored areas and stacks

  17. Detection of an unidentified emission line in the stacked X-ray spectrum of galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulbul, Esra; Foster, Adam; Smith, Randall K.; Randall, Scott W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Markevitch, Maxim [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Loewenstein, Michael, E-mail: ebulbul@cfa.harvard.edu [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We detect a weak unidentified emission line at E = (3.55-3.57) ± 0.03 keV in a stacked XMM-Newton spectrum of 73 galaxy clusters spanning a redshift range 0.01-0.35. When the full sample is divided into three subsamples (Perseus, Centaurus+Ophiuchus+Coma, and all others), the line is seen at >3σ statistical significance in all three independent MOS spectra and the PN 'all others' spectrum. It is also detected in the Chandra spectra of the Perseus Cluster. However, it is very weak and located within 50-110 eV of several known lines. The detection is at the limit of the current instrument capabilities. We argue that there should be no atomic transitions in thermal plasma at this energy. An intriguing possibility is the decay of sterile neutrino, a long-sought dark matter particle candidate. Assuming that all dark matter is in sterile neutrinos with m{sub s} = 2E = 7.1 keV, our detection corresponds to a neutrino decay rate consistent with previous upper limits. However, based on the cluster masses and distances, the line in Perseus is much brighter than expected in this model, significantly deviating from other subsamples. This appears to be because of an anomalously bright line at E = 3.62 keV in Perseus, which could be an Ar XVII dielectronic recombination line, although its emissivity would have to be 30 times the expected value and physically difficult to understand. Another alternative is the above anomaly in the Ar line combined with the nearby 3.51 keV K line also exceeding expectation by a factor of 10-20. Confirmation with Astro-H will be critical to determine the nature of this new line.

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell short stack performance testing - Part A: Experimental analysis and μ-combined heat and power unit comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropasqua, L.; Campanari, S.; Brouwer, J.

    2017-12-01

    The need to experimentally understand the detailed performance of SOFC stacks under operating conditions typical of commercial SOFC systems has prompted this two-part study. The steady state performance of a 6-cell short stack of yttria (Y2O3) stabilised zirconia (YSZ) with Ni/YSZ anodes and composite Sr-doped lanthanum manganite (LaMnO3, LSM)/YSZ cathodes is experimentally evaluated. In Part A, the stack characterisation is carried out by means of sensitivity analyses on the fuel utilisation factor and the steam-to-carbon ratio. Electrical and environmental performances are assessed and the results are compared with a commercial full-scale micro-CHP system, which comprises the same cells. The results show that the measured temperature dynamics of the short stack in a test stand environment are on the order of many minutes; therefore, one cannot neglect temperature dynamics for a precise measurement of the steady state polarisation behaviour. The overall polarisation performance is comparable to that of the full stack employed in the micro-CHP system, confirming the good representation that short-stack analyses can give of the entire SOFC module. The environmental performance is measured verifying the negligible values of NO emissions (<10 ppb) across the whole polarisation curve.

  19. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  20. Accelerated testing of solid oxide fuel cell stacks for micro combined heat and power application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Barfod, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art (SoA) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are tested using profiles relevant for use in micro combined heat and power (CHP) units. Such applications are characterised by dynamic load profiles. In order to shorten the needed testing time and to investigate potential acceleration...... of degradation, the profiles are executed faster than required for real applications. Operation with fast load cycling, both using hydrogen and methane/steam as fuels, does not accelerate degradation compared to constant operation, which demonstrates the maturity of SoA stacks and enables transferring knowledge...... effect for long life-times than regular short time changes of operation. In order to address lifetime testing it is suggested to build a testing program consisting of defined modules that represent different application profiles, such as one module at constant conditions, followed by modules at one set...

  1. Solid Oxide Cell and Stack Testing, Safety and Quality Assurance (SOCTESQA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auer, C.; Lang, M.; Couturier, K.

    2015-01-01

    The market penetration of fuel and electrolysis cell energy systems in Europe requires the development of reliable assessment, testing and prediction of performance and durability of solid oxide cells and stacks (SOC). To advance in this field the EU-project “SOCTESQA” was launched in May 2014...... and dynamic operating conditions. The application specific test programs are created by combining several of these test modules. In a next step defined test modules will be applied for the initial test bench validation, which will be improved by several validation loops. The final test protocols...

  2. Cryogenic Testing of High Current By-Pass Diode Stacks for the Protection of the Superconducting Magnets in the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, A.; Hagedorn, D.; Della Corte, A.; Fiamozzi Zignani, C.; Turtu, S.; Brown, D.; Rout, C.

    2004-06-01

    For the protection of the LHC superconducting magnets, about 2100 specially developed by-pass diodes were manufactured by DYNEX SEMICONDUCTOR LTD (Lincoln, GB) and about 1300 of these diodes were mounted into diode stacks and submitted to tests at cryogenic temperatures. To date about 800 dipole diode stacks and about 250 quadrupole diode stacks for the protection of the superconducting lattice dipole and lattice quadrupole magnets have been assembled at OCEM (Bologna,Italy) and successfully tested in liquid helium at ENEA (Frascati, Italy). This report gives an overview of the test results obtained so far. After a short description of the test installations and test procedures, a statistical analysis is presented for test data during diode production as well as for the performance of the diode stacks during testing in liquid helium, including failure rates and degradation of the diodes.

  3. 40 CFR 61.67 - Emission tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.67... hours, but in no case in excess of 72 hours of sample collection. Vinyl chloride emissions are to be... request, for inspection by the Administrator, for a minimum of 3 years, records of emission test results...

  4. One stacked-column vibration test and analysis for VHTR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takeshi; Ishizuka, Hiroshi; Ide, Akira; Hayakawa, Hitoshi; Shingai, Kazuteru.

    1978-07-01

    This paper describes experimental results of the vibration test on a single stacked-column and compares them with the analytical results. A 1/2 scale model of the core element of a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) was set on a shaking table. Sinusoidal waves, response time history waves, beat wave and step wave of input acceleration 100 - 900 gal in the frequency of 0.5 to 15 Hz were used to vibrate the table horizontally. Results are as follows: (1) The column has a non-linear resonance and exhibits a hysteresis response with jump points. (2) The column vibration characteristics is similar to that of the finite beams connected with non-linear soft spring. (3) The column resonance frequency decreases with increasing input acceleration. (4) The impact force increases with increasing input acceleration and boundary gap width. (5) Good correlation in vibration behavior of the stacked-column and impact force on the boundary between test and analysis was obtained. (auth.)

  5. Manufacturing of cells and stacks for SOFC development, test and demonstration projects and SOFC hotbox design development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this project is to support the continued SOFC development through manufacturing process optimization and manufacturing of SOFC cells and stacks. These cells and stacks will serve as a necessary base for the development activities and for the establishment of a number of test and demonstration activities. The manufacture will also help provide operating experience and reduce manufacturing cost. Another main focus of the manufacturing is to assure technical improvements and reliability. It is imperative to the eventual success of the technology that test and demonstration is carried out in the pre-market conditions that will exist for the next years in the three market segments targeted by TOFC (Distributed generation, micro CHP and APU incl. marine APU). Finally, the project also includes development activities focusing on the stack-system interface (hotbox design development) and on dealing with transients and start up and shut down times, which is of particular importance for APU and micro CHP applications. Three topics are addressed:1) Cell manufacture, including production development, capacity lift and manuf. of cells for test and demonstration; 2) Stack manufacture and test, including a test facility, stack manuf. and test of stacks in a system at HCV; 3) Hotbox design development, including design, prototype construction and testing. The progress of this project is documented. Major achievements are successful manufacture of adequate amounts of cells and stacks according to the application. Furthermore significant over-performance in design, construction and test of a methanol based hotbox prototype as well as publication of this. (au)

  6. Treatability test of a stacked-tray air stripper for VOC in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pico, T., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    A common strategy for hydraulic containment and mass removal at VOC contaminated sites is `pump and treat (P&T)`. In P&T operations, contaminated ground water is pumped from wells, treated above ground, and discharged. Many P&T remediation systems at VOC sites rely on air stripping technology because VOCs are easily transferred to the vapor phase. In stacked-tray air strippers, contaminated water is aerated while it flows down through a series of trays. System operations at LLNL are strictly regulated by the California and federal Environmental Protection Agencies (Cal/EPA and EPA), the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB) and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC). These agencies set discharge limits, require performance monitoring, and assess penalties for non-compliance. National laboratories are also subject to scrutiny by the public and other government agencies. This extensive oversight makes it necessary to accurately predict field treatment performance at new extraction locations to ensure compliance with all requirements prior to facility activation. This paper presents treatability test results for a stacked- tray air stripper conducted at LLNL and compares them to the vendor`s modeling software results.

  7. The evaluation of stack metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators: assessing human exposure through noninhalation pathways.

    OpenAIRE

    Sedman, R M; Polisini, J M; Esparza, J R

    1994-01-01

    Potential public health effects associated with exposure to metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators through noninhalation pathways were evaluated. Instead of relying on modeling the movement of toxicants through various environmental media, an approach based on estimating changes from baseline levels of exposure was employed. Changes in soil and water As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, and Be concentrations that result from incinerator emissions were first determined. Estimates of changes in human...

  8. Coherent terahertz emission from Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} intrinsic Josephson junction stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudau, Fabian; Gross, Boris; Wieland, Raphael; Judd, Thomas; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena in LISA" +, Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Kinev, Nickolay; Koshelets, Valery [Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tsujimoto, Manabu [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ji, Min; Huang, Ya; Zhou, Xianjing; An, Deyue; Wang, Huabing [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Wu, Peiheng [Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Hatano, Takeshi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions, made of the high temperature superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, are promising candidates to be used as generators of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz regime, in principle allowing frequencies up to ∝10 THz. Ranging from 0.4 to 1 THz, coherent emission was detected from large, rectangular stacks, producing several tens of microwatt in power. Despite of several years of research, the mechanism of synchronizing all the junctions in the stack is still not fully understood. We investigated the heat distribution and electromagnetic standing waves in such stacks, as well as the generation of terahertz radiation, using a combination of electric transport measurements, direct radiation detection and low temperature scanning laser microscopy. Recent experimental results from our collaboration will be presented and compared to numerical simulations.

  9. Microtechnology management considering test and cost aspects for stacked 3D ICs with MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, K.; Wahl, M.; Busch, R.; Grünewald, A.; Brück, R.

    2018-01-01

    Innovative automotive systems require complex semiconductor devices currently only available in consumer grade quality. The European project TRACE will develop and demonstrate methods, processes, and tools to facilitate usage of Consumer Electronics (CE) components to be deployable more rapidly in the life-critical automotive domain. Consumer electronics increasingly use heterogeneous system integration methods and "More than Moore" technologies, which are capable to combine different circuit domains (Analog, Digital, RF, MEMS) and which are integrated within SiP or 3D stacks. Making these technologies or at least some of the process steps available under automotive electronics requirements is an important goal to keep pace with the growing demand for information processing within cars. The approach presented in this paper aims at a technology management and recommendation system that covers technology data, functional and non-functional constraints, and application scenarios, and that will comprehend test planning and cost consideration capabilities.

  10. Testing and Evaluation of an Advanced High Performance Planar SOFC Stack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elangovan, S

    1999-01-01

    .... SOFCo has conducted several programs which synergistically address this objective: an internally funded program focusing on stack development and system integration for pipeline natural gas (PNG...

  11. Experiences from design and testing of a small PEM fuel cell stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, T.; Ofstad, A.B.; Moller-Holst, S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Introduction The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is considered the most promising candidate for mobile applications, due to its high power density, short start-up times and immediate response to changes in power demand. PEMFC systems tend, however, to become rather complex in order to provide for optimum water and thermal management, and facilitate stable operation. Auxiliary components add to cost and volume, and may reduce reliability. Pressurized operation may increase system power density, but to the sacrifice of efficiency. The atmospheric systems are inferior to pressurized systems with respect to water self-sufficiency and usually demand voluminous water condenser systems. At high power densities the amount of waste heat becomes considerable, and for larger systems liquid cooling is usually inevitable. But even for smaller, air-cooled systems, thermal management is challenging because of the relatively small temperature difference between the fuel cell and the surroundings. Over more than a decade there has been a trend towards simpler PEMFC systems holding a minimum number of auxiliary components, operating at atmospheric pressure and utilizing various self-humidifying techniques. However, due to the complexity of PEMFC operation, the degree of simplification becomes a trade-off between system cost and volume, and controllability. Experimental In the present work a small 10 cell PEMFC stack for demonstrational purposes was designed, assembled and tested. Commercial MEAs (Gore) and GDLs (E-TEK) were used. Thermocouples were inserted into the cathode air channels. Based on a total of 300 temperature measurements a semi-3-dimensional temperature distribution in the stack was obtained. Cell performance was characterized by obtaining polarization curves for each cell and measuring the steady state temperature distribution at a current density of 0.10 A/cm 2 . Results and Discussion Stable performance was obtained at 0.10 A/cm 2

  12. Radiation effect characterization and test methods of single-chip and multi-chip stacked 16Mbit DRAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBel, K.A.; Gates, M.M.; Moran, A.K.; Kim, H.S.; Seidleck, C.M.; Marshall, P.; Kinnison, J.; Carkhuff, B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents radiation effects characterization performed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) on spaceflight candidate 16Mbit DRAMs. This includes heavy ion, proton, and Co60 irradiations on single-chip devices as well as proton irradiation of a stacked DRAM module. Lastly, a discussion of test methodology is undertaken

  13. The Stacked LYα Emission Profile from the Circum-Galactic Medium of z ˜ 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni Battaia, Fabrizio; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2016-09-01

    In the context of the FLASHLIGHT survey, we obtained deep narrowband images of 15 z ˜ 2 quasars with the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph on Gemini South in an effort to measure Lyα emission from circum- and intergalactic gas on scales of hundreds of kpc from the central quasar. We do not detect bright giant Lyα nebulae (SB ˜ 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 at distances >50 kpc) around any of our sources, although we routinely (≃47%) detect smaller-scale Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  14. Stack emission monitoring using non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy with an optimized nonlinear absorption cross interference correction algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. W. Sun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an optimized analysis algorithm for non-dispersive infrared (NDIR to in situ monitor stack emissions. The proposed algorithm simultaneously compensates for nonlinear absorption and cross interference among different gases. We present a mathematical derivation for the measurement error caused by variations in interference coefficients when nonlinear absorption occurs. The proposed algorithm is derived from a classical one and uses interference functions to quantify cross interference. The interference functions vary proportionally with the nonlinear absorption. Thus, interference coefficients among different gases can be modeled by the interference functions whether gases are characterized by linear or nonlinear absorption. In this study, the simultaneous analysis of two components (CO2 and CO serves as an example for the validation of the proposed algorithm. The interference functions in this case can be obtained by least-squares fitting with third-order polynomials. Experiments show that the results of cross interference correction are improved significantly by utilizing the fitted interference functions when nonlinear absorptions occur. The dynamic measurement ranges of CO2 and CO are improved by about a factor of 1.8 and 3.5, respectively. A commercial analyzer with high accuracy was used to validate the CO and CO2 measurements derived from the NDIR analyzer prototype in which the new algorithm was embedded. The comparison of the two analyzers show that the prototype works well both within the linear and nonlinear ranges.

  15. Coherent terahertz emission from Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ intrinsic Josephson junction stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Boris Andre

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, terahertz technology has become a rapidly growing sector, driven by the demands of a vast range of (potential) applications. The terahertz spectral range roughly spans from 300 GHz to 30 THz. In the low terahertz range, there is a lack of good and compact devices, that emit electromagnetic waves. Particularly, coherent, narrow-band and continuous-wave sources are lacking, and researchers are following many different approaches to fill this gap. The thesis at hand contributes to the exploration of one of those sources: Operating intrinsic Josephson junctions as emitters in the terahertz spectral range. Josephson junctions (JJs) work as direct current (dc) voltage to frequency converters, if operated in the resistive state. 1 mV voltage drop generates a frequency of about 484 GHz. Intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) in the high temperature superconductor Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (BSCCO) are adequate candidates for emitting devices; the layered structure of the material intrinsically provides stacks consisting of 1.5 nm thick, nearly perfectly equal JJs. The fabrication of a series of hundreds of JJs in a stack of micrometer thickness is easily feasible, which is essential for high power frequency generation. Further, the energy gap of BSCCO is in principle large enough to allow for frequencies up to more than 10 THz. The key challenge is the synchronization of all IJJs in order to produce coherent radiation. In 2007, a research team from Argonne National Laboratories succeeded in detecting coherent terahertz radiation from more than 500 synchronized IJJs in a mesa structure. The frequencies ranged from 350 to 850 GHz with output powers up to 0.5 μW. They proposed the formation of electromagnetic standing waves in the cavity of the mesa as synchronization mechanism. Coming from the fully resistive state (nonzero voltage across all junctions), the radiation occurred in the bias regime, where groups of junctions switch back to the zero voltage state

  16. 40 CFR 61.53 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.53 Section 61.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Mercury ore processing facility. (1) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under...

  17. 40 CFR 61.33 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.33 Section 61.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under § 61.13, each owner or operator...

  18. Development and testing of a hybrid system with a sub-kW open-cathode type PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhen-Ming; Su, Ay; Liu, Ying-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack has been evaluated for a hybrid power system test platform. To simulate vehicle acceleration, the stack was operated under dynamic-loading, and to demonstrate the exchange of power flow between two power sources the hybrid power system was tested under three different modes. A unit cell was fabricated for high stack performance and the stack was constructed with 18 open-cathode type fuel cells. Air which acts as a coolant as well as an oxidant for electrochemical reactions is provided by a pair of fans. The capabilities of the stack for hybrid power system test platform were validated by successful dynamic-loading tests. The performance of the stack for various air fan voltage was evaluated and an optimal value was concluded. The conditions like inlet temperature of H 2 and the stack current were established for maximum power. It was also found that humidification of hydrogen at anode inlet degrades the stack performance and stability due to flooding. Evidence shows that for the higher overall performance, the fuel cell acts continuously on constant current output. The study contributes to the design of mobility hybrid system to get better performance and reliability. - Highlights: • An open-cathode type PEMFC (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell) stack (rated output 300 W) was fabricated. • The open-cathode configuration simplifies the design of a stack system. • Assess the feasibility of combining a fuel cell stack in a hybrid system. • The study contributes to the design of mobility hybrid system to get better performance and reliability

  19. Acoustic emission testing of piston check valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Based on test experience at Comanche Peak Unit 1, an acoustic emission data evaluation matrix for piston check valves has been developed. The degradations represented in this matrix were selected based on Edwards piston check valve failure data reported in the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System. Evidence to support this matrix was collected from site test data on a variety of valve types. Although still under refinement, the matrix provides three major attributes for closure verification, which have proven useful in developing test procedures for inservice testing and preventing unnecessary disassembly

  20. Fault Localization Method by Partitioning Memory Using Memory Map and the Stack for Automotive ECU Software Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanhyo Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the usage of the automotive Electronic Control Unit (ECU and its software in cars is increasing. Therefore, as the functional complexity of such software increases, so does the likelihood of software-related faults. Therefore, it is important to ensure the reliability of ECU software in order to ensure automobile safety. For this reason, systematic testing methods are required that can guarantee software quality. However, it is difficult to locate a fault during testing with the current ECU development system because a tester performs the black-box testing using a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL simulator. Consequently, developers consume a large amount of money and time for debugging because they perform debugging without any information about the location of the fault. In this paper, we propose a method for localizing the fault utilizing memory information during black-box testing. This is likely to be of use to developers who debug automotive software. In order to observe whether symbols stored in the memory have been updated, the memory is partitioned by a memory map and the stack, thus the fault candidate region is reduced. A memory map method has the advantage of being able to finely partition the memory, and the stack method can partition the memory without a memory map. We validated these methods by applying these to HiL testing of the ECU for a body control system. The preliminary results indicate that a memory map and the stack reduce the possible fault locations to 22% and 19% of the updated memory, respectively.

  1. MECHANISTIC STUDIES AND DESIGN OF HIGHLY ACTIVE CUPRATE CATALYSTS FOR THE DIRECT DECOMPOSITION AND SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE AND HYDROCARBONS TO NITROGEN FOR ABATEMENT OF STACK EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-04-30

    A flow trough type catalytic reactor system was adequately modified for NO related catalytic and adsorption measurements, including the on-line connection of a digital chemiluminescent NO-NO{sub x} analyzer to the reactor outlet system. Moreover, we have largely completed the installation of an FTIR coupled catalytic system containing a HTEC cell for high temperature DRIFT studies. Three different barium cuprate samples, Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 3}, BaCuO{sub 2}, and Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 5} were synthesized and characterized by powder XRD for catalytic tests. Prior to catalytic studies over these cuprates, a new, liquid indium based supported molten metal catalyst (In-SMMC) was tested in the reduction of NO by various reductants. In the presence of excess O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, the In-SMMC proved to be more active for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO to N{sub 2} by ethanol than most other catalysts. Using C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols as reductants, self sustained periodic oscillations observed in the NO{sub x} concentrations of reactor effluents indicated the first time that radical intermediates can be involved in the SCR of NO by alcohols. Further, In-SMMC is the only effective and water tolerant SCR catalyst reported thus far which contains SiO{sub 2} support. Thus, this novel catalyst opens up a promising new alternative for developing an effective and durable catalyst for NO{sub x} abatement in stack emission.

  2. Fuel Cell Stack Testing and Durability in Support of Ion Tiger UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    N00173-08-2-C008 specified. In June 2008, the first M250 stack 242503 data were incorporated into the PEMFC system model as a look-up data table...control and operational model which implements the operational strategy by controlling the power from the PEMFC systems and battery pack for a total...Outputs PEMFC System Outputs <~~>*<*,yrx**i~yc*r»>r-’+**^^ FCS_P«wi_Dwn«l (W) 10 15 20 25 BfOfumon PCM« Cwnind Wi ) 5 10 15

  3. Algebraic stacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deligne, Mumford and Artin [DM, Ar2]) and consider algebraic stacks, then we can cons- truct the 'moduli ... the moduli scheme and the moduli stack of vector bundles. First I will give ... 1–31. © Printed in India. 1 ...... Cultura, Spain. References.

  4. Acoustic emission measurement during instrumented impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crostack, H.A.; Engelhardt, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Results of instrumented impact tests are discussed. On the one hand the development of the loading process at the hammer tup was recorded by means of a piezoelectric transducer. This instrumentation supplied a better representation of the load versus time than the conventional strain gauges. On the other hand the different types of acoustic emission occurring during a test could be separated. The acoustic emission released at the impact of the hammer onto the specimen is of lower frequency and its spectrum is strongly decreasing with increasing frequency. Plastic deformation also emits signals of lower frequency that are of quasi-continuous character. Both signal types can be discriminated by filtering. As a consequence typical burst signal were received afterwards that can be correlated with crack propagation. Their spectra exhibit considerable portions up to about 1.9 MHz. The development in time of the burst signals points to the kind of crack propagation resp. its sequence of appearance. However, definitive comparison between load and acoustic emission should become possible, only when the disadvantages of the common load measurement can be reduced, e.g. by determining the load directly at the specimen instead of the hammer tup

  5. Cryogenic testing of by-pass diode stacks for the superconducting magnets of the large hadron collider at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Corte, A.; Catitti, A.; Chiarelli, S.; Di Ferdinando, E.; Verdini, L.; Gharib, A.; Hagedorn, D.; Turtu, S.; Basile, G. L.; Taddia, G.; Talli, M.; Viola, R.

    2002-01-01

    A dedicated facility prepared by ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy and Environment) for the cryogenic testing of by-pass diodes for the protection of the CERN Large Hadron Collider main magnets will be described. This experimental activity is in the frame of a contract awarded to OCEM, an Italian firm active in the field of electronic devices and power supplies, in collaboration with ENEA, for the manufacture and testing of all the diode stacks. In particular, CERN requests the measurement of the reverse and forward voltage diode characteristics at 300 K and 77 K, and endurance test cycles at liquid helium temperature. The experimental set-up at ENEA and data acquisition system developed for the scope will be described and the test results reported

  6. Regular control of monitors for effluents from nuclear power plant stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, L.

    1979-01-01

    The report describes a test procedure for emission monitoring devices for nuclear power plants. The follosing procedures are described, inspection, determination of the air flow through the stack, measurement and adjustment of the flow in the stack loop, measurement and adjustment of flow and density in the measuring loop, calibration of the gas detector, efficiency of sampling of methyliodide and aerosol. (K.K.)

  7. Testing of a De Nora polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack of 1 kW for naval applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmal, D.; Kluiters, C. E.; Barendregt, I. P.

    In a previous study calculations were carried out for a navy frigate with respect to the energy consumption of a propulsion/electricity generation system based on fuel cells. The fuel consumption for the 'all-fuel cell' ship was compared with the consumption of the current propulsion/electricity generation system based on gas turbines and diesel engines; it showed potential energy savings of a fuel cell based system amounting from 25 to 30%. On the basis of these results and taking into account various military aspects it was decided to start tests with a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) stack. For this purpose a De Nora 1 kW PEFC was chosen. Results of the first tests after installation are satisfying.

  8. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Mixed Waste Incinerator: Emissions test for August 27, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    On August 27, 1990, a special emissions test was performed at the K-1435 Toxic Substance Control Act Mixed Waste Incinerator. A sampling and analysis plan was implemented to characterize the incinerator waste streams during a 6 hour burn of actual mixed waste. The results of this characterization are summarized in the present report. Significant among the findings is the observation that less than 3% of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln was discharged as stack emission. This value is consistent with the estimate of 4% or less derived from long-term mass balance of previous operating experience and with the value assumed in the original Environmental Impact Statement. Approximately 1.4% of the total uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the aqueous scrubber blowdown; about 85% of the total uranium in the aqueous waste was insoluble (i.e., removable by filtration). The majority of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the ash material, apparently associated with phosphorous as a sparingly-soluble species. Many other metals of potential regulatory concern also appeared to concentrate in the ash as sparingly-soluble species, with minimal partition to the aqueous waste. The aqueous waste was discharged to the Central Neutralization Facility where it was effectively treated by coprecipitation with iron. The treated, filtered aqueous effluent met Environmental Protection Agency interim primary drinking water standards for regulated metals. 4 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  9. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge mixed waste incinerator: Emissions test for August 27, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1990-12-01

    On August 27, 1990, a special emissions test was performed at the K-1435 Toxic Substance Control Act Mixed Waste Incinerator. A sampling and analysis plan was implemented to characterize the incinerator waste streams during a 6 hour burn of actual mixed waste. The results of this characterization are summarized in the present report. Significant among the findings is the observation that less than 3% of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln was discharged as stack emission. This value is consistent with the estimate of 4% or less derived from long-term mass balance of previous operating experience and with the value assumed in the original Environmental Impact Statement. Approximately 1.4% of the total uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the aqueous scrubber blowdown; about 85% of the total uranium in the aqueous waste was insoluble (i.e., removable by filtration). The majority of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the ash material, apparently associated with phosphorous as a sparingly-soluble species. Many other metals of potential regulatory concern also appeared to concentrate in the ash as sparingly-soluble species, with minimal partition to the aqueous waste. The aqueous waste was discharged to the Central Neutralization Facility where it was effectively treated by coprecipitation with iron. The treated, filtered aqueous effluent met Environmental Protection Agency interim primary drinking water standards for regulated metals

  10. Pre-service Acoustic Emission Testing for Metal Pressure Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Lee, Tae Hee; Lee, Jong Kyu

    2003-01-01

    The field application of acoustic emission(AE) testing for brand-new metal pressure vessel were performed. We will introduce the test procedure for acoustic emission test such as instrument check distance between sensors, sensor location, whole system calibration, pressurization sequence, noise reduction and evaluation. The data of acoustic emission test contain many noise signal, these noise can be reduced by time filtering which based on the description of observation during AE test

  11. Project W420 Air Sampler Probe Placement Qualification Tests for Four 6-Inch Diameter Stacks: 296-A-25, 296-B-28, 296-S-22, and 296-T-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maughan, A.D.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The W420 project covers the upgrading of effluent monitoring systems at six ventilation exhaust stacks in tank-farm facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The discharge stacks of five of the six systems will be completely replaced. Four of these (296-A-25, 296-B-28, 296-S-22, and 296-T-18) will be of the same size, 6-inches in diameter and about 12-ft high. This report documents tests that were conducted to verify that these four stacks meet the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe. These criteria ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the location of the probe such that the extracted sample represents the whole. There are also criteria addressing the transport of the sample to the collection device. These are not covered in this report, but will need to be addressed later. These tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on a full-scale model of the 6-inch stick. The sequence of tests addresses the acceptability of the flow angle relative to the probe and the uniformity of air velocity and gaseous and particle tracers in the cross section of the stack. All tests were successful, and all acceptance criteria were met

  12. Post-test analysis of 20kW molten carbonate fuel cell stack operated on coal gas. Final report, August 1993--February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A 20kW carbonate fuel cell stack was operated with coal gas for the first time in the world. The stack was tested for a total of 4,000 hours, of which 3,900 hours of testing was conducted at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Incorporated, Plaquemine, Louisiana outdoor site. The operation was on either natural gas or coal gas and switched several times without any effects, demonstrating duel fuel capabilities. This test was conducted with 9142 kJ/m{sup 3} (245 Btu/cft) coal gas provided by a slipstream from Destec`s entrained flow, slagging, slurry-fed gasifier equipped with a cold gas cleanup subsystem. The stack generated up to 21 kW with this coal gas. Following completion of this test, the stack was brought to Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and a detailed post-test analysis was conducted to identify any effects of coal gas on cell components. This investigation has shown that the direct fuel cell (DFC) can be operated with properly cleaned and humidified coal-as, providing stable performance. The basic C direct fuel cell component materials are stable and display normal stability in presence of the coal gas. No effects of the coal-borne contaminants are apparent. Further cell testing at ERC 1 17, confirmed these findings.

  13. Acoustic emission from zirconium alloys during mechanical and fracture testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.

    1986-10-01

    The application of acoustic emission during the mechanical and fracture testing of zirconium alloys is reviewed. Acoustic emission is successful in following delayed hydride cracking quantitatively. It is especially useful when great sensitivity is required. Application to fatigue, tensile deformation and stress corrosion cracking appears promising but requires more work to separate phenomena before it can be used quantitatively. This report is based on an invited review for the American Society of Non-Destructive Testing Handbook: Volume 5, Acoustic Emission Testing

  14. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  15. Acoustic emission monitoring of HFIR vessel during hydrostatic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesel, M.A.; Dawson, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the results and conclusions reached from applying acoustic emission monitoring to surveillance of the High Flux Isotope Reactor vessel during pressure testing. The objective of the monitoring was to detect crack growth and/or fluid leakage should it occur during the pressure test. The report addresses the approach, acoustic emission instrumentation, installation, calibration, and test results

  16. Accelerated life test of an ONO stacked insulator film for a silicon micro-strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Shoji; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Saitoh, Yutaka

    1996-01-01

    We have used to acquire the signal through an integrated capacitor for a silicon micro-strip detector. When we have been using a double-sided silicon micro-strip detector, we have required a long-term stability and a high feasibility for the integrated capacitor. An oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) insulator film was theoretically expected to have a superior nature in terms of long term reliability. In order to test long term reliability for integrated capacitor of a silicon micro-strip detector, we made a multi-channel measuring system for capacitors

  17. Testing of Ni-plated ferritic steel interconnect in SOFC stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.A.; Dinesen, A.R.; Korcakova, L.

    2006-01-01

    heating to 1,030 °C. During this time, 20–70 μm thick surface layers of austenitic steel were formed, which were covered by a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the anode side and by a layer of mixed Cr-Fe-Ni-spinels over a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the cathode side. The microstructure and composition...... of the protective scale on the cathode side was susceptible to pitting-type corrosion patterns, which may limit the life expectancy to less than 2,000 hours for the 200 μm thick interconnect tested. The initial area-specific resistances (ASR) at the interconnect/cathode current collector interface...

  18. Field Measurements of PCB emissions from Building Surfaces Using a New Portable Emission Test Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Haven, Rune; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure PCB-emission rates from indoor surfaces on-site in contaminated buildings using a newly developed portable emission test cell. Emission rates were measured from six different surfaces; three untreated surfaces and three remediated surfaces in a contaminated...

  19. Near Real-Time Ground-to-Ground Infrared Remote-Sensing Combination and Inexpensive Visible Camera Observations Applied to Tomographic Stack Emission Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe de Donato

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the environmental impact of gas plumes from stack emissions at the local level requires precise knowledge of the spatial development of the cloud, its evolution over time, and quantitative analysis of each gaseous component. With extensive developments, remote-sensing ground-based technologies are becoming increasingly relevant to such an application. The difficulty of determining the exact 3-D thickness of the gas plume in real time has meant that the various gas components are mainly expressed using correlation coefficients of gas occurrences and path concentration (ppm.m. This paper focuses on a synchronous and non-expensive multi-angled approach combining three high-resolution visible cameras (GoPro-Hero3 and a scanning infrared (IR gas system (SIGIS, Bruker. Measurements are performed at a NH3 emissive industrial site (NOVACARB Society, Laneuveville-devant-Nancy, France. Visible data images were processed by a first geometrical reconstruction gOcad® protocol to build a 3-D envelope of the gas plume which allows estimation of the plume’s thickness corresponding to the 2-D infrared grid measurements. NH3 concentration data could thereby be expressed in ppm and have been interpolated using a second gOcad® interpolation algorithm allowing a precise volume visualization of the NH3 distribution in the flue gas steam.

  20. Trends in Aggregate Vehicle Emissions: Do We Need To Emissions Test?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Kahn

    1995-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are falling. As the oldest vehicles in the fleet are scrapped and are replaced by cleaner vehicles, aggregate emissions decline. Given this trend, must costly used car regulation continue? The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires more stringent used car testing without considering the counter-factual of how aggregate emissions would evolve in the absence of more regulation. This paper use data on vehicle scrappage rates, vehicle emissions by model year, and county air quality leve...

  1. Field test of available methods to measure remotely SOx and NOx emissions from ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balzani Lööv, J.M.; Alfoldy, B.; Gast, L.F.L.; Hjorth, J.; Lagler, F.; Mellqvist, J.; Beecken, J.; Berg, N.; Duyzer, J.; Westrate, H.; Swart, D.P.J.; Berkhout, A.J.C.; Jalkanen, J.P.; Prata, A.J.; Van Der Hoff, G.R.; Borowiak, A.

    2014-01-01

    Methods for the determination of ship fuel sulphur content and NOx emission factors based on remote measurements have been compared in the harbour of Rotterdam and compared to direct stack emission measurements on the ferry Stena Hollandica. The methods were selected based on a review of the

  2. Detection of ductile crack initiation by acoustic emission testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.; Boehmert, J.; Viehrig, H.W.

    1998-08-01

    A Charpy impact test equipment is described permitting simultaneous measurement of impact force, crack tip opening, acoustic emissions and magnetic emissions. The core of the equipment is an inverted pendulum ram impact testing machine and the tests have been performed with laterally notched, pre-fatigue ISO-V specimens made of steels of various strength and toughness properties. The tests are intended to ascertain whether the acoustic emission method is suitable for detecting steady crack initiation in highly ductile steels. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Measurement of gamma activity from the PUREX stack, Number 296-A-10, HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    In response to the Environmental Protection Agency's requirements for evaluating radioactive emissions from stacks, this test plan was developed. The test plan employs the use of low resolution (NaI) portable gamma spectrometry to identify and measure gamma emitting radionuclides from HEPA filters. The test description, expected results, and test set-up and steps are discussed

  4. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksma, Harmen P; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops.

  5. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmen P Hendriksma

    Full Text Available The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA of genetically modified (GM crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops.

  6. Testing Pollen of Single and Stacked Insect-Resistant Bt-Maize on In vitro Reared Honey Bee Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksma, Harmen P.; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops. PMID:22194811

  7. Analysis of Passenger Car Emission Factors in RDE Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pielecha Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study on emission measurements in passenger cars in tests conducted under real traffic conditions – Real Driving Emissions using a Portable Emission Measurement System type of equipment. A special feature of the outlined RDE tests is that they were performed in Polish road conditions, and thus their parameters may differ from their counterparts adopted in most European Union countries. Based on the findings vehicle emission conformity factors were developed, characterized as the fractional increase (or decrease of traffic emissions during the homologation test or under normal operation conditions in relation to the emission limit standards (for chosen emission class of the vehicle. Conducted research and the calculated conformity factors allowed for the environmental impact assessment of the vehicles of various emission classes, while also allowing early actions to restrict the emissions of selected components in passenger vehicles. The methods and measures used can also be applied to other types of vehicles (e.g. heavy duty or off-road vehicles or vehicles powered by other fuels.

  8. Acoustic emission monitoring of the bending under tension test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadam, Marcel; Sulaiman, Mohd Hafis Bin; Christiansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary investigations have shown that acoustic emission has promising aspects as an online monitoring technique for assessment of tribological conditions during metal forming as regards to determination of the onset of galling. In the present study the acoustic emission measuring technique h...... in BUT testing has been found to describe the frictional conditions during forming well and to allow for accurate assessment of the limits of lubrication....... been applied for online monitoring of the frictional conditions experienced during Bending Under Tension (BUT) testing. The BUT test emulates the forming conditions experienced when drawing sheet material over a die curvature as in deep drawing processes. Monitoring of the developed acoustic emission...

  9. AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM THE EPA'S LIGHT DUTY TEST VEHICLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses measurements of ammonia (NH3) emissions from EPA's light duty test vehicle while operated on a dynamometer. The vehicle's (1993 Chevrolet equipped with a three-way catalyst) emissions were measured for three transient (urban driving, highway fuel economy, and ...

  10. Acoustic emission signal measurements in pressure vessel testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, A.

    1984-01-01

    The number of acoustic emission events per plastically deformed unit of volume caused by artificial notches in real pressure vessels has been calculated taking into account reference voltage, distance between acoustic emission source and sensor as well as the effect of noise background. A test performed at a 100 m 3 gasholder verifies the theoretical considerations. (author)

  11. Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator test bed for continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, L.V. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator, located on the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, continues to be the only operational incinerator in the country that can process hazardous and radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. During 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems established a continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) test bed and began conducting evaluations of CEMS under development to measure contaminants from waste combustion and thermal treatment stacks. The program was envisioned to promote CEMS technologies meeting requirements of the recently issued Proposed Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors as well as monitoring technologies that will allay public concerns about mixed waste thermal treatment and accelerate the development of innovative treatment technologies. Fully developed CEMS, as well as innovative continuous or semi-continuous sampling systems not yet interfaced with a pollutant analyzer, were considered as candidates for testing and evaluation. Complementary to other Environmental Protection Agency and DOE sponsored CEMS testing and within compliant operating conditions of the TSCA Incinerator, prioritization was given to multiple metals monitors also having potential to measure radionuclides associated with particulate emissions. In August 1996, developers of two multiple metals monitors participated in field activities at the incinerator and a commercially available radionuclide particulate monitor was acquired for modification and testing planned in 1997. This paper describes the CEMS test bed infrastructure and summarizes completed and planned activities

  12. Developing a 'Research Test Bed' to introduce innovative Emission Testing Technology to improve New Zealand's Vehicle Emission Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust emissions arise from the combustion of the fuel and air mixture in the engine. Exhaust emission gases generally include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), particulates, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). In New Zealand improvements have occurred in emissions standards over the past 20 years however significant health related issues are now being discovered in Auckland as a direct effect of high vehicle emission levels. Pollution in New Zealand, especially via vehicle emissions are an increasing concern and threatens New Zealand's 'clean and green' image. Unitec Institute of Technology proposes establishing a Vehicle Emissions Testing Facility, and with an understanding with Auckland University, National Institute of Water and Atmosphere Research Ltd (NIWA) this research group can work collaboratively on vehicle emissions testing. New Zealand research providers would support an application in the UK led by the University of Huddersfield to a range of European Union Structural Funds. New Zealand has an ideal 'vehicle emissions research environment' supported by significant expertise in vehicle emission control technology and associated protocols at the University of Auckland, and the effects of high vehicle emissions on health at the National Institutes of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA).

  13. Time reversal signal processing in acoustic emission testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk; Krofta, Josef; Kober, Jan; Dvořáková, Zuzana; Chlada, Milan; Dos Santos, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : acoustic emission (AE) * ultrasonic testing (UT) * signal processing * source location * time reversal acoustic s * acoustic emission * signal processing and transfer Subject RIV: BI - Acoustic s http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Slides/637_Prevorovsky.pdf

  14. The impact of stack geometry and mean pressure on cold end temperature of stack in thermoacoustic refrigeration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantha, Channarong

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the experimental and simulation studies of the influence of stack geometries and different mean pressures on the cold end temperature of the stack in the thermoacoustic refrigeration system. The stack geometry was tested, including spiral stack, circular pore stack and pin array stack. The results of this study show that the mean pressure of the gas in the system has a significant impact on the cold end temperature of the stack. The mean pressure of the gas in the system corresponds to thermal penetration depth, which results in a better cold end temperature of the stack. The results also show that the cold end temperature of the pin array stack decreases more than that of the spiral stack and circular pore stack geometry by approximately 63% and 70%, respectively. In addition, the thermal area and viscous area of the stack are analyzed to explain the results of such temperatures of thermoacoustic stacks.

  15. MODIFYING A 60-YEAR-OLD STACK-SAMPLING SYSTEM TO MEET ANSI N13.1-1999 EQUIVALENCY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 291-T-1 stack was constructed in 1944 to support ongoing missions associated with the Hanford Project. Recent changes in the plant mission required a revision to the existing license of the stack that was operating as a minor emission unit. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington Department of Health (WDOH) deemed this revision to be a significant modification, thereby requiring the stack to operate to the ANSI N13.1-1999 sampling and monitoring requirements. Because the stack is similar to other stacks on the Hanford site, allowance was made by EPA to demonstrate equivalency to the ANSI standard via calculations in lieu of actual testing. Calculations were allowed for determining the deposition, nozzle transmission and aspiration ratios, but measurements were required for the stack flow coefficient of variation (COV). The equivalency determination was to be based on the requirements of Table 6 of the ANSI N13.1-1999 Standard

  16. 40 CFR 86.1233-96 - Diurnal emission test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and... minimum wind speed of 5 mph (8 km/hr) under the fuel tank of the test vehicle. The Administrator may adjust fan speed and location to ensure sufficient air circulation around the fuel tank. The wind speed...

  17. Post-test characterization of a solid oxide fuel cell stack operated for more than 30,000 hours: The cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzler, Norbert H.; Sebold, Doris; Guillon, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    A four-layer solid oxide fuel cell stack with planar anode-supported cells was operated galvanostatically at 700 °C and 0.5Acm-2 for nearly 35,000 h. One of the four planes started to degrade more rapidly after ∼28,000 h and finally more progressively after ∼33,000 h. The stack was then shut down and a post-test analysis was carefully performed. The cell was characterized with respect to cathodic impurities and clarification of the reason(s) for failure. Wet chemical analysis revealed very low chromium incorporation into the cathode. However, SEM and TEM observations on polished and fractured surfaces showed catastrophic failure in the degraded layer. The cathode-barrier-electrolyte cell layer system delaminated from the entire cell over large areas. The source of delamination was the formation of a porous, sponge-like secondary phase consisting of zirconia, yttria and manganese (oxide). Large secondary phase islands grew from the electrolyte-anode interface towards the anode and cracked the bonding between both layers. The manganese originated from the contact or protection layers used on the air side. This stack result shows that volatile species - in this case manganese - should be avoided, especially when long-term applications are envisaged.

  18. Measurement of PCB emissions from building surfaces using a novel portable emission test cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in building materials like caulks and paints from 1930 e1970s and in some cases that caused elevated PCB concentrations in the indoor air at levels considered harmful to occupant health. PCBs are semivolatile organic compounds and capable of spreading from...... and there is a need to prioritise remediation measures on different materials. An inexpensive and portable emission test cell was developed to resemble indoor conditions in relation to the area specific ventilation rate. Emissions were measured using the test cell in the laboratory on freshly made PCB paint. Further......, the chamber was used for determining emissions from PCB-containing building materials in the field as well as remediated walls. The measurements showed that sorption of PCBs to chamber walls was insignificant after 2-4 days of exposure to the source. Over a period of two weeks emission rates did not change...

  19. Modeling fuel cell stack systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lalk, T R [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-06-15

    A technique for modeling fuel cell stacks is presented along with the results from an investigation designed to test the validity of the technique. The technique was specifically designed so that models developed using it can be used to determine the fundamental thermal-physical behavior of a fuel cell stack for any operating and design configuration. Such models would be useful tools for investigating fuel cell power system parameters. The modeling technique can be applied to any type of fuel cell stack for which performance data is available for a laboratory scale single cell. Use of the technique is demonstrated by generating sample results for a model of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack consisting of 125 cells each with an active area of 150 cm{sup 2}. A PEMFC stack was also used in the verification investigation. This stack consisted of four cells, each with an active area of 50 cm{sup 2}. Results from the verification investigation indicate that models developed using the technique are capable of accurately predicting fuel cell stack performance. (orig.)

  20. Emissions from laboratory combustor tests of manufactured wood products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, R.; Evans, M.; Ragland, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Baker, A. [USDA Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Manufactured wood products contain wood, wood fiber, and materials added during manufacture of the product. Manufacturing residues and the used products are burned in a furnace or boiler instead of landfilling. Emissions from combustion of these products contain additional compounds from the combustion of non-wood material which have not been adequately characterized to specify the best combustion conditions, emissions control equipment, and disposal procedures. Total hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, higher aldehydes and carbon monoxide emissions from aspen flakeboard and aspen cubes were measured in a 76 mm i.d. by 1.5 m long fixed bed combustor as a function of excess oxygen, and temperature. Emissions of hydrocarbons, aldehydes and CO from flakeboard and from clean aspen were very sensitive to average combustor temperature and excess oxygen. Hydrocarbon and aldehyde emissions below 10 ppM were achieved with 5% excess oxygen and 1,200{degrees}C average temperature for aspen flakeboard and 1,100{degrees}C for clean aspen at a 0.9 s residence time. When the average temperature decreased below these levels, the emissions increased rapidly. For example, at 950{degrees}C and 5% excess oxygen the formaldehyde emissions were over 1,000 ppM. These laboratory tests reinforce the need to carefully control the temperature and excess oxygen in full-scale wood combustors.

  1. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume C. Boiler emission report. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    The Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) test burn program was conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) located in Bruceton, Pa. One of the objectives of the study was to determine the feasibility of burning SRC fuels in boilers set up for fuel oil firing and to characterize emissions. Testing was conducted on the 700-hp oil-fired boiler used for research projects. No. 6 fuel oil was used for baseline data comparison, and the following SRC fuels were tested: SRC Fuel (pulverized SRC), SRC Residual Oil, and SRC-Water Slurry. Uncontrolled particulate emission rates averaged 0.9243 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Fuel, 0.1970 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Residual Oil, and 0.9085 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC-Water Slurry. On a lb/10/sup 6/ Btu basis, emissions from SRC Residual Oil averaged 79 and 78%, respectively, lower than the SRC Fuel and SRC-Water Slurry. The lower SRC Residual Oil emissions were due, in part, to the lower ash content of the oil and more efficient combustion. The SRC Fuel had the highest emission rate, but only 2% higher than the SRC-Water Slurry. Each fuel type was tested under variable boiler operating parameters to determine its effect on boiler emissions. The program successfully demonstrated that the SRC fuels could be burned in fuel oil boilers modified to handle SRC fuels. This report details the particulate emission program and results from testing conducted at the boiler outlet located before the mobile precipitator take-off duct. The sampling method was EPA Method 17, which uses an in-stack filter.

  2. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act mixed waste incinerator emissions tests of January 16 and 18, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, J.T.; Bostick, W.D.; Coroneos, A.C.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1992-02-01

    On January 16 and 18, 1991, special emissions tests were conducted at the Oak Ridge, K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. Both tests were approximately 6 h long and were performed at TSCA temperatures [1200 degrees C, secondary combustion chamber (SSC)]. Liquid feed and effluent samples were collected every 30 min. A filter was used to collect particles from stack gases to study morphology and composition during the first test. Isokinetic air samples were also taken during the second test. Metals emissions from the second test were evaluated using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 5 sampling train. The aqueous waste was collected and fed in batches to the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF), where it was treated by iron coprecipitation and polymer flocculation and data were collected. In the first test (1-16-91), the aqueous and organic wastes were fed directly to the kiln or primary combustion chamber (PCC). In the second test (1-18-91), the remaining organic waste from the first test was fed into the SSC, and other organic waste was fed into the PCC. One objective of the two tests was to determine if feeding the same organic waste into the two combustion chambers made a difference in a partitioning of uranium and other metals. No evaluation of radionuclides other than uranium was made. The partition coefficient of uranium to the quench water was 0.3 on January 16 and 0.35 on January 18; so directing Tank 306A to the feed to the primary vs the secondary combustion chamber appears to have made little difference. The partition coefficient of uranium to the stack on January 18 was 0.0039. 5 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs

  3. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  4. Continuous and recurrent testing of acoustic emission sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sause, Markus G.R.; Schmitt, Stefan; Potstada, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    In many fields of application of acoustic emission, the testing can lead to a lasting change in the sensor characteristics. This can be caused by mechanical damage, thermal stress or use under aggressive environmental conditions. Irrespective of visually testable damages of the sensors, a shift in the spectral sensitivity, a reduction in the absolute sensitivity or a reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio can occur. During the test, this requires a possibility to periodically check the sensors, including the coupling aids used. For recurring testing, recommendations are given in Directive SE 02 ''Verification of acoustic emission sensors and their coupling in the laboratory''. This paper discusses possibilities for continuous monitoring of the sensors during the test and presents an application example for the partly automated recurring testing of acoustic emission sensors using Directive SE 02. For this purpose, a test stand for the supply of the sensors to be tested was constructed and the signal recording and data reduction implemented in freely available software programs. The operating principle is demonstrated using selected case studies. [de

  5. Acoustic emission generated during scratch test of various thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháč, Petr; Tomáštík, J.; Čtvrtlík, R.; Dráb, M.; Koula, V.; Cvrk, K.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014), s. 16635 ISSN 1435-4934 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA03010743 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : acoustic emission * scratch test * thin films * AE data analysis * mechanical toughness Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  6. Measurement of acoustic emission signal energy. Calibration and tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, N.; Bernard, P.; Fayolle, J.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of using an Audimat W device for analyzing the electric energy of signals delivered by a piezo-electric sensor for acoustic emission was investigated. The characteristics of the prototype device could be improved. The tests performed revealed that the 7075-T651 aluminium alloy can be used as a reference material [fr

  7. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... percent relative humidity), a solar heat load intensity of 850 W/m2, and vehicle cooling air flow....161-00. (ii) Turn on the solar heating system. (iii) All vehicle test phases of preconditioning, soak...) Exhaust Emission Measurement Activities. The following activities are performed, when applicable, in order...

  8. Application of particle size distributions to total particulate stack samples to estimate PM2.5 and PM10 emission factors for agricultural sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particle size distributions (PSD) have long been used to more accurately estimate the PM10 fraction of total particulate matter (PM) stack samples taken from agricultural sources. These PSD analyses were typically conducted using a Coulter Counter with 50 micrometer aperture tube. With recent increa...

  9. Behavior of Mercury Emissions from a Commercial Coal-Fired Utility Boiler: TheRelationship Between Stack Speciation and Near-Field Plume Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reduction of divalent gaseous mercury (HgII) to elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0) in a commercial coal-fired power plant (CFPP)exhaust plume was investigated by simultaneous measurement in-stack and in-plume as part of a collaborative study among the U.S....

  10. Testing of acoustic emission method during pressure tests of WWER-440 steam generators and pressurizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerfl, K.; Crha, J.

    1987-01-01

    The results are discussed of measuring acoustic emission in output pressure testing of steam generators and pressurizers for WWER-440 reactors. The objective of the measurements was to test the reproducibility of measurements and to find the criterion which would be used in assessing the condition of the components during manufacture and in operation. The acoustic emission was measured using a single-channel Dunegan/Endevco apparatus and a 16-channel LOCAMAT system. The results showed that after the first assembly, during a repeat dismantle of the lids and during seal replacement, processes due to seal contacts and bolt and washer deformations were the main source of acoustic emission. A procedure was defined of how to exclude new acoustic emission sources in such cases. The acoustic emission method can be used for the diagnostics of plastic deformation processes or of crack production and propagation in components during service. (Z.M.)

  11. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy Systems for Ammonia Monitoring in Stack Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) technology test and quality assurance plan is to specify procedures for a verification test applicable to commercial cavity ringdown spectroscopy technologies. The purpose of the verification test is to evaluate the performa...

  12. Flexural characteristics of a stack leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-06-01

    A 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator is at present under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The insulating stack of the machine is of modular construction, each module being 860 mm in length. Each live section stack module contains 8 insulating legs mounted between bulkhead rings. The design, fabrication (from glass discs bonded to stainless steel discs using an epoxy film adhesive) and testing of the stack legs is described. (U.K.)

  13. Operational measurements of stack flow rates in a nuclear power plant with ultrasonic anemometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, E.; Kirtzel, H.-J.; Ebenhoech, E.

    2003-01-01

    The calculation of the impact of radio nuclides within the surroundings of nuclear power stations requires quantitative measurements of the stack emission. As a standard method, propeller anemometers have been installed inside the stack, but due to the wear and tear of the moving parts in such conventional sensors the servicing and maintenance are costly and may cause restrictions in the operation of the stack. As an alternative to propeller anemometers ultrasonic sensors have been applied which employ no moving parts and are almost free of maintenance. Furthermore, any shifts in internal calibration parameters can be identified by the sensor electronics with on-line plausibility checks. The tests have proven that ultrasonic systems are able to measure adequately and reliably the flow inside the stack. (orig.)

  14. Performance Analysis of Air Breathing Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack (PEMFCS) At Different Operating Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, V.; Venkata siva, G.; Yoganjaneyulu, G.; Ravikumar, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The answer for an emission free power source in future is in the form of fuel cells which combine hydrogen and oxygen producing electricity and a harmless by product-water. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is ideal for automotive applications. A single cell cannot supply the essential power for any application. Hence PEM fuel cell stacks are used. The effect of different operating parameters namely: type of convection, type of draught, hydrogen flow rate, hydrogen inlet pressure, ambient temperature and humidity, hydrogen humidity, cell orientation on the performance of air breathing PEM fuel cell stack was analyzed using a computerized fuel cell test station. Then, the fuel cell stack was subjected to different load conditions. It was found that the stack performs very poorly at full capacity (runs only for 30 min. but runs for 3 hours at 50% capacity). Hence, a detailed study was undertaken to maximize the duration of the stack’s performance at peak load.

  15. Durable solid oxide electrolysis cells and stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Chen

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of this project was to make a substantial contribution to development of a cost competitive electrolysis technology based on solid oxide cells. The strategy was to address what had been identified as the key issues in previous research projects. Accordingly five lines of work were carried out in the here reported project: 1) Cell and stack element testing and post test characterization to identify major degradation mechanisms under electrolysis operation. 2) Development of interconnects and coatings to allow stable electrolysis operation at approx850 deg. C or above. 3) Development of seals with reduced Si emission. 4) Development of durable SOEC cathodes. 5) Modeling. Good progress has been made on several of the planned activities. The outcome and most important achievements of the current project are listed for the five lines of the work. (LN)

  16. Test Report Emission Test Program EPA Information Collection Request for Delayed Coking Units 736 Coker Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARI Environmental, Inc. (ARI) was retained by Houston Refining LP (HRO) to conduct an emission test program at their refinery located in Houston, Texas. The testing was conducted on on the 736 Delayed Coking Unit (DCU) in response to EPA's ICR.

  17. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  18. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  19. 1997 Performance Testing of Multi-Metal Continuous Emissions Monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Five prototype and two commercially available multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in September 1997 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The seven CEMs were tested side by side in a long section of duct following the secondary combustion chamber of the RKIS. Two different concentrations of six toxic metals were introduced into the incinerator-approximately 15 and 75 g/dscm of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury (We also tested for antimony but we are not reporting on it here because EPA recently dropped antimony from the list of metals addressed by the draft MACT rule). These concentrations were chosen to be close to emission standards in the draft MACT rule and the estimated Method Detection Limit (MDL) required of a CEM for regulatory compliance purposes. Results from this test show that no CEMs currently meet the performance specifications in the EPA draft MACT rule for hazardous waste incinerators. Only one of the CEMs tested was able to measure all six metals at the concentrations tested. Even so, the relative accuracy of this CEM varied between 35% and 100%, not 20% or less as required in the EPA performance specification. As a result, we conclude that no CEM is ready for long-term performance validation for compliance monitoring applications. Because sampling and measuring Hg is a recurring problem for multi-metal CEMs as well as Hg CEMs, we recommended that developers participate in a 1998 DOE-sponsored workshop to solve these and other common CEM measurement issues

  20. Waste retrieval sluicing system vapor sampling and analysis plan for evaluation of organic emissions, process test phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    and to demonstrate control of the VOC below acceptable limits during the different modes of sluicing. A goal of phase III of the process test will be to obtain representative vapor samples at higher concentrations than those achieved in phase I and phase I1 of the process test. During phase III of the process test, vapor samples will be obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack. Ambient air samples will also be obtained at two locations within 241-C Tank Farm. Results will be used to address the following: (1) Provide gas composition data that can be used to determine personnel protective measures, (2) Provide gas composition data that can be used for control equipment selection and design, if required, and (3) Substantiate that ammonia and organic emissions are below regulatory thresholds during the test

  1. The role of multiple regression and exploratory data analysis in the development of leukemia incidence risk models for comparison of radionuclide air stack emissions from nuclear and coal power industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prybutok, V.R.

    1995-01-01

    Risk associated with power generation must be identified to make intelligent choices between alternate power technologies. Radionuclide air stack emissions for a single coal plant and a single nuclear plant are used to compute the single plant leukemia incidence risk and total industry leukemia incidence risk. Leukemia incidence is the response variable as a function of radionuclide bone dose for the six proposed dose response curves considered. During normal operation a coal plant has higher radionuclide emissions than a nuclear plant and the coal industry has a higher leukaemia incidence risk than the nuclear industry, unless a nuclear accident occurs. Variation of nuclear accident size allows quantification of the impact of accidents on the total industry leukemia incidence risk comparison. The leukemia incidence risk is quantified as the number of accidents of a given size for the nuclear industry leukemia incidence risk to equal the coal industry leukemia incidence risk. The general linear model is used to develop equations that relate the accident frequency required for equal industry risks to the magnitude of the nuclear emission. Exploratory data analysis revealed that the relationship between the natural log of accident number versus the natural log of accident size is linear. (Author)

  2. OpenStack essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Radez, Dan

    2015-01-01

    If you need to get started with OpenStack or want to learn more, then this book is your perfect companion. If you're comfortable with the Linux command line, you'll gain confidence in using OpenStack.

  3. Stack gas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-04-12

    Hot stack gases transfer contained heat to a gravity flow of pebbles treated with a catalyst, cooled stacked gases and a sulfuric acid mist is withdrawn from the unit, and heat picked up by the pebbles is transferred to air for combustion or other process. The sulfuric acid (or sulfur, depending on the catalyst) is withdrawn in a recovery unit.

  4. Mastering OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Khedher, Omar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators, cloud engineers, and system architects who want to deploy a cloud based on OpenStack in a mid- to large-sized IT infrastructure. If you have a fundamental understanding of cloud computing and OpenStack and want to expand your knowledge, then this book is an excellent checkpoint to move forward.

  5. Field test of available methods to measure remotely SOx and NOx emissions from ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzani Lööv, J. M.; Alfoldy, B.; Gast, L. F. L.; Hjorth, J.; Lagler, F.; Mellqvist, J.; Beecken, J.; Berg, N.; Duyzer, J.; Westrate, H.; Swart, D. P. J.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Prata, A. J.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Borowiak, A.

    2014-08-01

    Methods for the determination of ship fuel sulphur content and NOx emission factors based on remote measurements have been compared in the harbour of Rotterdam and compared to direct stack emission measurements on the ferry Stena Hollandica. The methods were selected based on a review of the available literature on ship emission measurements. They were either optical (LIDAR, Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS), UV camera), combined with model-based estimates of fuel consumption, or based on the so called "sniffer" principle, where SO2 or NOx emission factors are determined from simultaneous measurement of the increase of CO2 and SO2 or NOx concentrations in the plume of the ship compared to the background. The measurements were performed from stations at land, from a boat and from a helicopter. Mobile measurement platforms were found to have important advantages compared to the land-based ones because they allow optimizing the sampling conditions and sampling from ships on the open sea. Although optical methods can provide reliable results it was found that at the state of the art level, the "sniffer" approach is the most convenient technique for determining both SO2 and NOx emission factors remotely. The average random error on the determination of SO2 emission factors comparing two identical instrumental set-ups was 6%. However, it was found that apparently minor differences in the instrumental characteristics, such as response time, could cause significant differences between the emission factors determined. Direct stack measurements showed that about 14% of the fuel sulphur content was not emitted as SO2. This was supported by the remote measurements and is in agreement with the results of other field studies.

  6. Field test of available methods to measure remotely SO2 and NOx emissions from ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzani Lööv, J. M.; Alfoldy, B.; Beecken, J.; Berg, N.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Duyzer, J.; Gast, L. F. L.; Hjorth, J.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Lagler, F.; Mellqvist, J.; Prata, F.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Westrate, H.; Swart, D. P. J.; Borowiak, A.

    2013-11-01

    Methods for the determination of ship fuel sulphur content and NOx emission factors from remote measurements have been compared in the harbour of Rotterdam and compared to direct stack emission measurements on the ferry Stena Hollandica. The methods were selected based on a review of the available literature on ship emission measurements. They were either optical (LIDAR, DOAS, UV camera), combined with model based estimates of fuel consumption, or based on the so called "sniffer" principle, where SO2 or NOx emission factors are determined from simultaneous measurement of the increase of CO2 and SO2 or NOx concentrations in the plume of the ship compared to the background. The measurements were performed from stations at land, from a boat, and from a helicopter. Mobile measurement platforms were found to have important advantages compared to the landbased ones because they allow to optimize the sampling conditions and to sample from ships on the open sea. Although optical methods can provide reliable results, it was found that at the state of the art, the "sniffer" approach is the most convenient technique for determining both SO2 and NOx emission factors remotely. The average random error on the determination of SO2 emission factors comparing two identical instrumental set-ups was 6%. However, it was found that apparently minor differences in the instrumental characteristics, such as response time, could cause significant differences between the emission factors determined. Direct stack measurements showed that about 14% of the fuel sulphur content was not emitted as SO2. This was supported by the remote measurements and is in agreement with the results of other field studies.

  7. Stacking with stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, Fritz E-mail: Fritz.Caspers@cern.ch; Moehl, Dieter

    2004-10-11

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 10{sup 5} the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some

  8. Acoustic Emission from Elevator Wire Ropes During Tensile Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenjie; Chai, Mengyu; Li, Lichan; Li, Yongquan; Duan, Quan

    The acoustic emission (AE) technique was used to monitor the tensile testing process for two kinds of elevator wire ropes in our work. The AE signals from wire breaks were obtained and analyzed by AE parameters and waveforms. The results showed that AE technique can be a useful tool to monitor wire break phenomenon of wire ropes and effectively capture information of wire break signal. The relationship between AE signal characteristics and wire breaks is investigated and it is found that the most effective acoustic signal discriminators are amplitude and absolute energy. Moreover, the wire break signal of two kinds of ropes is a type of burst signal and it is believed that the waveform and spectrum can be applied to analyze the AE wire break signals.

  9. V-stack piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelean, Emil V.; Clark, Robert L.

    2001-07-01

    Aeroelastic control of wings by means of a distributed, trailing-edge control surface is of interest with regards to maneuvers, gust alleviation, and flutter suppression. The use of high energy density, piezoelectric materials as motors provides an appealing solution to this problem. A comparative analysis of the state of the art actuators is currently being conducted. A new piezoelectric actuator design is presented. This actuator meets the requirements for trailing edge flap actuation in both stroke and force. It is compact, simple, sturdy, and leverages stroke geometrically with minimum force penalties while displaying linearity over a wide range of stroke. The V-Stack Piezoelectric Actuator, consists of a base, a lever, two piezoelectric stacks, and a pre-tensioning element. The work is performed alternately by the two stacks, placed on both sides of the lever. Pre-tensioning can be readily applied using a torque wrench, obviating the need for elastic elements and this is for the benefit of the stiffness of the actuator. The characteristics of the actuator are easily modified by changing the base or the stacks. A prototype was constructed and tested experimentally to validate the theoretical model.

  10. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  11. Status of MCFC stack technology at IHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosaka, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Otsubo, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising option for highly efficient power generation possible to enlarge. IHI has been studying parallel flow MCFC stacks with internal manifolds that have a large electrode area of 1m{sup 2}. IHI will make two 250 kW stacks for MW plant, and has begun to make cell components for the plant. To improve the stability of stack, soft corrugated plate used in the separator has been developed, and a way of gathering current from stacks has been studied. The DC output potential of the plant being very high, the design of electric insulation will be very important. A 20 kW short stack test was conducted in 1995 FY to certificate some of the improvements and components of the MW plant. These activities are presented below.

  12. Stimulated Emission from InAs (GaAs Monolayers Stacks Embedded in Al0.33Ga0.67As Ective Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Pudis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on the optical and electronic properties of InAs (GaAs monolayers embedded in Al0.33GA0.67As barrier layers investigated by temperature dependencies of electroluminescence spectra. The experimental results obtained from low temperature electroluminescence measurements of InAs (GaAs/Al0.33GA0.67As revealed the excellent emission spectra in the visib le range 630-690 nm. The stimulated emission from these structures across their cleavage planes has been observed at low  temperatures what is highly interesting for potential device applications.

  13. Effluent Treatment Facility tritium emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sampling and analysis protocol was developed and executed to verify atmospheric emissions compliance for the new Savannah River Site (SRS) F/H area Effluent Treatment Facility. Sampling equipment was fabricated, installed, and tested at stack monitoring points for filtrable particulate radionuclides, radioactive iodine, and tritium. The only detectable anthropogenic radionuclides released from Effluent Treatment Facility stacks during monitoring were iodine-129 and tritium oxide. This paper only examines the collection and analysis of tritium oxide

  14. Characterization of Piezoelectric Stacks for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher; Aldrich, Jack; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to actuate mechanisms to precision levels in the nanometer range and below. Co-fired multilayer piezoelectric stacks offer the required actuation precision that is needed for such mechanisms. To obtain performance statistics and determine reliability for extended use, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and high temperatures and voltages. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators were driven sinusoidally for up to ten billion cycles. An automated data acquisition system was developed and implemented to monitor each stack's electrical current and voltage waveforms over the life of the test. As part of the monitoring tests, the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current were measured to assess the operation degradation. This paper presents some of the results of this effort.

  15. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Ronald; Grossman, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to under-ground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by winds) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF), an NTS support complex in the city of North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2008a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from other man-made sources such as medical treatments. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo

  16. Stacking the Equiangular Spiral

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A.; Azabi, Y. O.; Rahman, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present an algorithm that adapts the mature Stack and Draw (SaD) methodology for fabricating the exotic Equiangular Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber. (ES-PCF) The principle of Steiner chains and circle packing is exploited to obtain a non-hexagonal design using a stacking procedure based on Hexagonal Close Packing. The optical properties of the proposed structure are promising for SuperContinuum Generation. This approach could make accessible not only the equiangular spiral but also other qua...

  17. PRECISION COSMOGRAPHY WITH STACKED VOIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a purely geometrical method for probing the expansion history of the universe from the observation of the shape of stacked voids in spectroscopic redshift surveys. Our method is an Alcock-Paczyński (AP) test based on the average sphericity of voids posited on the local isotropy of the universe. It works by comparing the temporal extent of cosmic voids along the line of sight with their angular, spatial extent. We describe the algorithm that we use to detect and stack voids in redshift shells on the light cone and test it on mock light cones produced from N-body simulations. We establish a robust statistical model for estimating the average stretching of voids in redshift space and quantify the contamination by peculiar velocities. Finally, assuming that the void statistics that we derive from N-body simulations is preserved when considering galaxy surveys, we assess the capability of this approach to constrain dark energy parameters. We report this assessment in terms of the figure of merit (FoM) of the dark energy task force and in particular of the proposed Euclid mission which is particularly suited for this technique since it is a spectroscopic survey. The FoM due to stacked voids from the Euclid wide survey may double that of all other dark energy probes derived from Euclid data alone (combined with Planck priors). In particular, voids seem to outperform baryon acoustic oscillations by an order of magnitude. This result is consistent with simple estimates based on mode counting. The AP test based on stacked voids may be a significant addition to the portfolio of major dark energy probes and its potentialities must be studied in detail.

  18. 40 CFR 1045.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test... Procedures § 1045.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Applicability. This subpart is addressed to you... maximum test speed. (g) Special and alternate procedures. If you are unable to run the duty cycle...

  19. 40 CFR 1054.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test... Procedures § 1054.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Applicability. This subpart is addressed to you... provisions of 40 CFR 1065.405 describes how to prepare an engine for testing. However, you may consider...

  20. 40 CFR 1060.521 - How do I test fuel caps for permeation emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I test fuel caps for permeation... EQUIPMENT Test Procedures § 1060.521 How do I test fuel caps for permeation emissions? If you measure a fuel tank's permeation emissions with a nonpermeable covering in place of the fuel cap under § 1060.520(b)(5...

  1. 40 CFR 1060.520 - How do I test fuel tanks for permeation emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I test fuel tanks for... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Test Procedures § 1060.520 How do I test fuel tanks for permeation emissions? Measure permeation emissions by weighing a sealed fuel tank before and after a temperature-controlled soak. (a...

  2. Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    cathode air cooled 30 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack developed at the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University. This fuel cell stack uses PEMEAS Celtec P-1000 membranes, runs on pure hydrogen in a dead end anode configuration with a purge valve. The cooling of the stack is managed by running......The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system consists of a prototype...... the stack at a high stoichiometric air flow. This is possible because of the PBI fuel cell membranes used, and the very low pressure drop in the stack. The model consists of a discrete thermal model dividing the stack into three parts: inlet, middle and end and predicting the temperatures in these three...

  3. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  4. Stochastic stacking without filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.

    1982-12-01

    The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10 8 per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth

  5. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  6. Laser pulse stacking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  7. Estimating Full IM240 Emissions from Partial Test Results: Evidence from Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W; Harrington, Winston; McConnell, Virginia

    1999-10-01

    The expense and inconvenience of enhanced-vehicle-emissions testing using the full 240-second dynamometer test has led states to search for ways to shorten the test process. In fact, all states that currently use the IM240 allow some type of fast-pass, usually as early in the test as second 31, and Arizona has allowed vehicles to fast-fail after second 93. While these shorter tests save states millions of dollars in inspection lanes and driver costs, there is a loss of information since test results are no longer comparable across vehicles. This paper presents a methodology for estimating full 240-second results from partial-test results for three pollutants: HC, CO, and NO x . If states can convert all tests to consistent IM240 readings, they will be able to better characterize fleet emissions and to evaluate the impact of inspection and maintenance and other programs on emissions over time. Using a random sample of vehicles in Arizona which received full 240-second tests, we use regression analysis to estimate the relationship between emissions at second 240 and emissions at earlier seconds in the test. We examine the influence of other variables such as age, model-year group, and the pollution level itself on this relationship. We also use the estimated coefficients in several applications. First, we try to shed light on the frequent assertion that the results of the dynamometer test provide guidance for vehicle repair of failing vehicles. Using a probit analysis, we find that the probability that a failing vehicle will pass the test on the first retest is greater the longer the test has progressed. Second, we test the accuracy of our estimates for forecasting fleet emissions from partial-test emissions results in Arizona. We find forecasted fleet average emissions to be very close to the actual fleet averages for light-duty vehicles, but not quite as good for trucks, particularly when NO x emissions are forecast.

  8. Development of the Flame Test Concept Inventory: Measuring Student Thinking about Atomic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Murata Mayo, Ana Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    This study reports the development of a 19-item Flame Test Concept Inventory, an assessment tool to measure students' understanding of atomic emission. Fifty-two students enrolled in secondary and postsecondary chemistry courses were interviewed about atomic emission and explicitly asked to explain flame test demonstrations and energy level…

  9. 40 CFR 1039.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test? 1039.501 Section 1039.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Procedures § 1039.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Use the equipment and procedures for...

  10. 40 CFR 1051.515 - How do I test my fuel tank for permeation emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I test my fuel tank for... Procedures § 1051.515 How do I test my fuel tank for permeation emissions? Measure permeation emissions by weighing a sealed fuel tank before and after a temperature-controlled soak. (a) Preconditioning fuel soak...

  11. Automation and results of Adjacent Band Emission testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Problem Statement : Multiple groups conduct tests in various ways - Outcomes vary based on test setup and assumptions - No standard has been established to conduct such tests - Spectrum is scarce and the need for compliance testing will only increase...

  12. Test Method for High β Particle Emission Rate of 63Ni Source Plate

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Li-feng

    2015-01-01

    For the problem of measurement difficulties of β particle emission rate of Ni-63 source plate used for Ni-63 betavoltaic battery, a relative test method of scintillation current method was erected according to the measurement principle of scintillation detector.β particle emission rate of homemade Ni-63 source plate was tested by the method, and the test results were analysed and evaluated, it was initially thought that scintillation current method was a feasible way of testing β particle emi...

  13. Field testing of particulate matter continuous emission monitors at the DOE Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator. Toxic Substances Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James E; Davis, Wayne T; Calcagno, James A; Allen, Marshall W

    2002-01-01

    A field study to evaluate the performance of three commercially available particulate matter (PM) continuous emission monitors (CEMs) was conducted in 1999-2000 at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. This study offers unique features that are believed to enhance the collective US experience with PM CEMs. The TSCA Incinerator is permitted to treat PCB-contaminated RCRA hazardous low-level radioactive wastes. The air pollution control system utilizes MACT control technology and is comprised of a rapid quench, venturi scrubber, packed bed scrubber, and two ionizing wet scrubbers in series, which create a saturated flue gas that must be conditioned by the CEMs prior to measurement. The incinerator routinely treats a wide variety of wastes including high and low BTU organic liquids, aqueous, and solid wastes. The various possible combinations for treating liquid and solid wastes may present a challenge in establishing a single, acceptable correlation relationship for individual CEMs. The effect of low-level radioactive material present in the waste is a unique site-specific factor not evaluated in previous tests. The three systems chosen for evaluation were two beta gauge devices and a light scattering device. The performance of the CEMs was evaluated using the requirements in draft Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 11 (PS11) and Procedure 2. The results of Reference Method 5i stack tests for establishing statistical correlations between the reference method data and the CEMs responses are discussed.

  14. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  15. 40 CFR 1042.235 - Emission testing related to certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES... certified. For Category 3 engines, you may use a single-cylinder version of the engine. Using good.... The engine you provide must include appropriate manifolds, aftertreatment devices, electronic control...

  16. Acoustic emission measurements during impacts tests for determining ductile fracture data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.

    2000-09-01

    The document reports work for further development of methods and tests to obtain better information on the crack initiation toughness (J id ) under impact loading conditions, by acoustic emission measurements. The applicability of the acoustic emission tests for the given purpose was proven by instrumented Charpy tests using modified ISO-V specimens. The physical crack initiation toughness served as the reference value for reliable evaluation of the characteristic data obtained. This reference value is derived from the crack resistance curve determined by the multi-specimen cleavage fracture method combined with data from measurements of the stretching zone width. Verification of the acoustic emission-defined initiation value included a variety of tests, as e.g. additional dynamic single-specimen methods (L-COD, magnetic emission), and supplementary tests (D3PB, pendulum impact testing machine). The test materials are various steels with different strength/toughness properties. (orig./CB) [de

  17. Emission of biocides from treated materials: test procedures for water and air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoknecht, Ute; Wegner, Robby; Horn, Wolfgang; Jann, Oliver

    2003-01-01

    Methods for the determination of biocide emissions from treated materials into water and air were developed and tested in order to support a comparative ecological assessment of biocidal products. Leaching tests, experiments with simulated rain, extraction cleaning of carpets and emission chamber tests were performed with a series of treated materials. The experiments focused on the effect of changes in the procedure as well as characteristics of the specimens and demonstrate the suitability of the proposed methods for biocides of different product types. It was demonstrated that emissions of biocides into water can be compared on the basis of leaching tests in which the emission kinetics of the active ingredients are recorded. However, the water volume per surface area and the timetable for water changes have to be defined in such tests. Functions of flux rates related to time can be well described for inorganic compounds, whereas modelling of the data is more complicated for organic substances. Emission chamber tests using 20-litre and 23-litre glass exsiccators, originally developed to study volatile organic compounds, were successfully adapted for the investigation of the emission of biocides from treated materials which are usually semi volatile organic compounds. However test parameters and the method of analysis have to be adapted to the substances to be determined. Generally, it was found that the emission curves for the semi volatile organic compounds investigated differ from those of volatile organic compounds.

  18. OpenStack cloud security

    CERN Document Server

    Locati, Fabio Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack administrator or developer, or wish to build solutions to protect your OpenStack environment, then this book is for you. Experience of Linux administration and familiarity with different OpenStack components is assumed.

  19. Stacked magnet superconducting bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines

  20. Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.

  1. Operation test for 200-kW class internally improved MCFC stacks having achieved 5000 hours; 200kW kyu naibu kaishitsu gata MCFC sutakku unten shiken 5,000 jikan tassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashino, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-03-10

    The operation test for 200-kW class internally improved MCFC stacks being performed at the Amagasaki fuel cell power generation testing plant of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. has achieved on January 22, 2000 five thousand hours, the original test time target. Temperature raising has begun on June 18 last year, and the first power generation was carried out on June 30. Since then the operation has continued smoothly at near rated output, and the test was completed nearly as planned without experiencing any trouble caused by Y2K problem. This research is being carried out as the research work shared by the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Power Generation System Technology Research Association (MCFC Research Association) based on the research commissioning from NEDO as part of the New Sunshine Project. After the confirmation of the initial performance, verification of the carbon dioxide self-sustaining operation, and the property evaluation test of every 500 hours are going smoothly. The intention hereafter is to achieve 5,000 hours as the power generation time, with the schedule to reduce the stack temperature in the middle of February, and cease the operation. As of January 25, the amount of power generated reached 1,089 MWh. (NEDO)

  2. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subparts D and E - Motorcycle Noise Emission Test Procedures [Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motorcycle Noise Emission Test... (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles Recall of noncomplying motorcycles; relabeling of mislabeled motorcycles. Appendix I to Subparts D and E—Motorcycle Noise...

  3. 40 CFR 205.54-1 - Low speed sound emission test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low speed sound emission test procedures. 205.54-1 Section 205.54-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205...

  4. The Development of Testing Methods for Characterizing Emissions and Sources of Exposures from Polyurethane Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between onsite manufacture of spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI) and potential exposures is not well understood. Currently, no comprehensive standard test methods exist for characterizing and quantifying product emissions. Exposures to diisocyanate compoun...

  5. 40 CFR 1042.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS... testing is limited to ambient temperatures of 20 to 30 °C. Atmospheric pressure must be between 91.000 and...

  6. Design of crude oil storage tank for acoustic emission testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Masrul Nizam Salleh; Abd Razak Hamzah; Norasiah Abd Kasim

    2005-01-01

    The integrity of crude oil storage tank needs to be well managed because they can contain a large inventory of hazardous material and because of the high cost such as cleaning and waste disposal prior to disposal and maintenance. Costs involved in cleaning and inspection can be up to several hundreds thousand Malaysian Ranting. If the floor then proves to be in good condition, these costs have been wasted. Acoustic Emission (AE) is proposed to be use for monitoring the floor of the storage tank on line without doing cleaning and waste disposal. A storage tank will be fabricated for storing the crude oil and then the corrosion process will be monitor using AE method. This paper will discuss the background, material and is technical specification, design and also the difficulties faced during design and fabrication process. (Author)

  7. 40 CFR 1048.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test... § 1048.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Use the equipment and procedures for spark-ignition... 86.132-96(h) and then operate the engine for 60 minutes over repeat runs of the duty cycle specified...

  8. Acoustic emission test on a 25mm thick mild steel pressure vessel with inserted defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, P.G.; Dawson, D.G.; Hanley, D.J.; Kirby, N.

    1976-12-01

    Acoustic emission measurements have been taken on an experimental mild steel vessel with 4 inserted defects ranging in severity up to 90% of through thickness. The vessel was subjected to a series of pressure excursions of increasing magnitude until failure occurred by extension of the largest inserted defect through the vessel wall. No acoustic emission was detected throughout any part of the tests which would indicate the presence of such serious defects or of impending failure. Measurements of acoustic emission from metallurgical specimens are included and the results of post test inspection using conventional NDT and metallographic techniques are reported. (author)

  9. Test emission of uranium hexafluoride in atmosphere. Results interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.; Deville-Cavelin, G.

    1989-01-01

    To permit the modelization of gaseous uranium hexafluoride behaviour in atmosphere, a validation test has been executed the 10 April 1987. The experimental conditions, the main results and a comparison with a diffusion model are given in this report [fr

  10. MEAN STACK WEB DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thanh, Nghi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to provide a universal website using JavaScript as the main programming language. It also shows the basic parts anyone need to create a web application. The thesis creates a simple CMS using MEAN stack. MEAN is a collection of JavaScript based technologies used to develop web application. It is an acronym for MongoDB, Express, AngularJS and Node.js. It also allows non-technical users to easily update and manage a website’s content. But the application also lets o...

  11. Die-stacking architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) chip architectures, with their intrinsic capability of reducing the wire length, promise attractive solutions to reduce the delay of interconnects in future microprocessors. 3D memory stacking enables much higher memory bandwidth for future chip-multiprocessor design, mitigating the ""memory wall"" problem. In addition, heterogenous integration enabled by 3D technology can also result in innovative designs for future microprocessors. This book first provides a brief introduction to this emerging technology, and then presents a variety of approaches to design

  12. 40 CFR 86.159-08 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., CH4, and NOX. (b) Dynamometer activities. (1) All official US06 tests shall be run on a large single... be supplied on request of the Administrator. (6) The drive wheel tires may be inflated up to a gauge... prevent tire damage. The drive wheel tire pressure shall be reported with the test results. (7) The...

  13. Progress of MCFC stack technology at Toshiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M.; Hayashi, T.; Shimizu, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba is working on the development of MCFC stack technology; improvement of cell characteristics, and establishment of separator technology. For the cell technology, Toshiba has concentrated on both the restraints of NiO cathode dissolution and electrolyte loss from cells, which are the critical issues to extend cell life in MCFC, and great progress has been made. On the other hand, recognizing that the separator is one of key elements in accomplishing reliable and cost-competitive MCFC stacks, Toshiba has been accelerating the technology establishment and verification of an advanced type separator. A sub-scale stack with such a separator was provided for an electric generating test, and has been operated for more than 10,000 hours. This paper presents several topics obtained through the technical activities in the MCFC field at Toshiba.

  14. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  15. 40 CFR 86.133-96 - Diurnal emission test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for gasoline-, methanol- and gaseous-fueled vehicles consists of three 24-hour test cycles following... the underbody temperature sensor shall follow the profile with a maximum deviation of 3 °F at any time... temperature sensors shall follow the profile with a maximum deviation of 5 °F at any time. (2) Ambient...

  16. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  17. A Diagnostic Test for Determining the Location of the GeV Emission in Powerful Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Amanda; Georganopoulos, Markos; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Perlman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    An issue currently under debate in the literature is how far from the black hole is the Fermi-observed GeV emission of powerful blazars emitted. Here we present a clear diagnostic tool for testing whether the Ge V emission site is located within the sub-pc broad emission line (BLR) region or further out in the few pc scale molecular torus (MT) environment. Within the BLR the scatteri takes place at the onset of the Klein-Nishina regime, causing the electron cooling time to become almost energy independent and as a result, the variation of high-energy emission is expected to be achromatic. Contrarily, if the emission site is located outside the BLR, the expected GeY variability is energy-dependent and with amplitude increasing with energy. We demonstrate this using time-dependent numerical simulations of blazar variability.

  18. Investigation of Ruthenium Dissolution in Advanced Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Direct Methanol Based Fuel Cells Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Firdosy, S.; Koel, B. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed review of the Direct Methanol Based Fuel Cell (DMFC) stack and investigates the Ruthenium that was found at the exit of the stack. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) Pathways for Cell Degradation; 3) Cell Duration Testing; 4) Duration Testing, MEA Analysis; and 5) Stack Degradation Analysis.

  19. Masonry fireplace emissions test method: Repeatability and sensitivity to fueling protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, C H; Jaasma, D R; Champion, M R

    1993-03-01

    A test method for masonry fireplaces has been evaluated during testing on six masonry fireplace configurations. The method determines carbon monoxide and particulate matter emission rates (g/h) and factors (g/kg) and does not require weighing of the appliance to determine the timing of fuel loading.The intralaboratory repeatability of the test method has been determined from multiple tests on the six fireplaces. For the tested fireplaces, the ratio of the highest to lowest measured PM rate averaged 1.17 and in no case was greater than 1.32. The data suggest that some of the variation is due to differences in fuel properties.The influence of fueling protocol on emissions has also been studied. A modified fueling protocol, tested in large and small fireplaces, reduced CO and PM emission factors by roughly 40% and reduced CO and PM rates from 0 to 30%. For both of these fireplaces, emission rates were less sensitive to fueling protocol than emission factors.

  20. 40 CFR 86.159-00 - Exhaust emission test procedures for US06 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... run on a large single roll electric dynamometer, or an approved equivalent dynamometer configuration... validity, shall be supplied on request of the Administrator. (6) The drive wheel tires may be inflated up... psi, in order to prevent tire damage. The drive wheel tire pressure shall be reported with the test...

  1. A multivariate causality test of carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ching-Chih

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses multivariate co-integration Granger causality tests to investigate the correlations between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China. Some researchers have argued that the adoption of a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption as a long term policy goal will result in a closed-form relationship, to the detriment of the economy. Therefore, a perspective that can make allowances for the fact that the exclusive pursuit of economic growth will increase energy consumption and CO 2 emissions is required; to the extent that such growth will have adverse effects with regard to global climate change. (author)

  2. Magnet design and test of positron emission tomography cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Tao; Yang Guojun; He Xiaozhong; Pang Jian; Zhao Liangchao; Zhang Kaizhi

    2012-01-01

    An 11 MeV H - compact cyclotron used for medical radioactive isotope production is under construction in Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP. The cyclotron magnet adopts the design of small valley gaps and coulee structure which can provide high average magnetic field and strong focus ability. To achieve 5 × 10 -4 measuring accuracy, a magnetic field mapping system has been developed. After iterative correction using field measurement data, the total phase excursion of the cyclotron is within ± 9° and the first harmonic is less than 10 -3 T, which are all acceptable. Furthermore, the beam testing declares the successful construction of the cyclotron magnet. Besides, some magnetic field influence factors were discussed, including the magnetic field distortion and measurement error. (authors)

  3. VERIFICATION TESTING OF EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF A-55 CLEAN FUELS IN A FIRETUBE BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of testing three fuels in a small (732 kW) firetube package boiler to determine emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), particulate matter (PM), and total hydrocarbons (THCs). The tests were part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verificat...

  4. Use of the TEM Cell for Compliance Testing of Emissions and Immunity, an IEC Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Sigurd

    1996-01-01

    The current work of the IEC on preparing a standard for the use of TEM cells for compliance testing of emissions and immunity is reviewed. The requirements of TEM cells are related to the established procedures: “open area test site” and “shielded enclosure with area of uniform field”, respective...

  5. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  6. A STACKED ANALYSIS OF 115 PULSARS OBSERVED BY THE FERMI LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, A., E-mail: mccann@kicp.uchicago.edu [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago 933 East 56th Street, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-05-10

    Due to the low gamma-ray fluxes from pulsars above 50 GeV and the small collecting area of space-based telescopes, the gamma-ray emission discovered by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in ∼150 pulsars is largely unexplored at these energies. In this regime, the uncertainties on the spectral data points and/or the constraints from upper limits are not sufficient to provide robust tests of competing emission models in individual pulsars. The discovery of power-law-type emission from the Crab pulsar at energies exceeding 100 GeV provides a compelling justification for exploration of other pulsars at these energies. We applied the method of aperture photometry to measure pulsar emission spectra from Fermi-LAT data and present a stacked analysis of 115 pulsars selected from the Second Fermi-LAT catalog of gamma-ray pulsars. This analysis, which uses an average of ∼4.2 yr of data per pulsar, aggregates low-level emission which cannot be resolved in individual objects but can be detected in an ensemble. We find no significant stacked excess at energies above 50 GeV. An upper limit of 30% of the Crab pulsar level is found for the average flux from 115 pulsars in the 100–177 GeV energy range at the 95% confidence level. Stacked searches exclusive to the young pulsar sample, the millisecond pulsar sample, and several other promising sub-samples also return no significant excesses above 50 GeV.

  7. Differences between emissions measured in urban driving and certification testing of heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Poornima; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.; Oshinuga, Adewale; Jiang, Yu; Durbin, Thomas D.; Johnson, Kent C.

    2017-10-01

    between real world emissions and certification cycles should be narrowed. For example, one might use a different mix of cold and hot start testing to greater emphasize low temperature/load operation, a separate cycle to specifically characterize low-load operation, or broaden the in-use compliance testing requirements and associated conformity factors to incorporate a wider envelope of vehicle operation, especially at low load conditions. .

  8. Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…

  9. Spherical Torus Center Stack Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-01-01

    The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device

  10. The emission of Gamma Ray Bursts as a test-bed for modified gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Capozziello

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The extreme physical conditions of Gamma Ray Bursts can constitute a useful observational laboratory to test theories of gravity where very high curvature regimes are involved. Here we propose a sort of curvature engine capable, in principle, of explaining the huge energy emission of Gamma Ray Bursts. Specifically, we investigate the emission of radiation by charged particles non-minimally coupled to the gravitational background where higher order curvature invariants are present. The coupling gives rise to an additional force inducing a non-geodesic motion of particles. This fact allows a strong emission of radiation by gravitationally accelerated particles. As we will show with some specific model, the energy emission is of the same order of magnitude of that characterizing the Gamma Ray Burst physics. Alternatively, strong curvature regimes can be considered as a natural mechanism for the generation of highly energetic astrophysical events. Possible applications to cosmology are discussed.

  11. Routes to a commercially viable PEM fuel cell stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, J.; Foster, S.E.; Hodgson, D.; Marrett, A.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the results of a project to design and build a 10 kW{sub e} proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack, including membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), bipolar plates and stack hardware. The aim was to prove the design concept and to demonstrate functionality by operating the stack at >1 kW{sub e}/L and 500 W/kg for 200 hours operation. The project was extended to include the assembly and testing of two additional 1 kW{sub e} PEMFC stacks based on coated metal components. Low equivalent weight perfluorinated ionomer ion exchange membranes were prepared and were found to give a superior electrochemical performance to commercial materials. A technique to etch various stainless steel grades and control processes was successfully developed and optimised. Coatings for stainless steel and titanium were successfully developed and met the required performance criteria. All PEMFC stack components were selected and designed to enable subsequent commercial manufacture.

  12. Acoustic emission non-destructive testing of structures using source location techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Alan G.

    2013-09-01

    The technology of acoustic emission (AE) testing has been advanced and used at Sandia for the past 40 years. AE has been used on structures including pressure vessels, fire bottles, wind turbines, gas wells, nuclear weapons, and solar collectors. This monograph begins with background topics in acoustics and instrumentation and then focuses on current acoustic emission technology. It covers the overall design and system setups for a test, with a wind turbine blade as the object. Test analysis is discussed with an emphasis on source location. Three test examples are presented, two on experimental wind turbine blades and one on aircraft fire extinguisher bottles. Finally, the code for a FORTRAN source location program is given as an example of a working analysis program. Throughout the document, the stress is on actual testing of real structures, not on laboratory experiments.

  13. Simulation of diesel engine emissions on the example of Fiat Panda in the NEDC test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwinska, Katarzyna; Mruk, Remigiusz; Słoma, Jacek; Tucki, Karol; Zaleski, Mateusz

    2017-10-01

    Road transport may be deemed a strategic branch of modern economy. Unfortunately, a rapid increase in the number of on-road motor vehicles entails some negative consequences as well, for instance, excessive concentration of exhausts produced by engines which results in deterioration of air quality. EURO emission standards which define acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of power units is an example of an activity performed in attempt to improve air quality. The EURO standard defines permissible amount of exhausts produced by a vehicle. Presently new units are examined through NEDC test. For the purpose of this thesis, a virtual test stand in a form of a computer simulation of a chassis dynamometer was used to simulate emission of a diesel engine (compression-ignition engine) in the NEDC test. Actual parameters of the 1.3 MultiJet engine of the Fiat Panda passenger car of 2014 were applied in the model. The simulation was carried out in the Matlab Simulink environment. The simulation model of the Fiat Panda passenger car enables the designation of the emission waveform for all test stages which corresponds to the values received during an approval test in real-life conditions.

  14. Simulation of diesel engine emissions on the example of Fiat Panda in the NEDC test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botwinska Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road transport may be deemed a strategic branch of modern economy. Unfortunately, a rapid increase in the number of on-road motor vehicles entails some negative consequences as well, for instance, excessive concentration of exhausts produced by engines which results in deterioration of air quality. EURO emission standards which define acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of power units is an example of an activity performed in attempt to improve air quality. The EURO standard defines permissible amount of exhausts produced by a vehicle. Presently new units are examined through NEDC test. For the purpose of this thesis, a virtual test stand in a form of a computer simulation of a chassis dynamometer was used to simulate emission of a diesel engine (compression-ignition engine in the NEDC test. Actual parameters of the 1.3 MultiJet engine of the Fiat Panda passenger car of 2014 were applied in the model. The simulation was carried out in the Matlab Simulink environment. The simulation model of the Fiat Panda passenger car enables the designation of the emission waveform for all test stages which corresponds to the values received during an approval test in real-life conditions.

  15. On the state of acoustic emission analysis in pressure vessel and model vessel testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgner, W.; Theis, K.; Henke, F.; Imhof, D.

    1985-01-01

    In the GDR acoustic emission analysis is being applied primarily in connection with hydraulic pressure testing of vessels in chemical industry. It is, however, also used for testing and monitoring of equipment and components in other branches of industry. The state-of-the-art is presented with regard to equipment needed, training of personnel, licensing of testing methods and appropriate testing procedures. In particular, the evaluation of the sum curves and amplitude distributions is explained, using rupture tests of two oxygen cylinders and a compressed-air bottle as examples. (author)

  16. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  17. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2008-03-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  18. Income and CO2 emissions: Evidence from panel unit root and cointegration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.-C.; Lee, J.-D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper re-investigates the stationarity properties of per capita carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for 109 countries within seven regional panel sets covering 1971-2003. We apply the recent unit-root test of the panel seemingly unrelated regressions augmented Dickey-Fuller (SURADF) test developed by Breuer et al. [2001. Misleading inferences from panel unit-root tests with an illustration from purchasing power parity. Review of International Economics 9, 482-493; 2002. Series-specific unit-root tests with panel data, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 64, 527-546]. The panel SURADF test accounts for the presence of cross-country correlations in the data, and the parameters in the panel specification vary across countries. More importantly, this test allows us to identify how many and which members of the panel contain a unit root. Overall, our empirical results illustrate that real GDP and CO 2 emissions in these countries are a mixture of I(0) and I(1) processes, and that the traditional panel unit-root tests could lead to misleading inferences as well as the conduct of cointegration analysis being perhaps inappropriate. The results of our analysis carry critical implications for the modeling of CO 2 emissions and GDP because of the different orders of integration for the two variables

  19. Transfer of Emission Test Data from Small Scale to Full Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gunnar P.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Test conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, and air velocities are chosen within the range that are found in ventilated rooms. H:owever, the difference in scale can lead to some problems and misconception of the size of the actual emission rate for a building material. This paper high...

  20. Testing the theory of emissions trading : Experimental evidence on alternative mechanisms for global carbon trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Ger; Nentjes, Andries; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Simulation models and theory prove that emission trading converges to market equilibrium. This paper sets out to test these results using experimental economics. Three experiments are conducted for the six largest carbon emitting industrialized regions. Two experiments use auctions, the first a

  1. Determination of radon exhalation from construction materials using VOC emission test chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M; Jann, O; Kemski, J; Schneider, U; Krocker, C; Hoffmann, B

    2013-10-01

    The inhalation of (222) Rn (radon) decay products is one of the most important reasons for lung cancer after smoking. Stony building materials are an important source of indoor radon. This article describes the determination of the exhalation rate of stony construction materials by the use of commercially available measuring devices in combination with VOC emission test chambers. Five materials - two types of clay brick, clinker brick, light-weight concrete brick, and honeycomb brick - generally used for wall constructions were used for the experiments. Their contribution to real room concentrations was estimated by applying room model parameters given in ISO 16000-9, RP 112, and AgBB. This knowledge can be relevant, if for instance indoor radon concentration is limited by law. The test set-up used here is well suited for application in test laboratories dealing with VOC emission testing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Emission testing of jatropha and pongamia mixed bio diesel fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Shaikh, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation is based on the emission characteristics of mixed bio diesel fuel in a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine at constant speed. Refined oils of jatropha and pongamia are converted into bio diesel by acid catalyzed esterification and base catalyzed transesterification reactions. The jatropha and pongamia bio diesel were mixed in equal proportions with conventional mineral diesel fuel. Four samples of fuel were tested namely, diesel fuel, B10, B20 and B40. The emission analysis showed B20 mixed bio diesel fuel blend having better results as compared to other samples. There is 60% and 35% lower emission of carbon monoxide and in sulphur dioxide observed while consuming B20 blended fuel respectively. The test result showed NOx emissions were 10% higher from bio diesel fuel, as compared to conventional diesel fuel. However, these emissions may be reduced by EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technology. Present research also revealed that that B20 mixed bio diesel fuel can be used, without any modification in a CI engine. (author)

  3. Application of acoustic emission, as non destructive testing technique, to nuclear components inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Miro, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A panorama of actual state of acoustic emission as non destructive testing technique, from stand point of its safety applications to nuclear reactor is offered. In first place the physic grounds of acoustic emission phenomenon is briefly exposed. After we speak about the experimental methods for detection, and overall is made an explanation of the problems which are found during the application of this technology to on-line inspection of nuclear oower plants. It is hoped that this repport makes a contribution in the sense of to create a favourable atmosphere toward the introduction in our country of this important technique, and concretely within the nuclear power industry. In this last field the employ of acoustic emission is overcoming the experimental stage. (author)

  4. NSF tandem stack support structure deflection characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-12-01

    Results are reported of load tests carried out on the glass legs of the insulating stack of the 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator now under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The tests to investigate the vulnerability of the legs when subjected to tensile stresses were designed to; establish the angle of rotation of the pads from which the stresses in the glass legs may be calculated, proof-test the structure and at the same time reveal any asymmetry in pad rotations or deflections, and to confirm the validity of the computer design analysis. (UK)

  5. Acoustic emission from fuel pellets in a simulated reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Kennedy, C.R.; Reimann, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal-shock damage of nuclear reactor fuel pellets in a simulated reactor environment has been correlated with acoustic-emission data obtained from sensors placed on extensions of the electrical feedthroughs. Ringdown counts, rms output data, and event-location data has been acquired for experiments carried out with single pellets as well as multiple pellet stacks. These tests have shown that acoustic-emission monitoring can provide information indicating the onset and the extent of cracking

  6. Sport stacking activities in school children's motor skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Diane; Ransdell, Mary; Coleman, Lyndsie; Irwin, Carol

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the impact of a 12-wk. sport stacking intervention on reaction time (RT), manual dexterity, and hand-eye coordination in elementary school-aged children. 80 Grade 2 students participated in a 15-min. sport stacking practice session every school day for 12 wk., and were tested on psychomotor performance improvement. Tests for choice RT, manual dexterity, and photoelectric rotary pursuit tracking were conducted pre- and post-intervention for both experimental group (n = 36) and the controls (n = 44) who did no sport stacking. Students who had the intervention showed a greater improvement in two-choice RT. No other group difference was found. Such sport stacking activities may facilitate children's central processing and perceptual-motor integration.

  7. A device for quantitative plutonium testing in mixed fuel by its neutron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadzhiev, G.I.; Gorobets, A.K.; Golushko, V.V.; Dunaev, E.S.; Leshchenko, Yu.I.

    1987-01-01

    A device for quantitative plutonium testing in mixed fuel by its neutron emission is described. The method of ''assigned dead time'' for isolation of neutrons of spontaneous fission is used in the device. The main characteristics of the registrating equipment specifying the regime of measuring and affecting testing errors are presented. The results of spontaneous fission neutrons detection in the range up to 100 g of plutonium linearly depend on 240 Pu. Sensitivity of testing makes up about 28 pul./s per 1 g of 240 Pu

  8. Development and testing of technical measures for the abatement of PM10 emissions from poultry housings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Mosquera, J.; Winkel, A. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    In order to comply with the European Union's ambient air quality standards, the Netherlands must reduce emissions of PM10. As a contributor to PM10, the poultry industry must implement mitigation measures before 2012. An extensive research and development program was launched in 2008 to provide abatement technology for broiler and layer houses. This paper presented results from studies carried out in 2008 and 2009 by Wageningen UR Livestock Research. The supply industry and poultry farmers participated in the study in which different methods and approaches were examined, including bedding material, light schedules, oil spraying systems, ionization systems, water scrubbers, combined scrubbers, electrostatic filters, and dry filters. Most methods were first tested and optimized in small units at an experimental poultry facility Lelystad. Several methods were validated in a next step on poultry farms, where PM10 emissions were measured to establish official emission factors. The oil spraying system and ionization system were tested in broiler houses and are nearing implementation. Reductions in PM10 emissions by different methods ranged from no effect to levels of 60 per cent. An outlook on adequate dust abatement measures for poultry housings was also provided.

  9. 40 CFR 1033.515 - Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrete-mode steady-state emission... Procedures § 1033.515 Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines. This... a warm-up followed by a sequence of nominally steady-state discrete test modes, as described in...

  10. 40 CFR 59.626 - What emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate of conformity? 59.626 Section 59.626 Protection of Environment... application for a certificate of conformity? This section describes the emission testing you must perform to...

  11. Sensitivity of wetland methane emissions to model assumptions: application and model testing against site observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Methane emissions from natural wetlands and rice paddies constitute a large proportion of atmospheric methane, but the magnitude and year-to-year variation of these methane sources are still unpredictable. Here we describe and evaluate the integration of a methane biogeochemical model (CLM4Me; Riley et al., 2011 into the Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4CN in order to better explain spatial and temporal variations in methane emissions. We test new functions for soil pH and redox potential that impact microbial methane production in soils. We also constrain aerenchyma in plants in always-inundated areas in order to better represent wetland vegetation. Satellite inundated fraction is explicitly prescribed in the model, because there are large differences between simulated fractional inundation and satellite observations, and thus we do not use CLM4-simulated hydrology to predict inundated areas. A rice paddy module is also incorporated into the model, where the fraction of land used for rice production is explicitly prescribed. The model is evaluated at the site level with vegetation cover and water table prescribed from measurements. Explicit site level evaluations of simulated methane emissions are quite different than evaluating the grid-cell averaged emissions against available measurements. Using a baseline set of parameter values, our model-estimated average global wetland emissions for the period 1993–2004 were 256 Tg CH4 yr−1 (including the soil sink and rice paddy emissions in the year 2000 were 42 Tg CH4 yr−1. Tropical wetlands contributed 201 Tg CH4 yr−1, or 78% of the global wetland flux. Northern latitude (>50 N systems contributed 12 Tg CH4 yr−1. However, sensitivity studies show a large range (150–346 Tg CH4 yr−1 in predicted global methane emissions (excluding emissions from rice paddies. The large range is

  12. Emissions from small scale combustion of pelletized wood fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachs, A.

    1998-01-01

    Combustion of wood pellets in small scale heating systems with an effect below 20 kW has increased. During the winter season 1995/96 1500 small plants for heating houses are estimated to be in operation. Stack emissions from three pellet burners and two pellet stoves have been studied at laboratory. Different pellet qualities were tested. When the fraction of fines increased also the NO x emissions increased with about 10 %. As reference fuel 8 mm pellets was used. Tests with 6 mm pellets gave, in most cases, significant lower emissions of CO and THC. Eleven stoves, burners and boilers were studied in a field test. The results show that all the plants generally have higher emissions in the field than during conditions when the plants are adjusted with a stack gas monitoring instrument. A conclusion is that it is difficult for the operator to adjust the plant without a monitoring instrument. The emissions from the tested plants give an estimation of stack gas emissions from small scale pellet plants. The difference between the 'best' and 'worst' technologies is big. The span of emissions with the best technology to the worst is given below. The interval is concerning normal combustion . During abnormal conditions the emissions are on a significant higher level: * CO 80-1 000 mg/MJ; * Tar 0,3-19 mg/MJ; * THC (as methane equivalents) 2-100 mg/MJ; * NO x 50-70 mg/W;, and * Dust emissions 20-40 mg/MJ. Emissions from pellets heating are lower than from wood combustion and the best technology is close to the emission from oil burners. Wood and pellets have the same origin but the conditions to burn them in an environmental friendly way differ. Combustion of pellets could be improved through improved control of the air and fuel ratio that will create more stable conditions for the combustion

  13. Application of acoustic emission testing as a non-destructive quality control of conrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feineis, N.

    1982-01-01

    The time dependence of texture changes in concrete is studied in short-time pressure experiments, using the method of acoustic emission testing. These investigations have been performed as a function of strength and composition of the material under study. As a result, the method of acoustic emission testing is shown to be an adequate method to evaluate the evolution and the character of the structural changes. In the case where only the time developement is of interest, a simple electronic method, the pulse-sum-method or pulse rate method can be applied. However only a signal evaluation procedure can give information on the character of the structure changes. (orig./RW) [de

  14. Fundamental and assessment of concrete structure monitoring by using acoustic emission technique testing: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desa, M. S. M.; Ibrahim, M. H. W.; Shahidan, S.; Ghadzali, N. S.; Misri, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) technique is one of the non-destructive (NDT) testing, where it can be used to determine the damage of concrete structures such as crack, corrosion, stability, sensitivity, as structure monitoring and energy formed within cracking opening growth in the concrete structure. This article gives a comprehensive review of the acoustic emission (AE) technique testing due to its application in concrete structure for structural health monitoring (SHM). Assessment of AE technique used for structural are reviewed to give the perception of its structural engineering such as dam, bridge and building, where the previous research has been reviewed based on AE application. The assessment of AE technique focusing on basic fundamental of parametric and signal waveform analysis during analysis process and its capability in structural monitoring. Moreover, the assessment and application of AE due to its function have been summarized and highlighted for future references

  15. Otoacoustic emission testing in Ghanaian children with sickle-cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegele, Josua; Hurth, Helene; Lackner, Peter; Enimil, Anthony; Sylverkin, Justice; Ansong, Daniel; Nkyi, Clara; Bonsu, Benedicta; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Schartinger, Volker H; Schmutzhard, Erich; Zorowka, Patrick; Kremsner, Peter; Schmutzhard, Joachim

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate hearing loss in children as a complication of sickle-cell disease. In Kumasi, Ghana, 35 children with SCD aged 6 months to 10 years underwent transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions testing (TEOAE) to investigate the function of the inner ear. Healthy Ghanaian children recruited in school and kindergarten served as controls. One of 35 children with SCD and 13 of 115 control children failed the otoacoustic emissions testing. This difference between the control group and the children with SCD was not statistically significant. Early hearing impairment does not regularly occur in sickle-cell disease, and in children, it is not a likely cause of delayed or impaired language development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Modelling and Evaluation of Heating Strategies for High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on two different cathode air cooled high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stacks; a 30 cell 400W prototype stack using two bipolar plates per cell, and a 65 cell 1 kW commercial stack using one bipolar plate per cell. The work seeks to examine the use of different...... model to simulate the temperature development of a fuel cell stack during heating can be used for assistance in system and control design. The heating strategies analyzed and tested reduced the startup time of one of the fuel cell stacks from 1 h to about 6 min....

  17. The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX: A test-bed for developing urban greenhouse gas emission measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Davis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX is to develop, evaluate and improve methods for measuring greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from cities. INFLUX’s scientific objectives are to quantify CO2 and CH4 emission rates at 1 km2 resolution with a 10% or better accuracy and precision, to determine whole-city emissions with similar skill, and to achieve high (weekly or finer temporal resolution at both spatial resolutions. The experiment employs atmospheric GHG measurements from both towers and aircraft, atmospheric transport observations and models, and activity-based inventory products to quantify urban GHG emissions. Multiple, independent methods for estimating urban emissions are a central facet of our experimental design. INFLUX was initiated in 2010 and measurements and analyses are ongoing. To date we have quantified urban atmospheric GHG enhancements using aircraft and towers with measurements collected over multiple years, and have estimated whole-city CO2 and CH4 emissions using aircraft and tower GHG measurements, and inventory methods. Significant differences exist across methods; these differences have not yet been resolved; research to reduce uncertainties and reconcile these differences is underway. Sectorally- and spatially-resolved flux estimates, and detection of changes of fluxes over time, are also active research topics. Major challenges include developing methods for distinguishing anthropogenic from biogenic CO2 fluxes, improving our ability to interpret atmospheric GHG measurements close to urban GHG sources and across a broader range of atmospheric stability conditions, and quantifying uncertainties in inventory data products. INFLUX data and tools are intended to serve as an open resource and test bed for future investigations. Well-documented, public archival of data and methods is under development in support of this objective.

  18. Direct Emissivity Measurements of Painted Metals for Improved Temperature Estimation During Laser Damage Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    policy or position of the United States Air Force, the Department of Defense, or the United States Government . This material is declared a work of the...U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-14-M-43 DIRECT EMISSIVITY MEASUREMENTS OF PAINTED METALS FOR...Source The laser probe in use for this test is a Daylight Solutions Unicorn II quantum cascade laser operating at 3.77 µm. According to the laser

  19. Comparative Emissions Testing of Vehicles Aged on E0, E15 and E20 Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertin, K.; Glinsky, G.; Reek, A.

    2012-08-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act passed into law in December 2007 has mandated the use of 36 billion ethanol equivalent gallons per year of renewable fuel by 2022. A primary pathway to achieve this national goal is to increase the amount of ethanol blended into gasoline. This study is part of a multi-laboratory test program coordinated by DOE to evaluate the effect of higher ethanol blends on vehicle exhaust emissions over the lifetime of the vehicle.

  20. 40 CFR 1065.935 - Emission test sequence for field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... value for the previous 2 min or until an engine thermostat controls engine temperature with coolant or... media, such as evacuated bags or tare-weighed PM sample media. (2) Operate the PEMS according to the... ambient data, and integrate measured values using a PEMS. (3) If engine starting is part of field testing...

  1. Variability in operation-based NO(x) emission factors with different test routes, and its effects on the real-driving emissions of light diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taewoo; Park, Junhong; Kwon, Sangil; Lee, Jongtae; Kim, Jeongsoo

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the differences in NO(x) emissions between standard and non-standard driving and vehicle operating conditions, and to estimate by how much NO(x) emissions exceed the legislative emission limits under typical Korean road traffic conditions. Twelve Euro 3-5 light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDVs) manufactured in Korea were driven on a chassis dynamometer over the standard New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and a representative Korean on-road driving cycle (KDC). NO(x) emissions, average speeds and accelerations were calculated for each 1-km trip segment, so called averaging windows. The results suggest that the NO(x) emissions of the tested vehicles are more susceptible to variations in the driving cycles than to those in the operating conditions. Even under comparable operating conditions, the NO(x) control capabilities of vehicles differ from each other, i.e., NO(x) control is weaker for the KDC than for the NEDC. The NO(x) emissions over the KDC for given vehicle operating conditions exceed those over the NEDC by more than a factor of 8. Consequently, on-road NO(x) emission factors are estimated here to exceed the Euro 5 emission limit by up to a factor of 8, 4 and 3 for typical Korean urban, rural, and motorway road traffic conditions, respectively. Our findings support the development of technical regulations for supplementary real-world emission tests for emission certification and the corresponding research actions taken by automotive industries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical Detection in Stacked Paper Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyuan; Lillehoj, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Paper-based electrochemical biosensors are a promising technology that enables rapid, quantitative measurements on an inexpensive platform. However, the control of liquids in paper networks is generally limited to a single sample delivery step. Here, we propose a simple method to automate the loading and delivery of liquid samples to sensing electrodes on paper networks by stacking multiple layers of paper. Using these stacked paper devices (SPDs), we demonstrate a unique strategy to fully immerse planar electrodes by aqueous liquids via capillary flow. Amperometric measurements of xanthine oxidase revealed that electrochemical sensors on four-layer SPDs generated detection signals up to 75% higher compared with those on single-layer paper devices. Furthermore, measurements could be performed with minimal user involvement and completed within 30 min. Due to its simplicity, enhanced automation, and capability for quantitative measurements, stacked paper electrochemical biosensors can be useful tools for point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  3. Glassy carbon based supercapacitor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M; Braun, A; Koetz, R; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Considerable effort is being made to develop electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) that store relatively large quantities of electrical energy and possess at the same time a high power density. Our previous work has shown that glassy carbon is suitable as a material for capacitor electrodes concerning low resistance and high capacity requirements. We present the development of bipolar electrochemical glassy carbon capacitor stacks of up to 3 V. Bipolar stacks are an efficient way to meet the high voltage and high power density requirements for traction applications. Impedance and cyclic voltammogram measurements are reported here and show the frequency response of a 1, 2, and 3 V stack. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref..

  4. Time-predictable Stack Caching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar

    completely. Thus, in systems with hard deadlines the worst-case execution time (WCET) of the real-time software running on them needs to be bounded. Modern architectures use features such as pipelining and caches for improving the average performance. These features, however, make the WCET analysis more...... addresses, provides an opportunity to predict and tighten the WCET of accesses to data in caches. In this thesis, we introduce the time-predictable stack cache design and implementation within a time-predictable processor. We introduce several optimizations to our design for tightening the WCET while...... keeping the timepredictability of the design intact. Moreover, we provide a solution for reducing the cost of context switching in a system using the stack cache. In design of these caches, we use custom hardware and compiler support for delivering time-predictable stack data accesses. Furthermore...

  5. Development of a real-time fuel cell stack modelling solution with integrated test rig interface for the generic fuel cell modelling environment (GenFC) software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, S.D.; Monsberger, M.; Hacker, V. [Graz Univ. of Technology, Graz (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Fuel Cell Systems; Gubner, A.; Reimer, U. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Since the late 1980s, numerous FC models have been developed by scientists and engineers worldwide to design, control and optimize fuel cells (FCs) and fuel cell (FC) power systems. However, state-of-the-art FC models have only a small range of applications within the versatile field of FC modelling. As fuel cell technology approaches commercialization, the scientific community is faced with the challenge of providing robust fuel cell models that are compatible with established processes in industrial product development. One such process, known as Hardware in the Loop (HiL), requires real-time modelling capability. HiL is used for developing and testing hardware components by adding the complexity of the related dynamic systems with mathematical representations. Sensors and actuators are used to interface simulated and actual hardware components. As such, real-time fuel cell models are among the key elements in the development of the Generic Fuel Cell Modelling Environment (GenFC) software. Six European partners are developing GenFC under the support of the Sixth European Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP6). GenFC is meant to increase the use of fuel cell modelling for systems design and to enable cost- and time-efficient virtual experiments for optimizing operating parameters. This paper presented an overview of the GenFC software and the GenFC HiL functionality. It was concluded that GenFC is going to be an extendable software tool providing FC modelling techniques and solutions to a wide range of different FC modelling applications. By combining the flexibility of the GenFC software with this HiL-specific functionality, GenFC is going to promote the use of FC model-based HiL technology in FC system development. 9 figs.

  6. A new method to compare vehicle emissions measured by remote sensing and laboratory testing: high-emitters and potential implications for emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Robin; Bluett, Jeff

    2011-06-01

    A new method is presented which is designed to investigate whether laboratory test data used in the development of vehicle emission models adequately reflects emission distributions, and in particular the influence of high-emitting vehicles. The method includes the computation of a 'high-emitter' or 'emission distribution' correction factor for use in emission inventories. In order to make a valid comparison we control for a number of factors such as vehicle technology, measurement technique and driving conditions and use a variable called 'Pollution Index' (g/kg). Our investigation into one vehicle class has shown that laboratory and remote sensing data are substantially different for CO, HC and NO(x) emissions, both in terms of their distributions as well as in their mean and 99-percentile values. Given that the remote sensing data has larger mean values for these pollutants, the analysis suggests that high-emitting vehicles may not be adequately captured in the laboratory test data. The paper presents two different methods for the computation of weighted correction factors for use in emission inventories based on laboratory test data: one using mean values for six 'power bins' and one using multivariate regression functions. The computed correction factors are substantial leading to an increase for laboratory-based emission factors with a factor of 1.7-1.9 for CO, 1.3-1.6 for HC and 1.4-1.7 for NO(x) (actual value depending on the method). However, it also clear that there are points that require further examination before these correction factors should be applied. One important step will be to include a comparison with other types of validation studies such as tunnel studies and near-road air quality assessments to examine if these correction factors are confirmed. If so, we would recommend using the correction factors in emission inventories for motor vehicles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic Model of the High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system co...... elements for start-up, heat conduction through stack insulation, cathode air convection, and heating of the inlet gases in the manifold. Various measurements are presented to validate the model predictions of the stack temperatures....

  8. A method to quickly test the emissivity with an infrared thermal imaging system within a small distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan-yu; Hu, Rui; Wang, Rui-xin

    2015-10-01

    A simple method has been set up to quickly test the emissivity with an infrared thermal imaging system within a small distance according to the theory of measuring temperature by infrared system, which is based on the Planck radiation law and Lambert-beer law. The object's temperature is promoted and held on by a heater while a temperature difference has been formed between the target and environment. The emissivity of human skin, galvanized iron plate, black rubber and liquid water has been tested under the condition that the emissivity is set in 1.0 and the testing distance is 1m. According to the invariance of human's body temperature, a testing curve is established to describe that the thermal imaging temperatures various with the emissivity which is set in from 0.9 to 1.0. As a result, the method has been verified. The testing results show that the emissivity of human skin is 0.95. The emissivity of galvanized iron plate, black rubber and liquid water decreases with the increase of object's temperature. The emissivity of galvanized iron plate is far smaller than the one of human skin, black rubber or water. The emissivity of water slowly linearly decreases with the increase of its temperature. By the study, within a small distance and clean atmosphere, the infrared emissivity of objects may be expediently tested with an infrared thermal imaging system according to the method, which is promoting the object's temperature to make it different from the environment temperature, then simultaneously measures the environmental temperature, the real temperature and thermal imaging temperature of the object when the emissivity is set in 1.0 and the testing distance is 1.0m.

  9. Study of the performances of acoustic emission testing for glass fibre reinforced plastic pipes containing defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, D.; Vidal, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Glass fibre reinforced plastic pipes are more and more often used, in nuclear power plants, for building or replacement of water pipings classified 'nuclear safety'. Tests have been performed to evaluate the performances of acoustic emission testing for in service inspection of these components. The tests were focused on glass fibre reinforced polyester and vinyl-ester pipes, in as received conditions or containing impacts, and intentionally introduced defects. They have been carried out by CETIM, following the ASTM Standard E 1118 (code CARP), to a maximum pressure lever of 25 Bar The results show that the CARP procedure can be used for detection of defects and evaluation of their noxiousness towards internal pressure: most of the tubes containing low energy impacts could not be distinguished from tubes without defect; on the other hand the important noxiousness of lacks of impregnation of roving layer appeared clearly. Complementary tests have been performed on some tubes at a more important pressure lever, for which the damage of the tubes in enough to deteriorate there elastic properties. The results showed that CARP procedure give valuable informations on damage level. It would be interesting to evaluate acoustic emission on tubes containing realistic in-service degradations. (author). 11 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs., 2 appends

  10. Test firing and emissions analysis of densified RDF (d-RDF) in a small power boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, B.A.; Chehaske, J.T.; Meadows, F.; Owens, H.J.; Yoest, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    A test program to determine the feasibility of burning densified refuse-derived fuel in a small power boiler has been successfully completed. The first phase of the contract entailed assembly and assessment of information on d-RDF combustion from other studies, compilation of existing and proposed regulations for the seven sponsoring Great Lakes states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin, location of d-RDF and waste paper pellet manufacturers in the region, and fuel supply/test site selection. The second phase entailed conducting test burns with two types of d-RDF composed of municipal solid waste (MSW) and one type of d-RDF composed of waste cardboard. The tests were conducted at a small boiler located at Dordt College in Sioux Center, Iowa. The boiler is not equipped with any pollution control equipment and the emission measurements therefore represent those from an uncontrolled source. Results demonstrated that a particulate control system is required to meet the standard set by Iowa for less than 0.6 lbs particulate matter per million BTU heat input. With the planned addition of a baghouse system for control, the facility should meet all existing State limits for emissions levels. Air toxics concentrations including metals, dioxins, furans, and PCBs were low relative to other municipal waste combustors and will be further reduced after installation of baghouse filter equipment. The key remaining concerns relate to the acceptable level of HCl emissions which are a strong function of the plastic content of fuel raw material and SO 2 which varies widely with fuel raw material composition

  11. Development of a modal emissions model using data from the Cooperative Industry/Government Exhaust Emission test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-22

    The Environmental Protection Agencys (EPAs) recommended model, MOBILE5a, has been : used extensively to predict emission factors based on average speeds for each fleet type. : Because average speeds are not appropriate in modeling intersections...

  12. Stack semantics of type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquand, Thierry; Mannaa, Bassel; Ruch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    We give a model of dependent type theory with one univalent universe and propositional truncation interpreting a type as a stack, generalizing the groupoid model of type theory. As an application, we show that countable choice cannot be proved in dependent type theory with one univalent universe...

  13. 40 CFR Table 18 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units 18 Table 18 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units As stated in § 63.1566(b)(2) and (3), you...

  14. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR BTEX AND VOC EMISSIONS TESTING RESULTS AT TWO UNITS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA VOL. I: TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the collection of emissions tests data at two triethylene glycol units to provide data for comparison to GRI-GLYCalc, a computer program developed to estimate emissions from glycol dehydrators. (NOTE: Glycol dehydrators are used in the natural gas indu...

  15. GLYCOL DEHYDRATOR BTEX AND VOC EMISSIONS TESTING RESULTS AT TWO UNITS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA VOL. II: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the collection of emissions test data st two triethylene glycol units to provide data for the comparison to GRI-GLYCalc, a computer program developed to estimate emissions from glycol dehydrators. [NOTE: Glycol dehydrators are used in the natural gas i...

  16. Quality Assurance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Electrolyser (SOEC) Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Michael; Auer, Corinna; Couturier, Karine

    2017-01-01

    In the EU-funded project “Solid oxide cell and stack testing and quality assurance” (SOCTESQA) standardized and industry wide test modules and programs for high temperature solid oxide cells and stacks are being developed. These test procedures can be applied for the fuel cell (SOFC......), the electrolysis (SOEC) and in the combined SOFC/SOEC mode. In order to optimize the test modules the project partners have tested identical SOC stacks with the same test programs in several testing campaigns. Altogether 10 pre-normative test modules were developed: Start-up, current-voltage characteristics...

  17. Continuous and recurrent testing of acoustic emission sensors; Kontinuierliche und wiederkehrende Pruefung von Schallemissionssensoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sause, Markus G.R.; Schmitt, Stefan; Potstada, Philipp [Augsburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Materials Resource Management, Mechanical Engineering

    2017-08-01

    In many fields of application of acoustic emission, the testing can lead to a lasting change in the sensor characteristics. This can be caused by mechanical damage, thermal stress or use under aggressive environmental conditions. Irrespective of visually testable damages of the sensors, a shift in the spectral sensitivity, a reduction in the absolute sensitivity or a reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio can occur. During the test, this requires a possibility to periodically check the sensors, including the coupling aids used. For recurring testing, recommendations are given in Directive SE 02 ''Verification of acoustic emission sensors and their coupling in the laboratory''. This paper discusses possibilities for continuous monitoring of the sensors during the test and presents an application example for the partly automated recurring testing of acoustic emission sensors using Directive SE 02. For this purpose, a test stand for the supply of the sensors to be tested was constructed and the signal recording and data reduction implemented in freely available software programs. The operating principle is demonstrated using selected case studies. [German] In vielen Anwendungsbereichen der Schallemission kann es bei der Pruefung zu einer nachhaltigen Veraenderung der Sensorcharakteristik kommen. Dies kann durch mechanische Beschaedigung, thermische Belastung oder Verwendung unter aggressiven Umweltbedingungen geschehen. Unabhaengig von visuell pruefbaren Beschaedigungen der Sensoren kann es dabei zu einer Verschiebung der spektralen Empfindlichkeit, einer Verringerung der absoluten Empfindlichkeit oder einer Erniedrigung des Signal-Rausch Verhaeltnis kommen. Bei der Pruefung erfordert dies eine Moeglichkeit zur periodischen Ueberpruefung der Sensoren inklusive der verwendeten Koppelhilfsmittel. Fuer die wiederkehrende Pruefung finden sich entsprechende Handlungsempfehlungen in der Richtlinie SE 02 ''Verifizierung von

  18. Acoustic emission monitoring of preservice testing at Watts Bar Unit 1 Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, P.H.; Pappas, R.A.; Friesel, M.A.

    1985-02-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of selected pressure boundary areas at TVA's Watts Bar, Unit 1 Nuclear Plant in the US during hot functional preservice testing is described. Background, methodology, and results are included. The work discussed here is a major milestone in a program supported by the US NRC to develop and demonstrate application of AE monitoring for continuous surveillance of reactor pressure boundaries to detect and evaluate growing flaws. The subject work demonstrated that anticipated problem areas can be overcome. Work is continuing to AE monitoring during reactor operation. 3 refs., 6 figs

  19. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multiple waste types in a 7-day period at the Kilauea Military Camp in Hawai’i. The emissions characterized were chosen based on regulatory emissions limits as well as their ability to cause adverse health effects on humans: particulate matter (PM), mercury, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Three military waste feedstock compositions reflecting the variety of wastes to be encountered in theatre were investigated: standard waste (SW), standard waste with increased plastic content (HP), standard waste without SW food components but added first strike ration (FSR) food and packaging material (termed FSR). A fourth waste was collected from the Kilauea dumpster that served the dining facility and room lodging (KMC). Limited scrubber water and solid ash residue samples were collected to obtain a preliminary characterization of these effluents/residues.Gasifying SW, HP, and KMC resulted in similar PCDD/PCDF stack concentrations, 0.26-0.27 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2, while FSR waste generated a notably higher stack concentration of 0.68 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2. The PM emission

  20. Continued maturing of SOFC cell production technology and development and demonstration of SOFC stacks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-08-15

    The overall objective of the 6385 project was to develop stack materials, components and stack technology including industrial relevant manufacturing methods for cells components and stacks. Furthermore, the project should include testing and demonstration of the stacks under relevant operating conditions. A production of 6.829 cells, twenty 75-cell stacks and a number of small stacks was achieved. Major improvements were also made in the manufacturing methods and in stack design. Two test and demonstration activities were included in the project. The first test unit was established at H.C. OErsted power plant at the Copenhagen waterfront in order to perform test of SOFC stacks. The unit will be used for tests in other projects. The second demonstration unit is the alpha prototype demonstration in a system running on natural gas in Finland. The alpha prototype demonstration system with 24 TOFC (Topsoe Fuel Cell) stacks was established and started running in October 2007 and operational experience was gained in the period from October 2007 to February 2008. (auther)

  1. Vertical melting of a stack of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.; Schakel, A. M. J.

    2001-02-01

    A stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is studied. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a melting-like transition.

  2. Basic design parameters for the new PRR-1 stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopando, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of work done to establish the basic design parameters of the new stack of the Philippine Research Reactor-1 (PRR-1). The work was undertaken to assure that the radioactive air emissions of the PRR-1, under both accident and normal operating conditions, will comply with modern safety practices. The work was done during June and July 1994. (author). 6 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs

  3. Process for testing noise emission from containers or pipelines made of steel, particularly for nuclear reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Votava, E.; Stipsits, G.; Sommer, R.

    1982-01-01

    In a process for noise emission testing of steel containers or pipelines, particularly for testing primary circuit components of nuclear reactor plants, measuring sensors and/or associated electronic amplifiers are used, which are tuned for receiving the frequency band of the sound emission spectrum above a limiting frequency f G , but are limited or non-resonant for frequency bands less than f G . (orig./HP) [de

  4. Practicability of passenger vehicle driving emission tests according to new European Union procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pielecha Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article compares driving test data using the latest legislative proposals applicable to passenger cars. Several measurements were performed on the same test route in accordance with the RDE test guidelines, which requires a number of criteria to be met. These criteria include: the length of the measuring segments, their overall test time share, and the dynamic characteristics of the drive. A mobile device for reading the EOBD System information was used to record the engine and vehicle operating parameters during tests. This allowed for the monitoring of parameters such as: load value, engine speed and vehicle velocity. The obtained results were then analyzed for their compatibility with the RDE procedure requirements. Despite the same research route, the obtained results were not the same. The analysis also uses the two-dimensional operating time share characteristics expressed in vehicle velocity and acceleration co-ordinates. As a result it was possible to compare the dynamic properties, share of operating time and, consequently, to check the validity of conducted drive tests in terms of their practicability and emission values.

  5. Development and test of a mobile environmental system for emission and ambient air measurement in the eastern part of Germany. Final report; Entwicklung und Erprobung eines mobilen Messsystems zur Emissions- und Immissionsmessung von Schadstoffen in den neuen Bundeslaendern; Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosebach, H; Schaefer, K; Haus, R; Eisenmann, T; Rippel, H; Klein, V; Wehner, D

    1993-06-30

    A mobile environmental laboratory was developed and successfully tested. This system is used for the remote emissions and ambient air measurements. The key instrument of this laboratory is the Kayser-Threde double pendulum interferometer K300, a field proven FT-IR system for remote emission and ambient air measurements. In addition, the laboratory contains conventional ambient air sensors and a battery system for current source free usage. Basic scientific research was necessary for the development of appropriate analysis methods for quantitative detection of emissions from smoke stacks when doing remote sensing, as well as for ambient air measurements. The mobile laboratory was used in a number of measurement campaigns. The following gaseous specimens could quantitatively analyzed: H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO, NO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, HCl, HCHO and total hydrocarbons (THC). The correspondence between the K300 remote sensing results with the measured values taken by conventional reference systems was good to excellent, in many cases considerably better than expected. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurde ein Umwelt-Messfahrzeug entwickelt und erfolgreich erprobt, das fuer die Fernerkundungsmessung von Emissionen und Immissionen eingesetzt werden kann. Das zentrale Messgeraet in diesem Fahrzeug ist die Kayser-Threde Eigenentwicklung K300, ein feldtaugliches FT-IR-Geraet, das zur Fernerkundungsmessung von Emissionen und Immissionen dient. Weiterhin sind u.a. in dem Fahrzeug konventionelle eignungsgepruefte Immissionsmessgeraete und eine autarke Stromversorgungseinheit eingebaut. Eine Erarbeitung fundierter wissenschaftlicher Grundlagen und daraus resultierender Analyseverfahren waren notwendig, um in Fernerkundung Emissionen aus Kraftwerken sowie Immissionen qualitativ erfassen zu koennen. In einer Reihe von Messkampagnen wurde das Messfahrzeug eingesetzt und eine Analytik fuer folgende Stoffe durchgefuehrt: H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO, NO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O

  6. Emission factor of ammonia (NH3) from on-road vehicles in China: tunnel tests in urban Guangzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tengyu; Wang, Xinming; Ding, Xiang; Deng, Wei; Lü, Sujun; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Boguang

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia (NH 3 ) is the primary alkaline gas in the atmosphere that contributes to formation of secondary particles. Emission of NH 3 from vehicles, particularly gasoline powered light duty vehicles equipped with three-way catalysts, is regarded as an important source apart from emissions from animal wastes and soils, yet measured emission factors for motor vehicles are still not available in China, where traffic-related emission has become an increasingly important source of air pollutants in urban areas. Here we present our tunnel tests for NH 3 from motor vehicles under ‘real world conditions’ in an urban roadway tunnel in Guangzhou, a central city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in south China. By attributing all NH 3 emissions in the tunnel to light-duty gasoline vehicles, we obtained a fuel-based emission rate of 2.92 ± 0.18 g L −1 and a mileage-based emission factor of 229.5 ± 14.1 mg km −1 . These emission factors were much higher than those measured in the United States while measured NO x emission factors (7.17 ± 0.60 g L −1 or 0.56 ± 0.05 g km −1 ) were contrastingly near or lower than those previously estimated by MOBILE/PART5 or COPERT IV models. Based on the NH 3 emission factors from this study, on-road vehicles accounted for 8.1% of NH 3 emissions in the PRD region in 2006 instead of 2.5% as estimated in a previous study using emission factors taken from the Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) in the United States. (letter)

  7. Emission factor of ammonia (NH3) from on-road vehicles in China: tunnel tests in urban Guangzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tengyu; Wang, Xinming; Wang, Boguang; Ding, Xiang; Deng, Wei; Lü, Sujun; Zhang, Yanli

    2014-05-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the primary alkaline gas in the atmosphere that contributes to formation of secondary particles. Emission of NH3 from vehicles, particularly gasoline powered light duty vehicles equipped with three-way catalysts, is regarded as an important source apart from emissions from animal wastes and soils, yet measured emission factors for motor vehicles are still not available in China, where traffic-related emission has become an increasingly important source of air pollutants in urban areas. Here we present our tunnel tests for NH3 from motor vehicles under ‘real world conditions’ in an urban roadway tunnel in Guangzhou, a central city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in south China. By attributing all NH3 emissions in the tunnel to light-duty gasoline vehicles, we obtained a fuel-based emission rate of 2.92 ± 0.18 g L-1 and a mileage-based emission factor of 229.5 ± 14.1 mg km-1. These emission factors were much higher than those measured in the United States while measured NO x emission factors (7.17 ± 0.60 g L-1 or 0.56 ± 0.05 g km-1) were contrastingly near or lower than those previously estimated by MOBILE/PART5 or COPERT IV models. Based on the NH3 emission factors from this study, on-road vehicles accounted for 8.1% of NH3 emissions in the PRD region in 2006 instead of 2.5% as estimated in a previous study using emission factors taken from the Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) in the United States.

  8. A study on the performance and emission characteristics of esterified pinnai oil tested in VCR engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, T; Chandramouli, R; Mohanraj, T

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean renewable fuel derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. It is biodegradable, oxygenated, non toxic and free from sulfur and aromatics. The biodiesel prepared from pinnai oil undergoes acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification process. The fatty acid methyl esters components were identified using gas chromatography and compared with the standard properties. The properties of biodiesel are comparable with diesel. The yield of the biodiesel production depends upon the process parameters such as reaction temperature, pH, time duration and amount of catalyst. The yield of biodiesel by transesterification process was 73% at 55°C. This fuel was tested in a variable compression ratio engine with blend ratios of B10 and B20. During the test runs the compression ratio of the engine was varied from 15:1 to 18:1 and the torque is adjusted from zero to maximum value of 22Nm. The performance characteristics such as the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption and exhaust gas temperature of the engine are analyzed. The combustion characteristics of biodiesel like ignition delay, combustion duration and maximum gas temperature and the emission characteristics are also analyzed. The performance characteristics, combustion characteristics and engine emission are effective in the variable compression ratio engine with biodiesel and it is compared with diesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Helping Students Design HyperCard Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how to teach students to design HyperCard stacks. Highlights include introducing HyperCard, developing storyboards, introducing design concepts and scripts, presenting stacks, evaluating storyboards, and continuing projects. A sidebar presents a HyperCard stack evaluation form. (AEF)

  10. Band engineering in transition metal dichalcogenides: Stacked versus lateral heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2016-01-01

    We calculate a large difference in the band alignments for transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterojunctions when arranged in the stacked layer or lateral (in-plane) geometries, using direct supercell calculations. The stacked case follows the unpinned limit of the electron affinity rule, whereas the lateral geometry follows the strongly pinned limit of alignment of charge neutrality levels. TMDs therefore provide one of the few clear tests of band alignment models, whereas three-dimensional semiconductors give less stringent tests because of accidental chemical trends in their properties.

  11. Docker on OpenStack

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Nitin; Moreira, Belmiro

    2014-01-01

    Project Specification CERN is establishing a large scale private cloud based on OpenStack as part of the expansion of the computing infrastructure for storing the data coming out of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. As the data coming out of the detectors is increasing continuously that needs to be stored in the data center, we need more physical resources (more money) and since Virtual machines takes lot of CPU and memory overhead and minutes for creating the images, booting u...

  12. Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Bruyere, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative 'all modes' failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.

  13. Stacking Ensemble Learning for Short-Term Electricity Consumption Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Divina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict short-term electric energy demand would provide several benefits, both at the economic and environmental level. For example, it would allow for an efficient use of resources in order to face the actual demand, reducing the costs associated to the production as well as the emission of CO 2 . To this aim, in this paper we propose a strategy based on ensemble learning in order to tackle the short-term load forecasting problem. In particular, our approach is based on a stacking ensemble learning scheme, where the predictions produced by three base learning methods are used by a top level method in order to produce final predictions. We tested the proposed scheme on a dataset reporting the energy consumption in Spain over more than nine years. The obtained experimental results show that an approach for short-term electricity consumption forecasting based on ensemble learning can help in combining predictions produced by weaker learning methods in order to obtain superior results. In particular, the system produces a lower error with respect to the existing state-of-the art techniques used on the same dataset. More importantly, this case study has shown that using an ensemble scheme can achieve very accurate predictions, and thus that it is a suitable approach for addressing the short-term load forecasting problem.

  14. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of regulated air pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under engine durability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi-Hsien Yang; Shu-Mei Chien; Mei-Yu Lo; John Chi-Wei Lan; Wen-Chang Lu; Yong-Yuan Ku

    2007-01-01

    An 80,000-km durability test was performed on two engines using diesel and biodiesel (methyl ester of waste cooking oil) as fuel in order to examine emissions resulting from the use of biodiesel. The test biodiesel (B20) was blended with 80% diesel and 20% methyl ester derived from waste cooking oil. Emissions of regulated air pollutants, including CO, HC, NO x , particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at 20,000-km intervals. The identical-model engines were installed on a standard dynamometer equipped with a dilution tunnel used to measure the pollutants. To simulate real-world driving conditions, emission measurements were made in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) FTP transient cycle guidelines. At 0 km of the durability test, HC, CO and PM emission levels were lower for the B20 engine than those for diesel. After running for 20,000 km and longer, they were higher. However, the deterioration coefficients for these regulated air pollutants were not statistically higher than 1.0, implying that the emission factors do not increase significantly after 80,000 km of driving. Total (gaseous+particulate phase) PAH emission levels for both B20 and diesel decreased as the driving mileage accumulated. However, for the engine using B20 fuel, particulate PAH emissions increased as engine mileage increased. The average total PAH emission factors were 1097 and 1437 μg bhp h -1 for B20 and diesel, respectively. For B20, the benzo[a]pyrene equivalence emission factors were 0.77, 0.24, 0.20, 7.48, 5.43 and 14.1 μg bhp h -1 for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-ringed and total PAHs. Results show that B20 use can reduce both PAH emission and its corresponding carcinogenic potency. (author)

  15. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of regulated air pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under engine durability testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsi-Hsien Yang; Shu-Mei Chien; Mei-Yu Lo [Chaoyang University of Technology, Wufong (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Management; John Chi-Wei Lan [Yuan Ze University (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Wen-Chang Lu [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu (China). New Energy Div.; Yong-Yuan Ku [Automotive Research and Testing Center, Chunhwa (China). Diesel Vehicle Section

    2007-11-15

    An 80,000-km durability test was performed on two engines using diesel and biodiesel (methyl ester of waste cooking oil) as fuel in order to examine emissions resulting from the use of biodiesel. The test biodiesel (B20) was blended with 80% diesel and 20% methyl ester derived from waste cooking oil. Emissions of regulated air pollutants, including CO, HC, NO{sub x}, particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at 20,000-km intervals. The identical-model engines were installed on a standard dynamometer equipped with a dilution tunnel used to measure the pollutants. To simulate real-world driving conditions, emission measurements were made in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) FTP transient cycle guidelines. At 0 km of the durability test, HC, CO and PM emission levels were lower for the B20 engine than those for diesel. After running for 20,000 km and longer, they were higher. However, the deterioration coefficients for these regulated air pollutants were not statistically higher than 1.0, implying that the emission factors do not increase significantly after 80,000 km of driving. Total (gaseous+particulate phase) PAH emission levels for both B20 and diesel decreased as the driving mileage accumulated. However, for the engine using B20 fuel, particulate PAH emissions increased as engine mileage increased. The average total PAH emission factors were 1097 and 1437 {mu}g bhp h{sup -1} for B20 and diesel, respectively. For B20, the benzo[a]pyrene equivalence emission factors were 0.77, 0.24, 0.20, 7.48, 5.43 and 14.1 {mu}g bhp h{sup -1} for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-ringed and total PAHs. Results show that B20 use can reduce both PAH emission and its corresponding carcinogenic potency. (author)

  16. Effect of flow parameters on flare stack generator noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinn, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    The SoundPLAN Computer Noise Model was used to determine the general effect of flare noise in a community adjacent to a petrochemical plant. Tests were conducted to determine the effect of process flow conditions and the pulsating flame on the flare stack generator noise from both a refinery flare and process flare. Flaring under normal plant operations, the flaring of fuel gas and the flaring of hydrogen were the three conditions that were tested. It was shown that the steam flow rate was the determining factor in the flare stack generated noise. Variations in the water seal level in the flare line surge tank increased or decreased the gas flowrate, which resulted in a pulsating flame. The period and amplitude of the pulsating noise from the flare stacks was determined by measuring several parameters. Flare stack noise oscillations were found to be greater for the process flare than for the refinery flare stack. It was suggested that minimizing the amount of steam fed to the flare and improving the burner design would minimize noise. 2 tabs., 6 figs

  17. Tomography feasibility study on the optical emission spectroscopy diagnostic for the negative ion source of the ELISE test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, F; Agostini, M; Brombin, M; Pasqualotto, R; Fantz, U; Franzen, P; Wünderlich, D

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility study of a spectroscopic tomographic diagnostic for the emissivity reconstruction of the plasma parameters in the large negative ion source of the test facility ELISE is described. Tomographic tools are developed to be applied to the measurements of the ELISE optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostic, in order to reconstruct the emissivity distribution from hydrogen (or deuterium) plasma close to the plasma grid, where negative ions are produced and extracted to be accelerated. Various emissivity phantoms, both symmetric and asymmetric, reproducing different plasma experimental conditions have been simulated to test the tomographic algorithm. The simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique has been applied, accounting for the OES geometrical layout together with a suitable pixel representation. Even with a limited number of 14 lines of sight (LoSs), the plasma emissivity distribution expected on the ELISE source can be successfully reconstructed. In particular, asymmetries in the emissivity pattern can be detected and reproduced with low errors. A systematic investigation of different geometrical layouts of the LoSs as well as of the pixel arrangements has been carried out, and a final configuration has been identified. Noise on the simulated experimental spectroscopic measurements has been tested, confirming the reliability of the adopted tomographic tools for the plasma emissivity reconstructions of the source plasma in ELISE with the actual OES diagnostic system. (paper)

  18. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The volume contains six papers which together provide an overall review of the inspection technique known as acoustic emission or stress wave emission. The titles are: a welder's introduction to acoustic emission technology; use of acoustic emission for detection of defects as they arise during fabrication; examples of laboratory application and assessment of acoustic emission in the United Kingdom; (Part I: acoustic emission behaviour of low alloy steels; Part II: fatigue crack assessment from proof testing and continuous monitoring); inspection of selected areas of engineering structures by acoustic emission; Japanese experience in laboratory and practical applications of acoustic emission to welded structures; and ASME acoustic emission code status. (U.K.)

  19. Mercury Dispersion Modeling And Purge Ventilation Stack Height Determination For Tank 40H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Giboyeaux, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-19

    The SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Group performed an analysis for mercury emissions from H-Tank Farm - Tank 40 ventilation system exhaust in order to assess whether the Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL), or Threshold Limit Value (TLV) levels for mercury will be exceeded during bulk sludge slurry mixing and sludge removal operations. The American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) was used as the main dispersion modelling tool for this analysis. The results indicated that a 45-foot stack is sufficient to raise the plume centerline from the Tank 40 release to prevent mercury exposure problems for any of the stack discharge scenarios provided. However, a 42-foot stack at Tank 40 is sufficient to prevent mercury exposure concerns in all emission scenarios except the 50 mg/m3 release. At a 42-foot stack height, values exceeding the exposure standards are only measured on receptors located above 34 feet.

  20. Improved solid oxide fuel cell stacks: Power density, durability and modularity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund Frandsen, H.; Kiebach, W.R.; Hoeegh, J. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)) (and others)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents the work performed within the project PSO2009-1-10207 during the period from 01-04-2009 - 31-06-2010. The report is divided into three parts covering the three work packages: Stack components; Stacks and durability; and Large SOFC systems: modularity and scalability. The project contains 38 milestones and all milestones in the project have been either fully or partly fulfilled. Two major achievements within this project concern the robustness towards dynamic operations and implementation of cells with more active cathodes: Within this project tools to evaluate and test SOFC stacks with respect to robustness during dynamic operations has been developed. From stack tests performed under dynamic conditions it was observed that the effect on degradation and failure seemed to be very little. The thermo-mechanical models developed in this project in combination with the dynamic stack model was used in combination to understand why. The results clearly showed that the hardest stress field applied to the cells arises from the steady state operating point rather than from the dynamic conditions. This is a very promising result concerning the fact that especially small CHP units in a commercial system will experience dynamic conditions from load cycling and thermal cycling. A new type of cell with a more active cathode has been formulated and introduced into the TOFC stacks in this project. The aim was to improve the effect of the stack by 25 %. However, compared to a standard stack with the ''old'' cells, the stack effect was increased by 44% - from a cross flow stack with standard 2G cells to a cross flow stack with 2.5G cells. The new type of cells also show an excellent stability towards moisture in the cathode feed, and a stack with 2.5G cells has been tested for 12.000 hrs with a degradation rate of 30 mOMEGAcm2/1000 hr. (Author)

  1. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  2. Evaluation of impact factors on VOC emissions and concentrations from wooden flooring based on chamber tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chi-Chi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, No. 700, Kaohsiung University Rd., Kaohsiung (China); Yu, Kuo-Pin [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No.155, Sec.2, Linong Street, Taipei (China); Zhao, Ping [Filtration Group Inc., 912 E. Washington Street, Joliet, IL 60433 (United States); Whei-May Lee, Grace [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei (China)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, the impact factors of temperature, relative humidity (RH), air exchange rate, and volatile organic compound (VOC) properties on the VOC (toluene, n-butyl acetate, ethylbenzene, and m,p-xylene) specific emission rates (SERs) and concentrations from wooden flooring were investigated by chamber test for 8 days. The tested wood in this study is not common solid wood, but composite wood made of combined wood fibers. The experiments were conducted in a stainless-steel environmental test chamber coated with Teflon. The experimental results within 8 days of testing showed that, when the temperature increased from 15 to 30 C, the VOC SERs and concentrations increased 1.5-129 times. When the RH increased from 50% to 80%, the VOC concentrations and SERs increased 1-32 times. When the air change rate increased from 1 to 2 h{sup -1}, the VOC concentrations decreased 9-40%, while the VOC SERs increased 6-98%. The relations between the boiling points of the VOCs and each of the normalized VOC SERs and concentrations were linear with negative slopes. The relations between the vapor pressures of the VOCs and each of the normalized VOC SERs and concentrations were linear with positive slopes. At 15 C, RH50%, the relations between the diffusivities of VOCs and each of the normalized VOC equilibrium SERs and concentrations were linear with a positive slope. (author)

  3. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup

    As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation....... An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... in the hydrogen fuel gas supplied to the stack. EIS was used to examine the long-term behavior and monitor the evolution of the impedance of each of the repeating units and the whole stack. The observed impedance was analyzed in detail for one of the repeating units and the whole stack and the losses reported...

  4. Emissions characterization in the contained underground demilitarization laboratory at Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, C A; Watkins, B E; Pruneda, C O; Lipkin, J

    1999-01-01

    The US Departments of Defense and Energy (DOD and DOE) have established a Joint Demilitarization Technology (JDT) Program to demonstrate and validate technologies for resource recovery and recycling, as well as alternative destruction or treatment technologies as appropriate to specific conventional stockpile segments. X-Tunnel at the DOE Nevada Test Site is a facility for emissions characterization from detonation of conventional munitions and burning of rocket motors. We conducted seven detonations of M107, high explosive 155-mm projectiles, four from December 1996 through March 1997 and three during July and August 1999. We also completed three burns of rocket motors from May through June 1997.Standard (DOD) procedures for open detonation (DOD) of ordinance and open burn (OB) of rocket motors were followed in order to establish baseline emissions. Measurements inside the chamber included pressures, temperatures, relative humidity and gas concentrations. Grab samples were collected f or gas, organic, metal and particulate analyses. Results and implications for developing alternative destruction techniques will be presented

  5. Testing the theory of emissions trading. Experimental evidence on alternative mechanisms for global carbon trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaassen, Ger; Nentjes, Andries; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Simulation models and theory prove that emission trading converges to market equilibrium. This paper sets out to test these results using experimental economics. Three experiments are conducted for the six largest carbon emitting industrialized regions. Two experiments use auctions, the first a single bid auction and the second a Walrasian auction. The third relies on bilateral, sequential trading. The paper finds that, in line with the standard theory, both auctions and bilateral, sequential trading capture a significant part (88% to 99%) of the potential cost savings of emission trading. As expected from trade theory, all experiments show that the market price converges (although not fully) to the market equilibrium price. In contrast to the theory, the results also suggest that not every country might gain from trading. In both the bilateral trading experiment and the Walrasian auction, one country actually is worse off with trade. In particular bilateral, sequential trading leads to a distribution of gains significantly different from the competitive market outcome. This is due to speculative behavior, imperfect foresight and market power

  6. Inverse modeling of emissions for local photooxidant pollution: Testing a new methodology with kriging constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pison

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology for the inversion of anthropogenic emissions at a local scale is tested. The inversion constraints are provided by a kriging technique used in air quality forecast in the Paris area, which computes an analyzed concentration field from network measurements and the first-guess simulation of a CTM. The inverse developed here is based on the CHIMERE model and its adjoint to perform 4-D integration. The methodology is validated on synthetic cases inverting emission fluxes. It is shown that the information provided by the analyzed concentrations is sufficient to reach a mathematically acceptable solution to the optimization, even when little information is available in the measurements. As compared to the use of measurements alone or of measurements and a background matrix, the use of kriging leads to a more homogeneous distribution of the corrections, both in space and time. Moreover, it is then possible to double the accuracy of the inversion by performing two kriging-optimization cycles. Nevertheless, kriging analysis cannot compensate for a very important lack of information in the measurements.

  7. Maturing of SOFC cell and stack production technology and preparation for demonstration of SOFC stacks. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-07-01

    The TOFC/Riso pilot plant production facility for the manufacture of anode-supported cells has been further up-scaled with an automated continuous spraying process and an extra sintering capacity resulting in production capacity exceeding 15,000 standard cells (12x12 cm2) in 2006 with a success rate of about 85% in the cell production. All processing steps such as tape-casting, spraying, screen-printing and atmospheric air sintering in the cell production have been selected on condition that up-scaling and cost effective, flexible, industrial mass production are feasible. The standard cell size is currently being increased to 18x18 cm2, and 150 cells of this size have been produced in 2006 for our further stack development. To improve quality and lower production cost, a new screen printing line is under establishment. TOFC's stack design is an ultra compact multilayer assembly of cells (including contact layers), metallic interconnects, spacer frames and glass seals. The compactness ensures minimized material consumption and low cost. Standard stacks with cross flow configuration contains 75 cells (12x12cm2) delivering about 1.2 kW at optimal operation conditions with pre-reformed NG as fuel. Stable performance has been demonstrated for 500-1000 hours. Significantly improved materials, especially concerning the metallic interconnect and the coatings have been introduced during the last year. Small stacks (5-10 cells) exhibit no detectable stack degradation using our latest cells and stack materials during test periods of 500-1000 hours. Larger stacks (50-75 cells) suffer from mal-distribution of gas and air inside the stacks, gas leakage, gas cross-over, pressure drop, and a certain loss of internal electrical contact during operation cycles. Measures have been taken to find solutions during the following development work. The stack production facilities have been improved and up-scaled. In 2006, 5 standard stacks have been assembled and burned in based on

  8. Biomass fueled fluidized bed combustion: atmospheric emissions, emission control devices and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, S.W.; Jenkins, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustors have become the technological choice for power generation from biomass fuels in California. Atmospheric emission data obtained during compliance tests are compared for five operating 18 to 32 MW fluidized bed combustion power plants. The discussion focuses on the impact of fuel properties and boiler design criteria on the emission of pollutants, the efficiency of pollution control devices, and regulations affecting atmospheric emissions. Stack NO x emission factors are shown not to vary substantially among the five plants which burn fuels with nitrogen concentrations between 0.3 and 1.1% dry weight. All facilities use at least one particular control device, but not all use limestone injection or other control techniques for sulfur and chlorine. The lack of control for chlorine suggests the potential for emission of toxic species due to favorable temperature conditions existing in the particulate control devices, particularly when burning fuels containing high concentrations of chlorine. (Author)

  9. Experience from performance testing of low NOx burners for refinery heaters; Tests de performance avec des bruleurs de raffinerie a basse emission de NOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, J.C. [Refining Technology, BP Oil International, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Developments in low NOx burner technology have resulted in major reductions in NOx emissions from refinery process heaters. However, the techniques used in low NOx burners to reduce NOx emissions can potentially affect other key aspects of burner performance, particularly flame stability and completeness of combustion. BP has evaluated many of the currently available low and ultra-low NOx burners, both natural and forced draught, in its purpose-built test furnace. This extensive test programme has shown that to be a reliable predictor of actual performance a test rig must recreate accurately the real furnace conditions, particularly with respect to furnace and hearth temperatures. The testing has demonstrated the NOx emissions to be expected in practice from different generic types of burner, conventional, low NOx and ultra-low NOx, and has highlighted the sets of conditions most likely to lead to combustion performance problems. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission NDE of Composite Crew Module Service Module/Alternate Launch Abort System (CCM SM/ALAS) Test Article Failure Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Failure tests of CCM SM/ALAS (Composite Crew Module Service Module / Alternate Launch Abort System) composite panels were conducted during July 10, 2008 and July 24, 2008 at Langley Research Center. This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests.

  11. Element stacking method for topology optimization with material-dependent boundary and loading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Park, Y.K.; Kim, Y.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A new topology optimization scheme, called the element stacking method, is developed to better handle design optimization involving material-dependent boundary conditions and selection of elements of different types. If these problems are solved by existing standard approaches, complicated finite...... element models or topology optimization reformulation may be necessary. The key idea of the proposed method is to stack multiple elements on the same discretization pixel and select a single or no element. In this method, stacked elements on the same pixel have the same coordinates but may have...... independent degrees of freedom. Some test problems are considered to check the effectiveness of the proposed stacking method....

  12. Phototype design and testing of two fiber-optic spectrochemical emission sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.B.; Nelson, D.A.; Griffin, J.W.; Matson, B.S.; Eschbach, P.A.

    1988-09-01

    A unique radio frequency-induced helium plasma (RFIHP) sensor and a spark discharge (SD) sensor were designed, and prototype units were developed and tested. Both sensors use an atomic excitation source coupled to a fiber-optic cable and optical spectrometer to monitor in situ the emission intensity of selected elements of interest in the ambient air. Potential applications include vadose zone monitoring of volatile species. The RFIHP sensor was designed to measure the total chlorine concentration from carbon tetrachloride (and other volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons), and the SD sensor was designed to measure in situ concentrations of chlorine-containing compounds. The results of this research demonstrate proof of concept of the theory, but suggest further refinements are necessary to achieve detection sensitivities sufficiently low to be useful for monitoring concentrations of selected elements in vadose zone air. 9 refs., 10 figs

  13. Evaluation of shrinkage and cracking in concrete of ring test by acoustic emission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chikanori

    2015-03-01

    Drying shrinkage of concrete is one of the typical problems related to reduce durability and defilation of concrete structures. Lime stone, expansive additive and low-heat Portland cement are used to reduce drying shrinkage in Japan. Drying shrinkage is commonly evaluated by methods of measurement for length change of mortar and concrete. In these methods, there is detected strain due to drying shrinkage of free body, although visible cracking does not occur. In this study, the ring test was employed to detect strain and age cracking of concrete. The acoustic emission (AE) method was adopted to detect micro cracking due to shrinkage. It was recognized that in concrete using lime stone, expansive additive and low-heat Portland cement are effective to decrease drying shrinkage and visible cracking. Micro cracking due to shrinkage of this concrete was detected and evaluated by the AE method.

  14. Structure Integrity Testing of Mineral Feed by Means of Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Začal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with specific method of non-destructive testing – Acoustic emission (AE. Theoretical part of article is focused on underlying principle of this method and its applicability. The experimental part is focused on research of pressure resistance in mineral feed using the AE. Mineral feed is condensed cube of rock salt (sodium chloride with supplementary minerals, which is fed to livestock and game to supply the mineral elements necessary for their health and condition. Using the AE sensor is possible to provide monitoring of internal changes in the material. AE gives the overview of internal changes in material structure. With use of specific software we can interpret the acoustic signal and identify the current state of material integrity in real time.

  15. Analysis and modelling of the pollutant emissions from European cars regarding the driving characteristics and test cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Michel; Rapone, Mario

    Within the European research project ARTEMIS, significant works have been conducted to analyse the hot emissions of pollutant from the passenger cars regarding the driving cycles and to propose modelling approaches taking into account large but heterogeneous datasets recorded in Europe. The review and analysis of a large range of test cycles enabled first the building-up of a set of contrasted cycles specifically designed for characterizing the influence of the driving conditions. These cycles were used for the measurement of the pollutants emission rates from nine passenger cars on a chassis dynamometer. Emissions measured on 30 vehicles tested on cycles adapted to their motorization (i.e., cycles for high- or low-powered cars, inducing thus a significant difference in the dynamic) were also considered for analysing the influence of the cycles and of the kinematic parameters on the hot emission rates of the regulated pollutants (CO, HC, NO x, CO 2, PM). An analyses of variance demonstrated the preponderance of the driving type (urban, rural road, motorway), of the vehicle category (fuel, emission standard) and emitting status (high/normal emitter) and thus the pertinence of analysing and modelling separately the corresponding emissions. It also demonstrated that Urban driving led systematically to high diesel emission rates and to high CO 2, HC and NO x emissions from petrol cars. Congested driving implied high CO 2 (diesel and petrol) and high diesel NO x emission. On motorway, the very high speeds generated high CO 2, while unsteady speeds induced diesel NO x and petrol CO over-emissions. A search for pertinent kinematic parameters showed that urban diesel emissions were mostly sensitive to stops and speed parameters, while petrol emissions were rather sensitive to acceleration parameters. On the motorway, diesel NO x and CO 2 emissions rates increased with the speed variability and occurrence of high speeds, while CO 2 and CO over-emission from petrol cars were

  16. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes from palm oil on stacking and non-stacking substrate by thermal-CVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaiah, M.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.; Khusaimi, Z.; Azhan, H.; Fadzlinatul, M. Y.; Salifairus, M. J.; Asli, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    Palm oil has been used as the carbon source to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on silicon substrates using the thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Meanwhile, silicon has been applied using two techniques, which are stacked technique and non-stacked technique. The CNTs were grown at the constant time of 30 minutes with various synthesis temperatures of 750 °C, 850 °C and 950 °C. The CNTs were characterized using micro-Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was found that the density, growth rate, diameter and length of the CNTs produced were affected by the synthesis temperature. Moreover, the structure slightly changes were observed between CNTs obtained in SS and NSS. The synthesize temperature of 750 °C was considered as the suitable temperature for the production of CNTs due to low ID/IG ratio, which for stacked is 0.89 and non-stacked are 0.90. The possible explanation for the different morphology of the produced CNTs was also discussed.

  17. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Calatayud, Vicent; Garrec, Jean Pierre; He Shang; Penuelas, Josep; Ribas, Angela; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Rasmussen, Stine; Sanz, Maria Jose; Vergne, Phillippe

    2006-01-01

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local 'hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques is recommended in order to reduce the variability of results due to varying environmental conditions. - The Tradescantia micronucleus test can be used to assess genotoxic potential at urban sites

  18. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, Andreas [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: aklumpp@uni-hohenheim.de; Ansel, Wolfgang [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Klumpp, Gabriele [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Calatayud, Vicent [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Garrec, Jean Pierre [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); He Shang [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); Penuelas, Josep [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ribas, Angela [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ro-Poulsen, Helge [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Rasmussen, Stine [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Vergne, Phillippe [ENS Lyon and Lyon Botanical Garden, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2006-02-15

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local 'hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques is recommended in order to reduce the variability of results due to varying environmental conditions. - The Tradescantia micronucleus test can be used to assess genotoxic potential at urban sites.

  19. Pilot testing of environment-friendly low-emission alternative drive components for city buses. Phase 1. Technical final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doemeland, H.; Haase, G.; Sarnes, J.; Schultheis, S.; Schuenemann, M.; Strauss, A.; Voss, K.; Aepler, E.; Stachel, K.; Wolter, M.; Lenz, W.

    1993-05-01

    The report describes pilot tests of environment-friendly, low-emission city buses with alternative drive systems. The following problems are discussed: Natural gas as primary energy source, natural gas drives, safety requirements, measurement and testing technology for natural gas engines, environmental effects, operating concepts, operating cost. (HW) [de

  20. 40 CFR 1051.235 - What emission testing must I perform for my application for a certificate of conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM... testing shows that such testing does not produce results that are equivalent to the procedures specified...) For fuel tanks that are certified based on permeability treatments for plastic fuel tanks, you do not...

  1. Alternative short tests for inspection and maintenance of in-use cars with respect to their emissions performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samaras, Z.; Zachariadis, T.; Joumard, R.; Vernet, I.; Hassel, D.; Weber, F.-J.; Rijkeboer, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of a project aimed at evaluation of a number of short tests that can be alternatively used for Inspection and Maintenance of in-use cars emissions performance. For this purpose, a large number of in-use cars from four European countries was tested according to a

  2. Thermoacoustic design using stem of goose down stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farikhah, Irna; Ristanto, Sigit; Idrus, Hadiyati; Kaltsum, Ummi; Faisal, Affandi; Setiawan, Ihsan; Setio Utomo, Agung Bambang

    2012-09-01

    Many refrigerators using CFC as a refrigerant are seen as the cause of the depletion of ozone. Hence, thermoacoustic was chosen as an alternative refrigerator that safe for environment. There are many variable that influenced the optimization of thermoacoustic design. One of them is thermal conductivity of material of stack. The Stack material must have a low thermal conductivity. In this research we used organic stack made of stem of goose down. It has superior thermal insulating. It means that they have the lowest thermal conductivity. The system uses no refrigerant or compressor, and the only mechanical moving part is the loudspeaker connected to a signal generator that produces the acoustic. The working fluid is air and the material of resonator is stainless steel. A series test on the laboratory found that there is a decrease of 5°C in temperature for about 2 minutes.

  3. Continued SOFC cell and stack technology and improved production methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandel, M.; Brodersen, K.; Phair, J. (and others)

    2009-05-15

    Within this project significant results are obtained on a number of very diverse areas ranging from development of cell production, metallic creep in interconnect to assembling and test of stacks with foot print larger than 500 cm2. Out of 38 milestones 28 have been fulfilled and 10 have been partly fulfilled. This project has focused on three main areas: 1) The continued cell development and optimization of manufacturing processes aiming at production of large foot-print cells, improving cell performance and development environmentally more benign production methods. 2) Stack technology - especially stacks with large foot print and improving the stack design with respect to flow geometry and gas leakages. 3) Development of stack components with emphasis on sealing (for 2G as well as 3G), interconnect (coat, architecture and creep) and test development. Production of cells with a foot print larger than 500 cm2 is very difficult due to the brittleness of the cells and great effort has been put into this topic. Eight cells were successfully produced making it possible to assemble and test a real stack thereby giving valuable results on the prospects of stacks with large foot print. However, the yield rate is very low and a significant development to increase this yield lies ahead. Several lessons were learned on the stack level regarding 'large foot print' stacks. Modelling studies showed that the width of the cell primarily is limited by production and handling of the cell whereas the length (in the flow direction) is limited by e.g. pressure drop and necessary manifolding. The optimal cell size in the flow direction was calculated to be between approx20 cm and < 30 cm. From an economical point of view the production yield is crucial and stacks with large foot print cell area are only feasible if the cell production yield is significantly enhanced. Co-casting has been pursued as a production technique due to the possibilities in large scale production

  4. A microcontroller with 96% power-conversion efficiency using stacked voltage domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blutman, K.; Kapoor, A.; Majumdar, A.; Martinez, J.G.; Echeverri, J.; Sevat, L.; Van Der Wel, A.; Fatemi, H.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.; Makinwa, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a CMOS 40nm microcontroller where for the first time, stacked voltage domains are used. The system features an ARM Cortex M0+ processor, 4kB ROM, 16kB SRAM, peripherals, and an on-chip switched-capacitor voltage regulator (SCVR). By using voltage stacking the test chip achieves

  5. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  6. Corrosion testing on crude oil tankers and other product carriers by means of acoustic emission (AE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Gerald [TUV Austria, Deutschstrasse 10, 1230 Wien (Austria); Tscheliesnig, Peter [TUV Austria, Deutschstrasse 10, 1230 Wien (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades a lot of maritime disasters with crude oil tankers occurred (e.g. Exxon- Valdez, Erika, Prestige). Every accident led to extreme pollution with horrible consequences not only for the environment but also for the life of the inhabitants of the affected coasts. Although most of these accidents were caused by human errors, the material degradation of the ship hull due to corrosion played an important role. Acoustic emission (AE) is already used to detect and discriminate the stage of corrosion of structures located on land. A consortium consisting of experienced partners from the fields of ship building and classification as well as from AE testing and equipment manufacturing started to investigate the feasibility of this testing technique for its application on oil tankers. The aim of the research project funded by the European Commission is to develop an on-line corrosion monitoring technique based on a permanent installation of AE sensors as well as a spot testing technique during stops in harbors or at anchorages using mobile equipment. Since the project was started, a lot of lab tests as well as background measurements were done on different types of tankers up to a size of 35.000 dead weight tons (DWT). The gathered data were evaluated with a frequency domain based pattern recognition system and it was possible to distinguish the AE signals related to corrosion from those signals, which were emitted by the structure due to the harsh environment on sea (background noise). Together with the oncoming developments of the AE equipment and the improvement of the data base, this project will lead to an important breakthrough for the safe shipping of hazardous products like crude oil. (authors)

  7. The application of the acoustic emission technique to stone decay by sodium sulphate in laboratory tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi, C. M.

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission was monitored during salt crystallisation cycles in order to study the mechanisms of rock deterioration by sodium sulphate in laboratory tests. Some porous carbonate stones used in Spanish monuments (Cathedral of Oviedo, Murcia and Seo Vella of Lérida were selected for this study. The acoustic emission detected during the different stages of the cycles (immersion, drying and cooling was interpreted to be the result of the salt behaviour inside the stone. The use of this technique has confirmed that this behaviour depends on salt characteristics (solubility, hydration state and polymorphism of anhydrous sodium sulphate and stone porosity and pore network.

    Para determinar los mecanismos de deterioro de las rocas debidos a la acción del sulfato de sodio, se ha registrado la emisión acústica durante ensayos de cristalización de sales en el laboratorio. Para ello, se han seleccionado tres piedras porosas carbonatadas utilizadas como materiales de construcción en monumentos españoles (Catedrales de Oviedo, Murcia y Seo Vella de Lérida. La emisión acústica detectada durante las diferentes etapas de los ciclos (inmersión, secado y enfriamiento se ha interpretado como debida al comportamiento de la sal en el interior de la piedra. Mediante esta técnica se ha confirmado que este comportamiento depende de las características de la sal (solubilidad, diferentes estados de hidratación y el polimorfismo del sulfato de sodio anhidro y de la porosidad y configuración del sistema poroso de las rocas.

  8. Toxic Emissions from a Military Test Site in the Territory of Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Triolo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the environmental impact from chemical emissions due to military tests and routine activities in the area occupied by the Italian Inter-force Test Range (PISQ, located at Salto di Quirra, Sardinia, Italy. After reviewing the military activities carried out at PISQ, such as rocket launching, blasting and armament destruction, projectile and mortar fire impact, the associated pollution is evaluated. Chemical analyses were performed by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Energy Dispersion Spectrometry on biotic and abiotic matrices. Residues of Rb, Tl, W, Ti and Al were found in matrices collected in the PISQ areas and environs. A review of experimental data on air, water, soil, milk, forage and animal tissues obtained by various Public Agencies of Sardinia proved that toxic element residues often exceeded the legal limits. PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations also exceeded the legal limits after military blasting. Cd and Pb contents in the liver and kidneys of sheep living in farms at PISQ and in control farms that were located more than 20 km away from PISQ were higher than the legal limits. This work was performed to investigate concentration of xenobiotics in ecosystems emitted from PISQ activities. This assessment could be useful to focus future epidemiological studies carried out in PISQ and its neighbouring areas.

  9. Ultrafine particle emission characteristics of diesel engine by on-board and test bench measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Lou, Diming; Hu, Zhiyuan; Tan, Piqiang; Yao, Di; Hu, Wei; Li, Peng; Ren, Jin; Chen, Changhong

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the emission characteristics of ultrafine particles based on test bench and on-board measurements. The bench test results showed the ultrafine particle number concentration of the diesel engine to be in the range of (0.56-8.35) x 10(8) cm(-3). The on-board measurement results illustrated that the ultrafine particles were strongly correlated with changes in real-world driving cycles. The particle number concentration was down to 2.0 x 10(6) cm(-3) and 2.7 x 10(7) cm(-3) under decelerating and idling operations and as high as 5.0 x 10(8) cm(-3) under accelerating operation. It was also indicated that the particle number measured by the two methods increased with the growth of engine load at each engine speed in both cases. The particle number presented a "U" shaped distribution with changing speed at high engine load conditions, which implies that the particle number will reach its lowest level at medium engine speeds. The particle sizes of both measurements showed single mode distributions. The peak of particle size was located at about 50-80 nm in the accumulation mode particle range. Nucleation mode particles will significantly increase at low engine load operations like idling and decelerating caused by the high concentration of unburned organic compounds.

  10. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Lightning-Damaged CFRP Laminates during Compression-after-Impact Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Oh Yang; Shin, Jae Ha [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Carbon-fiber reinforced plastic(CFRP) laminates made of nano-particle-coated carbon fibers and damaged by a simulated lightning strike were tested under compression-after-impact(CAI) mode, during which the damage progress due to compressive loading has been monitored by acoustic emission(AE). The impact damage was induced not by mechanical loading but by a simulated lightning strike. Conductive nano-particles were coated directly on the fibers, from which CFRP coupons were made. The coupon were subjected to the strikes with a high voltage/current impulse of 10-40 kA within a few . The effects of nano-particle coating and the degree of damage induced by the simulated lightning strikes on AE activities were examined, and the relationship between the compressive residual strength and AE behavior has been evaluated in terms of AE event counts and the onset of AE activity with the compressive loading. The degree of impact damage was also measured in terms of damage area by using ultrasonic C-scan images. The assessment during the CAI tests of damaged CFRP showed that AE monitoring appeared to be useful to differentiate the degree of damage hence the mechanical integrity of composite structures damaged by lightning strikes.

  11. Acoustic emission from thermal-gradient cracks in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.R.; Kupperman, D.S.; Wrona, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    A feasibility study has been conducted to evaluate the potential use of acoustic emission to monitor thermal-shock damage in direct electrical heating of UO 2 pellets. In the apparatus used for the present tests, two acoustic-emission sensors were placed on extensions of the upper and lower electrical feedthroughs. Commercially available equipment was used to accumulate acoustic-emission data. The accumulation of events displayed on a cathode-ray-tube screen indicates the total number of acoustic-emission events at a particular location within the pellet stack. These tests have indicated that acoustic emission can be used to monitor thermal-shock damage in UO 2 pellets subjected to direct-electrical heating. 8 references

  12. Identifying Otosclerosis with Aural Acoustical Tests of Absorbance, Group Delay, Acoustic Reflex Threshold, and Otoacoustic Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Douglas H; Archer, Kelly L; Schmid, Kendra K; Fitzpatrick, Denis F; Feeney, M Patrick; Hunter, Lisa L

    2017-10-01

    Otosclerosis is a progressive middle-ear disease that affects conductive transmission through the middle ear. Ear-canal acoustic tests may be useful in the diagnosis of conductive disorders. This study addressed the degree to which results from a battery of ear-canal tests, which include wideband reflectance, acoustic stapedius muscle reflex threshold (ASRT), and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), were effective in quantifying a risk of otosclerosis and in evaluating middle-ear function in ears after surgical intervention for otosclerosis. To evaluate the ability of the test battery to classify ears as normal or otosclerotic, measure the accuracy of reflectance in classifying ears as normal or otosclerotic, and evaluate the similarity of responses in normal ears compared with ears after surgical intervention for otosclerosis. A quasi-experimental cross-sectional study incorporating case control was used. Three groups were studied: one diagnosed with otosclerosis before corrective surgery, a group that received corrective surgery for otosclerosis, and a control group. The test groups included 23 ears (13 right and 10 left) with normal hearing from 16 participants (4 male and 12 female), 12 ears (7 right and 5 left) diagnosed with otosclerosis from 9 participants (3 male and 6 female), and 13 ears (4 right and 9 left) after surgical intervention from 10 participants (2 male and 8 female). Participants received audiometric evaluations and clinical immittance testing. Experimental tests performed included ASRT tests with wideband reference signal (0.25-8 kHz), reflectance tests (0.25-8 kHz), which were parameterized by absorbance and group delay at ambient pressure and at swept tympanometric pressures, and TEOAE tests using chirp stimuli (1-8 kHz). ASRTs were measured in ipsilateral and contralateral conditions using tonal and broadband noise activators. Experimental ASRT tests were based on the difference in wideband-absorbed sound power before and after

  13. Location and sizing of a plant stack: Design study using CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrangeli, Gianni

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The paper is a test of applicability of CFD Codes to a nuclear plant stack. → Six cases are studied and comparison is made with common methods. → A comparison with field test data is made. → The study shows that CFD Codes are adequate even in presence of complicated building arrangements. - Abstract: The effect of the presence of a stack on the ground level concentration of emissions near the plant is to significantly decrease the concentrations (in practical cases of interest, by a factor of 5-10), while the presence of nearby plant buildings is to partly eliminate this beneficial effect due to the effect of the building wake. The author of this paper believes that the practical methods currently used for the evaluation of ground concentrations in these cases deserve some improvement. One line of development here suggested is the use of Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. The author believes that presently available Code Packages in this field are sufficiently accurate. A number of case studies are presented in this paper, with the aim of encouraging the use of these rather simple methods of study. Moreover, a comparison of calculation results with a field test results confirms also the quantitative reliability of the calculation method here proposed. The main conclusions of this exercise could be the following: -The use of CFD Computer Codes seems suitable for atmospheric dispersion calculations of interest to the nuclear plant designer and safety analyst; in particular, for design studies aimed at the definition of nuclear plant and stack arrangements, the result of this exercise seem to indicate that the methods here used are completely suitable for the comparison of various solutions. -The use of CFD codes may avoid wrong decisions, like the elimination of a stack in the design of a nuclear plant; excessive and detrimental over-conservatism can also be avoided. -When adequate guidance is provided, as this paper attempts to do (), the CFD

  14. Development of internal manifold heat exchanger (IMHEX reg-sign) molten carbonate fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marianowski, L.G.; Ong, E.T.; Petri, R.J.; Remick, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has been in the forefront of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) development for over 25 years. Numerous cell designs have been tested and extensive tests have been performed on a variety of gas manifolding alternatives for cells and stacks. Based upon the results of these performance tests, IGT's development efforts started focusing on an internal gas manifolding concept. This work, initiated in 1988, is known today as the IMHEX reg-sign concept. MCP has developed a comprehensive commercialization program loading to the sale of commercial units in 1996. MCP's role is in the manufacture of stack components, stack assembly, MCFC subsystem testing, and the design, marketing and construction of MCFC power plants. Numerous subscale (1 ft 2 ) stacks have been operated containing between 3 and 70 cells. These tests verified and demonstrated the viability of internal manifolding from technical (no carbonate pumping), engineering (relaxed part dimensional tolerance requirements), and operational (good gas sealing) aspects. Simplified fabrication, ease of assembly, the elimination of external manifolds and all associated clamping requirements has significantly lowered anticipated stack costs. Ongoing 1 ft 2 stack testing is generating performance and endurance characteristics as a function of system specified operating conditions. Commercial-sized, full-area stacks (10 ft 2 ) are in the process of being assembled and will be tested in November. This paper will review the recent developments the MCFC scale-up and manufacture work of MCP, and the research and development efforts of IGT which support those efforts. 17 figs

  15. The untyped stack calculus and Bohm's theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carraro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The stack calculus is a functional language in which is in a Curry-Howard correspondence with classical logic. It enjoys confluence but, as well as Parigot's lambda-mu, does not admit the Bohm Theorem, typical of the lambda-calculus. We present a simple extension of stack calculus which is for the stack calculus what Saurin's Lambda-mu is for lambda-mu.

  16. SiliPET: Design of an ultra-high resolution small animal PET scanner based on stacks of semi-conductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesca, N.; Auricchio, N.; Di Domenico, G.; Zavattini, G.; Malaguti, R.; Andritschke, R.; Kanbach, G.; Schopper, F.

    2007-01-01

    We studied with Monte Carlo simulations, using the EGSnrc code, a new scanner for small animal positron emission tomography (PET), based on stacks of double-sided semiconductor detectors. Each stack is composed of planar detectors with dimension 70x60x1 mm 3 and orthogonal strips on both sides with 500 μm pitch to read the two interaction coordinates, the third being the detector number in the stack. Multiple interactions in a stack are discarded. In this way, we achieve a precise determination of the first interaction point of the two 511 keV photons. The reduced dimensions of the scanner also improve the solid angle coverage resulting in a high sensitivity. Preliminary results of scanners based on Si planar detectors are presented and the initial tomographic reconstructions demonstrate very good spatial resolution limited only by the positron range. This suggests that, this is a promising new approach for small animal PET imaging. We are testing some double-sided silicon detectors, equipped with 128 orthogonal p and n strips on opposite sides using VATAGP3 ASIC by IDEAS

  17. The effect of urbanization and industrialization on carbon emissions in Turkey: evidence from ARDL bounds testing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pata, Ugur Korkut

    2018-03-01

    This paper examines the dynamic short- and long-term relationship between per capita GDP, per capita energy consumption, financial development, urbanization, industrialization, and per capita carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions within the framework of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for Turkey covering the period from 1974 to 2013. According to the results of the autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach, an increase in per capita GDP, per capita energy consumption, financial development, urbanization, and industrialization has a positive effect on per capita CO 2 emissions in the long term, and also the variables other than urbanization increase per capita CO 2 emissions in the short term. In addition, the findings support the validity of the EKC hypothesis for Turkey in the short and long term. However, the turning points obtained from long-term regressions lie outside the sample period. Therefore, as the per capita GDP increases in Turkey, per capita CO 2 emissions continue to increase.

  18. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro López García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum’s Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015  [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  19. ooi: OpenStack OCCI interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    López García, Álvaro; Fernández del Castillo, Enol; Orviz Fernández, Pablo

    In this document we present an implementation of the Open Grid Forum's Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI) for OpenStack, namely ooi (Openstack occi interface, 2015) [1]. OCCI is an open standard for management tasks over cloud resources, focused on interoperability, portability and integration. ooi aims to implement this open interface for the OpenStack cloud middleware, promoting interoperability with other OCCI-enabled cloud management frameworks and infrastructures. ooi focuses on being non-invasive with a vanilla OpenStack installation, not tied to a particular OpenStack release version.

  20. a Landsat Time-Series Stacks Model for Detection of Cropland Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Chen, J.; Zhang, J.

    2017-09-01

    Global, timely, accurate and cost-effective cropland monitoring with a fine spatial resolution will dramatically improve our understanding of the effects of agriculture on greenhouse gases emissions, food safety, and human health. Time-series remote sensing imagery have been shown particularly potential to describe land cover dynamics. The traditional change detection techniques are often not capable of detecting land cover changes within time series that are severely influenced by seasonal difference, which are more likely to generate pseuso changes. Here,we introduced and tested LTSM ( Landsat time-series stacks model), an improved Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) proposed previously approach to extract spectral trajectories of land surface change using a dense Landsat time-series stacks (LTS). The method is expected to eliminate pseudo changes caused by phenology driven by seasonal patterns. The main idea of the method is that using all available Landsat 8 images within a year, LTSM consisting of two term harmonic function are estimated iteratively for each pixel in each spectral band .LTSM can defines change area by differencing the predicted and observed Landsat images. The LTSM approach was compared with change vector analysis (CVA) method. The results indicated that the LTSM method correctly detected the "true change" without overestimating the "false" one, while CVA pointed out "true change" pixels with a large number of "false changes". The detection of change areas achieved an overall accuracy of 92.37 %, with a kappa coefficient of 0.676.

  1. A small mono-polar direct methanol fuel cell stack with passive operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. H.; Zhao, T. S.; Chen, R.; Xu, C.

    A passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) stack that consists of six unit cells was designed, fabricated, and tested. The stack was tested with different methanol concentrations under ambient conditions. It was found that the stack performance increased when the methanol concentration inside the fuel tank was increased from 2.0 to 6.0 M. The improved performance is primarily due to the increased cell temperature as a result of the exothermic reaction between the permeated methanol and oxygen on the cathode. Moreover, the increased cell temperature enhanced the water evaporation rate on the air-breathing cathode, which significantly reduced water flooding on the cathode and further improved the stack performance. This passive DMFC stack, providing 350 mW at 1.8 V, was successfully applied to power a seagull display kit. The seagull display kit can continuously run for about 4 h on a single charge of 25 cm 3 4.0-M methanol solution.

  2. Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.

  3. California dreaming?[PEM stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosse, J.

    2002-06-01

    Hyundai's Santa Fe FCEV will be on sale by the end of 2002. Hyundai uses PEM stacks that are manufactured by International Fuel Cells (IFC), a division of United Technologies. Santa Fe is equipped with a 65 kW electric powertrain of Enova systems and Shell's new gasoline reformer called Hydrogen Source. Eugene Jang, Senior Engineer - Fuel Cell and Materials at Hyundai stated that the compressor related losses on IFC system are below 3%. The maximum speed offered by the vehicle is estimated as 123km/hr while the petrol equivalent fuel consumption is quoted between 5.6L/100 km and 4.8L/100 km. Santa Fe is a compact vehicle offering better steering response and a pleasant drive. (author)

  4. Air emissions of small-scale (< 10 MW) biomass boilers. Review of three field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autret, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of greenhouse gases emission reduction, which encourages bio-energy development for heat purposes, are compatible with air-quality policies if the concept of clean biomass combustion is applied. This paper presents actual emission levels of atmospheric pollutants of small-scale ( 2 , NO x , fine particulate matters, metallic compounds. Installation design (power, flue-gas cleaning techno logy) also has a major impact on organic pollutants and fine particulate matter emissions. A large majority of boilers have very low emission levels. Guidelines are finally stated to keep on promoting small-scale biomass boilers in order to be air-quality compatible and efficient to fight climate change. (author)

  5. In-stack condensible particulate matter measurement and permitting issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corio, L.A.; Sherwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the results of recent epidemiological studies and assessments of the causes of visibility degradation, EPA is proposing to regulate PM2.5 emissions. PM can be classified as either filterable or condensible PM. Condensible PM includes sulfates, such as sulfuric acid. Sulfates typically account for at least half of the total dry fine PM mass in the atmosphere. Power plant SO x -based emissions make a significant contribution to ambient fine PM levels in the eastern US. Although much of this mass is derived from secondary chemical reactions in the atmosphere, a portion of this sulfate is emitted directly from stacks as condensible PM. The potential condensible PM fraction associated with coal-burning boiler emissions is somewhat uncertain. The characterization of PM emissions from these sources has been, until recently, based on in-stack filterable PM measurements only. To determine the relative magnitude of condensible PM emissions and better understand condensible PM measurement issues, a review and analysis of actual EPA Method 202 results and state-developed hybrid condensible PM methods were conducted. A review of available Method 202 results for several coal-burning boilers showed that the condensible PM, on average, comprises 60% of the total PM10. A review of recent results for state-developed measurement methods for condensible PM for numerous coal-burning boilers indicated that condensible PM accounted for, on average, approximately 49% of total PM. Caution should be exercised in the use of these results because of the seemingly unresolved issue of artifact formation, which may bias the Method 202 and state-developed methods results on the high side. Condensible PM10 measurement results and issues, and potential ramifications of including condensible PM10 emissions in the PSD permit review process are discussed. Selected power plants in Maryland are discussed as examples

  6. Analysis of acoustic emission signals of fatigue crack growth and corrosion processes. Investigation of the possibilities for continuous condition monitoring of transport containers by acoustic emission testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachsmuth, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth and active corrosion processes are the main causes of structural failures of transport products like road tankers, railway tank cars and ships. To prevent those failures, preventive, time-based maintenance is performed. However, preventive inspections are costly and include the risk of not detecting a defect, which could lead to a failure within the next service period. An alternative is the idea of continuous monitoring of the whole structure by means of acoustic emission testing (AT). With AT, defects within the material shall be detected and repaired directly after their appearance. Acoustic emission testing is an online non-destructive testing method. Acoustic emission (AE) arises from changes within the material and is transported by elastic waves through the material. If the AE event generates enough energy, the elastic wave propagates to the boundaries of the component, produces a displacement in the picometre scale and can be detected by a piezoelectric sensor. The sensor produces an electrical signal. From this AE signal, AE features such as the maximum amplitude or the frequency can be extracted. Methods of signal analysis are used to investigate the time and frequency dependency of signal groups. The purpose of the signal analysis is to connect the AE signal with the originating AE source. If predefined damage mechanisms are identified, referencing the damage condition of the structure is possible. Acoustic emission from events of the actual crack propagation process can for example lead to the crack growth rate or the stress intensity factor, both specific values from fracture mechanics. A new development in the domain of acoustic emission testing is the pattern recognition of AE signals. Specific features are extracted from the AE signals to assign them to their damage mechanisms. In this thesis the AE signals from the damage mechanisms corrosion and fatigue crack growth are compared and analysed. The damage mechanisms were

  7. Phase 1, Background study results under the Council of Great Lake Governors program to perform stack sampling and analysis of emissions from densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-07

    This report covers the results of the first part of the study. Chapter 2 contains a summary of the d-RDF literature which was surveyed. Chapter 3 contains a compilation of existing and proposed regulation information from the seven participating Great Lakes States. Chapter 4 includes identification of pellet producers in the region. Chapter 5 contains a description of the pellet producers and test burn facilities selected for the experimental work to be undertaken in the second part of the program study. Chapter 6 contains a list of references. 27 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Observation and analysis of self-amplified spontaneous emission at the APS low-energy undulator test line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, N. D.; Attig, J.; Banks, G.; Bechtold, R.; Beczek, K.; Benson, C.; Berg, S.; Berg, W.; Biedron, S. G.; Biggs, J. A.; Borland, M.; Boerste, K.; Bosek, M.; Brzowski, W. R.; Budz, J.; Carwardine, J. A.; Castro, P.; Chae, Y.-C.; Christensen, S.; Clark, C.; Conde, M.; Crosbie, E. A.; Decker, G. A.; Dejus, R. J.; DeLeon, H.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B. N.; Dohan, D.; Dombrowski, P.; Donkers, D.; Doose, C. L.; Dortwegt, R. J.; Edwards, G. A.; Eidelman, Y.; Erdmann, M. J.; Error, J.; Ferry, R.; Flood, R.; Forrestal, J.; Freund, H.; Friedsam, H.; Gagliano, J.; Gai, W.; Galayda, J. N.; Gerig, R.; Gilmore, R. L.; Gluskin, E.; Goeppner, G. A.; Goetzen, J.; Gold, C.; Gorski, A. J.; Grelick, A. E.; Hahne, M. W.; Hanuska, S.; Harkay, K. C.; Harris, G.; Hillman, A. L.; Hogrefe, R.; Hoyt, J.; Huang, Z.; Jagger, J. M.; Jansma, W. G.; Jaski, M.; Jones, S. J.; Keane, R. T.; Kelly, A. L.; Keyser, C.; Kim, K.-J.; Kim, S. H.; Kirshenbaum, M.; Klick, J. H.; Knoerzer, K.; Koldenhoven, R. J.; Knott, M.; Labuda, S.; Laird, R.; Lang, J.; Lenkszus, F.; Lessner, E. S.; Lewellen, J. W.; Li, Y.; Lill, R. M.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Makarov, O. A.; Markovich, G. M.; McDowell, M.; McDowell, W. P.; McNamara, P. E.; Meier, T.; Meyer, D.; Michalek, W.; Milton, S. V.; Moe, H.; Moog, E. R.; Morrison, L.; Nassiri, A.; Noonan, J. R.; Otto, R.; Pace, J.; Pasky, S. J.; Penicka, J. M.; Pietryla, A. F.; Pile, G.; Pitts, C.; Power, J.; Powers, T.; Putnam, C. C.; Puttkammer, A. J.; Reigle, D.; Reigle, L.; Ronzhin, D.; Rotela, E. R.; Russell, E. F.; Sajaev, V.; Sarkar, S.; Scapino, J. C.; Schroeder, K.; Seglem, R. A.; Sereno, N. S.; Sharma, S. K.; Sidarous, J. F.; Singh, O.; Smith, T. L.; Soliday, R.; Sprau, G. A.; Stein, S. J.; Stejskal, B.; Svirtun, V.; Teng, L. C.; Theres, E.; Thompson, K.; Tieman, B. J.; Torres, J. A.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Travish, G.; Trento, G. F.; Vacca, J.; Vasserman, I. B.; Vinokurov, N. A.; Walters, D. R.; Wang, J.; Wang, X. J.; Warren, J.; Wesling, S.; Weyer, D. L.; Wiemerslage, G.; Wilhelmi, K.; Wright, R.; Wyncott, D.; Xu, S.; Yang, B.-X.; Yoder, W.; Zabel, R. B.

    2001-12-01

    Exponential growth of self-amplified spontaneous emission at 530 nm was first experimentally observed at the Advanced Photon Source low-energy undulator test line in December 1999. Since then, further detailed measurements and analysis of the results have been made. Here, we present the measurements and compare these with calculations based on measured electron beam properties and theoretical expectations.

  9. Acoustic emission for interlaminar toughness testing of CFRP: Evaluation of the crack growth due to burst analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lissek, F.; Haegerb, A.; Knoblauch, V.; Hloch, Sergej; Pude, F.; Kaufeld, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 1 (2018), s. 55-62 ISSN 1359-8368 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : DCB * interlaminar toughness testing * acoustic emission * CFRP * burst analysis Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 4.727, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359836817313720

  10. Acoustic emission for interlaminar toughness testing of CFRP: Evaluation of the crack growth due to burst analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lissek, F.; Haegerb, A.; Knoblauch, V.; Hloch, Sergej; Pude, F.; Kaufeld, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 1 (2018), s. 55-62 ISSN 1359-8368 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : DCB * interlaminar toughness testing * acoustic emission * CFRP * burst analysis Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 4.727, year: 2016 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S1359836817313720

  11. Observation and analysis of self-amplified spontaneous emission at the APS low-energy undulator test line

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, N D; Banks, G; Bechtold, R; Beczek, K; Benson, C; Berg, S; Berg, W; Biedron, S G; Biggs, J A; Boerste, K; Borland, M; Bosek, M; Brzowski, W R; Budz, J; Carwardine, J A; Castro, P; Chae, Y C; Christensen, S; Clark, C; Conde, M; Crosbie, E A; Decker, G A; Dejus, Roger J; Deleon, H; Den Hartog, P K; Deriy, B N; Dohan, D; Dombrowski, P; Donkers, D; Doose, C L; Dortwegt, R J; Edwards, G A; Eidelman, Y; Erdmann, M J; Error, J J; Ferry, R; Flood, R; Forrestal, J; Freund, H; Friedsam, H; Gagliano, J; Gai, W; Galayda, J N; Gerig, R; Gilmore, R L; Gluskin, E; Goeppner, G A; Goetzen, J; Gold, C; Grelick, A E; Hahne, M W; Hanuska, S; Harkay, K C; Harris, G; Hillman, A L; Hogrefe, R; Hoyt, J; Huang, Z; Jagger, J M; Jansma, W G; Jaski, M; Jones, S J; Keane, R T; Kelly, A L; Keyser, C; Kim, K J; Kim, S H; Kirshenbaum, M; Klick, J H; Knoerzer, K; Knott, M; Koldenhoven, R J; Labuda, S; Laird, R; Lang, J; Lenkszus, F R; Lessner, E S; Lewellen, J W; Li, Y; Lill, R M; Lumpkin, Alex H; Makarov, O A; Markovich, G M; McDowell, M; McDowell, W P; McNamara, P E; Meier, T; Meyer, D; Michalek, W; Milton, S V; Moe, H; Moog, E; Morrison, L; Nassiri, A; Noonan, J R; Otto, R; Pace, J; Pasky, S J; Penicka, J M; Pietryla, A F; Pile, G; Pitts, C; Power, J; Powers, T; Putnam, C C; Puttkammer, A J; Reigle, D; Reigle, L; Ronzhin, D; Rotela, E R; Russell, E F; Sajaev, Vadim; Sarkar, S; Scapino, J C; Schröder, K; Seglem, R A; Sereno, N S; Sharma, S K; Sidarous, J F; Singh, O; Smith, T L; Soliday, R; Sprau, G A; Stein, S J; Stejskal, B; Svirtun, V; Teng, L C; Theres, E; Thompson, K; Tieman, B J; Torres, J A; Trakhtenberg, E; Travish, G; Trento, G F; Vacca, J; Vasserman, I B; Vinokurov, N A; Walters, D R; Wang, J; Wang, X J; Warren, J; Wesling, S; Weyer, D L; Wiemerslage, G; Wilhelmi, K; Wright, R; Wyncott, D; Xu, S; Yang, B X; Yoder, W; Zabel, R B

    2001-01-01

    Exponential growth of self-amplified spontaneous emission at 530 nm was first experimentally observed at the Advanced Photon Source low-energy undulator test line in December 1999. Since then, further detailed measurements and analysis of the results have been made. Here, we present the measurements and compare these with calculations based on measured electron beam properties and theoretical expectations.

  12. Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...... of vector fields....

  13. Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420

  14. 40 CFR 61.44 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.44 Section 61.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Firing § 61.44 Stack sampling. (a) Sources subject to § 61.42(b) shall be continuously sampled, during...

  15. On the "stacking fault" in copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransens, J.R.; Pleiter, F

    2003-01-01

    The results of a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations experiment on In-111 implanted into a properly cut single crystal of copper show that the defect known in the literature as "stacking fault" is not a planar faulted loop but a stacking fault tetrahedron with a size of 10-50 Angstrom.

  16. Learning OpenStack networking (Neutron)

    CERN Document Server

    Denton, James

    2014-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack-based cloud operator with experience in OpenStack Compute and nova-network but are new to Neutron networking, then this book is for you. Some networking experience is recommended, and a physical network infrastructure is required to provide connectivity to instances and other network resources configured in the book.

  17. A “4-cell” modular passive DMFC (direct methanol fuel cell) stack for portable applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Luwen; He, Mingyan; Hu, Yue; Zhang, Yufeng; Liu, Xiaowei; Wang, Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    A “4-cell” modular passive DMFC (direct methanol fuel cell) stack, which can be freely combined and applied to various electronic devices, is designed, fabricated and tested. Two PCB (printed circuit board) based accessories are designed and fabricated for electrically connecting and mechanically assembling the “4-cell” modules. The maximum power density of the “4-cell” module is 27 mW cm −2 at 5 M methanol concentration. The steady-state performances of the modular stacks with different numbers of modules are tested. The extra power loss of the multiple module stacks due to inter-module electrical connections is predicted by mathematical fitting method. The fitting results indicate that the efficiencies of the multiple module stacks are all above 90% up to 10 modules. The dynamic performances of the modular stacks are also investigated for portable applications. The results show that the modular stacks exhibit good responsiveness and reproducibility at high loading current (>100 mA). Finally, the modular stacks are successfully applied to drive the experimental fan and charge the mobile phone. - Highlights: • A “4-cell” modular passive DMFC (direct methanol fuel cell) stack is designed, fabricated and tested. • This modular DMFC stack can assemble more single cells with high efficiency. • The modular stack exhibit good responsiveness and reproducibility for portable application

  18. On the Causal Nexus of Road Transport CO2 Emissions and Macroeconomic Variables in Tunisia: Evidence from Combined Cointegration Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Khraief, Naceur; Dhaoui, Abderrazak

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between road transportation energy consumption, fuel prices, transport sector value added and CO2 emissions in Tunisia for the period 1980-2012. We apply the newly developed combined cointegration test proposed by Bayer and Hanck (2013) and the ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration to establish the existence of long-run relationship in presence of structural breaks. The direction of causality between these variables is determined via vec...

  19. Modular fuel-cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinakin

    2010-07-13

    A fuel cell assembly having a plurality of fuel cells arranged in a stack. An end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at an end of said stack. The end plate assembly has an inlet area adapted to receive an exhaust gas from the stack, an outlet area and a passage connecting the inlet area and outlet area and adapted to carry the exhaust gas received at the inlet area from the inlet area to the outlet area. A further end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at a further opposing end of the stack. The further end plate assembly has a further inlet area adapted to receive a further exhaust gas from the stack, a further outlet area and a further passage connecting the further inlet area and further outlet area and adapted to carry the further exhaust gas received at the further inlet area from the further inlet area to the further outlet area.

  20. Analysis of non-regulated vehicular emissions by extractive FTIR spectrometry: tests on a hybrid car in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, F.; Grutter, M.; Jazcilevich, A.; González-Oropeza, R.

    2006-07-01

    A methodology to acquire valuable information on the chemical composition and evolution of vehicular emissions is presented. The analysis of the gases is performed by passing a constant flow of a sample gas from the tail-pipe into a 10 L multi-pass cell. The absorption spectra within the cell are obtained using an FTIR spectrometer at 0.5 cm-1 resolution along a 13.1 m optical path. Additionally, the total flow from the exhaust is continuously measured from a differential pressure sensor on a Pitot tube installed at the exit of the exhaust. This configuration aims to obtain a good speciation capability by coadding spectra during 30 s and reporting the emission (in g/km) of key and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO, NMHC, during predetermined driving routines. The advantages and disadvantages of increasing the acquisition frequency, as well as the effect of other parameters such as spectral resolution, cell volume and flow rate, are discussed. With the aim of testing and evaluating the proposed technique, experiments were performed on a dynamometer running FTP-75 and typical driving cycles of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) on a Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle. This car is an example of recent automotive technology to reach the market dedicated to reduce emissions and therefore pressing the need of low detection techniques. This study shows the potential of the proposed technique to measure and report in real time the emissions of a large variety of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO and CO2 obtained here are similar to experiments performed in other locations with the same vehicle model. Some differences suggest that an inefficient combustion process and type of gasoline used in the MCMA may be partly responsible for lower CO2 and higher CO and NO emission factors. Also, a fast reduction of NO emission to very low values is observed after cold ignition, giving rise to

  1. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, W. A.; Larsen, R. P.; Zammit, M. G.; Davies, J. G.; Salmon, G. S.; Bruetsch, R. I.

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  2. Testing climate-smart irrigation strategies to reduce methane emissions from rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Approximately 11% of the global 308 Tg CH4 anthropogenic emissions are currently attributed to rice cultivation. In this study, the impact of water conservation practices on rice field CH4 emissions was evaluated in Arkansas, the leading state in US rice cultivation. While conserving water, the Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) irrigation practice can also reduce CH4 emissions through the deliberate, periodic introduction of aerobic conditions. Seasonal CH4emissions from a pair of adjacent, production-sized rice fields were estimated and compared during the 2015 to 2017 growing seasons using the eddy covariance method on each field. The fields were alternately treated with continuous flood (CF) and AWD irrigation. In 2015, the seasonal cumulative carbon losses by CH4 emission were 30.3 ± 6.3 and 141.9 ± 8.6 kg CH4-C ha-1 for the AWD and CF treatments, respectively. Data from 2016 and 2017 will be analyzed and shown within this presentation; an initial view demonstrates consistent findings to 2015. When accounting for differences in field conditions and soils, the AWD practice is attributable to a 36-51% reduction in seasonal emissions. The substantial decrease in CH4 emissions by AWD supports previous chamber-based research and offers strong evidence for the efficacy of AWD in reducing CH4 emissions in Arkansas rice production. The AWD practice has enabled the sale of credits for carbon offsets trading and this new market could encourage CH4 emissions reductions on a national scale. These eddy covariance towers are being placed into a regional perspective including crop and forest land in the three states comprising the Mississippi Delta: Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

  3. Nondestructive online testing method for friction stir welding using acoustic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levikhina, Anastasiya

    2017-12-01

    The paper reviews the possibility of applying the method of acoustic emission for online monitoring of the friction stir welding process. It is shown that acoustic emission allows the detection of weld defects and their location in real time. The energy of an acoustic signal and the median frequency are suggested to be used as informative parameters. The method of calculating the median frequency with the use of a short time Fourier transform is applied for the identification of correlations between the defective weld structure and properties of the acoustic emission signals received during welding.

  4. Probing Temperature Inside Planar SOFC Short Stack, Modules, and Stack Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Guan, Wanbing; Zhou, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Probing temperature inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack lies at the heart of the development of high-performance and stable SOFC systems. In this article, we report our recent work on the direct measurements of the temperature in three types of SOFC systems: a 5-cell short stack, a 30-cell stack module, and a stack series consisting of two 30-cell stack modules. The dependence of temperature on the gas flow rate and current density was studied under a current sweep or steady-state operation. During the current sweep, the temperature inside the 5-cell stack decreased with increasing current, while it increased significantly at the bottom and top of the 30-cell stack. During a steady-state operation, the temperature of the 5-cell stack was stable while it was increased in the 30-cell stack. In the stack series, the maximum temperature gradient reached 190°C when the gas was not preheated. If the gas was preheated and the temperature gradient was reduced to 23°C in the stack series with the presence of a preheating gas and segmented temperature control, this resulted in a low degradation rate.

  5. OpenStack augstas pieejamības risinājumi

    OpenAIRE

    Dreiže, Toms

    2016-01-01

    Šis bakalaura darbs ir pētījums par OpenStack IaaS mākoņpakalpojumu platformu. Tā mērķis ir sniegt ieskatu augstas pieejamības pamatprincipos un OpenStack mākoņpakalpojumu platformas piedāvātajos augstas pieejamības nodrošināšanas risinājumos. Bakalaura darba gaitā ir veikta augsti pieejamas OpenStack trīs mezglu sistēmas uzstādīšana, izmantojot Galera Cluster datubāzu klasteri un HAProxy slodzes līdzsvarotāju. Tika pārbaudīta OpenStack augsta pieejamība, testējot OpenStack Glance komponentes...

  6. From the components to the stack. Developing and designing 5kW HT-PEFC stacks; Von der Komponente zum Stack. Entwicklung und Auslegung von HT-PEFC-Stacks der 5 kW-Klasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendzulla, Anne

    2010-12-22

    The aim of the present project is to develop a stack design for a 5-kW HTPEFC system. First, the state of the art of potential materials and process designs will be discussed for each component. Then, using this as a basis, three potential stack designs with typical attributes will be developed and assessed in terms of practicality with the aid of a specially derived evaluation method. Two stack designs classified as promising will be discussed in detail, constructed and then characterized using short stack tests. Comparing the stack designs reveals that both designs are fundamentally suitable for application in a HT-PEFC system with on-board supply. However, some of the performance data differ significantly for the two stack designs. The preferred stack design for application in a HT-PEFC system is characterized by robust operating behaviour and reproducible high-level performance data. Moreover, in compact constructions (120 W/l at 60 W/kg), the stack design allows flexible cooling with thermal oil or air, which can be adapted to suit specific applications. Furthermore, a defined temperature gradient can be set during operation, allowing the CO tolerance to be increased by up to 10 mV. The short stack design developed within the scope of the present work therefore represents an ideal basis for developing a 5-kW HT-PEFC system. Topics for further research activities include improving the performance by reducing weight and/or volume, as well as optimizing the heat management. The results achieved within the framework of this work clearly show that HTPEFC stacks have the potential to play a decisive role in increasing efficiency in the future, particularly when combined with an on-board supply system. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Entwicklung eines Stackkonzeptes fuer ein 5 kW-HT-PEFC System. Dazu wird zunaechst fuer jede Komponente der Stand der Technik moeglicher Materialien und Prozesskonzepte diskutiert. Darauf aufbauend werden drei

  7. Gamma-Ray Emission Tomography: Modeling and Evaluation of Partial-Defect Testing Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson Svard, S.; Jansson, P.; Davour, A.; Grape, S.; White, T.A.; Smith, L.E.; Deshmukh, N.; Wittman, R.S.; Mozin, V.; Trellue, H.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma emission tomography (GET) for spent nuclear fuel verification is the subject for IAEA MSP project JNT1955. In line with IAEA Safeguards R&D plan 2012-2023, the aim of this effort is to ''develop more sensitive and less intrusive alternatives to existing NDA instruments to perform partial defect test on spent fuel assembly prior to transfer to difficult to access storage''. The current viability study constitutes the first phase of three, with evaluation and decision points between each phase. Two verification objectives have been identified; (1) counting of fuel pins in tomographic images without any a priori knowledge of the fuel assembly under study, and (2) quantitative measurements of pinby- pin properties, e.g., burnup, for the detection of anomalies and/or verification of operator-declared data. Previous measurements performed in Sweden and Finland have proven GET highly promising for detecting removed or substituted fuel rods in BWR and VVER-440 fuel assemblies even down to the individual fuel rod level. The current project adds to previous experiences by pursuing a quantitative assessment of the capabilities of GET for partial defect detection, across a broad range of potential IAEA applications, fuel types and fuel parameters. A modelling and performance-evaluation framework has been developed to provide quantitative GET performance predictions, incorporating burn-up and cooling-time calculations, Monte Carlo radiation-transport and detector-response modelling, GET instrument definitions (existing and notional) and tomographic reconstruction algorithms, which use recorded gamma-ray intensities to produce images of the fuel's internal source distribution or conclusive rod-by-rod data. The framework also comprises image-processing algorithms and performance metrics that recognize the inherent tradeoff between the probability of detecting missing pins and the false-alarm rate. Here, the modelling and analysis framework is

  8. 40 CFR 86.1830-01 - Acceptance of vehicles for emission testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall have tires with appropriate tire wear. (b) Special provisions for durability data vehicles. (1... previous model year emission data vehicles, running change vehicles, fuel economy data vehicles, and...

  9. Lunisolar tidal synchronism with biophoton emission during intercontinental wheat-seedling germination tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gallep, C.M.; Moraes, T.A.; Červinková, Kateřina; Cifra, Michal; Katsumata, M.; Barlow, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2014), e28671 ISSN 1559-2324 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Biophoton emission * Chronobiology * Germination Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  10. Locomotive emissions test stand with particulate matter measurement integration : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This project builds upon previous research efforts, in which a complete instruction manual and bill of materials was developed for : a blueprint that allows any organization in the railroad industry to build their own locomotive emissions measurement...

  11. Five stacks over the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Following the departure of Communism, Hungary adopted the most ambitious privatisation programme of all the eastern European countries. Within a year the state electricity company, MVM, and the oil and gas company, MOL, were prepared for sale and a consequent injection of foreign capital. Control of prices by central government inhibited investment initially but a new legal framework put in place in 1995 introduced a pricing regime more attractive to external investors. Particular interest was shown in the 2,200MW mixed heavy oil and natural gas power plant at Dunamenti on the Danube, characterised by its five stacks of varying height which reflect the changing technology employed at the plant. The bid was won by Tractabel of Belgium who have been highly successful in improving plant efficiency. However, the impact of privatisation is now being felt in uncertainty over fuel supply. Removing such uncertainty in order to maintain existing investment and provide the additional 4000MW of generating capacity needed to keep pace with demand, is a major problem which the incoming government faces. (UK)

  12. Simulation and Optimization of Air-Cooled PEMFC Stack for Lightweight Hybrid Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingming Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of 2 kW air-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack has been built based upon the application of lightweight hybrid vehicle after analyzing the characteristics of heat transfer of the air-cooled stack. Different dissipating models of the air-cooled stack have been simulated and an optimal simulation model for air-cooled stack called convection heat transfer (CHT model has been figured out by applying the computational fluid dynamics (CFD software, based on which, the structure of the air-cooled stack has been optimized by adding irregular cooling fins at the end of the stack. According to the simulation result, the temperature of the stack has been equally distributed, reducing the cooling density and saving energy. Finally, the 2 kW hydrogen-air air-cooled PEMFC stack is manufactured and tested by comparing the simulation data which is to find out its operating regulations in order to further optimize its structure.

  13. A stacking method and its applications to Lanzarote tide gauge records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; van Ruymbeke, Michel; Cadicheanu, Nicoleta

    2009-12-01

    A time-period analysis tool based on stacking is introduced in this paper. The original idea comes from the classical tidal analysis method. It is assumed that the period of each major tidal component is precisely determined based on the astronomical constants and it is unchangeable with time at a given point in the Earth. We sum the tidal records at a fixed tidal component center period T then take the mean of it. The stacking could significantly increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) if a certain number of stacking circles is reached. The stacking results were fitted using a sinusoidal function, the amplitude and phase of the fitting curve is computed by the least squares methods. The advantage of the method is that: (1) an individual periodical signal could be isolated by stacking; (2) one can construct a linear Stacking-Spectrum (SSP) by changing the stacking period Ts; (3) the time-period distribution of the singularity component could be approximated by a Sliding-Stacking approach. The shortcoming of the method is that in order to isolate a low energy frequency or separate the nearby frequencies, we need a long enough series with high sampling rate. The method was tested with a numeric series and then it was applied to 1788 days Lanzarote tide gauge records as an example.

  14. Computer-assisted acoustic emission analysis in alternating current magnetization and hardness testing of reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blochwitz, M.; Kretzschmar, F.; Rattke, R.

    1985-01-01

    Non-destructive determination of material characteristics such as nilductility transition temperature is of high importance in component monitoring during long-term operation. An attempt has been made to obtain characteristics correlating with mechanico-technological material characteristics by both acoustic resonance through magnetization (ARDM) and acoustic emission analysis in Vickers hardness tests. Taking into account the excitation mechanism of acoustic emission generation, which has a quasistationary stochastic character in a.c. magnetization and a transient nature in hardness testing, a microcomputerized device has been constructed for frequency analysis of the body sound level in ARDM evaluation and for measuring the pulse sum and/or pulse rate during indentation of the test specimen in hardness evaluation. Prerequisite for evaluating the measured values is the knowledge of the frequency dependence of the sensors and the instrument system. The results obtained are presented. (author)

  15. How many replicate tests do I need?$-$ Variability of cookstove performance and emissions has implications for obtaining useful results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yungang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Gadgil, Ashok J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Wang, Yilun [ISO Innovative Analytics San Francisco, CA (United States); Lask, Kathleen M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). College of Engineering Applied Science and Technology Program; Kirchstetter, Thomas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-02-01

    Almost half of the world’s population still cooks on biomass cookstoves of poor efficiency and primitive design, such as three stone fires (TSF). Emissions from biomass cookstoves contribute to adverse health effects and climate change. A number of “improved cookstoves” with higher energy efficiency and lower emissions have been designed and promoted across the world. During the design development, and for selection of a stove for dissemination, the stove performance and emissions are commonly evaluated, communicated and compared using the arithmetic average of replicate tests made using a standardized laboratory-based test, commonly the water boiling test (WBT). However, published literature shows different WBT results reported from different laboratories for the same stove technology. Also, there is no agreement in the literature on how many replicate tests should be performed to ensure “significance” in the reported average performance. This matter has not received attention in the rapidly growing literature on stoves, and yet is crucial for estimating and communicating the performance of a stove, and for comparing the performance between stoves. We present results of statistical analyses using data from a number of replicate tests of performance and emission of the Berkeley-Darfur Stove (BDS) and the TSF under well-controlled laboratory conditions. We observed moderate variability in the test results for the TSF and BDS when measuring several characteristics. Here we focus on two as illustrative: time-to-boil and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers in diameter) emissions. We demonstrate that interpretation of the results comparing these stoves could be misleading if only a small number of replicates had been conducted. We then describe a practical approach, useful to both stove testers and designers, to assess the number of replicates needed to obtain useful data. Caution should be exercised in attaching high credibility to

  16. Study on component interface evolution of a solid oxide fuel cell stack after long term operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajun; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xiaochun; Li, Jun; Yan, Dong; Pu, Jian; Chi, Bo; Li, Jian

    2018-05-01

    A 5-cell solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack with external manifold structure is assembled and underwent a durability test with an output of 250 W for nearly 4400 h when current density and operating temperature are 355 mA/cm2 and 750 °C. Cells used in the stack are anode-supported cells (ASC) with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, Ni/YSZ hydrogen electrodes, and YSZ based composite cathode. The dimension of the cell is 150 × 150 mm (active area: 130 × 130 mm). Ceramic-glass sealant is used in the stack to keep the gas tightness between cells, interconnects and manifolds. Pure hydrogen and dry air are used as fuel and oxidant respectively. The stack has a maximum output of 340 W at 562 mA/cm2 current density at 750 °C. The stack shows a degradation of 1.5% per 1000 h during the test with 2 thermal cycles to room temperature. After the test, the stack was dissembled and examined. The relationship between microstructure changes of interfaces and degradation in the stack are discussed. The microstructure evolution of interfaces between electrode, contact material and current collector are unveiled and their relationship with the degradation is discussed.

  17. Density of oxidation-induced stacking faults in damaged silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, F.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Verwey, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A model for the relation between density and length of oxidation-induced stacking faults on damaged silicon surfaces is proposed, based on interactions of stacking faults with dislocations and neighboring stacking faults. The model agrees with experiments.

  18. Statistical atmospheric inversion of local gas emissions by coupling the tracer release technique and local-scale transport modelling: a test case with controlled methane emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ars

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new concept for estimating the pollutant emission rates of a site and its main facilities using a series of atmospheric measurements across the pollutant plumes. This concept combines the tracer release method, local-scale atmospheric transport modelling and a statistical atmospheric inversion approach. The conversion between the controlled emission and the measured atmospheric concentrations of the released tracer across the plume places valuable constraints on the atmospheric transport. This is used to optimise the configuration of the transport model parameters and the model uncertainty statistics in the inversion system. The emission rates of all sources are then inverted to optimise the match between the concentrations simulated with the transport model and the pollutants' measured atmospheric concentrations, accounting for the transport model uncertainty. In principle, by using atmospheric transport modelling, this concept does not strongly rely on the good colocation between the tracer and pollutant sources and can be used to monitor multiple sources within a single site, unlike the classical tracer release technique. The statistical inversion framework and the use of the tracer data for the configuration of the transport and inversion modelling systems should ensure that the transport modelling errors are correctly handled in the source estimation. The potential of this new concept is evaluated with a relatively simple practical implementation based on a Gaussian plume model and a series of inversions of controlled methane point sources using acetylene as a tracer gas. The experimental conditions are chosen so that they are suitable for the use of a Gaussian plume model to simulate the atmospheric transport. In these experiments, different configurations of methane and acetylene point source locations are tested to assess the efficiency of the method in comparison to the classic tracer release technique in coping

  19. Statistical atmospheric inversion of local gas emissions by coupling the tracer release technique and local-scale transport modelling: a test case with controlled methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ars, Sébastien; Broquet, Grégoire; Yver Kwok, Camille; Roustan, Yelva; Wu, Lin; Arzoumanian, Emmanuel; Bousquet, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    This study presents a new concept for estimating the pollutant emission rates of a site and its main facilities using a series of atmospheric measurements across the pollutant plumes. This concept combines the tracer release method, local-scale atmospheric transport modelling and a statistical atmospheric inversion approach. The conversion between the controlled emission and the measured atmospheric concentrations of the released tracer across the plume places valuable constraints on the atmospheric transport. This is used to optimise the configuration of the transport model parameters and the model uncertainty statistics in the inversion system. The emission rates of all sources are then inverted to optimise the match between the concentrations simulated with the transport model and the pollutants' measured atmospheric concentrations, accounting for the transport model uncertainty. In principle, by using atmospheric transport modelling, this concept does not strongly rely on the good colocation between the tracer and pollutant sources and can be used to monitor multiple sources within a single site, unlike the classical tracer release technique. The statistical inversion framework and the use of the tracer data for the configuration of the transport and inversion modelling systems should ensure that the transport modelling errors are correctly handled in the source estimation. The potential of this new concept is evaluated with a relatively simple practical implementation based on a Gaussian plume model and a series of inversions of controlled methane point sources using acetylene as a tracer gas. The experimental conditions are chosen so that they are suitable for the use of a Gaussian plume model to simulate the atmospheric transport. In these experiments, different configurations of methane and acetylene point source locations are tested to assess the efficiency of the method in comparison to the classic tracer release technique in coping with the distances

  20. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  1. Dynamical stability of slip-stacking particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-09-01

    We study the stability of particles in slip-stacking configuration, used to nearly double proton beam intensity at Fermilab. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We find perturbative solutions for stable particle trajectories. We establish Booster beam quality requirements to achieve 97% slip-stacking efficiency. We show that slip-stacking dynamics directly correspond to the driven pendulum and to the system of two standing-wave traps moving with respect to each other.

  2. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    -filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

  3. Tunable electro-optic filter stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa

    2017-09-05

    A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.

  4. CO2 emissions, real output, energy consumption, trade, urbanization and financial development: testing the EKC hypothesis for the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eyup; Turkekul, Berna

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption, real output (GDP), the square of real output (GDP(2)), trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in the USA for the period 1960-2010. The bounds testing for cointegration indicates that the analyzed variables are cointegrated. In the long run, energy consumption and urbanization increase environmental degradation while financial development has no effect on it, and trade leads to environmental improvements. In addition, this study does not support the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for the USA because real output leads to environmental improvements while GDP(2) increases the levels of gas emissions. The results from the Granger causality test show that there is bidirectional causality between CO2 and GDP, CO2 and energy consumption, CO2 and urbanization, GDP and urbanization, and GDP and trade openness while no causality is determined between CO2 and trade openness, and gas emissions and financial development. In addition, we have enough evidence to support one-way causality running from GDP to energy consumption, from financial development to output, and from urbanization to financial development. In light of the long-run estimates and the Granger causality analysis, the US government should take into account the importance of trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in controlling for the levels of GDP and pollution. Moreover, it should be noted that the development of efficient energy policies likely contributes to lower CO2 emissions without harming real output.

  5. Stack Flow Rate Changes and the ANSI/N13.1-1999 Qualification Criteria: Application to the Hanford Canister Storage Building Stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glissmeyer, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The Canister Storage Building (CSB), located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site, is a 42,000 square foot facility used to store spent nuclear fuel from past activities at the Hanford Site. Because the facility has the potential to emit radionuclides into the environment, its ventilation exhaust stack has been equipped with an air monitoring system. Subpart H of the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants requires that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack in accordance with criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society Standard N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities.

  6. Interim report on testing of off-gas treatment technologies for abatement of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselow, J.S.; Jarosch, T.R.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.; Lombard, K.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results to date of the off-gas treatment program for atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program is part of the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development's Integrated Demonstration for Treatment of Organics in Soil and Water at a Non-Arid Site. The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed. That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment program would complement the Integrated Demonstration not only because off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the US to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate systematic and unbiased evaluation of the emerging technologies

  7. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's VOC's in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry

  8. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model utilized in the study was to gauge the worst-case scenario. Ambient air concentrations were garnered calculate the increase to localized conditions. Keywords: emission, modelling, palm oil mill, particulate, POME

  9. Babcock & Wilcox technologies for power plant stack emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polster, M.; Nolan, P.S.; Batyko, R.J. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The current status of sulfur dioxide control in power plants is reviewed with particular emphasis on proven, commercial technologies. This paper begins with a detailed review of Babcock & Wilcox commercial wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This is followed by a brief discussion of B&W dry FGD technologies, as well as recent full-scale and pilot-scale demonstration projects which focus on lower capital cost alternatives to conventional FGD systems. A comparison of the economics of several of these processes is also presented. Finally, technology selections resulting from recent acid rain legislation in various countries are reviewed.

  10. ETV-DRAFT TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES DONALDSON COMPANY,INC. SERIES 6100 DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST MUFFLER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report reflects verification testing of a catalytic muffler for diesel trucks. Produced by Donaldson Corp., it was tested on low sulfur and ultra low sulfur fuel, and shown to have reduced emissions.

  11. Comparison between sensitivities of quality control methods using ultrasonic waves, radiography and acoustic emission for the thick welded joint testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, Michel; Birac, Claude

    1981-09-01

    The testing of the thick welded joints of the nuclear industry is carried out by radiography and ultrasonics on completion of welding. When a fault is found, its repair requires a sometimes deep cut down to the position of the fault, then filling in of the cut by hand welding with a coated electrode. This very costly operation also involves the risk of causing new defects when building up by hand. Listening to the acoustic emission during the welding has been considered in order to seek the possibility of detecting defects when they appear, or soon after. The industrial use of this method would make an instant repair of the defective areas possible at less cost and with greater reliability. The study presented concerns the comparison between the results of the various non-destructive testing methods: radiography, ultrasonics and acoustic emission, for a thick welded joint in which the defects have been brought about [fr

  12. Numerical Study on the Cooling Characteristics of a Passive-Type PEMFC Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Bo Sung; Lee, Yong Taek; Kim, Yong Chan

    2010-01-01

    In a passive-type PEMFC stack, axial fans operate to supply both oxidant and coolant to cathode side of the stack. It is possible to make a simple system because the passive-type PEMFC stack does not require additional cooling equipment. However, the performance of a cooling system in which water is used as a coolant is better than that of the air-cooling system. To ensure system reliability, it is essential to make cooling system effective by adopting an optimal stack design. In this study, a numerical investigation has been carried out to identify an optimum cooling strategy. Various channel configurations were applied to the test section. The passive-type PEMFC was tested by varying airflow rate distribution at the cathode side and external heat transfer coefficient of the stack. The best cooling performance was achieved when a channel with thick ribs was used, and the overheating at the center of the stack was reduced when a case in which airflow was concentrated at the middle of the stack was used

  13. The stack on software and sovereignty

    CERN Document Server

    Bratton, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive political and design theory of planetary-scale computation proposing that The Stack -- an accidental megastructure -- is both a technological apparatus and a model for a new geopolitical architecture.

  14. Development of Auto-Stacking Warehouse Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsien Hsia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Warehouse automation is a very important issue for the promotion of traditional industries. For the production of larger and stackable products, it is usually necessary to operate a fork-lifter for the stacking and storage of the products by a skilled person. The general autonomous warehouse-truck does not have the ability of stacking objects. In this paper, we develop a prototype of auto-stacking warehouse-truck that can work without direct operation by a skill person. With command made by an RFID card, the stacker truck can take the packaged product to the warehouse on the prior-planned route and store it in a stacking way in the designated storage area, or deliver the product to the shipping area or into the container from the storage area. It can significantly reduce the manpower requirements of the skilled-person of forklift technician and improve the safety of the warehousing area.

  15. Testing Re-entrained Aerosol Kinetic Emissions from Roads : a new approach to infer silt loading on roadways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, H.; Etyemezian, V.; Landwehr, D.; MacDougall, C.; Pitchford, M.; Green, M.

    PM 10 and PM 2.5 emissions from roadways are currently estimated using the silt loading on the road surface as a surrogate for the emissions potential of road dust. While the United States Environmental Protection Agency prescribes this method in AP-42, there is considerable cost associated with silt loading measurements; it is feasible to sample only a small portion of a roadway network. A new approach for measuring the concentration of suspendable PM 10 above road surfaces has been developed to obtain a more spatially representative estimate of a road's potential to emit dust. The Testing Re-entrained Aerosols Kinetic Emissions from Roads (TRAKER) system uses real-time aerosol sensors mounted on a vehicle to measure the concentration of dust suspended from the road while the vehicle is in motion. When coupled with a Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument, TRAKER can be used to efficiently survey the changes in suspendable particles due to varying road conditions over a large spatial domain. In a recent study on paved roads in Las Vegas, the TRAKER system was compared with collocated silt loading measurements. The TRAKER system was also used to survey the relative amounts of suspendable road dust on approximately 300 miles of paved roads. The system provides a unique perspective on road dust sources and their spatial distribution. Results of this study indicated that the difference of the PM 10 concentrations measured behind the tire and on the hood is exponentially related to vehicle speed. This was an interesting finding because current AP-42 road dust emissions estimation methods do not include vehicle speed as a factor in the emissions calculations. The experiment also demonstrated that the distribution of suspendable material on roadways is highly variable and that a large number of samples are needed to represent road dust emissions potential on an urban scale for a variety of road and activity conditions.

  16. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

  17. 77 FR 65823 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0687; FRL-9678-1] RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages 36341-36386 in the issue of Monday, June 18, 2012, make the following corrections: Sec. 87.2...

  18. Exploring online evolution of network stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Network stacks today follow a one-size-fits-all philosophy. They are mostly kept unmodified due to often prohibitive costs of engineering, deploying and administrating customisation of the networking software, with the Internet stack architecture still largely being based on designs and assumptions made for the ARPANET 40 years ago. We venture that heterogeneous and rapidly changing networks of the future require, in order to be successful, run-time self-adaptation mechanisms at different tim...

  19. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system: integrated system test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System Program, is a Clean Coal Technology III demonstration, being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur Western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the final phase of the test program, in which the overall performance of the integrated system was evaluated. Previous testing has shown that the goal of 70 percent NO{sub x} removal was easily achieved with the combination of low-NO{sub x} burners, overfire air, and urea-based SNCR. Similarly, the ability of the sodium-based DSI system to achieve 70 percent SO{sub 2} removal was also demonstrated previously. The integrated tests demonstrated the synergistic benefit of operating the SNCR and sodium-based DSI systems concurrently. With the automatic control system set to limit the NH{sub 3} emissions to less than 8 ppm, the NO{sub 2} emissions from the sodium-based DSI system were reduced by nominally 50 percent compared to operation with the DSI system alone. Comparably, the combined operation reduced NH{sub 3} emissions, as reflected by a higher urea injection rate for a fixed NH{sub 3} emission limit. With combined DSI and SNCR operation, an ammonia odor problem was encountered around the Unit 4 ash silo (this did not occur with the SNCR system operated alone at comparable NH{sub 3} slip levels). This odor problem is attributed to the sodium changing the rate at which NH{sub 3} is released from the ash when it is wetted for truck transport to the disposal site.

  20. Acoustic emission for on-line reactor monitoring: results from field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, P.H.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    The objective of the acoustic emission (AE)/flaw characterization program is to develop use of the AE method on a continuous basis (during operation and during hydrotest) to detect and analyze flaw growth in reactor pressure vessels and primary piping. AE has the unique capability for continuous monitoring, high sensitivity, and remote flaw location

  1. Notification: Evaluating the Internal Controls for EPA's Vehicle Emissions Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY17-0009, Mar 6, 2017. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to determine whether the EPA’s existing internal controls are effective at detecting and preventing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty on-road vehicle emissions fraud.

  2. Assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the new Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuelenaere, R.F.A.; Ligterink, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    Door Dieselgate is er hernieuwde aandacht voor de luchtverontreinigende uitlaatgassen van auto’s, in het bijzonder voor de hoge NOx praktijkemissies van moderne Euro-5 en Euro-6 personenauto’s en bestelwagens. De ontwikkeling van nieuwe Europese Real Driving Emissions (RDE) wetgeving wordt gezien

  3. Intelligent Heat System - High-Energy Efficient Wood Stoves with Low Emissions. Field Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Nickelsen, Joachim; Hansen, Brian Brun

    2014-01-01

    Wood stoves have the potential of providing CO2-neutral energy without transmission loss—but with the significant drawbacks of high emissions of pollutants and particulate matter at low altitude close to private homes, and with an uneven heat release profile which produces non-optimal heating...

  4. A Time-predictable Stack Cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspour, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to le...... of a cache for stack allocated data. Our port of the LLVM C++ compiler supports the management of the stack cache. The combination of stack cache instructions and the hardware implementation of the stack cache is a further step towards timepredictable architectures.......Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to less...... precise results of the cache analysis part of the WCET analysis. Splitting the data cache for different data areas enables composable data cache analysis. The WCET analysis tool can analyze the accesses to these different data areas independently. In this paper we present the design and implementation...

  5. StackGAN++: Realistic Image Synthesis with Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Han; Xu, Tao; Li, Hongsheng; Zhang, Shaoting; Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiaolei; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Although Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown remarkable success in various tasks, they still face challenges in generating high quality images. In this paper, we propose Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks (StackGAN) aiming at generating high-resolution photo-realistic images. First, we propose a two-stage generative adversarial network architecture, StackGAN-v1, for text-to-image synthesis. The Stage-I GAN sketches the primitive shape and colors of the object based on given...

  6. Black Hole Spectroscopy with Coherent Mode Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Yagi, Kent; Blackman, Jonathan; Lehner, Luis; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-21

    The measurement of multiple ringdown modes in gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers will allow for testing the fundamental properties of black holes in general relativity and to constrain modified theories of gravity. To enhance the ability of Advanced LIGO/Virgo to perform such tasks, we propose a coherent mode stacking method to search for a chosen target mode within a collection of multiple merger events. We first rescale each signal so that the target mode in each of them has the same frequency and then sum the waveforms constructively. A crucial element to realize this coherent superposition is to make use of a priori information extracted from the inspiral-merger phase of each event. To illustrate the method, we perform a study with simulated events targeting the ℓ=m=3 ringdown mode of the remnant black holes. We show that this method can significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective target mode compared to that of the single loudest event. Using current estimates of merger rates, we show that it is likely that advanced-era detectors can measure this collective ringdown mode with one year of coincident data gathered at design sensitivity.

  7. A single dual-emissive nanofluorophore test paper for highly sensitive colorimetry-based quantification of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yujie; Liu, Cui; Zhang, Ruilong; Zhang, Liying; Du, Shuhu; Liu, Bianhua; Han, Ming-Yong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-12-15

    Fluorescent test papers are promising for the wide applications in the assays of diagnosis, environments and foods, but unlike classical dye-absorption-based pH test paper, they are usually limited in the qualitative yes/no type of detection by fluorescent brightness, and the colorimetry-based quantification remains a challenging task. Here, we report a single dual-emissive nanofluorophore probe to achieve the consecutive color variations from blue to red for the quantification of blood glucose on its as-prepared test papers. Red quantum dots were embedded into silica nanoparticles as a stable internal standard emission, and blue carbon dots (CDs) were further covalently linked onto the surface of silica, in which the ratiometric fluorescence intensity of blue to red is controlled at 5:1. While the oxidation of glucose induced the formation of Fe(3+) ions, the blue emission of CDs was thus quenched by the electron transfer from CDs to Fe(3+), displaying a serial of consecutive color variations from blue to red with the dosage of glucose. The high-quality test papers printed by the probe ink exhibited a dosage-sensitive allochromatic capability with the clear differentiations of ~5, 7, 9, 11mM glucose in human serum (normal: 3-8mM). The blood glucose determined by the test paper was almost in accordance with that measured by a standard glucometer. The method reported here opens a window to the wide applications of fluorescent test paper in biological assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Testing the assumptions behind emissions trading in non-market goods: the RECLAIM program in Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejano, Raul P.; Hirose, Rei

    2005-01-01

    Emissions trading is, essentially, a policy instrument that is designed to simulate a market for an otherwise public good. Conceptually, its justification hinges on a number of key assumptions, namely the negligibility of local impacts, the ability to separate and commodify the good in question, and characteristics of a well-functioning market. The authors examine the performance of RECLAIM, a NO x emissions trading program in Southern California, USA, and illustrate how to test these assumptions. There is some evidence that the trading of NO x generates new externalities, such as the possibility that other air pollutants, e.g. volatile organics, are essentially traded along with it. Moreover, the RECLAIM program has recently begun to experience difficulties due to the fact that the market is relatively thin. This analysis provides ways to assess more deeply and reform these trading regimes, including opening up RECLAIM to public review. The case study speaks to a wider arena, as emissions trading is presently being considered in other parts of the world to address issues ranging from acid rain to non-point source pollution to greenhouse gases. The analytic approach, illustrated herein, is a general one that has a wider applicability than the particular case of NO x trading. It is hoped that this kind of critical inquiry can lead to a more careful deliberation of the merits and challenges of emissions trading

  9. Optical emission spectroscopy at the large RF driven negative ion test facility ELISE: Instrumental setup and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Riedl, R.; Bonomo, F.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main topics to be investigated at the recently launched large (A source = 1.0 × 0.9 m 2 ) ITER relevant RF driven negative ion test facility ELISE (Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment) is the connection between the homogeneity of the plasma parameters close to the extraction system and the homogeneity of the extracted negative hydrogen ion beam. While several diagnostics techniques are available for measuring the beam homogeneity, the plasma parameters are determined by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) solely. First OES measurements close to the extraction system show that without magnetic filter field the vertical profile of the plasma emission is more or less symmetric, with maxima of the emission representing the projection of the plasma generation volumes, and a distinct minimum in between. The profile changes with the strength of the magnetic filter field but under all circumstances the plasma emission in ELISE is much more homogeneous compared to the smaller IPP prototype sources. Planned after this successful demonstration of the ELISE OES system is to combine OES with tomography in order to determine locally resolved values for the plasma parameters

  10. Development of an MRI-compatible digital SiPM detector stack for simultaneous PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düppenbecker, Peter M; Weissler, Bjoern; Gebhardt, Pierre; Schug, David; Wehner, Jakob; Marsden, Paul K; Schulz, Volkmar

    2016-02-01

    Advances in solid-state photon detectors paved the way to combine positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into highly integrated, truly simultaneous, hybrid imaging systems. Based on the most recent digital SiPM technology, we developed an MRI-compatible PET detector stack, intended as a building block for next generation simultaneous PET/MRI systems. Our detector stack comprises an array of 8 × 8 digital SiPM channels with 4 mm pitch using Philips Digital Photon Counting DPC 3200-22 devices, an FPGA for data acquisition, a supply voltage control system and a cooling infrastructure. This is the first detector design that allows the operation of digital SiPMs simultaneously inside an MRI system. We tested and optimized the MRI-compatibility of our detector stack on a laboratory test bench as well as in combination with a Philips Achieva 3 T MRI system. Our design clearly reduces distortions of the static magnetic field compared to a conventional design. The MRI static magnetic field causes weak and directional drift effects on voltage regulators, but has no direct impact on detector performance. MRI gradient switching initially degraded energy and timing resolution. Both distortions could be ascribed to voltage variations induced on the bias and the FPGA core voltage supply respectively. Based on these findings, we improved our detector design and our final design shows virtually no energy or timing degradations, even during heavy and continuous MRI gradient switching. In particular, we found no evidence that the performance of the DPC 3200-22 digital SiPM itself is degraded by the MRI system.

  11. Flow-induced plastic collapse of stacked fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D C; Scarton, H A

    1985-03-01

    Flow-induced plastic collapse of stacked fuel plate assemblies was first noted in experimental reactors such as the ORNL High Flux Reactor Assembly and the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). The ETR assembly is a stack of 19 thin flat rectangular fuel plates separated by narrow channels through which a coolant flows to remove the heat generated by fission of the fuel within the plates. The uranium alloyed plates have been noted to buckle laterally and plastically collapse at the system design coolant flow rate of 10.7 m/s, thus restricting the coolant flow through adjacent channels. A methodology and criterion are developed for predicting the plastic collapse of ETR fuel plates. The criterion is compared to some experimental results and the Miller critical velocity theory.

  12. Application of acoustic emission testing to quality control: examples and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumousseau, P.

    1979-01-01

    A several years experience to evaluate and promote acoustic emission in the field of mechanical industries has permitted to recognize the domains of industrial interest. The first is detection of defective parts according to emissivity. Examples concerning forged, cast or welded fabrications are presented. It is concluded that signal processing is decisive but that its sophistication must be graded according to the case considered. The second is control of welding process. Examples concerning submerged arc, TIG and electron-beam welds are analyzed. It appears that automatic control is chiefly possible for welding under vacuum or inert gaz conditions. The third is monitoring of pressure vessels during hydrotest or in-service. Problems concerning materials behaviour, wave propagation, location accuracy are reviewed. To conclude prospects of future development are evaluated. Via signal processing the most important progresses are needed in characterization of defect severity and life time prediction. Importance of improving transducer calibration and codifying methods is also outlined [fr

  13. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 108 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1 SIN 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  14. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  15. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, 08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  16. Numerical and experimental studies of stack shunt current for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Cong; Guo, Shaoyun; Fang, Honglin; Liu, Jiayi; Li, Yang; Tang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A coupled three-dimensional model of VRB cell stack is developed. • Shunt current of the stack is studied with the model and experiment. • Increased electrolyte resistance in channel and manifold lowers the shunt current. • Shunt current loss increases with stack cell number nonlinearly. - Abstract: The stack shunt current of VRB (vanadium redox flow battery) was investigated with experiments and 3D (three-dimensional) simulations. In the proposed model, cell voltages and electrolyte conductivities were calculated based on electrochemical reaction distributions and SOC (state of charge) values, respectively, while coulombic loss was estimated according to shunt current and vanadium ionic crossover through membrane. Shunt current distributions and coulombic efficiency are analyzed in terms of electrolyte conductivities and stack cell numbers. The distributions of cell voltages and shunt currents calculated with proposed model are validated with single cell and short stack tests. The model can be used to optimize VRB stack manifold and channel designs to improve VRB system efficiency

  17. Analysis of tractor particulate emissions in a modified NRSC test after implementing a particulate filter in the exhaust system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecki Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrofitting, which means retrofitting old generation engine systems with modern exhaust after treatment systems, is becoming increasingly popular, which allow vehicles to adhere to the newer and more stringent emission norms. This can save the operators of such vehicles money using older engineered designs without the need to design a new unit or buy an expensive new machine or vehicle. At present, there is a growing interest in emissions from off-road vehicles and the introduction of minimum limits for older vehicles that must be met in order to be able to allow for their operation. For the purposes of this article, the Stage IIIA farm tractor has been fitted with a particulate filter in the exhaust system. The study investigated the impact of the use of exhaust after treatment systems on particle emissions in terms of mass, size distribution and number using PEMS analyzers in the modified NRSC stationary test by engine loading, using a mobile engine dynamometer and comparison of test results.

  18. CRYSTALLIZATION EXPERIMENTS ON AMORPHOUS MAGNESIUM SILICATE. II. EFFECT OF STACKING FAULTS ON INFRARED SPECTRA OF ENSTATITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, K.; Chihara, H.; Koike, C.; Takakura, T.; Imai, Y.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Noguchi, T.

    2009-01-01

    We carried out experiments of low-temperature infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy of enstatite (MgSiO 3 ) synthesized by heating of amorphous magnesium silicate. There is a discrepancy between the infrared feature of enstatite obtained in this experiment and that of fine powdered single crystals. This reflects stacking disorder of enstatite. We show that circumstellar dust emission of enstatite is similar to the infrared feature measured in this experiment. This result strongly suggests that circumstellar enstatite has abundant stacking faults and is different from the single crystal.

  19. Standard test method for determining elements in waste streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This test method covers the determination of trace, minor, and major elements in waste streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) following an acid digestion of the specimen. Waste streams from manufacturing processes of nuclear and nonnuclear materials can be analyzed. This test method is applicable to the determination of total metals. Results from this test method can be used to characterize waste received by treatment facilities and to formulate appropriate treatment recipes. The results are also usable to process control within waste treatment facilities. This test method is applicable only to waste streams that contain radioactivity levels which do not require special personnel or environmental protection. A list of the elements determined in waste streams and the corresponding lower reporting limit is included

  20. Principles for Instructional Stack Development in HyperCard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEneaney, John E.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about obtaining and using HyperCard stacks that introduce users to principles of stack development. The HyperCard stacks described are available for downloading free of charge from a server at Indiana University South Bend. Specific directions are given for stack use, with advice for beginners. A…

  1. Management matters: Testing a mitigation strategy of nitrous oxide emissions on managed grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Kathrin; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Eugster, Werner; Koller, Patrick; Käslin, Florian; Merbold, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    The magnitude of greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange between managed grasslands and the atmosphere depends besides climate predominantly on management practices. While natural or extensively managed grasslands are known to function as GHG sinks, intensively managed grasslands are characterized by substantial nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions diminishing their sink function. One potential N2O mitigation strategy is to reduce the required amount of nitrogen (N) fertilizer input by using biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) via legumes. However, the effect of legumes on nitrous oxide emissions is still not fully understood. In this study we quantify net GHG fluxes from two differently managed grassland parcels (mitigation, control) and relate our results to productivity (yields). In addition, we aim at revealing the influence of various driver variables on N2O exchange. Our experimental setup consisted of an eddy covariance tower that measured the net exchange of the three major anthropogenic GHGs, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Both grassland parcels can be covered with this tower due to two prevailing wind directions. GHG flux measurements were accompanied by measurements of commonly known driver variables such as water filled pore space, soil temperature, soil oxygen concentrations and mineral N to disentangle the soil meteorological influence of N2O fluxes from human drivers. Following organic fertilizer application, we measured elevated N2O emissions (>1 nmol m-2 s-1) at the control parcel and unchanged N2O emissions at the treatment parcel. Net annual fluxes were 54% and 50% lower at the experimental parcel in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Annual yields did not significantly differ between parcels, but were slightly lower at the experimental parcel compared to the control parcel. Significantly lower nitrous oxide fluxes under experimental management indicate that nitrous oxide emissions can be effectively reduced at very low costs with a clover

  2. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE: emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jayarathne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5, organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg−1 with major contributions from OC (7 %, sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %, and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water. For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg−1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %, sulfate (23.4 %, and ammonium (16 %. Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg−1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg−1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb, making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud

  3. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Robiul Islam, Md.; Panday, Arnico K.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, J. Douglas; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted) were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg-1 with major contributions from OC (7 %), sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %), and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water). For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg-1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %), sulfate (23.4 %), and ammonium (16 %). Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg-1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg-1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb), making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud stoves, chimney stoves, and three-stone cooking

  4. Emission and transmission tomography systems to be developed for the future needs of Jules Horowitz material testing reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotiluoto, Petri [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O.Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)], E-mail: petri.kotiluoto@vtt.fi; Wasastjerna, Frej; Kekki, Tommi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O.Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Sipilae, Heikki; Banzuzi, Kukka [Oxford Instruments Analytical Oy, Nihtisillankuja 5, P.O.Box 85, FI-02631 Espoo (Finland); Kinnunen, Petri; Heikinheimo, Liisa [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O.Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2009-08-01

    The new 100 MW Jules Horowitz material testing reactor will be built in Cadarache, France. It will support, for instance, research on new types of innovative nuclear fuel. As a Finnish in-kind contribution, 3D emission and transmission tomography equipment will be delivered for both the reactor and the active component storage pool. The image reconstruction of activities inside the used nuclear fuel will be based on gamma spectrometry measurements. A new type of underwater digital X-ray linear detector array is under development for transmission imaging, based on GaAs and direct conversion of X-rays into an electrical signal. A shared collimator will be used for both emission and transmission measurements. Some preliminary design has been performed. For the current design, the expected gamma spectrometric response of a typical high-purity germanium detector has been simulated with MCNP for minimum and maximum source activities (specified by CEA) to be measured in future.

  5. EmuStack: An OpenStack-Based DTN Network Emulation Platform (Extended Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of computing and network virtualization technology, the networking research community shows great interest in network emulation. Compared with network simulation, network emulation can provide more relevant and comprehensive details. In this paper, EmuStack, a large-scale real-time emulation platform for Delay Tolerant Network (DTN, is proposed. EmuStack aims at empowering network emulation to become as simple as network simulation. Based on OpenStack, distributed synchronous emulation modules are developed to enable EmuStack to implement synchronous and dynamic, precise, and real-time network emulation. Meanwhile, the lightweight approach of using Docker container technology and network namespaces allows EmuStack to support a (up to hundreds of nodes large-scale topology with only several physical nodes. In addition, EmuStack integrates the Linux Traffic Control (TC tools with OpenStack for managing and emulating the virtual link characteristics which include variable bandwidth, delay, loss, jitter, reordering, and duplication. Finally, experiences with our initial implementation suggest the ability to run and debug experimental network protocol in real time. EmuStack environment would bring qualitative change in network research works.

  6. Plutonium-aerosol emission rates and potential inhalation exposure during cleanup and treatment test at Area 11, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    A Cleanup and Treatment (CAT) test was conducted in 1981 at Area 11, Nevada Test Site. Its purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a large truck-mounted vacuum cleaner similar to those used to clean paved streets for cleaning radiological contamination from the surface of desert soils. We found that four passes with the vehicle removed 97% of the alpha contamination and reduced resuspension by 99.3 to 99.7%. Potential exposure to cleanup workers was slight when compared to natural background exposure. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.

  9. Development of internal manifold heat exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marianowski, L.G.; Ong, E.T.; Petri, R.J.; Remick, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has been in the forefront of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) development for over 25 years. Numerous cell designs have been tested and extensive tests have been performed on a variety of gas manifolding alternatives for cells and stacks. Based upon the results of these performance tests, IGT's development efforts started focusing on an internal gas manifolding concept. This work, initiated in 1988, is known today as the IMHEX{reg sign} concept. MCP has developed a comprehensive commercialization program loading to the sale of commercial units in 1996. MCP's role is in the manufacture of stack components, stack assembly, MCFC subsystem testing, and the design, marketing and construction of MCFC power plants. Numerous subscale (1 ft{sup 2}) stacks have been operated containing between 3 and 70 cells. These tests verified and demonstrated the viability of internal manifolding from technical (no carbonate pumping), engineering (relaxed part dimensional tolerance requirements), and operational (good gas sealing) aspects. Simplified fabrication, ease of assembly, the elimination of external manifolds and all associated clamping requirements has significantly lowered anticipated stack costs. Ongoing 1 ft{sup 2} stack testing is generating performance and endurance characteristics as a function of system specified operating conditions. Commercial-sized, full-area stacks (10 ft{sup 2}) are in the process of being assembled and will be tested in November. This paper will review the recent developments the MCFC scale-up and manufacture work of MCP, and the research and development efforts of IGT which support those efforts. 17 figs.

  10. Design and testing of an electron Bernstein wave emission radiometer for the TJ-II Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caughman, J.B.O.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Carter, M.C.; Wilgen, J.B.; Cappa, A.; Castejon, F.; Fernandez, A.

    2005-01-01

    Efficient Electron Bernstein wave (EBW) mode conversion is important for heating dense plasmas in TJ-II. The O-X-B mode conversion scenario is being considered for heating plasmas with densities over 1,3 x 10 19 m -3 , which will be very interesting to study high-density physics and for heating NBI plasmas. Measurement of the thermal EBW emission from the plasma allows the EBW mode conversion efficiency to be determined, and also has the potential to offer a diagnostic for measuring electron temperature profile evolution in overdense plasmas. A dual-polarized quad-ridged broadband horn with a focusing lens will be used to measure the EBW emission at 28 GHz on TJ-II. A focused beam is needed to achieve efficient coupling at the mode conversion layer. Emission from the plasma is reflected from a steerable internal mirror, propagates through a glass lens, and is focused on the horn. The field pattern from the horn-lens combination has been measured as a function of horn-lens spacing and lens focal length with a 3-D scanning system in an effort to minimize the beam waist at the plasma edge. Beam waist sizes have been measured at distances of up to 80 cm from the lens. Details of the experimental results and future plans will be presented. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. A part of this work is performed under support of Spanish 'Subdireccion General de Proyectos de Investigacion, Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia' with reference ENE2004-06957]. (author)

  11. Acoustic emission results obtained from testing the ZB-1 intermediate scale pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, P.H.; Kurtz, R.J.; Pappas, R.A.; Dawson, J.F.; Dake, L.S.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of flaw growth in an intermediate scale vessel during cyclic loading at 65 0 C and 288 0 C is described in this report. The report deals with background, methodology, and results. The work discussed is of major significance in a program supported by NRC to develop and demonstrate application of AE monitoring for continuous surveillance of reactor pressure boundaries to detect and evaluate growing flaws. Several areas of technical concern are addressed. Results support the feasibility of effective continuous monitoring

  12. Testing the Young Neutron Star Scenario with Persistent Radio Emission Associated with FRB 121102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Murase, Kohta

    2017-01-01

    Recently a repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 has been confirmed to be an extragalactic event and a persistent radio counterpart has been identified. While other possibilities are not ruled out, the emission properties are broadly consistent with Murase et al. that theoretically proposed quasi-steady radio emission as a counterpart of both FRBs and pulsar-driven supernovae. Here, we constrain the model parameters of such a young neutron star scenario for FRB 121102. If the associated supernova has a conventional ejecta mass of M ej ≳ a few M ⊙ , a neutron star with an age of t age ∼ 10–100 years, an initial spin period of P i ≲ a few ms, and a dipole magnetic field of B dip ≲ a few × 10 13 G can be compatible with the observations. However, in this case, the magnetically powered scenario may be favored as an FRB energy source because of the efficiency problem in the rotation-powered scenario. On the other hand, if the associated supernova is an ultra-stripped one or the neutron star is born by the accretion-induced collapse with M ej ∼ 0.1 M ⊙ , a younger neutron star with t age ∼ 1–10 years can be the persistent radio source and might produce FRBs with the spin-down power. These possibilities can be distinguished by the decline rate of the quasi-steady radio counterpart.

  13. Testing the Young Neutron Star Scenario with Persistent Radio Emission Associated with FRB 121102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiyama, Kazumi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Murase, Kohta [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Recently a repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 has been confirmed to be an extragalactic event and a persistent radio counterpart has been identified. While other possibilities are not ruled out, the emission properties are broadly consistent with Murase et al. that theoretically proposed quasi-steady radio emission as a counterpart of both FRBs and pulsar-driven supernovae. Here, we constrain the model parameters of such a young neutron star scenario for FRB 121102. If the associated supernova has a conventional ejecta mass of M {sub ej} ≳ a few M {sub ⊙}, a neutron star with an age of t {sub age} ∼ 10–100 years, an initial spin period of P{sub i} ≲ a few ms, and a dipole magnetic field of B {sub dip} ≲ a few × 10{sup 13} G can be compatible with the observations. However, in this case, the magnetically powered scenario may be favored as an FRB energy source because of the efficiency problem in the rotation-powered scenario. On the other hand, if the associated supernova is an ultra-stripped one or the neutron star is born by the accretion-induced collapse with M {sub ej} ∼ 0.1 M {sub ⊙}, a younger neutron star with t {sub age} ∼ 1–10 years can be the persistent radio source and might produce FRBs with the spin-down power. These possibilities can be distinguished by the decline rate of the quasi-steady radio counterpart.

  14. Development of an Integrated Polymer Microfluidic Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Proyag; Hammacher, Jens; Pease, Mark; Gurung, Sitanshu; Goettert, Jost

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic is a field of considerable interest. While significant research has been carried out to develop microfluidic components, very little has been done to integrate the components into a complete working system. We present a flexible modular system platform that addresses the requirements of a complete microfluidic system. A microfluidic stack system is demonstrated with the layers of the stack being modular for specific functions. The stack and accompanying infrastructure provides an attractive platform for users to transition their design concepts into a working microfluidic system quickly with very little effort. The concept is demonstrated by using the system to carry out a chemilumiscence experiment. Details regarding the fabrication, assembly and experimental methods are presented

  15. Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.

    2012-01-01

    application of advanced methods for detailed electrochemical characterisation during operation. An operating stack is subject to steep compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and significant temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which makes it a complex system...... Fuel Cell A/S was characterised in detail using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An investigation of the optimal geometrical placement of the current probes and voltage probes was carried out in order to minimise measurement errors caused by stray impedances. Unwanted stray impedances...... are particularly problematic at high frequencies. Stray impedances may be caused by mutual inductance and stray capacitance in the geometrical set-up and do not describe the fuel cell. Three different stack geometries were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Impedance measurements were carried...

  16. High power, repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanloo, F; Borovina, D L; Korioth, J L; Krause, R K; Collins, C B [Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Quantum Electronics; Agee, F J [US Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Kingsley, L E [US Army CECOM, Ft. Monmouth, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse power generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switch at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Extensive characterization of these novel pulsers have been performed over the past few years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with rise times and repetition rates in the range of 0.5-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. The progress in the development and use of stacked Blumlein pulse generators is reviewed. The technology and the characteristics of these novel pulsers driving flash x-ray diodes are discussed. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  17. Calculation of tritium release from reactor's stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhadi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Method for calculation of tritium release from nuclear to environment has been discussed. Part of gas effluent contain tritium in form of HTO vapor released from reactor's stack was sampled using silica-gel. The silica-gel was put in the water to withdraw HTO vapor absorbed by silica-gel. Tritium concentration in the water was measured by liquid scintillation counter of Aloka LSC-703. Tritium concentration in the gas effluent and total release of tritium from reactor's stack during certain interval time were calculated using simple mathematic formula. This method has examined for calculation of tritium release from JRR-3M's stack of JAERI, Japan. From the calculation it was obtained the value of tritium release as much as 4.63 x 10 11 Bq during one month. (author)

  18. Evaluation of gaseous emissions produced in the tests on the demonstration plant for sludge drying and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotito, V.; Spinosa, L.; Antonacci, R.; Mininni, G.

    2001-01-01

    Incineration is a valid alternative to other more diffused disposal systems (agricultural use, landfill), when they cannot be applied due to high pollutants concentrations or other unforeseeable constraints. However, it can cause severe air pollution by inorganic (heavy metals) and organic (PAHs, PCDDs, PCDFs) pollutants, particulate, NO x , CO and acidic compounds; this fact has raised public concern about incineration and has hindered a wider application of this practice. Water Research Institute of Italian National Research Council realised a demonstration plant mainly consisting of a fluidized bed furnace, a rotary kiln furnace, a dryer with heat recovery section, particulate and acidic compounds removal apparatuses, and set up a research programme to demonstrate that incineration is a safe operation and can comply the relevant legislation, as far as organic and inorganic micropollutants are concerned. A total of 40 tests were carried out (30 with the fluidized bed furnace and 10 with rotary kiln one) treating dewatered sludges (in many cases with the addition of high chlorinated compounds and Cu salts) or dried ones, under different operating conditions (furnace temperature, after-burner temperature, chlorine concentration). Particulate concentrations, and consequently heavy metals concentrations, at the stack resulted in any case under legal limits. As far as conventional pollutants are concerned, only HCl and CO overcame sometimes standards, mainly due to temporary operating up-sets. PAHs concentration resulted quite constant, thus demonstrating that tests were operated in steady-state and satisfactory conditions. Also dioxins and furans overcame sometimes standards, but no correlation was found with more severe tests conditions; it happened when plant up-set conditions occurred. Operation resulted quite satisfactory, but dryer operation required constant operators attention. In rotary kiln furnace a build up of solidified ashes occurred in counter

  19. A correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic and the importance of multifield fluctuation measurements for testing nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A E; Schmitz, L; Peebles, W A; Carter, T A; Rhodes, T L; Doyle, E J; Gourdain, P A; Hillesheim, J C; Wang, G; Holland, C; Tynan, G R; Austin, M E; McKee, G R; Shafer, M W; Burrell, K H; Candy, J; DeBoo, J C; Prater, R; Staebler, G M; Waltz, R E; Makowski, M A

    2008-10-01

    A correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) diagnostic has been used to measure local, turbulent fluctuations of the electron temperature in the core of DIII-D plasmas. This paper describes the hardware and testing of the CECE diagnostic and highlights the importance of measurements of multifield fluctuation profiles for the testing and validation of nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. The process of testing and validating such codes is critical for extrapolation to next-step fusion devices. For the first time, the radial profiles of electron temperature and density fluctuations are compared to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The CECE diagnostic at DIII-D uses correlation radiometry to measure the rms amplitude and spectrum of the electron temperature fluctuations. Gaussian optics are used to produce a poloidal spot size with w(o) approximately 1.75 cm in the plasma. The intermediate frequency filters and the natural linewidth of the EC emission determine the radial resolution of the CECE diagnostic, which can be less than 1 cm. Wavenumbers resolved by the CECE diagnostic are k(theta) < or = 1.8 cm(-1) and k(r) < or = 4 cm(-1), relevant for studies of long-wavelength turbulence associated with the trapped electron mode and the ion temperature gradient mode. In neutral beam heated L-mode plasmas, core electron temperature fluctuations in the region 0.5 < r/a < 0.9, increase with radius from approximately 0.5% to approximately 2%, similar to density fluctuations that are measured simultaneously with beam emission spectroscopy. After incorporating "synthetic diagnostics" to effectively filter the code output, the simulations reproduce the characteristics of the turbulence and transport at one radial location r/a = 0.5, but not at a second location, r/a = 0.75. These results illustrate that measurements of the profiles of multiple fluctuating fields can provide a significant constraint on the turbulence models employed by the code.

  20. Bipolarly stacked electrolyser for energy and space efficient fabrication of supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Wu, Tao; Dai, Zengxin; Tao, Keran; Shi, Yong; Peng, Chuang; Zhou, Xiaohang; Chen, George Z.

    2016-03-01

    Stacked electrolysers with titanium bipolar plates are constructed for electrodeposition of polypyrrole electrodes for supercapacitors. The cathode side of the bipolar Ti plates are pre-coated with activated carbon. In this new design, half electrolysis occurs which significantly lowers the deposition voltage. The deposited electrodes are tested in a symmetrical unit cell supercapacitor and an asymmetrical supercapacitor stack. Both devices show excellent energy storage performances and the capacitance values are very close to the design value, suggesting a very high current efficiency during the electrodeposition. The electrolyser stack offers multi-fold benefits for preparation of conducting polymer electrodes, i.e. low energy consumption, facile control of the electrode capacitance and simultaneous preparation of a number of identical electrodes. Therefore, the stacked bipolar electrolyser is a technology advance that offers an engineering solution for mass production of electrodeposited conducting polymer electrodes for supercapacitors.

  1. An innovative approach to sampling complex industrial emissions for use in animal toxicity tests: application to iron casting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W G; Scholz, R C; Moorman, W J

    1983-03-01

    Sampling of complex mixtures of airborne contaminants for chronic animal toxicity tests often involves numerous sampling devices, requires extensive sampling time, and yields forms of collected materials unsuitable for administration to animals. A method is described which used a high volume, wet venturi scrubber for collection of respirable fractions of emissions from iron foundry casting operations. The construction and operation of the sampler are presented along with collection efficiency data and its application to the preparation of large quantities of samples to be administered to animals by intratracheal instillation.

  2. Nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, William B. (Inventor); Nolcheff, Nick A. (Inventor); Gunaraj, John A. (Inventor); Kontos, Karen B. (Inventor); Weir, Donald S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane having a characteristic curve that is characterized by a nonlinear sweep and a nonlinear lean is provided. The stator is in an axial fan or compressor turbomachinery stage that is comprised of a collection of vanes whose highly three-dimensional shape is selected to reduce rotor-stator and rotor-strut interaction noise while maintaining the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of the vane. The nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane reduces noise associated with the fan stage of turbomachinery to improve environmental compatibility.

  3. Stack Monitoring System At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamrul Faizad Omar; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the current Stack Monitoring System at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) building. A stack monitoring system is a continuous air monitor placed at the reactor top for monitoring the presence of radioactive gaseous in the effluent air from the RTP building. The system consists of four detectors that provide the reading for background, particulate, Iodine and Noble gas. There is a plan to replace the current system due to frequent fault of the system, thus thorough understanding of the current system is required. Overview of the whole system will be explained in this paper. Some current results would be displayed and moving forward brief plan would be mentioned. (author)

  4. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment.

  5. A polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack for stationary power generation from hydrogen fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The fuel cell is the most efficient device for the conversion of hydrogen fuel to electric power. As such, the fuel cell represents a key element in efforts to demonstrate and implement hydrogen fuel utilization for electric power generation. The low temperature, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has recently been identified as an attractive option for stationary power generation, based on the relatively simple and benign materials employed, the zero-emission character of the device, and the expected high power density, high reliability and low cost. However, a PEMFC stack fueled by hydrogen with the combined properties of low cost, high performance and high reliability has not yet been demonstrated. Demonstration of such a stack will remove a significant barrier to implementation of this advanced technology for electric power generation from hydrogen. Work done in the past at LANL on the development of components and materials, particularly on advanced membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs), has contributed significantly to the capability to demonstrate in the foreseeable future a PEMFC stack with the combined characteristics described above. A joint effort between LANL and an industrial stack manufacturer will result in the demonstration of such a fuel cell stack for stationary power generation. The stack could operate on hydrogen fuel derived from either natural gas or from renewable sources. The technical plan includes collaboration with a stack manufacturer (CRADA). It stresses the special requirements from a PEMFC in stationary power generation, particularly maximization of the energy conversion efficiency, extension of useful life to the 10 hours time scale and tolerance to impurities from the reforming of natural gas.

  6. Empirical studies of flexural strength for dry-stack Interlocking masonry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tests were carried out to establish the flexural strength of dry-stack masonry under vertical and horizontal bending. Two formats of wallettes were tested. Format 1 made of specimens constructed span normal to bed joints, which were tested under vertical bending and Format 2 specimens constructed span parallel to bed ...

  7. TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES DONALDSON COMPANY INC.SERIES 6000 DISEL OXIDATION CATALYST MUFFLER AND SPIRACLE CLOSED CRANKCASE FILTRATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is on testing of a Donaldson Corp. catalytic muffler and closed crankcase filtration system for diesel trucks. It verified the emissions for these systems using low sufur and ultra low sulfur fuel.

  8. Developing luminescent lamps with a narrowband emission spectrum and a methodology for testing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deviatykh, E.V.; Prokudova, M.A.; Solov' eva, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    During the building of luninescent lamps with tripolar luminophors, several types of narrowband rare-earth luminophors were examined that emit in the blue (lambda maximum=450-455 nanometers), the green (lambda maximum=542-544 namometers) and the red (lambda maximum is approximately equal to 610 nanometers) portions of the spectrum. The basic characteristics of these luminophors are given: the granular composition, emission spectrum and excitation, quantum output, relative brightness, photo and thermal stability, etc. The LBTsT 40 white luminescent lamp with a luminophor composition containing L-47 and L-48 aluminates, and with yttrium oxide (L-49), generated 75-79 lumens per watt after 100 hours of operation. R /sub a/ =83. Efforts are made to develop a luminescent lamp with a perfected luminophor in a 26 millimeter bulb with luminescence of 93 to 100 lumens per watt.

  9. X-RAY ABSORPTION, NUCLEAR INFRARED EMISSION, AND DUST COVERING FACTORS OF AGNs: TESTING UNIFICATION SCHEMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, S.; Carrera, F. J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Barcons, X. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria), E-39005, Santander (Spain); Ramos, A. Asensio; Almeida, C. Ramos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Watson, M. G.; Blain, A. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Caccianiga, A.; Ballo, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, I-20121 Milano (Italy); Braito, V., E-mail: mateos@ifca.unican.es [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2016-03-10

    We present the distributions of the geometrical covering factors of the dusty tori (f{sub 2}) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using an X-ray selected complete sample of 227 AGNs drawn from the Bright Ultra-hard XMM-Newton Survey. The AGNs have z from 0.05 to 1.7, 2–10 keV luminosities between 10{sup 42} and 10{sup 46} erg s{sup −1}, and Compton-thin X-ray absorption. Employing data from UKIDSS, 2MASS, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer in a previous work, we determined the rest-frame 1–20 μm continuum emission from the torus, which we model here with the clumpy torus models of Nenkova et al. Optically classified type 1 and type 2 AGNs are intrinsically different, with type 2 AGNs having, on average, tori with higher f{sub 2} than type 1 AGNs. Nevertheless, ∼20% of type 1 AGNs have tori with large covering factors, while ∼23%–28% of type 2 AGNs have tori with small covering factors. Low f{sub 2} are preferred at high AGN luminosities, as postulated by simple receding torus models, although for type 2 AGNs the effect is certainly small. f{sub 2} increases with the X-ray column density, which implies that dust extinction and X-ray absorption take place in material that share an overall geometry and most likely belong to the same structure, the putative torus. Based on our results, the viewing angle, AGN luminosity, and also f{sub 2} determine the optical appearance of an AGN and control the shape of the rest-frame ∼1–20 μm nuclear continuum emission. Thus, the torus geometrical covering factor is a key ingredient of unification schemes.

  10. 40 CFR 86.137-90 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., record the measured roll or shaft revolutions and reset the counter or switch to a second counter. As... the deceleration which is scheduled to occur at 505 seconds of the driving schedule. The second period... cold start test. The second period of the hot start test, “stabilized” phase, is assumed to be...

  11. High power multiple wavelength diode laser stack for DPSSL application without temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dong; Yin, Xia; Wang, Jingwei; Chen, Shi; Zhan, Yun; Li, Xiaoning; Fan, Yingmin; Liu, Xingsheng

    2018-02-01

    High power diode laser stack is widely used in pumping solid-state laser for years. Normally an integrated temperature control module is required for stabilizing the output power of solid-state laser, as the output power of the solid-state laser highly depends on the emission wavelength and the wavelength shift of diode lasers according to the temperature changes. However the temperature control module is inconvenient for this application, due to its large dimension, high electric power consumption and extra adding a complicated controlling system. Furthermore, it takes dozens of seconds to stabilize the output power when the laser system is turned on. In this work, a compact hard soldered high power conduction cooled diode laser stack with multiple wavelengths is developed for stabilizing the output power of solid-state laser in a certain temperature range. The stack consists of 5 laser bars with the pitch of 0.43mm. The peak output power of each bar in the diode laser stack reaches as much as 557W and the combined lasing wavelength spectrum profile spans 15nm. The solidstate laser, structured with multiple wavelength diode laser stacks, allows the ambient temperature change of 65°C without suddenly degrading the optical performance.

  12. NOx, NH3, N2O and PN real driving emissions from a Euro VI heavy-duty vehicle. Impact of regulatory on-road test conditions on emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Villafuerte, Pablo; Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Giechaskiel, Barouch; Riccobono, Francesco; Bulgheroni, Claudia; Astorga, Covadonga; Perujo, Adolfo

    2017-12-31

    Euro VI emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) introduced for the first time limits for solid particle number (PN) and NH 3 emissions. EU regulation also includes a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) based test at type approval, followed by in-service conformity (ISC) testing. A comprehensive study on the real-time on-road emissions of NO x , NH 3 , N 2 O and PN from a Euro VI HDV equipped with a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a Diesel Particle Filter (DPF), a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system and an Ammonia Oxidation Catalyst (AMOX) is presented. Our analyses revealed that up to 85% of the NO x emissions measured during the tests performed are not taken into consideration if the boundary conditions for data exclusion set in the current legislation are applied. Moreover, it was found that the highest NO x emissions were measured during urban operation. Analyses show that a large fraction urban of operation is not considered when 20% power threshold as boundary condition is applied. They also show that cold start emissions account for a large fraction of the total NO x emitted. Low emissions of PN (2.8×10 10 to 6.5×10 10 #/kWh) and NH 3 (1.0 to 2.2ppm) were obtained during the on-road tests, suggesting effectiveness of the vehicle's after-treatment (DPF and AMOX). Finally, a comparison between speed-based (as currently defined by Euro VI legislation) and land-use-based (using Geographic Information System (GIS)) calculation of shares of operation was performed. Results suggest that using GIS to categorize the shares of operation could result in different interpretations depending on the criteria adopted for their definition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Circularly polarized luminescence of helically assembled pyrene π-stacks on RNA and DNA duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsunobu; Ota, Fuyuki; Takada, Tadao; Akagi, Kazuo; Yamana, Kazushige

    2018-05-01

    In this report, we describe the circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) of the RNA duplexes having one to four 2'-O-pyrene modified uridines (Upy) and the DNA duplexes having two, four, and six pyrene modified non-nucleosidic linkers (Py). Both the pyrene π-stack arrays formed on the RNA and DNA double helical structures exhibited pyrene excimer fluorescence. In the pyrene-modified RNA systems, the RNA duplex having four Upys gives CPL emission with g lum value of <0.01 at 480 nm. The structure of pyrene stacks on the RNA duplex may be rigidly regulated with increase in the Upy domains, which resulted in the CPL emission. In the DNA systems, the pyrene-modified duplexes containing two and four Pys exhibited CPL emission with g lum values of <0.001 at 505 nm. The pyrene π-stack arrays presented here show CPL emission. However, the g lum values are relatively small when compared with our previous system consisting of the pyrene-zipper arrays on RNA. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Barrier inhomogeneities at vertically stacked graphene-based heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Fu; Li, Wenwu; Li, Song-Lin; Xu, Yong; Aparecido-Ferreira, Alex; Komatsu, Katsuyoshi; Sun, Huabin; Nakaharai, Shu; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2014-01-21

    The integration of graphene and other atomically flat, two-dimensional materials has attracted much interest and been materialized very recently. An in-depth understanding of transport mechanisms in such heterostructures is essential. In this study, vertically stacked graphene-based heterostructure transistors were manufactured to elucidate the mechanism of electron injection at the interface. The temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics was investigated from 300 to 90 K. In a careful analysis of current-voltage characteristics, an unusual decrease in the effective Schottky barrier height and increase in the ideality factor were observed with decreasing temperature. A model of thermionic emission with a Gaussian distribution of barriers was able to precisely interpret the conduction mechanism. Furthermore, mapping of the effective Schottky barrier height is unmasked as a function of temperature and gate voltage. The results offer significant insight for the development of future layer-integration technology based on graphene-based heterostructures.

  15. On-line and real-time diagnosis method for proton membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack by the superposition principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hyun; Kim, Jonghyeon; Yoo, Seungyeol

    2016-09-01

    The critical cell voltage drop in a stack can be followed by stack defect. A method of detecting defective cell is the cell voltage monitoring. The other methods are based on the nonlinear frequency response. In this paper, the superposition principle for the diagnosis of PEMFC stack is introduced. If critical cell voltage drops exist, the stack behaves as a nonlinear system. This nonlinearity can explicitly appear in the ohmic overpotential region of a voltage-current curve. To detect the critical cell voltage drop, a stack is excited by two input direct test-currents which have smaller amplitude than an operating stack current and have an equal distance value from the operating current. If the difference between one voltage excited by a test current and the voltage excited by a load current is not equal to the difference between the other voltage response and the voltage excited by the load current, the stack system acts as a nonlinear system. This means that there is a critical cell voltage drop. The deviation from the value zero of the difference reflects the grade of the system nonlinearity. A simulation model for the stack diagnosis is developed based on the SPP, and experimentally validated.

  16. European type-approval test procedure for evaporative emissions from passenger cars against real-world mobility data from two Italian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Giorgio; Paffumi, Elena; De Gennaro, Michele; Mellios, Giorgos

    2014-07-15

    This paper presents an evaluation of the European type-approval test procedure for evaporative emissions from passenger cars based on real-world mobility data. The study relies on two large databases of driving patterns from conventional fuel vehicles collected by means of on-board GPS systems in the Italian provinces of Modena and Firenze. Approximately 28,000 vehicles were monitored, corresponding to approximately 36 million kilometres over a period of one month. The driving pattern of each vehicle was processed to derive the relation between trip length and parking duration, and the rate of occurrence of parking events against multiple evaporative cycles, defined on the basis of the type-approval test procedure as 12-hour diurnal time windows. These results are used as input for an emission simulation model, which calculates the total evaporative emissions given the characteristics of the evaporative emission control system of the vehicle and the ambient temperature conditions. The results suggest that the evaporative emission control system, fitted to the vehicles from Euro 3 step and optimised for the current type-approval test procedure, could not efficiently work under real-world conditions, resulting in evaporative emissions well above the type-approval limit, especially for small size vehicles and warm climate conditions. This calls for a revision of the type-approval test procedure in order to address real-world evaporative emissions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. 40 CFR 86.1917 - How does in-use testing under this subpart relate to the emission-related warranty in Section 207...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does in-use testing under this...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Manufacturer-Run In-Use Testing Program for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines § 86.1917 How does in-use testing under this subpart relate...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1829-01 - Durability and emission testing requirements; waivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... testing natural gas-fueled or liquefied petroleum gas-fueled vehicles, the manufacturer may provide a..., canister working capacity, fuel tank volume, fuel tank geometry, the type of fuel delivery system (return...

  19. Airborne Wear Particles Emissions fromCommercial Disc Brake Materials– Passenger Car Field Test

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlström, Jens; Olofsson, Ulf; Jansson, Anders; Olander, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Most modern passenger cars have disc brakes on the front wheels, which unlike drum brakes are not sealed off to the ambient air. During braking, there is wear to both the rotor and the pads. This wear process generates particles, which may become airborne. In field tests it is difficult to distinguish these particles from others in the surrounding environment. It may be preferable to use laboratory test stands where the cleanness of the surrounding air can be controlled. The validity of these...

  20. Emissions of toxic pollutants from compressed natural gas and low sulfur diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested over multiple driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Norman Y; Okamoto, Robert A; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ayala, Alberto; Gebel, Michael E; Rieger, Paul L; Maddox, Christine; Zafonte, Leo

    2005-10-01

    The number of heavy-duty vehicles using alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and new low-sulfur diesel fuel formulations and equipped with after-treatment devices are projected to increase. However, few peer-reviewed studies have characterized the emissions of particulate matter (PM) and other toxic compounds from these vehicles. In this study, chemical and biological analyses were used to characterize the identifiable toxic air pollutants emitted from both CNG and low-sulfur-diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested on a chassis dynamometer over three transient driving cycles and a steady-state cruise condition. The CNG bus had no after-treatment, and the diesel bus was tested first equipped with an oxidation catalyst (OC) and then with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Emissions were analyzed for PM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs; determined on-site), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and mutagenic activity. The 2000 model year CNG-fueled vehicle had the highest emissions of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbonyls (e.g., formaldehyde) of the three vehicle configurations tested in this study. The 1998 model year diesel bus equipped with an OC and fueled with low-sulfur diesel had the highest emission rates of PM and PAHs. The highest specific mutagenic activities (revertants/microg PM, or potency) and the highest mutagen emission rates (revertants/mi) were from the CNG bus in strain TA98 tested over the New York Bus (NYB) driving cycle. The 1998 model year diesel bus with DPF had the lowest VOCs, PAH, and mutagenic activity emission. In general, the NYB driving cycle had the highest emission rates (g/mi), and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) had the lowest emission rates for all toxics tested over the three transient test cycles investigated. Also, transient emissions were, in general, higher than steady-state emissions. The emissions of toxic compounds from an in-use CNG transit bus (without an oxidation

  1. Use of commercial radon monitors for low level radon measurements in dynamically operated VOC emission test chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, M.; Richter, M.; Jann, O.

    2017-01-01

    Compared to the intended EU reference level of 300 Bq m -3 for indoor radon concentrations, the contribution of building materials appears to be low. Considering the recommended limit of 100 Bq m -3 by WHO, their contribution is supposed to be relevant, especially at low air exchange rates. This study as part of a two-part research project investigated the suitability of direct low level 222 Rn measurement under simulated indoor conditions with commercial radon monitors and dynamically operated emission test chambers. Active measuring devices based on ionisation or scintillation chambers with 1-σ uncertainties below 8.6% at 20 Bq m -3 were found to be best suitable for a practical test procedure for the determination of radon exhalation rates of building materials. For the measurement of such low concentrations, the knowledge of the accurate device background level is essential. (authors)

  2. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASUDEB DATTA

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... Preliminaries. Lower bound theorem. On going work. Definitions. An n-simplex is a convex hull of n + 1 affinely independent points. (called vertices) in some Euclidean space R. N . Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta. Indian Institute of Science. 2 / 27 ...

  3. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlampová, Andrea; Malá, Zdeňka; Pantůčková, Pavla; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2013), s. 3-18 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/10/1219 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013

  4. Scaling the CERN OpenStack cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T.; Bompastor, B.; Bukowiec, S.; Castro Leon, J.; Denis, M. K.; van Eldik, J.; Fermin Lobo, M.; Fernandez Alvarez, L.; Fernandez Rodriguez, D.; Marino, A.; Moreira, B.; Noel, B.; Oulevey, T.; Takase, W.; Wiebalck, A.; Zilli, S.

    2015-12-01

    CERN has been running a production OpenStack cloud since July 2013 to support physics computing and infrastructure services for the site. In the past year, CERN Cloud Infrastructure has seen a constant increase in nodes, virtual machines, users and projects. This paper will present what has been done in order to make the CERN cloud infrastructure scale out.

  5. Stacking non-BPS D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Caceres, Elena; Goldstein, Kevin; Lowe, David A. . lowe@het.brown.edu

    2001-08-01

    We present a candidate supergravity solution for a stacked configuration of stable non-BPS D-branes in Type II string theory compactified on T 4 /Z 2 . This gives a supergravity description of nonabelian tachyon condensation on the brane woldvolume. (author)

  6. Trace interpolation by slant-stack migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, M.

    1990-01-01

    The slant-stack migration formula based on the radon transform is studied with respect to the depth steep Δz of wavefield extrapolation. It can be viewed as a generalized trace-interpolation procedure including wave extrapolation with an arbitrary step Δz. For Δz > 0 the formula yields the familiar plane-wave decomposition, while for Δz > 0 it provides a robust tool for migration transformation of spatially under sampled wavefields. Using the stationary phase method, it is shown that the slant-stack migration formula degenerates into the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral in the far-field approximation. Consequently, even a narrow slant-stack gather applied before the diffraction stack can significantly improve the representation of noisy data in the wavefield extrapolation process. The theory is applied to synthetic and field data to perform trace interpolation and dip reject filtration. The data examples presented prove that the radon interpolator works well in the dip range, including waves with mutual stepouts smaller than half the dominant period

  7. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, Zdeňka; Šlampová, Andrea; Křivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2015), s. 15-35 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.482, year: 2015

  8. OpenStack cloud computing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook full of practical and applicable recipes that will enable you to use the full capabilities of OpenStack like never before.This book is aimed at system administrators and technical architects moving from a virtualized environment to cloud environments with familiarity of cloud computing platforms. Knowledge of virtualization and managing linux environments is expected.

  9. Toward advising SME's on stacked funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwerda, Kirsten; van Teeffelen, Lex; de Graaf, Frank Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses new funding issues faced by SMEs. Over a period of nine months, the authors conducted a preliminary study into the problems surrounding stacked funding faced by SMEs and their financial advisers. The study includes a short literature review, the outcomes of three round table

  10. Photoswitchable Intramolecular H-Stacking of Perylenebisimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiaobing; Kulago, Artem; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control over the formation of H- or J-type aggregates of chromophores is of fundamental importance for developing responsive organic optoelectronic materials. In this study, the first example of photoswitching between a nonstacked and an intramolecularly H-stacked arrangement of

  11. Optoelectronic interconnects for 3D wafer stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David; Carson, John C.; Lome, Louis S.

    1996-01-01

    Wafer and chip stacking are envisioned as means of providing increased processing power within the small confines of a three-dimensional structure. Optoelectronic devices can play an important role in these dense 3-D processing electronic packages in two ways. In pure electronic processing, optoelectronics can provide a method for increasing the number of input/output communication channels within the layers of the 3-D chip stack. Non-free space communication links allow the density of highly parallel input/output ports to increase dramatically over typical edge bus connections. In hybrid processors, where electronics and optics play a role in defining the computational algorithm, free space communication links are typically utilized for, among other reasons, the increased network link complexity which can be achieved. Free space optical interconnections provide bandwidths and interconnection complexity unobtainable in pure electrical interconnections. Stacked 3-D architectures can provide the electronics real estate and structure to deal with the increased bandwidth and global information provided by free space optical communications. This paper will provide definitions and examples of 3-D stacked architectures in optoelectronics processors. The benefits and issues of these technologies will be discussed.

  12. OpenStack Object Storage (Swift) essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kapadia, Amar; Varma, Sreedhar

    2015-01-01

    If you are an IT administrator and you want to enter the world of cloud storage using OpenStack Swift, then this book is ideal for you. Basic knowledge of Linux and server technology is beneficial to get the most out of the book.

  13. Stacking multiple connecting functional materials in tandem organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Deng-Ke; Jiang, Nan; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2017-02-01

    Tandem device is an important architecture in fabricating high performance organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. The key element in making a high performance tandem device is the connecting materials stack, which plays an important role in electric field distribution, charge generation and charge injection. For a tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a simple Liq/Al/MoO3 stack, we discovered that there is a significant current lateral spreading causing light emission over an extremely large area outside the OLED pixel when the Al thickness exceeds 2 nm. This spread light emission, caused by an inductive electric field over one of the device unit, limits one’s ability to fabricate high performance tandem devices. To resolve this issue, a new connecting materials stack with a C60 fullerene buffer layer is reported. This new structure permits optimization of the Al metal layer in the connecting stack and thus enables us to fabricate an efficient tandem OLED having a high 155.6 cd/A current efficiency and a low roll-off (or droop) in current efficiency.

  14. Use of magnesium as a test element for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermet, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    To optimize atomization and ionization processes in an inductively coupled plasma used as a source in atomic emission spectrometry, the Mg II 280.270-nm/Mg I 285-213-nm line intensity ratio is used. A theoretic ratio is calculated assuming a local thermodynamic equilibrium.A review of previously published experimental values of the ratio is given as a function of the parameters influencing the energy transfer between the plasma and injected species. In particular, the effects of the power, the carrier gas flow-rate, the i.d. of the torch injector, the use of a sheathing gas and the presence of hydrogen are described. Values of the ratio close to the theoretical values are obtained with a high power (>1.4 kW), a lower carrier gas flow-rate ( -1 ) and a large i.d. of the injector (>2 mm). This optimization can also be applied to the minimization of interference effects due to the presence of sodium. (author). 64 refs.; 9 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Standard test method for determining elements in waste Streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of trace, minor, and major elements in waste streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) following an acid digestion of the sample. Waste streams from manufacturing processes of nuclear and non-nuclear materials can be analyzed. This test method is applicable to the determination of total metals. Results from this test method can be used to characterize waste received by treatment facilities and to formulate appropriate treatment recipes. The results are also usable in process control within waste treatment facilities. 1.2 This test method is applicable only to waste streams that contain radioactivity levels that do not require special personnel or environmental protection. 1.3 A list of the elements determined in waste streams and the corresponding lower reporting limit is found in Table 1. 1.4 This test method has been used successfully for treatment of a large variety of waste solutions and industrial process liquids. The com...

  16. Report on radiation exposure of lead-scintillator stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    A stack of lead and scintillator was placed in a neutral beam obtained from targeting 800 GeV protons. Small pieces of film containing radiochromic dye were placed adjacent to the layers of scintillator for the purpose of measuring the radiation dose to the scintillator. Our motivation was to calibrate the radiation dose obtainable in this manner for future tests of scintillator for SSC experiments and to relate dose to flux to check absolute normalization for calculations. We also observed several other radiation effects which should be considered for both damage and compensation in a calorimeter

  17. Stacking fault-mediated ultrastrong nanocrystalline Ti thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K.; Zhang, J. Y.; Li, G.; Wang, Y. Q.; Cui, J. C.; Liu, G.; Sun, J.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we prepared nanocrystalline (NC) Ti thin films with abundant stacking faults (SFs), which were created via partial dislocations emitted from grain boundaries and which were insensitive to grain sizes. By employing the nanoindentation test, we investigated the effects of SFs and grain sizes on the strength of NC Ti films at room temperature. The high density of SFs significantly strengthens NC Ti films, via dislocation-SF interactions associated with the reported highest Hall-Petch slope of ˜20 GPa nm1/2, to an ultrahigh strength of ˜4.4 GPa, approaching ˜50% of its ideal strength.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

    2002-02-14

    This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

  19. Investigation of Ruthenium Dissolution in Advanced Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Direct Methanol Based Fuel Cell Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Firdosy, S.; Koel, B. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    Dissolution of ruthenium was observed in the 80-cell stack. Duration testing was performed in single cell MEAs to determine the pathway of cell degradation. EDAX analysis on each of the single cell MEAs has shown that the Johnson Matthey commercial catalyst is stable in DMFC operation for 250 hours, no ruthenium dissolution was observed. Changes in the hydrophobicity of the cathode backing papers was minimum. Electrode polarization analysis revealed that the MEA performance loss is attributed to changes in the cathode catalyst layer. Ruthenium migration does not seem to occur during cell operation but can occur when methanol is absent from the anode compartment, the cathode compartment has access to air, and the cells in the stack are electrically connected to a load (Shunt Currents). The open-to-air cathode stack design allowed for: a) The MEAs to have continual access to oxygen; and b) The stack to sustain shunt currents. Ruthenium dissolution in a DMFC stack can be prevented by: a) Developing an internally manifolded stacks that seal reactant compartments when not in operation; b) Bringing the cell voltages to zero quickly when not in operation; and c) Limiting the total number of cells to 25 in an effort to limit shunt currents.

  20. JV Task 107- Pilot-Scale Emission Control Technology Testing for Constellation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Stephen Sollom; John Kay

    2007-06-30

    An Indonesian, Colombian, and Russian coal were tested in the Energy & Environmental Research Center's combustion test facility for their performance and an evaluation of mercury release and capture with selected additives in both electrostatic precipitator and baghouse configurations. Sorbents included the carbon-based materials NORIT DARCO Hg, Sorbent Technologies B-PAC and B-PAC LC, STI Rejects provided by Constellation Energy, and Envergex e-Sorb, along with ChemMod's high-temperature additive. Each coal was evaluated over several days and compared. Ash-fouling tests were conducted, and mercury levels were monitored using continuous mercury monitors (CMMs). The Ontario Hydro mercury sampling method was also utilized. The Indonesian coal had the lowest ash content, lowest sulfur content, and lowest energy content of the three coals tested. The Colombian coal had the highest mercury content and did contain a significant level of selenium which can interfere with the ability of a CMM to monitor mercury in the gas stream. All sorbents displayed very favorable results. In most cases, mercury removal greater than 86% could be obtained. The Indonesian coal displayed the best mercury removal with sorbent addition. A maximum removal of 97% was measured with this coal using Envergex's carbon-based sorbent at a rate of 4 lb/Macf across an electrostatic precipitator. The high ash and selenium content of the Colombian coal caused it to be a problematic fuel, and ash plugging of the test furnace was a real concern. Problems with the baghouse module led to limited testing. Results indicated that native capture across the baghouse for each coal type was significant enough not to warrant sorbent addition necessary. The fouling potential was the lowest for the Indonesian coal. Low sulfur content contributes to the poor potential for fouling, as witnessed by the lack of deposits during testing. The Russian and Colombian coals had a much higher potential for fouling

  1. Evidence of a non-dimensional parameter controlling the flooding of PEMFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buaud, Fabrice; Lelandais, Damien [Heat and Energy Department, Polytech' Nantes, Nantes University, Rue Christian Pauc, BP50609, 44 306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Auvity, Bruno [Heat and Energy Department, Polytech' Nantes, Nantes University, Rue Christian Pauc, BP50609, 44 306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Laboratoire de Thermocinetique de Nantes (CNRS-UMR 6607) (France)

    2008-06-15

    Water management is a key issue to get satisfactory and stable Polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performances. The work reported in the present paper focuses on the determination of the operational conditions when using PEMFC stack working with ambient air without extra humidification. The objectives are to reduce as much as possible the auxiliaries consumptions. As far as the reaction air blower is concerned, the specific goal of the present tests is to find the minimum air flow rate to feed the PEMFC stack in order to prevent flooding. Our particular interest concerns the control of a PEMFC stack to power a prototype vehicle for the Shell Eco Marathon race. Tests are then conducted on a wide range of stoichiometry, for different values of current and stack temperature using ambient air. Flooding is shown to depend on all these parameters. A water balance calculation is developed comparing the amount of water produced by the electrochemical reaction to the amount of water transported as vapour in the exit air flow minus the amount of water incoming the stack in the ambient air. A non-dimensional number called the Flooding Number is constructed. This balance is first considered in the ideal case with the theoretical flow rate of reactants and products. It is shown that the stack temperature and the stoichiometry are the main order parameters and that conditions of ambient air have only secondary effects on the water balance. In a second step, the Flooding Number is evaluated for all the experimental tests. A critical Flooding Number appears clearly delimiting the range of operational conditions for which stack flooding appears. This result allows us to control the air blower and the cooling fan during the runs at the Shell Eco Marathon 2007 race in order to reduce hydrogen consumption due to auxiliaries. The non-dimensional number exhibited in the present paper is believed to be relevant to stack flooding. It can be used for any PEMFC stack to make clear

  2. 40 CFR 86.137-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the measured roll or shaft revolutions and reset the counter or switch to a second counter. As soon as... which is scheduled to occur at 505 seconds of the driving schedule. The second period, representing the... second period of the hot start test, “stabilized” phase, is assumed to be identical to the second period...

  3. Test Report, BioLite Home Stove with Wood Fuel, Air Pollutant Emissions and Fuel Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Test results were obtained in accordance with ISO (International Organization for Standardization) IWA (International Workshop Agreement) 11:2012 that was unanimously affirmed by more than 90 stakeholders at the ISO International Workshop on Cookstoves on February 28-29, 2012 in ...

  4. Electricity generation and microbial community in response to short-term changes in stack connection of self-stacked submersible microbial fuel cell powered by glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    community. In this study, a self-stacked submersible microbial fuel cell (SSMFC) powered by glycerol was tested to elucidate this important issue. In series connection, the maximum voltage output reached to 1.15 V, while maximum current density was 5.73 mA in parallel. In both connections, the maximum power......Stack connection (i.e., in series or parallel) of microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an efficient way to boost the power output for practical application. However, there is little information available on short-term changes in stack connection and its effect on the electricity generation and microbial...... density increased with the initial glycerol concentration. However, the glycerol degradation was even faster in parallel connection. When the SSMFC was shifted from series to parallel connection, the reactor reached to a stable power output without any lag phase. Meanwhile, the anodic microbial community...

  5. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The devices employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. Thus, the devices may be white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. Each sub-element comprises at least one organic layer which is an emissive layer--i.e., the layer is capable of emitting light when a voltage is applied across the stacked device. The sub-elements are vertically stacked and are separated by charge generating layers. The charge-generating layers are layers that inject charge carriers into the adjacent layer(s) but do not have a direct external connection.

  6. The effect of edge interlaminar stresses on the strength of carbon/epoxy laminates of different stacking geometry

    OpenAIRE

    MOMCILO STEVANOVIC; MILAN GORDIC; DANIELA SEKULIC; ISIDOR DJORDJEVIC

    2006-01-01

    The effect of edge interlaminar stresses on strength of carbon/epoxy laminates of different stacking geometry: cross-ply, quasi-isotropic and angle-ply laminates with additional 0º and 90º ply was studied. Coupons with two widths of laminates with an inverse stacking sequence were tested in static tensile tests. The effect of edge interlaminar stresses on strength was studied, by comparing the values of the tensile strength of laminate coupons of the same width with an inverse stacking sequen...

  7. The Electrical Resistivity and Acoustic Emission Response Law and Damage Evolution of Limestone in Brazilian Split Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinji Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian split test was performed on two groups of limestone samples with loading directions vertical and parallel to the bedding plane, and the response laws of the electrical resistivity and acoustic emission (AE in the two loading modes were obtained. The test results showed that the Brazilian split test with loading directions vertical and parallel to the bedding showed obviously different results and anisotropic characteristics. On the basis of the response laws of the electrical resistivity and AE, the damage variables based on the electrical resistivity and AE properties were modified, and the evolution laws of the damage variables in the Brazilian split test with different loading directions were obtained. It was found that the damage evolution laws varied with the loading direction. Specifically, in the time-varying curve of the damage variable with the loading direction vertical to the bedding, the damage variable based on electrical resistivity properties showed an obvious damage weakening stage while that based on AE properties showed an abrupt increase under low load.

  8. Design and testing of an independently controlled urea SCR retrofit system for the reduction of NOx emissions from marine diesels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek R; Bedick, Clinton R; Clark, Nigel N; McKain, David L

    2009-05-15

    Diesel engine emissions for on-road, stationary and marine applications are regulated in the United States via standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A major component of diesel exhaust that is difficult to reduce is nitrogen oxides (NOx). Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been in use for many years for stationary applications, including external combustion boilers, and is promising for NOx abatement as a retrofit for mobile applications where diesel compression ignition engines are used. The research presented in this paper is the first phase of a program focused on the reduction of NOx by use of a stand-alone urea injection system, applicable to marine diesel engines typical of work boats (e.g., tugs). Most current urea SCR systems communicate with engine controls to predict NOx emissions based on signals such as torque and engine speed, however many marine engines in use still employ mechanical injection technology and lack electronic communication abilities. The system developed and discussed in this paper controls NOx emissions independentof engine operating parameters and measures NOx and exhaust flow using the following exhaust sensor inputs: absolute pressure, differential pressure, temperature, and NOx concentration. These sensor inputs were integrated into an independent controller and open loop architecture to estimate the necessary amount of urea needed, and the controller uses pulse width modulation (PWM) to power an automotive fuel injector for airless urea delivery. The system was tested in a transient test cell on a 350 hp engine certified at 4 g/bhp-hr of NOx, with a goal of reducing the engine out NOx levels by 50%. NOx reduction capabilities of 41-67% were shown on the non road transient cycle (NRTC) and ICOMIA E5 steady state cycles with system optimization during testing to minimize the dilute ammonia slip to cycle averages of 5-7 ppm. The goal of 50% reduction of NOx can be achieved dependent upon cycle. Further

  9. STACKED SEARCH FOR GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM THE 2006 SGR 1900+14 STORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Aso, Y.; Ballmer, S.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Aulbert, C.; Allen, G.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, W. G.; Armor, P.; Arain, M. A.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a LIGO search for short-duration gravitational waves (GWs) associated with the 2006 March 29 SGR 1900+14 storm. A new search method is used, 'stacking' the GW data around the times of individual soft-gamma bursts in the storm to enhance sensitivity for models in which multiple bursts are accompanied by GW emission. We assume that variation in the time difference between burst electromagnetic emission and potential burst GW emission is small relative to the GW signal duration, and we time-align GW excess power time-frequency tilings containing individual burst triggers to their corresponding electromagnetic emissions. We use two GW emission models in our search: a fluence-weighted model and a flat (unweighted) model for the most electromagnetically energetic bursts. We find no evidence of GWs associated with either model. Model-dependent GW strain, isotropic GW emission energy E GW , and γ ≡ E GW /E EM upper limits are estimated using a variety of assumed waveforms. The stacking method allows us to set the most stringent model-dependent limits on transient GW strain published to date. We find E GW upper limit estimates (at a nominal distance of 10 kpc) of between 2 x 10 45 erg and 6 x 10 50 erg depending on the waveform type. These limits are an order of magnitude lower than upper limits published previously for this storm and overlap with the range of electromagnetic energies emitted in soft gamma repeater (SGR) giant flares.

  10. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks

  11. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-11-06

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks.

  12. Monitoring of pipeline hydrostatic testing with artificial flaws applying acoustic emission and ultra-sonic techniques; Monitoracao de teste hidrostatico de tubos com descontinuidades artificiais empregando as tecnicas de emissao acustica e ultra-som

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Sergio Damasceno [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    Charts and parameters used to perform and analyzing the acoustic emission data collected during the hydrostatic test in pipe samples build in API XL 60 with 20 inches of diameter and 14 millimeters of thickness are shown. These pipes had internal and external artificial flaws done by electro-erosion process with aspect ratio 1 x 20. A relationship between acoustic emission results, ultrasound and J-Integral were established using the applied pressurization sequence. Characteristics values of acoustic emission signals were shown as a criteria of field tests. (author)

  13. Construction of energy transfer pathways self-assembled from DNA-templated stacks of anthracene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaura, Rika; Yui, Hiroharu; Someya, Yuu; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi

    2014-01-05

    We describe optical properties of anthracene stacks formed from single-component self-assembly of thymidylic acid-appended anthracene 2,6-bis[5-(3'-thymidylic acid)pentyloxy] anthracene (TACT) and the binary self-assembly of TACT and complementary 20-meric oligoadenylic acid (TACT/dA20) in an aqueous buffer. UV-Vis and emission spectra for the single-component self-assembly of TACT and the binary self-assembly of TACT/dA20 were very consistent with stacked acene moieties in both self-assemblies. Interestingly, time-resolved fluorescence spectra from anthracene stacks exhibited very different features of the single-component and binary self-assemblies. In the single-component self-assembly of TACT, a dynamic Stokes shift (DSS) and relatively short fluorescence lifetime (τ=0.35ns) observed at around 450nm suggested that the anthracene moieties were flexible. Moreover, a broad emission at 530nm suggested the formation of an excited dimer (excimer). In the binary self-assembly of TACT/dA20, we detected a broad, red-shifted emission component at 534nm with a lifetime (τ=0.4ns) shorter than that observed in the TACT single-component self-assembly. Combining these results with the emission spectrum of the binary self-assembly of TACT/5'-HEX dA20, we concluded that the energy transfer pathway was constructed by columnar anthracene stacks formed from the DNA-templated self-assembly of TACT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prototype particulate stack sampler with single-cut nozzle and microcomputer calculating/display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eler, J.C.; Littlefield, L.G.; Tillery, M.I.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype particulate stack sampler (PPSS) has been developed to improve on the existing EPA Method 5 sampling apparatus. Its primary features are (1) higher sampling rate (56 1/min); (2) display (on demand) of all required variables and calculated values by a microcomputer-based calculating and display system; (3) continuous stack gas moisture determination; (4) a virtual impactor nozzle with 3 μm mass median diameter cutpoint which collects fine and coarse particle fractions on separate glass fiber filters; (5) a variable-area inlet to maintain isokinetic sampling conditions; and (6) conversion to stainless steel components from the glass specified by EPA Method 5. The basic sampling techniques of EPA Method 5 have been retained; however, versatility in the form of optional in-stack filters and general modernization of the stack sampler have been provided in the prototype design. Laboratory testing with monodisperse dye aerosols has shown the present variable inlet, virtual impactor nozzle to have a collection efficiency which is less than 77% and significant wall losses. This is primarily due to lack of symmetry in this rectangular jet impactor and short transition lengths dictated by physical design constraints (required passage of the nozzle through a 7.6 cm (3 in) diameter stack port). Electronic components have shown acceptable service in laboratory testing although no field testing of the prototype under a broad range of temperature, humidity, and SO 2 concentration has been undertaken

  15. Detecção de emissão espontânea de luz em ensaios de colimetria aplicados ao monitoramento de efluentes sanitários Spontaneous light emission in coliforms test applied to wastewater monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ricardo dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho avaliou-se o potencial do emprego da técnica biofotônica ao monitoramento da qualidade microbiológica de efluentes sanitários, por meio da detecção de emissão ultrafraca de luz em testes envolvendo bactéria do grupo coliforme. Foram acompanhados os padrões de emissão de luz em câmara escura com o uso de efluente doméstico, antes e após tratamento, incubados em meio nutritivo à base de lactose e lauril triptose. O controle foi efetuado com o uso de cepa de Escherichia coli (ATCC 25.922, tendo seu crescimento sido monitorado por emissão de luz em câmara escura com fotomultiplicador acoplado. Os dados demonstraram que o monitoramento microbiológico pode ser efetuado por meio técnica biofotônica, podendo ser aplicado, com respostas rápidas, ao monitoramento microbiológico de efluentes, por meio de testes envolvendo coliformes.The spontaneous light emission of living systems emerge as a promising methodology that applied to microbiological in monitoring water can lead to short-term analysis. The present study evaluated the potential of biophoton measurements applied to wastewater monitoring by using ultraweak light emission in coliform tests. The procedure is based on photon-counting measurements inside a dark-chamber, of wastewater samples, before and after treatment, inoculated in nutrient presence/absence medium (lactose and lauryl triptose broth. Strain of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25,922 was used in control tests by monitoring the light emission inside a dark-chamber with an acoplade photomultiplier. The data showed that microbiological monitoring can be done by photon-counting in real-time applied to microbiological wastewater monitoring using coliform test.

  16. Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.

  17. Radiation-Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack - RTIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tak-kwong; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides reconfigurable circuitry and 2-Gb of error-corrected or 1-Gb of triple-redundant digital memory in a small package. RTIMS uses circuit stacking of heterogeneous components and radiation shielding technologies. A reprogrammable field-programmable gate array (FPGA), six synchronous dynamic random access memories, linear regulator, and the radiation mitigation circuits are stacked into a module of 42.7 42.7 13 mm. Triple module redundancy, current limiting, configuration scrubbing, and single- event function interrupt detection are employed to mitigate radiation effects. The novel self-scrubbing and single event functional interrupt (SEFI) detection allows a relatively soft FPGA to become radiation tolerant without external scrubbing and monitoring hardware

  18. Development of on-site PAFC stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, K.; Matsumoto, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Amagasaki (Japan); Horiuchi, H.; Ohtani, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell) has been researched for commercial use and demonstration plants have been installed in various sites. However, PAFC don`t have a enough stability yet, so more research and development must be required in the future. Especially, cell stack needs a proper state of three phases (liquid, gas and solid) interface. It is very difficult technology to keep this condition for a long time. In the small size cell with the electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2}, gas flow and temperature distributions show uniformity. But in the large size cell with the electrode area of 4000 cm{sup 2}, the temperature distributions show non-uniformity. These distributions would cause to be shorten the cell life. Because these distributions make hot-spot and gas poverty in limited parts. So we inserted thermocouples in short-stack for measuring three-dimensional temperature distributions and observed effects of current density and gas utilization on temperature.

  19. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen [Pinole, CA

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  20. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  1. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F; Shyu, F L

    2010-01-01

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  2. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  3. A sensor-less methanol concentration control system based on feedback from the stack temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Myung-Gi; Mehmood, Asad; Ha, Heung Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new sensor-less methanol control algorithm based on feedback from the stack temperature is developed. • Feasibility of the algorithm is tested using a DMFC system with a recirculating fuel loop. • The algorithm precisely controls the methanol concentration without the use of methanol sensors. • The sensor-less controller shortens the time that the DMFC system requires to go from start-up to steady-state. • This controller is effective in handling unexpected changes in the methanol concentration and stack temperature. - Abstract: A sensor-less methanol concentration control system based on feedback from the stack temperature (SLCCF) has been developed. The SLCCF algorithm is embedded into an in-house LabVIEW program that has been developed to control the methanol concentration in the feed of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). This control method utilizes the close correlation between the stack temperature and the methanol concentration in the feed. Basically, the amounts of methanol to be supplied to the re-circulating feed stream are determined by estimating the methanol consumption rates under given operating conditions, which are then adjusted by a proportional–integral controller and supplied into the feed stream to maintain the stack temperature at a set value. The algorithm is designed to control the methanol concentration and the stack temperature for both start-up and normal operation processes. Feasibility tests with a 200 W-class DMFC system under various operating conditions confirm that the algorithm successfully maintains the methanol concentration in the feed as well as the stack temperature at set values, and the start-up time required for the DMFC system to reach steady-state operating conditions is reduced significantly compared with conventional sensor-less methods

  4. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution from Aircraft and Aircraft Engines: Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is amending the existing emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for new commercial aircraft engines. These standards are equivalent to the NOx emission standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  5. Assessing stationary laboratory test methods for underground mining vehicles to determine their suitability in replicating real-world emissions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wattrus, MC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuel, engine and after-treatment technologies are powerful levers to reduce diesel particulate matter emissions, however these benefits can only be guaranteed through routine maintenance and equipment monitoring. Portable emissions measurement...

  6. Role of stacking disorder in ice nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Laura; Hudait, Arpa; Peters, Baron; Grünwald, Michael; Gotchy Mullen, Ryan; Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria

    2017-11-08

    The freezing of water affects the processes that determine Earth's climate. Therefore, accurate weather and climate forecasts hinge on good predictions of ice nucleation rates. Such rate predictions are based on extrapolations using classical nucleation theory, which assumes that the structure of nanometre-sized ice crystallites corresponds to that of hexagonal ice, the thermodynamically stable form of bulk ice. However, simulations with various water models find that ice nucleated and grown under atmospheric temperatures is at all sizes stacking-disordered, consisting of random sequences of cubic and hexagonal ice layers. This implies that stacking-disordered ice crystallites either are more stable than hexagonal ice crystallites or form because of non-equilibrium dynamical effects. Both scenarios challenge central tenets of classical nucleation theory. Here we use rare-event sampling and free energy calculations with the mW water model to show that the entropy of mixing cubic and hexagonal layers makes stacking-disordered ice the stable phase for crystallites up to a size of at least 100,000 molecules. We find that stacking-disordered critical crystallites at 230 kelvin are about 14 kilojoules per mole of crystallite more stable than hexagonal crystallites, making their ice nucleation rates more than three orders of magnitude higher than predicted by classical nucleation theory. This effect on nucleation rates is temperature dependent, being the most pronounced at the warmest conditions, and should affect the modelling of cloud formation and ice particle numbers, which are very sensitive to the temperature dependence of ice nucleation rates. We conclude that classical nucleation theory needs to be corrected to include the dependence of the crystallization driving force on the size of the ice crystallite when interpreting and extrapolating ice nucleation rates from experimental laboratory conditions to the temperatures that occur in clouds.

  7. A Late Pleistocene sea level stack

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt Rachel M; Lisiecki Lorraine E

    2016-01-01

    Late Pleistocene sea level has been reconstructed from ocean sediment core data using a wide variety of proxies and models. However, the accuracy of individual reconstructions is limited by measurement error, local variations in salinity and temperature, and assumptions particular to each technique. Here we present a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of individual reconstructions. Specifically, we perform principal componen...

  8. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from 'H' and 'F' area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system

  9. Molecular Line Emission from Multifluid Shock Waves. I. Numerical Methods and Benchmark Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolek, Glenn E.; Roberge, Wayne G.

    2013-05-01

    We describe a numerical scheme for studying time-dependent, multifluid, magnetohydrodynamic shock waves in weakly ionized interstellar clouds and cores. Shocks are modeled as propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field and consist of a neutral molecular fluid plus a fluid of ions and electrons. The scheme is based on operator splitting, wherein time integration of the governing equations is split into separate parts. In one part, independent homogeneous Riemann problems for the two fluids are solved using Godunov's method. In the other, equations containing the source terms for transfer of mass, momentum, and energy between the fluids are integrated using standard numerical techniques. We show that, for the frequent case where the thermal pressures of the ions and electrons are Lt magnetic pressure, the Riemann problems for the neutral and ion-electron fluids have a similar mathematical structure which facilitates numerical coding. Implementation of the scheme is discussed and several benchmark tests confirming its accuracy are presented, including (1) MHD wave packets ranging over orders of magnitude in length- and timescales, (2) early evolution of multifluid shocks caused by two colliding clouds, and (3) a multifluid shock with mass transfer between the fluids by cosmic-ray ionization and ion-electron recombination, demonstrating the effect of ion mass loading on magnetic precursors of MHD shocks. An exact solution to an MHD Riemann problem forming the basis for an approximate numerical solver used in the homogeneous part of our scheme is presented, along with derivations of the analytic benchmark solutions and tests showing the convergence of the numerical algorithm.

  10. MOLECULAR LINE EMISSION FROM MULTIFLUID SHOCK WAVES. I. NUMERICAL METHODS AND BENCHMARK TESTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciolek, Glenn E.; Roberge, Wayne G.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a numerical scheme for studying time-dependent, multifluid, magnetohydrodynamic shock waves in weakly ionized interstellar clouds and cores. Shocks are modeled as propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field and consist of a neutral molecular fluid plus a fluid of ions and electrons. The scheme is based on operator splitting, wherein time integration of the governing equations is split into separate parts. In one part, independent homogeneous Riemann problems for the two fluids are solved using Godunov's method. In the other, equations containing the source terms for transfer of mass, momentum, and energy between the fluids are integrated using standard numerical techniques. We show that, for the frequent case where the thermal pressures of the ions and electrons are << magnetic pressure, the Riemann problems for the neutral and ion-electron fluids have a similar mathematical structure which facilitates numerical coding. Implementation of the scheme is discussed and several benchmark tests confirming its accuracy are presented, including (1) MHD wave packets ranging over orders of magnitude in length- and timescales, (2) early evolution of multifluid shocks caused by two colliding clouds, and (3) a multifluid shock with mass transfer between the fluids by cosmic-ray ionization and ion-electron recombination, demonstrating the effect of ion mass loading on magnetic precursors of MHD shocks. An exact solution to an MHD Riemann problem forming the basis for an approximate numerical solver used in the homogeneous part of our scheme is presented, along with derivations of the analytic benchmark solutions and tests showing the convergence of the numerical algorithm.

  11. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuel Economy Testing at the U.S. EPA National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (SAE Paper 2004-01-2900)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their new technology has created the need for development of new fuel economy test procedures and safety procedures during testing. The United States Environmental Protection Agency-National Vehicle Fuels and Emissions Laborato...

  12. Validation test for CAP88 predictions of tritium dispersion at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelotti, Erika; Green, Andrew; Whicker, Jeffrey; Eisele, William; Fuehne, David; McNaughton, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Gaussian plume models, such as CAP88, are used regularly for estimating downwind concentrations from stack emissions. At many facilities, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) requires that CAP88 be used to demonstrate compliance with air quality regulations for public protection from emissions of radionuclides. Gaussian plume models have the advantage of being relatively simple and their use pragmatic; however, these models are based on simplifying assumptions and generally they are not capable of incorporating dynamic meteorological conditions or complex topography. These limitations encourage validation tests to understand the capabilities and limitations of the model for the specific application. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has complex topography but is required to use CAP88 for compliance with the Clean Air Act Subpart H. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the CAP88 predictions against ambient air measurements using released tritium as a tracer. Stack emissions of tritium from two LANL stacks were measured and the dispersion modeled with CAP88 using local meteorology. Ambient air measurements of tritium were made at various distances and directions from the stacks. Model predictions and ambient air measurements were compared over the course of a full year's data. Comparative results were consistent with other studies and showed the CAP88 predictions of downwind tritium concentrations were on average about three times higher than those measured, and the accuracy of the model predictions were generally more consistent for annual averages than for bi-weekly data.

  13. 75 FR 68575 - Revisions To In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... later model year vehicles when operated under a wide range of real world driving conditions.\\1\\ The... ``data driven'' emission measurement allowances through a comprehensive research, development, and... Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and Instrumentation; Not-to-Exceed Emission Standards; and Technical...

  14. 75 FR 68448 - Revisions to In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... later model year vehicles when operated under a wide range of real world driving conditions.\\1\\ The... diesel engines (through the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA)) to develop ``data driven'' emission... Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and Instrumentation; Not-to-Exceed Emission Standards; and Technical...

  15. Investigation of palm methyl-ester bio-diesel with additive on performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine under 8-mode testing cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Senthilkumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is receiving increasing attention each passing day because of its same diesel-like fuel properties and compatibility with petroleum-based diesel fueled engines. Therefore, in this paper the prospects and opportunities of using various blends of methyl esters of palm oil as fuel in an engine with and without the effect of multi-functional fuel additive (MFA, Multi DM 32 are studied to arrive at an optimum blend of bio-diesel best suited for low emissions and minimal power drop. Experimental tests were conducted on a four stroke, three cylinder and naturally aspirated D.I. Diesel engine with diesel and various blend percentages of 20%, 40%, 45%, and 50% under the 8 mode testing cycle. The effect of fuel additive was tested out on the optimum blend ratio of the bio-diesel so as to achieve further reduced emissions. Comparison of results shows that, 73% reduction in hydrocarbon emission, 46% reduction in carbon monoxide emission, and around 1% reduction in carbon dioxide emission characteristics. So it is observed that the blend ratio of 40% bio-diesel with MFA fuel additive creates reduced emission and minimal power drop due to effective combustion even when the calorific value is comparatively lower due to its higher cetane number.

  16. Influence of Stacking Fault Energy (SFE) on the deformation mode of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Van Renterghem, W.; Al Mazouzi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The sensibility to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of stainless steels in light water reactor (LWR) can be caused by the localisation of deformation that takes place in these materials. Dislocation channelling and twinning modes of deformation can induce localised plasticity leading to failure. Stacking fault energy (SFE) plays an important role in every process of plastic deformation behaviour, especially in twinning and dislocation channelling. In order to correlate localised deformation with stacking fault energy, this parameter has been experimentally determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) using both dislocation node and multiple ribbons methods after compression in three different model alloys. Detailed deformation behaviour of three fabricated alloys with different stacking fault energy before and after tensile tests at temperatures from -150 deg C to 300 deg C, will be shown and discussed based on mechanical test and TEM observation. (authors)

  17. Guanine base stacking in G-quadruplex nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2013-01-01

    G-quadruplexes constitute a class of nucleic acid structures defined by stacked guanine tetrads (or G-tetrads) with guanine bases from neighboring tetrads stacking with one another within the G-tetrad core. Individual G-quadruplexes can also stack with one another at their G-tetrad interface leading to higher-order structures as observed in telomeric repeat-containing DNA and RNA. In this study, we investigate how guanine base stacking influences the stability of G-quadruplexes and their stacked higher-order structures. A structural survey of the Protein Data Bank is conducted to characterize experimentally observed guanine base stacking geometries within the core of G-quadruplexes and at the interface between stacked G-quadruplex structures. We couple this survey with a systematic computational examination of stacked G-tetrad energy landscapes using quantum mechanical computations. Energy calculations of stacked G-tetrads reveal large energy differences of up to 12 kcal/mol between experimentally observed geometries at the interface of stacked G-quadruplexes. Energy landscapes are also computed using an AMBER molecular mechanics description of stacking energy and are shown to agree quite well with quantum mechanical calculated landscapes. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a structural explanation for the experimentally observed preference of parallel G-quadruplexes to stack in a 5′–5′ manner based on different accessible tetrad stacking modes at the stacking interfaces of 5′–5′ and 3′–3′ stacked G-quadruplexes. PMID:23268444

  18. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site

  19. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site.

  20. New research assessing the effect of engine operating conditions on regulated emissions of a 4-stroke motorcycle by test bench measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iodice, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.iodice@unina.it; Senatore, Adolfo

    2016-11-15

    In the latest years the effect of powered two-wheelers on air polluting emissions is generally noteworthy all over the world, notwithstanding advances in internal combustion engines allowed to reduce considerably both fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of SI engines. Nowadays, in fact, these vehicles represent common means of quotidian moving, serving to meet daily urban transport necessities with a significant environmental impact on air quality. Besides, the emissive behavior of the two-wheelers measured under fixed legislative driving standards (and not on the local driving conditions) might not be sufficiently representative of real world motorcycle riding. The purpose of this investigation is a deeper research on emissive levels of in-use motorcycles equipped with last generation SI engines under real world driving behavior. In order to analyze the effect of vehicle instantaneous speed and acceleration on emissive behavior, instantaneous emissions of CO, HC and NO{sub X} were measured in the exhaust of a four-stroke motorcycle, equipped with a three-way catalyst and belonging to the Euro-3 legislative category. Experimental tests were executed on a chassis dynamometer bench in the laboratories of the National Research Council (Italy), during the Type Approval test cycle, at constant speed and under real-world driving cycles. This analytical-experimental investigation was executed with a methodology that improves vehicles emission assessment in comparison with the modeling approaches that are based on fixed legislative driving standards. The statistical processing results so obtained are very useful also in order to improve the database of emission models commonly used for estimating emissions from road transport sector, then they can be used to evaluate the environmental impact of last generation medium-size motorcycles under real driving behaviors.