WorldWideScience

Sample records for stack design methods

  1. Computerized method and system for designing an aerodynamic focusing lens stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Eric [San Francisco, CA; Riot, Vincent [Oakland, CA; Coffee, Keith [Diablo Grande, CA; Woods, Bruce [Livermore, CA; Tobias, Herbert [Kensington, CA; Birch, Jim [Albany, CA; Weisgraber, Todd [Brentwood, CA

    2011-11-22

    A computerized method and system for designing an aerodynamic focusing lens stack, using input from a designer related to, for example, particle size range to be considered, characteristics of the gas to be flowed through the system, the upstream temperature and pressure at the top of a first focusing lens, the flow rate through the aerodynamic focusing lens stack equivalent at atmosphere pressure; and a Stokes number range. Based on the design parameters, the method and system determines the total number of focusing lenses and their respective orifice diameters required to focus the particle size range to be considered, by first calculating for the orifice diameter of the first focusing lens in the Stokes formula, and then using that value to determine, in iterative fashion, intermediate flow values which are themselves used to determine the orifice diameters of each succeeding focusing lens in the stack design, with the results being output to a designer. In addition, the Reynolds numbers associated with each focusing lens as well as exit nozzle size may also be determined to enhance the stack design.

  2. The Methods of Design and Implementation of Stack Filters for Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marchevsky

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a large class of nonlinear digital filters, the stack filters, which contain all combinations and compositions of rank order operators within a finite window. Attention is given to design and effective hardware implementation of an optimal stack filter for image processing. Presented simulation results confirm robustness of stack filters in the image restoration corrupted by impulsive noise.

  3. Laser pulse stacking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  4. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  5. Design Handbook for a Stack Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuominen, Vilma

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was made for Citec Engineering Oy Ab as a handbook and as a design tool for concrete structure designers. Handbook is about the Wärtsilä Power Plant stack structure, which is a base for about 40 meters high stack pipe. The purpose is to make a calculation base to support the design work, which helps the designer to check the right dimensions of the structure. Thesis is about to be for the concrete designers and also other designers and authorities. As an example I have used an...

  6. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from 'H' and 'F' area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system

  7. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-11-06

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks.

  8. A novel design for solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Qattan, A.M.; Chmielewski, D.J.; Al-Hallaj, S.; Selman, J.R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Conventional fuel cell stack designs suffer from severe spatial nonuniformity in both temperature and current density. Such variations are known to create damaging thermal stresses within the stack and thus, impact overall lifespan. In this work, we propose a novel stack design aimed at reducing spatial variations at the source. We propose a mechanism of distributed fuel feed in which the heat generation profile can be influenced directly. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed scheme. (author)

  9. Design and development of an automated uranium pellet stacking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, B.S.; Nokleby, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    A novel design for an automated uranium pellet stacking system is presented. This system is designed as a drop-in solution to the current production line to enhance the fuel pellet stacking process. The three main goals of this system are to reduce worker exposure to radiation to as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA), improve product quality, and increase productivity. The proposed system will reduce the potential for human error. This single automated system will replace the two existing pellet stacking stations while increasing the total output, eliminating pellet stacking as a bottleneck in the fuel bundle assembly process. (author)

  10. Continued SOFC cell and stack technology and improved production methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandel, M.; Brodersen, K.; Phair, J. (and others)

    2009-05-15

    Within this project significant results are obtained on a number of very diverse areas ranging from development of cell production, metallic creep in interconnect to assembling and test of stacks with foot print larger than 500 cm2. Out of 38 milestones 28 have been fulfilled and 10 have been partly fulfilled. This project has focused on three main areas: 1) The continued cell development and optimization of manufacturing processes aiming at production of large foot-print cells, improving cell performance and development environmentally more benign production methods. 2) Stack technology - especially stacks with large foot print and improving the stack design with respect to flow geometry and gas leakages. 3) Development of stack components with emphasis on sealing (for 2G as well as 3G), interconnect (coat, architecture and creep) and test development. Production of cells with a foot print larger than 500 cm2 is very difficult due to the brittleness of the cells and great effort has been put into this topic. Eight cells were successfully produced making it possible to assemble and test a real stack thereby giving valuable results on the prospects of stacks with large foot print. However, the yield rate is very low and a significant development to increase this yield lies ahead. Several lessons were learned on the stack level regarding 'large foot print' stacks. Modelling studies showed that the width of the cell primarily is limited by production and handling of the cell whereas the length (in the flow direction) is limited by e.g. pressure drop and necessary manifolding. The optimal cell size in the flow direction was calculated to be between approx20 cm and < 30 cm. From an economical point of view the production yield is crucial and stacks with large foot print cell area are only feasible if the cell production yield is significantly enhanced. Co-casting has been pursued as a production technique due to the possibilities in large scale production

  11. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for sampling stack gases emanating from the purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion cascade system utilized to enrich uranium for determining the presence and extent of uranium in the stack gases in the form of gaseous uranium hexafluoride, is described comprising the steps of removing a side stream of gases from the stack gases, contacting the side stream of the stack gases with a stream of air sufficiently saturated with moisture for reacting with and converting any gaseous uranium hexafluroide contracted thereby in the side stream of stack gases to particulate uranyl fluoride. Thereafter contacting the side stream of stack gases containing the particulate uranyl fluoride with moving filter means for continuously intercepting and conveying the intercepted particulate uranyl fluoride away from the side stream of stack gases, and continually scanning the moving filter means with radiation monitoring means for sensing the presence and extent of particulate uranyl fluoride on the moving filter means which is indicative of the extent of particulate uranyl fluoride in the side stream of stack gases which in turn is indicative of the presence and extent of uranium hexafluoride in the stack gases

  12. Development of a Three Dimensional Neural Sensing Device by a Stacking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a new stacking method for assembling a 3-D microprobe array. To date, 3-D array structures have usually been assembled with vertical spacers, snap fasteners and a supporting platform. Such methods have achieved 3-D structures but suffer from complex assembly steps, vertical interconnection for 3-D signal transmission, low structure strength and large implantable opening. By applying the proposed stacking method, the previous techniques could be replaced by 2-D wire bonding. In this way, supporting platforms with slots and vertical spacers were no longer needed. Furthermore, ASIC chips can be substituted for the spacers in the stacked arrays to achieve system integration, design flexibility and volume usage efficiency. To avoid overflow of the adhesive fluid during assembly, an anti-overflow design which made use of capillary action force was applied in the stacking method as well. Moreover, presented stacking procedure consumes only 35 minutes in average for a 4 × 4 3-D microprobe array without requiring other specially made assembly tools. To summarize, the advantages of the proposed stacking method for 3-D array assembly include simplified assembly process, high structure strength, smaller opening area and integration ability with active circuits. This stacking assembly technique allows an alternative method to create 3-D structures from planar components.

  13. Thermoacoustic design using stem of goose down stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farikhah, Irna; Ristanto, Sigit; Idrus, Hadiyati; Kaltsum, Ummi; Faisal, Affandi; Setiawan, Ihsan; Setio Utomo, Agung Bambang

    2012-09-01

    Many refrigerators using CFC as a refrigerant are seen as the cause of the depletion of ozone. Hence, thermoacoustic was chosen as an alternative refrigerator that safe for environment. There are many variable that influenced the optimization of thermoacoustic design. One of them is thermal conductivity of material of stack. The Stack material must have a low thermal conductivity. In this research we used organic stack made of stem of goose down. It has superior thermal insulating. It means that they have the lowest thermal conductivity. The system uses no refrigerant or compressor, and the only mechanical moving part is the loudspeaker connected to a signal generator that produces the acoustic. The working fluid is air and the material of resonator is stainless steel. A series test on the laboratory found that there is a decrease of 5°C in temperature for about 2 minutes.

  14. From the components to the stack. Developing and designing 5kW HT-PEFC stacks; Von der Komponente zum Stack. Entwicklung und Auslegung von HT-PEFC-Stacks der 5 kW-Klasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendzulla, Anne

    2010-12-22

    The aim of the present project is to develop a stack design for a 5-kW HTPEFC system. First, the state of the art of potential materials and process designs will be discussed for each component. Then, using this as a basis, three potential stack designs with typical attributes will be developed and assessed in terms of practicality with the aid of a specially derived evaluation method. Two stack designs classified as promising will be discussed in detail, constructed and then characterized using short stack tests. Comparing the stack designs reveals that both designs are fundamentally suitable for application in a HT-PEFC system with on-board supply. However, some of the performance data differ significantly for the two stack designs. The preferred stack design for application in a HT-PEFC system is characterized by robust operating behaviour and reproducible high-level performance data. Moreover, in compact constructions (120 W/l at 60 W/kg), the stack design allows flexible cooling with thermal oil or air, which can be adapted to suit specific applications. Furthermore, a defined temperature gradient can be set during operation, allowing the CO tolerance to be increased by up to 10 mV. The short stack design developed within the scope of the present work therefore represents an ideal basis for developing a 5-kW HT-PEFC system. Topics for further research activities include improving the performance by reducing weight and/or volume, as well as optimizing the heat management. The results achieved within the framework of this work clearly show that HTPEFC stacks have the potential to play a decisive role in increasing efficiency in the future, particularly when combined with an on-board supply system. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Entwicklung eines Stackkonzeptes fuer ein 5 kW-HT-PEFC System. Dazu wird zunaechst fuer jede Komponente der Stand der Technik moeglicher Materialien und Prozesskonzepte diskutiert. Darauf aufbauend werden drei

  15. Physically Connected Stacked Patch Antenna Design with 100% Bandwidth

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    Typically, stacked patch antennas are parasitically coupled and provide larger bandwidth than a single patch antenna. Here, we show a stacked patch antenna design where square patches with semi-circular cutouts are physically connected to each other. This arrangement provides 100% bandwidth from 23.9–72.2 GHz with consistent high gain (5 dBi or more) across the entire bandwidth. In another variation, a single patch loaded with a superstrate provides 83.5% bandwidth from 25.6–62.3 GHz. The mechanism of bandwidth enhancement is explained through electromagnetic simulations. Measured reflection coefficient, radiation patterns and gain results confirm the extremely wideband performance of the design.

  16. Basic design parameters for the new PRR-1 stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopando, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of work done to establish the basic design parameters of the new stack of the Philippine Research Reactor-1 (PRR-1). The work was undertaken to assure that the radioactive air emissions of the PRR-1, under both accident and normal operating conditions, will comply with modern safety practices. The work was done during June and July 1994. (author). 6 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs

  17. Optimization Design of Bipolar Plate Flow Field in PEM Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; He, Kanghao; Li, Peilong; Yang, Lei; Deng, Li; Jiang, Fei; Yao, Yong

    2017-12-01

    A new design of bipolar plate flow field in proton exchange membrane (PEM) stack was presented to develop a high-performance transfer efficiency of the two-phase flow. Two different flow fields were studied by using numerical simulations and the performance of the flow fields was presented. the hydrodynamic properties include pressure gap between inlet and outlet, the Reynold’s number of the two types were compared based on the Navier–Stokes equations. Computer aided optimization software was implemented in the design of experiments of the preferable flow field. The design of experiments (DOE) for the favorable concept was carried out to study the hydrodynamic properties when changing the design parameters of the bipolar plate.

  18. Element stacking method for topology optimization with material-dependent boundary and loading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Park, Y.K.; Kim, Y.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A new topology optimization scheme, called the element stacking method, is developed to better handle design optimization involving material-dependent boundary conditions and selection of elements of different types. If these problems are solved by existing standard approaches, complicated finite...

  19. Improved exact method for the double TSP with multiple stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The Double TSP with Multiple Stacks is a logistics problem where one must, using a container, transport a given number of orders from a set of pickup customers to a set of delivery customers at minimum cost. Each order corresponds to the movement of one pallet, all pickups must be completed before...... the first delivery, and the container cannot be repacked once packed. In this paper we improve the previously proposed exact method of Lusby et al. (Int Trans Oper Res 17 (2010), 637–652) through an additional preprocessing technique that uses the longest common subsequence between the respective pickup...... and delivery problems. The results suggest an impressive improvement, and we report, for the first time, optimal solutions to several unsolved instances from the literature containing 18 customers. Instances with 28 customers are also shown to be solvable within a few percent of optimality. © 2011 Wiley...

  20. Planar SOFC technology: stack design and development for lower cost and manufacturability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyke, S.H.; Howard, P.J.; Leah, R.T.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to examine the performance of an externally manifolded solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack based on a planar, anode-supported cells geometry, and to develop sealing materials and a design for a SOFC stack for potential low cost manufacture. The testing of short stacks, the development of innovative glass-ceramic sealing materials, and the development of an SOFC model to assess cell performance are described along with the development of a new stack geometry based on an internally manifolded geometry.

  1. A new method for beam stacking in storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    Recently, I developed a new beam stacking scheme for synchrotron storage rings called 'longitudinal phase-space coating' (LPSC). This scheme has been convincingly validated by multi-particle beam dynamics simulations and has been demonstrated with beam experiments at the Fermilab Recycler. Here, I present the results from both simulations and experiments. The beam stacking scheme presented here is the first of its kind.

  2. Very Weak Signals (VWS detected by stacking method according to different astronomical periodicities (HiCum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Ruymbeke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A stacking method to detect very weak signals is introduced in this paper. This method is to stack observed data in different well known periodicities according to the astronomical clock since majority geophysical observations are time based. We validated this method by applying it in four different cases. Interactions behind the observed parameters become obviously after it is stacked in two diurnal and semidiurnal tidal periodical waves. Amplitude and phase variations will be also measurable when a sliding windows stacking is used. This could be an important reference to find precursors before some earthquakes and volcanic events, corresponding to attenuations of medium patterns.

  3. Model and Design of a Power Driver for Piezoelectric Stack Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaberge M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A power driver has been developed to control piezoelectric stack actuators used in automotive application. An FEM model of the actuator has been implemented starting from experimental characterization of the stack and mechanical and piezoelectric parameters. Experimental results are reported to show a correct piezoelectric actuator driving method and the possibility to obtain a sensorless positioning control.

  4. DBADOSE: a PC program for stack design and the PRR-1 design basis accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopando, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    DBA D OSE is a program written to be used as a tool to verify the adequacy of the design of the stack of the Philippine Research Reactor-1 (PRR-1) under design basis accident conditions. DBA D OSE runs on IBM-compatible personal computers. In the design basis accident, a substantial amount of fission products is released into the air inside the reactor building. The emergency ventilation system is assumed to function, creating a negative air pressure inside the building that will prevent the uncontrolled release of fission products into the atmosphere. The emergency ventilation system will drive filtered building air through a stack to create the negative pressure. Unavoidably, some of the fission products will pass through the filter and will be discharged. The fission products will be carried by the wind beyond the reactor site and will cause some exposure of the public to radiation. DBA D OSE may be used to calculate the amounts of exposure dose for various stack configurations and meteorological conditions at given distances from the reactor. The exposure doses may be compared with acceptable limits. The source code of DBA D OSE contains approximately 3000 lines of FORTRAN-77 (written for the Microsoft Fortran 4.10 compiler) and 300 lines of assembler. DBA D OSE.EXE is only 58 kB in size and needs only about 71 kB of RAM to run. A math-coprocessor is not needed but will speed up runs considerably. (author). 8 refs., 8 tabs

  5. Production and Reliability Oriented SOFC Cell and Stack Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauth, Martin; Lawlor, Vincent; Cartellieri, Peter

    2017-01-01

    established. The probabilistic models were related to the experimentally obtained properties of base materials to establish a statistical relationship between the material properties and the most relevant load effects. Software algorithms for meta models that allow the detection of relationships between input...... in production, material and operating parameters for the optimization phase. A methodology for 3D description of spatial distribution of material properties based on a random field models was developed and validated by experiments. Homogenized material models on multiple levels of the SOFC stack were...

  6. A method of measuring stacked objects volume based on laser sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qijie; Wu, Yijing; Li, Xianfa; Xu, Jiao; Meng, Qingxu

    2017-10-01

    Stacked objects volume measurement is now widely used in the fields of enterprise material management. It is significant to improve the efficiency of enterprise management and to reduce the cost of management and operation. The method based on laser sensing is one of the key methods to measure the stacked objects volume. This paper presents a laser sensing measurement method of stacked objects based on bottom plane extraction and real-time calibration. A calibration method for a laser scanning sensor and inertial measurement sensor is proposed. Three-dimensional reconstructions of stacked objects and volume calculations are carried out after acquisition and processing of point clouds. Volume measurement experiments of the single box and stacked boxes have been conducted respectively. Experimental results show that the measurement method is feasible and valid with good accuracy.

  7. An Exact Method for the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ehrgott, Matthias

    The double travelling salesman problem with multiple stacks (DTSPMS) is a pickup and delivery problem in which all pickups must be completed before any deliveries can be made. The problem originates from a real-life application where a 40 foot container (configured as 3 columns of 11 rows) is used...

  8. An Exact Method for the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The double travelling salesman problem with multiple stacks (DTSPMS) is a pickup and delivery problem in which all pickups must be completed before any deliveries can be made. The problem originates from a real-life application where a 40 foot container (configured as 3 columns of 11 rows) is used...

  9. The SBOL Stack: A Platform for Storing, Publishing, and Sharing Synthetic Biology Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Curtis; McLaughlin, James Alastair; Mısırlı, Göksel; Pocock, Matthew; Flanagan, Keith; Hallinan, Jennifer; Wipat, Anil

    2016-06-17

    Recently, synthetic biologists have developed the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a data exchange standard for descriptions of genetic parts, devices, modules, and systems. The goals of this standard are to allow scientists to exchange designs of biological parts and systems, to facilitate the storage of genetic designs in repositories, and to facilitate the description of genetic designs in publications. In order to achieve these goals, the development of an infrastructure to store, retrieve, and exchange SBOL data is necessary. To address this problem, we have developed the SBOL Stack, a Resource Description Framework (RDF) database specifically designed for the storage, integration, and publication of SBOL data. This database allows users to define a library of synthetic parts and designs as a service, to share SBOL data with collaborators, and to store designs of biological systems locally. The database also allows external data sources to be integrated by mapping them to the SBOL data model. The SBOL Stack includes two Web interfaces: the SBOL Stack API and SynBioHub. While the former is designed for developers, the latter allows users to upload new SBOL biological designs, download SBOL documents, search by keyword, and visualize SBOL data. Since the SBOL Stack is based on semantic Web technology, the inherent distributed querying functionality of RDF databases can be used to allow different SBOL stack databases to be queried simultaneously, and therefore, data can be shared between different institutes, centers, or other users.

  10. Design and experimental characterization of a 350 W High Temperature PEM fuel cell stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Zuliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HT PEM fuel cell based on polybenzimidazole (PBI polymer and phosphoric acid, can be operated at temperature between 120 °C and 180 °C. Reactants humidification is not required and CO content up to 2% in the fuel can be tolerated, affecting only marginally performance. This is what makes HT PEM very attractive, as low quality reformed hydrogen can be used and water management problems are avoided. Till nowadays, from experimental point of view, only few studies relate to the development and characterization of high temperature stacks. The aim of this work is to present the main design features and the performance curves of a 25 cells HT PEM stack based on PBI and phosphoric acid membranes. Performance curves refer to the stack operating with two type of fuels: pure hydrogen and a gas mixture simulating a typical steam reformer output. The stack voltage distribution analysis and the stack temperature distribution analysis suggest that cathode air could be used as coolant leading to a better thermal management. This could simplify stack design and system BOP, thus increasing system performance.

  11. Design and analysis of the PBFA-Z vacuum insulator stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, R.W.; Long, F.; Martin, T.H.; Stygar, W.A.; Spielman, R.B.; Struve, K.W.; Mostrom, M.; Corcoran, P.; Smith, I.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia is developing PBFA-Z, a 20-MA driver for z-pinch experiments by replacing the water lines, insulator stack, and MITLs on PBFA II with new hardware. The design of the vacuum insulator stack was dictated by the drive voltage, the electric field stress and grading requirements, the water line and MITL interface requirements, and the machine operations and maintenance requirements. The insulator stack will consist of four separate modules, each of a different design because of different voltage drive and hardware interface requirements. The shape of the components in each module, i.e., grading rings, insulator rings, flux excluders, anode and cathode conductors, and the design of the water line and MITL interfaces, were optimized by using the electrostatic analysis codes, ELECTRO and JASON. The time-dependent performance of the insulator stack was evaluated using IVORY, a 2-D PIC code. The insulator stack design and present the results of the ELECTRO and IVORY analyses are described. (author). 2 tabs., 9 figs., 3 refs

  12. A new method to determine earthquake depth: stacking multiple-station autocorrelogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Tian, D.; Wen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate determination of source depth of the earthquakes in the crust is still challenging, because of our imperfect knowledge of velocity structure and unclear depth phase of the earthquakes. We develop a new method to determine earthquake source depth, based on stacking multiple-station autocorrelogram (SMAC). We determine source depth using both direct SH wave and its coda. In coda wave interferometry, the stacking of the cross-correlograms of two earthquake coda can be treated as the Green's function from one earthquake to the other. The stacking of the autocorrelograms of an earthquake coda can thus be treated as the Green's function from the earthquake to itself. By stacking autocorrelograms of SH wave coda recorded at each station, we retrieve the surface reflection from the source and back to the source, which is used to determine the source depth. In the stacking of direct wave autocorrelograms, the time difference between the surface reflection and the main wave would depend on source depth, Moho depth and epicentral distance. We derive travel time difference between the surface reflection and the main SH wave by grid-searching those parameters. The autocorrelograms are stacked along the theoretical travel times predicted based on each source depth, Moho depth and epicentral distance. The source depth in the set of the parameters that gives the most prominent stacking energy is regarded as the best-fitting source depth. We demonstrate the validity of SMAC in both synthetics and actual data for an earthquake occurring in Japan Island.

  13. Frequency domain method for the stack of seismic and radar data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H.; Sato, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Xu, S.

    1997-10-22

    With relation to the stacking method of elastic wave and radar wave, the frequency domain stacking method using the Fourier conversion was proposed as a method for automatically removing errors in time correction leaving advantages of the conventional horizontal stacking method. Concerning an example of wave motion with the same wave form and time difference, as a result of the analysis conducted by this method, it was found that not only effects are kept of suppressing random noise and regular noise in the conventional horizontal stacking method, but the resolution in the original wave motion data is kept. In the example, amplitude of the noise was a half of the wave motion signal, but if it is more than 0.85 times of the wave motion signal, favorable result cannot be obtained in this method. In the analysis in the area where time correction is very difficult and the correction cannot be made completely, it is useful also for the time domain stacking method to acquire data on high resolution of elastic wave and radar wave. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  14. A new method for the characterisation and quantitative speciation of base metal smelter stack particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeaff, James M; Thibault, Yves; Hardy, David J

    2011-06-01

    Base metal smelters may be a source of particulates containing metals of environmental concern released to the atmosphere. Knowledge of the quantitative chemical speciation of particulate releases from base metal smelters will be of value in smelter emission fingerprinting, site-specific risk assessments, predictions of the behaviour of smelter stack particulates released to the environment and in resolving liability issues related to current and historic releases. Accordingly, we have developed an innovative approach comprising bulk chemical analysis, a leaching procedure, X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy/electron probe microanalysis characterisation in a step-wise apportioning procedure to derive the quantitative speciation of particulate samples from the stacks of three copper smelters designated as A, B and C. For the A smelter stack particulates, the major calculated percentages were 29 CuSO(4), 20 ZnSO(4).H(2)O, 13 (Cu(0.94)Zn(0.06))(2)(AsO(4))(OH), 11 PbSO(4) and four As(2)O(3). For the B smelter stack particulates, the primary calculated percentages were 20 ZnSO(4).H(2)O, 20 PbSO(4), 12 CuSO(4) and nine As(2)O(3). Finally, we calculated that the C smelter stack particulates mostly comprised 34 ZnSO(4).H(2)O, 19 (Cu(0.84)Zn(0.16))(AsO(3)OH), 11 PbSO(4), 10 As(2)O(3) and nine Zn(3)(AsO(4))(2). Between 56% and 67% by weight of the smelter stack particulates, including the As, was soluble in water. For these and other operations, the data and approach may be useful in estimating metals partitioning among water, soil and sediment, as well as predictions of the effects of the stack particulates released to the environment.

  15. A Force Sensorless Method for CFRP/Ti Stack Interface Detection during Robotic Orbital Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastics and titanium (CFRP/Ti stacks is one of the most important activities in aircraft assembly. It is favorable to use different drilling parameters for each layer due to their dissimilar machining properties. However, large aircraft parts with changing profiles lead to variation of thickness along the profiles, which makes it challenging to adapt the cutting parameters for different materials being drilled. This paper proposes a force sensorless method based on cutting force observer for monitoring the thrust force and identifying the drilling material during the drilling process. The cutting force observer, which is the combination of an adaptive disturbance observer and friction force model, is used to estimate the thrust force. An in-process algorithm is developed to monitor the variation of the thrust force for detecting the stack interface between the CFRP and titanium materials. Robotic orbital drilling experiments have been conducted on CFRP/Ti stacks. The estimate error of the cutting force observer was less than 13%, and the stack interface was detected in 0.25 s (or 0.05 mm before or after the tool transited it. The results show that the proposed method can successfully detect the CFRP/Ti stack interface for the cutting parameters adaptation.

  16. A stacked sequential learning method for investigator name recognition from web-based medical articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George

    2010-01-01

    "Investigator Names" is a newly required field in MEDLINE citations. It consists of personal names listed as members of corporate organizations in an article. Extracting investigator names automatically is necessary because of the increasing volume of articles reporting collaborative biomedical research in which a large number of investigators participate. In this paper, we present an SVM-based stacked sequential learning method in a novel application - recognizing named entities such as the first and last names of investigators from online medical journal articles. Stacked sequential learning is a meta-learning algorithm which can boost any base learner. It exploits contextual information by adding the predicted labels of the surrounding tokens as features. We apply this method to tag words in text paragraphs containing investigator names, and demonstrate that stacked sequential learning improves the performance of a nonsequential base learner such as an SVM classifier.

  17. Application of Stacking Technique in ANA: Method and Practice with PKU Seismological Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Tang, Y.; Ning, J.; Chen, Y. J.

    2010-12-01

    Cross correlation of ambient noise records is now routinely used to get dispersion curve and then do seismic tomography; however little attention has been paid to array techniques. We will present a spacial-stacking method to get high resolution dispersion curves and show practices with the observation data of PKU seismological array. Experiential Green Functions are generally obtained by correlation between two stations, and then the dispersion curves are obtained from the analysis of FTAN. Popular method to get high resolution dispersion curves is using long time records. At the same time, if we want to get effectual signal, the distance between the two stations must be at least 3 times of the longest wavelength. So we need both long time records and appropriate spaced stations. Now we use a new method, special-stacking, which allows shorter observation period and utilizes observations of a group of closely distributed stations to get fine dispersion curves. We correlate observations of every station in the station group with those of a far station, and then stack them together. However we cannot just simply stack them unless the stations in the station group at a circle, of which the center is the far station owing to dispersion characteristics of the Rayleigh waves. Thus we do antidispersion on the observation data of every station in the array, then do stacking. We test the method using the theoretical seismic surface wave records which obtained by qseis06 compiled by Rongjiang Wang both with and without noise. For the cases of three imaginary stations (distance is 1 degree) have the same underground structure and without noise, result is that the center station had the same dispersion with and without spacial-stacking. Then we add noise to the theoretical records. The center station's dispersion curves obtained by our method are much closer to the dispersion curve without noise than contaminated ones. We can see that our method has improved the resolution of

  18. A new method for earthquake depth determination: stacking multiple-station autocorrelograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Tian, Dongdong; Wen, Lianxing

    2014-05-01

    Accurate determination of earthquake depth is important, but particularly challenging. We develop a new method to determine the earthquake source depth by stacking multiple-station autocorrelograms (SMAC) of seismic data. The basic concept of SMAC method is to enhance the coherent surface reflected energy by autocorrelation and stacking, and uses the surface reflected energy to determine the source depth. Autocorrelation effectively enhances the energy of the seismic phases related to the source depth, while stacking the autocorrelograms of array data further improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the energy. The procedures are applied using both the main SH waves and the coda. Using coda waves, the method extracts the two-way traveltime between the source and the surface by stacking the coda wave autocorrelations over an array of seismic observations. Using the main SH waves, SMAC explores the interference of the down-going Moho reflected SmS wave and up-going surface bounced Moho reflected sSmS wave by autocorrelation. The autocorrelograms are then stacked along theoretical differential sSmS-SmS traveltime predicted for all potential source depths, and the source depth is determined to be the one that produces the maximum stacking energy. Synthetic tests demonstrate the validity of the SMAC procedures. As an example of application, we apply the SMAC method to determine the source depth of an earthquake occurring in Japan Island. The procedures of using both main SH waves and their coda waves yield robust surface reflected energy and a consistent source depth. The error of the depth estimation is less than 1 km assuming an uncertainty of 10 per cent in the averaged crust velocity.

  19. Digital processing method for monitoring the radioactivity of stack releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialettes, H.; Leblanc, P.; Perotin, J.P.; Lazou, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The digital processing method proposed is adapted for data supplied by a fixed-filter detector normally used for analogue processing (integrator system). On the basis of the raw data (pulses) from the detector, the technique makes it possible to determine the rate of activity released whereas analogue processing gives only the released activity. Furthermore, the method can be used to develop alarm systems on the basis of a possible exposure rate at the point of fall-out, and by including in the program a coefficient which allows for atmospheric diffusion conditions at any given time one can improve the accuracy of the results. In order to test the digital processing method and demonstrate its advantages over analogue processing, various atmospheric contamination situations were simulated in a glove-box and analysed simultaneously, using both systems, from the pulses transmitted by the same sampling and fixed-filter detection unit. The experimental results confirm the advantages foreseen in the theoretical research. (author)

  20. Numerical study on AC loss reduction of stacked HTS tapes by optimal design of flux diverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guole; Zhang, Guomin; Jing, Liwei; Yu, Hui

    2017-12-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) coils are key parts of many AC applications, such as generators, superconducting magnetic energy storage and transformers. AC loss reduction in HTS coils is essential for the commercialization of these HTS devices. Magnetic material is generally used as the flux diverter in an effort to reduce the AC loss in HTS coils. To achieve the greatest reduction in the AC loss of the coils, the flux diverter should be made of a material with low loss and high saturated magnetic density, and the optimization of the geometric size and location of the flux diverter is required. In this paper, we chose Ni-alloy as the flux diverter, which can be processed into a specific shape and size. The influence of the shape and location of the flux diverter on the AC loss characteristics of stacked (RE)BCO tapes is investigated by use of a finite element method. Taking both the AC loss of the (RE)BCO coils and the ferromagnetic loss of the flux diverter into account, the optimal geometry of the flux diverter is obtained. It is found that when the applied current is at half the value of the critical current, the total loss of the HTS stack with the optimal flux diverter is only 18% of the original loss of the HTS stack without the flux diverter. Besides, the effect of the flux diverter on the critical current of the (RE)BCO stack is investigated.

  1. 40 CFR 60.1300 - What test methods must I use to stack test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) to calculate emission levels at 7 percent oxygen (or an equivalent carbon dioxide basis), the percent... subpart. (c) Obtain an oxygen (or carbon dioxide) measurement at the same time as your pollutant... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What test methods must I use to stack...

  2. 40 CFR 62.15245 - What test methods must I use to stack test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission limits in tables 2 and 4 of this subpart. (c) Obtain an oxygen (or carbon dioxide) measurement at... equivalent carbon dioxide basis), the percent reduction in potential hydrogen chloride emissions, and the... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What test methods must I use to stack...

  3. Design procedure for millimeter-wave InP DHBT stacked power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squartecchia, Michele; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Midili, Virginio

    2015-01-01

    The stacked-transistor concept for power amplifiers (PA) has been investigated in this work. Specifically, this architecture has been applied in the design of millimeter-wave monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) using indium phosphide (InP) double heterojunction bipolar transistors...... (DHBTs). In this paper we describe the design methodology adopted and the results obtained at 86 GHz and 140 GHz. In the former case, 14.5 dBm of output power at the compression point, 14.5 dB of gain and 19.6 % of PAE are obtained from a four-transistor power cell. At 140 GHz, the same architecture...

  4. Design, fabrication and performance of a mixed-reactant membraneless micro direct methanol fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego-Martínez, J. C.; Moreno-Zuria, A.; Cuevas-Muñiz, F. M.; Arriaga, L. G.; Sun, Shuhui; Mohamedi, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, we report the design, fabrication and evaluation of a membraneless mixed-reactant and air-breathing microfluidic direct methanol fuel cell (ML-μDMFC) stack operated in passive mode. The operation under mixed-reactant conditions was achieved by using a highly methanol-tolerant Ag/Pt/CP cathode with ultra-low Pt loading in alkaline medium. Prior to the fabrication of the stack, a flow simulation was made in order to study the behavior of the reactants stream in the microchannel through the 2 cells. Subsequently, the device was tested in passive mode using a mixture of 5 M MeOH +0.5 M KOH. The results showed that by connecting the 2 cells in series, it is possible to effectively double the voltage of a single ML-μDMFC, as well as increasing the absolute power by 75% with practically no cost increase. The stack was capable of operate continuously for more than 2 h with a single charge of 40 μL, producing an OCV of 0.89 V and a maximum power density of 3.33 mW mgPt-1. Additionally, the device exhibited good stability throughout a 10 h test.

  5. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Wei-Hsiang; Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm × 6 cm × 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm × 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm -2 and 0.4 mg cm -2, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm -2 at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm -2 at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 °C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of parallel connected and

  6. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen-Yu.; Lai, Wei-Hsiang [Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701 (China); Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih [Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Materials and Electro-Optics Research Division, P.O. Box No. 90008-8-3 Lung-Tan, Tao-Yuan 325 (China)

    2008-04-15

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm x 6 cm x 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm x 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm{sup -2} and 0.4 mg cm{sup -2}, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm{sup -2} at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm{sup -2} at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of

  7. Choice of Design Variables in the Stacking Sequence Optimization for Laminated Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muc, A.

    2016-05-01

    A special type of new, continuous design variables is introduced in order to find optimum solutions for discrete fiber orientations. In the buckling analysis, as two or three different fiber orientations are considered, optimum solutions can be found in an analytical way. For a greater number of discrete fiber orientations, a special optimization algorithm based on the evolution strategy is used to solve the combinatorial optimization problems dealing with the optimum design of the laminate stacking sequence. The analysis is conducted with the example of simply supported rectangular multilayered composite plates subjected to buckling and the first-ply-failure constraints. The results demonstrate the effectiveness, simplicity, and advantages of the use of continuous design variables in the discrete optimization problem.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect 131I Measurement Methods from the Stack to Outdoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Suhariyono

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The radioisotope production facility at PUSPIPTEK Serpong produces and processes 131I that can disperse to the settlements (community and the environment around the Serpong Nuclear Area (SNA. 131I is produced routinely for medical uses in hospitals and pharmacies, for both domestic uses and export. 131I is a beta and gamma emitting radioactive material and can cause thyroid cancer. The problem was that there was so far no research and in-depth assessment of the aerial dispersion of 131I radioactivity emitted from the radioisotope production stack to the environment at actual conditions. The research was conducted through simultaneous measurement of 131I radioactivity in the stack of the 131I radioisotope production facility, Serpong, and outdoor in house courtyards around SNA in normal condition (no accident based on the variations of the distance and wind direction. Direct measurements were carried out with a portable in-situ NaI(Tl detector at outdoor, and with a LaBr3 detector in the stack. Indirect measurements were carried out by using charcoal filter and vacuum pump in the stack and outdoor. The direct measurement method has many advantages over the indirect measurement. The direct measurement method was found to be more accurate, less expensive, easier to operate, needing just one operator in its implementation, portable, and can be operated continuously and for long durations. The overall activity concentrations of 131I on average obtained by either direct or indirect method were still below the upper limit of 131I activity concentration in the air (530 Bq/m3 stipulated by the Regulation of the Chairman of BAPETEN (Perka BAPETEN No. 7/2013. 

  9. Seismic analysis, evaluation and upgrade design for a DOE exhaust stack building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, L.E.; Maryak, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    An exhaust stack building of a nuclear reactor facility with complex structural configuration has been analyzed and evaluated and retrofitted for seismic forces. The building was built in the 1950's and had not been designed to resist seismic forces. A rigorous analysis and evaluation program was implemented to minimize costly retrofits required to upgrade the building to resist high seismic forces. Seismic evaluations were performed for the building in its as-is configuration, and as modified for several upgrade schemes. Soil-structure-interaction, basemat flexibility and the influence of the nearby reactor building were considered in rigorous seismic analyses. These analyses and evaluations enabled limited upgrades to qualify the stack building for the seismic forces. Some of the major conclusions of this study are: (1) a phased approach of seismic analyses, utilizing simplified models to evaluate practicable upgrade schemes, and, then incorporating the most suitable scheme in a rigorous model to obtain design forces for upgrades, is an efficient and cost-effective approach for seismic qualification of nuclear facilities to higher seismic criteria; and, (2) finalizing the upgrade of a major nuclear facility is an iterative process, which continues throughout the construction of the upgrades

  10. Scaling of Engineered Vascular Grafts Using 3D Printed Guides and the Ring Stacking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Xu, Zhengfan; Lam, Mai T

    2017-03-27

    Coronary artery disease remains a leading cause of death, affecting millions of Americans. With the lack of autologous vascular grafts available, engineered grafts offer great potential for patient treatment. However, engineered vascular grafts are generally not easily scalable, requiring manufacture of custom molds or polymer tubes in order to customize to different sizes, constituting a time-consuming and costly practice. Human arteries range in lumen diameter from about 2.0-38 mm and in wall thickness from about 0.5-2.5 mm. We have created a method, termed the "Ring Stacking Method," in which variable size rings of tissue of the desired cell type, demonstrated here with vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), can be created using guides of center posts to control lumen diameter and outer shells to dictate vessel wall thickness. These tissue rings are then stacked to create a tubular construct, mimicking the natural form of a blood vessel. The vessel length can be tailored by simply stacking the number of rings required to constitute the length needed. With our technique, tissues of tubular forms, similar to a blood vessel, can be readily manufactured in a variety of dimensions and lengths to meet the needs of the clinic and patient.

  11. Intelligent inversion method for pre-stack seismic big data based on MapReduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Wu, Qinghua

    2018-01-01

    Seismic exploration is a method of oil exploration that uses seismic information; that is, according to the inversion of seismic information, the useful information of the reservoir parameters can be obtained to carry out exploration effectively. Pre-stack data are characterised by a large amount of data, abundant information, and so on, and according to its inversion, the abundant information of the reservoir parameters can be obtained. Owing to the large amount of pre-stack seismic data, existing single-machine environments have not been able to meet the computational needs of the huge amount of data; thus, the development of a method with a high efficiency and the speed to solve the inversion problem of pre-stack seismic data is urgently needed. The optimisation of the elastic parameters by using a genetic algorithm easily falls into a local optimum, which results in a non-obvious inversion effect, especially for the optimisation effect of the density. Therefore, an intelligent optimisation algorithm is proposed in this paper and used for the elastic parameter inversion of pre-stack seismic data. This algorithm improves the population initialisation strategy by using the Gardner formula and the genetic operation of the algorithm, and the improved algorithm obtains better inversion results when carrying out a model test with logging data. All of the elastic parameters obtained by inversion and the logging curve of theoretical model are fitted well, which effectively improves the inversion precision of the density. This algorithm was implemented with a MapReduce model to solve the seismic big data inversion problem. The experimental results show that the parallel model can effectively reduce the running time of the algorithm.

  12. Monitoring Mining Subsidence Using A Combination of Phase-Stacking and Offset-Tracking Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Hongdong; Gao, Xiaoxiong; Yang, Junkai; Deng, Kazhong; Yu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    An approach to study the mechanism of mining-induced subsidence, using a combination of phase-stacking and sub-pixel offset-tracking methods, is reported. In this method, land subsidence with a small deformation gradient was calculated using time-series differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (D-InSAR) data, whereas areas with greater subsidence were calculated by a sub-pixel offset-tracking method. With this approach, time-series data for mining subsidence were derived in Yuli...

  13. On-line and real-time diagnosis method for proton membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack by the superposition principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hyun; Kim, Jonghyeon; Yoo, Seungyeol

    2016-09-01

    The critical cell voltage drop in a stack can be followed by stack defect. A method of detecting defective cell is the cell voltage monitoring. The other methods are based on the nonlinear frequency response. In this paper, the superposition principle for the diagnosis of PEMFC stack is introduced. If critical cell voltage drops exist, the stack behaves as a nonlinear system. This nonlinearity can explicitly appear in the ohmic overpotential region of a voltage-current curve. To detect the critical cell voltage drop, a stack is excited by two input direct test-currents which have smaller amplitude than an operating stack current and have an equal distance value from the operating current. If the difference between one voltage excited by a test current and the voltage excited by a load current is not equal to the difference between the other voltage response and the voltage excited by the load current, the stack system acts as a nonlinear system. This means that there is a critical cell voltage drop. The deviation from the value zero of the difference reflects the grade of the system nonlinearity. A simulation model for the stack diagnosis is developed based on the SPP, and experimentally validated.

  14. Technology update: Nickel-hydrogen Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) 2.5V twin stack cell designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Tim; Miller, Lee

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the nickel hydrogen common pressure vessel (CPV) 2.5V twin stack cell designs. Information given includes an energy analysis, a CPV design comparison, a summary of CPV characterization testing, a comparison of discharge voltage among designs, and life test performance summaries.

  15. Comparison of 2-compartment, 3-compartment and stack designs for electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cell and stack designs for the electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from two harbour sediments, were made. Multivariate modelling showed that sediment properties and experimental set-ups had the highest influence on the heavy metal removal indicating that they should be modelled...... and analysed separately. Clean-up levels of Cu, Pb and Zn were significantly higher for the cell designs, implying that longer time and relatively more electric charge and energy would be necessary to achieve similar clean-up levels in the stack design experiments.In the studied experimental domain...

  16. Manufacturing of cells and stacks for SOFC development, test and demonstration projects and SOFC hotbox design development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this project is to support the continued SOFC development through manufacturing process optimization and manufacturing of SOFC cells and stacks. These cells and stacks will serve as a necessary base for the development activities and for the establishment of a number of test and demonstration activities. The manufacture will also help provide operating experience and reduce manufacturing cost. Another main focus of the manufacturing is to assure technical improvements and reliability. It is imperative to the eventual success of the technology that test and demonstration is carried out in the pre-market conditions that will exist for the next years in the three market segments targeted by TOFC (Distributed generation, micro CHP and APU incl. marine APU). Finally, the project also includes development activities focusing on the stack-system interface (hotbox design development) and on dealing with transients and start up and shut down times, which is of particular importance for APU and micro CHP applications. Three topics are addressed:1) Cell manufacture, including production development, capacity lift and manuf. of cells for test and demonstration; 2) Stack manufacture and test, including a test facility, stack manuf. and test of stacks in a system at HCV; 3) Hotbox design development, including design, prototype construction and testing. The progress of this project is documented. Major achievements are successful manufacture of adequate amounts of cells and stacks according to the application. Furthermore significant over-performance in design, construction and test of a methanol based hotbox prototype as well as publication of this. (au)

  17. Compact Design of 10 kW Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Systems with Microcontroller Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiaokang Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fuel, oxidant supply and cooling systems with microcontroller units (MCU are developed in a compact design to fit two 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stacks. At the initial stage, the testing facility of the system has a large volume (2.0 m × 2.0 m × 1.5 m with a longer pipeline and excessive control sensors for safe testing. After recognizing the performance and stability of stack, the system is redesigned to fit in a limited space (0.4 m × 0.5 m × 0.8 m. Furthermore, the stack performance is studied under different hydrogen recycling modes. Then, two similar 5 kW stacks are directly coupled with diodes to obtain a higher power output and safe operation. The result shows that the efficiency of the 5 kW stack is 43.46% with a purge period of 2 min with hydrogen recycling and that the hydrogen utilization rate µf is 66.31%. In addition, the maximum power output of the twin-coupled module (a power module with two stacks in electrical cascade/parallel arrangement is 9.52 kW.

  18. Detection of Small Sized GEO Debris Using FPGA Based Stacking Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Toshifumi; Hanada, Toshiya; Kurosaki, Hirohisa; Kitazawa, Yukihito; Uetsuhara, Masahiko; Kinoshita, Daisuke

    2012-07-01

    In order to detect faint moving objects such as space debris, asteroids and comet, a FPGA based analysis method has been developed. The original stacking method, which uses multiple images to improve signal-to-noise ratio and runs as a software on PC, has a disadvantage of taking enormous time to analyze. A new algorithm and its installation into a FPGA board solved the problem by reducing analysis time about one thousandth. A collaborative observation between Japan and Taiwan was conducted to search for undiscovered debris fragments generated from a breakup event of US Titan IIIC Transtage. A lot of fragments that may be related to the breakup were discovered by analyzing with the method which verifies the effectiveness of the method.

  19. Dynamic modeling of a methanol reformer-PEMFC stack system for analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Andrew T.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) as well as fuel processing units (FPUs). Many of these models consider only steady state analysis; the available dynamic models typically operate only in simple open loop configurations. However, a liquid fuel processor/PEMFC stack power unit for vehicular application will require tight integration and regulation of multiple units in order to function economically and reliably. Moreover, vehicular operation is inherently dynamic in nature, so traditional steady state process design approaches will be of limited value. This work addresses a minimum set of subcomponents necessary for modeling an overall vehicular power system. Additionally, the integration and control of these sub-units is addressed so that the unit can be operated as needed in a vehicular application by following a reference power trajectory. A number of design and operational parameters can be adjusted and the impact on system performance studied. Based on this preliminary analysis, heuristics are developed for optimal operation and design.

  20. Design Methods in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Elgaard; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2010-01-01

    The paper challenges the dominant and widespread view that a good design method will guarantee a systematic approach as well as certain results. First, it explores the substantial differences between on the one hand the conception of methods implied in Pahl & Beitz’s widely recognized text book...... on engineering design, and on the other hand the understanding of method use, which has emerged from micro-sociological studies of practice (ethnomethodology). Second, it reviews a number of case studies conducted by engineering students, who were instructed to investigate the actual use of design methods...... in Danish companies. The paper concludes that design methods in practice deviate substantially from Pahl & Beitz’s description of method use: The object and problems, which are the starting points for method use, are more contested and less given than generally assumed; The steps of methods are often...

  1. Experimental study and comparison of various designs of gas flow fields to PEM fuel cells and cell stack performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong eLiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a significant number of experimental tests to PEM fuel cells were conducted to investigate the effect of gas flow fields on fuel cell performance. Graphite plates with various flow field or flow channel designs, from literature survey and also novel designs by the authors, were used for the PEM fuel cell assembly. The fabricated fuel cells all have an effective membrane area of 23.5 cm2. The results showed that the serpentine flow channel design is still favorable, giving the best single fuel cell performance amongst all the studied flow channel designs. A novel symmetric serpentine flow field was proposed for relatively large size fuel cell application. Four fuel cell stacks each including four cells were assembled using different designs of serpentine flow channels. The output power performances of fuel cell stacks were compared and the novel symmetric serpentine flow field design is recommended for its very good performance.

  2. Embodied Design Ideation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilde, Danielle; Vallgårda, Anna; Tomico, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Embodied design ideation practices work with relationships between body, material and context to enliven design and research potential. Methods are often idiosyncratic and – due to their physical nature – not easily transferred. This presents challenges for designers wishing to develop and share...... techniques or contribute to research. We present a framework that enables designers to understand, describe and contextualise their embodied design ideation practices in ways that can be understood by peers, as well as those new to embodied ideation. Our framework – developed over two conference workshops...... – provides a frame for discussion of embodied design actions that leverage the power of estrangement. We apply our framework to eight embodied design ideation methods. Our contribution is thus twofold: (1) a framework to understand and leverage the power of estrangement in embodied design ideation, and (2...

  3. A method enabling height-control of chips for edge-emitting laser stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Tung, Bui; Ma, Laina; Amano, Takeru; Kikuchi, Katsuya; Mori, Masahiko; Aoyagi, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present a stacking method that enables the mounting of edge-emitting laser (EEL) devices at compulsory positions for feeding a coupling waveguide at a low temperature, i.e., 110 °C. Bonding laser chips are integrated to an interposer with embedded waveguides using an electrically conductive adhesive (ECA), i.e., silver-filled epoxy resin that relied on the surface tension phenomenon. A simple dispensing technique based on the capillary effect was used to generate adhesive droplets for bonding purposes. The ability to control the bonding height from 3 to 25 µm was demonstrated. While the post-bond in-plane offsets of the bonding EEL chip are determined by the accuracy of the bonder (i.e., within 2 µm range), the bonding height can be engineered, with a deviation within 1 µm, by balancing the external bonding forces with the surface tension of a certain adhesive volume. The reliability of the bond, i.e., bond strength of 106 gf, and heat dissipation function of the ECA, were also validated. The results obtained in this work imply that the use of this low-temperature, height-controllable approach for the stacking of EEL continues to look highly promising.

  4. ARDOSE: a PC program for stack design and the PRR-1 41Ar effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopando, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    General atomics (GA) calculated the rate of release of 41 Ar in the safety analysis report it prepared for TRIGA conversion of the PRR-1 (TR-86-01, 1987), and PNRI attempted to calculate the exposure dose to the public from the rate of release and meteorological data for the reactor site (Palattao et al., 1989) The former calculation is not completely applicable now, because the physical configurations of the irradiation facilities and ventilation system have changed. The result of the latter calculation is in doubt because the 41 Ar release rate it claimed to use is not in agreement with TR-86-01, 1987. AR DOSE was written to replace both of these calculations with one program for the PC. AR DOSE is a companion program to DBA DOSE (The Nucleus, 1989), a program written to calculate the exposure dose from the release of fission products during the design basis accident (DBA). The PRR-1 uses the same stack for DBA release as for the routine release of 41 Ar elluent. The source code of AR DOSE contains approximately 1100 lines of FORTRAN-77 (written for the Microsoft Fortran 4.10 compiler) and 300 lines of Assembler. AR D OSE.EXE is only 50 kB in size and needs only about 54 kB of RAM to run. A math-coprocessor is not needed but will speed up runs considerably. 7 refs., 1 tab

  5. Global optimization of masks, including film stack design to restore TM contrast in high NA TCC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbluth, Alan E.; Melville, David; Tian, Kehan; Lai, Kafai; Seong, Nakgeuon; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Colburn, Matthew

    2007-03-01

    We provide an expanded description of the global algorithm for mask optimization introduced in our earlier papers, and discuss auxiliary optimizations that can be carried out in the problem constraints and film stack. Mask optimization tends inherently to be a problem with non-convex quadratic constraints, but for small problems we can mitigate this difficulty by exploiting specialized knowledge that applies in the lithography context. If exposure latitude is approximated as maximization of edge slope between image regions whose intensities must print with opposite polarity, we show that the solution space can be approximately divided into regions that contain at most one local minimum. Though the survey of parameter space to identify these regions requires an exhaustive grid search, this search can be accelerated using heuristics, and is not the rate-limiting step at SRAM scale or below. We recover a degree of generality by using a less simplified objective function when we actually assess the local minima. The quasi-binary specialization of lithographic targets is further exploited by searching only in the subspace formed by the dominant joint eigenvectors for dark region intensity and bright region intensity, typically reducing problem dimensionality to less than half that of the full set of frequency-domain variables (i.e. collected diffraction orders). Contrast in this subspace across the bright/dark edge will approximately reflect exposure latitude when we apply the standard fixed edge-placement constraints of lithography. However, during an exploratory stage of optimization we can define preliminary tolerances which more explicitly reflect constraints on devices, e.g. as is done with compactor codes for design migration. Our algorithm can handle vector imaging in a general way, but for the special case of unpolarized illumination and a lens having radial symmetry (but arbitrary source shape) we show that the bilinear function which describes vector

  6. Maximizing power production in a stack of microbial fuel cells using multiunit optimization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Lyne; Perrier, Michel; Srinivasan, Bala; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates real-time maximization of power production in a stack of two continuous flow microbial fuel cells (MFCs). To maximize power output, external resistances of two air-cathode membraneless MFCs were controlled by a multiunit optimization algorithm. Multiunit optimization is a recently proposed method that uses multiple similar units to optimize process performance. The experiment demonstrated fast convergence toward optimal external resistance and algorithm stability during external perturbations (e.g., temperature variations). Rate of the algorithm convergence was much faster than in traditional maximum power point tracking algorithms (MPPT), which are based on temporal perturbations. A power output of 81-84 mW/L(A) (A = anode volume) was achieved in each MFC. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  7. Method for disclosing invisible physical properties in metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor gate stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shigeki; Zhang, Wei; Takahashi, Mitsue

    2017-04-01

    In metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor gate stacks of ferroelectric-gate field effect transistors (FeFETs), it is impossible to directly obtain curves of polarization versus electric field (P f-E f) in the ferroelectric layer. The P f-E f behavior is not simple, i.e. the P f-E f curves are hysteretic and nonlinear, and the hysteresis curve width depends on the electric field scan amplitude. Unless the P f-E f relation is known, the field E f strength cannot be solved when the voltage is applied between the gate meal and the semiconductor substrate, and thus P f-E f cannot be obtained after all. In this paper, the method for disclosing the relationships among the polarization peak-to-peak amplitude (2P mm_av), the electric field peak-to-peak amplitude (2E mm_av), and the memory window (E w) in units of the electric field is presented. To get P mm_av versus E mm_av, FeFETs with different ferroelectric-layer thicknesses should be prepared. Knowing such essential physical parameters is helpful and in many cases enough to quantitatively understand the behavior of FeFETs. The method is applied to three groups. The first one consists of SrBi2Ta2O9-based FeFETs. The second and third ones consist of Ca x Sr1-x Bi2Ta2O9-based FeFETs made by two kinds of annealing. The method can clearly differentiate the characters of the three groups. By applying the method, ferroelectric relationships among P mm_av, E mm_av, and E w are well classified in the three groups according to the difference of the material kinds and the annealing conditions. The method also evaluates equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of a dual layer of a deposited high-k insulator and a thermally-grown SiO2-like interfacial layer (IL). The IL thickness calculated by the method is consistent with cross-sectional image of the FeFETs observed by a transmission electron microscope. The method successfully discloses individual characteristics of the ferroelectric and the insulator layers hidden in the gate stack

  8. A Novel Multimodal Biometrics Recognition Model Based on Stacked ELM and CCA Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucheng Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometrics combine a variety of biological features to have a significant impact on identification performance, which is a newly developed trend in biometrics identification technology. This study proposes a novel multimodal biometrics recognition model based on the stacked extreme learning machines (ELMs and canonical correlation analysis (CCA methods. The model, which has a symmetric structure, is found to have high potential for multimodal biometrics. The model works as follows. First, it learns the hidden-layer representation of biological images using extreme learning machines layer by layer. Second, the canonical correlation analysis method is applied to map the representation to a feature space, which is used to reconstruct the multimodal image feature representation. Third, the reconstructed features are used as the input of a classifier for supervised training and output. To verify the validity and efficiency of the method, we adopt it for new hybrid datasets obtained from typical face image datasets and finger-vein image datasets. Our experimental results demonstrate that our model performs better than traditional methods.

  9. Classifier Subset Selection for the Stacked Generalization Method Applied to Emotion Recognition in Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Aitor; Sierra, Basilio; Arruti, Andoni; López-Gil, Juan-Miguel; Garay-Vitoria, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new supervised classification paradigm, called classifier subset selection for stacked generalization (CSS stacking), is presented to deal with speech emotion recognition. The new approach consists of an improvement of a bi-level multi-classifier system known as stacking generalization by means of an integration of an estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) in the first layer to select the optimal subset from the standard base classifiers. The good performance of the proposed new paradigm was demonstrated over different configurations and datasets. First, several CSS stacking classifiers were constructed on the RekEmozio dataset, using some specific standard base classifiers and a total of 123 spectral, quality and prosodic features computed using in-house feature extraction algorithms. These initial CSS stacking classifiers were compared to other multi-classifier systems and the employed standard classifiers built on the same set of speech features. Then, new CSS stacking classifiers were built on RekEmozio using a different set of both acoustic parameters (extended version of the Geneva Minimalistic Acoustic Parameter Set (eGeMAPS)) and standard classifiers and employing the best meta-classifier of the initial experiments. The performance of these two CSS stacking classifiers was evaluated and compared. Finally, the new paradigm was tested on the well-known Berlin Emotional Speech database. We compared the performance of single, standard stacking and CSS stacking systems using the same parametrization of the second phase. All of the classifications were performed at the categorical level, including the six primary emotions plus the neutral one. PMID:26712757

  10. A simplified technique for polymethyl methacrylate cranioplasty: combined cotton stacking and finger fracture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Woon-Man; Lin, Muh-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is one of the most frequently used cranioplasty materials. However, limitations exist with PMMA cranioplasty including longer operative time, greater blood loss and a higher infection rate. To reduce these disadvantages, it is proposed to introduce a new surgical method for PMMA cranioplasty. Retrospective review of nine patients who received nine PMMA implants using combined cotton stacking and finger fracture method from January 2008 to July 2011. The definitive height of skull defect was quantified by computer-based image analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans. Aesthetic outcomes as measured by post-reduction radiographs and cranial index of symmetry (CIS), cranial nerve V and VII function and complications (wound infection, hardware extrusions, meningitis, osteomyelitis and brain abscess) were evaluated. The mean operation time for implant moulding was 24.56 ± 4.6 minutes and 178.0 ± 53 minutes for skin-to-skin. Average blood loss was 169 mL. All post-operative radiographs revealed excellent reduction. The mean CIS score was 95.86 ± 1.36%, indicating excellent symmetry. These results indicate the safety, practicability, excellent cosmesis, craniofacial symmetry and stability of this new surgical technique.

  11. Optimization of manifold design for 1 kW-class flat-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack operating on reformed natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Kashif; Dong, Sang Keun; Khan, Rashid Ali; Park, Seung Hwan

    2016-09-01

    This study focuses on optimizing the manifold design for a 1 kW-class flat-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack by performing extensive three-dimensional numerical simulations on numerous manifold designs. The stack flow uniformity and the standard flow deviation indexes are implemented to characterize the flow distributions in the stack and among the channels of FT-SOFC's, respectively. The results of the CFD calculations demonstrate that the remodeled manifold without diffuser inlets and 6 mm diffuser front is the best among investigated designs with uniformity index of 0.996 and maximum standard flow deviation of 0.423%. To understand the effect of manifold design on the performance of stack, both generic and developed manifold designs are investigated by applying electrochemical and internal reforming reactions modeling. The simulation results of the stack with generic manifold are validated using experimental data and then validated models are adopted to simulate the stack with the developed manifold design. The results reveal that the stack with developed manifold design achieves more uniform distribution of species, temperature, and current density with comparatively lower system pressure drop. In addition, the results also showed ∼8% increase in the maximum output power due to the implementation of uniform fuel velocity distributions in the cells.

  12. Monitoring Mining Subsidence Using A Combination of Phase-Stacking and Offset-Tracking Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdong Fan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An approach to study the mechanism of mining-induced subsidence, using a combination of phase-stacking and sub-pixel offset-tracking methods, is reported. In this method, land subsidence with a small deformation gradient was calculated using time-series differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (D-InSAR data, whereas areas with greater subsidence were calculated by a sub-pixel offset-tracking method. With this approach, time-series data for mining subsidence were derived in Yulin area using 11 TerraSAR-X (TSX scenes from 13 December 2012 to 2 April 2013. The maximum mining subsidence and velocity values were 4.478 m and 40 mm/day, respectively, which were beyond the monitoring capabilities of D-InSAR and advanced InSAR. The results were compared with the GPS field survey data, and the root mean square errors (RMSE of the results in the strike and dip directions were 0.16 m and 0.11 m, respectively. Four important results were obtained from the time-series subsidence in this mining area: (1 the mining-induced subsidence entered the residual deformation stage within about 44 days; (2 the advance angle of influence changed from 75.6° to 80.7°; (3 the prediction parameters of mining subsidence; (4 three-dimensional deformation. This method could be used to predict the occurrence of mining accidents and to help in the restoration of the ecological environment after mining activities have ended.

  13. Deploying OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Pepple, Ken

    2011-01-01

    OpenStack was created with the audacious goal of being the ubiquitous software choice for building public and private cloud infrastructures. In just over a year, it's become the most talked-about project in open source. This concise book introduces OpenStack's general design and primary software components in detail, and shows you how to start using it to build cloud infrastructures. If you're a developer, technologist, or system administrator familiar with cloud offerings such as Rackspace Cloud or Amazon Web Services, Deploying OpenStack shows you how to obtain and deploy OpenStack softwar

  14. A pulse stacking method of particle counting applied to position sensitive detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilier, E.

    1976-03-01

    A position sensitive particle counting system is described. A cyclic readout imaging device serves as an intermediate information buffer. Pulses are allowed to stack in the imager at very high counting rates. Imager noise is completely discriminated to provide very wide dynamic range. The system has been applied to a detector using cascaded microchannel plates. Pulse height spread produced by the plates causes some loss of information. The loss is comparable to the input loss of the plates. The improvement in maximum counting rate is several hundred times over previous systems that do not permit pulse stacking. (Auth.)

  15. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  16. Application of current steps and design of experiments methodology to the detection of water management faults in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moçotéguy, Philippe; Ludwig, Bastian; Yousfi Steiner, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    We apply a 25-1 fractional factorial Design of Experiments (DoE) test plan in order to discriminate the direct effects and interactions of five factors on the water management of a 500 We PEMFC stack. The stack is submitted to current steps between different operating levels and several responses are extracted for the DoE analysis. A strong ageing effect on stack and cell performances is observed. Therefore, in order to perform the DoE analysis, responses which values are too strongly affected by ageing are ;corrected; prior to the analysis. A ;virtual; stack, considered as ;healthy;, is also ;reconstructed; by ;putting in series; the cells exhibiting very low performance drop. The results show that stacks and cells' resistivities are mostly impacted by direct effects of both temperature and cathodic inlet relative humidity and by compensating interaction between temperature and anodic overstoichiometric ratio. It also appears that two responses are able to distinguish a ;healthy; stack from a degraded stack: heterogeneities in cell voltages and cell resistivities distributions. They are differently impacted by considered effects and interactions. Thus, a customised water management strategy could be developed, depending on the stack's state of health to maintain it in the best possible operating conditions.

  17. Method of detecting stacks with leaky fuel elements in liquid-metal-cooled reactor and apparatus for effecting same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristarkhov, N.N.; Efimov, I.A.; Zaistev, B.I.; Peters, I.G.; Tymosh, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a method of detecting stacks with leaky fuel elements in a liquid-metal-cooled reactor, consisting in that prior to withdrawing a coolant sample, gas is accumulated in the coolant of the stack being controlled, the reactor being shut down, separated from the sample by means of an inert carrier gas, and the radioactivity of the separated gas is measured. An apparatus for carrying out said method comprises a sampler in the form of a tube parallel to the reactor axis in the hole of a rotating plug and adapted to move along the reactor axis. Made in the top portion of the tube are holes for the introduction of the inert carrier gas and the removal thereof together with the gases evolved from the coolant, while the bottom portion of the tube is provided with a sealing member

  18. Three-dimensional stacked structured ASIC devices and methods of fabrication thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Subhash L.; Teifel, John; Flores, Richard S.; Jarecki Jr., Robert L.; Bauer, Todd

    2015-11-19

    A 3D stacked sASIC is provided that includes a plurality of 2D reconfigurable structured structured ASIC (sASIC) levels interconnected through hard-wired arrays of 3D vias. The 2D sASIC levels may contain logic, memory, analog functions, and device input/output pad circuitry. During fabrication, these 2D sASIC levels are stacked on top of each other and fused together with 3D metal vias. Such 3D vias may be fabricated as through-silicon vias (TSVs). They may connect to the back-side of the 2D sASIC level, or they may be connected to top metal pads on the front-side of the 2D sASIC level.

  19. Design of Stack Monitoring System for PET Medical Cyclotron Facilities with Isotope Identification and Released Activity Concentration Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osovizky, A.; Ginzburg, D.; Pushkarsky, V.; Shmidov, D.; Vax, E.; Knafo, Y.; Semyonov, N.; Kaplan, L.; Kadmon, Y.; Cohen, Y.; Mazor, T.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclotrons are commonly used for production of radioactive isotopes utilized for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging and other purposes(1). During the isotopes production process there are routine releases of nonhazardous amounts of radioactive isotopes into the atmosphere. The activity concentration of radioactive effluents, released into the atmosphere are subjected to restrictions by national regulations based on international recommendations(2). Uncontrolled isotopes emission through the ventilation system would increase the radiation hazard potential to nearby population. In order to control and prevent such emissions, monitoring and assessment of the released activity concentration is required. For this purpose, a radiation detection system is required to be installed in the ventilation stack. The design of such a monitoring system should cope with two main difficulties: the capability to detect low concentration level and the capability to accurately assess the emitted activity per released isotope. In this work, we present innovative stack monitoring detection system that combines new detector design, electronics, friendly interface software and unique algorithms that provide a comprehensive solution for the above-mentioned requirements. Activity releases measured by the system are discussed along with calculation for the system sensitivity, detectable level and isotope identification algorithm

  20. Method card design dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.

    2013-01-01

    There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers. T...

  1. Solid-State Fault Current Limiter Development : Design and Testing Update of a 15kV SSCL Power Stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ram Adapa; Mr. Dante Piccone

    2012-04-30

    ABSTRACT The Solid-State Fault Current Limiter (SSCL) is a promising technology that can be applied to utility power delivery systems to address the problem of increasing fault currents associated with load growth. As demand continues to grow, more power is added to utility system either by increasing generator capacity or by adding distributed generators, resulting in higher available fault currents, often beyond the capabilities of the present infrastructure. The SSCL is power-electronics based equipment designed to work with the present utility system to address this problem. The SSCL monitors the line current and dynamically inserts additional impedance into the line in the event of a fault being detected. The SSCL is based on a modular design and can be configured for 5kV through 69kV systems at nominal current ratings of 1000A to 4000A. Results and Findings This report provides the final test results on the development of 15kV class SSCL single phase power stack. The scope of work included the design of the modular standard building block sub-assemblies, the design and manufacture of the power stack and the testing of the power stack for the key functional tests of continuous current capability and fault current limiting action. Challenges and Objectives Solid-State Current Limiter technology impacts a wide spectrum of utility engineering and operating personnel. It addresses the problems associated with load growth both at Transmission and Distribution class networks. The design concept is pioneering in terms of developing the most efficient and compact power electronics equipment for utility use. The initial test results of the standard building blocks are promising. The independent laboratory tests of the power stack are promising. However the complete 3 phase system needs rigorous testing for performance and reliability. Applications, Values, and Use The SSCL is an intelligent power-electronics device which is modular in design and can provide current

  2. Laser-plasma acceleration with multi-color pulse stacks: Designer electron beams for advanced radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykov, Serge; Shadwick, Bradley; Ghebregziabher, Isaac; Davoine, Xavier

    2015-11-01

    Photon engineering offers new avenues to coherently control electron beam phase space on a femtosecond time scale. It enables generation of high-quality beams at a kHz-scale repetition rate. Reducing the peak pulse power (and thus the average laser power) is the key to effectively exercise such control. A stepwise negative chirp, synthesized by incoherently stacking collinear sub-Joule pulses from conventional CPA, affords a micron-scale bandwidth. It is sufficient to prevent rapid compression of the pulse into an optical shock, while delaying electron dephasing. This extends electron energy far beyond the limits suggested by accepted scalings (beyond 1 GeV in a 3 mm plasma), without compromising beam quality. In addition, acceleration with a stacked pulse in a channel favorably modifies electron beam on a femtosecond time scale, controllably producing synchronized sequences of 100 kA-scale, quasi-monoenergetic bunches. These comb-like, designer GeV electron beams are ideal drivers of polychromatic, tunable inverse Thomson γ-ray sources. The work of SYK and BAS is supported by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0008382 and NSF Grant PHY-1104683. Inverse Thomson scattering simulations were completed utilizing the Holland Computing Center of the University of Nebraska.

  3. A method to estimate emission rates from industrial stacks based on neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcese, Luis E; Toselli, Beatriz M

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents a technique based on artificial neural networks (ANN) to estimate pollutant rates of emission from industrial stacks, on the basis of pollutant concentrations measured on the ground. The ANN is trained on data generated by the ISCST3 model, widely accepted for evaluation of dispersion of primary pollutants as a part of an environmental impact study. Simulations using theoretical values and comparison with field data are done, obtaining good results in both cases at predicting emission rates. The application of this technique would allow the local environment authority to control emissions from industrial plants without need of performing direct measurements inside the plant. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Fault Localization Method by Partitioning Memory Using Memory Map and the Stack for Automotive ECU Software Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanhyo Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the usage of the automotive Electronic Control Unit (ECU and its software in cars is increasing. Therefore, as the functional complexity of such software increases, so does the likelihood of software-related faults. Therefore, it is important to ensure the reliability of ECU software in order to ensure automobile safety. For this reason, systematic testing methods are required that can guarantee software quality. However, it is difficult to locate a fault during testing with the current ECU development system because a tester performs the black-box testing using a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL simulator. Consequently, developers consume a large amount of money and time for debugging because they perform debugging without any information about the location of the fault. In this paper, we propose a method for localizing the fault utilizing memory information during black-box testing. This is likely to be of use to developers who debug automotive software. In order to observe whether symbols stored in the memory have been updated, the memory is partitioned by a memory map and the stack, thus the fault candidate region is reduced. A memory map method has the advantage of being able to finely partition the memory, and the stack method can partition the memory without a memory map. We validated these methods by applying these to HiL testing of the ECU for a body control system. The preliminary results indicate that a memory map and the stack reduce the possible fault locations to 22% and 19% of the updated memory, respectively.

  5. Design and Experiment of a Solder Paste Jetting System Driven by a Piezoelectric Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoudong Gu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To compensate for the insufficiency and instability of solder paste dispensing and printing that are used in the SMT (Surface Mount Technology production process, a noncontact solder paste jetting system driven by a piezoelectric stack based on the principle of the nozzle-needle-system is introduced in this paper, in which a miniscule gap exists between the nozzle and needle during the jetting process. Here, the critical jet ejection velocity is discussed through theoretical analysis. The relations between ejection velocity and needle structure, needle velocity, and nozzle diameter were obtained by FLUENT software. Then, the prototype of the solder paste jetting system was fabricated, and the performance was verified by experiments. The effects of the gap between nozzle and needle, the driving voltage, and the nozzle diameter on the jetting performance and droplet diameter were obtained. Solder paste droplets 0.85 mm in diameter were produced when the gap between the nozzle and needle was adjusted to 10 μm, the driving voltage to 80 V, the nozzle diameter to 0.1 mm, and the variation of the droplet diameter was within ±3%.

  6. Algebraic stacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    generally, any fiber product) is not uniquely defined: it is only defined up to unique isomorphism. ..... Fiber product. Given two morphisms f1 : F1 ! G, f2 : F2 ! G, we define a new stack. F1 آG F2 (with projections to F1 and F2) as follows. The objects are triples ًX1; X2; ق ..... In fact, any Artin stack F can be defined in this fashion.

  7. Design of gate stacks for improved program/erase speed, retention and process margin aiming next generation metal nanocrystal memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jaeman; Choi, Changmin; Min, Kyeong-Sik; Kim, Dong Myong; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Jang-Sik; Lee, Jaegab

    2009-01-01

    In this work, gate stacks in metal nanocrystal (NC) memories, as promising next generation storage devices and their systems, are extensively investigated. A comparative analysis and characterization of the program/erase (P/E) speed, retention and the process margin of cobalt NC memories including high-k and bandgap engineering technologies are performed by using the technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation. It is shown that NC memory with high-k dielectric (HfO 2 ) has better performance in P/E speed and retention when the diameter of NC is below 5 nm. When the diameter is beyond 5 nm, on the other hand, the bandgap-engineered bottom oxide gate structure shows improved performance in P/E speed and retention. From the process margin perspective, as the permittivity of the dielectric gets larger, the limits of the diameter and the density of NCs allow the degree of freedom to become larger

  8. Numerical evaluation of various gas and coolant channel designs for high performance liquid-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasmito, Agus P.; Kurnia, Jundika C.; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2012-01-01

    A careful design of gas and coolant channel is essential to ensure high performance and durability of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack. The channel design should allow for good thermal, water and gas management whilst keeping low pressure drop. This study evaluates numerically the performance of various gas and coolant channel designs simultaneously, e.g. parallel, serpentine, oblique-fins, coiled, parallel-serpentine and a novel hybrid parallel-serpentine-oblique-fins designs. The stack performance and local distributions of key parameters are investigated with regards to the thermal, water and gas management. The results indicate that the novel hybrid channel design yields the best performance as it constitutes to a lower pumping power and good thermal, water and gas management as compared to conventional channels. Advantages and limitation of the designs are discussed in the light of present numerical results. Finally, potential application and further improvement of the design are highlighted. -- Highlights: ► We evaluate various gas and coolant channel designs in liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack. ► The model considers coupled electrochemistry, channel design and cooling effect simultaneously. ► We propose a novel hybrid channel design. ► The novel hybrid channel design yields the best thermal, water and gas management which is beneficial for long term durability. ► The novel hybrid channel design exhibits the best performance.

  9. Methods For Calculating Thyroid Doses to The Residents Of Ozersk Due to 131I Releases From The Stacks of The Mayak Production Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovny, Sergey I.; Mokrov, Y.; Stukalov, Pavel M.; Beregich, D. A.; Teplyakov, I. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was established in the late 1940s in accordance with a special Decree of the USSR Government for the production of nuclear weapons. In early years of MPA operation, due to the lack of experience and absence of effective methods of RW management, the enterprise had extensive routine (designed) and non-routine (accidental) releases of gaseous radioactive wastes to the atmosphere. These practices resulted in additional technogenic radiation exposure of residents inhabiting populated areas near the MPA. The primary objective of ongoing studies under JCCRER Project 1.4 is to estimate doses to the residents of Ozersk due to releases of radioactive substances from the stacks of MPA. Preliminary scoping studies have demonstrated that releases of radioactive iodine (131I) from the stacks of the Mayak Radiochemical Plant represented the major contribution to the dose to residents of Ozersk and of other nearby populated areas. The behavior of 131I in the environment and of 131I migration through biological food chains (vegetation-cows-milk-humans) indicated a need for use of special mathematical models to perform the estimation of radiation doses to the population. The goal of this work is to select an appropriate model of the iodine migration in biological food chains and to justify numerical values of the model parameters.

  10. A NEaT Design for reliable and scalable network stacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hruby, Tomas; Giuffrida, Cristiano; Sambuc, Lionel; Bos, Herbert; Tanenbaum, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Operating systems provide a wide range of services, which are crucial for the increasingly high reliability and scalability demands of modern applications. Providing both reliability and scalability at the same time is hard. Commodity OS architectures simply lack the design abstractions to do so for

  11. Creativity Methods in Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The field of interaction design encompasses a variety of methods for fostering innovation and creativity. In this paper, we present a selection of such methods that scaffold ideation and concept development in the early phases of design. As a conceptual frame for discussing these methods, we...... introduce four aspects that are particularly salient in the field of interaction design: tradition and transcendence, convergence and divergence, degree of structure, and sources of inspiration. We then outline how the methods relate to each of these aspects. The paper contributes to design practitioners...... by providing an overview of the methods and insights into when and how they may be employed to foster creativity and innovation in the design process; with regards to design research, the main contribution of the paper lies in the establishment and discussion of the four aspects as a frame for analyzing...

  12. Interface reactions at TiN/HfSiON gate stacks: Dependence on the electrode structure and deposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiniti Yoshida et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We systematically investigated intrinsic and extrinsic thermal reactions at TiN/HfSiON gate stacks. The formation of an ultrathin TiO2 interlayer was found to be an intrinsic reaction at the metal/insulator interface, but growth of SiO2 underlayers between HfSiON and Si substrates, which determines the electrical thickness of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS devices, depends on the structure and deposition method of the gate electrodes. Physical vapor deposition (PVD grown TiN electrodes covered with W overlayers exhibited excellent thermal stability at up to 1000 °C. Formation of ultrathin TiO2 interlayers reduced gate leakage current (Ig, and growth of the oxide underlayer was suppressed by less than a few angstroms even for 1000 °C annealing. In contrast, we found that halogen impurities within CVD-grown metal electrodes enhance interface SiO2 growth, resulting in deterioration of equivalent oxide thickness (EOT versus Ig characteristics of the gate stacks.

  13. Cell and stack design alternatives. Final report, August 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Jr., D. Q.; King, Robert B.

    1980-02-01

    The work described comprised the first phase of a planned six phase program to develop commercially viable phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) driven on-site integrated energy systems (OS/IES). The Phase I effort was organized as three major technical tasks; (1) study of system design alternatives; (2) fuel cell design alternatives; and (3) methane conditioner study. It was decided that comprehensive modeling of one application would most effectively utilize the resources available for the study of systems design alternatives. A 48 unit apartment complex located in Albany, New York and built to HUD minimum standards was selected as being typical of the applications that will be served by the systems. The time varying space conditioning (HVAC) and electrical requirements including the effects of varying weather conditions, living habits and occupancy patterns were modeled. These requirements formed the basis for comparing the performance and cost of the alternative configurations with each other and with a conventional system. Five basic alternative OS/IES configurations plus four variations were selected from a preliminary list of 13 basic configurations for detailed performance nd cost evaluations. Study procedures and results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  14. Effective Work Procedure design Using Discomfort and Effort Factor in Brick stacking operation-A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Biswaranjan; Dash, R. R.; Dhupal, D.

    2018-02-01

    In this work a typical planning of movement of limbs and torso of the worker to be well design to reduce fatigue and energy of the worker. A simulation model is generated to suit the procedure and comply with the constraints in the workspace. It requires verifying the capability of human postures and movements in different working conditions for the evaluation of effectiveness of the new design. In this article a simple human performance measure is introduce that enable the mathematical model for evaluation of a cost function. The basic scheme is to evaluate the performance in the form of several cost factors using AI techniques. Here two main cost factors taken in to consideration are discomfort factor and effort factor in limb movements. Discomfort factor measures the level of discomfort from the most neutral position of a given limb to the position of the corresponding limb after movement and effort factor is a measure of the displacement of the corresponding limbs from the original position. The basic aim is to optimize the movement of the limbs with the above mentioned cost functions. The effectiveness of the procedure is tested with an example of working procedure of workers used for stacking of fly ash bricks in a local fly ash bricks manufacturing unit. The objective is to find out the optimised movement of the limbs to reduce discomfort level and effort required of workers. The effectiveness of the procedure in this case study illustrated with the obtained results.

  15. The Direct FuelCell™ stack engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, J.; Farooque, M.; Maru, H.

    FuelCell Energy (FCE) has developed power plants in the size range of 300 kW to 3 MW for distributed power generation. Field-testing of the sub-megawatt plants is underway. The FCE power plants are based on its Direct FuelCell™ (DFC) technology. This is so named because of its ability to generate electricity directly from a hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, by reforming it inside the fuel cell stack itself. All FCE products use identical 8000 cm 2 cell design, approximately 350-400 cells per stack, external gas manifolds, and similar stack compression systems. The difference lies in the packaging of the stacks inside the stack module. The sub-megawatt system stack module contains a single horizontal stack whereas the MW-class stack module houses four identical vertical stacks. The commonality of the design, internal reforming features, and atmospheric operation simplify the system design, reduce cost, improve efficiency, increase reliability and maintainability. The product building-block stack design has been advanced through three full-size stack operations at company's headquarters in Danbury, CT. The initial proof-of-concept of the full-size stack design was verified in 1999, followed by a 1.5 year of endurance verification in 2000-2001, and currently a value-engineered stack version is in operation. This paper discusses the design features, important engineering solutions implemented, and test results of FCE's full-size DFC stacks.

  16. Designing the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element and Integrating the Stack at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Neil E.; Lyles, Garry; Reuter, James L.; Davis, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Fielding an integrated launch vehicle system entails many challenges, not the least of which is the fact that it has been over 30 years since the United States has developed a human-rated vehicle - the venerable Space Shuttle. Over time, whole generations of rocket scientists have passed through the aerospace community without the opportunity to perform such exacting, demanding, and rewarding work. However, with almost 50 years of experience leading the design, development, and end-to-end systems engineering and integration of complex launch vehicles, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center offers the in-house talent - both junior- and senior-level personnel - to shape a new national asset to meet the requirements for safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. The technical personnel are housed primarily in Marshall's Engineering Directorate and are matrixed into the programs and projects that reside at the rocket center. Fortunately, many Apollo-era and Shuttle engineers, as well as those who gained valuable hands-on experience in the 1990s by conducting technology demonstrator projects such as the Delta-Clipper Experimental Advanced, X-33, X-34, and X-37, as well as the short-lived Orbital Space Plane, work closely with industry partners to advance the nation's strategic capability for human access to space. The Ares Projects Office, resident at Marshall, is managing the design and development of America's new space fleet, including the Ares I, which will loft the Orion crew capsule for its first test flight in the 2013 timeframe, as well as the heavy-lift Ares V, which will round out the capability to leave low-Earth orbit once again, when it delivers the Altair lunar lander to orbit late next decade. This paper provides information about the approach to integrating the Ares I stack and designing the upper stage in house, using unique facilities and an expert workforce to revitalize the nation

  17. Algebraic stacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    truct the 'moduli stack', that captures all the information that we would like in a fine moduli space. ..... the fine moduli space), it has the property that for any family W of vector bundles (i.e. W is a vector bundle over B ...... the etale topology is finer: V is a 'small enough open subset' because the square root can be defined on it.

  18. High-fidelity stack and system modeling for tubular solid oxide fuel cell system design and thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattke, K. J.; Braun, R. J.; Colclasure, A. M.; Goldin, G.

    Effective thermal integration of system components is critical to the performance of small-scale (design and simulation tool for a highly-integrated tubular SOFC system. The SOFC is modeled using a high fidelity, one-dimensional tube model coupled to a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Recuperative heat exchange between SOFC tail-gas and inlet cathode air and reformer air/fuel preheat processes are captured within the CFD model. Quasi one-dimensional thermal resistance models of the tail-gas combustor (TGC) and catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx) complete the balance of plant (BoP) and SOFC coupling. The simulation tool is demonstrated on a prototype 66-tube SOFC system with 650 W of nominal gross power. Stack cooling predominately occurs at the external surface of the tubes where radiation accounts for 66-92% of heat transfer. A strong relationship develops between the power output of a tube and its view factor to the relatively cold cylinder wall surrounding the bundle. The bundle geometry yields seven view factor groupings which correspond to seven power groupings with tube powers ranging from 7.6-10.8 W. Furthermore, the low effectiveness of the co-flow recuperator contributes to lower tube powers at the bundle outer periphery.

  19. Designing a qualitative methods syllabus

    OpenAIRE

    Kier, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    After some initial trepidation, I was excited about teaching a graduate seminar in qualitative methods. It could hardly be a more interesting time. The publication of King, Keohane, and Verba’s Designing Social Inquiry reinvigorated interest in qualitative methods, and I wanted to design the course to profit from this emerging debate. Whereas KKV appealed to qualitative researchers to do their best to adopt quantitative methodological guidelines, I wanted to encourage students to think about ...

  20. Cognitive Protocol Stack Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    wireless networks, Call Admission Control scheme for VoIP over IEEE 802.11 and other networks, network-aware retransmission strategy selection, the...Channel Wireless Networks, IEEE GLOBECOM. 06-DEC-11, . : , Giorgio Quer, Nicola Baldo, Michele Zorzi. Cognitive Call Admission Control for VoIP over...call admission control for VoIP in a tactical environment. The optimization of each layer was performed in several papers by adopting the BN

  1. Efficient Design Methods for Embedded Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holzer M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, design of embedded systems is confronted with complex signal processing algorithms and a multitude of computational intensive multimedia applications, while time to product launch has been extremely reduced. Especially in the wireless domain, those challenges are stacked with tough requirements on power consumption and chip size. Unfortunately, design productivity did not undergo a similar progression, and therefore fails to cope with the heterogeneity of modern architectures. Electronic design automation tools exhibit deep gaps in the design flow like high-level characterization of algorithms, floating-point to fixed-point conversion, hardware/software partitioning, and virtual prototyping. This tutorial paper surveys several promising approaches to solve the widespread design problems in this field. An overview over consistent design methodologies that establish a framework for connecting the different design tasks is given. This is followed by a discussion of solutions for the integrated automation of specific design tasks.

  2. The Determination of Total Nitrogen Oxides in Stack Gases. Phenoldisulfonic Acid Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Charles J. D.

    The well known Saltzman method for oxides of nitrogen is intended for the determination of these constituents in the ambient atmosphere in the range of a few parts per billion to about 5ppm. However, when sulfur dioxide is present in the gas to be sampled and/or the concentration range of the oxides of nitrogen is from five to several thousand…

  3. Designing the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Element and Integrating the Stack at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Garry; Otte, Neil E.

    2008-01-01

    transportation system for missions to the International Space Station in the next decade and to explore the Moon and establish an outpost around the 2020 timeframe.4 Based on this extensive study, NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle configuration and the heavy-lift Ares V cargo launch vehicle (fig 1). This paper will give an overview of NASA's approach to integrating the Ares I vehicle stack using capabilities and assets that are resident in Marshall's Engineering Directorate, working in partnership with other NASA Centers and the U.S. aerospace industry. It also will provide top-level details on the progress of the in-house design of the Ares I vehicle's upper stage element.

  4. Energy Conservation Alternatives Study (ECAS): Conceptual Design and Implementation Assessment of a Utility Steam Plant with Conventional Furnace and Wet Lime Stack Gas Scrubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dale H.

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to estimate the technical/economic characteristics of a steam power plant (3500 pounds per square inch gauge, 1000 degrees Fahrenheit / 1000 degrees Fahrenheit) with a coal-burning radiant furnace and a wet lime stack gas scrubber to control sulfur emissions. Particulate emissions were controlled by an electrostatic precipitator operating at 300 degrees Fahrenheit. The stack gas from the scrubber was reheated from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 250 degrees Fahrenheit as a base case, and from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 175 degrees Fahrenheit as an alternate case. The study was performed on a basis consistent with the General Electric ECAS Phase II evaluation of advanced energy conversion systems for electric utility baseload applications using coal or coal-derived fuels. A conceptual design of the power plant was developed, including the on-site calcination of limestone to lime and the provision of sludge ponds to store the products of flue gas scrubbing. From this design, estimates were derived for power plant efficiency, capital cost, environmental intrusion characteristics, natural resource requirements, and cost of electricity at an assumed capacity factor of 65 percent. An implementation assessment was performed where factors affecting applicability of the conceptual design power plant in electric utility generation systems were appraised. At 250 degrees Fahrenheit and 175 degrees Fahrenheit stack gas temperatures respectively, the plants showed a cost of electricity of 39.8 and 37.0 mills per kilowatt-hours and overall plant efficiencies of 32 percent and 34 percent.

  5. A Design Of Feeding Network For A Dual-Linear Polarization, Stacked, Probe-Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, G.; Krozer, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    Components of multilayer feed network are presented for application in broad-band dual-linear polarized stacked C-band antenna. Measurement results of wide band matching circuits and different types of power divider networks constituting parts of BFN demonstrate wideband operation. Suitable...

  6. Pressurized electrolysis stack with thermal expansion capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott

    2015-07-14

    The present techniques provide systems and methods for mounting an electrolyzer stack in an outer shell so as to allow for differential thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack and shell. Generally, an electrolyzer stack may be formed from a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion, while the shell may be formed from a material having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion. The differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion may lead to damage to the electrolyzer stack as the shell may restrain the thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack. To allow for the differences in thermal expansion, the electrolyzer stack may be mounted within the shell leaving a space between the electrolyzer stack and shell. The space between the electrolyzer stack and the shell may be filled with a non-conductive fluid to further equalize pressure inside and outside of the electrolyzer stack.

  7. A hybrid MBE-based growth method for large-area synthesis of stacked hexagonal boron nitride/graphene heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Joseph M.; Nakhaie, Siamak; Krause, Thilo; Liu, Xianjie; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Hanke, Michael; Riechert, Henning; J. Lopes, J. Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Van der Waals heterostructures combining hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene offer many potential advantages, but remain difficult to produce as continuous films over large areas. In particular, the growth of h-BN on graphene has proven to be challenging due to the inertness of the graphene surface. Here we exploit a scalable molecular beam epitaxy based method to allow both the h-BN and graphene to form in a stacked heterostructure in the favorable growth environment provided by a Ni(111) substrate. This involves first saturating a Ni film on MgO(111) with C, growing h-BN on the exposed metal surface, and precipitating the C back to the h-BN/Ni interface to form graphene. The resulting laterally continuous heterostructure is composed of a top layer of few-layer thick h-BN on an intermediate few-layer thick graphene, lying on top of Ni/MgO(111). Examinations by synchrotron-based grazing incidence diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and UV-Raman spectroscopy reveal that while the h-BN is relaxed, the lattice constant of graphene is significantly reduced, likely due to nitrogen doping. These results illustrate a different pathway for the production of h-BN/graphene heterostructures, and open a new perspective for the large-area preparation of heterosystems combining graphene and other 2D or 3D materials. PMID:28240323

  8. Fast principal component analysis for stacking seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Bai, Min

    2018-04-01

    Stacking seismic data plays an indispensable role in many steps of the seismic data processing and imaging workflow. Optimal stacking of seismic data can help mitigate seismic noise and enhance the principal components to a great extent. Traditional average-based seismic stacking methods cannot obtain optimal performance when the ambient noise is extremely strong. We propose a principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm for stacking seismic data without being sensitive to noise level. Considering the computational bottleneck of the classic PCA algorithm in processing massive seismic data, we propose an efficient PCA algorithm to make the proposed method readily applicable for industrial applications. Two numerically designed examples and one real seismic data are used to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  9. Numerical methods for metamaterial design

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book describes a relatively new approach for the design of electromagnetic metamaterials.  Numerical optimization routines are combined with electromagnetic simulations to tailor the broadband optical properties of a metamaterial to have predetermined responses at predetermined wavelengths. After a review of both the major efforts within the field of metamaterials and the field of mathematical optimization, chapters covering both gradient-based and derivative-free design methods are considered.  Selected topics including surrogate-base optimization, adaptive mesh search, and genetic algorithms are shown to be effective, gradient-free optimization strategies.  Additionally, new techniques for representing dielectric distributions in two dimensions, including level sets, are demonstrated as effective methods for gradient-based optimization.  Each chapter begins with a rigorous review of the optimization strategy used, and is followed by numerous examples that combine the strategy with either electromag...

  10. Operating state distinction and operation control methods of the fuel cell stack; Nenryo denchi sutakku no unten jotai hanbetsu hoho oyobi unten seigyo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, M.; Nakajima, H.; Shiraishi, K. [Equosu Resarch Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-19

    In the operation of the fuel cell stack, output decrease is caused by surplus or deficient water content in part or whole of the fuel cell stack. The purpose of the invention is to provide operating state distinction and operation control methods, whereby the output abnormality is discovered in the early stage, and is quickly adjusted to the normal state. In accordance with the invention, time course voltage patterns of the cell block, composed of one or plural unit cells in the fuel cell stack that has solid oxide films as electrolytes, are classified by various operation conditions of the fuel cell, and stored in the memory in advance. Time course voltage patterns are measured by one unit cell or by the cell block; operation conditions are judged, compared and calculated while the measured time course voltage patterns and the patterns in the memory are compared; proper setting of operation conditions is selected; and command for adjusting to the setting is delivered to the unit cell or cell block in the fuel cell stack. 6 figs.

  11. Optimization methods in structural design

    CERN Document Server

    Rothwell, Alan

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to numerical optimization methods in structural design. Employing a readily accessible and compact format, the book presents an overview of optimization methods, and equips readers to properly set up optimization problems and interpret the results. A ‘how-to-do-it’ approach is followed throughout, with less emphasis at this stage on mathematical derivations. The book features spreadsheet programs provided in Microsoft Excel, which allow readers to experience optimization ‘hands-on.’ Examples covered include truss structures, columns, beams, reinforced shell structures, stiffened panels and composite laminates. For the last three, a review of relevant analysis methods is included. Exercises, with solutions where appropriate, are also included with each chapter. The book offers a valuable resource for engineering students at the upper undergraduate and postgraduate level, as well as others in the industry and elsewhere who are new to these highly practical techniques.Whi...

  12. Preparation and characterization of porphyrin-polythiophene stacked films as prepared by electrochemical method under stirring condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawa, Kosuke; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Sunao

    2008-01-01

    Porphyrin-polythiophene (pTh) stacked films consisting of meso-tetrathienylporphyrin (TThP) and bithiophene (BiTh) were prepared on transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes by sequential electrochemical scanning of applied potential between 0 and + 2 V vs Ag wire in the electrolyte solution of BiTh and TThP under stirring condition. First, the pTh films were prepared by electrochemical polymerization and then TThP was incorporated into the as-prepared pTh film by subsequent electrochemical scanning as described above in the TThP solution. The operation of solution stirring during electrochemical scanning achieved the formation of robust stacked films. UV/Vis and fluorescence spectra confirmed that the amount of TThP moiety increased with increasing the number of electrochemical scanning cycles in the TThP solution. In order to evaluate the incorporation profile of TThP, surface analyses and depth profiles of stacked films were carried out by XPS spectroscopy. The results suggested that all films formed porphyrin-polythiophene stacked structure precisely, and that TThP was exclusively incorporated around the outermost region of the pTh film

  13. Experimental and numerical investigations of oscillations in extracted material parameters for finite Bragg stacks using the NRW method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2012-01-01

    A 1D dielectric finite Bragg stack situated in a rectangular waveguide and illuminated by the fundamental TE10 mode is examined analytically, numerically, and experimentally. Calculated as well as measured scattering parameters are used to extract the effective/equivalent material parameters for ...

  14. Embedding Metal in the Interface of a p-n Heterojunction with a Stack Design for Superior Z-Scheme Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenjie; Bai, Lijie; Zhu, Yuzhen; Zhong, Shuxian; Zhao, Leihong; Li, Zhengquan; Bai, Song

    2016-09-07

    The construction of a p-n heterojunction is an efficient strategy to resolve the limited light absorption and serious charge-carrier recombination in semiconductors and enhance the photocatalytic activity. However, the promotion effect is greatly limited by poor interfacial charge transfer efficiency as well as reduced redox ability of charge carriers. In this work, we demonstrate that the embedding of metal Pd into the interface between n-type C3N4 and p-type Cu2O can further enhance the interfacial charge transfer and increase the redox ability of charge carriers through the design of the C3N4-Pd-Cu2O stack nanostructure. The embedded Pd nanocubes in the stack structure not only trap the charge carriers from the semiconductors in promoting the electron-hole separation but also act as a Z-scheme "bridge" in keeping the strong reduction/oxidation ability of the electrons/holes for surface reactions. Furthermore, Pd nanocubes also increase the bonding strength between the two semiconductors. Enabled by this unique design, the hydrogen evolution achieved is dramatically higher than that of its counterpart C3N4-Cu2O structure without Pd embedding. The apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) is 0.9% at 420 nm for the designed C3N4-Pd-Cu2O. This work highlights the rational interfacial design of heterojunctions for enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  15. PieceStack: Toward Better Understanding of Stacked Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongshuang; Wu, Yingcai; Shi, Conglei; Qu, Huamin; Cui, Weiwei

    2016-02-24

    Stacked graphs have been widely adopted in various fields, because they are capable of hierarchically visualizing a set of temporal sequences as well as their aggregation. However, because of visual illusion issues, connections between overly-detailed individual layers and overly-generalized aggregation are intercepted. Consequently, information in this area has yet to be fully excavated. Thus, we present PieceStack in this paper, to reveal the relevance of stacked graphs in understanding intrinsic details of their displayed shapes. This new visual analytic design interprets the ways through which aggregations are generated with individual layers by interactively splitting and re-constructing the stacked graphs. A clustering algorithm is designed to partition stacked graphs into sub-aggregated pieces based on trend similarities of layers. We then visualize the pieces with augmented encoding to help analysts decompose and explore the graphs with respect to their interests. Case studies and a user study are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of our technique in understanding the formation of stacked graphs.

  16. Processing of CdTe thin films by the stacked elemental layer method. Compound formation and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, L.R. [Departamento de Engenharia, Macanica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, Urca, 22290-270 RJ Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Matson, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, 80401 Golden, CO (United States); De Avillez, R.R. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente, 225, Gavea, 22543-900 RJ Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2001-01-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films have been deposited using the stacked elemental layer (SEL) technique. This process consists of sequentially depositing tellurium and cadmium layers and then annealing the stacks in order to synthesize the compound. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical transmittance and reflectance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The evolution of the thin film reaction and compound formation were studied using X-ray data. The results show that the growth is diffusion-controlled and the activation energy is (82{+-}2) kJ/mol. The effect of the conventional post-synthesis CdCl{sub 2} heat treatment on the physical properties of the films produced is also reported.

  17. Method of operating a molten carbonate fuel cell, a fuel cell, a fuel cell stack and an apparatus provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.; Dijkema, G.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    A method of operating a molten carbonate fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and in between a matrix comprising molten carbonate. Carbon dioxide is introduced into the matrix at a distance from the cathode. This greatly reduces the cathode's deterioration and in the system design increases the

  18. A Study of Landscape Architecture Design Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lidy, Christopher James

    2006-01-01

    How do different methods employed by landscape architects impact the design outcome? This paper identifies and defines design methods in landscape architecture that may be classified as part of four internal and external connections and structures categories. Methods are further examined through two design exercises. In the first design exercise, the identified methods are individually applied to the same simple design which is used as a control. The only variable changed is the method used ...

  19. Time-predictable Stack Caching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar

    completely. Thus, in systems with hard deadlines the worst-case execution time (WCET) of the real-time software running on them needs to be bounded. Modern architectures use features such as pipelining and caches for improving the average performance. These features, however, make the WCET analysis more...... addresses, provides an opportunity to predict and tighten the WCET of accesses to data in caches. In this thesis, we introduce the time-predictable stack cache design and implementation within a time-predictable processor. We introduce several optimizations to our design for tightening the WCET while...... keeping the timepredictability of the design intact. Moreover, we provide a solution for reducing the cost of context switching in a system using the stack cache. In design of these caches, we use custom hardware and compiler support for delivering time-predictable stack data accesses. Furthermore...

  20. Determination of hexavalent chromium concentration in industrial waste incinerator stack gas by using a modified ion chromatography with post-column derivatization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yuichi; Tokumura, Masahiro; Iwazaki, Yuta; Wang, Qi; Amagai, Takashi; Horii, Yuichi; Otsuka, Hideyuki; Tanikawa, Noboru; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Oguchi, Masahiro

    2017-06-16

    An ion chromatography with post-column derivatization with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (IC-DPC) analytical method was modified to enable measurement of trace-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in air. One of the difficulties in determining trace levels of Cr(VI) in air with conventional IC-DPC methods is co-elution of the solvent and ion peaks due to high concentrations of ionic compounds in the extract. However, by using gradient elution rather than isocratic elution we were able to fully resolve the Cr(VI) ion peak from the solvent peak without the need for diluting the extract, which would have reduced the minimum quantifiable level of the method. With this method, we were able to detect Cr(VI) in air at concentrations of 5.3ng/m 3 (assuming a sampling volume of 1m 3 and a final solution volume of 10mL). Recovery tests at three different concentrations of Cr(VI) (50, 250, 1000ng) were performed with or without fly ash; recovery rates at all the concentrations of Cr(VI), with or without fly ash, ranged from 68% to 110% (mean±relative standard deviation, 96%±11%), and there were no differences in recovery rates with respect to the presence or absence of fly ash. Finally, we used the developed method to determine the concentration of Cr(VI) in stack gases collected from eight industrial waste incinerators located in Japan. The concentration of Cr(VI) in the stack gases ranged from below the method quantification limit to 3100ng/m 3 . The highest concentrations of Cr(VI) detected in the stack gases were two to three orders of magnitude higher than that in ambient air in Japan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  2. METHODS FOR DESCRIPTION OF EDUCATION AND SCIENTIFIC SERVICES IN INFORMATION AND EDUCATION ON THE BASIS OF INTEROPERABILITY STACK EIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Pavlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methodology for description of scientifi c and educational services in education and information on the basis of interoperability stack EIF (European Interoperability Framework. The passage describes operation factors to depict services on every level of the methodology, tools used to describe the services and the content. We also provide the link between methodology of description with the life span of the service. The article presents an example of service description according to the methodology considering the current education and professional standards, ITIL recommendations, ontology on the OWL basis and WSDL-description. 

  3. Quantitative methods for studying design protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Kan, Jeff WT

    2017-01-01

    This book is aimed at researchers and students who would like to engage in and deepen their understanding of design cognition research. The book presents new approaches for analyzing design thinking and proposes methods of measuring design processes. These methods seek to quantify design issues and design processes that are defined based on notions from the Function-Behavior-Structure (FBS) design ontology and from linkography. A linkograph is a network of linked design moves or segments. FBS ontology concepts have been used in both design theory and design thinking research and have yielded numerous results. Linkography is one of the most influential and elegant design cognition research methods. In this book Kan and Gero provide novel and state-of-the-art methods of analyzing design protocols that offer insights into design cognition by integrating segmentation with linkography by assigning FBS-based codes to design moves or segments and treating links as FBS transformation processes. They propose and test ...

  4. Design and Experimental Study of a Current Transformer with a Stacked PCB Based on B-Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingang; Si, Diancheng; Tian, Tian; Ren, Ran

    2017-01-01

    An electronic current transformer with a B-dot sensor is proposed in this study. The B-dot sensor can realize the current measurement of the transmission line in a non-contact way in accordance with the principle of magnetic field coupling. The multiple electrodes series-opposing structure is applied together with differential input structures and active integrating circuits, which can allow the sensor to operate in differential mode. Maxwell software is adopted to model and simulate the sensor. Optimization of the sensor structural parameters is conducted through finite-element simulation. A test platform is built to conduct the steady-state characteristic, on-off operation, and linearity tests for the designed current transformer under the power-frequency current. As shown by the test results, in contrast with traditional electromagnetic CT, the designed current transformer can achieve high accuracy and good phase-frequency; its linearity is also very good at different distances from the wire. The proposed current transformer provides a new method for electricity larceny prevention and on-line monitoring of the power grid in an electric system, thereby satisfying the development demands of the smart power grid. PMID:28394298

  5. Design and Experimental Study of a Current Transformer with a Stacked PCB Based on B-Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingang; Si, Diancheng; Tian, Tian; Ren, Ran

    2017-04-10

    An electronic current transformer with a B-dot sensor is proposed in this study. The B-dot sensor can realize the current measurement of the transmission line in a non-contact way in accordance with the principle of magnetic field coupling. The multiple electrodes series-opposing structure is applied together with differential input structures and active integrating circuits, which can allow the sensor to operate in differential mode. Maxwell software is adopted to model and simulate the sensor. Optimization of the sensor structural parameters is conducted through finite-element simulation. A test platform is built to conduct the steady-state characteristic, on-off operation, and linearity tests for the designed current transformer under the power-frequency current. As shown by the test results, in contrast with traditional electromagnetic CT, the designed current transformer can achieve high accuracy and good phase-frequency; its linearity is also very good at different distances from the wire. The proposed current transformer provides a new method for electricity larceny prevention and on-line monitoring of the power grid in an electric system, thereby satisfying the development demands of the smart power grid.

  6. Development of a method to measure the concentration of 14C in the stack air of nuclear power plants by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, K.; Erlandsson, B.; Hellborg, R.; Haakansson, K.; Wiebert, A.; Skog, G.

    1993-04-01

    C-14, a pure low-energetic beta-emitter, is produced through various nuclear reactions in nuclear power plants. Some of this C-14 is air-borne and is transported via the ventilation system through the stack of the power station and is integrated in living matter in the surroundings of the plant. The long half-life of the isotope (T1/2=5730 years) and the biological importance of carbon may lead to a not negligible contribution of the radiation dose for those living in the neighbourhood of nuclear power plants. C-14 has earlier been measured radiometrically with mainly two different methods, using proportional counters or liquid scintillators. In this report a new method is described, using an accelerator based technique. accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). This technique has at least three advantages over the radiometrical methods. It requires only a few litres of gas per sample, which is 100-1000 times less compared to the radiometrical methods. It is insensitive to the beta and gamma rays from other radioactive isotopes in the stack air. The measuring time with AMS, about 20 minutes per sample, is considerably shorter compared to the radiometrical methods, which demand several hours per sample. The integrity of the AMS method is high and it might be convenient for regulatory supervision. (22 refs.)

  7. Multiple Segmentation of Image Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Jonathan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for the simultaneous construction of multiple image segmentations by combining a recently proposed “convolution of mixtures of Gaussians” model with a multi-layer hidden Markov random field structure. The resulting method constructs for a single image several, alternative...... segmentations that capture different structural elements of the image. We also apply the method to collections of images with identical pixel dimensions, which we call image stacks. Here it turns out that the method is able to both identify groups of similar images in the stack, and to provide segmentations...

  8. The Design Social: Framing social research methods for design postgraduates.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses approaches for framing social research methods within postgraduate design curricula, details the responses of postgraduate design students to the possibilities presented by social research methods, and concludes with a case study of the adoption experiences of PhD students in design when engaging with social research methods. Analysis of semi-structured interviews is employed to draw out perceptions and experiences of design postgraduates when engaging with social researc...

  9. Novel design method for generalized lattice filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Søren; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard; Leick, Lasse

    2003-01-01

    A new design method for wide-band gain equalizers using cascaded MZI's is proposed. The method achieves a given accuracy with fewer stages than previously described methods. Furthermore, the method is capable of minimizing PDL.......A new design method for wide-band gain equalizers using cascaded MZI's is proposed. The method achieves a given accuracy with fewer stages than previously described methods. Furthermore, the method is capable of minimizing PDL....

  10. Flexural characteristics of a stack leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-06-01

    A 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator is at present under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The insulating stack of the machine is of modular construction, each module being 860 mm in length. Each live section stack module contains 8 insulating legs mounted between bulkhead rings. The design, fabrication (from glass discs bonded to stainless steel discs using an epoxy film adhesive) and testing of the stack legs is described. (U.K.)

  11. Understanding Creativity Methods in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2017-01-01

    framework, we use these key concepts to analyze three recognized creativity methods that we have often used ourselves: Inspiration Card Workshops, Fictional Inquiry, and Extreme Characters. Our analytical framework expands current categorizations of methods and offers new insight into how creativity methods...

  12. Métodos simplificados para o problema de minimização de pilhas abertas Simplified methods for the minimization of open stacks problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moreira de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta dois métodos para a solução do Problema de Minimização de Pilhas Abertas (ou MOSP, de Minimization of Open Stacks Problem, um problema de sequenciamento de padrões oriundo do contexto de produção de peças, cuja aplicação industrial é direta. O primeiro é relativo a uma heurística baseada em teoria de grafos e critérios gulosos, enquanto o segundo é relativo a um método de programação dinâmica. Os resultados do experimento realizado comprovam a eficácia das simplificações propostas quando comparadas com os métodos da literatura.This paper presents two methods for solving the minimization of open stack problem (MOSP, a pattern sequencing problem found in production systems with direct industrial application. The first method refers to a heuristic based on graph theory and greedy criteria, while the second refers to the dynamic programming method. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed simplifications compared to the methods reported in the literature.

  13. Design theory methods and organization for innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Le Masson, Pascal; Hatchuel, Armand

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the core of recent advances in design theory and its implications for design methods and design organization. Providing a unified perspective on different design methods and approaches, from the most classic (systematic design) to the most advanced (C-K theory), it offers a unique and integrated presentation of traditional and contemporary theories in the field. Examining the principles of each theory, this guide utilizes numerous real life industrial applications, with clear links to engineering design, industrial design, management, economics, psychology and creativity. Containing a section of exams with detailed answers, it is useful for courses in design theory, engineering design and advanced innovation management. "Students and professors, practitioners and researchers in diverse disciplines, interested in design, will find in this book a rich and vital source for studying fundamental design methods and tools as well as the most advanced design theories that work in practice". Pro...

  14. An unsupervised machine learning method for delineating stratum corneum in reflectance confocal microscopy stacks of human skin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Alican; Kose, Kivanc; Fox, Christi A.; Dy, Jennifer; Brooks, Dana H.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2016-02-01

    Study of the stratum corneum (SC) in human skin is important for research in barrier structure and function, drug delivery, and water permeability of skin. The optical sectioning and high resolution of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) allows visual examination of SC non-invasively. Here, we present an unsupervised segmentation algorithm that can automatically delineate thickness of the SC in RCM images of human skin in-vivo. We mimic clinicians visual process by applying complex wavelet transform over non-overlapping local regions of size 16 x 16 μm called tiles, and analyze the textural changes in between consecutive tiles in axial (depth) direction. We use dual-tree complex wavelet transform to represent textural structures in each tile. This transform is almost shift-invariant, and directionally selective, which makes it highly efficient in texture representation. Using DT-CWT, we decompose each tile into 6 directional sub-bands with orientations in +/-15, 45, and 75 degrees and a low-pass band, which is the decimated version of the input. We apply 3 scales of decomposition by recursively transforming the low-pass bands and obtain 18 bands of different directionality at different scales. We then calculate mean and variance of each band resulting in a feature vector of 36 entries. Feature vectors obtained for each stack of tiles in axial direction are then clustered using spectral clustering in order to detect the textural changes in depth direction. Testing on a set of 15 RCM stacks produced a mean error of 5.45+/-1.32 μm, compared to the "ground truth" segmentation provided by a clinical expert reader.

  15. Design methods as discourse on practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a view of design methods as discourse on practice. We consider how the deployment of a particular set of design methods enables and constrains not only practical action but also discursive action within the design practice. A case study of agile software development...... methods illustrates the ways that methods establish conditions for who can speak in the design process and how. We indentify three main kinds of discourse work performed in the invoking of design methods. These are the establishing of ontologies, the authorizing of voices, and the legitimizing...

  16. Biomimetic design method for innovation and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Helfman Cohen, Yael

    2017-01-01

    Presenting a novel biomimetic design method for transferring design solutions from nature to technology, this book focuses on structure-function patterns in nature and advanced modeling tools derived from TRIZ, the theory of inventive problem-solving. The book includes an extensive literature review on biomimicry as an engine of both innovation and sustainability, and discusses in detail the biomimetic design process, current biomimetic design methods and tools. The structural biomimetic design method for innovation and sustainability put forward in this text encompasses (1) the research method and rationale used to develop and validate this new design method; (2) the suggested design algorithm and tools including the Findstructure database, structure-function patterns and ideality patterns; and (3) analyses of four case studies describing how to use the proposed method. This book offers an essential resource for designers who wish to use nature as a source of inspiration and knowledge, innovators and sustain...

  17. Passive stack ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, J.; Parkins, L.; Shaw, P.; Watkins, R. [Databuild, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The adequate ventilation of houses is essential for both the occupants and the building fabric. As air-tightness standards increase, background infiltration levels decrease and extra ventilation has to be designed into the building. Passive stack ventilation has many advantages - particularly when employed in low cost housing schemes -but it is essential that it performs satisfactorily. This paper give the results from monitoring two passive stack ventilation schemes. One scheme was a retrofit into refurbished local authority houses in which a package of energy efficiency measures had been taken and condensation had been a problem. The other series of tests were conducted on a new installation in a Housing Association development. Nine houses were monitored each of which had at least two passive vents. The results show air flow rates by the passive ducts equivalent to approximately 1 room air change per hour. The air flow in the ducts was influenced by both, internal to external temperature difference and wind speed and direction. (author)

  18. Hydrogen Embrittlement And Stacking-Fault Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, R. A.; Johnson, M. H.; Davis, J. H.; Oh, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    Embrittlement in Ni/Cu alloys appears related to stacking-fault porbabilities. Report describes attempt to show a correlation between stacking-fault energy of different Ni/Cu alloys and susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. Correlation could lead to more fundamental understanding and method of predicting susceptibility of given Ni/Cu alloy form stacking-fault energies calculated from X-ray diffraction measurements.

  19. Design and performance of a passive dosimeter consisting of a stack of photostimulable phosphor (PSP) imaging plates (IP) based on BaF(Br, I):Eu2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Paul Negre

    2011-07-01

    This manuscript presents an original concept of passive, lightweight, and compact dosimeter based on a stack of BaFBr:Eu 2+ photostimulable phosphor plates (Image Plate) alternating with high-Z metal screens. It describes the manufacture and the method to calibrate the dosimeter. This method consists in using a Co 60 standard source and Monte Carlo N-Particle codes (MCNPX/MCNP5) to apply them to a large area of radiation energies, such as quasi mono-energetic radiation (Gamma rays decay of radioactive isotope, X-ray fluorescence), or continuous radiation spectra (Bremsstrahlung radiation, synchrotron light source). The measurement recurrence in the stack of couples 'metallic foil / IP' ensures consistency measurements, determines the threshold depth of electronic equilibrium (depending on the radiation energy) and allows us to infer the absolute dose in air (Kerma). The depth-dose curve in the stack and transmission measurements provide an estimate of the effective energy of incident radiations, report the presence of parasite scattered radiations and allow us to discriminate the nature of ionizing particles. The 2D features of the device are used to characterize the ballistic fate of charged particles in material thickness, which is of great interest with narrow particles beams. This dosimeter has remarkable advantages over other passive dosimeters, including a dynamic range larger than 10 7 of linear photon dose detection from less than 0.5 μGy and up to several Gy for radiation energies between a few tens of keV and more than 10 MeV (20 MeV with Bremsstrahlung X-ray spectra). This concept originality consists in almost immediately getting the measurement results after an exposure and a single pass reading of the dosimeter. It can respond positively to most of the usual needs in radiation metrology: personal or environmental dosimetry (radiation protection); Controls / characterization / mapping around materials and emitting ionizing radiation devices

  20. Design methods as discourse on practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a view of design methods as discourse on practice. We consider how the deployment of a particular set of design methods enables and constrains not only practical action but also discursive action within the design practice. A case study of agile software development...

  1. High-throughput computer method for 3D neuronal structure reconstruction from the image stack of the Drosophila brain and its applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chang Lee

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster is a well-studied model organism, especially in the field of neurophysiology and neural circuits. The brain of the Drosophila is small but complex, and the image of a single neuron in the brain can be acquired using confocal microscopy. Analyzing the Drosophila brain is an ideal start to understanding the neural structure. The most fundamental task in studying the neural network of Drosophila is to reconstruct neuronal structures from image stacks. Although the fruit fly brain is small, it contains approximately 100,000 neurons. It is impossible to trace all the neurons manually. This study presents a high-throughput algorithm for reconstructing the neuronal structures from 3D image stacks collected by a laser scanning confocal microscope. The proposed method reconstructs the neuronal structure by applying the shortest path graph algorithm. The vertices in the graph are certain points on the 2D skeletons of the neuron in the slices. These points are close to the 3D centerlines of the neuron branches. The accuracy of the algorithm was verified using the DIADEM data set. This method has been adopted as part of the protocol of the FlyCircuit Database, and was successfully applied to process more than 16,000 neurons. This study also shows that further analysis based on the reconstruction results can be performed to gather more information on the neural network.

  2. Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420

  3. A cookbook method for Persuasive Game Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panote Siriaraya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in persuasive game design, there have been few methods which cover the complete process of game design that designers could draw upon in their practice. In this paper, the Persuasive Game Design method(PGD is presented as a non-directive approach for designing persuasive games including a practical hand-out. To better fit with the practical constraints encountered in game design, this method adopts a “cookbook” approach. A set of essential PGD components and tools are provided from which game designers can choose from, given their specific context and resources. Designers first consider the game design steps(“dishes” to use in creating their game and in each step, select which components(“ingredients” to take into account and tools(“utensils” to use. The proposed method, based on our experience as persuasive game researchers and design practitioners, is further refined using feedback from professional game designers. The paper concludes with a case study illustrating how to put the meal into practice. Overall, the method provides a useful contribution to the existing research domain by combining knowledge from game theory, game design and design methodology to create a structured yet flexible approach which covers the complete persuasive game design process for researchers, students and practitioners. 

  4. Geology Structure Identification Using Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM Method of Tomography Result in North West Java Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudra Irawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available North West Java Basin is a tertiary sedimentary basin which is located in the right of the western part of the Java island. North West Java Basin is geodynamic where currently located at the rear position of the path of the volcanic arc of Java that is the result of the India-Australia plate subduction to the south towards the Eurasian plate (Explanation of Sunda in the north. Geology structure observation is difficult to be conducted at Quaternary volcanicfield due to the classical problem at tropical region. In the study interpretation of fault structures can be done on a cross-section of Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM used prayer namely Hardware Key Device, ie Central Processing Unit: RedHat Enterprise Linux AS 5.0, prayer Monitor 24-inch pieces, Server: SGI altix 450/SuSe Linux Enterprise Server 9.0, 32 GB, 32 X 2,6 GHz Procesor, network: Gigabyte 1 Gb/s, and the software used is paradigm, product: Seismic Processing and Imaging. The third fault obtained in this study in accordance with the geological information derived from previous research conducted by geologists. The second general direction is northwest-southeast direction represented by Baribis fault, fault-fault in the Valley Cimandiri and Gunung Walat. This direction is often known as the directions Meratus (Meratus Trend. Meratus directions interpreted as directions that follow the pattern of continuous arc Cretaceous age to Meratus in Kalimantan.

  5. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  6. Design with the feet: walking methods and participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille; Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of walking methods and their relation to participatory design (PD). The paper includes a study of walking methods found in the literature and an empirical study of transect walks in a PD project. From this analysis, we identify central attributes of, and challenges...... to, PD walks. Walking with people in the context of design is a natural activity for the participatory designer, who acknowledges the importance of immersion and relationships in design. However, the various intentions of walking approaches indicate an underacknowledged awareness of walking methods...

  7. Fast and sensitive method to determine parabens by capillary electrophoresis using automatic reverse electrode polarity stacking mode: application to hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Alysson V F; Dolzan, Maressa D; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a fast and sensitive method for the determination of methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butylparaben in hair samples by capillary electrophoresis using automatic reverse electrode polarity stacking mode. In the proposed method, solutions are injected using the flush command of the analysis software (940 mbar) and the polarity switching is carried out automatically immediately after the sample injection. The advantages compared with conventional stacking methods are the increased analytical frequency, repeatability, and inter-day precision. All analyses were performed in a fused silica capillary (50 cm, 41.5 cm in effective length, 50 μm i.d.), and the background electrolyte was composed of 20 mmol L(-1) sodium tetraborate in 10 % of methanol, pH 9.3. For the reverse polarity, -25 kV/35 s was applied followed by application of +30 kV for the electrophoretic run. Temperature was set at 20 °C, and all analytes were monitored at 297 nm. The method showed acceptable linearity (r (2) > 0.997) in the studied range of 0.1-5.0 mg L(-1), limits of detection below 0.017 mg L(-1), and inter-day, intra-day, and instrumental precision better than 6.2, 3.6, and 4.6 %, respectively. Considering parabens is widely used as a preservative in many products and the reported possibility of damage to the hair and also to human health caused by these compounds, the proposed method was applied to evaluate the adsorption of parabens in hair samples. The results indicate that there is a greater adsorption of methylparaben compared to the other parabens tested and also dyed hairs had a greater adsorption capacity for parabens than natural hairs.

  8. Teaching Healthcare Design. Methods for Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankl, Kathrina

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare design requires empathetic understanding among all stakeholders and consequently the development of design for empathy. While design anthropological approaches are broadly discussed, spanning from social design to social innovation, analysis methods for human insights are less widely...... discussed in design. By evidence of a design course focusing on shared decision making (SDM), this paper promotes a blended set of methods, supporting enhanced understanding amongst stakeholders. The empirical data and the comparison with contemporary SDM studies indicate that student designers were able...... to address some of the most vividly discussed issues in the field: the adaption of SDM to the diversity of patients, the flow of information between the different stakeholders and the general knowledge on SDM by clinicians and the wider public. This paper provides design educators with a series of methods...

  9. General method for designing wave shape transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo; Wang, Jiafu

    2008-12-22

    An effective method for designing wave shape transformers (WSTs) is investigated by adopting the coordinate transformation theory. Following this method, the devices employed to transform electromagnetic (EM) wave fronts from one style with arbitrary shape and size to another style, can be designed. To verify this method, three examples in 2D spaces are also presented. Compared with the methods proposed in other literatures, this method offers the general procedure in designing WSTs, and thus is of great importance for the potential and practical applications possessed by such kinds of devices.

  10. HTGR analytical methods and design verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neylan, A.J.; Northup, T.E.

    1982-05-01

    Analytical methods for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) include development, update, verification, documentation, and maintenance of all computer codes for HTGR design and analysis. This paper presents selected nuclear, structural mechanics, seismic, and systems analytical methods related to the HTGR core. This paper also reviews design verification tests in the reactor core, reactor internals, steam generator, and thermal barrier

  11. Protocol design and implementation using formal methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; Vissers, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of formal methods that support correct protocol design and implementation. These methods are placed in the framework of a design methodology for distributed systems that was studied and developed within the ESPRIT II Lotosphere project (2304). The paper focuses on

  12. Development and Applications of a Stage Stacking Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sameer; Celestina, Mark L.; Adamczyk, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The preliminary design of multistage axial compressors in gas turbine engines is typically accomplished with mean-line methods. These methods, which rely on empirical correlations, estimate compressor performance well near the design point, but may become less reliable off-design. For land-based applications of gas turbine engines, off-design performance estimates are becoming increasingly important, as turbine plant operators desire peaking or load-following capabilities and hot-day operability. The current work develops a one-dimensional stage stacking procedure, including a newly defined blockage term, which is used to estimate the off-design performance and operability range of a 13-stage axial compressor used in a power generating gas turbine engine. The new blockage term is defined to give mathematical closure on static pressure, and values of blockage are shown to collapse to curves as a function of stage inlet flow coefficient and corrected shaft speed. In addition to these blockage curves, the stage stacking procedure utilizes stage characteristics of ideal work coefficient and adiabatic efficiency. These curves are constructed using flow information extracted from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of groups of stages within the compressor. Performance estimates resulting from the stage stacking procedure are shown to match the results of CFD simulations of the entire compressor to within 1.6% in overall total pressure ratio and within 0.3 points in overall adiabatic efficiency. Utility of the stage stacking procedure is demonstrated by estimation of the minimum corrected speed which allows stable operation of the compressor. Further utility of the stage stacking procedure is demonstrated with a bleed sensitivity study, which estimates a bleed schedule to expand the compressors operating range.

  13. Culture, Interface Design, and Design Methods for Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Pyo

    Aesthetic differences and similarities among cultures are obviously one of the very important issues in cultural design. However, ever since products became knowledge-supporting tools, the visible elements of products have become more universal so that the invisible parts of products such as interface and interaction are getting more important. Therefore, the cultural design should be extended to the invisible elements of culture like people's conceptual models beyond material and phenomenal culture. This chapter aims to explain how we address the invisible cultural elements in interface design and design methods by exploring the users' cognitive styles and communication patterns in different cultures. Regarding cultural interface design, we examined users' conceptual models while interacting with mobile phone and website interfaces, and observed cultural difference in performing tasks and viewing patterns, which appeared to agree with cultural cognitive styles known as Holistic thoughts vs. Analytic thoughts. Regarding design methods for culture, we explored how to localize design methods such as focus group interview and generative session for specific cultural groups, and the results of comparative experiments revealed cultural difference on participants' behaviors and performance in each design method and led us to suggest how to conduct them in East Asian culture. Mobile Observation Analyzer and Wi-Pro, user research tools we invented to capture user behaviors and needs especially in their mobile context, were also introduced.

  14. The stack on software and sovereignty

    CERN Document Server

    Bratton, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive political and design theory of planetary-scale computation proposing that The Stack -- an accidental megastructure -- is both a technological apparatus and a model for a new geopolitical architecture.

  15. Sport stacking motor intervention programme for children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to explore sport stacking as an alternative intervention approach with typically developing children and in addition to improve DCD. Sport stacking consists of participants stacking and unstacking 12 specially designed plastic cups in predetermined sequences in as little time as possible.

  16. Participatory design methods in telemedicine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette Juel

    together with the patients. Participatory design is a research design and methodology that encourages the participation of users in the design process of technological solutions. Therefore, it has a potential for designing technologies that actually reflect the needs of the users, why it is relevant within...... telemedicine. The aim of this presentation is to explain the process and theoretical framework of a PD project; give an example of a project including the applied methods, and to determine its application to telemedicine with focus on the rationale for genuine participation. Theory: Participation implies....... Methods: Key activities of a Participatory Design project comprise methods such as fieldwork; literature reviewing; development and testing, and user activities as workshops. Methods that support telling, making, enacting. For instance telling activities as drivers for participation, where practitioners...

  17. Status of MCFC stack technology at IHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosaka, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Otsubo, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising option for highly efficient power generation possible to enlarge. IHI has been studying parallel flow MCFC stacks with internal manifolds that have a large electrode area of 1m{sup 2}. IHI will make two 250 kW stacks for MW plant, and has begun to make cell components for the plant. To improve the stability of stack, soft corrugated plate used in the separator has been developed, and a way of gathering current from stacks has been studied. The DC output potential of the plant being very high, the design of electric insulation will be very important. A 20 kW short stack test was conducted in 1995 FY to certificate some of the improvements and components of the MW plant. These activities are presented below.

  18. OpenStack essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Radez, Dan

    2015-01-01

    If you need to get started with OpenStack or want to learn more, then this book is your perfect companion. If you're comfortable with the Linux command line, you'll gain confidence in using OpenStack.

  19. Mastering OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Khedher, Omar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators, cloud engineers, and system architects who want to deploy a cloud based on OpenStack in a mid- to large-sized IT infrastructure. If you have a fundamental understanding of cloud computing and OpenStack and want to expand your knowledge, then this book is an excellent checkpoint to move forward.

  20. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  1. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  2. Development of New Bituminous Pavement Design Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    The report and work of COST Action 333 sets in place the foundation for a coherent, cost-effective and harmonised European pavement design method. In order to do this, the work programme focused on information gathering, identification of requirements and the selection of the necessary design...

  3. Mechatronic Systems Design Methods, Models, Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Janschek, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In this textbook, fundamental methods for model-based design of mechatronic systems are presented in a systematic, comprehensive form. The method framework presented here comprises domain-neutral methods for modeling and performance analysis: multi-domain modeling (energy/port/signal-based), simulation (ODE/DAE/hybrid systems), robust control methods, stochastic dynamic analysis, and quantitative evaluation of designs using system budgets. The model framework is composed of analytical dynamic models for important physical and technical domains of realization of mechatronic functions, such as multibody dynamics, digital information processing and electromechanical transducers. Building on the modeling concept of a technology-independent generic mechatronic transducer, concrete formulations for electrostatic, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, and electrodynamic transducers are presented. More than 50 fully worked out design examples clearly illustrate these methods and concepts and enable independent study of th...

  4. Reliability prediction of large fuel cell stack based on structure stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. F.; Liu, B.; Wu, C. W.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the reliability of Proton Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) stack by designing the clamping force and the thickness difference between the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and the gasket. The stack reliability is directly determined by the component reliability, which is affected by the material property and contact stress. The component contact stress is a random variable because it is usually affected by many uncertain factors in the production and clamping process. We have investigated the influences of parameter variation coefficient on the probability distribution of contact stress using the equivalent stiffness model and the first-order second moment method. The optimal contact stress to make the component stay in the highest level reliability is obtained by the stress-strength interference model. To obtain the optimal contact stress between the contact components, the optimal thickness of the component and the stack clamping force are optimally designed. Finally, a detailed description is given how to design the MEA and gasket dimensions to obtain the highest stack reliability. This work can provide a valuable guidance in the design of stack structure for a high reliability of fuel cell stack.

  5. Notes on G-theory of Deligne-Mumford stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Toen, B.

    1999-01-01

    Based on the methods used by the author to prove the Riemann-Roch formula for algebraic stacks, this paper contains a description of the rationnal G-theory of Deligne-Mumford stacks over general bases. We will use these results to study equivariant K-theory, and also to define new filtrations on K-theory of algebraic stacks.

  6. Comprehensive design method for earthbag and superadobe structures

    OpenAIRE

    Canadell Ruiz, Samuel; Blanco Álvarez, Ana; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The earthbag and superadobe techniques consist of introducing soil in degradable bags that are stacked to form adobe structures. They represent sustainable, rapid and low-cost alternatives for the construction of social housing, emergency shelter and ecovillages with the resources available at each location. Despite their potential, several aspects still compromise the efficient and safe use of these techniques. For instance, the design of the structures is currently based on empirical or sem...

  7. Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods...

  8. DEVS Models of Palletized Ground Stacking in Storeyed Grain Warehouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Processed grain stored in storeyed warehouse is generally stacked on the ground without pallets. However, in order to improve the storing way, we developed a new stacking method, palletized ground stacking. Simulation should be used to present this new storing way. DEVS provides a formalized way to describe the system model. In this paper, DEVS models of palletized ground stacking in storeyed grain warehouse are given and a simulation model is developed by AutoMod.

  9. Monte Carlo methods for shield design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.

    1974-01-01

    A suite of Monte Carlo codes is being developed for use on a routine basis in commercial reactor shield design. The methods adopted for this purpose include the modular construction of codes, simplified geometries, automatic variance reduction techniques, continuous energy treatment of cross section data, and albedo methods for streaming. Descriptions are given of the implementation of these methods and of their use in practical calculations. 26 references. (U.S.)

  10. Proposal of stack Effect technology for predicted future years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teddy Badai Samodra, FX; Adi Indrawan, Iwan

    2017-12-01

    Recently, stack effect is a general problem solver in providing vertical ventilation for urban environmental issues. However, study on resilient technology of stack effect for future years as predicted by climate trend should be conducted. Therefore, this research proposes a design of new technology on operable and adaptable vertical ventilation to the environmental change. The research method is conducted by comprehensive simulation of Ecotect Analysis, ANSYS Fluent and Matlab. Urban environment of Surabaya, as the research location, is the representative of tropical region. The results showed that the stack effect height and area could be modified instantly adjusting the environmental condition time by time in the future years. With 1.8 m of stack width, the proposed technology could capture 40 m3 of vertical air flow which is useful for physiological cooling and its dimension could be modified depending on the environmental condition. By providing resilient technology, predictable and sustainable ventilation method is offered to anticipate an unpredicted global warming and environmental change.

  11. Highly Efficient, Durable Regenerative Solid Oxide Stack, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a highly efficient regenerative solid oxide stack design. Novel structural elements allow direct internal...

  12. Design of heat exchangers by numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuk, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Differential equations describing the heat tranfer in shell - and tube heat exchangers are derived and solved numerically. The method of ΔT sub(lm) is compared with the proposed method in cases where the specific heat at constant pressure, Cp and the overall heat transfer coefficient, U, vary with temperature. The error of the method of ΔT sub (lm) for the computation of the exchanger lenght is less than + 10%. However, the numerical method, being more accurate and at the same time easy to use and economical, is recommended for the design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers. (Author) [pt

  13. Tunable electro-optic filter stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa

    2017-09-05

    A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.

  14. Device application of AgGa0.5In0.5Se2 thin films deposited by thermal sequential stacked layer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, E.; Güllü, H. H.; Parlak, M.

    2014-12-01

    An In/n-AgGa0.5In0.5Se2/p-Si/Al heterostructure was produced by thermal sequential stacked layer deposition method and the device characteristics were investigated. The compositional analysis showed that the depositions of the intended stoichiometric composition of AgGa0.5In0.5Se2 structure were obtainable by controlling and providing the necessary deposition conditions during the deposition processes. By means of the room temperature Hall effect and transmission measurements, the carrier concentration and optical band gap values were determined as 9× {{10}15} cm-3 and 1.65 eV, respectively. In addition, temperature-dependent current-voltage (I-V) and the room temperature capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of this heterostructure were carried out. The rectification factor was obtained as about 104 at 1.20 V for all sample temperatures. Depending on the change in the temperature, the series and shunt resistances were calculated as 101 and 106 Ω, respectively. The studies on the current transport mechanisms showed that there were two different mechanisms at two different voltage regions: tunneling enhanced recombination mechanism in the voltage range of 0.08 and 0.30 V and the space charge limited current mechanism in the voltage range of 0.30 and 0.60 V. The barrier height, built-in potential and interface states density of the deposited heterostructure were also calculated and discussed.

  15. Design Methods for Young Sustainable Architecture Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauslin, D.; Drexler, H.; Curiel, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces landscape aesthetics as an innovative design method for sustainable architecture. It is based on the framework of a recent paper where the young and unfamous authors criticized three of the most prominent? architects today in regard to sustainable architecture and its

  16. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  17. The 'Delft design method' for hydraulic engineers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorendt, M.Z.

    2015-01-01

    This report intends to stimulate the discussion about enhancing and tuning the application of the traditional method for engineering design projects for educational purposes at Delft University of Technology - and possibly for the engineering practice as well. It aims at creating awareness of

  18. Development of the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kotani, Ikuo [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Kobe (Japan); Morotomi, Isamu [Kansai Electric Power Co., Hyogo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Kansai Electric Power Co. and Mitsubishi Electric Co. have been developing the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack operated under the ambient pressure. The new cell design have been developed, so that the large scale cell (1 m{sup 2} size) was adopted for the stack. To confirm the performance and the stability of the 1 m{sup 2} scale cell design, the short stack study had been performed.

  19. Participatory Design Methods for Collaboration and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Wood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Website redesigns can be contentious and fraught in any type of organization, and libraries are no exception. Coming to consensus on priorities and design decisions is nearly impossible, as different groups compete to ensure their subject or specialty area is represented. To keep projects on track and on time, libraries may give a few staff members the authority to make all of the decisions, while keeping user research limited to a small number of usability tests. While these tactics are sometimes necessary, at best they can leave many feeling left out of the process, and at worst, can result in major oversights in the final design. Participatory design methods can bring users and stakeholders into the design process and ultimately lead to a better design and less friction in the project. The authors share their experience and lessons learned using participatory design techniques in a website redesign project at a large, multi-location academic library, and how these techniques facilitated communication, shaped design decisions, and kept a complex, difficult project on track.

  20. A design method of thermoelectric cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.J.; Chin, C.J.; Duang, C.L. [National Taiwan University, Taipei (Taiwan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2000-05-01

    A system design method of thermoelectric cooler is developed in the present study. The design calculation utilizes the performance curve of the thermoelectric module that is determined experimentally. An automatic test apparatus was designed and built to illustrate the testing. The performance test results of the module are used to determine the physical properties and derive an empirical relation for the performance of thermoelectric module. These results are then used in the system analysis of a thermoelectric cooler using a thermal network model. The thermal resistance of heat sink is chosen as one of the key parameters in the design of a thermoelectric cooler. The system simulation shows that there exists a cheapest heat sink for the design of a thermoelectric cooler. It is also shown that the system simulation coincides with experimental data of a thermoelectric cooler using an air-cooled heat sink with thermal resistance 0.2515{sup o}C/W. An optimal design of thermoelectric cooler at the conditions of optimal COP is also studied. The optimal design can be made either on the basis of the maximum value of the optimal cooling capacity, or on the basis of the best heat sink technology available. (author)

  1. 3.6 simplified methods for design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.; Yahr, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    Simplified design analysis methods for elevated temperature construction are classified and reviewed. Because the major impetus for developing elevated temperature design methodology during the past ten years has been the LMFBR program, considerable emphasis is placed upon results from this source. The operating characteristics of the LMFBR are such that cycles of severe transient thermal stresses can be interspersed with normal elevated temperature operational periods of significant duration, leading to a combination of plastic and creep deformation. The various simplified methods are organized into two general categories, depending upon whether it is the material, or constitutive, model that is reduced, or the geometric modeling that is simplified. Because the elastic representation of material behavior is so prevalent, an entire section is devoted to elastic analysis methods. Finally, the validation of the simplified procedures is discussed

  2. Numerical methods for the design of gradient-index optical coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzengruber, Stephan W; Klann, Esther; Ramlau, Ronny; Tonova, Diana

    2012-12-01

    We formulate the problem of designing gradient-index optical coatings as the task of solving a system of operator equations. We use iterative numerical procedures known from the theory of inverse problems to solve it with respect to the coating refractive index profile and thickness. The mathematical derivations necessary for the application of the procedures are presented, and different numerical methods (Landweber, Newton, and Gauss-Newton methods, Tikhonov minimization with surrogate functionals) are implemented. Procedures for the transformation of the gradient coating designs into quasi-gradient ones (i.e., multilayer stacks of homogeneous layers with different refractive indices) are also developed. The design algorithms work with physically available coating materials that could be produced with the modern coating technologies.

  3. Reliability Methods for Shield Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space operations. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. An important component of this technology is the estimation of two most commonly identified uncertainties in radiation shield design, the shielding properties of materials used and the understanding of the biological response of the astronaut to the radiation leaking through the materials into the living space. The largest uncertainty, of course, is in the biological response to especially high charge and energy (HZE) ions of the galactic cosmic rays. These uncertainties are blended with the optimization design procedure to formulate reliability-based methods for shield design processes. The details of the methods will be discussed.

  4. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  5. On Stack Reconstruction Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Аkeliev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes analytical investigations that study relation of fuel combustion regimes with concentration values of sulphur anhydride in flue gases and acid dew point. Coefficients of convective heat transfer at internal and external surfaces of stacks have been determined in the paper. The paper reveals the possibility to reconstruct stacks while using gas discharging channel made of composite material on the basis of glass-reinforced plastic which permits to reduce thermo-stressed actions on reinforced concrete and increase volume of released gases due to practically two-fold reduction of gas-dynamic pressure losses along the pipe length.

  6. Wearable solar cells by stacking textile electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shaowu; Yang, Zhibin; Chen, Peining; Deng, Jue; Li, Houpu; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-06-10

    A new and general method to produce flexible, wearable dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) textiles by the stacking of two textile electrodes has been developed. A metal-textile electrode that was made from micrometer-sized metal wires was used as a working electrode, while the textile counter electrode was woven from highly aligned carbon nanotube fibers with high mechanical strengths and electrical conductivities. The resulting DSC textile exhibited a high energy conversion efficiency that was well maintained under bending. Compared with the woven DSC textiles that are based on wire-shaped devices, this stacked DSC textile unexpectedly exhibited a unique deformation from a rectangle to a parallelogram, which is highly desired in portable electronics. This lightweight and wearable stacked DSC textile is superior to conventional planar DSCs because the energy conversion efficiency of the stacked DSC textile was independent of the angle of incident light. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Design Methods for Young Sustainable Architecture Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jauslin, D.; Drexler, H.; Curiel, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces landscape aesthetics as an innovative design method for sustainable architecture. It is based on the framework of a recent paper where the young and unfamous authors criticized three of the most prominent? architects today in regard to sustainable architecture and its aesthetics. Leading architects expressed their skepticism as to whether there is such a thing as aesthetics in sustainable architecture, or for that matter, if architecture can indeed be sustainable at all....

  8. Using a method based on Potts Model to segment a micro-CT image stack of trabecular bones of femoral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Pedro H.A. de; Cabral, Manuela O.M.; Lima, Fernando R. De A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure Computational Models are composed basically of an anthropomorphic phantom, a Monte Carlo (MC) code, and an algorithm simulator of the radioactive source. Tomographic phantoms are developed from medical images and must be pre-processed and segmented before being coupled to a MC code (which simulates the interaction of radiation with matter). This work presents a methodology used for treatment of micro-CT images stack of a femur, obtained from a 30 year old female skeleton provided by the Imaging Laboratory for Anthropology of the University of Bristol, UK. These images contain resolution of 60 micrometers and from these a block containing only 160 x 60 x 160 pixels of trabecular tissues and bone marrow was cut and saved as ⁎.sgi file (header + ⁎.raw file). The Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica (Recife-PE, Brazil) developed a software named Digital Image Processing (DIP), in which a method for segmentation based on a physical model for particle interaction known as Potts Model (or q-Ising) was implemented. This model analyzes the statistical dependence between sites in a network. In Potts Model, when the values of spin variables at neighboring sites are identical, it is assigned an 'energy of interaction' between them. Otherwise, it is said that the sites do not interact. Making an analogy between network sites and the pixels of a digital image and, moreover, between the spins variables and the intensity of the gray scale, it was possible to apply this model to obtain texture descriptors and segment the image. (author)

  9. Using a method based on Potts Model to segment a micro-CT image stack of trabecular bones of femoral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Pedro H.A. de; Cabral, Manuela O.M., E-mail: andrade.pha@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Vieira, Jose W.; Correia, Filipe L. de B., E-mail: jose.wilson59@uol.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R. De A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Exposure Computational Models are composed basically of an anthropomorphic phantom, a Monte Carlo (MC) code, and an algorithm simulator of the radioactive source. Tomographic phantoms are developed from medical images and must be pre-processed and segmented before being coupled to a MC code (which simulates the interaction of radiation with matter). This work presents a methodology used for treatment of micro-CT images stack of a femur, obtained from a 30 year old female skeleton provided by the Imaging Laboratory for Anthropology of the University of Bristol, UK. These images contain resolution of 60 micrometers and from these a block containing only 160 x 60 x 160 pixels of trabecular tissues and bone marrow was cut and saved as ⁎.sgi file (header + ⁎.raw file). The Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica (Recife-PE, Brazil) developed a software named Digital Image Processing (DIP), in which a method for segmentation based on a physical model for particle interaction known as Potts Model (or q-Ising) was implemented. This model analyzes the statistical dependence between sites in a network. In Potts Model, when the values of spin variables at neighboring sites are identical, it is assigned an 'energy of interaction' between them. Otherwise, it is said that the sites do not interact. Making an analogy between network sites and the pixels of a digital image and, moreover, between the spins variables and the intensity of the gray scale, it was possible to apply this model to obtain texture descriptors and segment the image. (author)

  10. A Time-predictable Stack Cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspour, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to le...... of a cache for stack allocated data. Our port of the LLVM C++ compiler supports the management of the stack cache. The combination of stack cache instructions and the hardware implementation of the stack cache is a further step towards timepredictable architectures.......Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to less...... precise results of the cache analysis part of the WCET analysis. Splitting the data cache for different data areas enables composable data cache analysis. The WCET analysis tool can analyze the accesses to these different data areas independently. In this paper we present the design and implementation...

  11. po_stack_movie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    po_stack® er et reolsystem, hvis enkle elementer giver stor flexibilitet, variation og skulpturel virkning. Elementerne stables og forskydes frit, så reolens rum kan vendes til begge sider, være åbne eller lukkede og farvekombineres ubegrænset. Reolen kan let ombygges, udvides eller opdeles, når ...

  12. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  13. Evolutionary optimization methods for accelerator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklonskiy, Alexey A.

    Many problems from the fields of accelerator physics and beam theory can be formulated as optimization problems and, as such, solved using optimization methods. Despite growing efficiency of the optimization methods, the adoption of modern optimization techniques in these fields is rather limited. Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) form a relatively new and actively developed optimization methods family. They possess many attractive features such as: ease of the implementation, modest requirements on the objective function, a good tolerance to noise, robustness, and the ability to perform a global search efficiently. In this work we study the application of EAs to problems from accelerator physics and beam theory. We review the most commonly used methods of unconstrained optimization and describe the GATool, evolutionary algorithm and the software package, used in this work, in detail. Then we use a set of test problems to assess its performance in terms of computational resources, quality of the obtained result, and the tradeoff between them. We justify the choice of GATool as a heuristic method to generate cutoff values for the COSY-GO rigorous global optimization package for the COSY Infinity scientific computing package. We design the model of their mutual interaction and demonstrate that the quality of the result obtained by GATool increases as the information about the search domain is refined, which supports the usefulness of this model. We Giscuss GATool's performance on the problems suffering from static and dynamic noise and study useful strategies of GATool parameter tuning for these and other difficult problems. We review the challenges of constrained optimization with EAs and methods commonly used to overcome them. We describe REPA, a new constrained optimization method based on repairing, in exquisite detail, including the properties of its two repairing techniques: REFIND and REPROPT. We assess REPROPT's performance on the standard constrained

  14. Design methods of rhombic tensegrity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xi-Qiao; Li, Yue; Cao, Yan-Ping; Yu, Shou-Wen; Gu, Yuan-Tong

    2010-08-01

    As a special type of novel flexible structures, tensegrity holds promise for many potential applications in such fields as materials science, biomechanics, civil and aerospace engineering. Rhombic systems are an important class of tensegrity structures, in which each bar constitutes the longest diagonal of a rhombus of four strings. In this paper, we address the design methods of rhombic structures based on the idea that many tensegrity structures can be constructed by assembling one-bar elementary cells. By analyzing the properties of rhombic cells, we first develop two novel schemes, namely, direct enumeration scheme and cell-substitution scheme. In addition, a facile and efficient method is presented to integrate several rhombic systems into a larger tensegrity structure. To illustrate the applications of these methods, some novel rhombic tensegrity structures are constructed.

  15. Prototype particulate stack sampler with single-cut nozzle and microcomputer calculating/display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eler, J.C.; Littlefield, L.G.; Tillery, M.I.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype particulate stack sampler (PPSS) has been developed to improve on the existing EPA Method 5 sampling apparatus. Its primary features are (1) higher sampling rate (56 1/min); (2) display (on demand) of all required variables and calculated values by a microcomputer-based calculating and display system; (3) continuous stack gas moisture determination; (4) a virtual impactor nozzle with 3 μm mass median diameter cutpoint which collects fine and coarse particle fractions on separate glass fiber filters; (5) a variable-area inlet to maintain isokinetic sampling conditions; and (6) conversion to stainless steel components from the glass specified by EPA Method 5. The basic sampling techniques of EPA Method 5 have been retained; however, versatility in the form of optional in-stack filters and general modernization of the stack sampler have been provided in the prototype design. Laboratory testing with monodisperse dye aerosols has shown the present variable inlet, virtual impactor nozzle to have a collection efficiency which is less than 77% and significant wall losses. This is primarily due to lack of symmetry in this rectangular jet impactor and short transition lengths dictated by physical design constraints (required passage of the nozzle through a 7.6 cm (3 in) diameter stack port). Electronic components have shown acceptable service in laboratory testing although no field testing of the prototype under a broad range of temperature, humidity, and SO 2 concentration has been undertaken

  16. Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.

    2012-01-01

    As solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, lifetime limiting factors, determination of the limits of safe operation and methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating cells and stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires applica...... out at a range of ac perturbation amplitudes in order to investigate linearity of the response and the signal-to-noise ratio. Separation of the measured impedance into series and polarisation resistances was possible....... to analyse in detail. Today one is forced to use mathematical modelling to extract information about existing gradients and cell resistances in operating stacks, as mature techniques for local probing are not available. This type of spatially resolved information is essential for model refinement...... and validation, and helps to further the technological stack development. Further, more detailed information obtained from operating stacks is essential for developing appropriate process monitoring and control protocols for stack and system developers. An experimental stack with low ohmic resistance from Topsoe...

  17. Calculation of AC losses in HTS stacks and coils for large scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Zermeno, Victor Manuel; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    operation. Calculating these losses is fundamental for performance evaluation and design. In many cases, this boils down to computing AC losses in stacks of tapes that are subjected to transport current and/or applied magnetic field. In this work, we present a homogenization method to model a stack of HTS...... and Sokolovsky. We disregard assumptions upon the shape of the critical region and use a power law E-J relationship allowing for overcritical current densities to be considered. This plays an important role when considering transient response of devices or non-harmonic oscillations. The method presented here...

  18. Deterministic Search Methods for Computational Protein Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Seydou; Allouche, David; André, Isabelle; Schiex, Thomas; Barbe, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    One main challenge in Computational Protein Design (CPD) lies in the exploration of the amino-acid sequence space, while considering, to some extent, side chain flexibility. The exorbitant size of the search space urges for the development of efficient exact deterministic search methods enabling identification of low-energy sequence-conformation models, corresponding either to the global minimum energy conformation (GMEC) or an ensemble of guaranteed near-optimal solutions. In contrast to stochastic local search methods that are not guaranteed to find the GMEC, exact deterministic approaches always identify the GMEC and prove its optimality in finite but exponential worst-case time. After a brief overview on these two classes of methods, we discuss the grounds and merits of four deterministic methods that have been applied to solve CPD problems. These approaches are based either on the Dead-End-Elimination theorem combined with A* algorithm (DEE/A*), on Cost Function Networks algorithms (CFN), on Integer Linear Programming solvers (ILP) or on Markov Random Fields solvers (MRF). The way two of these methods (DEE/A* and CFN) can be used in practice to identify low-energy sequence-conformation models starting from a pairwise decomposed energy matrix is detailed in this review.

  19. Spam comments prediction using stacking with ensemble learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Arif; On, Byung-Won; Lee, Ingyu; Ashraf, Imran; Choi, Gyu Sang

    2018-01-01

    Illusive comments of product or services are misleading for people in decision making. The current methodologies to predict deceptive comments are concerned for feature designing with single training model. Indigenous features have ability to show some linguistic phenomena but are hard to reveal the latent semantic meaning of the comments. We propose a prediction model on general features of documents using stacking with ensemble learning. Term Frequency/Inverse Document Frequency (TF/IDF) features are inputs to stacking of Random Forest and Gradient Boosted Trees and the outputs of the base learners are encapsulated with decision tree to make final training of the model. The results exhibits that our approach gives the accuracy of 92.19% which outperform the state-of-the-art method.

  20. Relationship between stacking process and resolution; Jugo shori to bunkaino ni kansuru kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J.; Rokugawa, S.; Kato, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Yokota, T.; Miyazaki, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    This paper evaluates influences of stacking of incident angles against the reflecting surface on the resolution. Basic equations for evaluating the influences were deduced. A simple evaluation method has been provided using these equations. The present evaluation method is considered to be useful for acquisition design, processing, and interpretation of data as an indicator. According to the equations introduced in this study, there are some demerits for stacking traces whose incident angles were large. A total reflection region often appears due to the decreased resolution, and the vertical resolution decreases prior to stacking. Occasionally, it is not effective to remove traces having large incident angles from the viewpoint of resolution. In practice, the selection of most suitable trace through trial and error is not easy due to difference in individual regions. An evaluation method must be discussed, by which the optimal trace can be selected automatically during the data processing. 6 refs., 15 figs.

  1. Assessment of anthropometric methods in headset design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavrakos, Stavros-Konstantinos; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to assess consumer products for usability and comfort often involve expensive user trials. For external ear products such as headsets and bluetooth communication devices comfort is an issue leading to many concepts being rejected at the late stages of the product development...... process once prototypes are developed and tested. Current databases for anthropometric data e.g. Peoplesize Software [Peoplesize 2008] lack data regarding useful ear dimensions of the external ear area. This paper examines the incorporation of anthropometry in the design of external-ear devices, resulting...... in a faster development process and better quality products. Anthropometric dataset have been acquired through existing databases and a series of anthropometric methods performed on population samples. The context of the study is to assess the methods to collect data utilising a case study from the ear...

  2. Energy Expenditure of Sport Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Steven R.; Udermann, Brian E.; Reineke, David M.; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Sport stacking is an activity taught in many physical education programs. The activity, although very popular, has been studied minimally, and the energy expenditure for sport stacking is unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the energy expenditure of sport stacking in elementary school children and to compare that value…

  3. OpenStack cloud security

    CERN Document Server

    Locati, Fabio Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack administrator or developer, or wish to build solutions to protect your OpenStack environment, then this book is for you. Experience of Linux administration and familiarity with different OpenStack components is assumed.

  4. The computational optimization of heat exchange efficiency in stack chimneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Goch, T.A.J.

    2012-02-15

    For many industrial processes, the chimney is the final step before hot fumes, with high thermal energy content, are discharged into the atmosphere. Tapping into this energy and utilizing it for heating or cooling applications, could improve sustainability, efficiency and/or reduce operational costs. Alternatively, an unused chimney, like the monumental chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology, could serve as an 'energy channeler' once more; it can enhance free cooling by exploiting the stack effect. This study aims to identify design parameters that influence annual heat exchange in such stack chimney applications and optimize these parameters for specific scenarios to maximize the performance. Performance is defined by annual heat exchange, system efficiency and costs. The energy required for the water pump as compared to the energy exchanged, defines the system efficiency, which is expressed in an efficiency coefficient (EC). This study is an example of applying building performance simulation (BPS) tools for decision support in the early phase of the design process. In this study, BPS tools are used to provide design guidance, performance evaluation and optimization. A general method for optimization of simulation models will be studied, and applied in two case studies with different applications (heating/cooling), namely; (1) CERES case: 'Eindhoven University of Technology monumental stack chimney equipped with a heat exchanger, rejects heat to load the cold source of the aquifer system on the campus of the university and/or provides free cooling to the CERES building'; and (2) Industrial case: 'Heat exchanger in an industrial stack chimney, which recoups heat for use in e.g. absorption cooling'. The main research question, addressing the concerns of both cases, is expressed as follows: 'what is the optimal set of design parameters so heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually for the cases in which a

  5. Developments of an Interactive Sail Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Malpede

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new tool for performing the integrated design and analysis of a sail. The features of the system are the geometrical definition of a sail shape, using the Bezier surface method, the creation of a finite element model for the non-linear structural analysis and a fluid-dynamic model for the aerodynamic analysis. The system has been developed using MATLAB(r. Recent sail design efforts have been focused on solving the aeroelastic behavior of the sail. The pressure distribution on a sail changes continuously, by virtue of cloth stretch and flexing. The sail shape determines the pressure distribution and, at the same time, the pressure distribution on the sail stretches and flexes the sail material determining its shape. This characteristic non-linear behavior requires iterative solution strategies to obtain the equilibrium configuration and evaluate the forces involved. The aeroelastic problem is tackled by combining structural with aerodynamic analysis. Firstly, pressure loads for a known sail-shape are computed (aerodynamic analysis. Secondly, the sail-shape is analyzed for the obtained external loads (structural analysis. The final solution is obtained by using an iterative analysis process, which involves both aerodynamic and the structural analysis. When the solution converges, it is possible to make design modifications.

  6. Sampled-time control of a microbial fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghani, Hitesh C.; Dinsdale, Richard M.; Guwy, Alan J.; Premier, Giuliano C.

    2017-07-01

    Research into microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has reached the point where cubic metre-scale systems and stacks are being built and tested. Apart from performance enhancement through catalysis, materials and design, an important research area for industrial applicability is stack control, which can enhance MFCs stack power output. An MFC stack is controlled using a sampled-time digital control strategy, which has the advantage of intermittent operation with consequent power saving, and when used in a hybrid series stack connectivity, can avoid voltage reversals. A MFC stack comprising four tubular MFCs was operated hydraulically in series. Each MFC was connected to an independent controller and the stack was connected electrically in series, creating a hybrid-series connectivity. The voltage of each MFC in the stack was controlled such that the overall series stack voltage generated was the algebraic sum (1.26 V) of the individual MFC voltages (0.32, 0.32, 0.32 and 0.3). The controllers were able to control the individual voltages to the point where 2.52 mA was drawn from the stack at a load of 499.9 Ω (delivering 3.18 mW). The controllers were able to reject the disturbances and perturbations caused by electrical loading, temperature and substrate concentration.

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF PLY STACKING SEQUENCE OF COMPOSITE DRIVE SHAFT USING PARTICLE SWARM ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANNAKESHAVA K. R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to optimize ply stacking sequence of single piece E-Glass/Epoxy and Boron /Epoxy composite drive shafts using Particle swarm algorithm (PSA. PSA is a population based evolutionary stochastic optimization technique which is a resent heuristic search method, where mechanics are inspired by swarming or collaborative behavior of biological population. PSA programme is developed to optimize the ply stacking sequence with an objective of weight minimization by considering design constraints as torque transmission capacity, fundamental natural frequency, lateral vibration and torsional buckling strength having number of laminates, ply thickness and stacking sequence as design variables. The weight savings of the E-Glass/epoxy and Boron /Epoxy shaft from PAS were 51% and 85 % of the steel shaft respectively. The optimum results of PSA obtained are compared with results of genetic algorithm (GA results and found that PSA yields better results than GA.

  8. Design of an ultra-compact electro-absorption modulator comprised of a deposited TiN/HfO₂/ITO/Cu stack for CMOS backend integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shiyang; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L

    2014-07-28

    An ultra-compact electro-absorption (EA) modulator operating around 1.55-μm telecom wavelengths is proposed and theoretically investigated. The modulator is comprised of a stack of TiN/HfO2modulator inserted in the 400-nm × 340-nm-Si stripe waveguide exhibits insertion loss of 2.9 (3.2) dB and modulation depth of 19.9 (15.2) dB for the TE (TM) mode. The modulation speed is ~11 GHz, limited by the RC delay, and the energy consumption is ~0.4 pJ/bit. The stack can also be deposited on a low-index-contrast waveguide such as Si3N4. For example, a 4-μm-long EA modulator inserted in an 800-nm × 600-nm-Si3N4 stripe waveguide exhibits insertion loss of 6.3 (3.5) dB and modulation depth of 16.5 (15.8) dB for the TE (TM) mode. The influences of the ITO, TiN, HfO2 layers and the beneath dielectric core, as well as the processing tolerance, on the performance of the proposed EA modulator are systematically investigated.

  9. Viewport: An object-oriented approach to integrate workstation software for tile and stack mode display

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Srinka; Andriole, Katherine P.; Avrin, David E.

    1997-01-01

    Diagnostic workstation design has migrated towards display presentation in one of two modes: tiled images or stacked images. It is our impression that the workstation setup or configuration in each of these two modes is rather distinct. We sought to establish a commonality to simplify software design, and to enable a single descriptor method to facilitate folder manager development of “hanging” protocols. All current workstation designs use a combination of “off-screen” and “on-screen” memory...

  10. Engineering method to build the composite structure ply database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Shi

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method to build a composite ply database with engineering design constraints is proposed. This method has two levels: the core stacking sequence design and the whole stacking sequence design. The core stacking sequences are obtained by the full permutation algorithm considering the ply ratio requirement and the dispersion character which characterizes the dispersion of ply angles. The whole stacking sequences are the combinations of the core stacking sequences. By excluding the ply sequences which do not meet the engineering requirements, the final ply database is obtained. One example with the constraints that the total layer number is 100 and the ply ratio is 30:60:10 is presented to validate the method. This method provides a new way to set up the ply database based on the engineering requirements without adopting intelligent optimization algorithms. Keywords: Composite ply database, VBA program, Structure design, Stacking sequence

  11. The use of Graphic User Interface for development of a user-friendly CRS-Stack software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Rachmat; Prayudhatama, Dythia; Perkasa, Muhammad D.; Hendriyana, Andri; Fatkhan; Sardjito; Adriansyah

    2017-04-01

    The development of a user-friendly Common Reflection Surface (CRS) Stack software that has been built by implementing Graphical User Interface (GUI) is described in this paper. The original CRS-Stack software developed by WIT Consortium is compiled in the unix/linux environment, which is not a user-friendly software, so that a user must write the commands and parameters manually in a script file. Due to this limitation, the CRS-Stack become a non popular method, although applying this method is actually a promising way in order to obtain better seismic sections, which have better reflector continuity and S/N ratio. After obtaining successful results that have been tested by using several seismic data belong to oil companies in Indonesia, it comes to an idea to develop a user-friendly software in our own laboratory. Graphical User Interface (GUI) is a type of user interface that allows people to interact with computer programs in a better way. Rather than typing commands and module parameters, GUI allows the users to use computer programs in much simple and easy. Thus, GUI can transform the text-based interface into graphical icons and visual indicators. The use of complicated seismic unix shell script can be avoided. The Java Swing GUI library is used to develop this CRS-Stack GUI. Every shell script that represents each seismic process is invoked from Java environment. Besides developing interactive GUI to perform CRS-Stack processing, this CRS-Stack GUI is design to help geophysicists to manage a project with complex seismic processing procedures. The CRS-Stack GUI software is composed by input directory, operators, and output directory, which are defined as a seismic data processing workflow. The CRS-Stack processing workflow involves four steps; i.e. automatic CMP stack, initial CRS-Stack, optimized CRS-Stack, and CRS-Stack Supergather. Those operations are visualized in an informative flowchart with self explanatory system to guide the user inputting the

  12. Optical design teaching by computing graphic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Molini, D.; Muñoz-Luna, J.; Fernandez-Balbuena, A. A.; Garcia-Botella, A.; Belloni, P.; Alda, J.

    2012-10-01

    One of the key challenges in the teaching of Optics is that students need to know not only the math of the optical design, but also, and more important, to grasp and understand the optics in a three-dimensional space. Having a clear image of the problem to solve is the first step in order to begin to solve that problem. Therefore to achieve that the students not only must know the equation of refraction law but they have also to understand how the main parameters of this law are interacting among them. This should be a major goal in the teaching course. Optical graphic methods are a valuable tool in this way since they have the advantage of visual information and the accuracy of a computer calculation.

  13. Methods to prevent turbogenerators design elements defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валентина Володимирівна Шевченко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that the determination of a failure probability due to the design, technological and operational drawbacks, as well as due to the turbogenerators working time exceeding from statistics data is inaccurate. Machine park of turbogenerators being rather limited in number, the classification and the distribution of generators into groups is random. It can not be used in practice to identify the pre-emergency state of turbogenerators and their timely stop. Analysis and classification of most frequent defects of turbogenerators has been performed. Methods for assessing such defects and reduction of their development have been offered. The article notes that expenses should be taken into account when setting up a monitoring system to assess the state and to identify defects. Reduction of expenditures on both operating and new turbogenerators must be justified. Rapid return of investments must be ensured. The list of additional tests has been proposed: measurement of infrared radiation outside the body of the turbogenerator for the estimation of the thermal field distribution and the defects of gas coolers identification; vibroacoustic inspection of the stator core and casing to find out the defects in the suspension of the core in the stator casing; analysis of the impurities in the cooling gas and in the dry remains of the drainage products to detect the products of the steel core and the winding insulation wear; value measurement and establishment of the partial discharges formation position; research of vibrations to reveal the cracks in the shaft, circuiting in the rotor windings and defects in the bearings. The paper notes that at upgrading as power grows overall and mounting dimensions must be preserved so that the existing foundation could be used as well as the existing security systems. Therefore, when designing or upgrading turbogenerators with an increase in power it is necessary to introduce new design decisions

  14. Research and Design of Rootkit Detection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Leian; Yin, Zuanxing; Shen, Yuli; Lin, Haitao; Wang, Hongjiang

    Rootkit is one of the most important issues of network communication systems, which is related to the security and privacy of Internet users. Because of the existence of the back door of the operating system, a hacker can use rootkit to attack and invade other people's computers and thus he can capture passwords and message traffic to and from these computers easily. With the development of the rootkit technology, its applications are more and more extensive and it becomes increasingly difficult to detect it. In addition, for various reasons such as trade secrets, being difficult to be developed, and so on, the rootkit detection technology information and effective tools are still relatively scarce. In this paper, based on the in-depth analysis of the rootkit detection technology, a new kind of the rootkit detection structure is designed and a new method (software), X-Anti, is proposed. Test results show that software designed based on structure proposed is much more efficient than any other rootkit detection software.

  15. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malá, Zdena; Šlampová, Andrea; Křivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    This contribution is a methodological review of the publications about the topic from the last 2 years. Therefore, it is primarily organized according to the methods and procedures used in surveyed papers and the origin and type of sample and specification of analytes form the secondary structure. The introductory part about navigation in the architecture of stacking brings a brief characterization of the various stacking methods, with the description of mutual links to each other and important differences among them. The main body of the article brings a survey of publications organized according to main principles of stacking and then according to the origin and type of the sample. Provided that the paper cited gave explicitly the relevant data, information about the BGE(s) used, procedure, detector employed, and reached LOD and/or concentration effect is given. The papers where the procedure used is a combination of diverse fragments and parts of various stacking techniques are mentioned in a special section on combined techniques. The concluding remarks in the final part of the review evaluate present state of art and the trends of sample stacking in CE. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Stack Caching Using Split Data Caches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In most embedded and general purpose architectures, stack data and non-stack data is cached together, meaning that writing to or loading from the stack may expel non-stack data from the data cache. Manipulation of the stack has a different memory access pattern than that of non-stack data, showing...... higher temporal and spatial locality. We propose caching stack and non-stack data separately and develop four different stack caches that allow this separation without requiring compiler support. These are the simple, window, and prefilling with and without tag stack caches. The performance of the stack...

  17. Efficient Context Switching for the Stack Cache: Implementation and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Naji, Amine

    2015-01-01

    , the analysis of the stack cache was limited to individual tasks, ignoring aspects related to multitasking. A major drawback of the original stack cache design is that, due to its simplicity, it cannot hold the data of multiple tasks at the same time. Consequently, the entire cache content needs to be saved...

  18. A sensor-less methanol concentration control system based on feedback from the stack temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Myung-Gi; Mehmood, Asad; Ha, Heung Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new sensor-less methanol control algorithm based on feedback from the stack temperature is developed. • Feasibility of the algorithm is tested using a DMFC system with a recirculating fuel loop. • The algorithm precisely controls the methanol concentration without the use of methanol sensors. • The sensor-less controller shortens the time that the DMFC system requires to go from start-up to steady-state. • This controller is effective in handling unexpected changes in the methanol concentration and stack temperature. - Abstract: A sensor-less methanol concentration control system based on feedback from the stack temperature (SLCCF) has been developed. The SLCCF algorithm is embedded into an in-house LabVIEW program that has been developed to control the methanol concentration in the feed of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). This control method utilizes the close correlation between the stack temperature and the methanol concentration in the feed. Basically, the amounts of methanol to be supplied to the re-circulating feed stream are determined by estimating the methanol consumption rates under given operating conditions, which are then adjusted by a proportional–integral controller and supplied into the feed stream to maintain the stack temperature at a set value. The algorithm is designed to control the methanol concentration and the stack temperature for both start-up and normal operation processes. Feasibility tests with a 200 W-class DMFC system under various operating conditions confirm that the algorithm successfully maintains the methanol concentration in the feed as well as the stack temperature at set values, and the start-up time required for the DMFC system to reach steady-state operating conditions is reduced significantly compared with conventional sensor-less methods

  19. An air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell stack employing a single shared anode using silicon microfabrication technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Zhou, Yan'an; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Yiming; Liu, Litian

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a silicon-based air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) stack with a shared anode plate and two air-breathing cathode plates. Three kinds of anode plates featured by different methanol transport methods are designed and simulated. Microfabrication technologies, including double-side lithography and bulk-micromachining, are used to fabricate both anode and cathode silicon plates on the same wafer simultaneously. Three μDMFC stacks with different kinds of anodes are assembled, and characterized with a single cell together. Simulation and experimental results show that the μDMFC stack with fuel transport in a shared model has the best performance, and this stack achieves a power of 2.52 mW which is almost double that of a single cell of 1.28 mW.

  20. Core design methods for advanced LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, J.C.; Marr, D.R.; McCurry, D.C.; Cantley, D.A.

    1977-05-01

    The multidiscipline approach to advanced LMFBR core design requires an iterative design procedure to obtain a closely-coupled design. HEDL's philosophy requires that the designs should be coupled to the extent that the design limiting fuel pin, the design limiting duct and the core reactivity lifetime should all be equal and should equal the fuel residence time. The design procedure consists of an iterative loop involving three stages of the design sequence. Stage 1 consists of general mechanical design and reactor physics scoping calculations to arrive at an initial core layout. Stage 2 consists of detailed reactor physics calculations for the core configuration arrived at in Stage 1. Based upon the detailed reactor physics results, a decision is made either to alter the design (Stage 1) or go to Stage 3. Stage 3 consists of core orificing and detailed component mechanical design calculations. At this point, an assessment is made regarding design adequacy. If the design is inadequate the entire procedure is repeated until the design is acceptable

  1. Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.

  2. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Educating Instructional Designers: Different Methods for Different Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Gordon; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Suggests new methods of teaching instructional design based on literature reviews of other design fields including engineering, architecture, interior design, media design, and medicine. Methods discussed include public presentations, visiting experts, competitions, artifacts, case studies, design studios, and internships and apprenticeships.…

  4. A novel configuration for direct internal reforming stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Richard

    This paper presents a stack concept that can be applied to both molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) internal reforming stacks. It employs anode recycle and allows the design of very simple system configurations, while giving enhanced efficiencies and high specific power densities. The recycle of anode exit gas to the anode inlet has previously been proposed as a means of preventing carbon deposition in direct internal reforming (DIR) stacks. When applied to a normal stack this reduces the Nernst voltages because the recycle stream is relatively depleted in hydrogen. In the concept proposed here, known as the `Smarter' stack, there are two anode exit streams, one of which is depleted, while the other is relatively undepleted. The depleted stream passes directly to the burner, and the undepleted stream is recycled to the stack inlet. By this means high Nernst voltages are achieved in the stack. The concept has been simulated and assessed for parallel-flow and cross-flow MCFC and SOFC stacks and graphs are presented showing temperature distributions. The `Smarter' stacks employ a high recycle rate resulting in a reduced natural gas concentration at the stack inlet, and this reduces or eliminates the unfavourable temperature dip. Catalyst grading can further improve the temperature distribution. The concept allows simple system configurations in which the need for fuel pre-heat is eliminated. Efficiencies are up to 10 percentage points higher than for conventional stacks with the same cell area and maximum stack temperature. The concept presented here was devised in a project part-funded by the EU, and has been adopted by the European Advanced DIR-MCFC development programme led by BCN.

  5. Spacecraft early design validation using formal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzano, Marco; Cimatti, Alessandro; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Katsaros, Panagiotis; Mokos, Konstantinos; Nguyen, Viet Yen; Noll, Thomas; Postma, Bart; Roveri, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The size and complexity of software in spacecraft is increasing exponentially, and this trend complicates its validation within the context of the overall spacecraft system. Current validation methods are labor-intensive as they rely on manual analysis, review and inspection. For future space missions, we developed – with challenging requirements from the European space industry – a novel modeling language and toolset for a (semi-)automated validation approach. Our modeling language is a dialect of AADL and enables engineers to express the system, the software, and their reliability aspects. The COMPASS toolset utilizes state-of-the-art model checking techniques, both qualitative and probabilistic, for the analysis of requirements related to functional correctness, safety, dependability and performance. Several pilot projects have been performed by industry, with two of them having focused on the system-level of a satellite platform in development. Our efforts resulted in a significant advancement of validating spacecraft designs from several perspectives, using a single integrated system model. The associated technology readiness level increased from level 1 (basic concepts and ideas) to early level 4 (laboratory-tested)

  6. Global optimization methods for engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Jasbir S.

    1990-01-01

    The problem is to find a global minimum for the Problem P. Necessary and sufficient conditions are available for local optimality. However, global solution can be assured only under the assumption of convexity of the problem. If the constraint set S is compact and the cost function is continuous on it, existence of a global minimum is guaranteed. However, in view of the fact that no global optimality conditions are available, a global solution can be found only by an exhaustive search to satisfy Inequality. The exhaustive search can be organized in such a way that the entire design space need not be searched for the solution. This way the computational burden is reduced somewhat. It is concluded that zooming algorithm for global optimizations appears to be a good alternative to stochastic methods. More testing is needed; a general, robust, and efficient local minimizer is required. IDESIGN was used in all numerical calculations which is based on a sequential quadratic programming algorithm, and since feasible set keeps on shrinking, a good algorithm to find an initial feasible point is required. Such algorithms need to be developed and evaluated.

  7. Inverse design methods for radiative transfer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daun, K.J.; Howell, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Radiant enclosures used in industrial processes have traditionally been designed by trial-and-error, a technique that usually demands considerable time to find a solution of limited quality. As an alternative, designers have recently adopted optimization and inverse methodologies to solve design problems involving radiative transfer; the optimization methodology solves the inverse problem implicitly by transforming it into a multivariable minimization problem, while the inverse design methodology solves the problem explicitly using regularization. This paper presents the details of both methodologies, and demonstrates them by solving for the optimal heater settings in an industrially relevant radiant enclosure design problem

  8. Reflector imaging by diffraction stacking with stacking velocity analysis; Jugo sokudo kaiseki wo tomonau sanran jugoho ni yoru hanshamen imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J.; Rokugawa, S.; Kato, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokota, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Concerning seismic reflection survey for geometrical arrangement between pits, the scattering stacking method with stacking velocity analysis is compared with the CDP (common depth point horizontal stacking method). The advantages of the CDP supposedly include the following. Since it presumes an average velocity field, it can determine velocities having stacking effects. The method presumes stratification and, since such enables the division of huge quantities of observed data into smaller groups, more data can be calculated in a shorter time period. The method has disadvantages, attributable to its presuming an average velocity field, that accuracy in processing is lower when the velocity field contrast is higher, that accuracy in processing is low unless stratification is employed, and that velocities obtained from stacking velocity analysis are affected by dipped structures. Such shortcomings may be remedied in the scattering stacking method with stacking velocity analysis. Possibilities are that, as far as the horizontal reflection plane is concerned, it may yield stack records higher in S/N ratio than the CDP. Findings relative to dipped reflection planes will be introduced at the presentation. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Calculation of AC losses in large HTS stacks and coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zermeno, Victor; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a homogenization method to model a stack of HTS tapes under AC applied transport current or magnetic field. The idea is to find an anisotropic bulk equivalent for the stack of tapes, where the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting and su...

  10. Black Hole Spectroscopy with Coherent Mode Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Yagi, Kent; Blackman, Jonathan; Lehner, Luis; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-21

    The measurement of multiple ringdown modes in gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers will allow for testing the fundamental properties of black holes in general relativity and to constrain modified theories of gravity. To enhance the ability of Advanced LIGO/Virgo to perform such tasks, we propose a coherent mode stacking method to search for a chosen target mode within a collection of multiple merger events. We first rescale each signal so that the target mode in each of them has the same frequency and then sum the waveforms constructively. A crucial element to realize this coherent superposition is to make use of a priori information extracted from the inspiral-merger phase of each event. To illustrate the method, we perform a study with simulated events targeting the ℓ=m=3 ringdown mode of the remnant black holes. We show that this method can significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective target mode compared to that of the single loudest event. Using current estimates of merger rates, we show that it is likely that advanced-era detectors can measure this collective ringdown mode with one year of coincident data gathered at design sensitivity.

  11. Foundations of Digital Methods : Query Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.; Schäfer, M.T.; van Es, K.

    2017-01-01

    Broadly speaking digital methods may be considered the deployment of online tools and data for the purposes of social and medium research. More speci cally, they derive from online methods, or methods of the medium, which are reimagined and repurposed for research. The methods to be repurposed are

  12. Experimental design methods for fermentative hydrogen production: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianlong; Wan, Wei [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-01-15

    This review summarized the experimental design methods used to investigate the effects of various factors on fermentative hydrogen production processes, including one-factor-at-a-time design, full factorial design, Taguchi design, Plackett-Burman design, central composite design and Box-Behnken design. Each design method was briefly introduced, followed by the introduction of its analysis. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of each design method were briefly discussed. Moreover, the application of each design method to the study of fermentative hydrogen production was analyzed and discussed. Based on the discussion in this review, an experimental design strategy for optimizing fermentative hydrogen production processes was proposed. In the end, the software packages that can carry out the above mentioned factorial design and analysis were briefly introduced. (author)

  13. Optimizing Conventional Design Methods for Reinforced Concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Without a proper design and construction of foundations, problems such as cracking, settlement of buildings may occur and even to the extent that a whole building may collapse within its design life. Therefore, a proper and adequate foundation system is required to maintain the safety of a building. This presentation is the ...

  14. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  15. A Design Process Evaluation Method for Sustainable Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher S. Magent; Sinem Korkmaz; Leidy E Klotz; David R. Riley

    2009-01-01

    This research develops a technique to model and evaluate the design process for sustainable buildings. Three case studies were conducted to validate this method. The resulting design process evaluation method for sustainable buildings (DPEMSB) may assist project teams in designing their own sustainable building design processes. This method helps to identify critical decisions in the design process, to evaluate these decisions for time and sequence, to define information required for decision...

  16. Bionic Design Methods - A practical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepler, Jørgen Asbøll; Stokholm, Marianne Denise J.

    2004-01-01

    Nature has served as inspiration for product design throughout history. Applications range from poetic translations of form to utilization of primary functional principles. This paper describes a generally applicable design methodology for transforming natural functional principles to feasible...... product design. From a formulation of design demands, which need not necessarily be very precise, the approach continues with a study of natural objects (anaimals, plants) which are subject to the same demands. From this study, the working principle(s) are derived. This (these) are then clarified through...... illustrative models, which should be simplified as much as possible. The simplified principle may now be evaluated and transformed into practical design. The methodology is clarified through examples, taken from a series of extended workshops held atAalborg University ....

  17. Four-Dimensional Lung Treatment Planning in Layer-Stacking Carbon Ion Beam Treatment: Comparison of Layer-Stacking and Conventional Ungated/Gated Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shinichiro; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Asakura, Hiroshi; Sharp, Gregory C.; Kumagai, Motoki; Dobashi, Suguru; Nakajima, Mio; Yamamoto, Naoyoshi; Kandatsu, Susumu; Baba, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We compared four-dimensional (4D) layer-stacking and conventional carbon ion beam distribution in the treatment of lung cancer between ungated and gated respiratory strategies using 4DCT data sets. Methods and Materials: Twenty lung patients underwent 4DCT imaging under free-breathing conditions. Using planning target volumes (PTVs) at respective respiratory phases, two types of compensating bolus were designed, a full single respiratory cycle for the ungated strategy and an approximately 30% duty cycle for the exhalation-gated strategy. Beams were delivered to the PTVs for the ungated and gated strategies, PTV(ungated) and PTV(gated), respectively, which were calculated by combining the respective PTV(Tn)s by layer-stacking and conventional irradiation. Carbon ion beam dose distribution was calculated as a function of respiratory phase by applying a compensating bolus to 4DCT. Accumulated dose distributions were calculated by applying deformable registration. Results: With the ungated strategy, accumulated dose distributions were satisfactorily provided to the PTV, with D95 values for layer-stacking and conventional irradiation of 94.0% and 96.2%, respectively. V20 for the lung and Dmax for the spinal cord were lower with layer-stacking than with conventional irradiation, whereas Dmax for the skin (14.1 GyE) was significantly lower (21.9 GyE). In addition, dose conformation to the GTV/PTV with layer-stacking irradiation was better with the gated than with the ungated strategy. Conclusions: Gated layer-stacking irradiation allows the delivery of a carbon ion beam to a moving target without significant degradation of dose conformity or the development of hot spots.

  18. Optimized stacked RADFETs for milli-rad dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, B.; Lane, B.; Mohammadzadeh, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper details the improvements in the design of stacked RADFETs for increased radiation sensitivity. The issues of high read-out voltage has been shown to be a draw-back. It is the body (bulk)effect factor that is responsible for the increased overall stack Threshold voltage (V T ), which is greater than the sum of the individual devices V T . From extensive process and device simulation and resultant circuit simulation, modified stack structures have been proposed and designed. New and exciting result of lower initial (pre-irradiation) output voltage as well as increased radiation sensitivity will be presented. (author)

  19. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research.…

  20. Evaluation of Information Requirements of Reliability Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize the information needed to perform methods for robustness and reliability, and verify their applicability to early design stages. Several methods were evaluated on their support to synthesis in engineering design. Of those methods, FMEA, FTA and HAZOP were selected...... on their insight on design risks and wide spread application. A pilot case study has been performed with a washing machine in using these methods to assess design risks, following a reverse engineering approach. The study has shown the methods can be initiated at early design stages, but cannot be concluded....... For that reason, new methods are needed to assist assessing robustness and reliability at early design stages. A specific taxonomy on robustness and reliability information in design could support classifying available design information to orient new techniques assessing innovative designs....

  1. Participatory design methods in telemedicine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette Juel; C Smith, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare systems require a paradigm shift in the way healthcare services are delivered to counteract demographic changes in patient populations, expanding technological developments and the increasing complexity of healthcare. Participatory design (PD) is a methodology that promotes the partici...

  2. Direct methanol fuel cell stack based on MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Tang, Xiaochuan; Yuan, Zhenyu; Liu, Xiaowei

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a design configuration of silicon-based micro direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) stack in a planar array. The integrated series connection is oriented in a "flip-flop" configuration with electrical interconnections made by thin-film metal layers that coat the flow channels etched in the silicon substrate. The configuration features small connection space and low contact resistance. The MEMS fabrication process was utilized to fabricate the silicon plates of DMFC stack. This DMFC stack with an active area of 64mm x 11mm was characterized at room temperature and normal atmosphere. Experimental results show that the prototype stack is able to generate an open-circuit voltage of 2.7V and a maximum power density of 2.2mW/cm2, which demonstrate the feasibility of this new DMFC stack configuration.

  3. Deformation Induced Microtwins and Stacking Faults in Aluminum Single Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W. Z.; Cheng, G. M.; Li, S. X.; Wu, S. D.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2008-09-01

    Microtwins and stacking faults in plastically deformed aluminum single crystal were successfully observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The occurrence of these microtwins and stacking faults is directly related to the specially designed crystallographic orientation, because they were not observed in pure aluminum single crystal or polycrystal before. Based on the new finding above, we propose a universal dislocation-based model to judge the preference or not for the nucleation of deformation twins and stacking faults in various face-centered-cubic metals in terms of the critical stress for dislocation glide or twinning by considering the intrinsic factors, such as stacking fault energy, crystallographic orientation, and grain size. The new finding of deformation induced microtwins and stacking faults in aluminum single crystal and the proposed model should be of interest to a broad community.

  4. The Development of Methods to Estimate and Reduce Design Rework

    OpenAIRE

    Arundachawat, Panumas

    2012-01-01

    Design rework includes unnecessary repetition in design tasks to correct design problems. Resolving design matters in advance, through in-depth understanding of the design planning and rework issues and development of effective predictive tools could contribute to higher business profit margins and a faster product time-to-market. This research aims to develop three novel and structured methods to predict the design rework occurrence and effort at the very early design stage, which may otherw...

  5. Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…

  6. HPC Software Stack Testing Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-07-27

    The HPC Software stack testing framework (hpcswtest) is used in the INL Scientific Computing Department to test the basic sanity and integrity of the HPC Software stack (Compilers, MPI, Numerical libraries and Applications) and to quickly discover hard failures, and as a by-product it will indirectly check the HPC infrastructure (network, PBS and licensing servers).

  7. Design and Optimization of Composite Automotive Hatchback Using Integrated Material-Structure-Process-Performance Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xudong; Sun, Lingyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Lijun; Dai, Zongmiao; Xiong, Zhenkai

    2018-03-01

    The application of polymer composites as a substitution of metal is an effective approach to reduce vehicle weight. However, the final performance of composite structures is determined not only by the material types, structural designs and manufacturing process, but also by their mutual restrict. Hence, an integrated "material-structure-process-performance" method is proposed for the conceptual and detail design of composite components. The material selection is based on the principle of composite mechanics such as rule of mixture for laminate. The design of component geometry, dimension and stacking sequence is determined by parametric modeling and size optimization. The selection of process parameters are based on multi-physical field simulation. The stiffness and modal constraint conditions were obtained from the numerical analysis of metal benchmark under typical load conditions. The optimal design was found by multi-discipline optimization. Finally, the proposed method was validated by an application case of automotive hatchback using carbon fiber reinforced polymer. Compared with the metal benchmark, the weight of composite one reduces 38.8%, simultaneously, its torsion and bending stiffness increases 3.75% and 33.23%, respectively, and the first frequency also increases 44.78%.

  8. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart

  9. Empirical pillar design methods review report: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    This report summarizes and evaluates empirical pillar design methods that may be of use during the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The methods are discussed according to category (i.e, main, submain, and panel pillars; barrier pillars; and shaft pillars). Of the 21 identified for main, submain, and panel pillars, one method, the Confined Core Method, is evaluated as being most appropriate for conceptual design. Five methods are considered potentially applicable. Of six methods identified for barrier pillars, one method based on the Load Transfer Distance concept is considered most appropriate for design. Based on the evaluation of 25 methods identified for shaft pillars, an approximate sizing criterion is proposed for use in conceptual design. Aspects of pillar performance relating to creep, ground deformation, interaction with roof and floor rock, and response to high temperature environments are not adequately addressed by existing empirical design methods. 152 refs., 22 figs., 14 tabs

  10. Electronics design office organization, methods and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Bij, E

    2004-01-01

    The group TS-DEM offers a global service for the design, manufacturing and assembly of electronics modules for several hundreds of electronics engineers at CERN and its collaborating institutes. The Design Office in DEM determines and controls an overall planning, defines the resources required, solves the technical aspects and invoices the whole project. This involves technical resources provided by service contracts and supply contracts, but also negotiations with clients to be able to provide realistic plannings while still being able to handle urgent cases and high-workload periods.

  11. User interface inspection methods a user-centered design method

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Chauncey

    2014-01-01

    User Interface Inspection Methods succinctly covers five inspection methods: heuristic evaluation, perspective-based user interface inspection, cognitive walkthrough, pluralistic walkthrough, and formal usability inspections. Heuristic evaluation is perhaps the best-known inspection method, requiring a group of evaluators to review a product against a set of general principles. The perspective-based user interface inspection is based on the principle that different perspectives will find different problems in a user interface. In the related persona-based inspection, colleagues assume the

  12. Participatory design methods in telemedicine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette J; Smith, Anthony C; Caffery, Liam J; Danbjorg, Dorthe B

    2017-10-01

    Healthcare systems require a paradigm shift in the way healthcare services are delivered to counteract demographic changes in patient populations, expanding technological developments and the increasing complexity of healthcare. Participatory design (PD) is a methodology that promotes the participation of users in the design process of potential telehealth applications. A PD project can be divided into four phases including: the identification and analysis of participant needs; the generation of ideas and development of prototypes; testing and further development of prototypes; and evaluation. PD is an iterative process where each phase is planned by reflecting on the results from the previous phase with respect to the participants' contribution. Key activities of a PD project include: fieldwork; literature reviewing; and development and testing. All activities must be applied with a participatory mindset that will ensure genuine participation throughout the project. Challenges associated with the use of PD include: the time required to properly engage with participants; language and culture barriers amongst participants; the selection of participants to ensure good representation of the user group; and empowerment. PD is an important process, which is complemented by other evaluation strategies that assess organisational requirements, clinical safety, and clinical and cost effectiveness. PD is a methodology which encourages genuine involvement, where participants have an opportunity to identify practical problems and to design and test technology. The process engages participants in storytelling, future planning and design. PD is a multifaceted assessment tool that helps explore more accurately clinical requirements and patient perspectives in telehealth.

  13. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations.

  14. Novel Methods for Electromagnetic Simulation and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Classical Electrodynamics , 3rd ed., Wiley, New York, 1999. [13] A. Kloeckner, A. Barnett, L. Greengard, and M. O’Neil, Quadrature by Expansion: A New...Leslie Greengard, New York University 1 that the classical formulation of the Maxwell equations (for scattering from a body Ω with boundary Γ) makes use...images, contour deformation, and asymptotic methods of various kinds. None of these methods make use of classical layer potentials in physical space

  15. Designing waveforms for temporal encoding using a frequency sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a method for designing waveforms for temporal encoding in medical ultrasound imaging is described. The method is based on least squares optimization and is used to design nonlinear frequency modulated signals for synthetic transmit aperture imaging. By using the proposed design method...... are shown for both methods, wherein the common carotid artery on a 27-year-old healthy male was scanned...

  16. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gail D. Caruth

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research. A review of the literature revealed that it has been gaining acceptance among researchers, researchers have begun using mixed methods research, it ...

  17. Strontium titanate/silicon-based terahertz photonic crystal multilayer stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, J.Z.; Jim, K.L.; Tsang, Y.H.; Chan, H.L.W.; Leung, C.W.; Yang, J.; Gong, X.J.; Chen, L.Q.; Gao, F.

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimensional photonic crystal working in the terahertz (THz) range was designed and implemented. To facilitate the design, the transmission properties of strontium titanate crystals were characterized by THz-time-domain spectroscopy. Relatively high refractive index (∝18.5) and transmission ratio (0.08) were observed between 0.2 to 1 THz. A stacked structure of (Si d Si /STO d STO ) N /Si d Si was then designed, with transmission spectra calculated by the transfer matrix method. The effects of the filling ratio (d STO /(d Si +d STO )), periodicity (d Si +d STO ) and the number of repeats N on the transmission of PC were investigated. The effect of introducing a defect layer was also studied. Based on these, Si/STO multilayers with STO defect thickness of 125 μm and 200 μm were measured. The shift of the defect mode was observed and compared with the calculations. (orig.)

  18. The behaviour of stacking fault energy upon interstitial alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee-Yong; Koo, Yang Mo; Lu, Song; Vitos, Levente; Kwon, Se Kyun

    2017-09-11

    Stacking fault energy is one of key parameters for understanding the mechanical properties of face-centered cubic materials. It is well known that the plastic deformation mechanism is closely related to the size of stacking fault energy. Although alloying is a conventional method to modify the physical parameter, the underlying microscopic mechanisms are not yet clearly established. Here, we propose a simple model for determining the effect of interstitial alloying on the stacking fault energy. We derive a volumetric behaviour of stacking fault energy from the harmonic approximation to the energy-lattice curve and relate it to the contents of interstitials. The stacking fault energy is found to change linearly with the interstitial content in the usual low concentration domain. This is in good agreement with previously reported experimental and theoretical data.

  19. Bifurcation-free design method of pulse energy converter controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokolov, Yury [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Informatics and Control, Yugra State University, 16 Chekhova str., Khanty-Mansiysk 628012 (Russian Federation); Ustinov, Pavel [Department of Design and Technology of Electronic and Computer Systems, Orel State Technical University, 29 Naugorskoye Shosse, Orel 302020 (Russian Federation); CReSTIC, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, Reims Cedex 2, 51687 (France)], E-mail: pavel-ustinov@yandex.ru; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz [CReSTIC, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, Reims Cedex 2, 51687 (France)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, a design method of pulse energy converter (PEC) controllers is proposed. This method develops a classical frequency domain design, based on the small signal modeling, by means of an addition of a nonlinear dynamics analysis stage. The main idea of the proposed method consists in fact that the PEC controller, designed with an application of the small signal modeling, is tuned after with taking into the consideration an essentially nonlinear nature of the PEC that makes it possible to avoid bifurcation phenomena in the PEC dynamics at the design stage (bifurcation-free design). Also application of the proposed method allows an improvement of the designed controller performance. The application of this bifurcation-free design method is demonstrated on an example of the controller design of direct current-direct current (DC-DC) buck converter with an input electromagnetic interference filter.

  20. Bifurcation-free design method of pulse energy converter controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolokolov, Yury; Ustinov, Pavel; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a design method of pulse energy converter (PEC) controllers is proposed. This method develops a classical frequency domain design, based on the small signal modeling, by means of an addition of a nonlinear dynamics analysis stage. The main idea of the proposed method consists in fact that the PEC controller, designed with an application of the small signal modeling, is tuned after with taking into the consideration an essentially nonlinear nature of the PEC that makes it possible to avoid bifurcation phenomena in the PEC dynamics at the design stage (bifurcation-free design). Also application of the proposed method allows an improvement of the designed controller performance. The application of this bifurcation-free design method is demonstrated on an example of the controller design of direct current-direct current (DC-DC) buck converter with an input electromagnetic interference filter.

  1. Congener-specific determination of ultratrace levels of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmosphere and industrial stack gas by isotopic dilution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rong; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Fiedler, Heidelore; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Yang, Lili; Wu, Xiaolin; Xu, Yang

    2017-08-04

    Isotopic dilution gas chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) has overwhelming advantages with respect to the accuracy of congener-specific ultratrace analysis of complex persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in environmental matrices. However, an isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method for analysis of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs) using 13 C-labelled congeners as internal standards has not been established. In this study, a method for identification and quantification of 38 congeners of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in atmosphere and stack gas samples from waste incinerators was developed using the isotopic dilution GC/HRMS technique. The instrumental detection limits of the GC/HRMS method ranged from 0.2pg to 1.8pg for Cl-PAH congeners, and 0.7pg to 2.7pg for Br-PAH congeners, which were about three orders of magnitude lower than those of the GC/quadrupole MS method. This new method developed was also the first to enable determination of Cl-PAH and Br-PAH homologs comprising congeners with the same molecular skeleton and chlorine or bromine substitution numbers. Among the detected congeners, seven Cl-PAH congeners and thirteen Br-PAH congeners that were abundant in the atmosphere and stack gases released from waste incinerators were firstly detected in real samples and reported using the established isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method. The developed isotopic dilution GC/HRMS is significant and needed for better studying the environmental behavior and health risk of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Kinematic Design Method for Rail-Guided Robotic Arms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgerink, Dian; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Stegenga, Jan; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    For special purpose robotic arms, such as a rail mounted ballast-water tank inspection arm, specific needs require special designs. Currently, there is no method to efficiently design robotic arms that can handle not quantifiable requirements. In this paper, an efficient method for the design and

  3. Interactive methods to involve users into workspace design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Banke, Palle

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the use of a combination of interactive methods involving workers can lead to a useful input to the (re)design of their workspace. The workbook and the layout design game methods were tested, and a comparison between their use and the ergonomic analysis...... for the workspace design, to be more easily applied by less experienced ergonomists....

  4. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2008-03-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  5. Spacecraft early design validation using formal methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozzano, Marco; Cimatti, Alessandro; Katoen, Joost P.; Katsaros, Panagiotis; Mokos, Konstantinos; Nguyen, Viet Yen; Noll, Thomas; Postma, Bart; Roveri, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The size and complexity of software in spacecraft is increasing exponentially, and this trend complicates its validation within the context of the overall spacecraft system. Current validation methods are labor-intensive as they rely on manual analysis, review and inspection. For future space

  6. Comparison of four nonstationary hydrologic design methods for changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Xiong, Lihua; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Xia, Jun; Du, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The hydrologic design of nonstationary flood extremes is an emerging field that is essential for water resources management and hydrologic engineering design to cope with changing environment. This paper aims to investigate and compare the capability of four nonstationary hydrologic design strategies, including the expected number of exceedances (ENE), design life level (DLL), equivalent reliability (ER), and average design life level (ADLL), with the last three methods taking into consideration the design life of the project. The confidence intervals of the calculated design floods were also estimated using the nonstationary bootstrap approach. A comparison of these four methods was performed using the annual maximum flood series (AMFS) of the Weihe River basin, Jinghe River basin, and Assunpink Creek basin. The results indicated that ENE, ER and ADLL yielded the same or very similar design values and confidence intervals for both increasing and decreasing trends of AMFS considered. DLL also yields similar design values if the relationship between DLL and ER/ADLL return periods is considered. Both ER and ADLL are recommended for practical use as they have associated design floods with the design life period of projects and yield reasonable design quantiles and confidence intervals. Furthermore, by assuming that the design results using either a stationary or nonstationary hydrologic design strategy should have the same reliability, the ER method enables us to solve the nonstationary hydrologic design problems by adopting the stationary design reliability, thus bridging the gap between stationary and nonstationary design criteria.

  7. Electronic structure of the rotation twin stacking fault in β-ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northrup, J.E.; Cohen, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The electronic structure of the rotation twin stacking fault in β-ZnS is calculated with the self-consistent pseudopotential method. The stacking fault creates a potential barrier of approx.0.07 eV and induces the localization of stacking-fault resonances near the top of the valence band. Stacking-fault states are also predicted to exist in the various gaps in the projected valence-band structure

  8. Method for Parametric Design of Three-Dimensional Shapes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dick, James L

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to computer-aided design of three-dimensional shapes and more particularly, relates to a system and method for parametric design of three-dimensional hydrodynamic shapes...

  9. Volume equalization method for land grading design: Uniform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land grading is an important procedure at accomplishing the efficient surface irrigation. This paper presents a new method (volume equalization method-VEM) which has been developed to perform land grading design in designing the uniform sloped grading in one direction. The main goal of this method was to minimize ...

  10. A Review of Design Optimization Methods for Electrical Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical machines are the hearts of many appliances, industrial equipment and systems. In the context of global sustainability, they must fulfill various requirements, not only physically and technologically but also environmentally. Therefore, their design optimization process becomes more and more complex as more engineering disciplines/domains and constraints are involved, such as electromagnetics, structural mechanics and heat transfer. This paper aims to present a review of the design optimization methods for electrical machines, including design analysis methods and models, optimization models, algorithms and methods/strategies. Several efficient optimization methods/strategies are highlighted with comments, including surrogate-model based and multi-level optimization methods. In addition, two promising and challenging topics in both academic and industrial communities are discussed, and two novel optimization methods are introduced for advanced design optimization of electrical machines. First, a system-level design optimization method is introduced for the development of advanced electric drive systems. Second, a robust design optimization method based on the design for six-sigma technique is introduced for high-quality manufacturing of electrical machines in production. Meanwhile, a proposal is presented for the development of a robust design optimization service based on industrial big data and cloud computing services. Finally, five future directions are proposed, including smart design optimization method for future intelligent design and production of electrical machines.

  11. What-if design as a synthesizing working method in product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaneker, Thomas H.J.; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    What-if design attempts to support the designer by addressing design problems, both in his own field of expertise, as well as from adjoining domains. To this end, What-if design research focuses on the development of methods and tools for real-time, in-process, design support in order to enhance the

  12. A Systematic Optimization Design Method for Complex Mechatronic Products Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing a complex mechatronic product involves multiple design variables, objectives, constraints, and evaluation criteria as well as their nonlinearly coupled relationships. The design space can be very big consisting of many functional design parameters, structural design parameters, and behavioral design (or running performances parameters. Given a big design space and inexplicit relations among them, how to design a product optimally in an optimization design process is a challenging research problem. In this paper, we propose a systematic optimization design method based on design space reduction and surrogate modelling techniques. This method firstly identifies key design parameters from a very big design space to reduce the design space, secondly uses the identified key design parameters to establish a system surrogate model based on data-driven modelling principles for optimization design, and thirdly utilizes the multiobjective optimization techniques to achieve an optimal design of a product in the reduced design space. This method has been tested with a high-speed train design. With comparison to others, the research results show that this method is practical and useful for optimally designing complex mechatronic products.

  13. A Design Process Evaluation Method for Sustainable Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Magent

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research develops a technique to model and evaluate the design process for sustainable buildings. Three case studies were conducted to validate this method. The resulting design process evaluation method for sustainable buildings (DPEMSB may assist project teams in designing their own sustainable building design processes. This method helps to identify critical decisions in the design process, to evaluate these decisions for time and sequence, to define information required for decisions from various project stakeholders, and to identify stakeholder competencies for process implementation. Published in the Journal AEDM - Volume 5, Numbers 1-2, 2009 , pp. 62-74(13

  14. How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Johnson, R Burke

    2017-01-01

    This article provides researchers with knowledge of how to design a high quality mixed methods research study. To design a mixed study, researchers must understand and carefully consider each of the dimensions of mixed methods design, and always keep an eye on the issue of validity. We explain the seven major design dimensions: purpose, theoretical drive, timing (simultaneity and dependency), point of integration, typological versus interactive design approaches, planned versus emergent design, and design complexity. There also are multiple secondary dimensions that need to be considered during the design process. We explain ten secondary dimensions of design to be considered for each research study. We also provide two case studies showing how the mixed designs were constructed.

  15. A flexible layout design method for passive micromixers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongbo; Liu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yongshun; Gao, Qingyong; Wu, Yihui

    2012-10-01

    This paper discusses a flexible layout design method of passive micromixers based on the topology optimization of fluidic flows. Being different from the trial and error method, this method obtains the detailed layout of a passive micromixer according to the desired mixing performance by solving a topology optimization problem. Therefore, the dependence on the experience of the designer is weaken, when this method is used to design a passive micromixer with acceptable mixing performance. Several design disciplines for the passive micromixers are considered to demonstrate the flexibility of the layout design method for passive micromixers. These design disciplines include the approximation of the real 3D micromixer, the manufacturing feasibility, the spacial periodic design, and effects of the Péclet number and Reynolds number on the designs obtained by this layout design method. The capability of this design method is validated by several comparisons performed between the obtained layouts and the optimized designs in the recently published literatures, where the values of the mixing measurement is improved up to 40.4% for one cycle of the micromixer.

  16. Instrument design optimization with computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael H. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Using Finite Element Analysis to approximate the solution of differential equations, two different instruments in experimental Hall C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are analyzed. The time dependence of density uctuations from the liquid hydrogen (LH2) target used in the Qweak experiment (2011-2012) are studied with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the simulation results compared to data from the experiment. The 2.5 kW liquid hydrogen target was the highest power LH2 target in the world and the first to be designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. The first complete magnetic field simulation of the Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) is presented with a focus on primary electron beam deflection downstream of the target. The SHMS consists of a superconducting horizontal bending magnet (HB) and three superconducting quadrupole magnets. The HB allows particles scattered at an angle of 5:5 deg to the beam line to be steered into the quadrupole magnets which make up the optics of the spectrometer. Without mitigation, remnant fields from the SHMS may steer the unscattered beam outside of the acceptable envelope on the beam dump and limit beam operations at small scattering angles. A solution is proposed using optimal placement of a minimal amount of shielding iron around the beam line.

  17. Comparison of Traditional Design Nonlinear Programming Optimization and Stochastic Methods for Structural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Pai, Shantaram S.; Coroneos, Rula M.

    2010-01-01

    Structural design generated by traditional method, optimization method and the stochastic design concept are compared. In the traditional method, the constraints are manipulated to obtain the design and weight is back calculated. In design optimization, the weight of a structure becomes the merit function with constraints imposed on failure modes and an optimization algorithm is used to generate the solution. Stochastic design concept accounts for uncertainties in loads, material properties, and other parameters and solution is obtained by solving a design optimization problem for a specified reliability. Acceptable solutions were produced by all the three methods. The variation in the weight calculated by the methods was modest. Some variation was noticed in designs calculated by the methods. The variation may be attributed to structural indeterminacy. It is prudent to develop design by all three methods prior to its fabrication. The traditional design method can be improved when the simplified sensitivities of the behavior constraint is used. Such sensitivity can reduce design calculations and may have a potential to unify the traditional and optimization methods. Weight versus reliabilitytraced out an inverted-S-shaped graph. The center of the graph corresponded to mean valued design. A heavy design with weight approaching infinity could be produced for a near-zero rate of failure. Weight can be reduced to a small value for a most failure-prone design. Probabilistic modeling of load and material properties remained a challenge.

  18. Preliminary study on rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP/Ti stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, W L; Pei, Z J; Treadwell, C

    2014-08-01

    Reported drilling methods for CFRP/Ti stacks include twist drilling, end milling, core grinding, and their derived methods. The literature does not have any report on drilling of CFRP/Ti stacks using rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM). This paper, for the first time, reports a study on drilling of CFRP/Ti stacks using RUM. It also compares results on drilling of CFRP/Ti stacks using RUM with reported results on drilling of CFRP/Ti stacks using other methods. When drilling CFRP/Ti stacks using RUM, cutting force, torque, and CFRP surface roughness were lower, hole size variation was smaller, CFRP groove depth was smaller, tool life was longer, and there was no obvious Ti exit burr and CFRP entrance delamination. Ti surface roughness when drilling of CFRP/Ti stacks using RUM was about the same as those when using other methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Overlay design method based on visual pavement distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A method for designing the thickness of overlays for bituminous concrete pavements in Virginia is described. In this method the thickness is calculated by rating the amount and severity of observed pavement distress and determining the total accumula...

  20. Efficiency of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Bosma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a feedforward control of optimal oxygen excess ratio that maximize net power (improve efficiency of a NedStack P8.0-64 PEM fuel cell stack (FCS system. Net powers profile as a function of oxygen excess ratio for some points of operation are analyzed by using FCS model. The relationships between stack current and the corresponding control input voltage that gives an optimal oxygen excess ratio are used to design a feedforward control scheme. The results of this scheme are compared to the results of a feedforward control using a constant oxygen excess ratio. Simulation results show that optimal oxygen excess ratio improves fuel cell performance compared to the results of constant oxygen excess ratio. The same procedures are performed experimentally for the FCS system. The behaviour of the net power of the fuel cell stack with respect to the variation of oxygen excess ratio is analyzed to obtain optimal values. Data of stack current and the corresponding voltage input to the compressor that gives optimal values of oxygen excess ratio are used to develop a feedforward control. Feedforward control based on constant and optimal oxygen excess ratio control, are implemented in the NedStack P8.0-64 PEM fuel cell stack system by using LabVIEW. Implementation results shows that optimal oxygen excess ratio control improves the fuel cell performance compared to the constant oxygen excess ratio control.

  1. 3D modeling and simulation of 2G HTS stacks and coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zermeño, Víctor M R; Grilli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Use of 2G HTS coated conductors in several power applications has become popular in recent years. Their large current density under high magnetic fields makes them suitable candidates for high power capacity applications such as stacks of tapes, coils, magnets, cables and current leads. For this reason, modeling and simulation of their electromagnetic properties is very desirable in the design and optimization processes. For many applications, when symmetries allow it, simple models consisting of 1D or 2D representations are well suited for providing a satisfying description of the problem at hand. However, certain designs such as racetrack coils and finite-length or non-straight stacks, do pose a 3D problem that cannot be easily reduced to a 2D configuration. Full 3D models have been developed, but their use for simulating superconducting devices is a very challenging task involving a large-scale computational problem. In this work, we present a new method to simulate the electromagnetic transient behavior of 2G HTS stacks and coils. The method, originally used to model stacks of straight superconducting tapes or circular coils in 2D, is now extended to 3D. The main idea is to construct an anisotropic bulk-like equivalent for the stack or coil, such that the geometrical layout of the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting and substrate layers is reduced while keeping the overall electromagnetic behavior of the original device. Besides the aforementioned interest in modeling and simulating 2G HTS coated conductors, this work provides a further step towards efficient 3D modeling and simulation of superconducting devices for large-scale applications. (paper)

  2. The Impact of 3D Stacking and Technology Scaling on the Power and Area of Stereo Matching Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ho Ok

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, stereo matching processors have been adopted in real-time embedded systems such as intelligent robots and autonomous vehicles, which require minimal hardware resources and low power consumption. Meanwhile, thanks to the through-silicon via (TSV, three-dimensional (3D stacking technology has emerged as a practical solution to achieving the desired requirements of a high-performance circuit. In this paper, we present the benefits of 3D stacking and process technology scaling on stereo matching processors. We implemented 2-tier 3D-stacked stereo matching processors with GlobalFoundries 130-nm and Nangate 45-nm process design kits and compare them with their two-dimensional (2D counterparts to identify comprehensive design benefits. In addition, we examine the findings from various analyses to identify the power benefits of 3D-stacked integrated circuit (IC and device technology advancements. From experiments, we observe that the proposed 3D-stacked ICs, compared to their 2D IC counterparts, obtain 43% area, 13% power, and 14% wire length reductions. In addition, we present a logic partitioning method suitable for a pipeline-based hardware architecture that minimizes the use of TSVs.

  3. The Impact of 3D Stacking and Technology Scaling on the Power and Area of Stereo Matching Processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Seung-Ho; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Shim, Jae Hoon; Lim, Sung Kyu; Moon, Byungin

    2017-02-22

    Recently, stereo matching processors have been adopted in real-time embedded systems such as intelligent robots and autonomous vehicles, which require minimal hardware resources and low power consumption. Meanwhile, thanks to the through-silicon via (TSV), three-dimensional (3D) stacking technology has emerged as a practical solution to achieving the desired requirements of a high-performance circuit. In this paper, we present the benefits of 3D stacking and process technology scaling on stereo matching processors. We implemented 2-tier 3D-stacked stereo matching processors with GlobalFoundries 130-nm and Nangate 45-nm process design kits and compare them with their two-dimensional (2D) counterparts to identify comprehensive design benefits. In addition, we examine the findings from various analyses to identify the power benefits of 3D-stacked integrated circuit (IC) and device technology advancements. From experiments, we observe that the proposed 3D-stacked ICs, compared to their 2D IC counterparts, obtain 43% area, 13% power, and 14% wire length reductions. In addition, we present a logic partitioning method suitable for a pipeline-based hardware architecture that minimizes the use of TSVs.

  4. New or improved computational methods and advanced reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masayuki; Takeda, Toshikazu; Ushio, Tadashi

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear computational method has been studied continuously up to date, as a fundamental technology supporting the nuclear development. At present, research on computational method according to new theory and the calculating method thought to be difficult to practise are also continued actively to find new development due to splendid improvement of features of computer. In Japan, many light water type reactors are now in operations, new computational methods are induced for nuclear design, and a lot of efforts are concentrated for intending to more improvement of economics and safety. In this paper, some new research results on the nuclear computational methods and their application to nuclear design of the reactor were described for introducing recent trend of the nuclear design of the reactor. 1) Advancement of the computational method, 2) Reactor core design and management of the light water reactor, and 3) Nuclear design of the fast reactor. (G.K.)

  5. NSF tandem stack support structure deflection characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-12-01

    Results are reported of load tests carried out on the glass legs of the insulating stack of the 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator now under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The tests to investigate the vulnerability of the legs when subjected to tensile stresses were designed to; establish the angle of rotation of the pads from which the stresses in the glass legs may be calculated, proof-test the structure and at the same time reveal any asymmetry in pad rotations or deflections, and to confirm the validity of the computer design analysis. (UK)

  6. Stacking by electroinjection with discontinuous buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Zak K

    2002-08-01

    The work presented here demonstrates that electroinjection can be performed using discontinuous buffers, which can result in better stacking than that obtained by hydrodynamic injection. The sample can be concentrated at the tip of the capillary leaving practically the whole capillary for sample separation. This results in several advantages, such as better sample concentration, higher plate number and shorter time of stacking. However, sample introduction by electromigration is suited for samples free or low in salt content. Samples, which are high in salt content, are better introduced by the hydrodynamic injection for stacking by the discontinuous buffers. Different simple methods to introduce the discontinuity in the buffer for electroinjection are discussed.

  7. Postmodern Software Design with NYAM: Not Yet Another Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Broy, M.; Rumpe, B.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual toolbox for software specification and design that contains techniques from structured and object-oriented specification and design methods. The toolbox is called TRADE (Toolkit for Requirements and Design Engineering). The TRADE tools are used in teaching

  8. Hybrid inverse design method for nonlifting bodies in incompressible flow

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broughton, BA

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for the inverse design of non-lifting axisymmetric bodies in compressible flow is presented. In this method, an inverse design approach based on conformal mapping is used to design a set of airfoils in isolation. These airfoils...

  9. A Frequency Domain Design Method For Sampled-Data Compensators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Jannerup, Ole Erik

    1990-01-01

    A new approach to the design of a sampled-data compensator in the frequency domain is investigated. The starting point is a continuous-time compensator for the continuous-time system which satisfy specific design criteria. The new design method will graphically show how the discrete...

  10. Methods for design flood estimation in South Africa | Smithers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimation of design floods is necessary for the design of hydraulic structures and to quantify the risk of failure of the structures. Most of the methods used for design flood estimation in South Africa were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s and are in need of updating with more than 40 years of additional data ...

  11. WSDM : A user-centred design method for web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Troyer, O.M.F.; Leune, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    WSDM is a user-centered method for the design of kiosk Web Sites. By explicitly starting from the requirements of the users or visitors, WSDM solves Web site problems that are primarily caused by that fact that a site has no underlying design at all, or that the design is mostly data-driven.

  12. The Sources and Methods of Engineering Design Requirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xuemeng; Zhang, Zhinan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    to be defined in a new context. This paper focuses on understanding the design requirement sources at the requirement elicitation phase. It aims at proposing an improved design requirement source classification considering emerging markets and presenting current methods for eliciting requirement for each source....... The applicability of these methods and their adaption for emerging market is discussed....

  13. A novel method to design variable gain amplifier | Mahdavi | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel method to design variable gain amplifier. S Mahdavi, A Soltani, M Jafarzadeh, T Moradi Khanshan. Abstract. A novel method to design of Variable gain Amplifiers (VGAs) is proposed. A low power VGA with wide range of gain variation and appropriate bandwidth using new technique is presented in this paper.

  14. Methods of designing and manufacturing a heat exchanger for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article describes the method of calculation, design and manufacture of the the plate heat exchanger for the gas turbine plants with heat recovery. We represented the method of threedimensional calculation, which allowed conducting a virtual experiment and clarifying the design of the heat exchanger for the given ...

  15. Human-centred Methods of Social and Technical Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    Different inderstandings of design are presented.The historical background of human-centred designis described.Methods of social shaping are described in detailand the author's research experiences with using these methods in differentinternational projects presented and a model tointegrate...... technical and social perspective of design is suggested....

  16. Urban and Building Design Methods for Resource Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattrup, Peter Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Design has great impacts on resource use. For instance, the demand for transportation is dependent on thedesign of cities, the demand for energy is dependent on the design of buildings, which in turn affect thehealth and well-being of citizens, society’s human resources and social capital, to name....... Having a structured approach to design methods, a design methodology, is a fundamental aid in decisionmaking and resource management through design. At DTU Civil Engineering experiments are made in crossdisciplinary collaboration between engineers of different specializations and outside collaborators...... from practice will serve as cases, whereresearch based design methods have been developed into innovative design tools and services.The discussion is taken further as there is a pressing demand for further cross disciplinary integration andcollaboration on developing tools and methods for resource...

  17. Novel variable structure control for the temperature of PEM fuel cell stack based on the dynamic thermal affine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xi; Deng Zhonghua; Wei Dong; Xu Chunshan; Cao Guangyi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The affine state space control-oriented model is designed and realized for the variant structure control (VSC) strategy. → The VSC with rapid-smooth reaching law and rapid-convergent sliding mode is presented for the PEMFC stack temperature. → Numerical results show that the method can control the operating temperature to reach the target value satisfactorily. - Abstract: Dynamic thermal management of proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack (PEMFC) is a very important aspect, which plays an important role on electro-reaction. Its variation also has a significant influence on the performance and lifespan of PEMFC stack. The temperature of stack should be controlled efficiently, which has great impacts on the performance of PEMFC due to the thermal variation. Based on the control-oriented dynamic thermal affine model identified by optimization algorithm, a novel variable structures control (VSC) with rapid-smooth reaching law (RSRL) and rapid-convergent sliding mode (FCSM) is presented for the temperature control system of PEMFC stack. Numerical test results show that the method can control the operating temperature to reach the target value satisfactorily, which proves the effectiveness and robustness of the algorithm.

  18. Learning algorithms for stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zimmer, Beate G [TEXAS A& M

    2009-01-01

    Stack Filters define a large class of increasing filter that is used widely in image and signal processing. The motivations for using an increasing filter instead of an unconstrained filter have been described as: (1) fast and efficient implementation, (2) the relationship to mathematical morphology and (3) more precise estimation with finite sample data. This last motivation is related to methods developed in machine learning and the relationship was explored in an earlier paper. In this paper we investigate this relationship by applying Stack Filters directly to classification problems. This provides a new perspective on how monotonicity constraints can help control estimation and approximation errors, and also suggests several new learning algorithms for Boolean function classifiers when they are applied to real-valued inputs.

  19. Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.

  20. Thyristor stack for pulsed inductive plasma generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, C; Jacoby, J; Schweizer, W; Wiechula, J

    2009-03-01

    A thyristor stack for pulsed inductive plasma generation has been developed and tested. The stack design includes a free wheeling diode assembly for current reversal. Triggering of the device is achieved by a high side biased, self supplied gate driver unit using gating energy derived from a local snubber network. The structure guarantees a hard firing gate pulse for the required high dI/dt application. A single fiber optic command is needed to achieve a simultaneous turn on of the thyristors. The stack assembly is used for switching a series resonant circuit with a ringing frequency of 30 kHz. In the prototype pulsed power system described here an inductive discharge has been generated with a pulse duration of 120 micros and a pulse energy of 50 J. A maximum power transfer efficiency of 84% and a peak power of 480 kW inside the discharge were achieved. System tests were performed with a purely inductive load and an inductively generated plasma acting as a load through transformer action at a voltage level of 4.1 kV, a peak current of 5 kA, and a current switching rate of 1 kA/micros.

  1. User Driven Image Stacking for ODI Data and Beyond via a Highly Customizable Web Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, S.; Gopu, A.; Young, M. D.; Kotulla, R.

    2015-09-01

    While some astronomical archives have begun serving standard calibrated data products, the process of producing stacked images remains a challenge left to the end-user. The benefits of astronomical image stacking are well established, and dither patterns are recommended for almost all observing targets. Some archives automatically produce stacks of limited scientific usefulness without any fine-grained user or operator configurability. In this paper, we present PPA Stack, a web based stacking framework within the ODI - Portal, Pipeline, and Archive system. PPA Stack offers a web user interface with built-in heuristics (based on pointing, filter, and other metadata information) to pre-sort images into a set of likely stacks while still allowing the user or operator complete control over the images and parameters for each of the stacks they wish to produce. The user interface, designed using AngularJS, provides multiple views of the input dataset and parameters, all of which are synchronized in real time. A backend consisting of a Python application optimized for ODI data, wrapped around the SWarp software, handles the execution of stacking workflow jobs on Indiana University's Big Red II supercomputer, and the subsequent ingestion of the combined images back into the PPA archive. PPA Stack is designed to enable seamless integration of other stacking applications in the future, so users can select the most appropriate option for their science.

  2. AC impedance diagnosis of a 500 W PEM fuel cell stack . Part I: Stack impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaozi; Sun, Jian Colin; Blanco, Mauricio; Wang, Haijiang; Zhang, Jiujun; Wilkinson, David P.

    Diagnosis of stack performance is of importance to proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell research. This paper presents the diagnostic testing results of a 500 W Ballard Mark V PEM fuel cell stack with an active area of 280 cm 2 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS was measured using a combination of a FuelCon test station, a TDI loadbank, and a Solartron 1260 Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer operating in the galvanostatic mode. The method described in this work can obtain the impedance spectra of fuel cells with a larger geometric surface area and power, which are normally difficult to measure due to the limitations on commercial load banks operating at high currents. By using this method, the effects of temperature, flow rate, and humidity on the stack impedance spectra were examined. The results of the electrochemical impedance analysis show that with increasing temperature, the charge transfer resistance decreases due to the slow oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) process at low temperature. If the stack is operated at a fixed air flow rate, a low frequency arc appears and grows with increasing current due to the shortage of air. The anode humidification cut-off does not affect the spectra compared to the cut-off for cathode humidification.

  3. Expanding color design methods for architecture and allied disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Harold E.

    2002-06-01

    The color design processes of visual artists, architects, designers, and theoreticians included in this presentation reflect the practical role of color in architecture. What the color design professional brings to the architectural design team is an expertise and rich sensibility made up of a broad awareness and a finely tuned visual perception. This includes a knowledge of design and its history, expertise with industrial color materials and their methods of application, an awareness of design context and cultural identity, a background in physiology and psychology as it relates to human welfare, and an ability to problem-solve and respond creatively to design concepts with innovative ideas. The broadening of the definition of the colorists's role in architectural design provides architects, artists and designers with significant opportunities for continued professional and educational development.

  4. On the Design and Performance Analysis of Low-Correlation Compact Space-Multimode Diversity Stacked Microstrip Antenna Arrays for MIMO-OFDM WLANs over Statistically-Clustered Indoor Radio Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Savaşcıhabeş

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The support of high spectral efficiency MIMO spatial-multiplexing communication in OFDM-based WLAN systems conforming to IEEE 802.11n standard requires the design and use of compact antennas and arrays with low correlation ports. For this purpose, compact space-multimode diversity provisioning stacked circular multimode microstrip patch antenna arrays (SCP-ULA are proposed in this paper and their performance in terms of spatial and modal correlations, ergodic spectral efficiencies as well as compactness with respect to antenna arrays formed of vertically-oriented center-fed dipole elements (DP-ULA and dominant-mode operating circular microstrip patch antennas (CP-ULA are presented. The lower spatial and modal correlations and the consequent higher spectral efficiency of SCP-ULA with ML detection over statistically-clustered Kronecker-based spatially-correlated NLOS Ricean fading channels with respect to DP-ULA and CP-ULA at significantly lower antenna and array sizes represents SCP-ULA as a promising solution for deployment in terminals, modems and access points of next-generation high-speed 802.11n MIMO-OFDM WLAN systems.

  5. Use of Creative Methods Envisioning Innovation on Teaching Architectural Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Paiva Ponzio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of creative methods for solving complex problems with a view to innovation in teaching architectural design. If, on the one hand, the word design means both a documentary production that allows to build an object represented as a coordination of actions, the teaching of this process involves a clear position regarding the product and methods compatible with the nature of the didactic problem that is being proposed. Assuming that the methods are the labor techniques employed and the design process is how these are linked through actions, the teaching experiences of the Architectural Design Studio here presented seeks design solutions through the stimulation of creativity and techniques common to Design Thinking in stages and varying scales that form a theoretical and practical study based on "learning by doing".

  6. Review of design optimization methods for turbomachinery aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihui; Zheng, Xinqian

    2017-08-01

    In today's competitive environment, new turbomachinery designs need to be not only more efficient, quieter, and ;greener; but also need to be developed at on much shorter time scales and at lower costs. A number of advanced optimization strategies have been developed to achieve these requirements. This paper reviews recent progress in turbomachinery design optimization to solve real-world aerodynamic problems, especially for compressors and turbines. This review covers the following topics that are important for optimizing turbomachinery designs. (1) optimization methods, (2) stochastic optimization combined with blade parameterization methods and the design of experiment methods, (3) gradient-based optimization methods for compressors and turbines and (4) data mining techniques for Pareto Fronts. We also present our own insights regarding the current research trends and the future optimization of turbomachinery designs.

  7. Key Updating Methods for Combinatorial Design Based Key Management Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghuan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN has become one of the most promising network technologies for many useful applications. However, for the lack of resources, it is different but important to ensure the security of the WSNs. Key management is a corner stone on which to build secure WSNs for it has a fundamental role in confidentiality, authentication, and so on. Combinatorial design theory has been used to generate good-designed key rings for each sensor node in WSNs. A large number of combinatorial design based key management schemes have been proposed but none of them have taken key updating into consideration. In this paper, we point out the essence of key updating for the unital design based key management scheme and propose two key updating methods; then, we conduct performance analysis on the two methods from three aspects; at last, we generalize the two methods to other combinatorial design based key management schemes and enhance the second method.

  8. Dose assessment for potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford Site: NESHAP compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the assessment results for the registered stacks on the Hanford Site for potential emissions, i.e. emissions with no control devices in place. Further, the document will identify those stacks requiring continuous monitoring, i.e. the effective dose equivalent from potential emissions >0.1 mrem/yr. The stack assessment of potential emissions was performed on 84 registered stacks on the Hanford Site. These emission sources represent individual point sources presently registered under Washington Administrative code 246-247 with the Washington Department of Health. The methods used in assessing the potential emissions from the stacks are described

  9. Glassy carbon based supercapacitor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M.; Braun, A.; Koetz, R.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Considerable effort is being made to develop electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) that store relatively large quantities of electrical energy and possess at the same time a high power density. Our previous work has shown that glassy carbon is suitable as a material for capacitor electrodes concerning low resistance and high capacity requirements. We present the development of bipolar electrochemical glassy carbon capacitor stacks of up to 3 V. Bipolar stacks are an efficient way to meet the high voltage and high power density requirements for traction applications. Impedance and cyclic voltammogram measurements are reported here and show the frequency response of a 1, 2, and 3 V stack. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref..

  10. Complete intrinsic coincident polarimetry using stacked organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta Roy, S.; Awartani, O. M.; Sen, P.; O'Connor, B. T.; Kudenov, M. W.

    2015-09-01

    Measuring the 2 dimensional Stokes vector, to determine the polarization state of light, finds application in multiple areas, including the characterization of aerosol size distributions, target identification, quality control by evaluating the distribution of stress birefringence, resolving data channels in telecommunications, and for evaluating biological tissues in medical imaging. Conventional methods, such as channeled and division of focal plane polarimeters, usually limit spatial resolution, while others, like division of aperture or division of amplitude polarimeters, have higher complexity and less compactness. To help solve these issues, we have developed a system that uses semitransparent organic photovoltaics (OPVs) as photodetectors. The active area of the devices consist of biaxially oriented polymer films, which enables the device to preferentially absorb certain polarized states of incident light, depending on the orientation of the polymer chains. Taking advantage of the cells' transparency and ease of processing, compared to inorganic materials, enables multiple devices to be "stacked" along the optical axis. Presently, experiments have been conducted to detect linear polarization states of light. We use three stacked OPVs, where each device can measure one of the first three Stokes parameters simultaneously, thereby ensuring high spatial and temporal resolution with inherent spatial registration. In this paper, the fabrication of the OPVs and the design and calibration technique is documented, along with experimental data, supporting the hypothesis.

  11. Designing adaptive intensive interventions using methods from engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoa, Constantino M; Bekiroglu, Korkut; Lanza, Stephanie T; Murphy, Susan A

    2014-10-01

    Adaptive intensive interventions are introduced, and new methods from the field of control engineering for use in their design are illustrated. A detailed step-by-step explanation of how control engineering methods can be used with intensive longitudinal data to design an adaptive intensive intervention is provided. The methods are evaluated via simulation. Simulation results illustrate how the designed adaptive intensive intervention can result in improved outcomes with less treatment by providing treatment only when it is needed. Furthermore, the methods are robust to model misspecification as well as the influence of unobserved causes. These new methods can be used to design adaptive interventions that are effective yet reduce participant burden. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Formal methods in design and verification of functional specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaelisuo, H.

    1995-01-01

    It is claimed that formal methods should be applied already when specifying the functioning of the control/monitoring system, i.e. when planning how to implement the desired operation of the plant. Formal methods are seen as a way to mechanize and thus automate part of the planning. All mathematical methods which can be applied on related problem solving should be considered as formal methods. Because formal methods can only support the designer, not replace him/her, they must be integrated into a design support tool. Such a tool must also aid the designer in getting the correct conception of the plant and its behaviour. The use of a hypothetic design support tool is illustrated to clarify the requirements such a tool should fulfill. (author). 3 refs, 5 figs

  13. Electrochemical Detection in Stacked Paper Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyuan; Lillehoj, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Paper-based electrochemical biosensors are a promising technology that enables rapid, quantitative measurements on an inexpensive platform. However, the control of liquids in paper networks is generally limited to a single sample delivery step. Here, we propose a simple method to automate the loading and delivery of liquid samples to sensing electrodes on paper networks by stacking multiple layers of paper. Using these stacked paper devices (SPDs), we demonstrate a unique strategy to fully immerse planar electrodes by aqueous liquids via capillary flow. Amperometric measurements of xanthine oxidase revealed that electrochemical sensors on four-layer SPDs generated detection signals up to 75% higher compared with those on single-layer paper devices. Furthermore, measurements could be performed with minimal user involvement and completed within 30 min. Due to its simplicity, enhanced automation, and capability for quantitative measurements, stacked paper electrochemical biosensors can be useful tools for point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  14. Computerized plutonium laboratory-stack monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, R.G.; DeVore, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has recently designed and constructed a Plutonium Research and Development Facility to meet design criteria imposed by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. A primary objective of the design criteria is to assure environmental protection and to reliably monitor plutonium effluent via the ventilation exhaust systems. A state-of-the-art facility exhaust air monitoring system is described which establishes near ideal conditions for evaluating plutonium activity in the stack effluent. Total and static pressure sensing manifolds are incorporated to measure average velocity and integrated total discharge air volume. These data are logged at a computer which receives instrument data through a multiplex scanning system. A multipoint isokinetic sampling assembly with associated instrumentation is described. Continuous air monitors have been designed to sample from the isokinetic sampling assembly and transmit both instantaneous and integrated stack effluent concentration data to the computer and various cathode ray tube displays. The continuous air monitors also serve as room air monitors in the plutonium facility with the primary objective of timely evacuation of personnel if an above tolerance airborne plutonium concentration is detected. Several continuous air monitors are incorporated in the ventilation system to assist in identification of release problem areas

  15. Single point aerosol sampling: Evaluation of mixing and probe performance in a nuclear stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, J.C.; Fairchild, C.I.; Wood, G.O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Alternative Reference Methodologies (ARMs) have been developed for sampling of radionuclides from stacks and ducts that differ from the methods required by the U.S. EPA. The EPA methods are prescriptive in selection of sampling locations and in design of sampling probes whereas the alternative methods are performance driven. Tests were conducted in a stack at Los Alamos National Laboratory to demonstrate the efficacy of the ARMs. Coefficients of variation of the velocity tracer gas, and aerosol particle profiles were determined at three sampling locations. Results showed numerical criteria placed upon the coefficients of variation by the ARMs were met at sampling stations located 9 and 14 stack diameters from flow entrance, but not at a location that is 1.5 diameters downstream from the inlet. Experiments were conducted to characterize the transmission of 10 {mu}m aerodynamic equivalent diameter liquid aerosol particles through three types of sampling probes. The transmission ratio (ratio of aerosol concentration at the probe exit plane to the concentration in the free stream) was 107% for a 113 L/min (4-cfm) anisokinetic shrouded probe, but only 20% for an isokinetic probe that follows the EPA requirements. A specially designed isokinetic probe showed a transmission ratio of 63%. The shrouded probe performance would conform to the ARM criteria; however, the isokinetic probes would not.

  16. Simulating Small-Scale Object Stacking Using Stack Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Thomsen, Kasper; Kraus, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extension system to a closed-source, real-time physics engine for improving structured stacking behavior with small-scale objects such as wooden toy bricks. The proposed system was implemented and evaluated. The tests showed that the system is able to simulate several common...

  17. Design of nuclear power generation plants adopting model engineering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, Masato

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of model engineering as the method of design has begun about ten years ago in nuclear power generation plants. By this method, the result of design can be confirmed three-dimensionally before actual production, and it is the quick and sure method to meet the various needs in design promptly. The adoption of models aims mainly at the improvement of the quality of design since the high safety is required for nuclear power plants in spite of the complex structure. The layout of nuclear power plants and piping design require the model engineering to arrange rationally enormous quantity of things in a limited period. As the method of model engineering, there are the use of check models and of design models, and recently, the latter method has been mainly taken. The procedure of manufacturing models and engineering is explained. After model engineering has been completed, the model information must be expressed in drawings, and the automation of this process has been attempted by various methods. The computer processing of design is in progress, and its role is explained (CAD system). (Kako, I.)

  18. Optical description and design method with annularly stitched aspheric surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, De-Wen; Chen, Xue-Jiao; Xu, Chen; Hu, Yuan; Wang, Yong-Tian

    2015-12-01

    The relentless pressure for designs with new optical functions, small volume, and light weight has greatly increased the importance of aspheric surfaces. In this paper, we propose an annularly stitched aspheric surface (ASAS) description method to increase the freedom and flexibility of imaging system design. The rotationally symmetric ASAS consists of a circular central zone and one or more annular zones. Two neighboring zones are constrained to have the same derivatives on their joint curve, and this means the ASAS is C1 continuous. This finding is proved and verified by the mathematical deduction of the surface formulas. Two optimization strategies and two design methods with the C1 continuous constraints are also discussed. This surface can greatly facilitate the design and even achieve some previously impossible designs without increasing the fabrication difficulty. Two different systems with the proposed ASAS are optimized and the results are presented. The design results verified the practicability of the ASAS.

  19. Implementing Adaptive Educational Methods with IMS Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus; Burgos, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Specht, M. & Burgos, D. (2006). Implementing Adaptive Educational Methods with IMS Learning Design. Proceedings of Adaptive Hypermedia. June, Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org

  20. Overview of the South African mechanistic pavement design analysis method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A historical overview of the South African mechanistic pavement design method, from its development in the early 1970s to the present, is presented. Material characterization, structural analysis, and pavement life prediction are discussed...

  1. Applying Agile Design Sprint Methods in Action Design Research: Prototyping a Health and Wellbeing Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer-Broers, W.J.W.; de Reuver, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    In Action Design Research projects, researchers often face severe constraints in terms of budget and time within the practical setting. Therefore, we argue that ADR researchers may adopt efficient methods to guide their design strategy. While agile and sprint oriented design approaches are becoming

  2. Standoff Stack Emissions Monitoring Using Short Range Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Jean-Francois Y.; Babin, Francois; Allard, Martin

    2016-06-01

    There are well documented methods for stack emissions monitoring. These are all based on stack sampling through sampling ports in well defined conditions. Once sampled, the molecules are quantified in instruments that often use optical techniques. Unfortunately sampling ports are not found on all stacks/ducts or the use of the sampling ports cannot be planned efficiently because of operational constraints or the emissions monitoring equipment cannot be driven to a remote stack/duct. Emissions monitoring using many of the same optical techniques, but at a standoff distance, through the atmosphere, using short range high spatial resolution lidar techniques was thus attempted. Standoff absorption and Raman will be discussed and results from a field campaign will be presented along with short descriptions of the apparatus. In the first phase of these tests, the molecules that were targeted were NO and O2. Spatially resolved optical measurements allow for standoff identification and quantification of molecules, much like the standardized methods, except for the fact that it is not done in the stack, but in the plume formed by the emissions from the stack. The pros and cons will also be discussed, and in particular the problem of mass emission estimates that require the knowledge of the flow rate and the distribution of molecular concentration in the plane of measurement.

  3. Standoff Stack Emissions Monitoring Using Short Range Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravel Jean-Francois Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are well documented methods for stack emissions monitoring. These are all based on stack sampling through sampling ports in well defined conditions. Once sampled, the molecules are quantified in instruments that often use optical techniques. Unfortunately sampling ports are not found on all stacks/ducts or the use of the sampling ports cannot be planned efficiently because of operational constraints or the emissions monitoring equipment cannot be driven to a remote stack/duct. Emissions monitoring using many of the same optical techniques, but at a standoff distance, through the atmosphere, using short range high spatial resolution lidar techniques was thus attempted. Standoff absorption and Raman will be discussed and results from a field campaign will be presented along with short descriptions of the apparatus. In the first phase of these tests, the molecules that were targeted were NO and O2. Spatially resolved optical measurements allow for standoff identification and quantification of molecules, much like the standardized methods, except for the fact that it is not done in the stack, but in the plume formed by the emissions from the stack. The pros and cons will also be discussed, and in particular the problem of mass emission estimates that require the knowledge of the flow rate and the distribution of molecular concentration in the plane of measurement.

  4. Multivariable control in nuclear power stations -survey of design methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcmorran, P.D.

    1979-12-01

    The development of larger nuclear generating stations increases the importance of dynamic interaction between controllers, because each control action may affect several plant outputs. Multivariable control provides the techniques to design controllers which perform well under these conditions. This report is a foundation for further work on the application of multivariable control in AECL. It covers the requirements of control and the fundamental mathematics used, then reviews the most important linear methods, based on both state-space and frequency-response concepts. State-space methods are derived from analysis of the system differential equations, while frequency-response methods use the input-output transfer function. State-space methods covered include linear-quadratic optimal control, pole shifting, and the theory of state observers and estimators. Frequency-response methods include the inverse Nyquist array method, and classical non-interactive techniques. Transfer-function methods are particularly emphasized since they can incorporate ill-defined design criteria. The underlying concepts, and the application strengths and weaknesses of each design method are presented. A review of significant applications is also given. It is concluded that the inverse Nyquist array method, a frequency-response technique based on inverse transfer-function matrices, is preferred for the design of multivariable controllers for nuclear power plants. This method may be supplemented by information obtained from a modal analysis of the plant model. (auth)

  5. New knowledge network evaluation method for design rationale management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shikai; Zhan, Hongfei; Liu, Jihong; Wang, Kuan; Jiang, Hao; Zhou, Jingtao

    2015-01-01

    Current design rationale (DR) systems have not demonstrated the value of the approach in practice since little attention is put to the evaluation method of DR knowledge. To systematize knowledge management process for future computer-aided DR applications, a prerequisite is to provide the measure for the DR knowledge. In this paper, a new knowledge network evaluation method for DR management is presented. The method characterizes the DR knowledge value from four perspectives, namely, the design rationale structure scale, association knowledge and reasoning ability, degree of design justification support and degree of knowledge representation conciseness. The DR knowledge comprehensive value is also measured by the proposed method. To validate the proposed method, different style of DR knowledge network and the performance of the proposed measure are discussed. The evaluation method has been applied in two realistic design cases and compared with the structural measures. The research proposes the DR knowledge evaluation method which can provide object metric and selection basis for the DR knowledge reuse during the product design process. In addition, the method is proved to be more effective guidance and support for the application and management of DR knowledge.

  6. Process-driven architecture : Design techniques and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaskiewicz, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of process-driven architecture and, as a consequence, application of complex systems in the newly defined area of digital process-driven architectural design in order to formulate a suitable design method. Protospace software environment and SwarmCAD software

  7. New Design Heaters Using Tubes Finned by Deforming Cutting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, N. N.; Nikitenko, S. M.; Nikitenko, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    The article describes the results of research aimed at selecting and assigning technological processing parameters for obtaining outer fins of heat-exchange tubes by the deformational cutting method, for use in a new design of industrial water-air heaters. The thermohydraulic results of comparative engineering tests of new and standard design air-heaters are presented.

  8. Topology design of rigid string mechanism using constraint force design method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Jae Chung; Yoon, Gil Ho

    2012-01-01

    This study extends the constraint force design method allowing topology optimization for planar rigid link and string mechanisms. To our best knowledge, by applying conventional machine and mechanism design theories, it is likely that it is possible to find out optimal locations of joints and lengths of rigid links but somewhat difficult to find out optimal topology of rigid links. To achieve optimal topology of rigid links, there is our previous contribution so called the new constraint force design method with the binary design variables determining the existence of the auxiliary forces imposing apparent lengths among unit masses. By adding new binary design variables, this research extends the constraint force design method to find out optimal mechanism consisting of stringy links as well as rigid links that seems impossible in the conventional machine and mechanism design theories

  9. The Innovative Bike Conceptual Design by Using Modified Functional Element Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nien-Te Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to propose a new design process by modifying functional element design approach which can commence a large amount of innovative concepts within a short period of time. Firstly, the original creative functional elements design method is analyzed and the drawbacks are discussed. Then, the modified is proposed and is divided into 6 steps. The creative functional element representations, generalization, specialization, and particularization are used in this method. Every step is described clearly, and users could design by following the process easily. In this paper, a clear and accurate design process is proposed based on the creative functional element design method. By following this method, a lot of innovative bicycles will be created quickly.

  10. Advanced Topology Optimization Methods for Conceptual Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Amir, Oded; Clausen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a series of new, advanced topology optimization methods, developed specifically for conceptual architectural design of structures. The proposed computational procedures are implemented as components in the framework of a Grasshopper plugin, providing novel capacities in topolo......This paper presents a series of new, advanced topology optimization methods, developed specifically for conceptual architectural design of structures. The proposed computational procedures are implemented as components in the framework of a Grasshopper plugin, providing novel capacities...

  11. Advanced Topology Optimization Methods for Conceptual Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Amir, Oded; Clausen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a series of new, advanced topology optimization methods, developed specifically for conceptual architectural design of structures. The proposed computational procedures are implemented as components in the framework of a Grasshopper plugin, providing novel capacities in topolo......This paper presents a series of new, advanced topology optimization methods, developed specifically for conceptual architectural design of structures. The proposed computational procedures are implemented as components in the framework of a Grasshopper plugin, providing novel capacities...

  12. Study on design method for seismically isolated FBR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Kazuta; Yabana, Shuichi; Ohtori, Yasuki; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Shiojiri; Hiroo; Mazda, Taiji

    1998-01-01

    CRIEPI conducted 'Demonstration test on FBR seismic isolation system' from 1987 to 1996 under contract with Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan. In the demonstration test, base isolation technologies are prepared and demonstrated to apply to FBR and the design guidelines are proposed. In this report overall contents of the design guidelines entitled Design guidelines for seismically base isolated FBR plants' are included. The design guidelines, as a rule, are limited to apply to FBR plants where entire reactor building is isolated in the horizontal direction using laminated rubber bearings as isolators. The design guidelines and its concepts, however, will be useful for the development of similar guidelines for other isolation systems using different type of isolation methods and other nuclear facilities. The design guidelines consist of three parts and appendices. The first part is 'Policy for Safety Design of Base Isolated FBR Plants' specifying the principles and the requirements in the planning and the design for the safety of base isolated FBR plants. The second part is Policy for Seismic Design of Base Isolated FBR' describing the principles and the requirements in the seismic design and the evaluation of safety for base isolated FBR plants. The third part is 'Design Methods for Seismic Isolated FBR Plants' detailing the methods, procedures and parameters to be used in the design and the evaluation of safety fro base isolated FBR plants. In appendices examples of design procedures for base isolated reactor building and laminated rubber bearings as well as various test data on laminated rubber bearings, etc. are shown. (author)

  13. Stack semantics of type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquand, Thierry; Mannaa, Bassel; Ruch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    We give a model of dependent type theory with one univalent universe and propositional truncation interpreting a type as a stack, generalizing the groupoid model of type theory. As an application, we show that countable choice cannot be proved in dependent type theory with one univalent universe...

  14. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  15. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  16. Optimal Stack Layout in a Sea Container Terminal with Automated Lifting Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Roy (Debjit); A. Gupta (Akash); S. Parhi (Sampanna); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContainer terminal performance is largely determined by its design decisions, which include the number and type of quay cranes (QCs), stack cranes (SCs), transport vehicles, vehicle travel path, and stack layout. The terminal design process is complex because it is affected by factors

  17. Report on the Verification of the Performance of MON 87708 and MON 89788 Event-specific PCR-based Methods Applied to DNA Extracted from GM Stack MON 87708 x MON 89788 Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    JACCHIA SARA; SACCO Maria-Grazia; MAZZARA Marco; KREYSA JOACHIM

    2014-01-01

    An application was submitted by Monsanto Company to request the authorisation of genetically modified stack (GM stack) MON 87708 × MON 89788 soybean (tolerant to dicamba and to glyphosate) and all sub-combinations of the individual events as present in the segregating progeny, for food and feed uses, and import and processing, in accordance with articles 5 and 17 of Regulation (EC) N° 1829/2003 GM Food and GM Feed. The unique identifier assigned to GM stack MON 87708 × MON 89788 soybean is MO...

  18. CaPiTo: protocol stacks for services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    CaPiTo allows the modelling of service-oriented applications using process algebras at three levels of abstraction. The abstract level focuses on the key functionality of the services; the plug-in level shows how to obtain security using standardised protocol stacks; finally, the concrete level...... for ensuring the absence of security flaws. The method used is based on static analysis of the corresponding LySa specifications. We illustrate the development on two industrial case studies; one taken from the banking sector and the other a single sign-on protocol....... allows to consider how security is obtained using asymmetric and symmetric cryptographic primitives. The CaPiTo approach therefore caters for a variety of developers that need to cooperate on designing and implementing service-oriented applications. We show how to formally analyse CaPiTo specifications...

  19. On the relationship between the irregular reflector and the data processing by stacking; Hanshamen keijo to jugo shori ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J.; Yokota, T.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Rokukawa, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    An examination was made on the possibility of data processing by stacking with scattered waves assumed in a seismic exploration analysis (diffraction stacking method). In the examination, a CDP stacking method and the diffraction stacking method were compared through numerical experiments in the case of imaging a flat reflection surface and an irregular reflection surface. As a result, it was revealed that the CDP stacking method for stacking mirror reflection waves was merely a processing to raise S/N ratio while the diffraction stacking method for stacking with scattered waves assumed contained a migrational aspect as well as an aspect to raise S/N ratio. Consequently, it was shown that, if an oscillator was properly arranged, a structural imaging was possible not by the shape of a reflection surface but by the diffraction stacking method. Additionally, the diffraction stacking method revealed that the imaging effect varied by frequency with the stacking effect decreased at high frequencies, and that no stacking effect decreased at low frequencies but resolution lowered in horizontal direction. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Overcoming design fixation through education and creativity methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, T. J.; Maier, A. M.; Onarheim, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment on the topic design fixation using 12 teams of masters students working on three design problems from (Jansson and Smith 1991). The objective of the experiment is to determine the effectiveness of two interventions to help overcome fixation on example solutions......' method during a final design task. The results showed that the method did not help the teams as it caused the fixation ratio to increase and the number of ideas per team to decrease. In addition to the above mentioned interventions, the experiment also revealed a negative correlation between the number...

  1. Overcoming Design Fixation Through Education and Creativity Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Thomas J.; Maier, Anja; Onarheim, Balder

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment on the topic design fixation using 12 teams of masters students working on three design problems from (Jansson and Smith 1991). The objective of the experiment is to determine the effectiveness of two interventions to help overcome fixation on example solutions......' method during a final design task. The results showed that the method did not help the teams as it caused the fixation ratio to increase and the number of ideas per team to decrease. In addition to the above mentioned interventions, the experiment also revealed a negative correlation between the number...

  2. IDEF method for designing seismic information system in CTBT verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xuefeng; Shen Junyi; Jin Ping; Zhang Huimin; Zheng Jiangling; Sun Peng

    2004-01-01

    Seismic information system is of great importance for improving the capability of CTBT verification. A large amount of money has been appropriated for the research in this field in the U.S. and some other countries in recent years. However, designing and developing a seismic information system involves various technologies about complex system design. This paper discusses the IDEF0 method to construct function models and the IDEF1x method to make information models systemically, as well as how they are used in designing seismic information system in CTBT verification. (authors)

  3. Fuel cell design using a new heuristic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perusquia, R.; Montes T, J. L.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Castillo M, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper a new method for the pre-design of a typical fuel cell with a structural array of 10 x 10 fuel elements for a BWR is presented. The method is based on principles of maximum dispersion and minimum peaks of local power within the array of fuel elements. The pre-design of the fuel cells is made by simulation in two dimensions (2-D) through the cells physics code CASMO-4. For this purpose of pre-design the search process is guided by an objective function which is a combination of the main neutronic parameters of the fuel cell. The results show that the method is a promising tool that could be used for the design of fuel cells for use in a nuclear plant BWR. (Author)

  4. Designing A Mixed Methods Study In Primary Care

    OpenAIRE

    Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations.

  5. Design of Education Methods in a Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavich, Roman; Starichenko, Boris

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented article is to review existing approaches to modern training methods design and to create a variant of its technology in virtual educational environments in order to develop general cultural and professional students' competence in pedagogical education. The conceptual modeling of a set of methods for students' training…

  6. Some basic design methods for HSC Structural Members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Hoang, Cao Linh; Hagsten, Lars German

    1998-01-01

    is put on the recently developed crack sliding model applicable to non-shear reinforced beams and lightly shear reinforced beams. The consequences of sliding in cracks on the strength of disk elements are also described. The methods described are compared with results of tests with high strength concrete...... elements. Good agreement has been found.Keywords: Plastic design methods, bending capacity, shear capacity, crack sliding, HSC beams, HSC disks.......Key-note paper.The paper deals with methods based on the theory of plasticity to be used in the design of reinforced concrete members of high strength concrete. Formulae for the bending capacity of beams subjected to pure bending are given. Methods for shear design of beams are described. Emphasis...

  7. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    -ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering of products......Research methods have been objects of discussions for dec-ades and defining research methods is still a quite substan-tial challenge. However, it is important to understand how research methods have been adapted in different disciplines as it potentially informs us on future directions and influ...

  8. Development and durability of SOFC stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeaff, D.; Dinesen, A.R.; Mikkelsen, Lars; Nielsen, Karsten A.; Solvang, M.; Hendriksen, Peter V.

    2004-12-01

    The present project is a part of the Danish SOFC programme, which has the overall aim of establishing a Danish production of SOFC - cells, stacks and systems for economical and environmentally friendly power production. The aim of the present project was to develop and demonstrate (on a small scale, few cells, few thousand hours) a durable, thermally cyclable stack with high performance at 750 deg. C. Good progress towards this target has been made and demonstrated at the level of stack-elements (one cell between two interconnects) or small stacks (3 5 cells). Three different stacks or stack-elements have been operated for periods exceeding 3000 hr. The work has covered development of stack-components (seals, interconnects, coatings, contact layers), establishment of procedures for stack assembly and initiation, and detailed electrical characterisation with the aims of identifying performance limiting factors as well as long term durability. Further, post test investigations have been carried out to identify possible degradation mechanisms. (BA)

  9. SSFI and SSOMI new method of evaluating design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolson, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    The NRC has developed a new inspection method which has proven its effectiveness in evaluating design organizations. The new method is used in two types of NRC inspections, Safety System Functional Inspection (SSFI), and Safety System Outage Modification Inspection (SSOMI). The SSFI/SSOMI audits were developed following an event which brought a nuclear power plant close to a core meltdown. That event was caused by a series of problems which would not have been found using conventional methods. The SSFI and SSOMI audits involve intense technical evaluation of a nuclear system to determine wheter the system will function as designed. The SSFI/SSOMI method normally uses eight to fifteen engineers with different fields of expertise to evaluate a system, or a change to a system in the case of a SSOMI. The effectiveness of each engineer's input is amplified in a series of open, questioning, free-wheeling, brainstorming-type team meetings. During the team meetings, all aspects of the audit are controlled by a consensus of the team members. The findings from these new methods are surprisingly consistent, regardless of which organization is audited or which organization performs the audit. This consistency implies a widespread generic weakness in the manner design is being performed. This paper addresses generic findings and recommends increased use of these new methods to evaluate design organizations. These audit methods can be readily used to evaluate any process or system. (orig.)

  10. Advances in product family and product platform design methods & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jiao, Jianxin; Siddique, Zahed; Hölttä-Otto, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Product Family and Product Platform Design: Methods & Applications highlights recent advances that have been made to support product family and product platform design and successful applications in industry. This book provides not only motivation for product family and product platform design—the “why” and “when” of platforming—but also methods and tools to support the design and development of families of products based on shared platforms—the “what”, “how”, and “where” of platforming. It begins with an overview of recent product family design research to introduce readers to the breadth of the topic and progresses to more detailed topics and design theory to help designers, engineers, and project managers plan, architect, and implement platform-based product development strategies in their companies. This book also: Presents state-of-the-art methods and tools for product family and product platform design Adopts an integrated, systems view on product family and pro...

  11. Tradeoff methods in multiobjective insensitive design of airplane control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schy, A. A.; Giesy, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    The latest results of an ongoing study of computer-aided design of airplane control systems are given. Constrained minimization algorithms are used, with the design objectives in the constraint vector. The concept of Pareto optimiality is briefly reviewed. It is shown how an experienced designer can use it to find designs which are well-balanced in all objectives. Then the problem of finding designs which are insensitive to uncertainty in system parameters are discussed, introducing a probabilistic vector definition of sensitivity which is consistent with the deterministic Pareto optimal problem. Insensitivity is important in any practical design, but it is particularly important in the design of feedback control systems, since it is considered to be the most important distinctive property of feedback control. Methods of tradeoff between deterministic and stochastic-insensitive (SI) design are described, and tradeoff design results are presented for the example of the a Shuttle lateral stability augmentation system. This example is used because careful studies have been made of the uncertainty in Shuttle aerodynamics. Finally, since accurate statistics of uncertain parameters are usually not available, the effects of crude statistical models on SI designs are examined.

  12. Renewing Theories, Methods and Design Practices: Challenges for Architectural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Yatmo Yandi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Architectural education should promote the advancement of knowledge that is necessary as the basis for the development of excellent design practice. Architectural education needs to respond appropriately to the current issues in the society. To find its way into the society in an appropriate way, architecture needs to be liquid. The ability to address the liquidity of architecture requires educational approach that promotes the ability to work with a range of design methods and approaches. There are several principles that become the basis for developing architectural education that could strengthen its position within the society: to promote knowledge-based design practice, to embrace variety of design methods and approaches; to keep a balance between design knowledge and design skills; while at the same time to aim for mastery and excellence in design. These principles should be the basis for defining and developing the curriculum and the process of design learning architectural education. Then the main challenge is on our willingness to be liquid in developing architectural education, which needs continuous renewal and update to respond to the changing context of knowledge, technology and society.

  13. Methods for air cleaning system design and accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes methods, in the form of a handbook and five computer codes, that can be used for nuclear facility air cleaning system design and accident analysis. Four of the codes were developed primarily at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and one was developed in France. Tools such as these are used to design ventilation systems in the mining industry but do not seem to be commonly used in the nuclear industry. For example, the Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook is an excellent design reference, but it fails to include information on computer codes that can be used to aid in the design process. These computer codes allow the analyst to use the handbook information to form all the elements of a complete system design. Because these analysis methods are in the form of computer codes they allow the analyst to investigate many alternative designs. In addition, the effects of many accident scenarios on the operation of the air cleaning system can be evaluated. These tools originally were intended for accident analysis, but they have been used mostly as design tools by several architect-engineering firms. The Cray, VAX, and personal computer versions of the codes, an accident analysis handbook, and the codes availability will be discussed. The application of these codes to several design operations of nuclear facilities will be illustrated, and their use to analyze the effect of several accident scenarios also will be described

  14. Adaptive design methods in clinical trials – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Mark

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, the use of adaptive design methods in clinical research and development based on accrued data has become very popular due to its flexibility and efficiency. Based on adaptations applied, adaptive designs can be classified into three categories: prospective, concurrent (ad hoc, and retrospective adaptive designs. An adaptive design allows modifications made to trial and/or statistical procedures of ongoing clinical trials. However, it is a concern that the actual patient population after the adaptations could deviate from the originally target patient population and consequently the overall type I error (to erroneously claim efficacy for an infective drug rate may not be controlled. In addition, major adaptations of trial and/or statistical procedures of on-going trials may result in a totally different trial that is unable to address the scientific/medical questions the trial intends to answer. In this article, several commonly considered adaptive designs in clinical trials are reviewed. Impacts of ad hoc adaptations (protocol amendments, challenges in by design (prospective adaptations, and obstacles of retrospective adaptations are described. Strategies for the use of adaptive design in clinical development of rare diseases are discussed. Some examples concerning the development of Velcade intended for multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are given. Practical issues that are commonly encountered when implementing adaptive design methods in clinical trials are also discussed.

  15. Limit state design based on experimental methods for high pressure subsea pipeline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Chris [Stress Engineering Services Inc., Houston, TX, (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Pipelines used for subsea transportation need to resist high pressure. This paper investigated the benefits associated with establishing a limit state design pressure for high pressure subsea pipelines based on experimental methods. A testing program has carried out to evaluate the design pressure for an 18-inch x 0.75-inch grade X65 gas pipeline using the methodology of API RP 1111. Two full-scale burst tests were conducted. A review of the design codes is also presented to assess the validity of the testing results. Using the design option of API RP 1111, the resulting design pressure was 4,448 psi. Using ASME B31.8, the design pressure would have been 3,900 psi. These results showed a net increase in the design pressure of 14 %. It is found that using a limit state design process based on API RP 1111 offered economic benefits derived from more rigorous material qualification.

  16. Making Design Decisions Visible: Applying the Case-Based Method in Designing Online Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Luo,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The instructional intervention in this design case is a self-directed online tutorial that applies the case-based method to teach educators how to design and conduct entrepreneurship programs for elementary school students. In this article, the authors describe the major decisions made in each phase of the design and development process, explicate the rationales behind them, and demonstrate their effect on the production of the tutorial. Based on such analysis, the guidelines for designing case-based online instruction are summarized for the design case.

  17. Design of laminated plates for maximum buckling load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yung S.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Watson, Layne T.; Plaut, Raymond H.

    1989-01-01

    The buckling load of laminated plates having midplane symmetry is maximized for a given total thickness. The thicknesses of the layers are taken as the design variables. Buckling analysis is carried out using the finite element method. The optimality equations are solved by a homotopy method which permits tracing optima as a function of total thickness. It is shown that for any design with a given stacking sequence of ply orientations, there exists a design associated with any other stacking sequence which possesses the same bending stiffness matrix and same total thickness. Hence, from the optimum design for a given stacking sequence, one can directly determine the optimum design for any rearrangement of the ply orientations, and the optimum buckling load is independent of the stacking sequence.

  18. A New Design Method based on Cooperative Data Mining from Multi-Objective Design Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Obayashi, Shigeru; Jeong, Shinkyu

    We propose a new multi-objective parameter design method that uses the combination of the following data mining techniques: analysis of variance, self-organizing map, decision tree analysis, rough set theory, and association rule. This method first aims to improve multiple objective functions simultaneously using as much predominant main effects of different design variables as possible. Then it resolves the remaining conflictions between the objective functions using predominant interaction effects of design variables. The key to realizing this method is the obtaining of various design rules that quantitatively relate levels of design variables to levels of objective functions. Based on comparative studies of data mining techniques, the systematic processes for obtaining these design rules have been clarified, and the points of combining data mining techniques have also been summarized. This method has been applied to a multi-objective robust optimization problem of an industrial fan, and the results show its superior capabilities for controlling parameters to traditional single-objective parameter design methods like the Taguchi method.

  19. A Comb Filter Design Method Using Linear Phase FIR Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yosuke; Kawamura, Arata; Iiguni, Youji

    This paper proposes a comb filter design method which utilizes two linear phase FIR filters for flexibly adjusting the comb filter's frequency response. The first FIR filter is used to individually adjust the notch gains, which denote the local minimum gains of the comb filter's frequency response. The second FIR filter is used to design the elimination bandwidths for individual notch gains. We also derive an efficient comb filter by incorporating these two FIR filters with an all-pass filter which is used in a conventional comb filter to accurately align the nulls with the undesired harmonic frequencies. Several design examples of the derived comb filter show the effectiveness of the proposed comb filter design method.

  20. SNR-2 reactor: Design, state, trends and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehmann, U.

    1983-01-01

    Starting at the situation in 1975, the basic ideas that have lead from the reference care HOM 1 to today's basic core are shown. The use of the various methods is discussed by means of typical aspects of design: BRUST for parameter studies (e.g.: rod cross sections and the influence of burnup on cycle costs), RZ-diffusion for comparative studies with a high degree of accuracy required (e.g.: the influence of rod cross sections on reactivity coefficients), 3-dimensional diffusion (e.g.: studies aiming at reducing the number of absorbers, 3-d burnup of the basic care), 3-d transport (e.g.: ensuring of absorber efficiencies calculated by DEGEN). Further possible design modifications for the SNR-2 reactor and related design work are discussed. In addition to Dr. Heussen's lecture, the present state-of-the-art in design methods and improvements that may be required are dealt with. (orig.) [de

  1. Overcoming design fixation through education and creativity methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Thomas J.; Maier, Anja; Onarheim, Balder

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment on the topic design fixation using 12 teams of masters students working on three design problems from (Jansson and Smith 1991). The objective of the experiment is to determine the effectiveness of two interventions to help overcome fixation on example solutions....... The first intervention consisted of educating each team on the phenomena and effects of design fixation. The results showed that this intervention reduced the number of fixation elements in comparison to the control group (p=0.025). The second intervention involved using Dix et als' (2006) 'Bad Ideas......' method during a final design task. The results showed that the method did not help the teams as it caused the fixation ratio to increase and the number of ideas per team to decrease. In addition to the above mentioned interventions, the experiment also revealed a negative correlation between the number...

  2. Stacking Analysis of Binary Systems with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Chad; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Detecting binary systems at TeV energies is an important problem because only a handful of such systems are currently known. The nature of such systems is typically thought to be composed of a compact object and a massive star. The TeV emission from these systems does not obviously correspond to emission in GeV or X-ray, where many binary systems have previously been found. This study focuses on a stacking method to detect TeV emission from LS 5039, a known TeV binary, to test its efficacy in HAWC data. Stacking is a widely employed method for increasing signal to noise ratio in optical astronomy, but has never been attempted previously with HAWC. HAWC is an ideal instrument to search for TeV binaries, because of its wide field of view and high uptime. Applying this method to the entire sky may allow HAWC to detect binary sources of very short or very long periods not sensitive to current analyses. NSF, DOE, Los Alamos, Michigan Tech, CONACyt, UNAM, BUAP.

  3. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2015-01-01

    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  4. Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yandrasits, Michael A.

    2008-02-15

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are expected to change the landscape of power generation over the next ten years. For this to be realized one of the most significant challenges to be met for stationary systems is lifetime, where 40,000 hours of operation with less than 10% decay is desired. This project conducted fundamental studies on the durability of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and fuel cell stack systems with the expectation that knowledge gained from this project will be applied toward the design and manufacture of MEAs and stack systems to meet DOE’s 2010 stationary fuel cell stack systems targets. The focus of this project was PEM fuel cell durability – understanding the issues that limit MEA and fuel cell system lifetime, developing mitigation strategies to address the lifetime issues and demonstration of the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies by system testing. To that end, several discoveries were made that contributed to the fundamental understanding of MEA degradation mechanisms. (1) The classically held belief that membrane degradation is solely due to end-group “unzipping” is incorrect; there are other functional groups present in the ionomer that are susceptible to chemical attack. (2) The rate of membrane degradation can be greatly slowed or possibly eliminated through the use of additives that scavenge peroxide or peroxyl radicals. (3) Characterization of GDL using dry gases is incorrect due to the fact that fuel cells operate utilizing humidified gases. The proper characterization method involves using wet gas streams and measuring capillary pressure as demonstrated in this project. (4) Not all Platinum on carbon catalysts are created equally – the major factor impacting catalyst durability is the type of carbon used as the support. (5) System operating conditions have a significant impact of lifetime – the lifetime was increased by an order of magnitude by changing the load profile while all other variables remain

  5. The design method of diamond bit in hardest formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Long

    2010-01-01

    In the case of diamond bit drill* 1, * 2 of formation drillability that is the hardest formation,Fine, soft matrix, the low concentration of diamond dril should be chosen by Traditional design theory .Here describes a basic design with this completely different method. Proved through practice, Good performance of this drill, the drilling in extremely hard when the only limitation is high and life expectancy has increased a lot, have a good ground for such adaptability. (authors)

  6. Advanced Topology Optimization Methods for Conceptual Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Amir, Oded; Clausen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    in topological optimization: Interactive control and continuous visualization; embedding flexible voids within the design space; consideration of distinct tension / compression properties; and optimization of dual material systems. In extension, optimization procedures for skeletal structures such as trusses......This paper presents a series of new, advanced topology optimization methods, developed specifically for conceptual architectural design of structures. The proposed computational procedures are implemented as components in the framework of a Grasshopper plugin, providing novel capacities...

  7. How to gamify? A method for designing gamification

    OpenAIRE

    Morschheuser, Benedikt; Werder, Karl; Hamari, Juho; Abe, Julian

    2017-01-01

    During recent years, gamification has become a popular method of enriching information technologies. Popular business analysts have made promising predictions about penetration of gamification, however, it has also been estimated that most gamifica-tion efforts will fail due to poor understanding of how gamification should be designed and implemented. Therefore, in this paper we seek to advance the understanding of best practices related to the gamifica-tion design process. We approach this r...

  8. Treatment of Design Fire Uncertainty using Quadrature Method of Moments

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyay, Rochan; Ezekoye, Ofodike A

    2008-01-01

    The use of a single design fire in a performance based fire design code typically fails to account for the inherent uncertainty in knowledge of the future use of the space. Uncertainties in knowledge of intended use and the implications in terms of fuel loading and potential heat release rate can be bounded using probabilistic methods. Use of a cumulative distribution function (CDF) and the related probability density function (PDF) specify the best available estimate of the pr...

  9. Design method for a digitally trimmable MOS transistor structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ning, Feng; Bruun, Erik

    1996-01-01

    A digitally trimmable MOS transistor is a MOS transistor consisting of a drain, a source, and a main gate as well as several subgates. The transconductance of the transistor is tunabledigitally by means of connecting subgates either to the main gate or to the source terminal. In this paper......, a systematic design method for a digitally trimmable MOS transistor structure is proposed. Using the proposed method, we have designed a digitally trimmable MOS transistor structure and prototype devices were fabricated in a 2.4 micron n-well CMOS technology. Through measurements on these devices, the design...... method has been experimentally confirmed. The trimmable MOS transistor structure has been applied to a high precision current mirror to reduce mismatch in the current mirror. With the trimmable transistor structure, the mismatch can be reduced by more than one order of magnitude....

  10. CREATIVITY METHODS IN TEACHING THE ARCH-DESIGN STUDIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EIGBEONAN Andrew B.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to search and find methods of fostering creativity or ideas relating to creativity in teaching the arch-design studio. Teaching creativity through its methods will be making the students grounded in designing with creativity ideas and therefore we can have professionals that design and build with satisfaction, safety and complementary. It means we can have real buildings and places that satisfy our clients, the society and in harmony with the environment. Although there are similarities in the curricula of training architects all over the world, but educators go about it in their own convenient and suitable ways and styles. The ideas of creativity have been part of architecture from the onset, but are not deligently applied and also not formally incorporated in the curricula of training. The topic is also very relevant and timely as arch-educators and other stakeholders are of the opinion that something has to be done to improve the ways and methods of training architects, especially the teaching of the arch-design studio with regards to creativity. Through exploration of literature and interviews (physical and telephone call this paper finds methods of stimulating creativity ideas in the teaching of arch-design studio. Some of the methods of motivating creativity found in teaching the arch-design studio are: analogy, metaphors, biomimicry, brainstorming, attribute listing, mental map, TRIZ, restrictions, charrette, browsing, excursions, focus groups, other peoples viewpoints, using crazy ideas, using experts, visualizing a goal, working with dreams and images and giving students design tools such as drawings CAD and model making.

  11. Design of large Francis turbine using optimal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, E; Bornard, L; Tomas, L; Couston, M; Liu, J

    2012-01-01

    Among a high number of Francis turbine references all over the world, covering the whole market range of heads, Alstom has especially been involved in the development and equipment of the largest power plants in the world : Three Gorges (China −32×767 MW - 61 to 113 m), Itaipu (Brazil- 20x750 MW - 98.7m to 127m) and Xiangjiaba (China - 8x812 MW - 82.5m to 113.6m - in erection). Many new projects are under study to equip new power plants with Francis turbines in order to answer an increasing demand of renewable energy. In this context, Alstom Hydro is carrying out many developments to answer those needs, especially for jumbo units such the planned 1GW type units in China. The turbine design for such units requires specific care by using the state of the art in computation methods and the latest technologies in model testing as well as the maximum feedback from operation of Jumbo plants already in operation. We present in this paper how a large Francis turbine can be designed using specific design methods, including the global and local optimization methods. The design of the spiral case, the tandem cascade profiles, the runner and the draft tube are designed with optimization loops involving a blade design tool, an automatic meshing software and a Navier-Stokes solver, piloted by a genetic algorithm. These automated optimization methods, presented in different papers over the last decade, are nowadays widely used, thanks to the growing computation capacity of the HPC clusters: the intensive use of such optimization methods at the turbine design stage allows to reach very high level of performances, while the hydraulic flow characteristics are carefully studied over the whole water passage to avoid any unexpected hydraulic phenomena.

  12. Design of large Francis turbine using optimal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, E.; Bornard, L.; Tomas, L.; Liu, J.; Couston, M.

    2012-11-01

    Among a high number of Francis turbine references all over the world, covering the whole market range of heads, Alstom has especially been involved in the development and equipment of the largest power plants in the world : Three Gorges (China -32×767 MW - 61 to 113 m), Itaipu (Brazil- 20x750 MW - 98.7m to 127m) and Xiangjiaba (China - 8x812 MW - 82.5m to 113.6m - in erection). Many new projects are under study to equip new power plants with Francis turbines in order to answer an increasing demand of renewable energy. In this context, Alstom Hydro is carrying out many developments to answer those needs, especially for jumbo units such the planned 1GW type units in China. The turbine design for such units requires specific care by using the state of the art in computation methods and the latest technologies in model testing as well as the maximum feedback from operation of Jumbo plants already in operation. We present in this paper how a large Francis turbine can be designed using specific design methods, including the global and local optimization methods. The design of the spiral case, the tandem cascade profiles, the runner and the draft tube are designed with optimization loops involving a blade design tool, an automatic meshing software and a Navier-Stokes solver, piloted by a genetic algorithm. These automated optimization methods, presented in different papers over the last decade, are nowadays widely used, thanks to the growing computation capacity of the HPC clusters: the intensive use of such optimization methods at the turbine design stage allows to reach very high level of performances, while the hydraulic flow characteristics are carefully studied over the whole water passage to avoid any unexpected hydraulic phenomena.

  13. Conference on Manned Systems Design : New Methods and Equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Kraiss, K-F

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference held in Freiburg, West Germany, September 22-25, 1980, entitled "Manned Systems Design, New Methods and Equipment". The conference was sponsored by the Special Programme Panel on Human Factors of the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO, and supported by Panel VIII, AC/243, on "Human and Biomedical Sciences". Their sponsorship and support are gratefully acknowledged. The contributions in the book are grouped according to the main themes of the conference with special emphasis on analytical approaches, measurement of performance, and simulator design and evaluat ion. The design of manned systems covers many and highly diversified areas. Therefore, a conference under the general title of "Manned Systems Design" is rather ambitious in itself. However, scientists and engineers engaged in the design of manned systems very often are confronted with problems that can be solved only by having several disciplines working together. So it was felt that knowledge about ...

  14. Design methods and criteria recommended by the RAMSES committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowicz, H.; Moulin, D.; Petrequin, P.; Tortel, J.; Schaller, K.

    1980-09-01

    The design of structures of LMFBR in France must comply with the national regulations and takes into account the rules adopted by other countries but these rules need complements. The French Atomic Energy Commission has founded a committee named RAMSES (which states for 'Regles d'Analyse Mecanique des Structures') in order to write recommendations to give out the needed informations on design rules based on all the available background experience. The elastic follow up problem has received great attention and a recommendation was already printed. Of great concern in elevated temperature is a creep fatigue investigation. A creep fatigue design method adapted to materials used is being set up

  15. Design and Evaluation Methods for Underwater Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Lin

    1996-12-31

    This thesis on underwater control systems is written with the designer in mind, assuming that the reader has some knowledge of control theory. It can be used as a text for undergraduate students and engineers. To help readers better understand the system they will be working with, the thesis is organised in a stepwise way. The reader will gain basic knowledge about underwater operations, equipment and control systems. Then the reader will be able to follow the steps to develop a required control system for an underwater equipment by first understanding the characteristics of the design problem, customer requirement, functional requirement, and possible solution, and then to present a mathematical model of the control problem. Having developed the concept, the thesis guides the reader to develop evaluation criteria and different ways to make the decision. The thesis gives an overview of how to achieve a successful design rather than giving the techniques for detailed control system design. Chapter 1 describes underwater operations and systems. Chapter 2 discusses issues of underwater control systems and control methods. Chapter 3 deals with design method and control systems theory, focusing on human-centered control. Chapter 4 discusses methods used to evaluate and rank products, and chapter 5 applies the methods to an example. 113 refs., 115 figs., 80 tabs.

  16. Precision die design by the die expansion method

    CERN Document Server

    Ibhadode, A O Akii

    2009-01-01

    This book presents a new method for the design of the precision dies used in cold-forging, extrusion and drawing processes. The method is based upon die expansion, and attempts to provide a clear-cut theoretical basis for the selection of critical die dimensions for this group of precision dies when the tolerance on product diameter (or thickness) is specified. It also presents a procedure for selecting the minimum-production-cost die from among a set of design alternatives. The mathematical content of the book is relatively simple and will present no difficulty to those who have taken basic c

  17. Modification of design methods to suit computer aided design of pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaraswamy, S.

    1994-01-01

    Engineering designs involve a large number of repetitive calculations to achieve optimisation. So, computers which are fast and accurate lend themselves as an aid for the design process. However, certain modifications in the steps of conventional design method become necessary for easier adaptation. In addition, it will be advantageous if the empirical coefficients of design are allowed to be chosen by the designer with prompting of ranges taken from design charts by the program itself. This paper describes two examples of modification in pump design. In the first case Anderson's area ratio method and Pfleiderer's Slip power methods are combined to achieve an integrated design of impeller and casing. The second case is the design of a Mixed flow pump impeller by considering it as an assembly of a number of radial flow pump impellers called part impellers. In addition, these modifications are useful in redesign for a different operating condition or in matching of impellers to existing casings. (author). 13 refs., 4 figs

  18. Power sources involving ~ 300W PEMFC fuel cell stacks cooled by different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two constructions of ~300W PEMFC stacks, cooled by different media, were analysed. An open-cathode ~300W PEMFC stack cooled by air (Horizon, Singapore and a PEMFC F-42 stack cooled by a liquid medium (Schunk, Germany were chosen for all of the investigations described in this paper. The potential for the design and construction of power sources involving fuel cells, as well as of a hybrid system (fuel cell-lithium battery for mobile and stationary applications, is presented and discussed. The impact of certain experimental parameters on PEMFC stack performance is analysed and discussed.

  19. New method for designing serial resonant power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinov, Nikolay

    2017-12-01

    In current work is presented one comprehensive method for design of serial resonant energy converters. The method is based on new simplified approach in analysis of such kind power electronic devices. It is grounded on supposing resonant mode of operation when finding relation between input and output voltage regardless of other operational modes (when controlling frequency is below or above resonant frequency). This approach is named `quasiresonant method of analysis', because it is based on assuming that all operational modes are `sort of' resonant modes. An estimation of error was made because of the a.m. hypothesis and is compared to the classic analysis. The `quasiresonant method' of analysis gains two main advantages: speed and easiness in designing of presented power circuits. Hence it is very useful in practice and in teaching Power Electronics. Its applicability is proven with mathematic modelling and computer simulation.

  20. A systematic design method for robust synthetic biology to satisfy design specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chih-Hung

    2009-06-30

    Synthetic biology is foreseen to have important applications in biotechnology and medicine, and is expected to contribute significantly to a better understanding of the functioning of complex biological systems. However, the development of synthetic gene networks is still difficult and most newly created gene networks are non-functioning due to intrinsic parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and functional variations of intra- and extra-cellular environments. The design method for a robust synthetic gene network that works properly in a host cell under these intrinsic parameter uncertainties and external disturbances is the most important topic in synthetic biology. In this study, we propose a stochastic model that includes parameter fluctuations and external disturbances to mimic the dynamic behaviors of a synthetic gene network in the host cell. Then, based on this stochastic model, four design specifications are introduced to guarantee that a synthetic gene network can achieve its desired steady state behavior in spite of parameter fluctuations, external disturbances and functional variations in the host cell. We propose a systematic method to select a set of appropriate design parameters for a synthetic gene network that will satisfy these design specifications so that the intrinsic parameter fluctuations can be tolerated, the external disturbances can be efficiently filtered, and most importantly, the desired steady states can be achieved. Thus the synthetic gene network can work properly in a host cell under intrinsic parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and functional variations. Finally, a design procedure for the robust synthetic gene network is developed and a design example is given in silico to confirm the performance of the proposed method. Based on four design specifications, a systematic design procedure is developed for designers to engineer a robust synthetic biology network that can achieve its desired steady state behavior

  1. A systematic design method for robust synthetic biology to satisfy design specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chih-Hung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic biology is foreseen to have important applications in biotechnology and medicine, and is expected to contribute significantly to a better understanding of the functioning of complex biological systems. However, the development of synthetic gene networks is still difficult and most newly created gene networks are non-functioning due to intrinsic parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and functional variations of intra- and extra-cellular environments. The design method for a robust synthetic gene network that works properly in a host cell under these intrinsic parameter uncertainties and external disturbances is the most important topic in synthetic biology. Results In this study, we propose a stochastic model that includes parameter fluctuations and external disturbances to mimic the dynamic behaviors of a synthetic gene network in the host cell. Then, based on this stochastic model, four design specifications are introduced to guarantee that a synthetic gene network can achieve its desired steady state behavior in spite of parameter fluctuations, external disturbances and functional variations in the host cell. We propose a systematic method to select a set of appropriate design parameters for a synthetic gene network that will satisfy these design specifications so that the intrinsic parameter fluctuations can be tolerated, the external disturbances can be efficiently filtered, and most importantly, the desired steady states can be achieved. Thus the synthetic gene network can work properly in a host cell under intrinsic parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and functional variations. Finally, a design procedure for the robust synthetic gene network is developed and a design example is given in silico to confirm the performance of the proposed method. Conclusion Based on four design specifications, a systematic design procedure is developed for designers to engineer a robust synthetic biology

  2. High performance zinc air fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Wang, Keliang; Wang, Xizhong; Song, Mancun; Xu, Huachi

    2014-03-01

    A zinc air fuel cell (ZAFC) stack with inexpensive manganese dioxide (MnO2) as the catalyst is designed, in which the circulation flowing potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte carries the reaction product away and acts as a coolant. Experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of polarization, constant current discharge and dynamic response, as well as the factors affecting the performance and uniformity of individual cells in the stack. The results reveal that the peak power density can be as high as 435 mW cm-2 according to the area of the air cathode sheet, and the influence factors on cell performance and uniformity are cell locations, filled state of zinc pellets, contact resistance, flow rates of electrolyte and air. It is also shown that the time needed for voltages to reach steady state and that for current step-up or current step-down are both in milliseconds, indicating the ZAFC can be excellently applied to vehicles with rapid dynamic response demands.

  3. OLP embedment design method research for AP1000 nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Cheng; Li Shaoping; Liu Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the most advanced nuclear power technology, the first AP1000 reactor is under construction in China. Modularization is one of the main characteristics for AP1000 nuclear plant building. Module wall with steel face plate is used instead of reinforced concrete structure wall. A number of OLP embedments need to be installed into the module wall to connect other structures such as pipes, equipment, operation platforms and any other component attached to the module wall. Therefore, the design of embedment is very important in AP1000 structural design. Purpose: A finite element analysis method and tool for embedment design is needed for convenience. Methods: This paper applies the self-developed GTStrudl command template and VBA macro program for embedment capacity calculation and evaluation based on Microsoft Excel to the embedment design. Results: A Microsoft Excel template for embedment design is developed. Conclusions: The analysis method and template brings reasonable results and may provide some help and use for reference for the engineering practice. (authors)

  4. Stacking fault growth of FCC crystal: The Monte-Carlo simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Jianmin; Ming Naiben

    1988-03-01

    The Monte-Carlo method has been used to simulate the growth of the FCC (111) crystal surface, on which is presented the outcrop of a stacking fault. The comparison of the growth rates has been made between the stacking fault containing surface and the perfect surface. The successive growth stages have been simulated. It is concluded that the outcrop of stacking fault on the crystal surface can act as a self-perpetuating step generating source. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup

    . An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... (EIS). The stack measurement geometry was optimized for EIS by careful selection of the placement of current feeds and voltage probes in order to minimize measurement errors. It was demonstrated that with the improved placement of current feeds and voltage probes it is possible to separate the loss...... in the hydrogen fuel gas supplied to the stack. EIS was used to examine the long-term behavior and monitor the evolution of the impedance of each of the repeating units and the whole stack. The observed impedance was analyzed in detail for one of the repeating units and the whole stack and the losses reported...

  6. Design Method of Active Disturbance Rejection Variable Structure Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-jie Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on lines cluster approaching theory and inspired by the traditional exponent reaching law method, a new control method, lines cluster approaching mode control (LCAMC method, is designed to improve the parameter simplicity and structure optimization of the control system. The design guidelines and mathematical proofs are also given. To further improve the tracking performance and the inhibition of the white noise, connect the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC method with the LCAMC method and create the extended state observer based lines cluster approaching mode control (ESO-LCAMC method. Taking traditional servo control system as example, two control schemes are constructed and two kinds of comparison are carried out. Computer simulation results show that LCAMC method, having better tracking performance than the traditional sliding mode control (SMC system, makes the servo system track command signal quickly and accurately in spite of the persistent equivalent disturbances and ESO-LCAMC method further reduces the tracking error and filters the white noise added on the system states. Simulation results verify the robust property and comprehensive performance of control schemes.

  7. Experimental 1 kW 20 cell PEFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, F.N.; Marmy, C.A.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ruge, M. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A 20-cell PEFC stack was designed and built. Resin impregnated graphite was used as bipolar plate material. The air cooling of the stack was optimized by introducing high surface structures into the open space of the cooling plates. At {eta} (H{sub 2} LHV) = 0.5 a power of 880 W was obtained under conditions of low gas-pressures of 1.15 bar{sub a}. The auxiliary power for process air supply and cooling at 880 W power is less than 7% of the power output, indicating that the described system may be operated at a high efficiency. (author) 5 figs., 2 refs.

  8. Method of Designing Phase-Shifting Masks Utilizing a Compactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Kazuko; Koyama, Kiyomi; Kiryu, Masakazu

    1994-12-01

    A new method is proposed for designing Levenson-type phase-shifting masks. In this method, phases are assigned in an intermediate layout, and then the intermediate layout is converted to a final layout. In practice, the intermediate layout is a symbolic layout, and the symbolic layout is converted to a mask layout by a compactor. According to the strategy, no conflict spots arise during the operation, which greatly improves design efficiency. This design method is applicable to random patterns in a memory peripheral circuit and in microcomputer chips. As a result of application to the peripheral circuit of dynamic random access memory (DRAM), about 16% shrinkage of the mask area was obtained, compared with a conventional mask. As for a microcomputer chip, 12% shrinkage of mask area was obtained under the condition of 50% shrinkage of aluminum-wire spacing. Together with the interactive method reported before, which is applicable to a memory core circuit, the design of the Levenson-type masks for standard LSIs is totally covered.

  9. Comparison of design methods for axially loaded buckets in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    A study of the present knowledge about the bucket resistance for axial loading was performed considering analytical and numerical design methods as well as physical models. A case study was performed with two bucket foundations of equal diameter, but different skirt lengths installed in dense san...

  10. Obtaining Valid Response Rates: Considerations beyond the Tailored Design Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Judy Y.; Hubbard, Susan M.; Mulvey, Kevin P.

    2003-01-01

    Reports on the use of the tailored design method (TDM) to achieve high survey response in two separate studies of the dissemination of Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIPs). Findings from these two studies identify six factors may have influenced nonresponse, and show that use of TDM does not, in itself, guarantee a high response rate. (SLD)

  11. Methods for the neutronic design of a Supersara experimental loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casali, F.; Cepraga, D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the neutronic design of experimental loops irradiated in D 2 O experimental reactors, like Essor. The calculation approach concerns the definition of a Weigner-Seitz cell where the loop under examination be subjected to the same neutronic conditions as in the actual reactor

  12. Structure for Categorization of EcoDesign Methods and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Mattias; Ekermann, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This edited volume presents the proceedings of the 20th CIRP LCE Conference, which cover various areas in life cycle engineering such as life cycle design, end-of-life management, manufacturing processes, manufacturing systems, methods and tools for sustainability, social sustainability, supply chain management, remanufacturing,

  13. 3D scan to product design : Methods, techniques, and cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, W.; Lee, B.; Kim, S.; Jung, H.; Jeon, E.; Choi, T.; You, H.

    2015-01-01

    3D scanning technology has derived great opportunities for ergonomic product designs. This paper is aimed to introduce various research cases and methods based on 3D scanning have conducted by an ergonomics laboratory in South Korea. Sizing systems and representative 3D models developed on

  14. Cognitive mapping as a learning method in hypermedia design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, S.; Aroyo, L.M.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Ivanov, Ivan

    1999-01-01

    AThe effectiveness of cognitive mapping is defined operationally in the terms of general beneficial, differential, and compensation effects. The contribution of the concept mapping method will mainly be discussed in the context of student assignments in an ill-structured hypermedia design

  15. General method for final focus system design for circular colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo de Maria

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Colliders use final focus systems to reduce the transverse beam sizes at the interaction point in order to increase collision event rates. The maximum focal strength (gradient of the quadrupoles, and the maximum beam size in them, together limit the beam size reduction that is possible. The goal of a final focus system design is to find the best compromise between quadrupole aperture and quadrupole gradient, for the magnet technology that is used. This paper develops a design method that identifies the intrinsic limitations of a final focus system, validates the results of the method against realistic designs, and reports its application to the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider final focus.

  16. Continuation methods in multiobjective optimization for combined structure control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, M.; Salama, M.; Scheid, R.; Bruno, R.; Gibson, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    A homotopy approach involving multiobjective functions is developed to outline the methods that have evolved for the combined control-structure optimization of physical systems encountered in the technology of large space structures. A method to effect a timely consideration of the control performance prior to the finalization of the structural design involves integrating the control and structural design processes into a unified design methodology that combines the two optimization problems into a single formulation. This study uses the combined optimization problem as a family of weighted structural and control costs. Connections with vector optimizations are described; an analysis of the zero-set of required conditions is made, and a numerical example is given.

  17. Generalized diffraction-stack migration and filtering of coherent noise

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2014-01-27

    We reformulate the equation of reverse-time migration so that it can be interpreted as summing data along a series of hyperbola-like curves, each one representing a different type of event such as a reflection or multiple. This is a generalization of the familiar diffraction-stack migration algorithm where the migration image at a point is computed by the sum of trace amplitudes along an appropriate hyperbola-like curve. Instead of summing along the curve associated with the primary reflection, the sum is over all scattering events and so this method is named generalized diffraction-stack migration. This formulation leads to filters that can be applied to the generalized diffraction-stack migration operator to mitigate coherent migration artefacts due to, e.g., crosstalk and aliasing. Results with both synthetic and field data show that generalized diffraction-stack migration images have fewer artefacts than those computed by the standard reverse-time migration algorithm. The main drawback is that generalized diffraction-stack migration is much more memory intensive and I/O limited than the standard reverse-time migration method. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  18. Effect of flow parameters on flare stack generator noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinn, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    The SoundPLAN Computer Noise Model was used to determine the general effect of flare noise in a community adjacent to a petrochemical plant. Tests were conducted to determine the effect of process flow conditions and the pulsating flame on the flare stack generator noise from both a refinery flare and process flare. Flaring under normal plant operations, the flaring of fuel gas and the flaring of hydrogen were the three conditions that were tested. It was shown that the steam flow rate was the determining factor in the flare stack generated noise. Variations in the water seal level in the flare line surge tank increased or decreased the gas flowrate, which resulted in a pulsating flame. The period and amplitude of the pulsating noise from the flare stacks was determined by measuring several parameters. Flare stack noise oscillations were found to be greater for the process flare than for the refinery flare stack. It was suggested that minimizing the amount of steam fed to the flare and improving the burner design would minimize noise. 2 tabs., 6 figs

  19. Stacked generalization: an introduction to super learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Balzer, Laura B

    2018-04-10

    Stacked generalization is an ensemble method that allows researchers to combine several different prediction algorithms into one. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, the method has evolved several times into a host of methods among which is the "Super Learner". Super Learner uses V-fold cross-validation to build the optimal weighted combination of predictions from a library of candidate algorithms. Optimality is defined by a user-specified objective function, such as minimizing mean squared error or maximizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Although relatively simple in nature, use of Super Learner by epidemiologists has been hampered by limitations in understanding conceptual and technical details. We work step-by-step through two examples to illustrate concepts and address common concerns.

  20. Piezoelectric stack actuator parameter extraction with hysteresis compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Mangeot, Charles; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Actuator Drive (PAD) is a type of rotary motor that transforms the linear motion of piezoelectric stack actuators into a precise rotational motion. The very high stiffness of the actuators employed make this type of motor suited for open-loop control, but the inherent hysteresis...... exhibited by piezoelectric ceramics causes losses. Therefore, this paper presents a straightforward method to measure piezoelectric stack actuator equiv- alent parameters that includes nonlinearities. By folding the nonlinearities into a newly-defined cou- pling coefficient, the inherent hysteretic behavior...... of piezoelectric stack actuators can be greatly reduced through precompensation. Experimental results show a fitting accuracy of 98.8 % between the model and measurements and a peak absolute error reduction by a factor of 10 compared to the manufacturer- provided parameter. This method improves both the static...

  1. Inverse design-momentum, a method for the preliminary design of horizontal axis wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battisti, L; Soraperra, G; Fedrizzi, R; Zanne, L

    2007-01-01

    Wind turbine rotor prediction methods based on generalized momentum theory BEM routinely used in industry and vortex wake methods demand the use of airfoil tabulated data and geometrical specifications such as the blade spanwise chord distribution. They belong to the category of 'direct design' methods. When, on the other hand, the geometry is deduced from some design objective, we refer to 'inverse design' methods. This paper presents a method for the preliminary design of wind turbine rotors based on an inverse design approach. For this purpose, a generalized theory was developed without using classical tools such as BEM. Instead, it uses a simplified meridional flow analysis of axial turbomachines and is based on the assumption that knowing the vortex distribution and appropriate boundary conditions is tantamount to knowing the velocity distribution. The simple conservation properties of the vortex components consistently cope with the forces and specific work exchange expressions through the rotor. The method allows for rotor arbitrarily radial load distribution and includes the wake rotation and expansion. Radial pressure gradient is considered in the wake. The capability of the model is demonstrated first by a comparison with the classical actuator disk theory in investigating the consistency of the flow field, then the model is used to predict the blade planform of a commercial wind turbine. Based on these validations, the authors postulate the use of a different vortex distribution (i.e. not-uniform loading) for blade design and discuss the effect of such choices on blade chord and twist, force distribution and power coefficient. In addition to the method's straightforward application to the pre-design phase, the model clearly shows the link between blade geometry and performance allowing quick preliminary evaluation of non uniform loading on blade structural characteristics

  2. The measurement of power reactor stack releases under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, L.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of a typical Swedish monitor for ventilation stack radioactivity releases is examined critically with respect to accident generated radioactive particles. The conditions in the stack, particle character, and the monitor design are considered. A large LOCA outside the containment leads to high relative humidity, and high temperature, or mist in the stack. A small external LOCA results in a moderate increase in temperature and humidity, and condensing conditions only with reduced ventilation. Particle size and stickiness are estimated for different types of accident. A particle is sticky if it adheres after contact with a solid, smooth, dry, and clean surface. The monitor performance is concluded to be poor for large, sticky particles, like mist droplets. Dense aerosols, like fire smoke, will plug the sampling filter. Non-sticky particles are generally sampled with acceptable accuracy. (au)

  3. Electric toy vehicle powered by a PEMFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneito, Ruben; Vilaplana, Joaquin; Gisbert, Santiago [Technological Institute for Toy (AIJU), 03440 Ibi (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The article describes the design and development of an electric toy vehicle powered by a fuel cell stack. The system consisted of a 150 W PEMFC stack powered by hydrogen/air, a tank of metal hydrides of AB (TiFe) alloy type with a capacity of 300 standard litres, for storing hydrogen, and an electronic power device based on electrolytic capacitors, to supply peak power demands during acceleration and start up of the vehicle. The air supply was provided by a fan preceded by a filter, and in a similar manner the stack was cooled by an air ventilation system. An electrovalve was used to supply H{sub 2} in dead-ended mode. All the components were integrated in the vehicle, and the prototype was tested in real working conditions, in a test bench and by children. (author)

  4. Design principles for elementary gene circuits: Elements, methods, and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savageau, Michael A.

    2001-03-01

    The control of gene expression involves complex circuits that exhibit enormous variation in design. For years the most convenient explanation for these variations was historical accident. According to this view, evolution is a haphazard process in which many different designs are generated by chance; there are many ways to accomplish the same thing, and so no further meaning can be attached to such different but equivalent designs. In recent years a more satisfying explanation based on design principles has been found for at least certain aspects of gene circuitry. By design principle we mean a rule that characterizes some biological feature exhibited by a class of systems such that discovery of the rule allows one not only to understand known instances but also to predict new instances within the class. The central importance of gene regulation in modern molecular biology provides strong motivation to search for more of these underlying design principles. The search is in its infancy and there are undoubtedly many design principles that remain to be discovered. The focus of this three-part review will be the class of elementary gene circuits in bacteria. The first part reviews several elements of design that enter into the characterization of elementary gene circuits in prokaryotic organisms. Each of these elements exhibits a variety of realizations whose meaning is generally unclear. The second part reviews mathematical methods used to represent, analyze, and compare alternative designs. Emphasis is placed on particular methods that have been used successfully to identify design principles for elementary gene circuits. The third part reviews four design principles that make specific predictions regarding (1) two alternative modes of gene control, (2) three patterns of coupling gene expression in elementary circuits, (3) two types of switches in inducible gene circuits, and (4) the realizability of alternative gene circuits and their response to phased

  5. A New Design Method for Industrial Portal Frames in Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Song

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial portal frames near to other buildings must keep their vertical walls standing in fire in order to prevent fire spread.  A recently developed analysis, implemented in the program Vulcan, using a combination of static and dynamic solvers, has shown that the strong base connections recommended by the current design method may not always lead to conservative design. A second-phase failure mechanism observed in numerical modelling, and the critical temperature at which final run-away collapse occurs, may be higher than the temperature at which the roof frame initially loses its stability, because a re-stabilisation often happens.  A new method for estimating critical temperatures of portal frames in fire, using these two failure mechanisms, is presented. Numerical tests on typical industrial frames are used to calibrate this new method

  6. A Method for Design of Modular Reconfigurable Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper is a method for the design of modular reconfigurable machine tools (MRMTs. An MRMT is capable of using a minimal number of modules through reconfiguration to perform the required machining tasks for a family of parts. The proposed method consists of three steps: module identification, module determination, and layout synthesis. In the first step, the module components are collected from a family of general-purpose machines to establish a module library. In the second step, for a given family of parts to be machined, a set of needed modules are selected from the module library to construct a desired reconfigurable machine tool. In the third step, a final machine layout is decided though evaluation by considering a number of performance indices. Based on this method, a software package has been developed that can design an MRMT for a given part family.

  7. New design method for valves internals, to optimize process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Leonardo [PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, various methods can be used to reduce the viscosity of oil, one of them being the injection of diluent. This method is commonly used in the Orinoco oil belt but it requires good control of the volume of diluent injected as well as the gas flow to optimize production; thus flow control valves need to be accurate. A new valve with a new method was designed with the characteristic of being very reliable and was then bench tested and compared with the other commercially available valves. Results showed better repeatability, accuracy and reliability with lower maintenance for the new method. The use of this valve provides significant savings while distributing the exact amount of fluids; up to date a less than 2% failure rate has been recorded in the field. The new method developed demonstrated impressive performance and PDVSA has decided to use it in mass.

  8. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    Research methods have been objects of discussions for dec-ades and defining research methods is still a quite substan-tial challenge. However, it is important to understand how research methods have been adapted in different disciplines as it potentially informs us on future directions and influ......-ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering of products...... as applied research and on evaluation of devel-oped products in the field or in the lab. Also, we find that much research is conducted in natural setting environments with strong focus on field studies....

  9. Tuning Parameters in Heuristics by Using Design of Experiments Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arin, Arif; Rabadi, Ghaith; Unal, Resit

    2010-01-01

    With the growing complexity of today's large scale problems, it has become more difficult to find optimal solutions by using exact mathematical methods. The need to find near-optimal solutions in an acceptable time frame requires heuristic approaches. In many cases, however, most heuristics have several parameters that need to be "tuned" before they can reach good results. The problem then turns into "finding best parameter setting" for the heuristics to solve the problems efficiently and timely. One-Factor-At-a-Time (OFAT) approach for parameter tuning neglects the interactions between parameters. Design of Experiments (DOE) tools can be instead employed to tune the parameters more effectively. In this paper, we seek the best parameter setting for a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to solve the single machine total weighted tardiness problem in which n jobs must be scheduled on a single machine without preemption, and the objective is to minimize the total weighted tardiness. Benchmark instances for the problem are available in the literature. To fine tune the GA parameters in the most efficient way, we compare multiple DOE models including 2-level (2k ) full factorial design, orthogonal array design, central composite design, D-optimal design and signal-to-noise (SIN) ratios. In each DOE method, a mathematical model is created using regression analysis, and solved to obtain the best parameter setting. After verification runs using the tuned parameter setting, the preliminary results for optimal solutions of multiple instances were found efficiently.

  10. Novel TMS coils designed using an inverse boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos Sánchez, Clemente; María Guerrero Rodriguez, Jose; Quirós Olozábal, Ángel; Blanco-Navarro, David

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new method to design TMS coils is presented. It is based on the inclusion of the concept of stream function of a quasi-static electric current into a boundary element method. The proposed TMS coil design approach is a powerful technique to produce stimulators of arbitrary shape, and remarkably versatile as it permits the prototyping of many different performance requirements and constraints. To illustrate the power of this approach, it has been used for the design of TMS coils wound on rectangular flat, spherical and hemispherical surfaces, subjected to different constraints, such as minimum stored magnetic energy or power dissipation. The performances of such coils have been additionally described; and the torque experienced by each stimulator in the presence of a main magnetic static field have theoretically found in order to study the prospect of using them to perform TMS and fMRI concurrently. The obtained results show that described method is an efficient tool for the design of TMS stimulators, which can be applied to a wide range of coil geometries and performance requirements.

  11. Generalized stacking fault energies of alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lu, Song; Hu, Qing-Miao; Kwon, Se Kyun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2014-07-02

    The generalized stacking fault energy (γ surface) provides fundamental physics for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms. Using the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation, we calculate the γ surface for the disordered Cu-Al, Cu-Zn, Cu-Ga, Cu-Ni, Pd-Ag and Pd-Au alloys. Studying the effect of segregation of the solute to the stacking fault planes shows that only the local chemical composition affects the γ surface. The calculated alloying trends are discussed using the electronic band structure of the base and distorted alloys.Based on our γ surface results, we demonstrate that the previous revealed 'universal scaling law' between the intrinsic energy barriers (IEBs) is well obeyed in random solid solutions. This greatly simplifies the calculations of the twinning measure parameters or the critical twinning stress. Adopting two twinnability measure parameters derived from the IEBs, we find that in binary Cu alloys, Al, Zn and Ga increase the twinnability, while Ni decreases it. Aluminum and gallium yield similar effects on the twinnability.

  12. THE METHOD OF DESIGNING ASSISTED ON COMPUTER OF THE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA Cornelia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To the base of the footwear soles designing, is the shoe last. The shoe lasts have irregular shapes, with various curves witch can’t be represented by a simple mathematic function. In order to design the footwear’s soles it’s necessary to take from the shoe last some base contours. These contours are obtained with high precision in a 3D CAD system. In the paper, it will be presented a method of designing of the soles for footwear, computer assisted. The copying process of the shoe last is done using the 3D digitizer. For digitizing, the shoe last spatial shape is positioned on the peripheral of data gathering, witch follows automatically the shoe last’s surface. The wire network obtained through digitizing is numerically interpolated with the interpolator functions in order to obtain the spatial numerical shape of the shoe last. The 3D designing of the sole will be realized on the numerical shape of the shoe last following the next steps: the manufacture of the sole’s surface, the lateral surface realization of the sole’s shape, obtaining the link surface between the lateral side and the planner one of the sole, of the sole’s margin, the sole’s designing contains the skid proof area. The main advantage of the designing method is the design precision, visualization in 3D space of the sole and the possibility to take the best decision viewing the acceptance of new sole’s pattern.

  13. Utilizing Mass Customization Methods for Modular Manufacturing System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen; Jacobsen, Alexia; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    of Mass Customization (MC). Research focus has been on the basic principles and enabling technologies, while modular architectures and system design have received less attention. A potential to fill these gaps by applying selected design theories and methods of MC have been seen. Based on a communality......Markets today have become dynamic and demand rapid product changes, product variety, and customized products. In order to operate under and taking advantages of such conditions requires, amongst other aspects, manufacturing processes robust to product changes - a contradiction to traditional...

  14. A Testable Design Method for Memories by Boundary Scan Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Guo-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design for test the embedded flash in an object System-on-a-chip (SoC. The feature of the Flash TAP (Test Access Port complies with the IEEE std.1149.1, and it can select different scan chains and other control registers for other test. By the trade-off between the test time and the circuit area, an IST (In System Test circuit is designed in the SoC. Experiment results on the embedded memory have shown that the proposed method costs small testing timing by the use of IST.

  15. Acoustic design method of ship's cabin based on geometrical acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Aijing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In light of the question of how to select the best noise control position and measures in the large noise transmission path of the cabins of a ship, based on the acoustic ray-tracing method in the theory of geometrical acoustics, and by considering the effect of the sound transmission of the bulkhead, this paper proposes the sound line search method. It is used to calculate the sound pressure of a ship's cabin, allowing the sound field distribution of multiple compartments to be simulated. The paper proposes a sound ray-searching method in which the acoustic sensitivity of different positions of the bulkhead to the noise of the target cabin is calculated by searching for the sound ray passing the target cabin. According to this, a cabin noise reduction plan can be designed to optimize medium and high frequency cabin noise. With this method, the noise of a typical cabin can be optimized and reduced by 7.3 dB. Through comparative analysis with the statistical energy method, it is proven that the method is feasible and can guide the refined design of noise reduction in ships' cabins.

  16. Design of A Cyclone Separator Using Approximation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Bong-Su; Choi, Ji-Won; Lee, Kwon-Hee

    2017-12-01

    A Separator is a device installed in industrial applications to separate mixed objects. The separator of interest in this research is a cyclone type, which is used to separate a steam-brine mixture in a geothermal plant. The most important performance of the cyclone separator is the collection efficiency. The collection efficiency in this study is predicted by performing the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis. This research defines six shape design variables to maximize the collection efficiency. Thus, the collection efficiency is set up as the objective function in optimization process. Since the CFD analysis requires a lot of calculation time, it is impossible to obtain the optimal solution by linking the gradient-based optimization algorithm. Thus, two approximation methods are introduced to obtain an optimum design. In this process, an L18 orthogonal array is adopted as a DOE method, and kriging interpolation method is adopted to generate the metamodel for the collection efficiency. Based on the 18 analysis results, the relative importance of each variable to the collection efficiency is obtained through the ANOVA (analysis of variance). The final design is suggested considering the results obtained from two optimization methods. The fluid flow analysis of the cyclone separator is conducted by using the commercial CFD software, ANSYS-CFX.

  17. Material Design, Selection, and Manufacturing Methods for System Sustainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Sowder, Jim Lula, Curtis Marshall

    2010-02-18

    This paper describes a material selection and validation process proven to be successful for manufacturing high-reliability long-life product. The National Secure Manufacturing Center business unit of the Kansas City Plant (herein called KCP) designs and manufactures complex electrical and mechanical components used in extreme environments. The material manufacturing heritage is founded in the systems design to manufacturing practices that support the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). Material Engineers at KCP work with the systems designers to recommend materials, develop test methods, perform analytical analysis of test data, define cradle to grave needs, present final selection and fielding. The KCP material engineers typically will maintain cost control by utilizing commercial products when possible, but have the resources and to develop and produce unique formulations as necessary. This approach is currently being used to mature technologies to manufacture materials with improved characteristics using nano-composite filler materials that will enhance system design and production. For some products the engineers plan and carry out science-based life-cycle material surveillance processes. Recent examples of the approach include refurbished manufacturing of the high voltage power supplies for cockpit displays in operational aircraft; dry film lubricant application to improve bearing life for guided munitions gyroscope gimbals, ceramic substrate design for electrical circuit manufacturing, and tailored polymeric materials for various systems. The following examples show evidence of KCP concurrent design-to-manufacturing techniques used to achieve system solutions that satisfy or exceed demanding requirements.

  18. Design-by-analysis application to next generation BWR fuel thermal design method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Mitsutake, Toru

    2008-01-01

    For BWR core thermal design methods, the full mock-up thermal-hydraulic tests have been needed, such as the critical power measurement test, pressure drop measurement test and so on for more than thirty years since 1976. However, the full mock-up test required the high costs and large-scale test facility. Now, there are only a few test facilities in the world to perform the full mock-up thermal-hydraulic test. Moreover, for future BWR, the bundle size tends to be larger, because of reducing the plant construction costs and minimizing days taken for the periodic check. For instance, AB1600, improved ABWR, was proposed from Toshiba (Imaruoka et al., 2005), whose bundle size was 1.2 times larger than the conventional BWR fuel size. It is too expensive and far from realistic to perform the full mock-up thermal-hydraulic test for such a large size fuel bundle on every new bundle design. The new design procedure is exactly expected at reasonable costs and required to perform the large scale bundle design development, especially for the next generation BWR. Then, we propose a kind of Design by Analysis method combined with the alternative to the full mock-up tests. We called Practical Design-by-Analysis (PDBA) method even more effective and with better accuracy than Full Design-by-Analysis (FDBA). The PDBA method was applied successfully to produce the critical power correlation for the current 8x8 fuel. The estimation error was almost equal to that of the design correlation developed empirically with the full mock-up test data. (author)

  19. Strontium titanate/silicon-based terahertz photonic crystal multilayer stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, J.Z.; Jim, K.L.; Tsang, Y.H.; Chan, H.L.W.; Leung, C.W. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Applied Physics and Materials Research Centre, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yang, J.; Gong, X.J.; Chen, L.Q.; Gao, F. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Shenzhen (China)

    2012-04-15

    A one-dimensional photonic crystal working in the terahertz (THz) range was designed and implemented. To facilitate the design, the transmission properties of strontium titanate crystals were characterized by THz-time-domain spectroscopy. Relatively high refractive index ({proportional_to}18.5) and transmission ratio (0.08) were observed between 0.2 to 1 THz. A stacked structure of (Si d{sub Si}/STO d{sub STO}){sub N} /Si d{sub Si} was then designed, with transmission spectra calculated by the transfer matrix method. The effects of the filling ratio (d{sub STO}/(d{sub Si}+d{sub STO})), periodicity (d{sub Si}+d{sub STO}) and the number of repeats N on the transmission of PC were investigated. The effect of introducing a defect layer was also studied. Based on these, Si/STO multilayers with STO defect thickness of 125 {mu}m and 200 {mu}m were measured. The shift of the defect mode was observed and compared with the calculations. (orig.)

  20. ZPEG: a hybrid DPCM-DCT based approach for compression of Z-stack images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khire, Sourabh; Cooper, Lee; Park, Yuna; Carter, Alexis; Jayant, Nikil; Saltz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Modern imaging technology permits obtaining images at varying depths along the thickness, or the Z-axis of the sample being imaged. A stack of multiple such images is called a Z-stack image. The focus capability offered by Z-stack images is critical for many digital pathology applications. A single Z-stack image may result in several hundred gigabytes of data, and needs to be compressed for archival and distribution purposes. Currently, the existing methods for compression of Z-stack images such as JPEG and JPEG 2000 compress each focal plane independently, and do not take advantage of the Z-signal redundancy. It is possible to achieve additional compression efficiency over the existing methods, by exploiting the high Z-signal correlation during image compression. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for compression of Z-stack images, which we term as ZPEG. ZPEG extends the popular discrete-cosine transform (DCT) based image encoder to compress Z-stack images. This is achieved by decorrelating the neighboring layers of the Z-stack image using differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM). PSNR measurements, as well as subjective evaluations by experts indicate that ZPEG can encode Z-stack images at a higher quality as compared to JPEG, JPEG 2000 and JP3D at compression ratios below 50∶1.

  1. Directive Stacked Patch Antenna for UWB Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif I. Mitu Sheikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Directional ultrawideband (UWB antennas are popular in wireless signal-tracking and body-area networks. This paper presents a stacked microstrip antenna with an ultrawide impedance bandwidth of 114%, implemented by introducing defects on the radiating patches and the ground plane. The compact (20×34 mm antenna exhibits a directive radiation patterns for all frequencies of the 3–10.6 GHz band. The optimized reflection response and the radiation pattern are experimentally verified. The designed UWB antenna is used to maximize the received power of a software-defined radio (SDR platform. For an ultrawideband impulse radio system, this class of antennas is essential to improve the performance of the communication channels.

  2. Stack Parameters Effect on the Performance of Anharmonic Resonator Thermoacoustic Heat Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Nouh, Mostafa A.

    2014-01-01

    A thermoacoustic heat engine (TAHE) converts heat into acoustic power with no moving parts. It exhibits several advantages over traditional engines, such as simple design, stable functionality, and environment-friendly working gas. In order to further improve the performance of TAHE, stack parameters need to be optimized. Stack\\'s position, length and plate spacing are the three main parameters that have been investigated in this study. Stack\\'s position dictates both the efficiency and the maximum produced acoustic power of the heat engine. Positioning the stack closer to the pressure anti-node might ensure high efficiency on the expense of the maximum produced acoustic power. It is noticed that the TAHE efficiency can further be improved by spacing the plates of the stack at a value of 2.4 of the thermal penetration depth, δk . Changes in the stack length will not affect the efficiency much as long as the temperature gradient across the stack, as a ratio of the critical temperature gradient ψ is more than 1. Upon interpreting the effect of these variations, attempts are made towards reaching the engine\\'s most powerful operating point.

  3. Slip-stacking Dynamics for High-Power Proton Beams at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Slip-stacking is a particle accelerator configuration used to store two particle beams with different momenta in the same ring. The two beams are longitudinally focused by two radiofrequency (RF) cavities with a small frequency difference between them. Each beam is synchronized to one RF cavity and perturbed by the other RF cavity. Fermilab uses slip-stacking in the Recycler so as to double the power of the 120 GeV proton beam in the Main Injector. This dissertation investigates the dynamics of slip-stacking beams analytically, numerically and experimentally. In the analytic analysis, I find the general trajectory of stable slip-stacking particles and identify the slip-stacking parametric resonances. In the numerical analysis, I characterize the stable phase-space area and model the particle losses. In particular, I evaluate the impact of upgrading the Fermilab Booster cycle-rate from 15 Hz to 20 Hz as part of the Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II). The experimental analysis is used to verify my approach to simulating slip-stacking loss. I design a study for measuring losses from the longitudinal single-particle dynamics of slip-stacking as a function of RF cavity voltage and RF frequency separation. I further propose the installation of a harmonic RF cavity and study the dynamics of this novel slip-stacking configuration. I show the harmonic RF cavity cancels out parametric resonances in slip-stacking, reduces emittance growth during slip-stacking, and dramatically enhances the stable phase-space area. The harmonic cavity is expected to reduce slip-stacking losses to far exceed PIP-II requirements. These results raise the possibility of extending slip-stacking beyond the PIP-II era.

  4. Computer Aided Flowsheet Design using Group Contribution Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bommareddy, Susilpa; Eden, Mario R.; Gani, Rafiqul

    In this paper, a systematic group contribution based framework is presented for synthesis of process flowsheets from a given set of input and output specifications. Analogous to the group contribution methods developed for molecular design, the framework employs process groups to represent...... different unit operations in the system. Feasible flowsheet configurations are generated using efficient combinatorial algorithms and the performance of each candidate flowsheet is evaluated using a set of flowsheet properties. A systematic notation system called SFILES is used to store the structural...... information of each flowsheet to minimize the computational load and information storage. The design variables for the selected flowsheet(s) are identified through a reverse simulation approach and are used as initial estimates for rigorous simulation to verify the feasibility and performance of the design....

  5. A Study on Design Method of Intelligent platform trolley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Song, Mengmeng; Xiao, Shungen; Luo, Zhishen

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a design method of detachable intelligent platform trolley is presented. The detachable intelligent platform trolley has three driving modes, and the rubber blanket and the cardan joint in the structure filter effectively the road surface turbulence and improve the safety of the driver. The design idea of the active wheel fixed structure and the driven steering wheel structure is emphatically introduced. At last, The results show that the right panel of intelligent platform trolley as the research object and analyses the load, static stress of the right panel of platform trolley mainly concentrated in the panel at the front and back ends and other connectors on the contact surface. In addition, the safety factor can meet the design requirements by analysis.

  6. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  7. Developing an Engineering Design Process Assessment using Mixed Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A; Alemdar, Meltem; Lingle, Jeremy A; Gale, Jessica D; Moore, Roxanne A

    Recent reforms in science education worldwide include an emphasis on engineering design as a key component of student proficiency in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics disciplines. However, relatively little attention has been directed to the development of psychometrically sound assessments for engineering. This study demonstrates the use of mixed methods to guide the development and revision of K-12 Engineering Design Process (EDP) assessment items. Using results from a middle-school EDP assessment, this study illustrates the combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques to inform item development and revisions. Overall conclusions suggest that the combination of quantitative and qualitative evidence provides an in-depth picture of item quality that can be used to inform the revision and development of EDP assessment items. Researchers and practitioners can use the methods illustrated here to gather validity evidence to support the interpretation and use of new and existing assessments.

  8. Simplified Analysis Methods for Primary Load Designs at Elevated Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Peter [Stress Engineering Services Inc.; Jetter, Robert I [Consultant; Sham, Sam [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The use of simplified (reference stress) analysis methods is discussed and illustrated for primary load high temperature design. Elastic methods are the basis of the ASME Section III, Subsection NH primary load design procedure. There are practical drawbacks with this approach, particularly for complex geometries and temperature gradients. The paper describes an approach which addresses these difficulties through the use of temperature-dependent elastic-perfectly plastic analysis. Correction factors are defined to address difficulties traditionally associated with discontinuity stresses, inelastic strain concentrations and multiaxiality. A procedure is identified to provide insight into how this approach could be implemented but clearly there is additional work to be done to define and clarify the procedural steps to bring it to the point where it could be adapted into code language.

  9. The application of advanced rotor (performance) methods for design calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussel, G.J.W. van [Delft Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Wind Energy, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    The calculation of loads and performance of wind turbine rotors has been a topic for research over the last century. The principles for the calculation of loads on rotor blades with a given specific geometry, as well as the development of optimal shaped rotor blades have been published in the decades that significant aircraft development took place. Nowadays advanced computer codes are used for specific problems regarding modern aircraft, and application to wind turbine rotors has also been performed occasionally. The engineers designing rotor blades for wind turbines still use methods based upon global principles developed in the beginning of the century. The question what to expect in terms of the type of methods to be applied in a design environment for the near future is addressed here. (EG) 14 refs.

  10. Methods and tools for sustainable chemical process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Chairakwongsa, Siwanat; Quaglia, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    chemical processes is presented. The framework allows the use of appropriate computer-aided methods and tools in a hierarchical manner according to a developed work flow for a multilevel criteria analysis that helps generate competing and more sustainable process design options. The application......As the pressure on chemical and biochemical processes to achieve a more sustainable performance increases, the need to define a systematic and holistic way to accomplish this is becoming more urgent. In this chapter, a multilevel computer-aided framework for systematic design of more sustainable...... of the framework as well as the related computer-aided methods and tools are highlighted through a case study involving the production of bioethanol from various renewable raw materials....

  11. Development of quality-by-design analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Frederick G; Kord, Alireza S

    2011-03-01

    Quality-by-design (QbD) is a systematic approach to drug development, which begins with predefined objectives, and uses science and risk management approaches to gain product and process understanding and ultimately process control. The concept of QbD can be extended to analytical methods. QbD mandates the definition of a goal for the method, and emphasizes thorough evaluation and scouting of alternative methods in a systematic way to obtain optimal method performance. Candidate methods are then carefully assessed in a structured manner for risks, and are challenged to determine if robustness and ruggedness criteria are satisfied. As a result of these studies, the method performance can be understood and improved if necessary, and a control strategy can be defined to manage risk and ensure the method performs as desired when validated and deployed. In this review, the current state of analytical QbD in the industry is detailed with examples of the application of analytical QbD principles to a range of analytical methods, including high-performance liquid chromatography, Karl Fischer titration for moisture content, vibrational spectroscopy for chemical identification, quantitative color measurement, and trace analysis for genotoxic impurities. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Applying Human-Centered Design Methods to Scientific Communication Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Jayanty, N. K.; DeGroot, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Knowing your users is a critical part of developing anything to be used or experienced by a human being. User interviews, journey maps, and personas are all techniques commonly employed in human-centered design practices because they have proven effective for informing the design of products and services that meet the needs of users. Many non-designers are unaware of the usefulness of personas and journey maps. Scientists who are interested in developing more effective products and communication can adopt and employ user-centered design approaches to better reach intended audiences. Journey mapping is a qualitative data-collection method that captures the story of a user's experience over time as related to the situation or product that requires development or improvement. Journey maps help define user expectations, where they are coming from, what they want to achieve, what questions they have, their challenges, and the gaps and opportunities that can be addressed by designing for them. A persona is a tool used to describe the goals and behavioral patterns of a subset of potential users or customers. The persona is a qualitative data model that takes the form of a character profile, built upon data about the behaviors and needs of multiple users. Gathering data directly from users avoids the risk of basing models on assumptions, which are often limited by misconceptions or gaps in understanding. Journey maps and user interviews together provide the data necessary to build the composite character that is the persona. Because a persona models the behaviors and needs of the target audience, it can then be used to make informed product design decisions. We share the methods and advantages of developing and using personas and journey maps to create more effective science communication products.

  13. A foundational observation method for studying design situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve

    2015-01-01

    impact of individual studies is severely constrained. This paper begins to address this issue by introducing and developing a foundational method for observational design research to improve replicability, reuse, and overall comparability of empirical studies. A three-step foundational method is proposed...... that covers capture, coding, and analysis. The capture step defines overall and situational context as well as multiple capture streams, generating a broad data-set that can be examined from multiple perspectives. The coding step employs a multi-level approach that seeks to minimise workload while describing...

  14. Designing a mixed methods study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W; Fetters, Michael D; Ivankova, Nataliya V

    2004-01-01

    Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research.

  15. Achieving integration in mixed methods designs-principles and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-12-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs-exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent-and through four advanced frameworks-multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. Fuel rod design by statistical methods for MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heins, L.; Landskron, H.

    2000-01-01

    Statistical methods in fuel rod design have received more and more attention during the last years. One of different possible ways to use statistical methods in fuel rod design can be described as follows: Monte Carlo calculations are performed using the fuel rod code CARO. For each run with CARO, the set of input data is modified: parameters describing the design of the fuel rod (geometrical data, density etc.) and modeling parameters are randomly selected according to their individual distributions. Power histories are varied systematically in a way that each power history of the relevant core management calculation is represented in the Monte Carlo calculations with equal frequency. The frequency distributions of the results as rod internal pressure and cladding strain which are generated by the Monte Carlo calculation are evaluated and compared with the design criteria. Up to now, this methodology has been applied to licensing calculations for PWRs and BWRs, UO 2 and MOX fuel, in 3 countries. Especially for the insertion of MOX fuel resulting in power histories with relatively high linear heat generation rates at higher burnup, the statistical methodology is an appropriate approach to demonstrate the compliance of licensing requirements. (author)

  17. A Requirements-Driven Optimization Method for Acoustic Treatment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic treatment designers have long been able to target specific noise sources inside turbofan engines. Facesheet porosity and cavity depth are key design variables of perforate-over-honeycomb liners that determine levels of noise suppression as well as the frequencies at which suppression occurs. Layers of these structures can be combined to create a robust attenuation spectrum that covers a wide range of frequencies. Looking to the future, rapidly-emerging additive manufacturing technologies are enabling new liners with multiple degrees of freedom, and new adaptive liners with variable impedance are showing promise. More than ever, there is greater flexibility and freedom in liner design. Subject to practical considerations, liner design variables may be manipulated to achieve a target attenuation spectrum. But characteristics of the ideal attenuation spectrum can be difficult to know. Many multidisciplinary system effects govern how engine noise sources contribute to community noise. Given a hardwall fan noise source to be suppressed, and using an analytical certification noise model to compute a community noise measure of merit, the optimal attenuation spectrum can be derived using multidisciplinary systems analysis methods. The subject of this paper is an analytical method that derives the ideal target attenuation spectrum that minimizes noise perceived by observers on the ground.

  18. Shielding design method for LMFBR validation on the Phenix factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillat, J.C.; Crouzet, J.; Misrakis, J.; Salvatores, M.; Rado, V.; Palmiotti, G.

    1983-05-01

    Shielding design methods, developed at CEA for shielding calculations find a global validation by the means of Phenix power reactor (250 MWe) measurements. Particularly, the secondary sodium activation of pool type LMFBR such as Super Phenix (1200 MWe) which is subject to strict safety limitation is well calculated by the adapted scheme, i.e. a two dimension transport calculation of shielding coupled to a Monte-Carlo calculation of secondary sodium activation

  19. Improving Machining Accuracy of CNC Machines with Innovative Design Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemelyanov, N. V.; Yemelyanova, I. V.; Zubenko, V. L.

    2018-03-01

    The article considers achieving the machining accuracy of CNC machines by applying innovative methods in modelling and design of machining systems, drives and machine processes. The topological method of analysis involves visualizing the system as matrices of block graphs with a varying degree of detail between the upper and lower hierarchy levels. This approach combines the advantages of graph theory and the efficiency of decomposition methods, it also has visual clarity, which is inherent in both topological models and structural matrices, as well as the resiliency of linear algebra as part of the matrix-based research. The focus of the study is on the design of automated machine workstations, systems, machines and units, which can be broken into interrelated parts and presented as algebraic, topological and set-theoretical models. Every model can be transformed into a model of another type, and, as a result, can be interpreted as a system of linear and non-linear equations which solutions determine the system parameters. This paper analyses the dynamic parameters of the 1716PF4 machine at the stages of design and exploitation. Having researched the impact of the system dynamics on the component quality, the authors have developed a range of practical recommendations which have enabled one to reduce considerably the amplitude of relative motion, exclude some resonance zones within the spindle speed range of 0...6000 min-1 and improve machining accuracy.

  20. Generalized data stacking programming model with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Samir Elhadidy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches have shown that, everywhere in various sciences the systems are following stacked-based stored change behavior when subjected to events or varying environments “on and above” their normal situations. This paper presents a generalized data stack programming (GDSP model which is developed to describe the system changes under varying environment. These changes which are captured with different ways such as sensor reading are stored in matrices. Extraction algorithm and identification technique are proposed to extract the different layers between images and identify the stack class the object follows; respectively. The general multi-stacking network is presented including the interaction between various stack-based layering of some applications. The experiments prove that the concept of stack matrix gives average accuracy of 99.45%.

  1. A MODEL AND CONTROLLER REDUCTION METHOD FOR ROBUST CONTROL DESIGN.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    YUE,M.; SCHLUETER,R.

    2003-10-20

    A bifurcation subsystem based model and controller reduction approach is presented. Using this approach a robust {micro}-synthesis SVC control is designed for interarea oscillation and voltage control based on a small reduced order bifurcation subsystem model of the full system. The control synthesis problem is posed by structured uncertainty modeling and control configuration formulation using the bifurcation subsystem knowledge of the nature of the interarea oscillation caused by a specific uncertainty parameter. Bifurcation subsystem method plays a key role in this paper because it provides (1) a bifurcation parameter for uncertainty modeling; (2) a criterion to reduce the order of the resulting MSVC control; and (3) a low order model for a bifurcation subsystem based SVC (BMSVC) design. The use of the model of the bifurcation subsystem to produce a low order controller simplifies the control design and reduces the computation efforts so significantly that the robust {micro}-synthesis control can be applied to large system where the computation makes robust control design impractical. The RGA analysis and time simulation show that the reduced BMSVC control design captures the center manifold dynamics and uncertainty structure of the full system model and is capable of stabilizing the full system and achieving satisfactory control performance.

  2. Libration Orbit Mission Design: Applications of Numerical & Dynamical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor); Folta, David; Beckman, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Sun-Earth libration point orbits serve as excellent locations for scientific investigations. These orbits are often selected to minimize environmental disturbances and maximize observing efficiency. Trajectory design in support of libration orbits is ever more challenging as more complex missions are envisioned in the next decade. Trajectory design software must be further enabled to incorporate better understanding of the libration orbit solution space and thus improve the efficiency and expand the capabilities of current approaches. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently supporting multiple libration missions. This end-to-end support consists of mission operations, trajectory design, and control. It also includes algorithm and software development. The recently launched Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) and upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Constellation-X missions are examples of the use of improved numerical methods for attaining constrained orbital parameters and controlling their dynamical evolution at the collinear libration points. This paper presents a history of libration point missions, a brief description of the numerical and dynamical design techniques including software used, and a sample of future GSFC mission designs.

  3. Methods for the design and optimization of shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, S.W.

    1988-05-01

    Two major questions associated with the design and optimization of shaped tokamaks are considered. How do physics and engineering constraints affect the design of shaped tokamaks? How can the process of designing shaped tokamaks be improved? The first question is addressed with the aid of a completely analytical procedure for optimizing the design of a resistive-magnet tokamak reactor. It is shown that physics constraints---particularly the MHD beta limits and the Murakami density limit---have an enormous, and sometimes, unexpected effect on the final design. The second question is addressed through the development of a series of computer models for calculating plasma equilibria, estimating poloidal field coil currents, and analyzing axisymmetric MHD stability in the presence of resistive conductors and feedback. The models offer potential advantages over conventional methods since they are characterized by extremely fast computer execution times, simplicity, and robustness. Furthermore, evidence is presented that suggests that very little loss of accuracy is required to achieve these desirable features. 94 refs., 66 figs., 14 tabs

  4. Study of the mechanism of acetonitrile stacking and its application for directly combining liquid-phase microextraction with micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingru; Feng, Jing; Shi, Ludi; Liu, Laping; He, Hui; Fan, Yingying; Hu, Shibin; Liu, Shuhui

    2016-08-26

    Acetonitrile stacking is an online concentration method that is distinctive due to its inclusion of a high proportion of organic solvent in sample matrices. We previously designed a universal methodology for the combination of liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) using acetonitrile stacking and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) mode, thereby achieving large-volume injection of the diluted LPME extractant and the online concentration. In this report, the methodology was extended to the analysis of highly substituted hydrophobic chlorophenols in wines using diethyl carbonate as the extractant. Additionally, the mechanism of acetonitrile stacking was studied. The results indicated that the combination of LPME and MEKC exhibited good analytical performance: with ∼40-fold concentration by LPME, a 20-cm (33% of the total length) sample plug injection of an eight-fold dilution of diethyl carbonate with the organic solvent-saline solution produced enrichments higher by a factor of 260-791. Limits of qualification ranged from 5.5 to 16.0ng/mL. Acceptable reproducibilities of lower than 1.8% for migration time and 8.6% for peak areas were obtained. A dual stacking mechanism of acetonitrile stacking was revealed, involving transient isotachophoresis plus pH-junction stacking. The latter was associated with a pH shift induced by the presence of acetonitrile. The pseudo-stationary phase (Brij-35) played an important role in reducing the CE running time by weakening the isotachophoretic migration of the analyte ions following Cl(-) ions. The combination of acetonitrile stacking and nonionic micelle-based MEKC appears to be a perfect match for introducing water-immiscible LPME extractants into an aqueous CE system and can thus significantly expand the application of LPME-CE in green analytical chemistry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  6. A hybrid optimization method for biplanar transverse gradient coil design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Feng; Tang Xin; Jin Zhe; Jiang Zhongde; Shen Yifei; Meng Bin; Zu Donglin; Wang Weimin

    2007-01-01

    The optimization of transverse gradient coils is one of the fundamental problems in designing magnetic resonance imaging gradient systems. A new approach is presented in this paper to optimize the transverse gradient coils' performance. First, in the traditional spherical harmonic target field method, high order coefficients, which are commonly ignored, are used in the first stage of the optimization process to give better homogeneity. Then, some cosine terms are introduced into the series expansion of stream function. These new terms provide simulated annealing optimization with new freedoms. Comparison between the traditional method and the optimized method shows that the inhomogeneity in the region of interest can be reduced from 5.03% to 1.39%, the coil efficiency increased from 3.83 to 6.31 mT m -1 A -1 and the minimum distance of these discrete coils raised from 1.54 to 3.16 mm

  7. Designing A Mixed Methods Study In Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. METHODS We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. RESULTS Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. DISCUSSION We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research. PMID:15053277

  8. A NEW DESIGN METHOD FOR FLAT FOOTWEAR SOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carried research regarding footwear soles reveald that by moulding footwear details can be obtained in a wide variety of models. Shoe soles are complex three dimensional objects and for attaching them with the uppers, the interor countour of the soles has to correspond to the featherline contour of the last. That’s why, is necessary that soles design to be done with high accuracy and in strict accordance to the last. Nowadays, there are specialized software applications which can perform various computer aided design processes for footwear. Among the high performance systems used for the design of footwear soles and injection moulds for shoe soles, we may mention: Delcam Shoe Solution, Delcam PowerSHAPE-e, Padsy II and Padsy III, Shoe Master System, Lectra System, Parmel System and ATOS II System. This paper presents a 3D design method, developed by the authors, for footwear flat soles using PowerSHAPE-e software programm from of Delcam Crispin. The computer-aided design technique used in this paper highlights several important advantages that include: increased design quality; three dimensional viewing of soles, which can lead to immediate decisions, regarding the acceptance of newly developed models; it can be appreciated the complexity of mould cavities execution, without the need of making prototypes; the outlines of construction templates are accurately obtained for the mould cavities and for all size numbers; calculations can easily be done for determining the soles volume for the entire size number, with implications on estimating polymer blend consumption and so on.

  9. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, Zhaoqi [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lu, Houbing [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei Electronic Engineering Institute, Hefei 230037 (China); Chen, Lian [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Jin, Ge, E-mail: goldjin@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some “off-the-shelf” TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

  10. Task-Based Method for Designing Underactuated Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Kamada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a task-based method for designing underactuated multi-joint prosthetic hands for specific grasping tasks. The designed robotic hands or prosthetic hands contain fewer independent actuators than joints. We chose a few specific grasping tasks that are frequently repeated in everyday life and analysed joint motions of the hand during the completion of each task and the level of participation of each joint. The information was used for the synthesis of dedicated underactuated mechanisms that can operate in a low dimensional task coordinate space. We propose two methods for reducing the actuators' number. The kinematic parameters of the synthesized mechanism are determined by using a numerical approach. In this study the joint angles of the synthesized hand are considered as linearly dependent on the displacements of the actuators. We introduced a special error index that allowed us to compare the original trajectory and the trajectory performed by the synthesized mechanism, and to select the kinematic parameters of the new kinematic structure as a way to reduce the error. The approach allows the design of simple gripper mechanisms with good accuracy for the preliminary defined tasks.

  11. Designation and verification of road markings detection and guidance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Runze; Jian, Yabin; Li, Xiyuan; Shang, Yonghong; Wang, Jing; Zhang, JingChuan

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's space industry, digitization and intelligent is the tendency of the future. This report is present a foundation research about guidance system which based on the HSV color space. With the help of these research which will help to design the automatic navigation and parking system for the frock transport car and the infrared lamp homogeneity intelligent test equipment. The drive mode, steer mode as well as the navigation method was selected. In consideration of the practicability, it was determined to use the front-wheel-steering chassis. The steering mechanism was controlled by the stepping motors, and it is guided by Machine Vision. The optimization and calibration of the steering mechanism was made. A mathematical model was built and the objective functions was constructed for the steering mechanism. The extraction method of the steering line was studied and the motion controller was designed and optimized. The theory of HSV, RGB color space and analysis of the testing result will be discussed Using the function library OPENCV on the Linux system to fulfill the camera calibration. Based on the HSV color space to design the guidance algorithm.

  12. Modified method to improve the design of Petlyuk distillation columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A response surface analysis was performed to study the effect of the composition and feeding thermal conditions of ternary mixtures on the number of theoretical stages and the energy consumption of Petlyuk columns. A modification of the pre-design algorithm was necessary for this purpose. Results The modified algorithm provided feasible results in 100% of the studied cases, compared with only 8.89% for the current algorithm. The proposed algorithm allowed us to attain the desired separations, despite the type of mixture and the operating conditions in the feed stream, something that was not possible with the traditional pre-design method. The results showed that the type of mixture had great influence on the number of stages and on energy consumption. A higher number of stages and a lower consumption of energy were attained with mixtures rich in the light component, while higher energy consumption occurred when the mixture was rich in the heavy component. Conclusions The proposed strategy expands the search of an optimal design of Petlyuk columns within a feasible region, which allow us to find a feasible design that meets output specifications and low thermal loads. PMID:25061476

  13. Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.

  14. California dreaming?[PEM stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosse, J.

    2002-06-01

    Hyundai's Santa Fe FCEV will be on sale by the end of 2002. Hyundai uses PEM stacks that are manufactured by International Fuel Cells (IFC), a division of United Technologies. Santa Fe is equipped with a 65 kW electric powertrain of Enova systems and Shell's new gasoline reformer called Hydrogen Source. Eugene Jang, Senior Engineer - Fuel Cell and Materials at Hyundai stated that the compressor related losses on IFC system are below 3%. The maximum speed offered by the vehicle is estimated as 123km/hr while the petrol equivalent fuel consumption is quoted between 5.6L/100 km and 4.8L/100 km. Santa Fe is a compact vehicle offering better steering response and a pleasant drive. (author)

  15. Stacked-Bloch-wave electron diffraction simulations using GPU acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, Robert S.; Wang, Feng; Koch, Christoph T.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the advantages for Bloch-wave simulations performed using graphics processing units (GPUs), based on approximating the matrix exponential directly instead of performing a matrix diagonalization. Our direct matrix-exponential algorithm yields a functionally identical electron scattering matrix to that generated with matrix diagonalization. Using the matrix-exponential scaling-and-squaring method with a Padé approximation, direct GPU-based matrix-exponential double-precision calculations are up to 20× faster than CPU-based calculations and up to approximately 70× faster than matrix diagonalization. We compare precision and runtime of scaling and squaring methods with either the Padé approximation or a Taylor expansion. We also discuss the stacked-Bloch-wave method, and show that our stacked-Bloch-wave implementation yields the same electron scattering matrix as traditional Bloch-wave matrix diagonalization. - Highlights: • Bloch-wave and stacked-Bloch-wave calculations can be accelerated with GPUs. • Direct approximation of the matrix exponential can be faster than diagonalization. • GPU-based direct approximation can be ≈70× faster than CPU diagonalization. • Larger matrices benefit more from this approach than smaller ones. • Stacked-Bloch-wave scattering results are functionally identical to diagonalization

  16. On-site detection of stacked genetically modified soybean based on event-specific TM-LAMP and a DNAzyme-lateral flow biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nan; Shang, Ying; Xu, Yuancong; Zhang, Li; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2017-05-15

    Stacked genetically modified organisms (GMO) are becoming popular for their enhanced production efficiency and improved functional properties, and on-site detection of stacked GMO is an urgent challenge to be solved. In this study, we developed a cascade system combining event-specific tag-labeled multiplex LAMP with a DNAzyme-lateral flow biosensor for reliable detection of stacked events (DP305423× GTS 40-3-2). Three primer sets, both event-specific and soybean species-specific, were newly designed for the tag-labeled multiplex LAMP system. A trident-like lateral flow biosensor displayed amplified products simultaneously without cross contamination, and DNAzyme enhancement improved the sensitivity effectively. After optimization, the limit of detection was approximately 0.1% (w/w) for stacked GM soybean, which is sensitive enough to detect genetically modified content up to a threshold value established by several countries for regulatory compliance. The entire detection process could be shortened to 120min without any large-scale instrumentation. This method may be useful for the in-field detection of DP305423× GTS 40-3-2 soybean on a single kernel basis and on-site screening tests of stacked GM soybean lines and individual parent GM soybean lines in highly processed foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multi-objective Design Method for Hybrid Active Power Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingrong; Deng, Limin; Liu, Maoyun; Qiu, Zhifeng

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a multi-objective optimal design for transformerless hybrid active power filter (HAPF) is proposed. The interactions between the active and passive circuits is analyzed, and by taking the interactions into consideration, a three-dimensional objective problem comprising of performance, efficiency and cost of HAPF system is formulated. To deal with the multiple constraints and the strong coupling characteristics of the optimization model, a novel constraint processing mechanism based on distance measurement and adaptive penalty function is presented. In order to improve the diversity of optimal solution and the local searching ability of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, a chaotic mutation operator based on multistage neighborhood is proposed. The simulation results show that the optimums near the ordinate origin of the three-dimension space make better tradeoff among the performance, efficiency and cost of HAPF, and the experimental results of transformerless HAPF verify the effectiveness of the method for multi-objective optimization and design.

  18. New method to design stellarator coils without the winding surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caoxiang; Hudson, Stuart R.; Song, Yuntao; Wan, Yuanxi

    2018-01-01

    Finding an easy-to-build coils set has been a critical issue for stellarator design for decades. Conventional approaches assume a toroidal ‘winding’ surface, but a poorly chosen winding surface can unnecessarily constrain the coil optimization algorithm, This article presents a new method to design coils for stellarators. Each discrete coil is represented as an arbitrary, closed, one-dimensional curve embedded in three-dimensional space. A target function to be minimized that includes both physical requirements and engineering constraints is constructed. The derivatives of the target function with respect to the parameters describing the coil geometries and currents are calculated analytically. A numerical code, named flexible optimized coils using space curves (FOCUS), has been developed. Applications to a simple stellarator configuration, W7-X and LHD vacuum fields are presented.

  19. Computational Methods for Modeling Aptamers and Designing Riboswitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Gong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Riboswitches, which are located within certain noncoding RNA region perform functions as genetic “switches”, regulating when and where genes are expressed in response to certain ligands. Understanding the numerous functions of riboswitches requires computation models to predict structures and structural changes of the aptamer domains. Although aptamers often form a complex structure, computational approaches, such as RNAComposer and Rosetta, have already been applied to model the tertiary (three-dimensional (3D structure for several aptamers. As structural changes in aptamers must be achieved within the certain time window for effective regulation, kinetics is another key point for understanding aptamer function in riboswitch-mediated gene regulation. The coarse-grained self-organized polymer (SOP model using Langevin dynamics simulation has been successfully developed to investigate folding kinetics of aptamers, while their co-transcriptional folding kinetics can be modeled by the helix-based computational method and BarMap approach. Based on the known aptamers, the web server Riboswitch Calculator and other theoretical methods provide a new tool to design synthetic riboswitches. This review will represent an overview of these computational methods for modeling structure and kinetics of riboswitch aptamers and for designing riboswitches.

  20. Towards a culturally independent participatory design method: Fusing game elements into the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Nakatani, Momoko; Ohno, Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    Historically, Participatory Design (PD) was introduced and applied in the Scandinavian and American context as a practical design method for collective creativity and stakeholder involvement. In this paper, by fusing game elements into PD, we suggest a first step towards a culturally independent PD...... and the created Persona characteristics, probably due to cultural differences. Of more interestingly, despite these process differences, the game elements of our PD variant were found to promote the key values of PD in culturally diverse settings by stimulating idea creation and participation. Our experiments...... imply that the introduction of game elements allows PD to be effectively utilized in culturally diverse settings....

  1. Methods to Design and Synthesize Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzong Yao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs have become a promising targeted therapy strategy that combines the specificity, favorable pharmacokinetics and biodistributions of antibodies with the destructive potential of highly potent drugs. One of the biggest challenges in the development of ADCs is the application of suitable linkers for conjugating drugs to antibodies. Recently, the design and synthesis of linkers are making great progress. In this review, we present the methods that are currently used to synthesize antibody-drug conjugates by using thiols, amines, alcohols, aldehydes and azides.

  2. THE DESIGN OF AXIAL PUMP ROTORS USING THE NUMERICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali BEAZIT

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The researches in rotor theory, the increasing use of computers and the connection between design and manufacturing of rotors, have determined the revaluation and completion of classical rotor geometry. This paper presents practical applications of mathematical description of rotor geometry. A program has been created to describe the rotor geometry for arbitrary shape of the blade. The results can be imported by GAMBIT - a processor for geometry with modeling and mesh generations, to create a mesh needed in hydrodynamics analysis of rotor CFD. The results obtained are applicable in numerical methods and are functionally convenient for CAD/CAM systems.

  3. Robust Design of SAW Gas Sensors by Taguchi Dynamic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsun-Heng Tsai

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts Taguchi’s signal-to-noise ratio analysis to optimize the dynamic characteristics of a SAW gas sensor system whose output response is linearly related to the input signal. The goal of the present dynamic characteristics study is to increase the sensitivity of the measurement system while simultaneously reducing its variability. A time- and cost-efficient finite element analysis method is utilized to investigate the effects of the deposited mass upon the resonant frequency output of the SAW biosensor. The results show that the proposed methodology not only reduces the design cost but also promotes the performance of the sensors.

  4. ORELA data acquisition system hardware. Vol. 6. Eight-stage stacking buffer memory (Q-5066)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintenberg, R.E.; Reynolds, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    A Stacking Buffer Memory for de-randomizing data on high data rate experiments at ORELA is documented by a description of operation, mechanical details of design, and a detailed theory of operation illustrated through six examples of operation

  5. Radar Target Recognition Based on Stacked Denoising Sparse Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feixiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction is a key step in radar target recognition. The quality of the extracted features determines the performance of target recognition. However, obtaining the deep nature of the data is difficult using the traditional method. The autoencoder can learn features by making use of data and can obtain feature expressions at different levels of data. To eliminate the influence of noise, the method of radar target recognition based on stacked denoising sparse autoencoder is proposed in this paper. This method can extract features directly and efficiently by setting different hidden layers and numbers of iterations. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to the K-nearest neighbor method and the traditional stacked autoencoder.

  6. Contextualizing user centered design with agile methods in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teka, Degif; Dittrich, Y.; Kifle, Mesfin

    2017-01-01

    User centered design (UCD) provides principles and activities for improving usability. However, traditional UCD methods lack considering the context of users in low income, culturally diverse settings and where Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development is at its infant stage...... in contextualization of UCD practices: personas mediated between rural and urban users and developers. Personas helped also customer representatives as well as product owners to understand users and their requirements and allowed to test releases against persona requirements before deployment. Personas were updated...... throughout the project based on usability testing and experience from early deployment. Besides personas local IT personnel mediated between the rural users and software developers. Pairwise usability testing is an example for cultural adaptation for discount usability evaluation method that has been tried...

  7. A Method of Trajectory Design for Manned Asteroids Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Q. B.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, Z. F.; Han, W. H.; Dong, X.

    2014-11-01

    A trajectory optimization method of the nuclear propulsion manned asteroids exploration is presented. In the case of launching between 2035 and 2065, based on the Lambert transfer orbit, the phases of departure from and return to the Earth are searched at first. Then the optimal flight trajectory in the feasible regions is selected by pruning the flight sequences. Setting the nuclear propulsion flight plan as propel-coast-propel, and taking the minimal mass of aircraft departure as the index, the nuclear propulsion flight trajectory is separately optimized using a hybrid method. With the initial value of the optimized local parameters of each three phases, the global parameters are jointedly optimized. At last, the minimal departure mass trajectory design result is given.

  8. Hydrodynamic Modelling and Experimental Analysis of FE-DMFC Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kablou, Yashar

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) present some unique features such as having liquid fuel, quick refueling process, compact design and high energy density. These characteristics make them incredibly suitable as a promising power source for portable electronic applications, such as cell phones or laptop computers. Despite of these positive aspects, the commercial development of DMFCs has nevertheless been hindered by some important issues such as, carbon dioxide formation at the anode compartment and, methanol crossover through the membrane. Many researchers have tried to model the two-phase flow behavior inside the DMFC anode compartment using the "homogenous flow modelling" approach, which has proven to be inaccurate specially when dealing with DMFC stacks. On the other hand, several strategies to prevent methanol crossover have been suggested in the literature, including the use of a flowing electrolyte between the DMFC anode and cathode compartments. Preliminary tests on flowing electrolyte direct methanol fuel cells (FE-DMFCs) have shown promising results; however, further investigation should be carried out on the stack level. In the first part of this study, a quasi two-dimensional numerical model was developed, to predict the two-phase flow behavior within the DMFC anode compartment, both in single cell and stack levels. Various types of flow modelling approaches and void fraction correlations were utilized to estimate the pressure drop across the anode compartment. It was found that the "separated flow modelling" approach, as well as CISE correlation for void fraction (developed at the CISE labs in Milan), yield the best results. In the second part, a five-cell FE-DMFC stack unit with a parallel serpentine flow bed design and U-type manifold configuration, was developed and tested at various operating conditions. It was found that, the flowing electrolyte effectively reduced methanol crossover and, improved the stack performance.

  9. A small mono-polar direct methanol fuel cell stack with passive operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. H.; Zhao, T. S.; Chen, R.; Xu, C.

    A passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) stack that consists of six unit cells was designed, fabricated, and tested. The stack was tested with different methanol concentrations under ambient conditions. It was found that the stack performance increased when the methanol concentration inside the fuel tank was increased from 2.0 to 6.0 M. The improved performance is primarily due to the increased cell temperature as a result of the exothermic reaction between the permeated methanol and oxygen on the cathode. Moreover, the increased cell temperature enhanced the water evaporation rate on the air-breathing cathode, which significantly reduced water flooding on the cathode and further improved the stack performance. This passive DMFC stack, providing 350 mW at 1.8 V, was successfully applied to power a seagull display kit. The seagull display kit can continuously run for about 4 h on a single charge of 25 cm 3 4.0-M methanol solution.

  10. Stacking technology for a space constrained microsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heschel, Matthias; Kuhmann, Jochen Friedrich; Bouwstra, Siebe

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present a stacking technology for an integrated packaging of an intelligent transducer which is formed by a micromachined silicon transducer and an integrated circuit chip. Transducer and circuitry are stacked on top of each other with an intermediate chip in between. The bonding...

  11. Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...... of vector fields....

  12. 40 CFR 61.44 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.44 Section 61.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Firing § 61.44 Stack sampling. (a) Sources subject to § 61.42(b) shall be continuously sampled, during...

  13. Learning OpenStack networking (Neutron)

    CERN Document Server

    Denton, James

    2014-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack-based cloud operator with experience in OpenStack Compute and nova-network but are new to Neutron networking, then this book is for you. Some networking experience is recommended, and a physical network infrastructure is required to provide connectivity to instances and other network resources configured in the book.

  14. On the "stacking fault" in copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransens, J.R.; Pleiter, F

    2003-01-01

    The results of a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations experiment on In-111 implanted into a properly cut single crystal of copper show that the defect known in the literature as "stacking fault" is not a planar faulted loop but a stacking fault tetrahedron with a size of 10-50 Angstrom.

  15. Design method for marine direct drive volume control ahead actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Haiyang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] In order to reduce the size, weight and auxiliary system configuration of marine ahead actuators, this paper proposes a kind of direct drive volume control electro-hydraulic servo ahead actuator. [Methods] The protruding and indenting control of the servo oil cylinder are realized through the forward and reverse of the bidirectional working gear pump, and the flow matching valve implements the self-locking of the ahead actuator in the target position. The mathematical model of the ahead actuator is established, and an integral separation fuzzy PID controller designed. On this basis, using AMESim software to build a simulation model of the ahead actuator, and combined with testing, this paper completes an analysis of the control strategy research and dynamic and static performance of the ahead actuator. [Results] The experimental results agree well with the simulation results and verify the feasibility of the ahead actuator's design. [Conclusions] The research results of this paper can provide valuable references for the integration and miniaturization design of marine ahead actuators.

  16. Design of Maternity Pillow by Using Kansei and Taguchi Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilma Rahmillah, Fety; Nanda kartika, Rachmah

    2017-06-01

    One of the customers’ considerations for purchasing a product is it can satisfy their feeling and emotion. It because of such product can enhance sleep quality of pregnant women. However, most of the existing product such as maternity pillows are still designed based on companies’ perspective. This study aims to capture the desire of pregnant women toward maternity pillow desired product by using kansei words and analyze the optimal design with Taguchi method. Eight collected kansei words were durable, aesthetic, comfort, portable, simple, multifunction, attractive motive, and easy to maintain. While L16 orthogonal array is used because there are three variables with two levels and four variables with four levels. It can be concluded that the best maternity pillow that can satisfy the customers can be designed by combining D1-E2-F2-G2-C1-B2-A2 means the model is U shape, flowery motive, medium color, Bag model B, cotton pillow cover, filled with silicon, and use double zipper. However, it is also possible to create combination of D1-E2-F2-G2-C1-B1-A1 by using consideration of cost which means that the zipper is switched to single as well as filled with dacron. In addition, the total percentage of contribution by using ANOVA reaches 95%.

  17. Adaptive designs based on the truncated product method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhäuser Markus

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive designs are becoming increasingly important in clinical research. One approach subdivides the study into several (two or more stages and combines the p-values of the different stages using Fisher's combination test. Methods Alternatively to Fisher's test, the recently proposed truncated product method (TPM can be applied to combine the p-values. The TPM uses the product of only those p-values that do not exceed some fixed cut-off value. Here, these two competing analyses are compared. Results When an early termination due to insufficient effects is not appropriate, such as in dose-response analyses, the probability to stop the trial early with the rejection of the null hypothesis is increased when the TPM is applied. Therefore, the expected total sample size is decreased. This decrease in the sample size is not connected with a loss in power. The TPM turns out to be less advantageous, when an early termination of the study due to insufficient effects is possible. This is due to a decrease of the probability to stop the trial early. Conclusion It is recommended to apply the TPM rather than Fisher's combination test whenever an early termination due to insufficient effects is not suitable within the adaptive design.

  18. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  19. Comprehensive Deformation Analysis of a Newly Designed Ni-Free Duplex Stainless Steel with Enhanced Plasticity by Optimizing Austenite Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moallemi, Mohammad; Zarei-Hanzaki, Abbas; Eskandari, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    A new metastable Ni-free duplex stainless steel has been designed with superior plasticity by optimizing austenite stability using thermodynamic calculations of stacking fault energy and with reference to literature findings. Several characterization methods comprising optical microscopy, magneti...

  20. Geometric Patterns for Neighboring Bases Near the Stacked State in Nucleic Acid Strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedova, Ada; Banavali, Nilesh K

    2017-03-14

    Structural variation in base stacking has been analyzed frequently in isolated double helical contexts for nucleic acids, but not as often in nonhelical geometries or in complex biomolecular environments. In this study, conformations of two neighboring bases near their stacked state in any environment are comprehensively characterized for single-strand dinucleotide (SSD) nucleic acid crystal structure conformations. An ensemble clustering method is used to identify a reduced set of representative stacking geometries based on pairwise distances between select atoms in consecutive bases, with multiple separable conformational clusters obtained for categories divided by nucleic acid type (DNA/RNA), SSD sequence, stacking face orientation, and the presence or absence of a protein environment. For both DNA and RNA, SSD conformations are observed that are either close to the A-form, or close to the B-form, or intermediate between the two forms, or further away from either form, illustrating the local structural heterogeneity near the stacked state. Among this large variety of distinct conformations, several common stacking patterns are observed between DNA and RNA, and between nucleic acids in isolation or in complex with proteins, suggesting that these might be stable stacking orientations. Noncanonical face/face orientations of the two bases are also observed for neighboring bases in the same strand, but their frequency is much lower, with multiple SSD sequences across categories showing no occurrences of such unusual stacked conformations. The resulting reduced set of stacking geometries is directly useful for stacking-energy comparisons between empirical force fields, prediction of plausible localized variations in single-strand structures near their canonical states, and identification of analogous stacking patterns in newly solved nucleic acid containing structures.

  1. The impact of stack geometry and mean pressure on cold end temperature of stack in thermoacoustic refrigeration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantha, Channarong

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the experimental and simulation studies of the influence of stack geometries and different mean pressures on the cold end temperature of the stack in the thermoacoustic refrigeration system. The stack geometry was tested, including spiral stack, circular pore stack and pin array stack. The results of this study show that the mean pressure of the gas in the system has a significant impact on the cold end temperature of the stack. The mean pressure of the gas in the system corresponds to thermal penetration depth, which results in a better cold end temperature of the stack. The results also show that the cold end temperature of the pin array stack decreases more than that of the spiral stack and circular pore stack geometry by approximately 63% and 70%, respectively. In addition, the thermal area and viscous area of the stack are analyzed to explain the results of such temperatures of thermoacoustic stacks.

  2. Air-Cooled Stack Freeze Tolerance Freeze Failure Modes and Freeze Tolerance Strategies for GenDriveTM Material Handling Application Systems and Stacks Final Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, David, W.

    2012-02-14

    Air-cooled stack technology offers the potential for a simpler system architecture (versus liquid-cooled) for applications below 4 kilowatts. The combined cooling and cathode air allows for a reduction in part count and hence a lower cost solution. However, efficient heat rejection challenges escalate as power and ambient temperature increase. For applications in ambient temperatures below freezing, the air-cooled approach has additional challenges associated with not overcooling the fuel cell stack. The focus of this project was freeze tolerance while maintaining all other stack and system requirements. Through this project, Plug Power advanced the state of the art in technology for air-cooled PEM fuel cell stacks and related GenDrive material handling application fuel cell systems. This was accomplished through a collaborative work plan to improve freeze tolerance and mitigate freeze-thaw effect failure modes within innovative material handling equipment fuel cell systems designed for use in freezer forklift applications. Freeze tolerance remains an area where additional research and understanding can help fuel cells to become commercially viable. This project evaluated both stack level and system level solutions to improve fuel cell stack freeze tolerance. At this time, the most cost effective solutions are at the system level. The freeze mitigation strategies developed over the course of this project could be used to drive fuel cell commercialization. The fuel cell system studied in this project was Plug Power's commercially available GenDrive platform providing battery replacement for equipment in the material handling industry. The fuel cell stacks were Ballard's commercially available FCvelocity 9SSL (9SSL) liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack and FCvelocity 1020ACS (Mk1020) air-cooled PEM fuel cell stack.

  3. Learning physics: A comparative analysis between instructional design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Easow

    The purpose of this research was to determine if there were differences in academic performance between students who participated in traditional versus collaborative problem-based learning (PBL) instructional design approaches to physics curricula. This study utilized a quantitative quasi-experimental design methodology to determine the significance of differences in pre- and posttest introductory physics exam performance between students who participated in traditional (i.e., control group) versus collaborative problem solving (PBL) instructional design (i.e., experimental group) approaches to physics curricula over a college semester in 2008. There were 42 student participants (N = 42) enrolled in an introductory physics course at the research site in the Spring 2008 semester who agreed to participate in this study after reading and signing informed consent documents. A total of 22 participants were assigned to the experimental group (n = 22) who participated in a PBL based teaching methodology along with traditional lecture methods. The other 20 students were assigned to the control group (n = 20) who participated in the traditional lecture teaching methodology. Both the courses were taught by experienced professors who have qualifications at the doctoral level. The results indicated statistically significant differences (p academic performance between students who participated in traditional (i.e., lower physics posttest scores and lower differences between pre- and posttest scores) versus collaborative (i.e., higher physics posttest scores, and higher differences between pre- and posttest scores) instructional design approaches to physics curricula. Despite some slight differences in control group and experimental group demographic characteristics (gender, ethnicity, and age) there were statistically significant (p = .04) differences between female average academic improvement which was much higher than male average academic improvement (˜63%) in the control

  4. Minimizing End-to-End Interference in I/O Stacks Spanning Shared Multi-Level Buffer Caches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents an end-to-end interference minimizing uniquely designed high performance I/O stack that spans multi-level shared buffer cache hierarchies accessing shared I/O servers to deliver a seamless high performance I/O stack. In this thesis, I show that I can build a superior I/O stack which minimizes the inter-application interference…

  5. Enhanced Molecular Dynamics Methods Applied to Drug Design Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziada, Sonia; Braka, Abdennour; Diharce, Julien; Aci-Sèche, Samia; Bonnet, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Nobel Laureate Richard P. Feynman stated: "[…] everything that living things do can be understood in terms of jiggling and wiggling of atoms […]." The importance of computer simulations of macromolecules, which use classical mechanics principles to describe atom behavior, is widely acknowledged and nowadays, they are applied in many fields such as material sciences and drug discovery. With the increase of computing power, molecular dynamics simulations can be applied to understand biological mechanisms at realistic timescales. In this chapter, we share our computational experience providing a global view of two of the widely used enhanced molecular dynamics methods to study protein structure and dynamics through the description of their characteristics, limits and we provide some examples of their applications in drug design. We also discuss the appropriate choice of software and hardware. In a detailed practical procedure, we describe how to set up, run, and analyze two main molecular dynamics methods, the umbrella sampling (US) and the accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) methods.

  6. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stacks with Advent TPS Meas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neophytides Stylianos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High power/high energy applications are expected to greatly benefit from high temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs. In this work, a combinatorial approach is presented, in which separately developed and evaluated MEAs, design and engineering are employed to result in reliable and effective stacks operating above 180°C and having the characteristics well matched to applications including auxiliary power, micro combined heat and power, and telecommunication satellites.

  7. Seismic fragility of ventilation stack of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, S.S.; Yugai, T.Z.; Kalinkin, I.V.; Vizir, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    Fragility study of safety related elements is necessary step in seismic PSA of nuclear power plant (NPP). In present work fragility was analyzed after the example of the ventilation stack of NPP. Ventilation stack, considered in present work, is a separately erected construction with height of 100 m made of cast-in-place reinforced concrete. In accordance with IAEA terminology fragility of element is defined as conditional probability of its failure at given level of seismic loading. Failure of a ventilation stack was considered as development of the plastic hinge in some section of a shaft. Seismic ground acceleration a, which corresponds to failure, could be defined as limit seismic acceleration of ventilation stack [a]. Limit seismic acceleration [a] was considered as random value. Sources of its variation are connected with stochastic nature of factors determining it (properties of construction materials, soils etc.), and also with uncertainties of existing analytical techniques. Random value [a] was assumed to be distributed lognormally. Median m[a] and logarithmically standard deviation β of this distribution were defined by 'scaling method' developed by R.P. Kennedy et al. Using this values fragility curves were plotted for different levels of confidence probability. (author)

  8. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Greitzer, Frank L; Hampton, Shawn D

    2014-03-04

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  9. Computational methods in metabolic engineering for strain design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Matthew R; Ong, Wai Kit; Reed, Jennifer L

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic engineering uses genetic approaches to control microbial metabolism to produce desired compounds. Computational tools can identify new biological routes to chemicals and the changes needed in host metabolism to improve chemical production. Recent computational efforts have focused on exploring what compounds can be made biologically using native, heterologous, and/or enzymes with broad specificity. Additionally, computational methods have been developed to suggest different types of genetic modifications (e.g. gene deletion/addition or up/down regulation), as well as suggest strategies meeting different criteria (e.g. high yield, high productivity, or substrate co-utilization). Strategies to improve the runtime performances have also been developed, which allow for more complex metabolic engineering strategies to be identified. Future incorporation of kinetic considerations will further improve strain design algorithms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2015-08-18

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  11. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2016-08-23

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  12. Modeling of Cracked Beams by the Experimental Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Serier

    Full Text Available Abstract The understanding of phenomena, no matter their nature is based on the experimental results found. In the most cases, this requires an important number of tests in order to put a reliable and useful observation served into solving the technical problems subsequently. This paper is based on independent and variables combination resulting from experimentation in a mathematical formulation. Indeed, mathematical modeling gives us the advantage to optimize and predict the right choices without passing each case by the experiment. In this work we plan to apply the experimental design method on the experimental results found by (Deokar, A, 2011, concerning the effect of the size and position of a crack on the measured frequency of a beam console, and validating the mathematical model to predict other frequencies

  13. Forming a method mindset : The role of knowledge and preference in facilitating heuristic method usage in design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalhuizen, J.J.; Person, F.E.O.K.; Gattol, V.

    2013-01-01

    Both systematic and heuristic methods are common practice when designing. Yet, in teaching students how to design, heuristic methods are typically only granted a secondary role. So, how do designers and students develop a mindset for using heuristic methods? In this paper, we study how prior

  14. Finite element analysis of CFRP reinforced silo structure design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Long; Xu, Xinsheng

    2017-11-01

    Because of poor construction, there is a serious problem of concrete quality in the silo project, which seriously affects the safe use of the structure. Concrete quality problems are mainly seen in three aspects: concrete strength cannot meet the design requirements, concrete cracking phenomenon is serious, and the unreasonable concrete vibration leads to a lot of honeycombs and surface voids. Silos are usually reinforced by carbon fiber cloth in order to ensure the safe use of silos. By the example of an alumina silo in a fly ash plant in Binzhou, Shandong Province, the alumina silo project was tested and examined on site. According to filed test results, the actual concrete strength was determined, and the damage causes of the silo was analysed. Then, a finite element analysis model of this silo was established, the CFRP cloth reinforcement method was adopted to strengthen the silo, and other technology like additional reinforcement, rebar planting, carbon fiber bonding technology was also expounded. The research of this paper is of great significance to the design and construction of silo structure.

  15. An outer approximation method for the road network design problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Bagloee, Saeed; Sarvi, Majid

    2018-01-01

    Best investment in the road infrastructure or the network design is perceived as a fundamental and benchmark problem in transportation. Given a set of candidate road projects with associated costs, finding the best subset with respect to a limited budget is known as a bilevel Discrete Network Design Problem (DNDP) of NP-hard computationally complexity. We engage with the complexity with a hybrid exact-heuristic methodology based on a two-stage relaxation as follows: (i) the bilevel feature is relaxed to a single-level problem by taking the network performance function of the upper level into the user equilibrium traffic assignment problem (UE-TAP) in the lower level as a constraint. It results in a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem which is then solved using the Outer Approximation (OA) algorithm (ii) we further relax the multi-commodity UE-TAP to a single-commodity MILP problem, that is, the multiple OD pairs are aggregated to a single OD pair. This methodology has two main advantages: (i) the method is proven to be highly efficient to solve the DNDP for a large-sized network of Winnipeg, Canada. The results suggest that within a limited number of iterations (as termination criterion), global optimum solutions are quickly reached in most of the cases; otherwise, good solutions (close to global optimum solutions) are found in early iterations. Comparative analysis of the networks of Gao and Sioux-Falls shows that for such a non-exact method the global optimum solutions are found in fewer iterations than those found in some analytically exact algorithms in the literature. (ii) Integration of the objective function among the constraints provides a commensurate capability to tackle the multi-objective (or multi-criteria) DNDP as well.

  16. Density of oxidation-induced stacking faults in damaged silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, F.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Verwey, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A model for the relation between density and length of oxidation-induced stacking faults on damaged silicon surfaces is proposed, based on interactions of stacking faults with dislocations and neighboring stacking faults. The model agrees with experiments.

  17. Negotiation and Design for the Self-Organizing City. Gaming as a method for Urban Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekim Tan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of cities as open systems whose agents act on them simultaneously from below and above, influencing urban processes by their interaction with them and with each other, is replacing the simplistic debate on urban participation which asks whether cities should be organized bottom-up or top-down. This conceptualization of cities as complex systems calls for new collaborative city-making methods: a combination of collaborative planning (which already embraces various agencies and derives decision-making from negotiations between them and collaborative design (existing methods rely on rule-based iterative processes which control spatial outcomes. While current collaborative planning methods are open and interactive, they fail to simulate realistic power negotiations in the evolution of the physical environments they plan; collaborative design methods fall short in modelling the decision-making mechanisms of the physical environments they control. This research is dedicated to building an open negotiation and design method for cities as self-organizing systems that bridges this gap. Gaming as a tool for knowledge creation and negotiation serves as an interface between the more abstract decision-making and material city-making. Rarely involved in the creation of our environment, it has the unexplored potential of combining the socio-spatial dimensions of self-organizing urban processes. Diverse agents, the collaborations and conflicts within and between interest groups, and the parameters provided by topological data can all be combined in an operational form in gaming: potentially a great unifier of multiple stakeholder negotiations and individual design aspirations through which to generate popularly informed policies or design. The simple language and rules of games will allow jargon-free communication between stakeholders, experts and non-experts alike. The interactive and iterative nature of city gaming encourages the development

  18. AmiRNA Designer - new method of artificial miRNA design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickiewicz, Agnieszka; Rybarczyk, Agnieszka; Sarzynska, Joanna; Figlerowicz, Marek; Blazewicz, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have been found in most of the eukaryotic organisms. They are involved in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in a sequence specific manner. MiRNAs are produced from their precursors by Dicer-dependent small RNA biogenesis pathway. Involvement of miRNAs in a wide range of biological processes makes them excellent candidates for studying gene function or for therapeutic applications. For this purpose, different RNA-based gene silencing techniques have been developed. Artificially transformed miRNAs (amiRNAs) targeting one or several genes of interest represent one of such techniques being a potential tool in functional genomics. Here, we present a new approach to amiRNA*design, implemented as AmiRNA Designer software. Our method is based on the thermodynamic analysis of the native miRNA/miRNA* and miRNA/target duplexes. In contrast to the available automated tools, our program allows the user to perform analysis of natural miRNAs for the organism of interest and to create customized constraints for the design stage. It also provides filtering of the amiRNA candidates for the potential off-targets. AmiRNA Designer is freely available at http://www.cs.put.poznan.pl/arybarczyk/AmiRNA/.

  19. Comparison of source moment tensor recovered by diffraction stacking migration and source time reversal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Diffraction stacking migration is an automatic location methods and widely used in microseismic monitoring of the hydraulic fracturing. It utilizes the stacking of thousands waveform to enhance signal-to-noise ratio of weak events. For surface monitoring, the diffraction stacking method is suffered from polarity reverse among receivers due to radiation pattern of moment source. Joint determination of location and source mechanism has been proposed to overcome the polarity problem but needs significantly increased computational calculations. As an effective method to recover source moment tensor, time reversal imaging based on wave equation can locate microseismic event by using interferometry on the image to extract source position. However, the time reversal imaging is very time consuming compared to the diffraction stacking location because of wave-equation simulation.In this study, we compare the image from diffraction stacking and time reversal imaging to check if the diffraction stacking can obtain similar moment tensor as time reversal imaging. We found that image produced by taking the largest imaging value at each point along time axis does not exhibit the radiation pattern, while with the same level of calculation efficiency, the image produced for each trial origin time can generate radiation pattern similar to time reversal imaging procedure. Thus it is potential to locate the source position by the diffraction stacking method for general moment tensor sources.

  20. Assessment for potential radionuclide emissions from stacks and diffuse and fugitive sources on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.E.; Schmidt, J.W.; Gleckler, B.P.; Rhoads, K.

    1995-06-01

    By using the six EPA-approved methods, instead of only the original back calculation method for assessing the 84 WHC registered stacks, the number of stacks requiring continuous monitoring was reduced from 32 to 19 stacks. The intercomparison between results showed that no correlation existed between back calculations and release fractions. Also the NDA, upstream air samples, and powder release fraction method results were at least three orders of magnitude lower then the back calculations results. The most surprising results of the assessment came from NDA. NDA was found to be an easy method for assessing potential emissions. For the nine stacks assessed by NDA, all nine of the stacks would have required continuous monitoring when assessed by back calculations. However, when NDA was applied all stacks had potential emissions that would cause an EDE below the > 0.1 mrem/y standard. Apparent DFs for the HEPA filter systems were calculated for eight nondesignated stacks with emissions above the detection limit. These apparent DFs ranged from 0.5 to 250. The EDE dose to the MEI was calculated to be 0.028 mrem/y for diffuse and fugitive emissions from the Hanford Sited. This is well below the > 0.1 mrem/y standard