WorldWideScience

Sample records for stable work force

  1. Preparation of stable silica surfaces for surface forces measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huai-Yin; Mizukami, Masashi; Kurihara, Kazue

    2017-09-01

    A surface forces apparatus (SFA) measures the forces between two surfaces as a function of the surface separation distance. It is regarded as an essential tool for studying the interactions between two surfaces. However, sample surfaces used for the conventional SFA measurements have been mostly limited to thin (ca. 2-3 μm) micas, which are coated with silver layers (ca. 50 nm) on their back, due to the requirement of the distance determination by transmission mode optical interferometry called FECO (fringes of equal chromatic order). The FECO method has the advantage of determining the absolute distance, so it should be important to increase the availability of samples other than mica, which is chemically nonreactive and also requires significant efforts for cleaving. Recently, silica sheets have been occasionally used in place of mica, which increases the possibility of surface modification. However, in this case, the silver layer side of the sheet is glued on a cylindrical quartz disc using epoxy resin, which is not stable in organic solvents and can be easily swollen or dissolved. The preparation of substrates more stable under severe conditions, such as in organic solvents, is necessary for extending application of the measurement. In this study, we report an easy method for preparing stable silica layers of ca. 2 μm in thickness deposited on gold layers (41 nm)/silica discs by sputtering, then annealed to enhance the stability. The obtained silica layers were stable and showed no swelling in organic solvents such as ethanol and toluene.

  2. Stable iodine prophylaxis. Recommendations of the 2nd UK Working Group on Stable Iodine Prophylaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Working Group reviewed the revised Who guidance and the information published since 1991 on the risks of thyroid cancer in children from radioiodine and the risks of side effects from stable iodine. In particular, it reviewed data compiled on the incidence of thyroid cancers in children following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. It considered whether the NRPB Earls were still appropriate, in the light of the new data. It also reviewed a range of other recommendations given by the 1st Working Group, concerning the chemical form of stable iodine tablets and practical issues concerning implementation of stable iodine prophylaxis. Finally, it reviewed the Patient Information Leaflet that is required, by law, to be included in each box of tablets and provided suggestions for information to be included in a separate information leaflet to be handed out to the public when stable iodine tablets are distributed.

  3. Does the electromotive force (always represent work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Papachristou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the literature of Electromagnetism, the electromotive force of a "circuit" is often defined as work done on a unit charge during a complete tour of the latter around the circuit. We explain why this statement cannot be generally regarded as true, although it is indeed true in certain simple cases. Several examples are used to illustrate these points.

  4. Magnetic Force and Work: An Accessible Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Despite their physics instructors' arguments to the contrary, introductory students can observe situations in which there seems to be compelling evidence for magnetic force doing work. The counterarguments are often highly technical and require physics knowledge beyond the experience of novice students, however. A simple example is presented…

  5. Employee satisfaction: creating a positive work force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1990s, El Camino Hospital (ECH) streamlined its operations in order to remain competitive. In 1992, the hospital's District Board voted to turn the hospital's management over to a nonprofit company and it became an integrated delivery system (IDS). Hospital employees continued to suffer as their work and work schedules changed in ongoing efforts by the new administration to streamline. Finally, in early 1997, the IDS, Camino Healthcare, was dissolved. The director of radiology and radiation oncology services became aware of increasing employee problems, from high turnover rates and increased absenteeism, to morale and productivity issues. Employees also worried about job redesign, re-engineering and a lack of clear direction and expectations from department leadership. The director of the department created a task force to respond to the needs of staff members. With so much anger directed at department leadership, supervisory staff were not included in the task force. The task force worked first to identify rumors and innuendos and followed with a plan to resolve such issues. The second step was to agree to focus on issues that they could change and to let go of those they couldn't. They selected five priority issues or concerns. The group met weekly and made progress by replacing negative talk and attitudes with positive ones. Meanwhile, the director researched employee satisfaction issues so she would be prepared to discuss such issues and concerns with employees. She focused on a common theme, of having a personal mission or goal for one's self. She encouraged staff members to be aware of their own behavior when communicating with others. Although several informal surveys proved there was still much work to be done, there was positive response--a light at the end of the long tunnel.

  6. Telecommuters: the work force of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancer, D A; Moe, J K

    1995-01-01

    Telecommuters are the work force of the future. The dawning of the information age, with its explosion of telecommunication technology, presents new opportunities for healthcare agencies to extend their borders far beyond traditional physical boundaries. The virtual workplace can become a reality and position healthcare agencies to be geographically dispersed throughout their community. The authors describe a pioneering effort to use telecommunications to retain a valuable employee and create a healthcare agency's first virtual workplace. Strategies for success in telecommuting also are provided from both the telecommuter's and the manager's viewpoints.

  7. Anthropometry of an aging work force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J F; Case, H W; Clauser, C E; Bradtmiller, B

    1991-01-01

    Faced with an aging labor force, industrial planners are worried about the possible need to redesign jobs and workspaces in the future. One area of concern is the changes that occur in body size characteristics as people age. Although no true database for the anthropometry of the American worker exists, available surveys and studies that include older individuals (40 to 70 years), and errors associated with these studies, are discussed. Using sample mean values from selected cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, the changes in weight and selected body dimensions are traced from the third to the eighth decade of life. As a practical exercise, age-associated changes in a number of workspace dimensions are tested against recommended design values for seated work stations. While acknowledging the need for flexibility in future workplace designs the authors conclude that age-related changes in body size are insufficient in themselves to justify the resizing of existing ergonomically-designed workplaces.

  8. Annual report on contractor work force restructuring, fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes work force restructuring and community transition activities at all sites. It outlines work force restructuring activity for FY 1997, changing separation patterns, cost savings and separation costs, program assessment, activities to mitigate restructuring impacts, community transition activities, status of displaced workers, lessons learned, and emerging issues in worker and community transition. Work force restructuring and community transition activities for defense nuclear sites are summarized, as are work force restructuring activities at non-defense sites.

  9. 40 CFR 35.936-14 - Force account work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Force account work. 35.936-14 Section... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-14 Force account work. (a) A grantee must secure the project officer's prior written approval for use of...

  10. Industrial Robots Join the Work Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    Robots--powerful, versatile, and easily adapted to new operations--may usher in a new industrial age. Workers throughout the labor force could be affected, as well as the nature of the workplace, skill requirements of jobs, and concomitant shifts in vocational education. (SK)

  11. Environmental education work force pipeline strategic plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, S.U.; Jackson, E.R.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes an educational program designed to provide a pool of highly qualified administrative, technical, and managerial graduates that are familiar with the Hanford Site and business operations. The program is designed to provide work experience and mentoring to a culturally diverse student base which enhances affirmative employment goals. Short-term and long-term objectives of the program are outlined in the report, and current objectives are discussed in more detail. Goals to be completed by the year 2003 are aimed at defining the criteria necessary to establish partnerships between schools, community organizations, and human resources departments. Actions to be implemented includes providing instructors and equipment, enhancing skills of local teachers, and establishing collaboration with human resources organizations. Long-term goals of the program are to ensure a constant supply of qualified, trained workers to support industry missions. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  12. The Labor Force Participation of Older Women: Retired? Working? Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth T.

    2002-01-01

    Noneconomic factors such as level of education, job flexibility in work hours, and physical stress appear to influence older women's labor force participation resulting in many retired women who are employed. Some women classified as retired work nearly as many hours as those employed, although many employed older women work part time. (Contains…

  13. Tomorrow's Work Force: New Values in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, R. Eden

    1985-01-01

    A new generation of workers is entering the work force. The "computer babies," fiercely independent, will demand autonomy on the job and will brush aside many of the values of the older baby-boom generation. (RM)

  14. Ergonomic solutions to support forced static positions at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suszyński Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the available ergonomic constructions used for the support of the musculoskeletal system during static, prolonged work performed in forced positions. Possible evaluation methods are presented as well as ergonomic considerations of work performed in inclined positions, where there is no possibility of influencing the working plane. As a result of the presented work, a set of criteria has been proposed and the requirements for methods which can be used to evaluate the technical constructions supporting the worker during tasks performed in forced and static positions.

  15. Flextime: A Modified Work Force Scheduling Technique for Selected Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, Reed T.; Prince, Samuel M. O.

    The thesis discusses the advantages and disadvantages of one work force scheduling technique--flextime. The authors were interested in determining if a flextime schedule could be put into effect in a governmental organization such as Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC). The study objectives were to determine the feasibility,…

  16. Ethnic and gender divisions in the work force of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, M P

    1995-01-01

    Like the former Soviet Union, Russia is home to many ethnic groups. The Russian Federal Treaty of March 1992 was signed by 18 ethnically-based republics and 17 non-Russian ethnic districts. Ethnic groups within Russia vary considerably in levels of socioeconomic achievement, with groups having had unequal access to political resources and differing in their ability to take advantage of economic opportunities. The author analyzed newly available occupational data from the 1989 census in his study of ethnic and gender differences in the work force of Russia. Measurements are presented showing differences between the occupations of Russians and the next largest 11 ethnic groups, producing a clear hierarchy of groups. The extent of occupational gender differences within each ethnic group is measured and contrasted with the level of differences between ethnic groups. These data are important for showing potential sources of group conflict and for providing a baseline to measure changing forms of inequality which have been promoted by post-Soviet developments. Preliminary findings point to the existence of highly significant differences between Russia's ethnic groups, with the level of the differences closely paralleling measures of socioeconomic achievement. To determine more precisely the significance of group differences in employment, detailed occupational categories must be examined more closely. Currently available data, however, do not permit more rigorous measurements of discrimination. It is nonetheless clear that ethnicity in contemporary Russia is strongly related to occupational differences. The aggregate segregation of men from women was found to be very stable despite the substantial socioeconomic and cultural differences between ethnic groups. As a group, Jews were found to have extremely high levels of educational and occupational achievement and a comparatively far older age structure.

  17. Force identification of dynamic systems using virtual work principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xun; Ou, Jinping

    2015-02-01

    One of the key inverse problems for estimating dynamic forces acting on a structure is to determine the force expansion and the corresponding solving method. This paper presents a moving least square (MLS) method for fitting dynamic forces, which improves the existing traditional methods. The simulation results show that the force expansion order has a tiny effect on the types of forces, which indicates the MLS method's excellent ability for local approximation and noise immunity as well as good fitting function. Then, the differential equation of motion for the system is transformed into an integral equation by using the virtual work principle, which can eliminate the structural acceleration response without introducing the calculation error. Besides, the transformation derives an expression of velocity by integrating by parts, which diminishes the error propagation of the velocity. Hence, the integral equation of motion for the system has a strong constraint to noise with zero mean value. Finally, this paper puts forward an optimization method to solve the equation. The numerical stability can be enhanced as the matrix inversion calculation is avoided. Illustrative examples involving different types of forces demonstrate that the transformation of the differential equation proposed through virtual work principle can eliminate interference efficiently and is robust for dynamic calculation.

  18. Global work force 2000: the new world labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W B

    1991-01-01

    Just as there are global markets for products, technology, and capital, managers must now think of one for labor. Over the next 15 years, human capital, once the most stationary factor in production, will cross national borders with greater and greater ease. Driving the globalization of labor is a growing imbalance between the world's labor supply and demand. While the developed world accounts for most of the world's gross domestic product, its share of the world work force is shrinking. Meanwhile, in the developing countries, the work force is quickly expanding as many young people approach working age and as women join the paid work force in great numbers. The quality of that work force is also rising as developing countries like Brazil and China generate growing proportions of the world's college graduates. Developing nations that combine their young, educated workers with investor-friendly policies could leapfrog into new industries. South Korea, Taiwan, Poland, and Hungary are particularly well positioned for such growth. And industrialized countries that keep barriers to immigration low will be able to tap world labor resources to sustain their economic growth. The United States and some European nations have the best chance of encouraging immigration, while Japan will have trouble overcoming its cultural and language barriers.

  19. Force Outputs during Squats Performed Using a Rotational Inertia Device under Stable versus Unstable Conditions with Different Loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Vázquez-Guerrero

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the force outputs achieved during a squat exercise using a rotational inertia device in stable versus unstable conditions with different loads and in concentric and eccentric phases. Thirteen male athletes (mean ± SD: age 23.7 ± 3.0 years, height 1.80 ± 0.08 m, body mass 77.4 ± 7.9 kg were assessed while squatting, performing one set of three repetitions with four different loads under stable and unstable conditions at maximum concentric effort. Overall, there were no significant differences between the stable and unstable conditions at each of the loads for any of the dependent variables. Mean force showed significant differences between some of the loads in stable and unstable conditions (P < 0.010 and peak force output differed between all loads for each condition (P < 0.045. Mean force outputs were greater in the concentric than in the eccentric phase under both conditions and with all loads (P < 0.001. There were no significant differences in peak force between concentric and eccentric phases at any load in either stable or unstable conditions. In conclusion, squatting with a rotational inertia device allowed the generation of similar force outputs under stable and unstable conditions at each of the four loads. The study also provides empirical evidence of the different force outputs achieved by adjusting load conditions on the rotational inertia device when performing squats, especially in the case of peak force. Concentric force outputs were significantly higher than eccentric outputs, except for peak force under both conditions. These findings support the use of the rotational inertia device to train the squatting exercise under unstable conditions for strength and conditioning trainers. The device could also be included in injury prevention programs for muscle lesions and ankle and knee joint injuries.

  20. Force Outputs during Squats Performed Using a Rotational Inertia Device under Stable versus Unstable Conditions with Different Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Guerrero, Jairo; Moras, Gerard; Baeza, Jennifer; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the force outputs achieved during a squat exercise using a rotational inertia device in stable versus unstable conditions with different loads and in concentric and eccentric phases. Thirteen male athletes (mean ± SD: age 23.7 ± 3.0 years, height 1.80 ± 0.08 m, body mass 77.4 ± 7.9 kg) were assessed while squatting, performing one set of three repetitions with four different loads under stable and unstable conditions at maximum concentric effort. Overall, there were no significant differences between the stable and unstable conditions at each of the loads for any of the dependent variables. Mean force showed significant differences between some of the loads in stable and unstable conditions (P rotational inertia device allowed the generation of similar force outputs under stable and unstable conditions at each of the four loads. The study also provides empirical evidence of the different force outputs achieved by adjusting load conditions on the rotational inertia device when performing squats, especially in the case of peak force. Concentric force outputs were significantly higher than eccentric outputs, except for peak force under both conditions. These findings support the use of the rotational inertia device to train the squatting exercise under unstable conditions for strength and conditioning trainers. The device could also be included in injury prevention programs for muscle lesions and ankle and knee joint injuries.

  1. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  2. Study on the flow reduction of forced flow superconducting magnet and its stable operation condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The forced flow superconducting coil especially made from a Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) is applied for large-scale devices such as fusion magnets and superconducting magnet energy storage (SMES) because it has high mechanical and electrical performance potential. The flow reduction phenomena caused by AC loss generation due to the pulsed operation was found based on the experimental results of three forced flow superconducting coils. And relation between the AC loss generation and flow reduction was defined from viewpoint of the engineering design and operation of the coils. Also the mechanism of flow reduction was investigated and stable operation condition under the flow reduction was clarified for forced flow superconducting coils. First, experiments of three different large-scale superconducting coils were carried out and experimental database of the flow reduction by AC loss generation was established. It was found experimentally that the flow reduction depends on the AC loss generation (W/m{sup 3}) in all of coils. It means the stable operation condition is defined not only the electro magnetism of superconducting coil but also flow condition. Mechanism of the flow reduction was investigated based on the experimental database. Hydraulics was applied to supercritical helium as a coolant. Also performances of the cryogenic pump by which coolant are supplied to the coil and friction of the superconductor as cooling path is considered for hydraulic estimation. The flow reduction of the coil is clarified and predictable by the equations of continuity, momentum and energy balance. Also total mass flow rate of coolant was discussed. The estimation method in the design phase was developed for total mass flow rate which are required under the flow reduction by AC losses. The friction of the superconductor and performance of cryogenic pump should be required for precise prediction of flow reduction. These values were obtained by the experiment data of coil and

  3. Ultrasound power measurements of HITU transducer with a more stable radiation force balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaboece, B; Sadiko'lu, E; Bilgic, E

    2011-01-01

    A new radiation force balance (RFB) system was established at Turkish National Metrology Institute (UME) Ultrasonics Laboratory for High intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) power measurements. The new system is highly stable at high power levels up to 500 Watts. The measurement system consists of a Plexiglas cylindrical balance arm, target mounting scale disks, conical reflecting and absorbing targets, adjustment nuts, and a hanging wire. Both of the two sides of balance were mounted similar size and weight targets. The equilibrium of the balance arm can be adjusted with nuts on screws located at both sides of the balance arm. Transducer was mounted to bottom of water tank. Absorbers in the bottom and the near walls of the tank were used for reflecting target case. Ultrasound power was applied to one scale of the balance where the reflecting/absorbing target was mounted and corresponding force was measured on the other scale of balance where was connected to a balance with a thin wire while the thin rest standing on a support. Ultrasound power of two HITU transducers at frequencies 0.93 MHz, 1.1 MHz and 3.3 MHz were measured with conventional and new system, the values were compared and uncertainty components were assessed in this paper.

  4. Ultrasound power measurements of HITU transducer with a more stable radiation force balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaboece, B; Sadiko' lu, E; Bilgic, E, E-mail: baki.karaboce@ume.tubitak.gov.t [Tuebitak Ulusal Metroloji Enstituesue (UME), P.K. 54 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2011-02-01

    A new radiation force balance (RFB) system was established at Turkish National Metrology Institute (UME) Ultrasonics Laboratory for High intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) power measurements. The new system is highly stable at high power levels up to 500 Watts. The measurement system consists of a Plexiglas cylindrical balance arm, target mounting scale disks, conical reflecting and absorbing targets, adjustment nuts, and a hanging wire. Both of the two sides of balance were mounted similar size and weight targets. The equilibrium of the balance arm can be adjusted with nuts on screws located at both sides of the balance arm. Transducer was mounted to bottom of water tank. Absorbers in the bottom and the near walls of the tank were used for reflecting target case. Ultrasound power was applied to one scale of the balance where the reflecting/absorbing target was mounted and corresponding force was measured on the other scale of balance where was connected to a balance with a thin wire while the thin rest standing on a support. Ultrasound power of two HITU transducers at frequencies 0.93 MHz, 1.1 MHz and 3.3 MHz were measured with conventional and new system, the values were compared and uncertainty components were assessed in this paper.

  5. Occupational health for what were, a well work force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiller, Roger [MSF, Stowmarket (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    This paper contrasts the offshore scene of 30 years ago with today, within the limits of inadequate monitoring, then and now. It identifies stress, bullying, change, long working hours and offshore trips and lifestyle as major factors that now have to be addressed if the health of the ageing work force is not to be compromised. Activity external to formal working hours such as travel to and from home and domestic and social relationships are all modified by the nature of offshore work but rarely acknowledged as the responsibility of the employer or operator. The development of a superior lifelong health tracking system is essential for long-term surveillance and epidemiological studies. The acceptance by operators of their long-term responsibilities for staff and the families of offshore workers needs to be better developed. (author)

  6. Calibrated work function mapping by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Garrillo, Pablo A.; Grévin, Benjamin; Chevalier, Nicolas; Borowik, Łukasz

    2018-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate the implementation of an alternative work function tip calibration procedure for Kelvin probe force microscopy under ultrahigh vacuum, using monocrystalline metallic materials with known crystallographic orientation as reference samples, instead of the often used highly oriented pyrolytic graphite calibration sample. The implementation of this protocol allows the acquisition of absolute and reproducible work function values, with an improved uncertainty with respect to unprepared highly oriented pyrolytic graphite-based protocols. The developed protocol allows the local investigation of absolute work function values over nanostructured samples and can be implemented in electronic structures and devices characterization as demonstrated over a nanostructured semiconductor sample presenting Al0.7Ga0.3As and GaAs layers with variable thickness. Additionally, using our protocol we find that the work function of annealed highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is equal to 4.6 ± 0.03 eV.

  7. When the work force shrinks, so does safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    The blues that accompany an organizational reduction in force can lead to safety hazards. Last May, two much-read association publications ran feature stories on the suffering that can result from downsizing. {open_quotes}Casualties of downsizing{close_quotes} were lamented in Robert W. Lucky`s IEEE Spectrum column. {open_quotes}Downsizing: a new form of abandonment{close_quotes} moaned the cover of the APA Monitor, the American Psychological Association`s monthly. For a number of reasons, when employees suffer, the workplace becomes less safe. Safety means more than not stepping into maintenance holes. Persons who work for a government or nonprofit entity are twice as likely to be threatened on the job as are employees of a for-profit business. Government workers constituted 18 percent of the work force but they accounted for 30 percent of homicide victims. Non-fatal assaults in the workplace are most commonly perpetrated by a fellow employee, not a stranger or someone known from outside work. There are other morale-related challenges to safety besides a disgruntled, imbalanced employee bringing a semiautomatic weapon to work. Some of these safety issues are discussed.

  8. Status of the new initiative task force work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, J.

    1992-01-01

    The proposal for a open-quotes New Initiatives Task Forceclose quotes emerged from discussions in the scientific community on how to proceed following the demise of the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX). In particular, the action of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB), which made the following recommendation in 1991, prompted the initiative: open-quotes Concept exploration should begin to define a new experiment in the $500 million class for the purpose of scientific study of tokomak improvements (e.g., second stability, steady state, bootstrap current) that could suggest new operating modes for ITER and permit the design of more reactor-desirable follow-ons to ITER.close quotes A New Initiative Task force, was chartered by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in October 1991 to provide oversight in the development of a new experimental initiative and to provide guidance to advocate groups in the following areas: programmatic mission and technical objectives, critical issues of physics, engineering, and technology, design criteria, costing, and modes of operation. The guidance was designed to be based on broad community involvement. In addition, the Task Force was asked to identify the preferred options which could proceed to the design stage. Three primary machine designs have emerged from the work of this group, and they are briefly described. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. 3 CFR - White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on Middle-Class Working Families (Task Force) to focus on raising the living standards of middle... that can be of special importance to middle-class working families. The functions of the Task Force are... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false White House Task Force on Middle-Class Working...

  10. Stable and Dynamic Coding for Working Memory in Primate Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kei; Funahashi, Shintaro; Stokes, Mark G.

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) provides the stability necessary for high-level cognition. Influential theories typically assume that WM depends on the persistence of stable neural representations, yet increasing evidence suggests that neural states are highly dynamic. Here we apply multivariate pattern analysis to explore the population dynamics in primate lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during three variants of the classic memory-guided saccade task (recorded in four animals). We observed the hallmark of dynamic population coding across key phases of a working memory task: sensory processing, memory encoding, and response execution. Throughout both these dynamic epochs and the memory delay period, however, the neural representational geometry remained stable. We identified two characteristics that jointly explain these dynamics: (1) time-varying changes in the subpopulation of neurons coding for task variables (i.e., dynamic subpopulations); and (2) time-varying selectivity within neurons (i.e., dynamic selectivity). These results indicate that even in a very simple memory-guided saccade task, PFC neurons display complex dynamics to support stable representations for WM. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Flexible, intelligent behavior requires the maintenance and manipulation of incoming information over various time spans. For short time spans, this faculty is labeled “working memory” (WM). Dominant models propose that WM is maintained by stable, persistent patterns of neural activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, recent evidence suggests that neural activity in PFC is dynamic, even while the contents of WM remain stably represented. Here, we explored the neural dynamics in PFC during a memory-guided saccade task. We found evidence for dynamic population coding in various task epochs, despite striking stability in the neural representational geometry of WM. Furthermore, we identified two distinct cellular mechanisms that contribute to dynamic population coding. PMID

  11. Individual and Work Factors Related to Perceived Work Ability and Labor Force Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Grosch, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived work ability refers to a worker's assessment of his or her ability to continue working in his or her job, given characteristics of the job along with his or her personal resources. Perceived work ability is a critical variable to study in the U.S., given an aging workforce, trends to delay retirement, and U.S. policy considerations to delay the age at which full Social Security retirement benefits may be obtained. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model, cognitive appraisal theory of stress and push/pull factors related to retirement, we proposed and tested a conceptual model of antecedents and outcomes of perceived work ability using three independent samples of U.S. working adults. Data regarding workers’ job characteristics were from self-report and O*NET measures. Results from relative importance analysis indicated that health and sense of control were consistently and most strongly related to work ability perceptions relative to other job demands and job resources when perceived work ability was measured concurrently or two weeks later in samples with varying occupations. Job demands (along with health and sense of control) were most strongly related to work ability perceptions when perceived work ability was measured in a manufacturing worker sample 1.6 years later. Perceived work ability also predicted lagged labor force outcomes (absence, retirement, and disability leave) while controlling for other known predictors of each. Consistent indirect effects were observed from health status and sense of control to all three of these outcomes via perceived work ability. PMID:25314364

  12. Return to work after thoracic organ transplantation in a clinically-stable population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Lucia; Ricotti, Susanna; Michelini, Ilaria; Vitulo, Patrizio; Oggionni, Tiberio; Cascina, Alessandro; D'Armini, Andrea M; Goggi, Claudio; Campana, Carlo; Viganò, Mario; Dalla-Toffola, Elena; Tinelli, Carmine; Klersy, Catherine

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the rate of return to work after transplantation and its determinants in a clinically-stable population of patients transplanted and followed-up at a single institution in Italy. 151 thoracic organ transplant recipients (72 lung, 79 heart) were examined. Patients were asked about daily activities, level of education, employment and clinical condition. A six-minute walking test was performed with measurement of dyspnoea using the Borg scale. Quality of Life was evaluated with the SF-36 and GHQ questionnaires. Before transplantation 131 patients (87%), (70 heart and 61 lung) worked. After transplantation, 51 patients (39%) went back to work and 3 more started working. We found that younger age, a better quality of life (mainly in the mental domain), having had an occupation previously (particularly as an entrepreneur/freelancer), and having been off work for less than 24 months, were independent predictors of return to work. Considering their good, objective and subjective, functional status, some patients who could have returned to work, chose not to. Identifying factors which affect return to work might help health professionals to adopt the best course of treatment and psychological support in order to fulfil this goal; however, return to work should not be considered as the only expression of a patient's real psychophysical condition.

  13. Bimanual Lifting: Do Fingertip Forces Work Independently or Interactively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Pan; Buckingham, Gavin

    2018-01-01

    Bimanual coordination is a commonplace activity, but the consequences of using both hands simultaneously are not well understood. The authors examined fingertip forces across 4 experiments in which participants undertook a range of bimanual tasks. They first measured fingertip forces during simultaneous lifts of 2 identical objects, noting that individuals held the objects with more force bimanually than unimanually. They then varied the mass of the objects held by each hand, noting that when both hands lifted together performance was equivalent to unimanual lifts. The authors next measured one hand's static grip force while the other hand lifted an object. They found a gradual reduction of grip force throughout the trial, but once again no evidence of one hand influencing the other. In the final experiment the authors tested whether tapping with one hand could influence the static grip force of its counterpart. Although the authors found no changes in static grip force as a direct consequence of the other hand's actions, they found clear differences from one task to the other, suggesting an effect of task instruction. Overall, these results suggest that fingertip forces are largely independent between hands in a bimanual lifting context, but are sensitive to different task requirements.

  14. University of Tennessee deploys force10 switch for CERN work

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Force20 networks, the pioneer in building and securing reliable networks, today announced that the University of Tennessee physics department has deployed the C300 resilient switch to analyze data form CERN's Large Hadron Collider." (1/2 page)

  15. Gravitational self-force correction to the innermost stable circular equatorial orbit of a Kerr black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoyama, Soichiro; Barack, Leor; Dolan, Sam R; Le Tiec, Alexandre; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Shah, Abhay G; Tanaka, Takahiro; Warburton, Niels

    2014-10-17

    For a self-gravitating particle of mass μ in orbit around a Kerr black hole of mass M ≫ μ, we compute the O(μ/M) shift in the frequency of the innermost stable circular equatorial orbit due to the conservative piece of the gravitational self-force acting on the particle. Our treatment is based on a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics in terms of geodesic motion in a certain locally defined effective smooth spacetime. We recover the same result using the so-called first law of binary black-hole mechanics. We give numerical results for the innermost stable circular equatorial orbit frequency shift as a function of the black hole's spin amplitude, and compare with predictions based on the post-Newtonian approximation and the effective one-body model. Our results provide an accurate strong-field benchmark for spin effects in the general-relativistic two-body problem.

  16. Mechanically stable tuning fork sensor with high quality factor for the atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangyoon; Park, Jun-Young; Kim, K B; Lee, Naesung; Seo, Yongho

    2014-01-01

    A quartz tuning fork was used instead of cantilever as a force sensor for the atomic force microscope. A tungsten tip was made by electrochemical etching from a wire of 50 µm diameter. In order to have mechanical stability of the tuning fork, it was attached on an alumina plate. The tungsten tip was attached on the inside end of a prong of a tuning fork. The phase shift was used as a feedback signal to control the distance between the tip and sample, and the amplitude was kept constant using a lock-in amplifier and a homemade automatic gain controller. Due to the mechanical stability, the sensor shows a high quality factor (∼10(3)), and the image quality obtained with this sensor was equivalent to that of the cantilever-based AFM. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Work-Energy Theorem and Friction Forces: Two Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A.; Bozzo, G.; Grandinetti, M.; Sapia, P.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have showed the subsistence, even in students enrolled in scientific degree courses, of spontaneous ideas regarding the motion of bodies that conflict with Newton's laws. One of the causes is related to the intuitive preconceptions that students have about the role of friction as a force. In fact, in real world novices do not…

  18. Predictability, Work-Family Conflict, and Intent to Stay: An Air Force Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obruba, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    A survey was completed by 362 active duty Air Force members in December 2000 regarding their perceptions of schedule predictability, work-family conflict, job satisfaction, organizational commitment...

  19. Work-Family Spillover and Daily Reports of Work and Family Stress in the Adult Labor Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Almeida, David M.; McDonald, Daniel A.

    2002-01-01

    Data from two affiliated national surveys were used to examine distribution of work-family spillover among working adults. Analyses testing family life course hypotheses indicated self-reported negative and positive spillover between work and family were not randomly distributed within the labor force. Age was found to have a persistent…

  20. Do the NiTi low and constant force levels remain stable in vivo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarul, Michał; Kawala, Beata; Kawala, Maciej; Antoszewska-Smith, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to evaluate the alteration of the deactivation forces of the most commonly used nickel-titanium wires under long-lasting oral cavity environmental influence. Randomized in vitro and in vivo trials of 540 pieces of orthodontic archwires, NeoSentalloy®, Copper NiTi® 35°C and Titanol Superelastic(®), round (0.016 inch), and rectangular (0.016 × 0.022 inch), were carried out. Randomization and blinding was achieved with 12-colour system that ensured encoding of key information on the tested specimens. Each of 270 patients (females, 18-20 years old, in the finishing stage of orthodontic treatment) received the piece of NiTi wire ligated piggyback, for a period of 4-6 weeks. Eventually, all samples were subjected to a three-point bending test. Data were statistically analysed at a 5 per cent significance level. In the group of the round used wires, when compared with the new ones, the deactivation force (F dav) values increased significantly for Titanol Superelastic®; the NeoSentalloy® and Copper NiTi® 35°C wires did not change their values of F dav. In the group of rectangular wires, F dav decreased for Titanol Superelastic®, but increased for NeoSentalloy® wires. The F dav values of the Copper NiTi® 35°C used wires practically did not change, but a remarkable increase of the standard deviation was noted. No calculations concerning effectiveness of in vivo aligning of analysed wires were made. For the purpose of a 4-6-week aligning stage, round NeoSentalloy® with a diameter of 0.016 inches seems to be the wire of choice because of the low level of F dav. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Remote participation at JET Task Force work: users' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttrop, W.; Kinna, D.; Farthing, J.; Hemming, O.; How, J.; Schmidt, V.

    2002-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) fusion experiment is now operated with strong involvement of physicists from outside research laboratories, which often requires remote participation in JET physics experiments. Users' experience with tools for remote collaborative work is reported, including remote computer and data access, remote meetings, shared documentation and various other communication channels

  2. Health Status and Labour Force Status of Older Working-Age Australian Men

    OpenAIRE

    Lixin Cai; Guyonne Kalb

    2005-01-01

    The trend of declining labour force participation by older working-age men, combined with an ageing population, has led many industrialised nations to develop policies encouraging older male workers to remain in the labour force. A better understanding of how an individual’s health influences the labour force participation decision among this group of workers would facilitate the development of effective policies. The current research uses the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australi...

  3. Extrinsic Motivation as Correlates of Work Attitude of the Nigerian Police Force: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igun, Sylvester Nosakhare

    2008-01-01

    The study examined Extrinsic motivation as correlates of work attitude of the Nigeria Police Force and its implications for counselling. 300 Police personnel were selected by random sampling technique from six departments that make up police force Headquarters, Abuja. The personnel were selected from each department using simple sampling…

  4. What are the barriers to trying to reach, and evaluate the impact of working with, Forces Families? Assessing the effectiveness of Reading Force, a programme to promote shared reading within the Forces community

    OpenAIRE

    Baverstock, Alison

    2016-01-01

    What are the barriers to trying to reach, and evaluate the impact of working with, Forces Families? Assessing the effectiveness of Reading Force, a programme to promote shared reading within the Forces community

  5. Compatibility of the Ampere and Lorentz force laws with the virtual-work concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graneau, P.

    1983-01-01

    Whenever the reaction forces between parts of an electric circuit have to be calculated, as in the design of railguns, a choice has to be made between three available formulae which have evolved during the past 160 years. The first was Ampere's force law for the mechanical interaction between two current elements. Neumann then derived the virtual-work formula from what may be called the Ampere-Neumann electrodynamics. The last to be introduced was the Lorentz force law. This paper investigates whether both the Amperian and the Lorentzian forces are compatible with the virtual-work concept. The conclusion is that only Ampere's formula agrees in all cases with the virtual-work idea, but in special circumstances the Lorentz law will give the same result. After demonstrating how Ampere's law can be derived from the virtual-work formula, it is shown that for two closed circuits the relativistic component of the Lorentz force vanishes under the double integral around the two circuits. The remaining nonvanishing term is also present in the Ampere electrodynamics. This is not the case when considering the reaction forces between two parts of an isolated circuit. The Lorentz force is then, in general, not compatible with the virtual-work concept unless the circuit possesses a high degree of symmetry

  6. Implementing CQI while reducing the work force: how does it influence hospital performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Kent V; Wagar, Terry H

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s, many Canadian hospitals introduced quality improvement initiatives while radically reducing their work force. Yet, the incompatible nature of QM and organizational downsizing suggests that the success of one or both change management programs will be sacrificed when done concurrently. Results from a large sample of Canadian hospitals suggest that the implementation of a strong quality improvement initiative can mitigate the negative consequences of severe work force contractions on certain valued organizational performance objectives.

  7. Age Discrimination and Other Equal Employment Opportunity Issues in the Federal Work Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-20

    AD-fl46 843 AGE DISCRIMINATION AND OTHER EQUAL EMPLOYMENT i/i OPPORTUNITY ISSUES IN THE FEDERAL WORK FORCE(U) GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC...Representatives LECE. Dear Mr. Chairman: F Subject: Age Discrimination and Other Equal Employment Opportunity Issues in the Federal Work Force (FPCD-82-6) -This...report responds to ,yo-"-Ma eh-17-rt9tl request that we- determine whether Federal employees are being treated in a manner free of age discrimination

  8. Analysis of lower limb force in foot work exercise of Pilates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Neis Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Pilates is a physical exercise method that uses the resistance of springs to modulate the overload from exercises. Objective: To characterize the force versus time curve of the foot work exercise; verify and compare the force applied by the same limb during the foot work exercise against the resistance of two types of springs with different elastic constants, and verify and compare the asymmetry of force applied by right and left lower limbs during the foot work exercise against the resistance of the same type of spring. Methods: Twenty healthy adult individuals familiarized with Pilates were evaluated. Two extensometric force plates adapted to the Reformer apparatus were used. Each participant performed 10 repetitions of the exercise against the resistance of two pairs of springs with different elastic constants. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used with significance levels of p < 0.05. Results: The exercise's standard curve showed that the peak force is reached in the point of maximum hip and knee extension during the execution of the exercise. There were differences between force production by the same limb for different springs (p < 0.001 and between left and right limb when spring with lower elastic constant was used (p = 0.006. No differences were found between right and left limb when spring with higher elastic constant was used (p = 0.108. Conclusion: The knowledge of the force versus time curve and the quantification of unilateral force are important elements in the evaluation and prescription of exercises.

  9. Summary of the work of the NEANDC task force on U-238

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The work of the Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Data Committee (NEANDC) Task Force on U-238 is summarised. The Task Force was set up in 1982 to consider two discrepancies in U-238 data - the neutron widths of the resolved resonance above 1.4 keV and the capture cross-section in the resolved and unresolved resonance regions. The work is summarised historically and to put the activities of the Task Force into context the paper starts with a brief description of the methods and data used to determine U-238 resonance parameters. It follows with a description of the state of the data in 1982 and then describes the work of the Task Force in the period up to 1985, the period during which the Task Force found the reasons for the discrepancies. Consideration is then given to the period following 1985 during which resonance analysis on U-238 has been performed and a recommended set of parameters covering the energy range 0-10 keV produced. These are listed in an appendix to the paper and are now included in the U-238 evaluations contained in JEF-2 and ENDF/B-VI. Finally a review is given of the main conclusions of the Task Force followed by a list of work still requiring to be done. (author). 15 figs., 10 tabs., 49 refs., 3 appendix

  10. Radiofrequency radiation: safe working practices in the Royal Australian Air Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K.H.; Stone, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) has long recognised the value of its work force and the need to preserve their health and wellbeing to achieve operational objectives. The Directorate of Air Force Safety (DAFS) is required by the Chief of the Air Staff to take all measures possible to prevent accidents and incidents in the RAAF, under the provisions of the Defence Instruction, 'Air Force Safety and Occupational Health Policy'. Consequently, the RAAF has exercised a pragmatic approach to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) and has always adopted and implemented strict exposure standards. DAFS receives technical advice on RFR from the Directorate of Telecommunications Engineering (DTELENG) and on occupational health from the Directorate General of Air Force Health Services (DGAFHS)

  11. The work function of doped polyaniline nanoparticles observed by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinsung; Jang, Kuewhan; Na, Sungsoo; Bang, Doyeon; Haam, Seungjoo; Yang, Jaemoon

    2012-01-01

    The work function of polyaniline nanoparticles in the emeraldine base state was determined by Kelvin probe force microscopy to be ∼270 meV higher than that of similar nanoparticles in the emeraldine salt state. Normal tapping mode atomic force microscopy could not be used to distinguish between the particles due to their similar morphologies and sizes. Moreover, other potential measurement systems, such as using zeta potentials, were not suitable for the measurement of surface charges of doped nanoparticles due to their encapsulation by interfering chemical groups. Kelvin probe force microscopy can be used to overcome these limitations and unambiguously distinguish between the bare and doped polyaniline nanoparticles. (paper)

  12. Prerequisites and driving forces behind an extended working life among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovbrandt, Pia; Håkansson, Carita; Albin, Maria; Carlsson, Gunilla; Nilsson, Kerstin

    2017-11-28

    Reforms are changing pension systems in many European countries, in order to both restrict early retirement and force people to extend their working life. From occupational therapy and occupational science perspectives, studies focusing on aspects of working life that motivate the older worker is urgent. The aim was to describe incentives behind an extended working life among people over age 65. Focus group methodology was used, with participants ages 66-71, from varying work fields: construction and technical companies and the municipal elderly care sector. Work was considered important and valuable to the degree of how challenging work was, the possibilities for inclusion in a team of colleagues and the chances for better personal finances. Amongst all, the participants expressed a feeling of a strengthened identity by being challenged and having the opportunity to manage working tasks. The finding showed the actual reasons behind an extended working life among older workers. However, a risk of rising social inequity may appear with increased working life if older people are forced to extend their working life due to a difficult financial situation as a pensioner. A variety of retirement options and initiatives in order to support older workers are justified.

  13. The Impact of Diabetes on Work-force Participation: Results from a National Household Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Vijan; Kenneth M. Langa

    2003-01-01

    Background. Diabetes is a highly prevalent condition with substantial associated morbidity. The economic impact of diabetes is dramatic, with estimated total costs of $98 billion in 1997. We sought to investigate the effects of diabetes on work-force participation, including absenteeism, retirement, and disability. Methods. We used the first wave of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) as a data source. The likelihood of falling into various work-related categories, by diabetes status, was e...

  14. Stable personal attributes and a resilient approach to work and career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Flint-Taylor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Recent research has suggested that personal resilience should be viewed in terms of process and outcome. This has implications for the study of resilience in the work context. Research purpose: The main research aim was to explore, at a detailed level, relationships between enduring personal characteristics and a resilient approach to work and career. Motivation for the study: Moving away from the idea of resilience as a specific trait or set of traits raises the question of how general personality and ability constructs influence a resilient approach. Research approach, design and method: This was an exploratory, quantitative study involving predictor (ability and personality and criterion (satisfaction and involvement data for 168 senior managers in five businesses within a retail and distribution group. Main findings: Evidence was found for differential relationships between personal attributes and a resilient approach (measured in terms of positive vs. negative perspectives on work and career. For example, the personality factor of Openness to Experience was negatively related to Organisation and Career Satisfaction, but positively related to Career and Job Involvement. Practical/managerial implications: In designing selection, development and employee survey procedures, organisations need to be aware of the differential nature of the relationships between attributes and a resilient approach to work and career. Contribution/value-add: The study brings together recent research on resilience, personal attributes and work outcomes, and supports the potential of general attribute models for studying and improving the process of developing and exercising a resilient approach in the work context.

  15. Stable personal attributes and a resilient approach to work and career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Flint-Taylor

    2014-08-01

    Research purpose: The main research aim was to explore, at a detailed level, relationships between enduring personal characteristics and a resilient approach to work and career. Motivation for the study: Moving away from the idea of resilience as a specific trait or set of traits raises the question of how general personality and ability constructs influence a resilient approach. Research approach, design and method: This was an exploratory, quantitative study involving predictor (ability and personality and criterion (satisfaction and involvement data for 168 senior managers in five businesses within a retail and distribution group. Main findings: Evidence was found for differential relationships between personal attributes and a resilient approach (measured in terms of positive vs. negative perspectives on work and career. For example, the personality factor of Openness to Experience was negatively related to Organisation and Career Satisfaction, but positively related to Career and Job Involvement. Practical/managerial implications: In designing selection, development and employee survey procedures, organisations need to be aware of the differential nature of the relationships between attributes and a resilient approach to work and career. Contribution/value-add: The study brings together recent research on resilience, personal attributes and work outcomes, and supports the potential of general attribute models for studying and improving the process of developing and exercising a resilient approach in the work context.

  16. Heterogeneity in Returns to Work Experience: A Dynamic Model of Female Labor Force Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Yamada

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides structural estimates of heterogeneous returns to work experience for Japanese married women. A dynamic model of labor force participation is used to account for dynamic self-selection into employment. Heterogeneity is incorporated into the model in a way that allows for the multidimensional skill heterogeneity in employment and home production and for the individual-specific slope and curvature of experience effect on earnings. The structural estimates and their comparison...

  17. HIGHLY QUALIFIED WORKING FORCE – KEY ELEMENT OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Avksientiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly qualified working force is a central element of intensive development model in modern society. The article surveys the experience of countries that managed to transform their economy to the innovative one. Ukrainian economy cannot stand aside processes that dominate the world economy trends, thus we are to use this experience to succeed in future. Today any government of the world is facing challenges that occur due to transformation of the economy into informational one. This type of economy causes its transformation form extensive to intensive one. The main reasons under that is limitation of nature resources, material factors of production. Thus this approach depends much on the quality of working force. Unfortunately in Ukraine there is a misbalance in specialist preparation. This puts additional pressure on the educational sphere also. In order to avoid this pressure we are to conduct reforms in education sphere. Nowadays, in the world views and concepts of governmental role in the social development are changing. This why, even at times of economic recession educational costs are not reduced under the new economical doctrine in the EU. Highly qualified specialists, while creating new products and services play role of engineers in XXI century. They are to lead their industries to world leading positions. From economic point of view, highly qualified specialists benefit society with higher income rates, taxation and thus, increasing the living standards in society. Thus, the majority if modern scientists prove the importance of highly trained working force for more effective economic development.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTER LABORATORY WORK ON ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY OF BIOOBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations in Education are based on the use of new effective educational and information technologies, introduction of progressive forms of organization of educational process, active learning methods. The significant role in the educational system is the development and implementation of virtual labs. For the development of the contemporary science section as bioinformatics, it is necessary to extend the possibility of using computers for processing the information received with the use of modern devices. These research methods include atomic force microscopy. For Students of the specialty 06.05.01 "Bioengineering and Bioinformatics" in the SD "Basics of Nanobiotechnology" it has been developed a virtual laboratory work on "Processing of nanostructured images of biomolecules." The basis for the development of laboratory work was the handbook modified for affordable performance. Laboratory workshop allows you to briefly find out the theory of atomic force microscopy, the organization and the principle of operation of the device. It allows Students to quickly learn the using the program at the AFM image processing Nova 1.0.26.1443. In the laboratory work for the tasks solution the biological objects are selected from the images catalog, and to study and describe of these objects the software is used. Students work with images of biomolecules in the program: change them (increasing, selection of separate areas, evaluate the geometrical parameters, work with 3D-image, writing a description and compare objects with each other. The results are summarized in a table and conclusion. The effectiveness and usefulness of the created laboratory work are proved by the results of Student’s survey and tested in the final and interim certification. This kind of work is suitable for distance learning, to provide a laboratory practicum in SD "Nanotechnology", "Modern methods of analysis" for other specialties as an educational and methodological materials.

  19. AGU's new task force on scientific ethics and integrity begins work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter; Townsend, Randy

    2011-11-01

    In support of the new strategic plan, AGU has established a new task force to review, evaluate, and update the Union's policies on scientific misconduct and the process for investigating and responding to allegations of possible misconduct by AGU members. As noted by AGU president Michael McPhaden, "AGU can only realize its vision of `collaboratively advancing and communicating science and its power to ensure a sustainable future' if we have the trust of the public and policy makers. That trust is earned by maintaining the highest standards of scientific integrity in all that we do. The work of the Task Force on Scientific Ethics is essential for defining norms of professional conduct that all our members can aspire to and that demonstrate AGU's unwavering commitment to excellence in Earth and space science."

  20. New Forces at Work in Mining: Industry View of Critical Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D. J. [Science and Technology Policy Inst., Arlington, VA (United States); LaTourrette, Tom [Science and Technology Policy Inst., Arlington, VA (United States); Bartis, James T. [Science and Technology Policy Inst., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2007-04-01

    RAND has just published a report entitled, "New Forces at Work in Mining: Industry Views of Critical Technologies," by D. J. Peterson, Tom LaTourrette, and James T. Bartis. The report presents the results of a series of in-depth discussions with leading mining industry representatives selected for their prominent position and their ability to think broadly about technology trends. The discussions highlighted the importance of collaborative technology research, development, and implementation strategies and the increasingly critical role of mine personnel in the utilization of new technologies.

  1. Gender and beliefs about work force discrimination in the United States and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, B A

    1997-02-01

    Beliefs about gender discrimination in the work force were investigated among a sample of American (n = 201) and Australian (n = 177) business students. Significant differences between genders in beliefs about the existence of gender discrimination were indicated, with women being more likely than men to affirm its existence, particularly in the area of salary discrimination. In addition, there were differences between genders and between countries in assessment of the factors that might lead to lower participation of women in management and in the assessment of avenues of advancement for women.

  2. The effect of work cycle frequency on the potentiation of dynamic force in mouse fast twitch skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterini, Daniel; Gittings, William; Huang, Jian; Vandenboom, Rene

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the potentiation of concentric twitch force during work cycles is dependent upon both the speed and direction of length change. Concentric and eccentric forces were elicited by stimulating muscles during the shortening and lengthening phases, respectively, of work cycles. Work cycle frequency was varied in order to vary the speed of muscle shortening and/or lengthening; all forces were measured as the muscle passed though optimal length (L(o)). Both concentric and eccentric force were assessed before (unpotentiated control) and after (potentiated) the application of a tetanic conditioning protocol known to potentiate twitch force output. The influence of the conditioning protocol on relative concentric force was speed dependent, with forces increased to 1.19±0.01, 1.25±0.01 and 1.30±0.01 of controls at 1.5, 3.3 and 6.9 Hz, respectively (all data N=9-10 with Pwork (force × distance) was also speed dependent, being decreased at 1.5 Hz (0.84±0.01) and increased at 3.3 and 6.9 Hz (1.05±0.01 and 1.39±0.01, respectively). In contrast, eccentric work was not increased at any frequency (range: 0.88±0.02 to 0.99±0.01). Thus, our results reveal a hysteresis-like influence of activity-dependent potentiation such that concentric force and/or work were increased but eccentric force and/or work were not. These outcomes may have implications for skeletal muscle locomotor function in vivo.

  3. A Compliant Control Method Based on Force Sensors on Robot End-effectors for Live-working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanbing GAO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a force control method for the live-working robot. Some live- working task requires larger stiffness such as pushing and butting when replacing cross arm or insulator. Two arms are attached on the live-working robot to meet this requirement and other need for cooperation by two arms. The different kinematic structure of this two arms brings many difficulties to get the dynamic model of the total system. This problem is solved by the proposed control scheme, the main idea of which is two arms could be considered as one arm. The force control method for the exact force control is based on the compliant relationship of the dual arms and the environment. The developed control scheme is experimentally tested on the live-working robot, and the experimental investigation concerns it has short computation time and can successfully tracking force.

  4. Inspector General, DOD, Oversight of the Air Force Audit Agency Audit of the FY 1999 Working Capital Fund Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    2000-01-01

    An audit of the Air Force Working Capital Fund financial statements is required by Public Law 101-576, the "Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990," November 15, 1990, as amended by Public Law 103-356...

  5. Study of the stretching force of the needle‧s thread in the work with woollen textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonova, Snezhina; Rahnev, Ivelin

    2017-10-01

    The presented paper deals with examining the thread tension force while working with woolen textile materials. The thread’s tension force is a main characteristic of a quality stitch. Its analysis and definition is characterized by the creation of a computer-integrated measuring system to determine the thread’s tension force. A statistical method (double-factor disperse analysis) is used to analyze and evaluate the fact how the factors: • F1 - surface mass of processed woolen textile materials, • F2 -the number of layers on the thread‧s influence the deviation from the maximal value of the thread’s tension force.

  6. Canine Supply for Physical Security: An Analysis of the Royal Australian Air Force Military Working Dog Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    to account for these omissions more readily. 1. Variation of Observations Table 2 lists the mean average, standard deviation, minimum and maximum...PHYSICAL SECURITY: AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN AIR FORCE MILITARY WORKING DOG PROGRAM by Mark W. Powell March 2016 Thesis...AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN AIR FORCE MILITARY WORKING DOG PROGRAM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark W. Powell 7. PERFORMING

  7. Uranium mining and milling work force characteristics in the western US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, D.A.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the socioeconomic characteristics associated with 11 uranium mine and mill operations in 5 Western States. Comparisons are made with the socioeconomic characteristics of construction and operating crews for coal mines and utility plants in eight Western States. Worker productivity also is compared with that in similar types of coal and uranium mining operations. We found that there existed no significant differences between the socioeconomic characteristics of construction and operating crews and the secondary employment impacts associated with uranium mines and mills when compared with those associated with coal mines and utility plants requiring similar skills at comparable locations. In addition, our survey includes a comparison of several characteristics associated with the households of basic and nonbasic work forces and concludes that significant changes have occurred in the last 5 yr. Accordingly, we recommend additional monitoring and updating of data used in several economic forecasting models to avoid unwarranted delays in achieving national energy goals

  8. Preparedness and Practice Management Skills of Graduating Dental Students Entering the Work Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Manakil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental education aims to produce competent graduates with the ability to provide quality care to the patients and facilitate the smooth integration into professional practice. The objective of this study was to explore the overall preparedness of graduands for integrating into professional practice. The survey was tested for reliability and analysed the career paths, learning preferences, overall knowledge, and confidence amongst graduating dentists in integrating and managing a dental practice on graduation. Sixty-nine students (89.6% in age group of 20–50 years participated in the study. Students indicated a high level of confidence in their skills and ability to work in a team in a practice or collaboratively with other colleagues and specialists but expressed some reservation on their practice management skills (73.1%. Challenges in gaining employment and pressures to repay educational debts are amongst the reasons for graduands preferring a paid job immediately on graduation regardless of demographics. Students indicated that an increase in speciality training and clinical/outreach placements could enhance employability. This study explores the students’ perception of their confidences, knowledge, learning preferences, and practice management skills as a method of evaluating their preparedness to practice on graduation and provides a base line for curriculum structuring to prepare graduands to enter the competitive dental work force.

  9. Becoming a member of the work force: perceptions of adults with Asperger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Beate; Kinébanian, Astrid; Prodinger, Birgit; Heigl, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that comparatively few adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) participate in the competitive work force. The purpose of this study was to gain in-depth knowledge about contextual factors, which contribute to successful labor market participation in some adults with AS. This study was conducted by indepth-interviewing six adults with AS working in the competitive job market in Switzerland. A developmental and hermeneutic narrative approach was used for data collection and analysis. Two in-depth narrative interviews were conducted with each participant. A narrative analysis according to the theories of Paul Ricoeur was performed. Results showed that participants received pre-vocational requisites during their childhood through parents and friends that provided a feeling of security in social contexts. For participants, a supportive school setting resulted in academic achievements. The narratives reveal participants' capacities for understanding and adapting to social norms. Participants' understanding of their own needs was essential to the successful labor market participation. However, disclosure is rare and social stigma is still present. This study showed that successful labor participation of adults with AS can be enhanced through adequate social support already in the early stages of an individual's lifetime.

  10. Generalised coexistence of a low work function and a stable surface : CaAl4 and BaAuIn3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijttewaal, M. A.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Cathodes are used in many devices ranging from microwave ovens to organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Crucial materials properties are a low work function (Phi) and a (relatively) stable surface. The relation between the two was not clear for more-complex metals. Our previous paper [M.A.

  11. Work factors and behavioural coping in relation to withdrawal from the labour force in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorus, A M; Miedema, H S; Wevers, C W; van der Linden, S

    2001-11-01

    To assess separate and combined effects of work factors and behavioural coping in relation to withdrawal from the labour force among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cross sectional study was conducted in a Dutch nationwide random sample of 720 patients with RA. Information about work factors and behavioural coping was collected by a self-administered postal questionnaire. A broad variety of work factors and coping styles were evaluated separately and in combination using multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for sociodemographic and disease related variables. Attributable and preventable fractions were calculated from the combined analyses to assess the relative importance of the contributing factors. Additional job training, equal career opportunities, letting the disease influence the choice of the current job position, and informing colleagues about having the disease were negatively associated with withdrawal from the labour force. The most relevant factor in terms of decreasing the risk was adjusting job demands which accounted for 63% of the patients still in the labour force. Decreasing activities and diverting attention in order to cope with pain, and pacing in order to cope with limitations were the coping styles which were positively associated with withdrawal from the labour force. The most relevant factor in terms of increasing the risk of withdrawal was pacing which accounted for 67% of the withdrawals. Work factors are potentially important modifiable risk factors for withdrawal from the labour force in patients with RA. Behavioural coping is also relevant.

  12. How Can Magnetic Forces Do Work? Investigating the Problem with Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We present a sequence of activities aimed at promoting both learning about magnetic forces and students' reflection about the conceptual bridge between magnetic forces on a moving charge and on a current-carrying wire in a magnetic field. The activity sequence, designed for students in high school or on introductory physics courses, has been…

  13. Analysis of long- and short-range contribution to adhesion work in cardiac fibroblasts: an atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbaizero, O; DelFavero, G; Martinelli, V; Long, C S; Mestroni, L

    2015-04-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) for single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) and Poisson statistic were used to analyze the detachment work recorded during the removal of gold-covered microspheres from cardiac fibroblasts. The effect of Cytochalasin D, a disruptor of the actin cytoskeleton, on cell adhesion was also tested. The adhesion work was assessed using a Poisson analysis also derived from single-cell force spectroscopy retracting curves. The use of Poisson analysis to get adhesion work from AFM curves is quite a novel method, and in this case, proved to be effective to study the short-range and long-range contributions to the adhesion work. This method avoids the difficult identification of minor peaks in the AFM retracting curves by creating what can be considered an average adhesion work. Even though the effect of actin depolymerisation is well documented, its use revealed that control cardiac fibroblasts (CT) exhibit a work of adhesion at least 5 times higher than that of the Cytochalasin treated cells. However, our results indicate that in both cells short-range and long-range contributions to the adhesion work are nearly equal and the same heterogeneity index describes both cells. Therefore, we infer that the different adhesion behaviors might be explained by the presence of fewer membrane adhesion molecules available at the AFM tip-cell interface under circumstances where the actin cytoskeleton has been disrupted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Analysis of the skilled work force effect on the logistics performance index—case study from India

    OpenAIRE

    Jhawar, Amrita; Garg, S. K.; Khera, Shikha N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of development of skilled work force through investment in training, welfare, working conditions, and wages on the logistics performance index. It also discusses the effect of skilled labour on logistics cost, logistics time, reliability, flexibility, and safety of a logistics system. The paper is based on a case study conducted on an Indian Logistics Service provider. A causal loop diagram and the stock and flow diagram have been developed acc...

  15. Force, Velocity, and Work: The Effects of Different Contexts on Students' Understanding of Vector Concepts Using Isomorphic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test with no…

  16. Female Labor Supply in Japan: Implications of the Informal Sector for Labor Force Participation and Hours of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. Anne

    1989-01-01

    Looks at the simultaneous labor force participation and hours of work decisions for Japanese wives, both employees and family workers. Although the estimated aggregate wage and income fluctuations for employees are somewhat higher than previous estimates for the United States, they are of the same order of magnitude. (JOW)

  17. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  18. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  19. Local work function analysis of Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst by a Kelvin probe force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiehata, K; Sasahara, A; Onishi, H

    2007-01-01

    Nanometre-sized Pt clusters were prepared on a TiO 2 (110)-(1 x 1) surface, and the lateral distribution of work function was examined by using a Kelvin probe force microscope. Local work function on the Pt clusters was smaller than that on the surrounding TiO 2 surface. Assuming that the dipole moments which perturb the work function are produced by uneven electron distribution, the decrease of the work function indicates electron transfer from the clusters to the TiO 2 surface. After decomposition of pivalate anions on the surfaces by UV irradiation, the work function increased on some Pt clusters. It is known that holes photoexcited in TiO 2 attach to pivalate anions to cause a decomposition reaction. Hence the increase of the observed work function by UV irradiation can be ascribed to the trapping of the accompanying electrons to the Pt clusters

  20. Analysis of long- and short-range contribution to adhesion work in cardiac fibroblasts: An atomic force microscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbaizero, O., E-mail: sbaizero@units.it [Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste (Italy); University of Colorado Cardiovascular Institute, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora (United States); DelFavero, G. [Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste (Italy); Martinelli, V. [International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy); Long, C.S.; Mestroni, L. [University of Colorado Cardiovascular Institute, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) for single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) and Poisson statistic were used to analyze the detachment work recorded during the removal of gold-covered microspheres from cardiac fibroblasts. The effect of Cytochalasin D, a disruptor of the actin cytoskeleton, on cell adhesion was also tested. The adhesion work was assessed using a Poisson analysis also derived from single-cell force spectroscopy retracting curves. The use of Poisson analysis to get adhesion work from AFM curves is quite a novel method, and in this case, proved to be effective to study the short-range and long-range contributions to the adhesion work. This method avoids the difficult identification of minor peaks in the AFM retracting curves by creating what can be considered an average adhesion work. Even though the effect of actin depolymerisation is well documented, its use revealed that control cardiac fibroblasts (CT) exhibit a work of adhesion at least 5 times higher than that of the Cytochalasin treated cells. However, our results indicate that in both cells short-range and long-range contributions to the adhesion work are nearly equal and the same heterogeneity index describes both cells. Therefore, we infer that the different adhesion behaviors might be explained by the presence of fewer membrane adhesion molecules available at the AFM tip–cell interface under circumstances where the actin cytoskeleton has been disrupted. - Highlights: • AFM force–deformation curve was used to characterize the cardiac fibroblast adhesion behavior. • The amount and nature of adhesion were assessed using a Poisson analysis applied to the AFM curve. • The work of adhesion for control cells was about four times higher than that of the Cyt-D treated cells. • Short- and long-range contributions to adhesion are nearly equal for both control and treated cells.

  1. Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2011-01-01

    Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are…

  2. Social networks, the 'work' and work force of chronic illness self-management: a survey analysis of personal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Brooks, Helen; Kapadia, Dharmi; Kennedy, Anne; Sanders, Caroline; Kirk, Sue; Reeves, David

    2013-01-01

    Self-management support forms a central aspect of chronic Illness management nationally and globally. Evidence for the success of self-management support has mainly focussed on individually-centred outcomes of behavioural change. While it is recognised that social network members play an important role there is currently a gap in knowledge regarding who provides what type of support and under what circumstances. This is relevant for understanding the division of labour and the meeting of needs for those living with a long-term condition. We therefore took a network approach to explore self-management support conceptualising it as types of illness 'work' undertaken within peoples' social networks. 300 people from deprived areas and with chronic illnesses took part in a survey conducted in 2010 in the North West of England. A concentric circles diagram was used as a research tool with which participants identified 2,544 network members who contributed to illness management. The results provide an articulation of how social network members are substantially involved in illness management. Whilst partners and close family make the highest contributions there is evidence of inputs from a wide range of relationships. Network member characteristics (type of relationship, proximity, frequency of contact) impact on the amount of illness work undertaken in peoples' networks. In networks with 'no partner' other people tend to contribute more in the way of illness related work than in networks with a partner. This indicates a degree of substitutability between differently constituted networks, and that the level and type of input by different members of a network might change according to circumstances. A network perspective offers an opportunity to redress the balance of an exclusively individual focus on self-management because it addresses the broader set of contributions and resources available to people in need of chronic illness management and support.

  3. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  4. Work-Family Conflict: The Effects of Religious Context on Married Women’s Participation in the Labor Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Griebel Rogers

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Past work shows religion’s effect on women’s career decisions, particularly when these decisions involve work-family conflict. This study argues that the religious context of a geographic area also influences women’s solutions to work-family conflict through more or less pervasive normative expectations within the community regarding women’s roles and responsibilities to the family. We use the American Community Survey linked with community-level religious proportions to test the relationship between religious contexts and women’s participation in the labor force in the contiguous United States–2054 census geographic areas. Using spatial analysis, we find that community religious concentration is related to the proportion of women who choose not to work. Communities with a higher proportion of the population belonging to conservative religious traditions also have a greater proportion of married women choosing not to work outside the home.

  5. Living the reality of forced sex work: perspectives from young migrant women sex workers in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Rosanne; Watts, Charlotte; Rushing, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Young women are often lured or forced into selling sex as a result of migrating from rural to urban areas to find work. In this setting, they are exposed to high-risk situations, which may leave them vulnerable to exploitation. Using interviews with young migrant women currently working as sex workers in northern Vietnam, we recorded the perspectives of their initiation into sex work and life as a sex worker. The study found that high levels of forced sex and sexual exploitation were experienced by the majority of the young women interviewed. The young women describe their entry into sex work, first sexual experience (intercourse), violence, and condom negotiation and use. Although access to health care was available, the young women perceived the stigma attached to sex work as a barrier to receiving health care, and thus, preferred health education and care from peers. Health education programs focusing on peer education and support are essential for protecting and empowering these young women. In addition, policies and programs must work toward effective strategies to protect young migrant women.

  6. Cellular Tug-of-War: Forces at Work and DNA Stretching in Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brian; Kilfoil, Maria L.

    2013-03-01

    In the microscopic world of the cell dominated by thermal noise, a cell must be able to successfully segregate its DNA with high fidelity in order to pass its genetic information on to its progeny. In this process of mitosis in eukaryotes, driving forces act on the cytoskeleton-based architecture called the mitotic spindle to promote this division. Our preliminary data demonstrates that the dynamics of this process in yeast cells is universal. Moreover, the dynamics suggest an increasing load as the chromosomes are pulled apart. To investigate this, we use three-dimensional imaging to track the dynamics of the poles of this architecture and the points of attachment to chromosomes simultaneously and with high spatial resolution. We analyze the relative motions of chromosomes as they are organized before segregation and as they are pulled apart, using this data to investigate the force-response behavior of this cytoskeleton-chromosome polymer system.

  7. Interagency task force on the health effects of ionizing radiation: report of the work group on records and privacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    Research scientists studying the health effects of ionizing radiation have expressed the view that their work is sometimes impeded by legal restrictions on access to necessary records. In light of the critical importance of scientifically sound, efficient, and timely epidemiological research to resolve the difficult issues raised by the President's memorandum, the Task Force determined to inquire into the extent of this problem, and to ascertain whether new legislation or regulation was needed to eliminate serious roadblocks

  8. To what extent does disability discourage from work? An empirical analysis of labour force participation of disabled people in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Tindara Addabbo; Jaya Krishnakumar; Elena Sarti

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an empirical study on the work opportunities of people with disability using Italian data collected through a survey carried out by ISTAT in 2004. Our analysis is guided by the conceptual framework of the capability approach and investigates the role of conversion factors in the ability to be employed and the type of employment. We first use a simple probit for labour force participation and then a sequential logit for the outcomes of participation as well as employment status. ...

  9. Depression prevention, labour force participation and income of older working aged Australians: A microsimulation economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, J Lennert; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Passey, Megan E; Kelly, Simon J; Tanton, Robert; Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J

    2015-05-01

    Depression has economic consequences not only for the health system, but also for individuals and society. This study aims to quantify the potential economic impact of five-yearly screening for sub-syndromal depression in general practice among Australians aged 45-64 years, followed by a group-based psychological intervention to prevent progression to depression. We used an epidemiological simulation model to estimate reductions in prevalence of depression, and a microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD2030, to estimate the impact on labour force participation, personal income, savings, taxation revenue and welfare expenditure. Group therapy is estimated to prevent around 5,200 prevalent cases of depression (2.2%) and add about 520 people to the labour force. Private incomes are projected to increase by $19 million per year, tax revenues by $2.4 million, and transfer payments are reduced by $2.6 million. Group-based psychological intervention to prevent depression could result in considerable economic benefits in addition to its clinical effects. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  10. United States Air Force Academy Educational Outcomes Assessment Working Group. Phase 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porter, David

    1997-01-01

    This publication provides an account of educational outcomes assessment activity undertaken by seven assessment teams under the Phase II Charter of the Dean of the Faculty's Educational Outcomes Assessment Working Group...

  11. Effects of Inertial Setting on Power, Force, Work, and Eccentric Overload During Flywheel Resistance Exercise in Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Aranda, Luis M; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    Exercise load is a key component in determining end-point adaptations to resistance exercise. Yet, there is no information regarding the use of different inertia (i.e., loads) during isoinertial flywheel resistance exercise, a very popular high-intensity training model. Thus, this study examined power, work, force, and eccentric overload produced during flywheel resistance exercise with different inertial settings in men and women. Twenty-two women (n = 11) and men (n = 11) performed unilateral (in both legs) isolated concentric (CON) and coupled CON and eccentric (ECC) exercise in a flywheel knee extension device employing 6 inertias (0.0125, 0.025, 0.0375, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 kg·m). Power decreased as higher inertias were used, with men showing greater (p ≤ 0.05) decrements than women (-36 vs. -29% from lowest to highest inertia). In contrast, work increased as higher inertias were employed, independent of sex (p ≤ 0.05; ∼48% from lowest to highest inertia). Women increased CON and ECC mean force (46-55%, respectively) more (p ≤ 0.05) than men (34-50%, respectively) from the lowest to the highest inertia evaluated, although the opposite was found for peak force data (i.e., peak force increased more in men than in women as inertia was increased). Men, but not women, increased ECC overload from inertia 0.0125 to 0.0375 kg·m2. Although estimated stretch-shorting cycle use during flywheel exercise was higher (p ≤ 0.05) in men (6.6%) than women (4.9%), values were greater for both sexes when using low-to-medium inertias. The information gained in this study could help athletes and sport and health professionals to better understand the impact of different inertial settings on skeletal muscle responses to flywheel resistance exercise.

  12. [Evaluating the integrated force induced by high quality magnet and elastics in orthodontic fixed appliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhi-ming; Chang, Xin; Dai, Xin; Ai, Hong-jun; Yao, Ge; Wen, Jing-long

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the stability and effective working distance of integrated forces induced by high quality magnet and elastics in orthodontic fixed appliance. N48 NdFeB magnets resembling brackets in size and volume were combined with 1/8, 3/16, 1/4, and 3/8 inch orthodontic elastics respectively to induce integrated forces that had super-long working distance. Magnetic, elastic, and integrated forces were tested by universal material test system and curves of the forces were draw. The characteristics of integrated forces, complementary effects of magnetic and elastic forces, and the proportion between elastic and magnetic forces in integrated forces at different extension distances were analyzed. Unpaired t test was used to analyze the differences between integrated and elastic forces. With the increase of the extension distance, the magnitude of the magnetic forces decreased significantly and the elastic forces increased in a liner manner, while the integrated forces were stable and changed mildly. Four kinds of integrated forces achieved 86 g, 138 g, 163 g, and 192 g stable forces within super-long distance respectively. Magnetic forces accounted for 34.94%-93.98% of the integrated force at 3 mm distance, 12.60%-37.89% at 6 mm distance, and only 2.69%-5.98% at 12 mm distance. The differences between four integrated forces and elastic forces at 3 mm (Pmagnetic and elastic forces were a new ideal stable orthodontic force with super-long working distance.

  13. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  14. Work Force Education: Beyond Technical Skills. Trends and Issues Alert No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    This brief suggests that during the past 2 decades, the skills needed to succeed in the workplace have changed significantly. Technical skills remain important, but, increasingly, employers recognize another category of skills crucial to a worker's ability to work "smarter, not harder." These "soft,""core,""nontechnical,""essential,""generic," and…

  15. A Study of the Job Satisfaction of Professional Air Force Social Work Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    organiza- tion probably will not be able to fulfill their original expectations and dissatisfaction begins to occur. There may also be an acculturation ...HSJP 32 How Successful in Profession- al Work* OPS 33 One Person as Supervisor SWF 34a Supervisor Warm and Friendly* SLA 34b Supervisor Listens Atten

  16. Caretaking as articulation work: the effects of taking up responsibility for a child with asthma on labor force participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Stefan; Freidin, Betina

    2007-10-01

    A well-established quantitative literature has documented the financial toll for women's caretaking. Still, we do not know much about the process by which women end up taking on an extensive caretaking role and what they do on a daily basis. Based on in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of fifty caretakers of school aged children with asthma and nine health professionals in the USA, this study examines how health professionals socialize mothers into an intensive caretaking role for their children with asthma, how mothers negotiated and perform that role, and the impact of care work on their labor force participation. Care providers assign broad caretaking tasks that require further articulation work to get the job done. Although mothers care for their children in varied ways, caring for a child with a chronic disease remains a time-consuming activity. Mothers pay a price for the indeterminate nature of articulation work by scaling back their involvement in the paid labor force.

  17. Renal pathology in working dogs in the South African National Defence Force : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Short

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Urine analysis, serumbiochemical profile and a cortical wedge biopsy for histopathological examination was performed on 42 South African National Defence Force (SANDF dogs from around the country. The only significant finding on urine analysis and serum biochemistry was a relatively large number (16/42 of dogs with elevated serum inorganic phosphate levels. Histopathology revealed that only 9 of the animals had normal kidneys reflected in the wedge biopsy material, with over 50%of them showing signs of glomerular pathology (primarily mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. Other conditions detected histopathologically were haemosiderosis (47 % of animals, focal nephrosis (2.4 %, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (2.4 %, focal interstitial nephritis (4.7 % and acute tubular nephrosis (4.7 %. The lesions observed were of limited distribution and extent; this histopathological finding may account for the absence of significant abnormalities on urine analysis or serum biochemistry profiles. It appears from these results that a large percentage of the SANDF population would be expected to have mild renal lesions, but that these lesions are not severe enough to lead to clinical signs. The findings of this study are similar to those of randomly selected populations of non-military dogs performed in other areas of the world, which also demonstrated an unexpectedly high incidence of histopathological renal pathology in dogs considered healthy. These lesions may well, however, play a role in later life, and it is recommended that military veterinarians maintain an index of suspicion for renal disease, particularly glomerular disease. The aetiology of the histopathological lesions is unknown.

  18. Do body weight and gender shape the work force? The case of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of the relationship between body weight - as well as its corollary, beauty - and labor-market outcomes have indicated that it is a function of a gender bias, the negative relationship between excess weight or obesity and labor-market outcomes being greater for women than for men. Iceland offers an exceptional opportunity to examine this hypothesis, given that it scores relatively well on an index of gender equality comprising economic, political, educational, labor-market, and health-based criteria. Equipped with an advanced level of educational attainment, on average, women are well represented in Iceland's labor force. When it comes to women's presence in the political sphere, Iceland is out of the ordinary as well; that Icelanders were the first in the world to elect a woman to be president may suggest a relatively gender-blind assessment in the labor market. In the current study, survey data collected by Gallup Iceland in 2002 are used to examine the relationship between weight and employment within this political and social setting. Point estimates indicate that, despite apparently lesser gender discrimination in Iceland than elsewhere, the bias against excess weight and obesity remains gender-based, showing a slightly negative relationship between weight and the employment rate of women, whereas a slightly positive relationship was found for men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying Factors Reinforcing Robotization: Interactive Forces of Employment, Working Hour and Wage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonmo Cho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlike previous studies on robotization approaching the future based on the cutting-edge technologies and adopting a framework where robotization is considered as an exogenous variable, this study considers that robotization occurs endogenously and uses it as a dependent variable for an objective examination of the effect of robotization on the labor market. To this end, a robotization indicator is created based on the actual number of industrial robots currently deployed in workplaces, and a multiple regression analysis is performed using the robotization indicator and labor variables such as employment, working hours, and wage. The results using the multiple regression considering the triangular relationship of employment–working-hours–wages show that job destruction due to robotization is not too remarkable yet that use. Our results show the complementary relation between employment and robotization, but the substituting relation between working hour and robotization. The results also demonstrate the effects of union, the size of the company and the proportion of production workers and simple labor workers etc. These findings indicate that the degree of robotization may vary with many factors of the labor market. Limitations of this study and implications for future research are also discussed.

  20. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  1. Telecommuters: the stay-at-home work force of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, P.F.

    1983-06-01

    The spread of teleworkers who commute via telecommunications from their home offices will depend, despite the energy-saving and tax advantages of self-employment, on how fast the social climate accepts teleworking, whether software can be made friendlier, and whether legal issues of database networks are resolved. The societal changes associated with home offices can be either a positive reemphasis on the home or a negative electronic sweatshop and a way to export office work to low-wage areas. The author, who sees a gradual adoption of teleworking while these technological, societal, and marketing barriers are dealt with, develops a scenario for an information society of the future. (DCK)

  2. Comment on "Atomic force microscopy characterization of stable faces in cubic C60 single crystals": possible evidence for growth-promoting cross-twinning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Waal, B.W.

    1994-01-01

    An explanation is given for a molecular arrangement on a face of a C60 fcc single crystal as observed recently with atomic force microscopy (B. Keita et al., Chem. Phys. 179 (1994) 595). The explanation relies on a cross-twinning model of fcc crystal growth, and involves local fivefold symmetry.

  3. Women of Hispanic Origin in the Labor Force. Facts on Working Women No. 89-1 = La mujer de origen hispano en la fuerza laboral. Facts on Working Women Num. 89-1S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Data on Hispanic women in the labor force between 1978 and 1988 show the following: (1) 6.5 percent of the women in the work force in 1988 were of Hispanic origin (3.6 million); (2) the median age of Hispanic women was 26.1 years, 2-5 years younger than Black or White women; (3) 66 percent of Hispanic women participate in the labor force, a higher…

  4. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  5. Stabilizing and retaining a quality nursing work force through the use of the Married State Preceptorship Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Solimar; Bulos, Marlene; Forges, Edwina; Judkins-Cohn, Tanya

    2013-08-01

    The nursing shortage requires new graduate registered nurses (RNs) to work at the bedside, often leading to a shortened orientation period and increased stress. In the Married State Preceptorship Model (MSPM), the preceptor and the preceptee work together as the new graduate RN transitions to the bedside while maintaining safety and quality. This study explored first-year turnover rates of new graduate RNs and new graduate RNs' and preceptors' perceptions of the MSPM in transitioning new graduate RNs to practice. Focus groups and surveys were used with 108 new graduate RNs and 100 preceptors. Four themes emerged for new graduate RNs: partnership, critical thinking, learning, and transition. A statistically significant decrease in turnover rates was seen with MSPM versus traditional precepting. Survey data found that new graduate RNs and preceptors perceived the MSPM as promoting safety and reducing anxiety. The MSPM allows organizations to retain a quality nursing work force focused on safety patient care by transitioning new graduate RNs into the practice setting. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. The Report of the Working Group Concerning the Deterrence of and Response to Incidents of Sexual Assault at the U.S. Air Force Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Memorandum for Record, Group Interview with Female Fourth-Class cadets, Exhibit 24 (comments such as “hey, redhead , nice ass” commonplace); statement, First...AOCs. Regardless, we found some demographic data that shows AOCs are at or above the Air Force average in quality.916 While the Air Force...directly connected to sexual assaults or responding to such incidents, the Working Group found that the demographics of the Academy’s military

  7. A comparison of negative joint work and vertical ground reaction force loading rates in Chi runners and rearfoot-striking runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Donald Lee; Gross, Michael T

    2013-10-01

    Observational. To compare lower extremity negative joint work and vertical ground reaction force loading rates in rearfoot-striking (RS) and Chi runners. Alternative running styles such as Chi running have become a popular alternative to RS running. Proponents assert that this running style reduces knee joint loading and ground reaction force loading rates. Twenty-two RS and 12 Chi runners ran for 5 minutes at a self-selected speed on an instrumented treadmill. A 3-D motion analysis system was used to obtain kinematic data. Average vertical ground reaction force loading rate and negative work of the ankle dorsiflexors, ankle plantar flexors, and knee extensors were computed during the stance phase. Groups were compared using a 1-way analysis of covariance for each variable, with running speed and age as covariates. On average, RS runners demonstrated greater knee extensor negative work (RS, -0.332 J/body height × body weight [BH·BW]; Chi, -0.144 J/BH·BW; Preaction force loading rates than Chi runners (RS, 68.6 BW/s; Chi, 43.1 BW/s; Prates and knee extensor work, but may increase work of the ankle plantar flexors.

  8. Assessing the Impact of the Work Environment on Training Transfer: An Investigation of the Air Force Acquisition Management Course

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Springs, Anita C

    2007-01-01

    ... Acquisition Managers participating in the Air Force Fundamentals of Acquisition Management (AFFAM) course, and is designed to determine if knowledge, skills and attitudes learned in the instruction setting are being applied to the job...

  9. Defense Finance and Accounting Service Work on the FY 1993 Air Force Defense Business Operations Fund Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rau, Russell

    1995-01-01

    Our original audit objective was to determine whether the Air Force Consolidated Defense Business Operations Fund financial statements, prepared by the DFAS Denver Center for FY 1993, were presented...

  10. A Smart Move in Tough Times: How SREB States Can Strengthen Adult Learning and the Work Force. Challenge to Lead Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Joan M.; Blackmon, Trudy; Chaloux, Bruce; Weaver, Chris; Street, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This report, part of the "Challenge to Lead" education goals series, examines the impact of an undereducated work force and calls for making adult learning programs a priority across the SREB (Southern Regional Education Board) region especially during the current recession. "A Smart Move" tracks declining enrollment in adult…

  11. Working with Allies and Partners: A Cost-Based Analysis of U.S. Air Forces in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    USAFE/A5I U.S. Air Forces in Europe Plans and Requirements International USTRANSCOM U.S. Transportation Command WPC Warrior Preparation Center 1 CHAPTER...organizations dedicated to BP, including elements of the HQ command and staff at Ramstein and the Warrior Prepara- tion Center ( WPC ) at Einsiedlerhof...Analysis of U.S. Air Forces in Europe activities support interoperability among multiple partner countries. In the future, the WPC will also be

  12. Different forces

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies or phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  13. Report of the Task Force for Improved Coordination of the DoD Science and Technology Program. Volume 2. Reports of the Working Groups. Working Group A: Strategic Planning. Working Group B: Program Coordination. Working Group C: Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    0 64 66 58 -0 72 74 -5 718 80 32 84 l98 as 110 92 94 FY .be chart belaw shows where Ule Aiz Force placa its Ski’ funding emphLasis and higlights...of Research A 12,543 10,898 Aeromedical Research Laboratory A 6,527 6,483 Institute of Dental Research A 4,854 4,681 Medical Research Unit 3 N 4,289...2,830 2,830 Medical Research Unit No. 2 N 2,739 1,253 Dental Research Institute N 1,065 229 CIVIL ENGINEERING Ft. Belvoir R&D Center A 123,801 11,502

  14. THE EFFECTS OF PROGRAMMED WORK IN PREPARATION PERIOD OF KADET FOOTBALL PLAYERS ON THEIR EXPLOSIVE FORCE TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Gardašević

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The research was made on sample of 120 football players of cadet age, members of 4 football clubs from Niksic. The aim of research was to identify level of quantitive changes of variables, issued by influence of programmed training. Variables are relevant for force estimation of bottom extremities. Training program included 44 training units in a summer period of preparation, during 42 days. Conclusion, based of resuls of T test, for big depedent samples, is that this programmed training made statistical very important, positive changes of all variables needed for estimation of explosive force for mentionned players.

  15. Youth at Work: Making It in the Global Economy. A Report of the At-Risk Youth Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey State Employment and Training Commission, Trenton.

    The At-Risk Youth Task Force of the State Employment and Training Commission concluded that a generation of young people faced underemployment or unemployment as a result of the increased skill demands required by the global economy. Two interrelated phenomena adversely affected the ability of a majority of young people to succeed in the labor…

  16. Dynamic Transmission Modeling : A Report of the ISPOR-SMDM Modeling Good Research Practices Task Force Working Group-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, Richard; Fisman, David; Zaric, Gregory S.; Postma, Maarten; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Edmunds, John; Brisson, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The transmissible nature of communicable diseases is what sets them apart from other diseases modeled by health economists. The probability of a susceptible individual becoming infected at any one point in time (the force of infection) is related to the number of infectious individuals in the

  17. Wideband quin-stable energy harvesting via combined nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a wideband quintuple-well potential piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvester using a combined nonlinearity: the magnetic nonlinearity induced by magnetic force and the piecewise-linearity produced by mechanical impact. With extra stable states compared to other multi-stable harvesters, the quin-stable harvester can distribute its potential energy more uniformly, which provides shallower potential wells and results in lower excitation threshold for interwell motion. The mathematical model of this quin-stable harvester is derived and its equivalent piecewise-nonlinear restoring force is measured in the experiment and identified as piecewise polynomials. Numerical simulations and experimental verifications are performed in different levels of sinusoid excitation ranging from 1 to 25 Hz. The results demonstrate that, with lower potential barriers compared with tri-stable counterpart, the quin-stable arrangement can escape potential wells more easily for doing high-energy interwell motion over a wider band of frequencies. Moreover, by utilizing the mechanical stoppers, this harvester can produce significant output voltage under small tip deflections, which results in a high power density and is especially suitable for a compact MEMS approach.

  18. Preventing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Illnesses Through Ergonomics: The Air Force PREMIER Program. Volume 3B: Research Report for Level I Ergonomics Methodology Guide for Administrative Work Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcotte, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    This report describes file results of a pilot test to assess the reliability, sensitivity, validity, and practicality of the Level I Ergonomics Assessment Methodology Guide for Administrative Work Areas...

  19. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  20. The relationship between employment quality and work-related well-being in the European labor force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aerden, K.; Moors, G.B.D.; Levecque, K.; Vanroelen, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, data from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey are used to examine the relationship between contemporary employment arrangements and the work-related well-being of European employees. By means of a Latent Class Cluster Analysis, several features of the employment conditions

  1. SOCIAL-PEDAGOGICAL WORK WITH CHILDREN WHO ARE FORCEDLY RE-SETTLED FROM THE ZONE OF MILITARY CONFLICT TO THE SPECIALLY CREATED SETTLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Tsybulko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The normative documents, statistic data concerning the people, who are forcedly resettled, are analysed in the article. The aim of the article is to describe the organizational stages of social workers; to determine the features of each stage, to consider the most effective methods and forms of each of the identified stages. Separate facts of creating towns for settlers are studied; information, given in scientific sociological and psychological works, is generalized. The stages of social activity of educators with children of compelled settlers (preparatory, organizational-active and analytical-corrective are determined on the basis of the carried out analysis. The essence of the activity, the methods and forms, the efficiency in realization of work with children, who are forcedly resettled, will be higher upon condition of drawing parents into corresponding forms and kinds of social pedagogical work. The author singles out three stages of work: the preparatory, organizational and activity, analytical and corrective stage. The methods and techniques of social work that shold be applied on each stage are disclosed. The author emphasizes, that not only professionals in the field of education but also representatives of state institutions – organs of executive power, health service, town centers of social service for family, children and youth, public organizations, charity funds and volunteers, which have corresponding specialization or special training, should be drown into realization of proposed stages of work with children-settlers. The author comes to the conclusion that in sprite of existence of already organized work with settlers’ families in Ukraine, more attention should be paid just to work with children because this generation creates the future of our country.

  2. Perceptions of gender equality in work-life balance, salary, promotion, and harassment: results of the NASPGHAN task force survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Gitit; Xanthakos, Stavra; Kim, Sandra; Rao, Meenakshi; Book, Linda; Litman, Heather J; Fishman, Laurie N

    2015-04-01

    Gender equality in the workplace has not been described in pediatric gastroenterology. An electronic survey that explored perceptions of career parity, work-life balance, and workplace harassment was sent to all members of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Reponses were anonymous. Of the 303 respondents (21%), there was an even distribution across geographic region, age, and gender (54% men). Gender affected perception of salary and promotion; 46% of men but only 9% of women feel that "women earn the same as men" (P work-life balance for either gender. Overall, women are more likely to be dissatisfied with work-life balance than men (P = 0.046). Satisfaction with work-life balance is lower among women versus men pediatric gastroenterologists, but does not correlate with flexibility of spouse's job or caring for young children. Gender-divergent perception of promotion, parity of compensation, and mentoring requires further investigation.

  3. Soil Vapor Extraction and Bioventing Test Work Plan for the MOGAS Site, Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    This work plan presents an evaluation of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing, and describes the SVE pilot scale and bioventing activities to be conducted to extract and treat soil gas at Installation Restoration Program (IRP...

  4. Work force retention: Role of work environment, organization commitment, supervisor support and training & development in ceramic sanitary ware industries in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umamaheswari S, Jayasree Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    Although retention of employees has become hot topic in this career turbulent era, practically no empirical research is carried out in the fast growing ceramic sector till now and this research fills the gap in the literature. The literatures surveys reported that organization commitment is an important determinant of retention and work environment, supervisor support and training and development are the most relevant antecedents increasing commitment towards organization. This paper examines the impact of the above factors over organization commitment and explores the effects of organization commitment on retention, and verifies the mediating effect of organization commitment on the relationship between proposed factors and retention. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was completed by 416 employees working in five ceramic sanitary ware factories located at different places in India. Questionnaire consisting of items adopted from previous researches were used to collect data. The selection of respondents was based on the simple random sampling. Findings: Findings reveals that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhances it. Moreover organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. However multiple regression analysis indicated that training and development did not have any notable influence on retention. Limitations: This study was conducted in a particular country and also in a particular sector of manufacturing industry, which limits generalization .Possibility of bias towards their organization and assumption that respondents know about their organization are other limitations. Implications: This paper offers recommendations to HR(Human resource) managers that they should extend their support to work environment, supervisor support and training and development in order to generate better relationship with employees and to reduce their likelihood of leaving the company

  5. Work force retention: Role of work environment, organization commitment, supervisor support and training & development in ceramic sanitary ware industries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umamaheswari S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although retention of employees has become hot topic in this career turbulent era, practically no empirical research is carried out in the fast growing ceramic sector till now and this research fills the gap in the literature. The literatures surveys reported that organization commitment is an important determinant of retention and work environment, supervisor support and training and development are the most relevant antecedents increasing commitment towards organization. This paper examines the impact of the above factors over organization commitment and explores the effects of organization commitment on retention, and verifies the mediating effect of organization commitment on the relationship between proposed factors and retention. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was completed by 416 employees working in five ceramic sanitary ware factories located at different places in India. Questionnaire consisting of items adopted from previous researches were used to collect data. The selection of respondents was based on the simple random sampling. Findings: Findings reveals that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhances it. Moreover organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. However multiple regression analysis indicated that training and development did not have any notable   influence on retention. Limitations: This study was conducted in a particular country and also in a particular sector of manufacturing industry, which limits generalization .Possibility of bias towards their organization and assumption that respondents know about their organization are other limitations. Implications: This paper offers recommendations to HR(Human resource managers that they should extend their support to work environment, supervisor support and training and development in order to generate better relationship with employees and to reduce their

  6. Personality traits of the Five-Factor Model are associated with work-related stress in special force police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, S; Chiorri, C; Magnavita, N

    2014-04-01

    The police work is particularly stressful. The aim of this work was to clarify whether the personality factors are associated with perceived stress levels or reactivity to environmental stressors in a special body of police. The police officers in charge of guaranteeing public order at the L'Aquila G8 meeting were subjected to a control of their levels of work-related stress in anticipation of the event. Personality was assessed by the Italian version of the Five-Factor Model questionnaire, while stress was measured three times (during routine work in January 2009, preparation and imminence of the event, in April and July 2009, respectively) with the demand/control/support model of Karasek and the effort/reward imbalance model of Siegrist. A total of 289 of 294 officers took part in the survey. Some personality traits of the Five-Factor Model were associated with stress levels and stress reactivity. Neuroticism (low emotional stability) showed the strongest associations with job strain (demand/control ratio) (β = 0.115, p Personality factors may mitigate or increase the strain induced by environmental stressors.

  7. [Trends of work force participation of patients with rheumatic diseases : results from German social insurance data and the national database of the German collaborative arthritis centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, W; Thiele, K; Lamprecht, J

    2014-02-01

    Positive therapeutic effects on the work force participation derived from international clinical trials may not be directly transferable to the community based care in Germany. Therefore recent changes of data regarding sick leave (SL), work disability pension (WDP) and employment from the social insurance and from the national database of the German collaborative arthritis centers were analyzed covering a time period of at least 10 years. Health insurance data showed a steeper decline in the average duration of SL caused by rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared with all other diseases. In RA patients from the collaborative arthritis centers the mean duration of SL was much more reduced than the average duration of SL for members of the compulsory health insurance. The proportion of gainfully employed RA patients in collaborative arthritis centers has particularly increased in women. According to data from the pension insurance fund less incident cases of WDP due to RA, AS, and SLE have been observed than WDP caused by all other diseases. Thus different nationwide data show positive changes of the work force participation of individuals suffering from inflammatory rheumatic diseases in Germany.

  8. Theoretical Analysis of Unit Friction Force Working on the Metal Contact Surface with the Roll Change during Feedstock with Non-Uniform Temperature Distribution Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sygut P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of theoretical studies influence of non-uniform temperature distribution along the feedstock length to the unit friction force working on the metal contact surface with the roll change during the round bars 70 mm in diameter continuous rolling process. This value is one of the major factors affecting the grooves wear during the rolling process. The studies were carried out based on the actual engineering data for 160 × 160 mm square cross-section feedstock of steel S355J0. Numerical modelling of the rolling process was performed using Forge2008®, a finite-element based computer program.

  9. Energy-related scientists and engineers: a statistical profile of recent entrants into the work force, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Sharon E.

    1979-12-01

    This report examines the educational and employment characteristics of scientists and engineers who graduated during the years 1972, 1974, 1975, and 1976, with special attention to those whose work involves energy. The characteristics of energy-related graduates are also compared to those of more experienced scientists and engineers involved in energy activities. Information is based on the results of the 1976 and 1978 National Surveys of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates, and the 1976 National Survey of Natural and Social Scientists and Engineers, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the US Department of Energy. Tabulations are included for the first time on employment involving specific energy sources and activities. Other characteristics discussed include educational level, salary, primary work activity, type of employer, and the proportion of graduates who found employment in their major field.

  10. [24-hour work: the interaction of stress and changes in the sleep-wake cycle in the police force].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Disruption in police officers. In recent years there has been a widespread growth in services, available regardless of time or day organization (24/7 service) and a diffuse increase in their use, both in work and private lives, generally ignoring the importance of a regular sleep organization. Police officers - often need to work extended shifts and long hours under highly stressful conditions, which results in reduced levels of safety and operational effectiveness. In numerous studies, perceived stress has been found to correlate with both subjective and objective disturbances in sleep. Consequently, excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most frequent health and safety hazards that police officers have to deal with. Sleep deprivation affects performance outcomes through a wide range of cognitive domains. Sleepiness and fatigue, caused by sleep loss, extended work and wakefulness, circadian misalignment and sleep disorders are major causes of workplace human errors, incidents, and accidents. Therefore, prevention of sleep loss, high levels of stress and fatigue is a key factor to consider when assessing emergency intervention. In order to combat fatigue and sleepiness, a 30-90 minutes nap before night shift could be a viable option.

  11. Complex myograph allows the examination of complex muscle contractions for the assessment of muscle force, shortening, velocity, and work in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhschulte Hainer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The devices used for in vivo examination of muscle contractions assess only pure force contractions and the so-called isokinetic contractions. In isokinetic experiments, the extremity and its muscle are artificially moved with constant velocity by the measuring device, while a tetanic contraction is induced in the muscle, either by electrical stimulation or by maximal voluntary activation. With these systems, experiments cannot be performed at pre-defined, constant muscle length, single contractions cannot be evaluated individually and the separate examination of the isometric and the isotonic components of single contractions is not possible. Methods The myograph presented in our study has two newly developed technical units, i.e. a. a counterforce unit which can load the muscle with an adjustable, but constant force and b. a length-adjusting unit which allows for both the stretching and the contraction length to be infinitely adjustable independently of one another. The two units support the examination of complex types of contraction and store the counterforce and length-adjusting settings, so that these conditions may be accurately reapplied in later sessions. Results The measurement examples presented show that the muscle can be brought to every possible pre-stretching length and that single isotonic or complex isometric-isotonic contractions may be performed at every length. The applied forces act during different phases of contraction, resulting into different pre- and after-loads that can be kept constant – uninfluenced by the contraction. Maximal values for force, shortening, velocity and work may be obtained for individual muscles. This offers the possibility to obtain information on the muscle status and to monitor its changes under non-invasive measurement conditions. Conclusion With the Complex Myograph, the whole spectrum of a muscle's mechanical characteristics may be assessed.

  12. The Sporothrix schenckii Gene Encoding for the Ribosomal Protein L6 Has Constitutive and Stable Expression and Works as an Endogenous Control in Gene Expression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Trujillo-Esquivel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sporothrix schenckii is one of the causative agents of sporotrichosis, a worldwide-distributed mycosis that affects humans and other mammals. The interest in basic and clinical features of this organism has significantly increased in the last years, yet little progress in molecular aspects has been reported. Gene expression analysis is a set of powerful tools that helps to assess the cell response to changes in the extracellular environment, the genetic networks controlling metabolic pathways, and the adaptation to different growth conditions. Most of the quantitative methodologies used nowadays require data normalization, and this is achieved measuring the expression of endogenous control genes. Reference genes, whose expression is assumed to suffer minimal changes regardless the cell morphology, the stage of the cell cycle or the presence of harsh extracellular conditions are commonly used as controls in Northern blotting assays, microarrays, and semi-quantitative or quantitative RT-PCR. Since the biology of the organisms is usually species specific, it is difficult to find a reliable group of universal genes that can be used as controls for data normalization in experiments addressing the gene expression, regardless the taxonomic classification of the organism under study. Here, we compared the transcriptional stability of the genes encoding for elongation factor 1A, Tfc1, a protein involved in transcription initiation on Pol III promoters, ribosomal protein L6, histone H2A, β-actin, β-tubulin, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, UAF30, the upstream activating factor 30, and the transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 10, during the fungal growth in different culture media and cell morphologies. Our results indicated that only the gene encoding for the ribosomal protein L6 showed a stable and constant expression. Furthermore, it displayed not transcriptional changes when S. schenckii infected larvae of Galleria mellonella or

  13. Signature of the CERN GoldenBook at CERN by Peters Higgs British theoretical physicist - He worked on proposals to unify the weak and the electromagnetic forces into a single electroweak theory, The Boson of Higgs.

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2008-01-01

    Signature of the CERN GoldenBook at CERN by Peters Higgs British theoretical physicist - He worked on proposals to unify the weak and the electromagnetic forces into a single electroweak theory, The Boson of Higgs.

  14. Visit of Peters Higgs at Point 2 ALICE Experiment - British theoretical physicist, He worked on proposals to unify the weak and the electromagnetic forces into a single electroweak theory, The Boson of Higgs.

    CERN Multimedia

    Mona Schweizer

    2008-01-01

    Visit of Peters Higgs at Point 2 ALICE Experiment - British theoretical physicist, He worked on proposals to unify the weak and the electromagnetic forces into a single electroweak theory, The Boson of Higgs.

  15. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  16. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  17. WORK FORCE OPTIMIZATION FOR 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-08

    be technology , but the ability of the workforce to adapt and apply innovative approaches to the enemy. Introduction Since the end of...governing their utilization and development. As a new generation of workers entered the workforce, “the millennial ”, previous training techniques did...equipment and technology is not the primary reason for battlefield success, it is the people involved in the operation. Innovation and agility are

  18. The Report of the Working Group Concerning the Deterrence of and Response to Incidents of Sexual Assault at the U.S. Air Force Academy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    On January 2, 2003, Dr. James G. Roche, the Secretary of the Air Force, received an e-mail directed initially to female cadets, which asserted that there was a significant sexual assault problem at the United States Air Force...

  19. High-intensity stress elicits robust cortisol increases, and impairs working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory in Special Forces candidates: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, John; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Smeets, Tom; von Grumbkow, Jasper

    2010-07-01

    While running a selection procedure, 27 male Belgian Special Forces candidates, with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 5.1), were randomly assigned to a no-stress control (n = 14) or a high-intensity stress group (n = 13). Participants in the latter group were exposed to an extremely strenuous mock prisoner of war (POW) exercise. Immediately after stress or control treatment, working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory performances were measured by the digit span (DS) test and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF), respectively. Concurrently, stress levels were assessed by obtaining salivary cortisol measurements and subjectively by the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). As expected, exposure to high-intensity stress led to both robust cortisol increases and significant differences in TLX scores. Stress induction also significantly impaired DS and ROCF performances. Moreover, delta cortisol increases and ROCF performance in the POW stress group showed a significant negative correlation, while DS performances followed the same tendency. Summarizing, the current findings complement and extend previous work on hormonal stress effects, and the subsequent performance deterioration on two memory tests in a unique high-intensity stress environment.

  20. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  1. Botulinum toxin therapy for treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: review and recommendations of the IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Dirk; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Bohlega, Saeed; Chahidi, Abderrahmane; Chung, Tae Mo; Ebke, Markus; Jacinto, L Jorge; Kaji, Ryuji; Koçer, Serdar; Kanovsky, Petr; Micheli, Federico; Orlova, Olga; Paus, Sebastian; Pirtosek, Zvezdan; Relja, Maja; Rosales, Raymond L; Sagástegui-Rodríguez, José Alberto; Schoenle, Paul W; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Timerbaeva, Sofia; Walter, Uwe; Saberi, Fereshte Adib

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BT) therapy is an established treatment of spasticity due to stroke. For multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity this is not the case. IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders formed a task force to explore the use of BT therapy for treatment of MS spasticity. A formalised PubMed literature search produced 55 publications (3 randomised controlled trials, 3 interventional studies, 11 observational studies, 2 case studies, 35 reviews, 1 guideline) all unanimously favouring the use of BT therapy for MS spasticity. There is no reason to believe that BT should be less effective and safe in MS spasticity than it is in stroke spasticity. Recommendations include an update of the current prevalence of MS spasticity and its clinical features according to classifications used in movement disorders. Immunological data on MS patients already treated should be analysed with respect to frequencies of MS relapses and BT antibody formation. Registration authorities should expand registration of BT therapy for spasticity regardless of its aetiology. MS specialists should consider BT therapy for symptomatic treatment of spasticity.

  2. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  3. Some Aspects of the Force Distribution in the Moving MERO Modular Walking Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ion

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The walking robots moving on a terrain, strewn with many obstacles, which can be convex or concave, there is a danger that the position of these robots is not stable. The modular constructions of the walking robots led to a more suppleness and very good adaptation to any terrain surface. In the work are analyzed the possibilities of determination of forces and the limit conditions for the stable displacement of the novel modular walking robots MERO.

  4. The Creative Application of Science, Technology and Work Force Innovations to the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charboneau, S.; Klos, B.; Heineman, R.; Skeels, B.; Hopkins, A.

    2006-01-01

    's approach to overcome these challengers are described. Many of the challenges to the D and D work at PFP were met with innovative approaches based on new science and/or technology and many were also based on the creativity and motivation of the work force personnel. (authors)

  5. O quadro de trabalhadores federais em saúde no Brasil: uma análise no contexto dos anos 2000 The federal health work force in Brazil: an analysis in the context of the 2000's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Galdino Alberto

    2011-12-01

    results suggest that since 2003, there has been an increase in civil service admissions. However, the increase in active federal health workers was lower than the average increase of the Federal Executive. Differences were found in the staffing situations of the Ministry of Health and of the associated entities. The central office of the Ministry benefitted only slightly from the civil service admissions and remained dependent on professionals hired as consultants or by temporary contracts. The health regulatory agencies have benefitted from civil service admission examinations since 2005, but at the end of the period there was still a large proportion of workers employed under alternative types of engagement. Meanwhile at Fiocruz, despite the increase in the number of civil servants, there was a greater increase in the number of workers employed under other types of contracts. Finally, the challenges involved in forming a stable and adequate federal work force are discussed, considering that in Brazil the federal government plays a fundamental role in consolidating the Unified Health System (SUS.

  6. Work Plan for the Evaluation of Soil Vapor Extraction Using Internal Combustion Engine Technology at Site SS-42 Luke Air Force Base, Arizona

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ...). Luke AFB is one of several Air Force installations identified as prospective test sites to demonstrate the ICE system with advanced emission controls as part of a low-cost soil vapor extraction (SVE...

  7. Mi Primer Libro de Maquinas Simples: Trabajo y Fuerza. Escuela Intermedia Grados 7, 8 y 9 (My First Book of Simple Machines: Work and Force. Intermediate School Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Patricio R.; Montalvo, Luis

    This is the first book in a five-book physical science series on simple machines. The books are designed for Spanish-speaking junior high school students. This volume defines force and work by suggesting experiments and posing questions concerning drawings in the book which illustrate scientific principles. Answers to the questions are provided;…

  8. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  9. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  10. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  11. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  12. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  13. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  14. Stable tridimensional bubble clusters in multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, J M; Dellavale, D; Bonetto, F J

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, stable clusters made of multiple sonoluminescent bubbles are experimentally and theoretically studied. Argon bubbles were acoustically generated and trapped using bi-frequency driving within a cylindrical chamber filled with a sulfuric acid aqueous solution (SA85w/w). The intensity of the acoustic pressure field was strong enough to sustain, during several minutes, a large number of positionally and spatially fixed (without pseudo-orbits) sonoluminescent bubbles over an ellipsoidally-shaped tridimensional array. The dimensions of the ellipsoids were studied as a function of the amplitude of the applied low-frequency acoustic pressure (PAc(LF)) and the static pressure in the fluid (P0). In order to explain the size and shape of the bubble clusters, we performed a series of numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic forces acting over the bubbles. In both cases the observed experimental behavior was in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The simulations revealed that the positionally stable region, mainly determined by the null primary Bjerknes force (F→Bj), is defined as the outer perimeter of an axisymmetric ellipsoidal cluster centered in the acoustic field antinode. The role of the high-frequency component of the pressure field and the influence of the secondary Bjerknes force are discussed. We also investigate the effect of a change in the concentration of dissolved gas on the positional and spatial instabilities through the cluster dimensions. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper are potentially useful for further understanding and modeling numerous current research topics regarding multi-bubble phenomena, e.g. forces acting on the bubbles in multi-frequency acoustic fields, transient acoustic cavitation, bubble interactions, structure formation processes, atomic and molecular emissions of equal bubbles and nonlinear or unsteady acoustic pressure fields in bubbly media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  15. The forces in Nature

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN AC

    1998-01-01

    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies of phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  16. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  17. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  18. Stable, streamlined and helical cavity formation by the impact of Leidenfrost spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Mohammad; Vakarelski, Ivan; Marston, Jeremy; Truscott, Tadd; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2016-11-01

    This work reports results from an experimental study on the formation of stable-streamlined and helical cavity wakes following the free-surface impact of Leidenfrost spheres. The Leidenfrost effect encapsulates the sphere by a vapor layer to prevent any physical contact with the surrounding liquid. This phenomenon is essential for the pacification of acoustic rippling along the cavity interface to result in a stable-streamlined cavity wake. Such a streamlined configuration experiences drag coefficients an order of magnitude lower than those acting on room temperature spheres. A striking observation is the formation of helical cavities which occur for impact Reynolds numbers Re0 >= 1 . 4 ×105 and are characterized by multiple interfacial ridges, stemming from and rotating synchronously about an evident contact line around the sphere equator. This helical configuration has 40 - 55 % smaller overall force coefficients than those obtained in the formation of stable cavity wakes.

  19. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  20. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  1. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  2. Final Bioventing Pilot Test Work Plan for Base Exchange Service Station Underground Storage Tank Area, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Part I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    This pilot test work plan presents the scope of an in situ enhanced biological degradation, or "bioventing", pilot test for treatment of gasoline- contaminated soils at the Base Exchange Service Station (BXSS...

  3. Applying Failure Modes, Effects, And Criticality Analysis And Human Reliability Analysis Techniques To Improve Safety Design Of Work Process In Singapore Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    suitable for this work process. Table 18 shows a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages for the remaining HRA methods. 47 Table 18. Comparison...aims to study the feasibility of adopting HEART as an alternate hazard assessment technique for human-centric work processes. 10 B. METHODOLOGY...of THERP, HEART, and SPAR-H. Adapted from Bell and Holroyd (2009). Advantages Disadvantages THERP - THERP is well used in practice - It has a

  4. Work Function Modification in P3HT H/J Aggregate Nanostructures Revealed by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy and Photoluminescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghgar, Mina; Barnes, Michael D

    2015-07-28

    We show that surface electronic properties of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) crystalline nanofibers as probed by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) depends sensitively on the degree of polymer packing order and dominant coupling type (e.g., H- or J-aggregate) as signaled by absorption or photoluminescence spectroscopy. Nominal HOMO energies between high molecular weight (J-aggregate) nanofibers and low-molecular weight (H-aggregate) nanofibers differ by ≈160 meV. This is consistent with shifts expected from H-type charge-transfer (CT) interactions that lower HOMO energies according to registration between thiophene moieties on adjacent polymer chains. These results show how KPFM combined with wavelength-resolved photoluminescence imaging can be used to extract information on "dark" (CT) interactions in polymer assemblies.

  5. Forced marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Guidelines to help A&E staff and other healthcare professionals who suspect cases of forced marriage were launched this month by the government. The guidelines provide practical advice on how to recognise the warning signs, and what to do if patients disclose that they have been, or are about to be, forced to marry. The guidelines, Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriage, are available at www.fco.gov.uk/forcedmarriage.

  6. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  7. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  8. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  10. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  11. THE METHODICAL ASPECTS OF WORKING-OUT "THE SCHEME OF DEVELOPMENT AND DISPOSAL OF PRODUCTIVE FORCES OF HANTY-MANSIJSKY AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT – UGRA" (2006-2015 YY AND TILL YEAR 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Pakhomov

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of working-out the methodical theses "The scheme of development and disposal of productive forces of Hanty-mansijsky autonomous district – UGRA" for the perspective period till the year 2020. The necessity of its working-out is caused by the raw materials orientation of the district’s economy, which is simpliciter depending on the condition of mineral and raw material base of the region, already experiencing today the influence of global and national processes on oil and gas market. SWOT-analysis of district’s development and the scheme structure are presented. The Institute of Economy of UrB of RAS along with the other executors took the participation in working-out the scheme structure.

  12. Preventing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Illnesses Through Ergonomics: The Air Force PREMIER Program, Volume 4B: Research Report For Level I Ergonomics Methodology Guide For Maintenance/Inspection Work Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barker, Richard

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot test to assess the reliability, sensitivity, validity, and practicality of the Level I Ergonomics Assessment Methodology Guide for Maintenance/Inspection Work Areas...

  13. Theory of stable allocations II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Shapley provided the fundamental theoretical contribution to this field of research, whereas Roth, a professor at the Harvard University in Boston, developed and upgraded these theoretical investigations by applying them to the American market of medical doctors. Namely, their research helps explain the market processes at work, for instance, when doctors are assigned to hospitals, students to schools and human organs for transplant to recipients.

  14. Joint Inflammation and Early Degeneration Induced by High-Force Reaching Are Attenuated by Ibuprofen in an Animal Model of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Driban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used our voluntary rat model of reaching and grasping to study the effect of performing a high-repetition and high-force (HRHF task for 12 weeks on wrist joints. We also studied the effectiveness of ibuprofen, administered in the last 8 weeks, in attenuating HRHF-induced changes in these joints. With HRHF task performance, ED1+ and COX2+ cells were present in subchondral radius, carpal bones and synovium; IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha increased in distal radius/ulna/carpal bones; chondrocytes stained with Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase- (TDT- mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL increased in wrist articular cartilages; superficial structural changes (e.g., pannus and reduced proteoglycan staining were observed in wrist articular cartilages. These changes were not present in normal controls or ibuprofen treated rats, although IL-1alpha was increased in reach limbs of trained controls. HRHF-induced increases in serum C1,2C (a biomarker of collagen I and II degradation, and the ratio of collagen degradation to synthesis (C1,2C/CPII; the latter a biomarker of collage type II synthesis were also attenuated by ibuprofen. Thus, ibuprofen treatment was effective in attenuating HRHF-induced inflammation and early articular cartilage degeneration.

  15. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  16. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  17. Cosmic radiation exposure: work-place study about air-crew in the French Air-force flying on board the E-3F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amabile, J.C.; Castagnet, X.; Carbonnieres, H. de; Laroche, P.

    2007-01-01

    This workplace study is allowed to cosmic radiation of aircraft-crews. In a first time, the work is based on measurements of the ambient dose equivalent rates on board the E-3F aircraft. These results are supplemented by measurements of individual exposure using passive and active gamma and neutrons dosemeters. Above 10 000 meters and 200 hours per year, the aircraft-crews flying on board the E-3F aircraft are likely to annually receive an effective dose higher than 1 mSv. It is therefore necessary to organize a specific radiological and medical survey of the aircraft-crews corresponding to these flight criteria. (authors)

  18. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-02-15

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes1, 2, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other2. Electrostatic stabilization3, 4 of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains2, 5. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute–solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute–solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  19. Force/position control of a robot manipulator for human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neranon Paramin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to both human and robot capabilities, human-robot interaction provides several benefits, and this will be significantly developed and implemented. This work focuses on the development of real-time external force/position control used for human-robot interaction. The force-controlled robotic system integrated with proportional integral control was performed and evaluated to ensure its reliably and timely operational characteristics, in which appropriate proportional integral gains were experimentally adopted using a set of virtual crank-turning tests. The designed robotic system is made up of a robot manipulator arm, an ATI Gamma multi-axis force/torque sensor and a real-time external PC based control system. A proportional integral controller has been developed to provide stable and robust force control on unknown environmental stiffness and motion. To quantify its effectiveness, the robotic system has been verified through a comprehensive set of experiments, in which force measurement and ALTER real-time path control systems were evaluated. In summary, the results indicated satisfactorily stable performance of the robot force/position control system. The gain tuning for proportional plus integral control algorithm was successfully implemented. It can be reported that the best performance as specified by the error root mean square method of the radial force is observed with proportional and integral gains of 0.10 and 0.005 respectively.

  20. Social Networks, the ‘Work’ and Work Force of Chronic Illness Self-Management: A Survey Analysis of Personal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Brooks, Helen; Kapadia, Dharmi; Kennedy, Anne; Sanders, Caroline; Kirk, Sue; Reeves, David

    2013-01-01

    Self-management support forms a central aspect of chronic Illness management nationally and globally. Evidence for the success of self-management support has mainly focussed on individually-centred outcomes of behavioural change. While it is recognised that social network members play an important role there is currently a gap in knowledge regarding who provides what type of support and under what circumstances. This is relevant for understanding the division of labour and the meeting of needs for those living with a long-term condition. We therefore took a network approach to explore self-management support conceptualising it as types of illness ‘work’ undertaken within peoples’ social networks. 300 people from deprived areas and with chronic illnesses took part in a survey conducted in 2010 in the North West of England. A concentric circles diagram was used as a research tool with which participants identified 2,544 network members who contributed to illness management. The results provide an articulation of how social network members are substantially involved in illness management. Whilst partners and close family make the highest contributions there is evidence of inputs from a wide range of relationships. Network member characteristics (type of relationship, proximity, frequency of contact) impact on the amount of illness work undertaken in peoples’ networks. In networks with ‘no partner’ other people tend to contribute more in the way of illness related work than in networks with a partner. This indicates a degree of substitutability between differently constituted networks, and that the level and type of input by different members of a network might change according to circumstances. A network perspective offers an opportunity to redress the balance of an exclusively individual focus on self-management because it addresses the broader set of contributions and resources available to people in need of chronic illness management and support. PMID

  1. Derivation of stable Burnett equations for rarefied gas flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra; Jadhav, Ravi Sudam; Agrawal, Amit

    2017-07-01

    A set of constitutive relations for the stress tensor and heat flux vector for the hydrodynamic description of rarefied gas flows is derived in this work. A phase density function consistent with Onsager's reciprocity principle and H theorem is utilized to capture nonequilibrium thermodynamics effects. The phase density function satisfies the linearized Boltzmann equation and the collision invariance property. Our formulation provides the correct value of the Prandtl number as it involves two different relaxation times for momentum and energy transport by diffusion. Generalized three-dimensional constitutive equations for different kinds of molecules are derived using the phase density function. The derived constitutive equations involve cross single derivatives of field variables such as temperature and velocity, with no higher-order derivative in higher-order terms. This is remarkable feature of the equations as the number of boundary conditions required is the same as needed for conventional Navier-Stokes equations. Linear stability analysis of the equations is performed, which shows that the derived equations are unconditionally stable. A comparison of the derived equations with existing Burnett-type equations is presented and salient features of our equations are outlined. The classic internal flow problem, force-driven compressible plane Poiseuille flow, is chosen to verify the stable Burnett equations and the results for equilibrium variables are presented.

  2. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  3. Optimization of Force Balancing Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    2) The derivation of generalized force starts from the principle of virtual work (see Ref. 4); i.e., 6W = 0 (3-3) 15 y q th SoRs io L 0 3PRIN I J Y Q...I I OYT Figure 3- ierFoc-aacigSse 16 The virtual work due to the applied force during the virtual displacement is 6W = FT 6r (3-4) where F = applied...the virtual work done by equilibrators and by external forces be 6Weq and 6W ex, respectively. Then the virtual work done by r linear spring

  4. “There is hunger in my community”: a qualitative study of food security as a cyclical force in sex work in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the world – 32% of adults are currently living with HIV — and many Swazis are chronically food insecure — in 2011 one in four Swazis required food aid from the World Food Programme. In southern Africa, food insecurity has been linked to high-risk sexual behaviors, difficulty with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, higher rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission, and more rapid HIV progression. Sex workers in Swaziland are a population that is most at risk of HIV. Little is known about the context and needs of sex workers in Swaziland who are living with HIV, nor how food insecurity may affect these needs. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers who are living with HIV in Swaziland. Interviews took place in four different regions of the country, and were designed to learn about context, experiences, and health service needs of Swazi sex workers. Results Hunger was a major and consistent theme in our informants’ lives. Women cited their own hunger or that of their children as the impetus to begin sex work, and as a primary motivation to continue to sell sex. Informants used good nutrition and the ability to access “healthy” foods as a strategy to manage their HIV infection. Informants discussed difficulty in adhering to ART when faced with the prospect of taking pills on an empty stomach. Across interviews, discussions of CD4 counts and ART adherence intertwined with discussions of poverty, hunger and healthy foods. Some sex workers felt that they had greater trouble accessing food through social networks as result of both their HIV status and profession. Conclusions Informants described a risk cycle of hunger, sex work, and HIV infection. The two latter drive an increased need for ‘healthy foods’ and an alienation from social networks that offer material and emotional support against hunger. Services and interventions for sex workers which address the pathways

  5. "There is hunger in my community": a qualitative study of food security as a cyclical force in sex work in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Mnisi, Zandile; Adams, Darrin; Baral, Stefan; Kennedy, Caitlin

    2014-01-25

    Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the world - 32% of adults are currently living with HIV - and many Swazis are chronically food insecure - in 2011 one in four Swazis required food aid from the World Food Programme. In southern Africa, food insecurity has been linked to high-risk sexual behaviors, difficulty with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, higher rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission, and more rapid HIV progression. Sex workers in Swaziland are a population that is most at risk of HIV. Little is known about the context and needs of sex workers in Swaziland who are living with HIV, nor how food insecurity may affect these needs. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers who are living with HIV in Swaziland. Interviews took place in four different regions of the country, and were designed to learn about context, experiences, and health service needs of Swazi sex workers. Hunger was a major and consistent theme in our informants' lives. Women cited their own hunger or that of their children as the impetus to begin sex work, and as a primary motivation to continue to sell sex. Informants used good nutrition and the ability to access "healthy" foods as a strategy to manage their HIV infection. Informants discussed difficulty in adhering to ART when faced with the prospect of taking pills on an empty stomach. Across interviews, discussions of CD4 counts and ART adherence intertwined with discussions of poverty, hunger and healthy foods. Some sex workers felt that they had greater trouble accessing food through social networks as result of both their HIV status and profession. Informants described a risk cycle of hunger, sex work, and HIV infection. The two latter drive an increased need for 'healthy foods' and an alienation from social networks that offer material and emotional support against hunger. Services and interventions for sex workers which address the pathways through which food insecurity generates vulnerability

  6. Irreversible energy flow in forced Vlasov dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Plunk, Gabriel G.

    2014-10-01

    © EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag. The recent paper of Plunk [G.G. Plunk, Phys. Plasmas 20, 032304 (2013)] considered the forced linear Vlasov equation as a model for the quasi-steady state of a single stable plasma wavenumber interacting with a bath of turbulent fluctuations. This approach gives some insight into possible energy flows without solving for nonlinear dynamics. The central result of the present work is that the forced linear Vlasov equation exhibits asymptotically zero (irreversible) dissipation to all orders under a detuning of the forcing frequency and the characteristic frequency associated with particle streaming. We first prove this by direct calculation, tracking energy flow in terms of certain exact conservation laws of the linear (collisionless) Vlasov equation. Then we analyze the steady-state solutions in detail using a weakly collisional Hermite-moment formulation, and compare with numerical solution. This leads to a detailed description of the Hermite energy spectrum, and a proof of no dissipation at all orders, complementing the collisionless Vlasov result.

  7. Leg-adjustment strategies for stable running in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peuker, Frank; Maufroy, Christophe; Seyfarth, André

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of the center of mass (CoM) in the sagittal plane in humans and animals during running is well described by the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). With appropriate parameters, SLIP running patterns are stable, and these models can recover from perturbations without the need for corrective strategies, such as the application of additional forces. Rather, it is sufficient to adjust the leg to a fixed angle relative to the ground. In this work, we consider the extension of the SLIP to three dimensions (3D SLIP) and investigate feed-forward strategies for leg adjustment during the flight phase. As in the SLIP model, the leg is placed at a fixed angle. We extend the scope of possible reference axes from only fixed horizontal and vertical axes to include the CoM velocity vector as a movement-related reference, resulting in six leg-adjustment strategies. Only leg-adjustment strategies that include the CoM velocity vector produced stable running and large parameter domains of stability. The ability of the model to recover from perturbations along the direction of motion (directional stability) depended on the strategy for lateral leg adjustment. Specifically, asymptotic and neutral directional stability was observed for strategies based on the global reference axis and the velocity vector, respectively. Additional features of velocity-based leg adjustment are running at arbitrary low speed (kinetic energy) and the emergence of large domains of stable 3D running that are smoothly transferred to 2D SLIP stability and even to 1D SLIP hopping. One of the additional leg-adjustment strategies represented a large convex region of parameters where stable and robust hopping and running patterns exist. Therefore, this strategy is a promising candidate for implementation into engineering applications, such as robots, for instance. In a preliminary comparison, the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the 3D SLIP is an

  8. Does the Sun work as a nuclear fusion amplifier of planetary tidal forcing? A proposal for a physical mechanism based on the mass-luminosity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2012-06-01

    , by means of its nuclear active core, may be working as a great amplifier of the small planetary tidal energy dissipated in it. The amplified signal should be sufficiently energetic to synchronize solar dynamics with the planetary frequencies and activate internal resonance mechanisms, which then generate and interfere with the solar dynamo cycle to shape solar dynamics, as further explained in Scafetta (in press). A section is devoted to explain how the traditional objections to the planetary theory of solar variation can be rebutted.

  9. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  10. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  11. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle John

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. Methods The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13 in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Results Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-β-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Conclusion Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to

  12. ¿Inserción laboral de las mujeres en América Latina: una fuerza de trabajo secundaria? Women's participation in the labor market in Latin America: a secondary work force?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Abramo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este texto es discutir la aplicación de la noción de "fuerza de trabajo secundaria" para caracterizar la fuerza da trabajo femenina en América Latina. Esa caracterización, hecha con frecuencia en forma mecánica por un lado corresponde, cada vez menos a la realidad de los hechos, ya que es creciente la participación femenina en el mercado de trabajo, así como la continuidad de sus trayectorias laborales, el número de horas dedicadas al trabajo remunerado, así como su aporte al ingreso familiar y a la superación de la situación de pobreza de un porcentaje importante de hogares. Por otro lado, el texto argumenta que esa caracterización es uno de los elementos centrales en la estructuración de los patrones de discriminación de género que persisten y se reproducen en el mercado de trabajo latinoamericano.This article aims to discuss the concept of "secondary labor force" to characterize female workforce in Latin America. Such characterization corresponds increasingly less to reality, as women's participation in the labor force and the hours dedicated to their paid work continues to grow, as well as their contribution to household income. The article argues that such characterization is one of the core elements of the gender discriminating patterns that persist in Latin American labor market.

  13. Modelling stable water isotopes: Status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of stable water isotopes H2 18O and HDO within various parts of the Earth’s hydrological cycle has clearly improved our understanding of the interplay between climatic variations and related isotope fractionation processes. In this article key principles and major research results of stable water isotope modelling studies are described. Emphasis is put on research work using explicit isotope diagnostics within general circulation models as this highly complex model setup bears many resemblances with studies using simpler isotope modelling approaches.

  14. Differential magnetic force microscope imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zuobin; Liu, Jinyun; Hou, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging based on a two-pass scanning procedure to extract differential magnetic forces and eliminate or significantly reduce background forces with reversed tip magnetization. In the work, the difference of two scanned images with reversed tip magnetization was used to express the local magnetic forces. The magnetic sample was first scanned with a low lift distance between the MFM tip and the sample surface, and the magnetization direction of the probe was then changed after the first scan to perform the second scan. The differential magnetic force image was obtained through the subtraction of the two images from the two scans. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the proposed method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging is able to reduce the effect of background or environment interference forces, and offers an improved image contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR). © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Search for Stable, Massive, Elementary Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we review the experimental and observational searches for stable, massive, elementary particles other than the electron and proton. The particles may be neutral, may have unit charge or may have fractional charge. They may interact through the strong, electromagnetic, weak or gravitational forces or through some unknown force. The purpose of this review is to provide a guide for future searches--what is known, what is not known, and what appear to be the most fruitful areas for new searches. A variety of experimental and observational methods such as accelerator experiments, cosmic ray studies, searches for exotic particles in bulk matter and searches using astrophysical observations is included in this review

  16. Phase-dependent forcing and synchronization in the three-sphere model of Chlamydomonas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Rachel R; Golestanian, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas swims with synchronized beating of its two flagella, and is experimentally observed to exhibit run-and-tumble behaviour similar to bacteria. Recently, we studied a simple hydrodynamic three-sphere model of Chlamydomonas with a phase-dependent driving force that can produce run-and-tumble behaviour when intrinsic noise is added, due to the nonlinear mechanics of the system. Here, we consider the noiseless case and explore numerically the parameter space in the driving force profiles, which determine whether or not the synchronized state evolves from a given initial condition, as well as the stability of the synchronized state. We find that phase-dependent forcing, or a beat pattern, is necessary for stable synchronization in the geometry we work with. The phase-dependent forcing allows this simple model of Chlamydomonas to produce a rich variety of behaviours. (paper)

  17. Leadership Development in the Civilian Work Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-17

    Lead Other), Firo - B , a values exercise, and the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as methods for getting in touch with personal leader- ship...lhe vim Iprns b Owadl dom a"n~ 14 =h 7=42146"t am o • de ame mmua y fw o. rwhu oT1 is tm rn Ilme h ahai , Spur pulualk, .66il docahoi my we be ehd 1h...leaders, and a system for nurturing and sustaining quality leadership throug a proactive approach to the Department’s personnel management progr m

  18. Differentiated Levels of Nursing Work Force Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovner, Christine T.; Schore, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Baccalaureate-prepared registered nurses (RNs) in hospitals appear to have more differentiated roles than nurses in nursing homes or ambulatory care. If employers believe that it is more cost-effective to shift responsibilities from physicians to RNs, demand for nurses with bachelor's degrees will increase. (SK)

  19. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    , Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco...... in 2000 by the Welsh Automotive Task Force under the Welsh Assembly Government. The Accelerate programme takes basically different two directions: The first one, which was the first to be launched, is concerned with the upgrading of existing supply chains in the automotive industry in Wales. The programme...

  20. Special Forces Command and Control in Afghanistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhyne, Richard

    2004-01-01

    .... The author examines how Special Forces and conventional forces worked together in the past in Vietnam, Panama, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield...

  1. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  2. An Investigation of the Posterior Component of Occlusal Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    the dental arch across the midline and examined mandibula deformation in subjects with osseointegrated implants . The authors found that, with maximum...the 58 tongue and cheek musculature. Future studies may consider examining interdental forces between a natural dentition and osseointegrated implants ... dental occlusion forces, and 4. periodontal membrane forces. A stable occlusion would purportedly result when balance in terms of the magnitude

  3. Blocking of Brute Force Attack

    OpenAIRE

    M.Venkata Krishna Reddy

    2012-01-01

    A common threat Web developers face is a password-guessing attack known as a brute-force attack. A brute-force attack is an attempt to discover a password by systematically trying every possible combination of letters, numbers, and symbols until you discover the one correct combination that works. If your Web site requires user authentication, you are a good target for a brute-force attack. An attacker can always discover a password through a brute-force attack, but the downside is that it co...

  4. Productive force and labour productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulik V.I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available the authors discuss productive forces of a society – work and capital, as well as two intermediaries: the intermediary between the world of the nature and the person – means of work or “fixed capital” of a society, as productive force of social activities, and the intermediary inside a society – cost in the form of money that allows to define labour productivity and structural transformations in a society.

  5. Women's Work Pathways Across the Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaske, Sarah; Frech, Adrianne

    2016-04-01

    Despite numerous changes in women's employment in the latter half of the twentieth century, women's employment continues to be uneven and stalled. Drawing from data on women's weekly work hours in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we identify significant inequality in women's labor force experiences across adulthood. We find two pathways of stable full-time work for women, three pathways of part-time employment, and a pathway of unpaid labor. A majority of women follow one of the two full-time work pathways, while fewer than 10% follow a pathway of unpaid labor. Our findings provide evidence of the lasting influence of work-family conflict and early socioeconomic advantages and disadvantages on women's work pathways. Indeed, race, poverty, educational attainment, and early family characteristics significantly shaped women's work careers. Work-family opportunities and constraints also were related to women's work hours, as were a woman's gendered beliefs and expectations. We conclude that women's employment pathways are a product of both their resources and changing social environment as well as individual agency. Significantly, we point to social stratification, gender ideologies, and work-family constraints, all working in concert, as key explanations for how women are "tracked" onto work pathways from an early age.

  6. Dynamical attraction to stable processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Albert M.; Talet, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We apply dynamical ideas within probability theory, proving an almost-sure invariance principle in log density for stable processes. The familiar scaling property (self-similarity) of the stable process has a stronger expression, that the scaling flow on Skorokhod path space is a Bernoulli flow. We prove that typical paths of a random walk with i.i.d. increments in the domain of attraction of a stable law can be paired with paths of a stable process so that, after applying a non-random regula...

  7. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  8. Food and Environmental Protection Laboratory, Seibersdorf: Discrimination of honey of different floral origins by a combination of various chemical parameters; Stable Isotopes Applied to Authenticating Honey; The use of analyte protectants in pesticide residue analytical work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zora Jandrić, Zora; Frew, Russell; Abrahim, Aiman; Maestroni, Britt; Ochoa, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    honey valued for its non-peroxide antimicrobial activity (NPA).The NPA is thought to be due to high levels of methyl glyoxal (MGO) and it is the manuka honey with high levels of MGO that fail the C4 sugar adulteration test. Work by FEPL indicates that this is partly due to the beekeeping practice of feeding sugar to bees during the winter. However, that does not explain the late season failures, or that the extent of failure increases as manuka honey ages. The MGO levels in manuka increase with age and it has been shown that high MGO is correlated with high apparent C4 sugar content. Current research in this field in FEPL is focused on modifying the AOAC method to overcome these false positives in the C4 sugar adulteration. A method has been developed for the removal of MGO prior to the purification of the protein that is measured as internal standard. It is hoped that the removal of the MGO will eliminate the interference in the isotope test. Tests are now underway to establish the optimum conditions for the removal of MGO and to show that the additional procedure does not affect the isotopic composition of the purified protein. Once those tasks are completed the work will move to the validation stage and involve other laboratories to test the procedure. The FEPL is currently carrying out a study on method validation for the detection of several pesticides in potato samples. The extraction and clean-up method used is known as the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEchERS) for pesticide residue determination, and uses a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass selective detector (GC-MSD) for analyte separation and detection. According to the SANCO document (SANCO/12571/2013), matrix effects should be assessed at the initial method validation stage. Therefore as part of the calibration strategies for our method both matrix-matched and solvent calibrators were prepared

  9. Considerações sobre a terceira revolução industrial e a força de trabalho em saúde em Natal Considerations on the third industrial revolution and the health work force in Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Maria de Medeiros

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A articulação entre modo de produção, políticas sociais e práticas de saúde constitui-se o fio condutor desta investigação: trabalho e trabalhadores em saúde. A Terceira Revolução Industrial desencadeou novas articulações de processos econômicos, políticos e sociais, projetos de sociedade, formas de organização de poder e de atores sociais em proporções mundiais. A conformação definida pela nova divisão mundial do trabalho mantém uma relação de força desigual entre o grupo dos países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento. O Brasil também vivencia esse processo de transformação e vem implantando políticas sociais com características do modelo neoliberal. Tais políticas têm causado dificuldades, injustiças e instabilidade social, constituindo desafios aos direitos sociais e desencadeando processos que envolvem os âmbitos público e o privado, em termos organizativos e de subjetividade. Este estudo trata de um recorte de periferia do capitalismo tardio, tendo o Brasil como exemplo, e mais especificamente a região Nordeste.The articulation among production mode, social politics and health practices is established as conducting wire of our inquiry press cutting: the work and the workers in health. The Third Industrial Revolution unchained new articulations with the economical, political and social processes in world-wide ratios, the society projects, forms of organization, power and the social actors. This conformation defined by the new world-wide work division keeps a relation of unequal force between developed countries group and developing countries. Brazil lives this transformation process and has been implanting social politics with the neoliberal model characteristics. Such politcs have been motivating difficulties, injustices and social instability, constituting challenges to the question of the social rights and unchaining processes that involve the public and the private of the Brazilian citizens, in their

  10. Estimation of Time Varying Autoregressive Symmetric Alpha Stable

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work, we present a novel method for modeling time-varying autoregressive impulsive signals driven by symmetric alpha stable distributions. The proposed...

  11. STABLE DIAMOND GRINDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Gutsalenko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper generalizes on the one hand theory of kinematic-geometrical simulation of grinding processes by means of tools with working part as binding matrix with abrasive grains located in it in random manner, for example diamond grains, and on the other hand practical performance of combined grinding process, based on introduction of additional energy as electric discharges and called by the organization-developer (Kharkov Polytechnic Institute «diamond-spark grinding» as applied to processing by means of diamond wheel. Implementation of diamond-spark grinding technologies on the basis of developed generalized theoretical approach allows to use the tool with prescribed tool-life, moreover to make the most efficient use of it up to full exhausting of tool-life, determined by diamond-bearing thickness. Development is directed forward computer-aided manufacturing.

  12. Women’s Work Pathways Across the Life Course1

    OpenAIRE

    Damaske, Sarah; Frech, Adrianne

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous changes in women’s employment in the latter half of the 20th century, women’s employment continues to be uneven and stalled. Drawing from data on women’s weekly work hours in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we identify significant inequality in women’s labor force experiences across adulthood. We find two pathways of stable fulltime work for women, three pathways of part-time employment, and a pathway of unpaid labor. A majority of women follow one of the ...

  13. Coriolis Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  14. Joining Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    The interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has grown dramatically over the last three years in Greenland. A vast geographical area with a tiny population, Greenland has recently obtained self-government status and is going through a rapid development economically and socially...... as the country moves towards embracing extractive industries (oil, gas and mining) as a path to development. Both government, civil society and business are increasingly looking for new and innovative ways of joining forces across sectors to solve some of the country's many critical social issues. Greenlandic...... companies have over the last 23 years embraced the concept of strategic CSR and are increasingly engaging in cross-sector partnerships as part of their CSR strategy. The partnerships take different forms both in regards to number of partners, focus areas and level of strategic engagement. In the article...

  15. All the Missiles Work: Technological Dislocations and Military Innovation: A Case Study in US Air Force Air-to-Air Armament, Post-World War II through Operation Rolling Thunder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    been used as a basis of fighter combat operations for the Royal Air Force, Marines, Chinese Nationalist, Korean Air Force, and US Air Force since...hand, there is an image of a mili- tary wedded to technology, aptly evidenced during the cybernetic and chao- plexic revolutions in military affairs...François. A Treatise on Efficacy between Western and Chinese Think- ing. Translated by Janet Lloyd. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004

  16. Stable black phosphorus quantum dots for alkali PH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weilan; Song, Haizeng; Yan, Shancheng

    2018-01-01

    Black phosphorus, as a new two-dimensional material has been widely used in sensors, photovoltaic devices, etc. However, thin layered black phosphorus chemically degrades rapidly under ambient and aqueous conditions, which hinders the application of it in the chemical sensors. In this work, stable black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) in solution are successfully synthesized by functionalization with 4-nitrobenzene-diazonium (4-NBD). The stable BPQDs are investigated by TEM, AFM, Raman, and UV-absorption. As a potential application, the stable BPQDs are used as sensors in alkali solution, which exhibit outstanding performance. Our work paves the way towards a new application with BPQDs in solution.

  17. Stable clustering and the resolution of dissipationless cosmological N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhaiem, David; Joyce, Michael; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    The determination of the resolution of cosmological N-body simulations, I.e. the range of scales in which quantities measured in them represent accurately the continuum limit, is an important open question. We address it here using scale-free models, for which self-similarity provides a powerful tool to control resolution. Such models also provide a robust testing ground for the so-called stable clustering approximation, which gives simple predictions for them. Studying large N-body simulations of such models with different force smoothing, we find that these two issues are in fact very closely related: our conclusion is that the accuracy of two-point statistics in the non-linear regime starts to degrade strongly around the scale at which their behaviour deviates from that predicted by the stable clustering hypothesis. Physically the association of the two scales is in fact simple to understand: stable clustering fails to be a good approximation when there are strong interactions of structures (in particular merging) and it is precisely such non-linear processes which are sensitive to fluctuations at the smaller scales affected by discretization. Resolution may be further degraded if the short distance gravitational smoothing scale is larger than the scale to which stable clustering can propagate. We examine in detail the very different conclusions of studies by Smith et al. and Widrow et al. and find that the strong deviations from stable clustering reported by these works are the results of over-optimistic assumptions about scales resolved accurately by the measured power spectra, and the reliance on Fourier space analysis. We emphasize the much poorer resolution obtained with the power spectrum compared to the two-point correlation function.

  18. Working Collaboratively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holder, Anna; Lovett, George

    2009-01-01

    Working collaboratively is arguably an essential skill in architectural practice as the complexity of contemporary projects involves multiple agents in the conception, construction and use of architecture. This has been emphasised by recent government rhetoric. Mass collaboration has been...... identified as a transformative global force of the last decade, most notably in knowledge and information publishing, communication and creation. This paper presents a structured conversation on changing understandings of collaboration, and the realities of collaborative methodology in architectural work....... Ideas of the platforms and structures necessary to support ‘creative’ collaborations are advanced and tested, and a vocabulary of key terms is developed. The conversation extends to reflect on the role of the architecture profession in supporting or enabling collaboration in architectural works....

  19. Stable isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botter, F.; Molinari, Ph.; Dirian, G.

    1964-01-01

    Pure deuterium has been separated from gaseous mixtures of hydrogen and deuterium by band displacement chromatography, using columns of palladium on a support. The best results were obtained with columns of Pd on sintered α alumina. With a column of this type, of total capacity about 2 liters, a preparative apparatus of low dead volume has been built which produces 1 liter of pure D 2 from a 50 p. 100 D 2 , 50 p. 100 100 H 2 mixture in about 12 minutes. As a first approximation chromatography is likened theoretically to counter current fractionation, neglecting superficial resistance to the exchange. and also longitudinal diffusions. The number of theoretical plates required necessary for a certain enrichment of the gas phase is determined graphically or by calculation, enabling comparisons to be made between the efficiencies of columns containing different amounts of palladium. Thermal Diffusion: For the separation of hydrogen isotopes a thermal diffusion installation, made of stainless steel and entirely tele-commanded has been constructed. The separation cascade is made up of two identical pairs of hot wire columns. Each pair can work separately or they may be connected by a thermosyphon. The temperature of the hot wire is kept at around 1000 deg C by direct current. With this installation, hydrogen samples with a deuterium content lower than o,5 ppm were obtained from a gas originally containing 32 ppm. It was thus possible to prepare tritium of 99,3 p. 100 concentration from gas with an initial content of 6 p. 100. For quantitative separation of xenon enriched five time in 124 Xe by thermal diffusion, two identical cascades were constructed, each consisting of 5 columns, working in parallel and the two being connected by thermosyphon or by a capillary tube linked to a thermal gas oscillation. The central tungsten wire is heated to 1200 deg C. The columns are grouped like cluster of a heat exchanger, in shell of 30 cm diameter through which cooling water

  20. Kinetics evaluation of using biomimetic IPMC actuators for stable bipedal locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinipour, M.; Elahinia, M.

    2013-04-01

    Ionic conducting polymer-metal composites (IPMC) are flexible actuators that can act as artificial muscles in many robotic and microelectromechanical systems. The authors have already investigated the possibility of kinematically stable bipedal locomotion using these actuators. Fabrication parameters of actuators including minimum lengths, installation angles, plating thicknesses and maximum required voltages were found in previous studies for a stable bipedal gait with maximum speed of 0.1093 m/s. Extending the FEA solution of the governing partial differential equation of the behavior of IPMCs to 2D, actuator limits were found. Considering these limits, joint path trajectories were generated to achieve a fast and smooth motion on a seven-degree of freedom biped robot. This study utilizes the same biped model, and focuses on the kinetics of the proposed gait in order to complement the evaluation of using IPMCs as biomimetic actuators for bipedal locomotion. The dynamic equations of motion of the previously designed bipedal gait are solved here to find the maximum required joint torques. Blocking force of a flap of IPMC is found by plugging results of the FEA into a model based on beam theories. This force adequately predicts the maximum deliverable torque of a piece of IPMC with certain length. Feasibility of using IPMCs as joint actuators is then evaluated by comparing the required and achievable torques. This study concludes the previous work to cover feasibility, stability and design of a biped robot actuated with IPMC flaps.

  1. WORKSHOP: Stable particle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Alessandro G.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Particle beam stability is crucial to any accelerator or collider, particularly big ones, such as Brookhaven's RHIC heavy ion collider and the larger SSC and LHC proton collider schemes. A workshop on the Stability of Particle Motion in Storage Rings held at Brookhaven in October dealt with the important issue of determining the short- and long-term stability of single particle motion in hadron storage rings and colliders, and explored new methods for ensuring it. In the quest for realistic environments, the imperfections of superconducting magnets and the effects of field modulation and noise were taken into account. The workshop was divided into three study groups: Short-Term Stability in storage rings, including chromatic and geometric effects and correction strategies; Long-Term Stability, including modulation and random noise effects and slow varying effects; and Methods for determining the stability of particle motion. The first two were run in parallel, but the third was attended by everyone. Each group considered analytical, computational and experimental methods, reviewing work done so far, comparing results and approaches and underlining outstanding issues. By resolving conflicts, it was possible to identify problems of common interest. The workshop reaffirmed the validity of methods proposed several years ago. Major breakthroughs have been in the rapid improvement of computer capacity and speed, in the development of more sophisticated mathematical packages, and in the introduction of more powerful analytic approaches. In a typical storage ring, a particle may be required to circulate for about a billion revolutions. While ten years ago it was only possible to predict accurately stability over about a thousand revolutions, it is now possible to predict over as many as one million turns. If this trend continues, in ten years it could become feasible to predict particle stability over the entire storage period. About ninety participants

  2. Interaction Force Estimation During Manipulation of Microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Metz, R.M.P.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the utilization of microparticles for the wireless sensing of interaction forces in magneticbased manipulation systems. The proposed force estimation approach allows for using microparticles in sensing the interaction forces at hard-to-reach regions to avoid the mechanical and

  3. Electromagnetic force support for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Makoto; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Tachikawa, Nobuo; Omori, Junji.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention certainly supports electromagnetic force exerted on toroidal magnetic field coils. That is, a pair of support members are disposed being abutted against each other between toroidal magnetic field coils disposed radially in the torus direction of a vacuum vessel. Both of the support members are connected under an insulative state by way of an insulative structural portion having an insulation key. In addition, each of the support members and each of the toroidal magnetic field coils are connected by electromagnetic force support portions having a metal taper key and a metal spacer and supporting the electromagnetic force. With such a constitution, the electromagnetic force exerted on the toroidal magnetic field coils is supported by the electromagnetic force support portion having the metal taper key and the metal spacer. As a result, stable electromagnetic force support can be attained. Further, since the insulative structural portion has the insulation key, it can be assembled easily. (I.S.)

  4. Stable Nd isotope variations in the inner Solar System: The effect of sulfide during differentiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy-West, A.

    2017-12-01

    Radiogenic neodymium isotopes have been widely used in studies of planetary accretion to constrain the timescales of early planetary differention [1]. Whereas stable isotope varitaions potentially provide information on the the processes that occur during planet formation. Experimental work suggests that the Earth's core contains a significant proportion of sulfide [2], and recent experimental work shows that under reducing conditions sulfide can incorporate substantial quantities of refractory lithophile elements [including Nd; 3]. If planetary embroyos also contain sulfide-rich cores, Nd stable isotopes have the potential to trace this sulfide segregation event in highly reduced environments, because there is a significant contrast in bonding environment between sulfide and silicate, where heavy isotopes should be preferentially incorporated into high force-constant bonds involving REE3+ (i.e. the silicate mantle). Here we present 146Nd/144Nd data, obtained using a double spike TIMS technique, for a range of planetary bodies formed at variable oxidation states including samples from the Moon, Mars, the asteriod 4Vesta and the Angrite and Aubrite parent bodies. Analyses of chondritic meteorites and terrestrial igneous rocks indicate that the Earth has a Nd stable isotope composition that is indistinguishable from that of chondrites [4]. Eucrites and martian meteorites also have compositons within error of the chondritic average. Significantly more variabilty is observed in the low concentration lunar samples and diogienite meteorites with Δ146Nd = 0.16‰. Preliminary results suggest that the Nd stable isotope composition of oxidised planetary bodies are homogeneous and modifications are the result of subordinate magmatic processes. [1] Boyet & Carlson, Science 309, 576 (2005) [2] Labidi et al. Nature 501, 208 (2013); [3] Wohlers &Wood, Nature 520, 337 (2015); [4] McCoy-West et al. Goldschmidt Ab. 429 (2017).

  5. High-speed adaptive contact-mode atomic force microscopy imaging with near-minimum-force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Juan; Zou, Qingze

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive contact-mode imaging approach is proposed to replace the traditional contact-mode imaging by addressing the major concerns in both the speed and the force exerted to the sample. The speed of the traditional contact-mode imaging is largely limited by the need to maintain precision tracking of the sample topography over the entire imaged sample surface, while large image distortion and excessive probe-sample interaction force occur during high-speed imaging. In this work, first, the image distortion caused by the topography tracking error is accounted for in the topography quantification. Second, the quantified sample topography is utilized in a gradient-based optimization method to adjust the cantilever deflection set-point for each scanline closely around the minimal level needed for maintaining stable probe-sample contact, and a data-driven iterative feedforward control that utilizes a prediction of the next-line topography is integrated to the topography feeedback loop to enhance the sample topography tracking. The proposed approach is demonstrated and evaluated through imaging a calibration sample of square pitches at both high speeds (e.g., scan rate of 75 Hz and 130 Hz) and large sizes (e.g., scan size of 30 μm and 80 μm). The experimental results show that compared to the traditional constant-force contact-mode imaging, the imaging speed can be increased by over 30 folds (with the scanning speed at 13 mm/s), and the probe-sample interaction force can be reduced by more than 15% while maintaining the same image quality

  6. WWC Review of the Report "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities", examined the impact of the strategies developed by an interagency task force in New York City to combat chronic absenteeism in…

  7. Visual and olfactory enhancement of stable fly trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei J; Zhang, Qing-He; Taylor, David B; Friesen, Kristina A

    2016-09-01

    Stable flies are considered to be one of the major blood-feeding pests in the US livestock industry, causing losses running into billions of dollars annually. Adult stable flies are highly attracted to Alsynite traps; however, Alsynite is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain and is expensive. Here, we report on the development of a less expensive and more efficacious trap based upon a white panel with the option to add visual and olfactory stimuli for enhanced stable fly trapping. White panel traps caught twice as many stable flies than Alsynite traps. Baiting the traps with synthetic manure volatiles increased catches 2-3-fold. Electroretinographic recordings of stable flies showed strong peaks of visual sensitivities occurring at 330-360 nm, 460-525 nm and 605-635 nm. A laboratory study indicated that young stable flies are more responsive to white, whereas gravid females prefer blue; in the field, white traps caught more stable flies than patterned or blue-black traps. Stable fly control can be enhanced by developing more efficient trapping systems with added visual and olfactory stimuli. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an MRE? Is an MRE shelf stable? What foods are packaged in retort packages? What is aseptic ... type of package is used for aseptic processing? What foods are packaged in aseptic packages? Can I microwave ...

  9. Origin of Knudsen forces on heated microbeams

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Taishan

    2010-09-09

    The presented work probes the fundamentals of Knudsen forces. Using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, the flows induced by temperature inhomogeneity within a representative configuration and the Knudsen force acting on a heated microbeam are captured as functions of Knudsen number in the entire flow regime. Both flow strength and Knudsen force peak in the transition regime and negative Knudsen force absent in experimental data is observed. The mechanisms of the thermally induced flows and Knudsen forces are studied. It has been found that thermal edge flow is the main driven source for the formation of the Knudsen force on microbeams and domain configuration plays an important role in the process.

  10. Experimental study of a flexible and environmentally stable electroadhesive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J.; Bamber, T.; Singh, J.; Manby, D.; Bingham, P. A.; Justham, L.; Petzing, J.; Penders, J.; Jackson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Electroadhesion is a promising adhesion mechanism for robotics and material handling applications due to several distinctive advantages it has over existing technologies. These advantages include enhanced adaptability, gentle/flexible handling, reduced complexity, and ultra-low energy consumption. Unstable electroadhesive forces, however, can arise in ambient environments. Electroadhesive devices that can produce stable forces in changing environments are thus desirable. In this study, a flexible and environmentally stable electroadhesive device was designed and manufactured by conformally coating a layer of barium titanate dielectric on a chemically etched thin copper laminate. The results, obtained from an advanced electroadhesive "normal force" testing platform, show that only a relative difference of 5.94% in the normal force direction was observed. This was achieved when the relative humidity changed from 25% to 53%, temperature from 13.7 °C to 32.8 °C, and atmospheric pressure from 999 hPa to 1016.9 hPa. This environmentally stable electroadhesive device may promote the application of the electroadhesion technology.

  11. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  12. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  13. Bubble dynamics in microchannels: inertial and capillary migration forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Rodriguez, Javier; Scheid, Benoit

    2018-05-01

    This work focuses on the dynamics of a train of unconfined bubbles flowing in microchan- nels. We investigate the transverse position of a train of bubbles, its velocity and the associated pressure drop when flowing in a microchannel depending on the internal forces due to viscosity, inertia and capillarity. Despite the small scales of the system, inertia, referred to as inertial migration force, play a crucial role in determining the transverse equilibrium position of the bubbles. Beside inertia and viscosity, other effects may also affect the transverse migration of bubbles such as the Marangoni surface stresses and the surface deformability. We look at the influence of surfactants in the limit of infinite Marangoni effect which yields rigid bubble interface. The resulting migration force may balance external body forces if present such as buoyancy, Dean or magnetic ones. This balance not only determines the transverse position of the bubbles but, consequently, the surrounding flow structure, which can be determinant for any mass/heat transfer process involved. Finally, we look at the influence of the bubble deformation on the equilibrium position and compare it to the inertial migration force at the centred position, explaining the stable or unstable character of this position accordingly. A systematic study of the influence of the parameters - such as the bubble size, uniform body force, Reynolds and capillary numbers - has been carried out using numerical simulations based on the Finite Element Method, solving the full steady Navier-Stokes equations and its asymptotic counterpart for the limits of small Reynolds and/or capillary numbers.

  14. A new force in nature?

    CERN Document Server

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Szafer, A; Talmadge, C; Aronson, S H

    1986-01-01

    We review recent experimental and theoretical work dealing with the proposed fifth force. Further analysis of the original Eötvös experiments has uncovered no challenges to our original assertion that these data evidence a correlation characteristic of the presence of a new coupling to baryon number or hypercharge. Various models suggest that the proposed fifth force could be accomodated naturally into the existing theoretical framework.

  15. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld

    1999-01-01

    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  16. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

  17. Superconducting bulk magnet for maglev vehicle: Stable levitation performance above permanent magnet guideway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Z.; Zheng, J.; Li, J.; Ma, G.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, S.; Wang, J.

    2008-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle is well known as one of the most potential applications of bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) in transported levitation system. Many efforts have promoted the practice of the HTS maglev vehicle in people's life by enhancing the load capability and stability. Besides improving the material performance of bulk HTSC and optimizing permanent magnet guideway (PMG), magnetization method of bulk HTSC is also very effective for more stable levitation. Up to now, applied onboard bulk HTSCs are directly magnetized by field cooling above the PMG for the present HTS maglev test vehicles or prototypes in China, Germany, Russia, Brazil, and Japan. By the direct-field-cooling-magnetization (DFCM) over PMG, maglev performances of the bulk HTSCs are mainly depended on the PMG's magnetic field. However, introducing HTS bulk magnet into the HTS maglev system breaks this dependence, which is magnetized by other non-PMG magnetic field. The feasibility of this HTS bulk magnet for maglev vehicle is investigated in the paper. The HTS bulk magnet is field-cooling magnetized by a Field Control Electromagnets Workbench (FCEW), which produces a constant magnetic field up to 1 T. The levitation and guidance forces of the HTS bulk magnet over PMG with different trapped flux at 15 mm working height (WH) were measured and compared with that by DFCM in the same applied PMG magnetic field at optimal field-cooling height (FCH) 30 mm, WH 15 mm. It is found that HTS bulk magnet can also realize a stable levitation above PMG. The trapped flux of HTS bulk magnet is easily controllable by the charging current of FCEW, which implies the maglev performances of HTS bulk magnet above PMG will be adjustable according to the practical requirement. The more trapped flux HTS bulk magnet will lead to bigger guidance force and smaller repulsion levitation force above PMG. In the case of saturated trapped flux for experimental HTS bulk magnet, it is

  18. The task force process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several open-quotes big pictureclose quotes issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald

  19. A downward buoyant force experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,F.M.S.; Venceslau,G.M.; Brasil,G.T.

    2014-01-01

    In hydrostatics, the Archimedes principle predicts an upward force whenever a body is submerged in a liquid. In contrast to common sense, this physical law is not free of exceptions, as for example when the body touches the container. This is more evident when a rectangular block less dense than the liquid rests on the bottom, with no liquid underneath it, a case in which a downward force is expected, according to a recent work by the first author. In the present work, we describe a simple, l...

  20. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  1. Monitoring of stable glaucoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Holtzer-Goor (Kim); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T. Plochg; E. van Sprundel (Esther)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA high workload for ophthalmologists and long waiting lists for patients challenge the organization of ophthalmic care. Tasks that require less specialized skills, like the monitoring of stable (well controlled) glaucoma patients could be substituted from ophthalmologists to other

  2. Integrated magnetic and elastic force systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourauel, Christoph; Köklü, Saduman O; Vardimon, Alexander D

    2002-08-01

    Magnetic force increases as the distance (d) of the force- generating elements (F approximately 1/d(2)) decreases, whereas elastic force decreases as the distance decreases (F approximately kd). These opposing characteristics suggest that combining both force systems will establish an integrated system with a long-range working ability. The objective of this study was to determine the vertical closure force (F(X)) and the transverse axis moment (M(Y)) of an integrated force system, ie, attracting magnets with elastics (vertical or Classes II and III). F(X) and M(Y) were examined on the orthodontic measurement and simulation system. It was found that the integrated force system had a positive closure force (+F(X)) that never declined to 0 and a long working range. Three regions characterized the force-deflection curve of F(X): the magnetic region (0-3 mm, for magnets with 3/16-in medium elastics), in which the decline in magnetic force was larger than the increase in elastic force (6.3-2.5 N); the constant region (3-7 mm), in which the decline in magnetic force equaled the increase in elastic force (2.5-2.9 N); and the elastic region (7-10 mm), in which there was only an increase in elastic force (2.9-3.5 N). The transverse axis moment (+M(Y)), which tends to close the bite, developed especially in magnets with a single vertical elastic. Clinically, inactivation of vertical elastics by closing the mouth can be overruled by the integrated force system because it exerts adequate force level at both short and long distances.

  3. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  4. Multivariate Max-Stable Spatial Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-06

    Analysis of spatial extremes is currently based on univariate processes. Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and explicitly quantified, they are therefore widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extreme events of real processes, such as environmental phenomena, it may be useful to study several spatial variables simultaneously. To this end, we extend some theoretical results and applications of max-stable processes to the multivariate setting to analyze extreme events of several variables observed across space. In particular, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. Then, we define a Poisson process construction in the multivariate setting and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extremevalue, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the BrownResnick models. Inferential aspects of those models based on composite likelihoods are developed. We present results of various Monte Carlo simulations and of an application to a dataset of summer daily temperature maxima and minima in Oklahoma, U.S.A., highlighting the utility of working with multivariate models in contrast to the univariate case. Based on joint work with Simone Padoan and Huiyan Sang.

  5. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  6. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  7. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  8. Families at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Peggy K.

    1988-01-01

    Today, school age and preschool children are more likely to have a working mother and to be living with one parent than in the past. Many families headed by women are living in poverty. Much of the teaching in public schools and many work force benefits are geared to the traditional models of the past. (JOW)

  9. StringForce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play StringForce ...

  10. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  11. Women’s Work Pathways Across the Life Course1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaske, Sarah; Frech, Adrianne

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous changes in women’s employment in the latter half of the 20th century, women’s employment continues to be uneven and stalled. Drawing from data on women’s weekly work hours in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we identify significant inequality in women’s labor force experiences across adulthood. We find two pathways of stable fulltime work for women, three pathways of part-time employment, and a pathway of unpaid labor. A majority of women follow one of the two fulltime work pathways, while fewer than 10 percent follow a pathway of unpaid labor. Our findings provide evidence of the lasting influence of work-family conflict and early socio-economic advantages and disadvantages on women’s work pathways. Indeed, race, poverty, educational attainment, and early family characteristics significantly shaped women’s work careers. Work-family opportunities and constraints also were related to women’s work hours, as were a woman’s gendered beliefs and expectations. We conclude that women’s employment pathways are a product of both their resources and changing social environment as well as individual agency. Significantly, we point to social stratification, gender ideologies, and work-family constraints, working in concert, as key explanations for how women are “tracked” onto work pathways from an early age. PMID:27001314

  12. Making IT Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    regardless of their experience level. The second type of meeting, the Daily Scrum, resulted from Sutherland’s research on Bell Laboratories ( Labs ). Bell ...of their work day. Bell Labs reported that the highest performance teams were driven by daily meetings no more than 15 minutes in length where...and convened a task force chaired by Dr. Frederick Brooks , a software engineering expert, to assess the problem.32 The task force concluded that

  13. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  14. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  15. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  16. Interfacial force measurements using atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) can not only image the topography of surfaces at atomic resolution, but can also measure accurately the different interaction forces, like repulsive, adhesive and lateral existing between an AFM tip and the sample surface. Based on AFM, various extended techniques have

  17. Effect of Built-Up Edge Formation during Stable State of Wear in AISI 304 Stainless Steel on Machining Performance and Surface Integrity of the Machined Part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yassmin Seid; Fox-Rabinovich, German; Paiva, Jose Mario; Wagg, Terry; Veldhuis, Stephen Clarence

    2017-10-25

    During machining of stainless steels at low cutting -speeds, workpiece material tends to adhere to the cutting tool at the tool-chip interface, forming built-up edge (BUE). BUE has a great importance in machining processes; it can significantly modify the phenomenon in the cutting zone, directly affecting the workpiece surface integrity, cutting tool forces, and chip formation. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 304 stainless steel has a high tendency to form an unstable BUE, leading to deterioration of the surface quality. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nature of the surface integrity induced during machining operations. Although many reports have been published on the effect of tool wear during machining of AISI 304 stainless steel on surface integrity, studies on the influence of the BUE phenomenon in the stable state of wear have not been investigated so far. The main goal of the present work is to investigate the close link between the BUE formation, surface integrity and cutting forces in the stable sate of wear for uncoated cutting tool during the cutting tests of AISI 304 stainless steel. The cutting parameters were chosen to induce BUE formation during machining. X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was used for measuring superficial residual stresses of the machined surface through the stable state of wear in the cutting and feed directions. In addition, surface roughness of the machined surface was investigated using the Alicona microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to reveal the surface distortions created during the cutting process, combined with chip undersurface analyses. The investigated BUE formation during the stable state of wear showed that the BUE can cause a significant improvement in the surface integrity and cutting forces. Moreover, it can be used to compensate for tool wear through changing the tool geometry, leading to the protection of the cutting tool from wear.

  18. Effect of Built-Up Edge Formation during Stable State of Wear in AISI 304 Stainless Steel on Machining Performance and Surface Integrity of the Machined Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Rabinovich, German; Wagg, Terry

    2017-01-01

    During machining of stainless steels at low cutting -speeds, workpiece material tends to adhere to the cutting tool at the tool–chip interface, forming built-up edge (BUE). BUE has a great importance in machining processes; it can significantly modify the phenomenon in the cutting zone, directly affecting the workpiece surface integrity, cutting tool forces, and chip formation. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 304 stainless steel has a high tendency to form an unstable BUE, leading to deterioration of the surface quality. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nature of the surface integrity induced during machining operations. Although many reports have been published on the effect of tool wear during machining of AISI 304 stainless steel on surface integrity, studies on the influence of the BUE phenomenon in the stable state of wear have not been investigated so far. The main goal of the present work is to investigate the close link between the BUE formation, surface integrity and cutting forces in the stable sate of wear for uncoated cutting tool during the cutting tests of AISI 304 stainless steel. The cutting parameters were chosen to induce BUE formation during machining. X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was used for measuring superficial residual stresses of the machined surface through the stable state of wear in the cutting and feed directions. In addition, surface roughness of the machined surface was investigated using the Alicona microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to reveal the surface distortions created during the cutting process, combined with chip undersurface analyses. The investigated BUE formation during the stable state of wear showed that the BUE can cause a significant improvement in the surface integrity and cutting forces. Moreover, it can be used to compensate for tool wear through changing the tool geometry, leading to the protection of the cutting tool from wear. PMID:29068405

  19. Effect of Built-Up Edge Formation during Stable State of Wear in AISI 304 Stainless Steel on Machining Performance and Surface Integrity of the Machined Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassmin Seid Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During machining of stainless steels at low cutting -speeds, workpiece material tends to adhere to the cutting tool at the tool–chip interface, forming built-up edge (BUE. BUE has a great importance in machining processes; it can significantly modify the phenomenon in the cutting zone, directly affecting the workpiece surface integrity, cutting tool forces, and chip formation. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 304 stainless steel has a high tendency to form an unstable BUE, leading to deterioration of the surface quality. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nature of the surface integrity induced during machining operations. Although many reports have been published on the effect of tool wear during machining of AISI 304 stainless steel on surface integrity, studies on the influence of the BUE phenomenon in the stable state of wear have not been investigated so far. The main goal of the present work is to investigate the close link between the BUE formation, surface integrity and cutting forces in the stable sate of wear for uncoated cutting tool during the cutting tests of AISI 304 stainless steel. The cutting parameters were chosen to induce BUE formation during machining. X-ray diffraction (XRD method was used for measuring superficial residual stresses of the machined surface through the stable state of wear in the cutting and feed directions. In addition, surface roughness of the machined surface was investigated using the Alicona microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was used to reveal the surface distortions created during the cutting process, combined with chip undersurface analyses. The investigated BUE formation during the stable state of wear showed that the BUE can cause a significant improvement in the surface integrity and cutting forces. Moreover, it can be used to compensate for tool wear through changing the tool geometry, leading to the protection of the cutting tool from wear.

  20. Homosexuality in the Dutch Armed Forces 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anna Adolfsen; Saskia Keuzenkamp; m.m.v. Linda Mans

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Uniform uit de kast. This study looks at the attitudes of defence personnel to homosexuality. How do members of the military view homosexual colleagues? Can gays and lesbians working in the armed forces be open about their sexual preferences? Do they regard the armed forces as

  1. Air Force Depot Maintenance: Analysis of Its Financial Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The Air Force depot maintenance activity group is part of the Air Force Working Capital Fund, a revolving fund that relies on sales revenue rather than direct congressional appropriations to finance its operations...

  2. Production and use of stable isotopes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.; Letolle, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper can not cover the field of production and use of stable isotopes in France exhaustively within six pages. We have chosen to concentrate on highlights of the subject and on recent work, and to give references for further reading. 26 refs

  3. Exact solutions, energy, and charge of stable Q-balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Marques, M.A. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    In this work we deal with nontopological solutions of the Q-ball type in two spacetime dimensions. We study models of current interest, described by a Higgs-like and other, similar potentials which unveil the presence of exact solutions. We use the analytic results to investigate how to control the energy and charge to make the Q-balls stable. (orig.)

  4. Contamination and incorporation due to emission of ionizing radiation from radar equipment of the German Federal Armed Forces. A reply to the report of the staff working group Dr. Sommer, presented 21st June 2001. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, K.

    2001-01-01

    The document refers to an issue of public debate in Germany, induced by the disclosure of inappropriate occupational safety measures at radar equipment of the German Army and Air Force. In this reply to the official report of investigation, the author gives his own expert opinion, discussing health risks in connection with radar equipment in general, and the specific military radar installations in particular. The author explains his approach to assessing the occupational radiation dose to military personnel and the resulting health risks and effects in that particular case. (orig./CB) [de

  5. BUILDING AN EFFECTIVE SALES FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building an effective sales force starts with selecting good salespeople, but good salespeople are very difficult to find. The reason for this is that most sales jobs are very demanding and require a great deal from the salesperson. There are many different types of sales jobs. Before it can hire salespeople, each company must do a careful job analysis to see what particular types of selling and other skills are necessary for each sales job. One task of the market planner is to establish clear objectives each year for the entire sales force, for each region, each sales office, and each salesperson. Sales jobs are different from in-house jobs in some significant ways. Nevertheless, each company must continually work on building and maintaining an effective sales force using the following steps: recruitment, selection, training, compensation and evaluation of each salesperson.

  6. Numerically stable fluid–structure interactions between compressible flow and solid structures

    KAUST Repository

    Grétarsson, Jón Tómas

    2011-04-01

    We propose a novel method to implicitly two-way couple Eulerian compressible flow to volumetric Lagrangian solids. The method works for both deformable and rigid solids and for arbitrary equations of state. The method exploits the formulation of [11] which solves compressible fluid in a semi-implicit manner, solving for the advection part explicitly and then correcting the intermediate state to time tn+1 using an implicit pressure, obtained by solving a modified Poisson system. Similar to previous fluid-structure interaction methods, we apply pressure forces to the solid and enforce a velocity boundary condition on the fluid in order to satisfy a no-slip constraint. Unlike previous methods, however, we apply these coupled interactions implicitly by adding the constraint to the pressure system and combining it with any implicit solid forces in order to obtain a strongly coupled, symmetric indefinite system (similar to [17], which only handles incompressible flow). We also show that, under a few reasonable assumptions, this system can be made symmetric positive-definite by following the methodology of [16]. Because our method handles the fluid-structure interactions implicitly, we avoid introducing any new time step restrictions and obtain stable results even for high density-to-mass ratios, where explicit methods struggle or fail. We exactly conserve momentum and kinetic energy (thermal fluid-structure interactions are not considered) at the fluid-structure interface, and hence naturally handle highly non-linear phenomenon such as shocks, contacts and rarefactions. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  8. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  9. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  10. Uses of stable isotopes in fish ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of fish tissues (other than otoliths) for stable isotope ratios can provide substantial information on fish ecology, including physiological ecology. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon frequently are used to determine the mix of diet sources for consumers. Stable i...

  11. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  12. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  13. Special Operations Forces and Conventional Forces: Integration, Interoperability, and Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-07

    commanding general of the 4th Infantry Division (ID), had a short meeting with incoming and outgoing special operations leadership. The topic: how...like in the opening days of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan . U.S. forces were not always open to this sort of synergy, but the last 15...capability to work well together in large-scale military operations, such as in Afghanistan , where they conducted village sta- bility operations and built

  14. Acoustic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of

  15. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  16. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  17. Stable three-dimensional metallic carbon with interlocking hexagons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shunhong; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Jena, Puru

    2013-11-19

    Design and synthesis of 3D metallic carbon that is stable under ambient conditions has been a long-standing dream. We predict the existence of such phases, T6- and T14-carbon, consisting of interlocking hexagons. Their dynamic, mechanical, and thermal stabilities are confirmed by carrying out a variety of state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. Unlike the previously studied K4 and the simple cubic high pressure metallic phases, the structures predicted in this work are stable under ambient conditions. Equally important, they may be synthesized chemically by using benzene or polyacenes molecules.

  18. Innermost stable circular orbit of Kerr-MOG black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Han, Yong-Jin [Soonchunhyang University, Department of Physics, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    We study the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) of the metric of the Kerr black hole in modified gravity (Kerr-MOG black hole), which is one of the exact solutions of the field equation of modified gravity in the strong gravity regime. The Kerr-MOG metric is constructed; it is the commonly known Kerr metric in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates by adding a repulsive term like the Yukawa force, which is explained in quantum gravity. In this paper, we numerically calculate the circular orbit of a photon and the ISCO of a test particle of Kerr-MOG black holes. (orig.)

  19. Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepoint, Gilles [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)]. E-mail: g.lepoint@ulg.ac.be; Dauby, Patrick [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, rue Vautier, B1000 Brussels (Belgium); Gobert, Sylvie [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2004-12-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure of trophic webs in temperate, Mediterranean and tropical seagrass ecosystems. As environmental tracers, stable isotopes have proven their utility in sewage impact measuring and mapping. However, to make such environmental studies more comprehensible, future works on understanding of basic reasons for variations of N and C stable isotopes in seagrasses should be encouraged. At least, as experimental tracers, stable isotopes allow the study of many aspects of N and C cycles at the scale of a plant or at the scale of the seagrass ecosystem.

  20. Graphene cantilever under Casimir force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derras-Chouk, Amel; Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Garanin, Dmitry A.; Jaafar, Reem

    2018-05-01

    The stability of graphene cantilever under Casimir attraction to an underlying conductor is investigated. The dependence of the instability threshold on temperature and flexural rigidity is obtained. Analytical work is supplemented by numerical computation of the critical temperature above which the graphene cantilever irreversibly bends down and attaches to the conductor. The geometry of the attachment and exfoliation of the graphene sheet is discussed. It is argued that graphene cantilever can be an excellent tool for precision measurements of the Casimir force.

  1. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Tien Van; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff

  2. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff.

  3. Statistics of force networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Brian

    2009-03-01

    We study the statistics of contact forces in the force network ensemble, a minimal model of jammed granular media that emphasizes the role of vector force balance. We show that the force probability distribution can be calculated analytically by way of an analogy to equilibrium ensemble methods. In two dimensions the large force tail decays asymptotically as a Gaussian, distinct from earlier predictions, due to the existence of a conserved quantity related to the presence of local vector force balance. We confirm our predictions with highly accurate statistical sampling -- we sample the force distribution over more than 40 decades -- permitting unambiguous confrontation of theory with numerics. We show how the conserved quantity arises naturally within the context of any constant stress ensemble.

  4. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii......) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number...... of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....

  5. Stable CSR in Storage Rings: A Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user's shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  6. Stable CSR in storage rings: A model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Venturini, Marco; Abo-Bakr, Michael; Feikes, Jorge; Holldack, Karsten; Kuske, Peter; Wustefeld, Godehart; Hubers, Heinz-Willerm; Warnock, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user s shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  7. Stable carbides in transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrkowski, R.

    1991-01-01

    In the present work different techniques were employed for the identification of stable carbides in two sets of transition metal alloys of wide technological application: a set of three high alloy M2 type steels in which W and/or Mo were total or partially replaced by Nb, and a Zr-2.5 Nb alloy. The M2 steel is a high speed steel worldwide used and the Zr-2.5 Nb alloy is the base material for the pressure tubes in the CANDU type nuclear reactors. The stability of carbide was studied in the frame of Goldschmidt's theory of interstitial alloys. The identification of stable carbides in steels was performed by determining their metallic composition with an energy analyzer attached to the scanning electron microscope (SEM). By these means typical carbides of the M2 steel, MC and M 6 C, were found. Moreover, the spatial and size distribution of carbide particles were determined after different heat treatments, and both microstructure and microhardness were correlated with the appearance of the secondary hardening phenomenon. In the Zr-Nb alloy a study of the α and β phases present after different heat treatments was performed with optical and SEM metallographic techniques, with the guide of Abriata and Bolcich phase diagram. The α-β interphase boundaries were characterized as short circuits for diffusion with radiotracer techniques and applying Fisher-Bondy-Martin model. The precipitation of carbides was promoted by heat treatments that produced first the C diffusion into the samples at high temperatures (β phase), and then the precipitation of carbide particles at lower temperature (α phase or (α+β)) two phase field. The precipitated carbides were identified as (Zr, Nb)C 1-x with SEM, electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction techniques. (Author) [es

  8. Analysis of dynamic regimes in stochastically forced Kaldor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina; Ryazanova, Tatyana; Ryashko, Lev

    2015-01-01

    We consider the business cycle Kaldor model forced by random noise. Detailed parametric analysis of deterministic system is carried out and zones of coexisting stable equilibrium and stable limit cycle are found. Noise-induced transitions between these attractors are studied using stochastic sensitivity function technique and confidence domains method. Critical values of noise intensity corresponding to noise-induced transitions “equilibrium → cycle” and “cycle → equilibrium” are estimated. Dominants in combined stochastic regimes are discussed.

  9. Source Partitioning Using Stable Isotopes: Coping with Too Much Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Andrew C.; Inger, Richard; Bearhop, Stuart; Jackson, Andrew L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Stable isotope analysis is increasingly being utilised across broad areas of ecology and biology. Key to much of this work is the use of mixing models to estimate the proportion of sources contributing to a mixture such as in diet estimation. Methodology By accurately reflecting natural variation and uncertainty to generate robust probability estimates of source proportions, the application of Bayesian methods to stable isotope mixing models promises to enable researchers to address an array of new questions, and approach current questions with greater insight and honesty. Conclusions We outline a framework that builds on recently published Bayesian isotopic mixing models and present a new open source R package, SIAR. The formulation in R will allow for continued and rapid development of this core model into an all-encompassing single analysis suite for stable isotope research. PMID:20300637

  10. Leaf water stable isotopes and water transport outside the xylem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, M M; Farquhar, G D; Buckley, T N

    2017-06-01

    How water moves through leaves, and where the phase change from liquid to vapour occurs within leaves, remain largely mysterious. Some time ago, we suggested that the stable isotope composition of leaf water may contain information on transport pathways beyond the xylem, through differences in the development of gradients in enrichment within the various pathways. Subsequent testing of this suggestion provided ambiguous results and even questioned the existence of gradients in enrichment within the mesophyll. In this review, we bring together recent theoretical developments in understanding leaf water transport pathways and stable isotope theory to map a path for future work into understanding pathways of water transport and leaf water stable isotope composition. We emphasize the need for a spatially, anatomically and isotopically explicit model of leaf water transport. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Unexpected properties of the centrifugal force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Contrary to what is stated in the Newtonian dynamics, rotation of a reference frame is not sufficient for the occurrence of the centrifugal force. Instead, the necessary and sufficient condition is a motion along a path different from that of a photon trajectory in space. This calls for a rather fundamental change in understanding of the very nature of the centrifugal force. It also has important practical physical consequences: in a strong gravitational field, where light trajectories are substantially curved, centrifugal force is much weaker than the Newtonian theory predicts. In addition, when there are closed (circular) photon trajectories in space, the centrifugal force may reverse its direction - it attracts towards the rotation axis. The weakening of the centrifugal force in strong gravitational fields and the reversal of its direction in the neighborhood of close photon trajectories in space fully and clearly explain puzzling examples of counter intuitive behaviour of dynamical effects of rotation found previously by several authors: e.g. reversal of the ellipticity behaviour of the relativistic Maclaurin spheroids (Chandrasekhar and Miller, 1974), reversal of the viscous torque action (Anderson and Lemos, 1988) or the fact that rotation increases internal pressure of a sufficiently compact star (Abramowicz and Wagoner, 1974). Weakening of the centrifugal force implies that rotating neutron stars are less oblate (and probably more stable) than the Newtonian theory predicts. This is important for the recently discussed question of how fast can pulsars spins. (author). 31 refs, 3 figs

  12. Unexpected properties of the centrifugal force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Contrary to what is stated in the Newtonian dynamics, rotation of a reference frame is not sufficient for the occurrence of the centrifugal force. Instead, the necessary and sufficient condition is a motion along a path different from that of a photon trajectory in space. This calls for a rather fundamental change in understanding of the very nature of the centrifugal force. It also has important practical physical consequences: in a strong gravitational field, where light trajectories are substantially curved, centrifugal force is much weaker than the Newtonian theory predicts. In addition, when there are closed (circular) photon trajectories in space, the centrifugal force may reverse its direction - it attracts towards the rotation axis!. The weakening of the centrifugal force in strong gravitational fields and the reversal of its direction in the neighbourhood of close photon trajectories in space fully and clearly explain puzzling examples of counter intuitive behaviour of dynamical effects of rotation found previously by several authors: e.g. reversal of the ellipticity behaviour of the relativistic Maclaurin spheroids (Chandrasekhar and Miller, 1974), reversal of the viscous torque action (Anderson and Lemos, 1988), or the fact that rotation increases internal pressure of a sufficiently compact star (Abramowicz and Wagoner, 1974). Weakening of the centrifugal force implies that rotating neutron stars are less oblate (and probably more stable) than the Newtonian theory predicts. This is important for the recently discussed question of how fast can pulsars spin. (author). 23 refs, 3 figs

  13. Work pressure is major cause of accidents at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.

    2004-01-01

    The work-related accident rate in the Netherlands is 6.4%. The highest rates were found in the construction and agricultural sectors and in the police force. Workers subject to heavy work and work pressure are shown to have an accident rate up to five times greater than for workers who seldom or

  14. The quality of work : The work-family interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouteten, RLJ; de Witte, M C; Isaksson, K; Hogstedt, C; Eriksson, C; Theorell, T

    1999-01-01

    Since the early years of this century the characteristics of work and work circumstances in the Netherlands, like in other European countries, changed dramatically. The development of a 24 hour economy, the flexibilisation of work, and a greater participation of women in the labour force are

  15. Stable Treemaps via Local Moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, Max; Speckmann, Bettina; Verbeek, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Treemaps are a popular tool to visualize hierarchical data: items are represented by nested rectangles and the area of each rectangle corresponds to the data being visualized for this item. The visual quality of a treemap is commonly measured via the aspect ratio of the rectangles. If the data changes, then a second important quality criterion is the stability of the treemap: how much does the treemap change as the data changes. We present a novel stable treemapping algorithm that has very high visual quality. Whereas existing treemapping algorithms generally recompute the treemap every time the input changes, our algorithm changes the layout of the treemap using only local modifications. This approach not only gives us direct control over stability, but it also allows us to use a larger set of possible layouts, thus provably resulting in treemaps of higher visual quality compared to existing algorithms. We further prove that we can reach all possible treemap layouts using only our local modifications. Furthermore, we introduce a new measure for stability that better captures the relative positions of rectangles. We finally show via experiments on real-world data that our algorithm outperforms existing treemapping algorithms also in practice on either visual quality and/or stability. Our algorithm scores high on stability regardless of whether we use an existing stability measure or our new measure.

  16. Work in the Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuze, M.

    2014-01-01

    As media have become dominant players in society’s affairs and, as an industry, represent a powerful economic and symbolic force, it is disheartening to see that work across the creative industries is becoming increasingly precarious. At the same time, media practitioners address this precarity in a

  17. Diabetes mellitus in older people: position statement on behalf of the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (IAGG), the European Diabetes Working Party for Older People (EDWPOP), and the International Task Force of Experts in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Alan; Morley, John E; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leo; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Bayer, Tony; Zeyfang, Andrej; Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Vischer, Ulrich; Woo, Jean; Chapman, Ian; Dunning, Trisha; Meneilly, Graydon; Rodriguez-Saldana, Joel; Gutierrez Robledo, Luis Miguel; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gadsby, Roger; Schernthaner, Guntram; Lorig, Kate

    2012-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent metabolic condition in ageing societies associated with high levels of morbidity, multiple therapies, and functional deterioration that challenges even the best of health care systems to deliver high-quality, individualized care. Most international clinical guidelines have ignored the often-unique issues of frailty, functional limitation, changes in mental health, and increasing dependency that characterize many aged patients with diabetes. A collaborative Expert Group of the IAGG and EDWPOP and an International Task Force have explored the key issues that affect diabetes in older people using a robust method comprising a Delphi process and an evidence-based review of the literature. Eight domains of interest were initially agreed and discussed: hypoglycemia, therapy, care home diabetes, influence of comorbidities, glucose targets, family/carer perspectives, diabetes education, and patient safety. A set of "consensus" statements was produced in each domain of interest. These form a foundation for future policy development in this area and should influence the clinical behavior and approach of all health professionals engaged in delivering diabetes care to older people. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Closed Pore Structured NiCo2O4-Coated Nickel Foams for Stable and Effective Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zheng, Xi; Yan, Zhanheng; Tian, Dongliang; Ma, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaofang; Jiang, Lei

    2017-08-30

    To solve the serious problem caused by oily wastewater pollution, unique interface designs, for example, membranes with superwetting properties such as superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity and superhydrophilicity/underwater superoleophobicity, provide a good way to achieve oil/water separation. Here, inspired by the liquid storage property of the honeycomb structure, we propose a strategy to fabricate NiCo 2 O 4 -coated nickel foams for stable and efficient oil/water separation. NiCo 2 O 4 with a closed-pore structure was formed by assembling nanoflakes with a micro/nanoscale hierarchical structure. Compared with nickel foam coated by NiCo 2 O 4 with an open-pore structure (NiCo 2 O 4 nanowires), the enclosed nanostructure of NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflakes can firmly hold water for a more stable superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic interface. As a consequence, the NiCo 2 O 4 -nanoflake-coated nickel foam has a larger oil breakthrough pressure than the NiCo 2 O 4 -nanowire-coated nickel foam because of a slightly larger oil advancing angle and a lower underwater oil adhesion force, which makes it more stable and efficient for oil/water separation. Moreover, the NiCo 2 O 4 -coated nickel foams have excellent chemical and mechanical stability, and they are reusable for oil-water separation. This work will be beneficial for the design and development of stable underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning materials and related device applications, such as oil/water separation.

  19. AUTOMATED FORCE FIELD PARAMETERIZATION FOR NON-POLARIZABLE AND POLARIZABLE ATOMIC MODELS BASED ONAB INITIOTARGET DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Roux, Benoît

    2013-08-13

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on atomistic models are increasingly used to study a wide range of biological systems. A prerequisite for meaningful results from such simulations is an accurate molecular mechanical force field. Most biomolecular simulations are currently based on the widely used AMBER and CHARMM force fields, which were parameterized and optimized to cover a small set of basic compounds corresponding to the natural amino acids and nucleic acid bases. Atomic models of additional compounds are commonly generated by analogy to the parameter set of a given force field. While this procedure yields models that are internally consistent, the accuracy of the resulting models can be limited. In this work, we propose a method, General Automated Atomic Model Parameterization (GAAMP), for generating automatically the parameters of atomic models of small molecules using the results from ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) calculations as target data. Force fields that were previously developed for a wide range of model compounds serve as initial guess, although any of the final parameter can be optimized. The electrostatic parameters (partial charges, polarizabilities and shielding) are optimized on the basis of QM electrostatic potential (ESP) and, if applicable, the interaction energies between the compound and water molecules. The soft dihedrals are automatically identified and parameterized by targeting QM dihedral scans as well as the energies of stable conformers. To validate the approach, the solvation free energy is calculated for more than 200 small molecules and MD simulations of 3 different proteins are carried out.

  20. Women at work in NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    Photographs and brief descriptions summarize the diversity of the female work force at NASA. Jobs are classified as: (1) technical support positions; (2) clerical and nonprofessional administrative; (3) professional administrative; and (4) professional scientific and engineering.

  1. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  2. NASA's Big Data Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C. P.; Kinter, J. L.; Beebe, R. F.; Feigelson, E.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Mentzel, C.; Smith, G.; Tino, C.; Walker, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Two years ago NASA established the Ad Hoc Big Data Task Force (BDTF - https://science.nasa.gov/science-committee/subcommittees/big-data-task-force), an advisory working group with the NASA Advisory Council system. The scope of the Task Force included all NASA Big Data programs, projects, missions, and activities. The Task Force focused on such topics as exploring the existing and planned evolution of NASA's science data cyber-infrastructure that supports broad access to data repositories for NASA Science Mission Directorate missions; best practices within NASA, other Federal agencies, private industry and research institutions; and Federal initiatives related to big data and data access. The BDTF has completed its two-year term and produced several recommendations plus four white papers for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. This presentation will discuss the activities and results of the TF including summaries of key points from its focused study topics. The paper serves as an introduction to the papers following in this ESSI session.

  3. France: High and stable fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The current total fertility rate in France is around 1.9 children per woman. This is a relatively high level by current European standards and makes France an outlier, despite the fact that its other demographic trends, especially conjugal behaviour, and social and economic trends are not very different from other Western European countries. France can serve as a counterfactual test case for some of the hypotheses advanced to explain the current low level of fertility in most European countries (delay in fertility, decline in marriage, increased birth control, greater economic uncertainty. France's fertility level can be partly explained by its active family policy introduced after the Second World War, and adapted in the 1980s to accommodate women's entry into the labour force. This policy is the result of a battle, fuelled by pro-natalism, between the conservative supporters of family values and the promoters of state-supported individual equality. French family policy thus encompasses a wide range of measures based on varying ideological backgrounds, and it is difficult to classify in comparison to the more precisely focused family policies of other European welfare states. The active family policy seems to have created especially positive attitudes towards two- or three child families in France.

  4. An Experimental Study of the Cutting Forces in Metal Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Iosif Korka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutting forces are classified among the most important technological parameters in machining process. Cutting forces are the background for the evaluation of the necessary machining power, as well as for dimensioning of the tools. Cutting forces are also having a major influence on the deformation of the work piece machined, its dimensional accuracy, and machining system stability.

  5. An Analysis of Total Force Integration in RED HORSE Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    capabilities. At that time the Air Force outsourced all of its new construction requirements to the Army Corps of Engineers and Navy SEABEEs, while Air Force...Air Force. Is that close enough or not? I have a guy who did masonry wall construction retaining walls. We don’t typically do masonry working

  6. 24 CFR 1003.509 - Force account construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Force account construction. 1003... Administration § 1003.509 Force account construction. (a) The use of tribal work forces for construction or... account construction or renovation, the area ONAP may require that the grantee provide the following: (1...

  7. Information report on the behalf of the Commission for Foreign Affairs, Defence and Armed Forces for the work-group on 'geo-strategic consequences of climate disruption'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Cedric; Aichi, Leila; Giraud, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    In its first part, this public report comments and outlines how sea level rise is a factor of geopolitical disruption. It discusses how sea level rise is a direct consequence of climate change, describes climatic, geological and meteorological causes of sea level rise, and outlines that this sea level rise will keep on for centuries with regional variations. The impact of sea level rise on coast is then analysed in terms of submersion risk, of erosion, of salinity rise, and of impact on coastal infrastructures and on biodiversity. The authors then comment how the trend of coastal localisation of housing and activities is an aggravating factor for the associated risks. They also outline the emergence and growth of environment-related migrations, and that this context increases risks of political instability and conflicts, for vulnerable States as well as for presently stable States. They finally outline how the Law of the Sea if weakened by this context, notably for France. They analyse and discuss how these risks could be reduced as far as their magnitude is concerned, but also regarding their perspective of occurrence through mitigation policies, development of territory resilience, international regulation of migratory phenomena, organisation of aid to populations, and a more prospective Law of the Sea. They analyse and describe how efforts for awareness, mobilisation and planning should be made now, even in the field of defence, at the international level as well as at the level of the European Union and of NATO, and at the national level. The second part of this report addresses the case of Arctic geo-policy as an advanced sentinel of climate disruption: consequences of climate disruption in the Arctic area, economic stakes which contribute to an increased interest in the Arctic region, tensions and dialogue about national spaces and international stakes, and about flexible regional governance. The authors then state some ideas and recommendations to initiate a

  8. Balance measures for discriminating between functionally unstable and stable ankles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Scott E; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Gross, Michael T; Yu, Bing

    2009-02-01

    To identify force plate measures that discriminate between ankles with functional instability and stable ankles and to determine the most accurate force plate measure for enabling this distinction. Twenty-two subjects (177 +/- 10 cm, 77 +/- 16 kg, 21 +/- 2 yr) without a history of ankle injury and 22 subjects (177 +/- 10 cm, 77 +/- 16 kg, 20 +/- 2 yr) with functional ankle instability (FAI) performed a single-leg static balance test and a single-leg jump-landing dynamic balance test. Static force plate measures analyzed in both anterior/posterior (A/P) and medial/lateral (M/L) directions included the following: ground reaction force (GRF) SD; center-of-pressure (COP) SD; mean, maximum, and total COP excursion; and mean and maximum COP velocity. COP area was also analyzed for static balance. A/P and M/L time to stabilization quantified dynamic balance. Greater values of force plate measures indicated impaired balance. A stepwise discriminant function analysis examined group differences, group classification, and accuracy of force plate measures for discriminating between ankle groups. The FAI group had greater values than the stable ankle group for A/P GRF SD (P = 0.027), M/L GRF SD (P = 0.006), M/L COP SD (P = 0.046), A/P mean COP velocity (P = 0.015), M/L mean COP velocity (P = 0.016), A/P maximum COP velocity (P = 0.037), M/L mean COP excursion (P = 0.014), M/L total COP excursion (P = 0.016), A/P time to stabilization (P = 0.011), and M/L time to stabilization (P = 0.040). M/L GRF SD and A/P time to stabilization had the greatest accuracy scores of 0.73 and 0.72, respectively. Although 10 measures identified group differences, M/L GRF SD and A/P time to stabilization were the most accurate in discriminating between ankle groups. These results provide evidence for choosing these GRF measures for evaluating static and dynamic balance deficits associated with FAI.

  9. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  10. Grounding the RPA Force: Why Machine Needs Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY GROUNDING THE RPA FORCE: WHY MACHINE NEEDS MAN by Charles M. Washuk, Major, USAF (MBA...shortage of pilots in the commercial industry, which can offer much higher salary and a more stable lifestyle for the members and their families. An...pilots and concerns over what that may mean to the pilots’ mental health . Wayne Chappelle, chief of aerospace psychology at the Air Force School of

  11. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  12. IsoBank – Stable isotope ecology in the age of ‘Big Data’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes ratios provide valuable information to fish biologists working in a diverse range of fields: e.g. ecologists, population biologists and fishery managers. Ecologists take advantage of stable isotope ratios to provide information on the diet and migration history of consumers or when a...

  13. Stable isotope ratios and reforestation potential in Acacia koa populations on Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneka Lawson; Carrie Pike

    2017-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes can be influenced by a multitude of factors including elevation, precipitation rate, season, and temperature. This work examined variability in foliar stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios of koa (Acacia koa) across 17 sites on Hawai'i Island, delineated by elevation and precipitation...

  14. Occurrence of stable periodic modes in a pendulum with cubic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of parametric modulation and secondary har- monic forcing in this transition have been analyzed in detail and reported earlier by the authors [5,7]. ... In the present work, the crossover from periodicity to chaos is discussed with a detailed .... value of q2 above which only resonance can take place is given by q.

  15. RSOI: Force Deployment Bottleneck

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Amato, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This study uses The Theory Of Constraints (TOC) management methodology and recent military missions to show that RSOI operations are generally the limiting constraint to force deployment operations...

  16. Bi-Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Peng; Speicher, Nora K; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    outperformed existing tools with Bi-Force at least when following the evaluation protocols from Eren et al. Bi-Force is implemented in Java and integrated into the open source software package of BiCluE. The software as well as all used datasets are publicly available at http://biclue.mpi-inf.mpg.de....... of pairwise similarities. We first evaluated the power of Bi-Force to solve dedicated bicluster editing problems by comparing Bi-Force with two existing algorithms in the BiCluE software package. We then followed a biclustering evaluation protocol in a recent review paper from Eren et al. (2013) (A...

  17. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  18. Macroscopic forces from supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Savas K

    1996-01-01

    We argue that theories in which supersymmetry breaking originates at low energies often contain scalar particles that mediate coherent gravitational strength forces at distances less than a cm. We estimate the strength and range of these forces in several cases. Present limits on such forces are inadequate. However new techniques, such as those based on small cryogenic mechanical oscillators, may improve the present limits by ten orders of magnitude or discover new forces as weak as 1 \\% of gravity at distances down to 40 microns.

  19. The five competitive forces that shape strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    In 1979, a young associate professor at Harvard Business School published his first article for HBR, "How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy." In the years that followed, Michael Porter's explication of the five forces that determine the long-run profitability of any industry has shaped a generation of academic research and business practice. In this article, Porter undertakes a thorough reaffirmation and extension of his classic work of strategy formulation, which includes substantial new sections showing how to put the five forces analysis into practice. The five forces govern the profit structure of an industry by determining how the economic value it creates is apportioned. That value may be drained away through the rivalry among existing competitors, of course, but it can also be bargained away through the power of suppliers or the power of customers or be constrained by the threat of new entrants or the threat of substitutes. Strategy can be viewed as building defenses against the competitive forces or as finding a position in an industry where the forces are weaker. Changes in the strength of the forces signal changes in the competitive landscape critical to ongoing strategy formulation. In exploring the implications of the five forces framework, Porter explains why a fast-growing industry is not always a profitable one, how eliminating today's competitors through mergers and acquisitions can reduce an industry's profit potential, how government policies play a role by changing the relative strength of the forces, and how to use the forces to understand complements. He then shows how a company can influence the key forces in its industry to create a more favorable structure for itself or to expand the pie altogether. The five forces reveal why industry profitability is what it is. Only by understanding them can a company incorporate industry conditions into strategy.

  20. Dynamics of work limitation and work in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguzoglu, Umut

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of self-reported work limitations on the labour force participation of the Australian working age population. Five consecutive waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey are used to investigate this relationship. A two-equation dynamic panel data model demonstrates that persistence and unobserved heterogeneity play an important role in work limitation reporting and its effect on labour force participation. Unobserved factors that jointly drive work limitation and participation are also shown to be crucial, especially for women.

  1. Observations on the ponderomotive force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, D. A.; Cairns, R. A.; Ersfeld, B.; Noble, A.; Yoffe, S.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2017-05-01

    The ponderomotive force is an important concept in plasma physics and, in particular, plays an important role in many aspects of the theory of laser plasma interactions including current concerns like wakefield acceleration and Raman amplification. The most familiar form of this gives a force on a charged particle that is proportional to the slowly varying gradient of the intensity of a high frequency electromagnetic field and directed down the intensity gradiant. For a field amplitude simply oscillating in time there is a simple derivation of this formula, but in the more general case of a travelling wave the problem is more difficult. Over the years there has been much work on this using Hamiltonian or Lagrangian averaging techniques, but little or no investigation of how well these theories work. Here we look at the very basic problem of a particle entering a region with a monotonically increasing electrostatic field amplitude and being reflected. We show that the equation of motion derived from a widely quoted ponderomotive potential only agrees with the numerically computed orbit within a restricted parameter range and that outside this range it shows features which are inconsistent with any ponderomotive potential quadratic in the field amplitude. Since the ponderomotive force plays a fundamental role in a variety of problems in plasma physics we think that it is important to point out that even in the simplest of configurations standard theories may not be accurate.

  2. Force-assisted ultrasound imaging system through dual force sensing and admittance robot control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting-Yun; Zhang, Haichong K; Finocchi, Rodolfo; Taylor, Russell H; Boctor, Emad M

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound imaging has been a gold standard for clinical diagnoses due to its unique advantages compared to other imaging modalities including: low cost, noninvasiveness, and safeness to the human body. However, the ultrasound scanning process requires applying a large force over extended periods of time, often in uncomfortable postures in order to maintain the desired orientation. This physical requirement over sonographers' careers often leads to musculoskeletal pain and strain injuries. To address this problem, we propose a cooperatively controlled robotic ultrasound system to reduce the force sonographers apply. The proposed system consists of two key components: a six-axis robotic arm that holds and actuates the ultrasound probe, and a dual force sensor setup that enables cooperative control and adaptive force assistance. With the admittance force control, the robotic arm complies with the motion of the operator, while assisting with force during the scanning. We validated the system through a user study involving expert sonographers and lay people and demonstrated 32-73% reduction in human applied force and 8- 18% improvement in image stability. These results indicate that the system has the potential to not only reduce the burden on the sonographer, but also provide more stable ultrasound scanning.

  3. Investigation on efficiency of stable iodine distribution around Golfech nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payoux, P.; Simon, J.; Campana Briault, H.; Fenolland, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Background. In order to prevent thyroid cancer radio induced during civil nuclear accident french regulations plan stable iodine distribution for populations living near nuclear power stations. We evaluate availability of stable iodine and understanding of such measure with investigation around Golfech nuclear power station. Methods. In 2001, 1148 families living in a 10 km perimeter around power station were questioned through their schooled child. Our anonymous questionnaire (22 questions, 91 items) was linked with stable iodine availability, organ protection, most exposed persons, dosage and time of stable iodine ingestion. Results. 72,1 % families replied. Among them, 60,8% could easily and quickly find stable iodine in case of emergency, 87,8% know that such measure is to protect thyroid, 80,5% know that children and pregnant women (62,7%) are the most exposed people, 82,3% know that such ingestion is allowed by Prefect order. Conclusion. Answer rate and stable iodine prophylaxis knowledge are satisfactory. On the other hand, in case of necessity about 40% of the concerned families don't have a rapid access to stable iodine, which will forced authorities to distribute as a matter of urgency supplementary stable iodine. Statistical analysis of the answers demonstrate that the most iodine prophylaxis ignorant people are the most refractory to this approach. (author)

  4. Tendon Force Transmission at the Nanoscale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René

    2013-01-01

    of connective tissue function that are poorly understood. One such aspect is the microscopic mechanisms of force transmission through tendons over macroscopic distances. Force transmission is at the heart of tendon function, but the large range of scales in the hierarchical structure of tendons has made...... it difficult to tackle. The tendon hierarchy ranges from molecules (2 nm) over fibrils (200 nm), fibers (2 μm) and fascicles (200 μm) to tendons (10 mm), and to derive the mechanisms of force transmission it is necessary to know the mechanical behavior at each hierarchical level. The aim of the present work...... was to elucidate the mechanisms of force transmission in tendons primarily by investigating the mechanical behavior at the hierarchical level of collagen fibrils. To do so we have developed an atomic force microscopy (AFM) method for tensile testing of native collagen fibrils. The thesis contains five papers...

  5. Climate forcings and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James

    1993-01-01

    Global temperature has increased significantly during the past century. Understanding the causes of observed global temperature change is impossible in the absence of adequate monitoring of changes in global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks. Climate forcings are changes imposed on the planet's energy balance, such as change of incoming sunlight or a human-induced change of surface properties due to deforestation. Radiative feedbacks are radiative changes induced by climate change, such as alteration of cloud properties or the extent of sea ice. Monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks, if sufficiently precise and long-term, can provide a very strong constraint on interpretation of observed temperature change. Such monitoring is essential to eliminate uncertainties about the relative importance of various climate change mechanisms including tropospheric sulfate aerosols from burning of coal and oil smoke from slash and burn agriculture, changes of solar irradiance changes of several greenhouse gases, and many other mechanisms. The considerable variability of observed temperature, together with evidence that a substantial portion of this variability is unforced indicates that observations of climate forcings and feedbacks must be continued for decades. Since the climate system responds to the time integral of the forcing, a further requirement is that the observations be carried out continuously. However, precise observations of forcings and feedbacks will also be able to provide valuable conclusions on shorter time scales. For example, knowledge of the climate forcing by increasing CFC's relative to the forcing by changing ozone is important to policymakers, as is information on the forcing by CO2 relative to the forcing by sulfate aerosols. It will also be possible to obtain valuable tests of climate models on short time scales, if there is precise monitoring of all forcings and feedbacks during and after events such as a large volcanic eruption

  6. High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.

  7. England and Wales: Stable fertility and pronounced social status differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Sigle-Rushton

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available For nearly three decades, the total fertility rate in England and Wales has remained high relative to other European countries, and stable at about 1.7 births per woman. In this chapter, we examine trends in both period and cohort fertility throughout the twentieth century, and demonstrate some important differences across demographic and social groups in the timing and quantum of fertility. Breaking with a market-oriented and laissez-faire approach to work and family issues, the last 10 years have seen the introduction of new social and economic policies aimed at providing greater support to families with children. However, the effect of the changes is likely to be limited to families on the lower end of the income scale. Rather than facilitating work and parenthood, some policies create incentives for a traditional gendered division of labour. Fertility appears to have remained stable despite, rather than because of, government actions.

  8. Capitalizing on the Forces within Us

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin

    This dissertation centers on an important but understudied theme in public administration scholarship: How to capitalize actively on public employees’ work motivation and commitment to support and improve their efforts and performance at work. The dissertation draws on self-determination theory...... via active efforts to capitalize on the forces of employee work motivation and commitment....... affect the ways in which work motivation and goal commitment reflect positively on individuals’ work behavior and performance. The dissertation is relevant for all who are interested in understanding work motivation and commitment—not least how potentially to improve the performance of public services...

  9. Introducing Stable Radicals into Molecular Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Frasconi, Marco; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2017-09-27

    Ever since their discovery, stable organic radicals have received considerable attention from chemists because of their unique optical, electronic, and magnetic properties. Currently, one of the most appealing challenges for the chemical community is to develop sophisticated artificial molecular machines that can do work by consuming external energy, after the manner of motor proteins. In this context, radical-pairing interactions are important in addressing the challenge: they not only provide supramolecular assistance in the synthesis of molecular machines but also open the door to developing multifunctional systems relying on the various properties of the radical species. In this Outlook, by taking the radical cationic state of 1,1'-dialkyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (BIPY •+ ) as an example, we highlight our research on the art and science of introducing radical-pairing interactions into functional systems, from prototypical molecular switches to complex molecular machines, followed by a discussion of the (i) limitations of the current systems and (ii) future research directions for designing BIPY •+ -based molecular machines with useful functions.

  10. Stable Isotope Group 1984 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    The work of the group in 1984 is described and includes studies in isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation. Geothermal studies have decreased compared to other years, but major data summaries were made for Wairakei and Ngawha. The hydrology of Whakarewarewa and Rotorua is being elucidated using water isotopes. Models of the subsurface flows at Kawerau and Ngawha are being made to relate fluid to mineral isotope compositions. A study of the δ 13 C and δ 34 S compositions of New Zealand oils has been started. Groups of oils of related origin are being defined, and compositions will be compared with those of potential source rocks. A method was developed for isotope analysis of sulphur in rocks. The isotopic composition of water is being used to identify and characterise groundwater aquifers in the Wairarapa and at Poverty Bay. Stable carbon isotopes have been used to identify food sources for invertebrates, and to show biochemical pathways in lactation by cows. The geochronology group is involved in major studies in Antarctica, using U-Pb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. Rocks from North Victoria Land, Marie Byrd Land and the USARP mountains are being compared with possible correlatives in New Zealand and Argentina. Strontium isotope data is being applied to the origin of magmas in several regions of New Zealand. The K-Ar data is being stored on computer files. Fission track measurements are being applied to unravel uplift histories in Westland and Taranaki

  11. Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity: Level II, Unit 9, Lesson 1; Force, Mass, and Distance: Lesson 2; Types of Motion and Rest: Lesson 3; Electricity and Magnetism: Lesson 4; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields: Lesson 5; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy: Lesson 6; Simple Machines and Work: Lesson 7; Gas Laws: Lesson 8; Principles of Heat Engines: Lesson 9; Sound and Sound Waves: Lesson 10; Light Waves and Particles: Lesson 11; Program. A High.....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity; Force, Mass, and Distance; Types of Motion and Rest; Electricity and Magnetism; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy; Simple Machines and Work; Gas Laws; Principles of Heat Engines;…

  12. Elementary Particles and Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Chris

    1985-01-01

    Discusses subatomic particles (quarks, leptons, and others) revealed by higher accelerator energies. A connection between forces at this subatomic level has been established, and prospects are good for a description of forces that encompass binding atomic nuclei. Colors, fundamental interactions, screening, camouflage, electroweak symmetry, and…

  13. Forces in yeast flocculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  14. Natural convection with combined driving forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrach, S.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of free and natural convection with combined driving forces is considered in general and all possible configurations are identified. Dimensionless parameters are discussed in order to help categorize the various problems, and existing work is critically evaluated. Four distinct cases are considered for conventional convection and for the situation when the body force and the density gradient are parallel but opposed. Considerable emphasis is given to unstable convection in horizontal layers.

  15. Unit of stable isotopic N15 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera de Bisbal, Evelin; Paredes U, Maria

    1997-01-01

    The continuous and growing demand of crops and cattle for the domestic inhabitants, forces the search of technical solutions in agriculture. One of the solutions able to be covered in a near future it is the escalation of agricultural production in lands already being cultivated, either by means of an intensification of cultivation and / or increasing the unitary yields. In the intensive cropping systems, the crops extract substantial quantities of nutriments that is recovered by means of the application of fertilizers. Due to the lack of resources and to the increase of commercial inputs prices, it has been necessary to pay attention to the analysis and improvement of low inputs cropping systems and to the effective use of resources. Everything has made to establish a concept of plant nutrition focused system, which integrate the sources of nutriments for plants and the production factors of crops in a productive cropping system, to improve the fertility of soils, the agricultural productivity and profitability. This system includes the biggest efficiency of chemical fertilizers as the maximum profit of alternative sources of nutriments, such as organic fertilizers, citrate-phosphate rocks and biological nitrogen fixation. By means of field experiments under different environmental conditions (soils and climate) it can be determined the best combination of fertilizers practice (dose, placement, opportunity and source) for selected cropping systems. The experimentation with fertilizer, marked with stable and radioactive isotopes, provides a direct and express method to obtain conclusive answers to the questions: where, when and how should be applied. The fertilizers marked with N 1 5 have been used to understand the application of marked fertilizer to the cultivations, and the determination of the proportion of crops nutritious element derived from fertilizer. The isotopic techniques offer a fast and reliable mean to obtain information about the distribution of

  16. Reconstruction of driving forces through recurrence plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanio, Masaaki; Hirata, Yoshito; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of reconstructing one-dimensional driving forces only from the observations of driven systems. We extend the approach presented in a seminal paper [M.C. Casdagli, Physica D 108 (1997) 12] and propose a method that is robust and has wider applicability. By reinterpreting the work of Thiel et al. [M. Thiel, M.C. Romano, J. Kurths, Phys. Lett. A 330 (2004) 343], we formulate the reconstruction problem as a combinatorial optimization problem and relax conditions by assuming that a driving force is continuous. The method is demonstrated by using a tent map driven by an external force.

  17. Investigation of penetration force of living cell using an atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Eun Young; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Dae Eun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    Recently, the manipulation of a single cell has been receiving much attention in transgenesis, in-vitro fertilization, individual cell based diagnosis, and pharmaceutical applications. As these techniques require precise injection and manipulation of cells, issues related to penetration force arise. In this work the penetration force of living cell was studied using an atomic force microscope (AFM). L929, HeLa, 4T1, and TA3 HA II cells were used for the experiments. The results showed that the penetration force was in the range of 2{approx}22 nN. It was also found that location of cell penetration and stiffness of the AFM cantilever affected the penetration force significantly. Furthermore, double penetration events could be detected, due to the multi-membrane layers of the cell. The findings of this work are expected to aid in the development of precision micro-medical instruments for cell manipulation and treatment

  18. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  19. physico-chemical and stable isotopes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper details the mineralogical, chemical and stable isotope abundances of calcrete in the Letlhakeng fossil valley. The stable isotope abundances (O and C) of calcretes yielded some values which were tested against the nature of the calcretes – pedogenic or groundwater type. The Kgalagadi (Kalahari) is a vast ...

  20. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015

    Summary

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  1. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar

  2. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope

  3. Stable Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of the halophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the halophytic Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Yan-Lin Sun, Soon-Kwan Hong. Abstract. In this study, an efficient procedure for stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Leymus chinensis (Trin.) was established. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105, harboring a ...

  4. Towards effective and stable probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarullina, D R; Damshkaln, L G; Bruslik, N L; Konovalova, O A; Ilinskaya, O N; Lozinsky, V I

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, generally either lactobacilli or bifidobacteria, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host [1]. Due to the growing evidence of health benefits associated with their use, probiotics are of increasing interest and represent now a significant growth area in the functional foods industry [2]. However, to be effective, orally administered probiotics should survive preparation of dosage forms and passage through acidic environment of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Reaching the intestine, these microorganisms should be able to establish themselves, remain viable and perform their beneficial actions. In this context, oral formulations have to protect probiotic bacteria from gastric acidity and delay their release in the small intestine in order to allow their complete release in the colon. To evaluate effects of starch formulations of lactobacilli on their survival in gastric environment and probiotic properties. Nineteen Lactobacillus strains belonging to the species L. fermentum (14 strains), L. plantarum (4 strains), and L. rhamnosus (1 strain), were isolated from dairy products and probiotics, and were used in this study. Lactobacilli were cultured in de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) broth (Merck, Germany) under microaerobic conditions at 37°C.Amylolytic activity of lactobacilli, cultured for 3-5 days on MRS agar supplemented with 1% soluble potato starch (SPS), was determined with iodine reagent (0.01 M I2-KI solution).Loading in starch was performed with L. plantarum 8PA3 bacteria ("Dry lactobacterin", Perm, Russia), which were resuspended to the concentration 1010 cells/mL in 10 mL of 0.85% NaCl solution and added to 90 mL of 2.5% SPS solution. Resulting mixture was frozen at -18°C and then lyophilized (Martin Christ Alpha 1-2 LDplus, Germany).Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of formulated L. plantarum 8PA3 cells were acquired in air by a Solver P47H atomic force microscope (NT

  5. Stable nuclear transformation of Eudorina elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerche Kai

    2013-02-01

    inducible expression of the co-bombarded gluc gene was demonstrated by transcription analysis and bioluminescence assays. Conclusions Heterologous flanking sequences, including promoters, work in E. elegans and permit both constitutive and inducible expression of heterologous genes. Stable nuclear transformation of E. elegans is now routine. Thus, we show that genetic engineering of a species is possible even without the resources of endogenous genes and promoters.

  6. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-02-01

    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  7. Stable Fly, (L., Dispersal and Governing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L., has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (13 km is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one “lineage”, the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  8. On the habitability of universes without stable deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Fred C.; Grohs, Evan

    2017-05-01

    In both stars and in the early universe, the production of deuterium is the first step on the way to producing heavier nuclei. If the strong force were slightly weaker, then deuterium would not be stable, and many authors have noted that nuclesynthesis would be compromised so that helium production could not proceed through standard reaction chains. Motivated by the possibility that other regions of space-time could have different values for the fundamental constants, this paper considers stellar evolution in universes without stable deuterium and argues that such universes can remain habitable. Even in universes with no stellar nucleosynthesis, stars can form and will generate energy through gravitational contraction. Using both analytic estimates and a state-of-the-art stellar evolution code, we show that such stars can be sufficiently luminous and long-lived to support life. Stars with initial masses that exceed the Chandrasekhar mass cannot be supported by degeneracy pressure and will explode at the end of their contraction phase. The resulting explosive nucleosynthesis can thus provide the universe with some heavy elements. We also explore the possibility that helium can be produced in stellar cores through a triple-nucleon reaction that is roughly analogous to the triple-alpha reaction that operates in our universe. Stars burning hydrogen through this process are somewhat hotter than those in our universe, but otherwise play the same role. Next we show that with even trace amounts (metallicity Z ∼10-10) of heavy elements - produced through the triple-nucleon process or by explosive nucleosynthesis - the CNO cycle can operate and allow stars to function. Finally, we consider Big Bang Nucleosynthesis without stable deuterium and find that only trace amounts of helium are produced, with even smaller abundances of other nuclei. With stars evolving through gravitational contraction, explosive nucleosynthesis, the triple-nucleon reaction, and the CNO cycle

  9. Classically Stable Nonsingular Cosmological Bounces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2016-09-01

    One of the fundamental questions of theoretical cosmology is whether the Universe can undergo a nonsingular bounce, i.e., smoothly transit from a period of contraction to a period of expansion through violation of the null energy condition (NEC) at energies well below the Planck scale and at finite values of the scale factor such that the entire evolution remains classical. A common claim has been that a nonsingular bounce either leads to ghost or gradient instabilities or a cosmological singularity. In this Letter, we consider a well-motivated class of theories based on the cubic Galileon action and present a procedure for explicitly constructing examples of a nonsingular cosmological bounce without encountering any pathologies and maintaining a subluminal sound speed for comoving curvature modes throughout the NEC violating phase. We also discuss the relation between our procedure and earlier work.

  10. Casimir force experiments with quartz tuning forks and an atomic force microscope (AFM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, T

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the measurement series is to study the Casimir force, specifically the effects of different materials and geometries. The art of measuring sub-nano Newton forces has been engineered to a great extent in the material sciences, especially for the atomic force microscope. In today's scanning microscope technologies there are several common methods used to measure sub-nano Newton forces. While the commercial atomic force microscopes (AFM) mostly work with soft silicon cantilevers, there are a large number of reports from university groups on the use of quartz tuning forks to get high resolution AFM pictures, to measure shear forces or to create new force sensors. The quartz tuning fork based force sensor has a number of advantages over the silicon cantilever, but also has some disadvantages. In this report the method based on quartz tuning forks is described with respect to their usability for Casimir force measurements and compared with other successful techniques. Furthermore, a design for Casimir force measurements that was set up in Berlin will be described and practical experimental aspects will be discussed. A status report on the Casimir experiments in Berlin will be given, including the experimental setup. In order to study the details of the Casimir effect the apparatus and active surfaces have to be improved further. The surfaces have to be flatter and cleaner. For better resolution, cantilevers and tuning forks with a low spring constant have to be employed

  11. The investigation of movement dynamics of an AC electric arc attachment along the working surface of a hollow cylindrical electrode under the action of gas-dynamic and electromagnetic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surov, A V; Popov, S D; Serba, E O; Nakonechny, G V; Spodobin, V A; Ovchinnikov, R V; Kumkova, I I; Shabalin, S A

    2012-01-01

    Stationary electric arc alternating current plasma torches are used today for realization of plasma chemical technologies requiring relatively high energy input. Waste treatment is one these directions. The paper reports on experiment results directed towards the increase in the lifetime characteristics of electrode units of the powerful high-voltage electric-arc AC plasma torches. The solution to the problem of obtainment the uniform wear of a copper hollow cylindrical electrode achieved by the controlled movement of the arc attachment along the working surface was offered. Organization of gas supply in the near electrode area and application of alternating magnetic field ensured movement of arc attachment along the surface with average speed from 2 to 14 m/s. Arc current was about 47 A and 84 A, gas flow rate in near electrode area was about 5 and 4.5 g/s. Due to researches on the experimental prototype of a hollow cylindrical electrode, the erosion of its material reached only 3 μg/C, that enables production of the electrode assembly with life time above 1000 hours at currents in the arc up to 100–200 A.

  12. THE CHARACTERIZATION OF GRINDING FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Fielding

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally the grinding process has been a finishing process and the operating parameters and the resuns obtained in this mode are well known. However, wHh the advent of more modern techniques in grinding, there is a need for a greater understanding of the process and in particular a need to be able to predict the forces in grinding. The work reported here is part of an overall programme to study the effects of different dress leads, wheel formulations and metal removal rates on grinding ratios, surlace finish and grinding forces. The work so far has led to the development of empirical relationships based on the various factors in the dressing and grinding operations, these empirical relationships are more easily applied than the relationships developed by other researchers that rely on measurements obtained during testing. The work is now being extended to develop a theoretical derivation on the same principles, the implications of which will be discussed in the paper.

  13. Study of a Microfluidic Chip Integrating Single Cell Trap and 3D Stable Rotation Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Single cell manipulation technology has been widely applied in biological fields, such as cell injection/enucleation, cell physiological measurement, and cell imaging. Recently, a biochip platform with a novel configuration of electrodes for cell 3D rotation has been successfully developed by generating rotating electric fields. However, the rotation platform still has two major shortcomings that need to be improved. The primary problem is that there is no on-chip module to facilitate the placement of a single cell into the rotation chamber, which causes very low efficiency in experiment to manually pipette single 10-micron-scale cells into rotation position. Secondly, the cell in the chamber may suffer from unstable rotation, which includes gravity-induced sinking down to the chamber bottom or electric-force-induced on-plane movement. To solve the two problems, in this paper we propose a new microfluidic chip with manipulation capabilities of single cell trap and single cell 3D stable rotation, both on one chip. The new microfluidic chip consists of two parts. The top capture part is based on the least flow resistance principle and is used to capture a single cell and to transport it to the rotation chamber. The bottom rotation part is based on dielectrophoresis (DEP and is used to 3D rotate the single cell in the rotation chamber with enhanced stability. The two parts are aligned and bonded together to form closed channels for microfluidic handling. Using COMSOL simulation and preliminary experiments, we have verified, in principle, the concept of on-chip single cell traps and 3D stable rotation, and identified key parameters for chip structures, microfluidic handling, and electrode configurations. The work has laid a solid foundation for on-going chip fabrication and experiment validation.

  14. Visualization and manipulation of meta-stable polarization variants in multiferroic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonkyu Park

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we demonstrate the role of meta-stable polarization variants in out-of-plane polarization switching behavior in epitaxially grown BiFeO3 thin films using angle-resolved piezoresponse force microscopy (AR-PFM. The out-of-plane polarization switching mainly occurred at the boundary between meta-stable and stable polarization domains, and was accompanied by a significant change in in-plane domain configuration from complicated structure with 12 polarization variants to simple stripe structure with 4 polarization variants. These results imply that the biased tip rearranges the delicately balanced domain configuration, which is determined by the competition between electrostatic and strain energies, into simple interweaving one that is more thermodynamically stable.

  15. Work organization for splice consolidation

    CERN Document Server

    Bertinelli, F

    2011-01-01

    The Splices Task Force has worked in 2010 to prepare the necessary interventions for 7 TeV operation. The design solution for consolidating the main interconnection splices is well advanced. The required activities to implement it are described, highlighting working assumptions, missing resources and schedule considerations. Progress has also been made in assessing other splices, 6 kA praying hands and corrector circuits: results and ongoing work are presented, highlighting priorities for the remaining work.

  16. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    of coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration......We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts...... by constructing Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), actors minimise mobility work by constructing Standard Operation Configurations (SOCs). We apply the concept of mobility work to the ethnography of hospital work, and argue that mobility arises because of the need to get access to people, places, knowledge and...

  17. The motion control of a statically stable biped robot on an uneven floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, C L; Chiou, C J

    1998-01-01

    This work studies the motion control of a statically stable biped robot having seven degrees of freedom. Statically stable walking of the biped robot is realized by maintaining the center-of-gravity inside the convex region of the supporting foot and/or feet during both single-support and double-support phases. The main points of this work are framing the stability in an easy and correct way, the design of a bipedal statically stable walker, and walking on sloping surfaces and stairs.

  18. Divergence of stable isotopes in tap water across China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Sihan; Hu, Hongchang; Tian, Fuqiang; Tie, Qiang; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Yaling; Shi, Chunxiang

    2017-03-02

    Stable isotopes in water (e.g., δ2H and δ18O) are important indicators of hydrological and ecological patterns and processes. Tap water can reflect integrated features of regional hydrological processes and human activities. China is a large country with significant meteorological and geographical variations. This report presents the first national-scale survey of Stable Isotopes in Tap Water (SITW) across China. 780 tap water samples have been collected from 95 cities across China from December 2014 to December 2015. (1) Results yielded the Tap Water Line in China is δ2H = 7.72 δ18O + 6.57 (r2 = 0.95). (2) SITW spatial distribution presents typical "continental effect". (3) SITW seasonal variations indicate clearly regional patterns but no trends at the national level. (4) SITW can be correlated in some parts with geographic or meteorological factors. This work presents the first SITW map in China, which sets up a benchmark for further stable isotopes research across China. This is a critical step toward monitoring and investigating water resources in climate-sensitive regions, so the human-hydrological system. These findings could be used in the future to establish water management strategies at a national or regional scale. Title: Divergence of stable isotopes in tap water across China Authors: Zhao, SH; Hu, HC; Tian, FQ; Tie, Q; Wang, LX; Liu, YL; Shi, CX Source: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 7 10.1038/srep43653 MAR 2 2017

  19. Forced magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekstein, G.

    2017-10-01

    This is a tutorial-style selective review explaining basic concepts of forced magnetic reconnection. It is based on a celebrated model of forced reconnection suggested by J. B. Taylor. The standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory of this process has been pioneered by Hahm & Kulsrud (Phys. Fluids, vol. 28, 1985, p. 2412). Here we also discuss several more recent developments related to this problem. These include energetics of forced reconnection, its Hall-mediated regime, and nonlinear effects with the associated onset of the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability.

  20. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    development and to discuss various methodological considerations inherent to its evaluation for research and clinical purposes. Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50-75 ms......The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...

  1. Probing living bacterial adhesion by single cell force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Regina, Viduthalai R.

    be considered. We have therefore developed a simple and versatile method to make single-cell bacterial probes for measuring single cell adhesion with atomic force microscopy (AFM).[1] A single-cell probe was readily made by picking up a bacterial cell from a glass surface using a tipless AFM cantilever coated...... with a commercial cell adhesive CellTakTM. The method was applied to four different bacterial strains, and single-cell adhesion was measured on three surfaces (fresh glass, hydrophilic glass, mica). Attachment to the cantilever was stable during the 2 h of AFM force measurements, and viability was confirmed by Live....../Dead fluorescence staining at the end of each experiment. The adhesion force and final rupture length were dependent on bacterial strains, surfaces properties, and time of contact. The single-cell probe offers control of the cell immobilization, thus holds advantages over the commonly used multi-cell probes where...

  2. The effect of air stable n-doping through mild plasma on the mechanical property of WSe2 layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linyan; Qian, Shuangbei; Xie, Yuan; Wu, Enxiu; Hei, Haicheng; Feng, Zhihong; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaodong; Guo, Tong; Zhang, Daihua

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have been widely applied to electronic and optoelectronic device owing to their remarkable material properties. Many studies present the platform for regulating the contact resistance via various doping schemes. Here, we report the alteration of mechanical properties of few top layers of the WSe2 flake which are processed by air stable n-doping of N2O with a constant gas flow through mild plasma and present better manufacturability and friability. The single-line nanoscratching experiments on the WSe2 flakes with different doping time reveal that the manufacturable depths are positively correlated with the exposure time at a certain range and tend to be stable afterwards. Meanwhile, material characterization by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that the alteration of mechanical properties is owing to the creation of Se vacancies and substitution of O atoms, which breaks the primary molecular structure of the WSe2 flakes. The synchronous Kelvin probe force microscopy and topography results of ROI nanoscratching of a stepped WSe2 sample confirmed that the depth of the degenerate doping is five layers, which was consistent with the single-line scratching experiments. Our results reveal the interrelationship of the mechanical property, chemical bonds and work function changes of the doped WSe2 flakes.

  3. Stable Organic Neutral Diradical via Reversible Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenpin; Quanz, Henrik; Burghaus, Olaf; Hofmann, Jonas; Logemann, Christian; Beeck, Sebastian; Schreiner, Peter R; Wegner, Hermann A

    2017-12-27

    We report the formation of a stable neutral diboron diradical simply by coordination of an aromatic dinitrogen compound to an ortho-phenyldiborane. This process is reversible upon addition of pyridine. The diradical species is stable above 200 °C. Computations are consistent with an open-shell triplet diradical with a very small open-shell singlet-triplet energy gap that is indicative of the electronic disjointness of the two radical sites. This opens a new way of generating stable radicals with fascinating electronic properties useful for a large variety of applications.

  4. Objective Force Warrior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shisler, Vernon

    2001-01-01

    This presentation concerns technology aimed at the dismounted soldier, Capstone demonstrations for FY06-07, fielding in the Objective Force time frame, strong interest in a lightweight weapon family...

  5. Packing force data correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiman, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the issues facing valve maintenance personnel today deals with an appropriate methodology for installing and setting valve packing that will minimize leak rates, yet ensure functionality of the the valve under all anticipated operating conditions. Several variables can affect a valve packing's ability to seal, such as packing bolt torque, stem finish, and lubrication. Stem frictional force can be an excellent overall indicator of some of the underlying conditions that affect the sealing characteristics of the packing and the best parameter to use when adjusting the packing. This paper addresses stem friction forces, analytically derives the equations related to these forces, presents a methodology for measuring these forces on valve stems, and attempts to correlate the data directly to the underlying variables

  6. Institutionalizing Security Force Assistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binetti, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    .... It looks at the manner in which security assistance guidance is developed and executed. An examination of national level policy and the guidance from senior military and civilian leaders highlights the important role of Security Force Assistance...

  7. Hanscom Air Force Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MIT Lincoln Laboratory occupies 75 acres (20 acres of which are MIT property) on the eastern perimeter of Hanscom Air Force Base, which is at the nexus of Lexington,...

  8. On the fifth forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, Hans-Jürgen

    1991-03-01

    We discuss the possibility of “fifth forces” in relativistic gravitation theories of fourth order. The fifth force may be an analog to the “weak forces” in the theories of electroweak interactions.

  9. ACC/AHA Special Report: Clinical Practice Guideline Implementation Strategies: A Summary of Systematic Reviews by the NHLBI Implementation Science Work Group: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wiley V; Pearson, Thomas A; Bennett, Glen C; Cushman, William C; Gaziano, Thomas A; Gorman, Paul N; Handler, Joel; Krumholz, Harlan M; Kushner, Robert F; MacKenzie, Thomas D; Sacco, Ralph L; Smith, Sidney C; Stevens, Victor J; Wells, Barbara L; Castillo, Graciela; Heil, Susan K R; Stephens, Jennifer; Vann, Julie C Jacobson

    2017-02-28

    In 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened an Implementation Science Work Group to assess evidence-based strategies for effectively implementing clinical practice guidelines. This was part of a larger effort to update existing clinical practice guidelines on cholesterol, blood pressure, and overweight/obesity. Review evidence from the published implementation science literature and identify effective or promising strategies to enhance the adoption and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. This systematic review was conducted on 4 critical questions, each focusing on the adoption and effectiveness of 4 intervention strategies: (1) reminders, (2) educational outreach visits, (3) audit and feedback, and (4) provider incentives. A scoping review of the Rx for Change database of systematic reviews was used to identify promising guideline implementation interventions aimed at providers. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori for each question, and the published literature was initially searched up to 2012, and then updated with a supplemental search to 2015. Two independent reviewers screened the returned citations to identify relevant reviews and rated the quality of each included review. Audit and feedback and educational outreach visits were generally effective in improving both process of care (15 of 21 reviews and 12 of 13 reviews, respectively) and clinical outcomes (7 of 12 reviews and 3 of 5 reviews, respectively). Provider incentives showed mixed effectiveness for improving both process of care (3 of 4 reviews) and clinical outcomes (3 reviews equally distributed between generally effective, mixed, and generally ineffective). Reminders showed mixed effectiveness for improving process of care outcomes (27 reviews with 11 mixed and 3 generally ineffective results) and were generally ineffective for clinical outcomes (18 reviews with 6 mixed and 9 generally ineffective results). Educational outreach visits (2 of 2

  10. Bow Crushing Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present a basis for the estimation of the internal collision forces between conventinal merchant vessels and large volume offshore structures in the form of gravity-supported offshore installations and bridges crossing international shipping routes.The main emphasis...... is on the presentation of impact loads on fixed offshore structures due to bow collisions. The crushing forces are determined as functions of vessels size, vessels speed, bow profile, collision angles and eccentric impacts....

  11. Security Force Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Group 8-59. Cultures may be individualistic or collectivist in their orientation. An individualist culture is one in which the ties between...relatively little weight on offensive and defensive operations from a U.S. perspective . However, when U.S. forces accompany foreign security forces (FSF) in...precedence when conducting SFA. As a result, the brigade combat team (BCT) may be a supported command from a U.S. perspective as well as acting as

  12. Joint Force Fires Coordination: Towards a Joint Force Answer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fearn, William

    1997-01-01

    .... Components compete for decisive effect not only with each other but with the joint force. The contemporary joint force is confederated, the joint force headquarters a weak arbitration authority...

  13. Mitigated-force carriage for high magnetic field environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtka, Gerard M.; Ludtka, Gail M.; Wilgen, John B.; Murphy, Bart L.

    2015-05-19

    A carriage for high magnetic field environments includes a plurality of work-piece separators disposed in an operable relationship with a work-piece processing magnet having a magnetic field strength of at least 1 Tesla for supporting and separating a plurality of work-pieces by a preselected, essentially equal spacing, so that, as a first work-piece is inserted into the magnetic field, a second work-piece is simultaneously withdrawn from the magnetic field, so that an attractive magnetic force imparted on the first work-piece offsets a resistive magnetic force imparted on the second work-piece.

  14. How structurally stable are global socioeconomic systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Rohr, Rudolf P; Gilarranz, Luis J; Bascompte, Jordi

    2014-11-06

    The stability analysis of socioeconomic systems has been centred on answering whether small perturbations when a system is in a given quantitative state will push the system permanently to a different quantitative state. However, typically the quantitative state of socioeconomic systems is subject to constant change. Therefore, a key stability question that has been under-investigated is how strongly the conditions of a system itself can change before the system moves to a qualitatively different behaviour, i.e. how structurally stable the systems is. Here, we introduce a framework to investigate the structural stability of socioeconomic systems formed by a network of interactions among agents competing for resources. We measure the structural stability of the system as the range of conditions in the distribution and availability of resources compatible with the qualitative behaviour in which all the constituent agents can be self-sustained across time. To illustrate our framework, we study an empirical representation of the global socioeconomic system formed by countries sharing and competing for multinational companies used as proxy for resources. We demonstrate that the structural stability of the system is inversely associated with the level of competition and the level of heterogeneity in the distribution of resources. Importantly, we show that the qualitative behaviour of the observed global socioeconomic system is highly sensitive to changes in the distribution of resources. We believe that this work provides a methodological basis to develop sustainable strategies for socioeconomic systems subject to constantly changing conditions. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Work, environment and reproductive health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Snijder (Claudia)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWith the increasing labour force participation among women in Western countries, many women will work during their reproductive years. This will increase the likelihood that women during their reproductive years will be exposed to a variety of risk factors at work that may

  16. Statistics and Correlations of Conserved Quantities in Mechanically Stable Packings of Frictionless Disks Above Jamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitel, Stephen; Wu, Yegang

    2015-03-01

    We consider mechanically stable packings of soft-core, frictionless, bidisperse disks in two dimensions above the jamming transition. Using an algorithm that generates packings with an isotropic global stress tensor, we compute the distribution of various conserved quantities on compact subclusters of particles, as a function of the total system stress and the cluster size. We consider the stress on the cluster, the Maxwell-Cremona force-tile area, the Voronoi volume, and the numbers of small and big particles in the cluster, and we compute the averages, variances and correlations among these different quantities. We compare two different ensembles of clusters: (i) clusters defined by a fixed radius, and (ii) clusters defined by a fixed number of particles. We find several significant differences between these two ensembles and we comment on the implications of our findings for maximum entropy models of jammed packings. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1205800. Computations were carried out at the Center for Integrated Research Computing at the University of Rochester.

  17. Distribution and evolution of stable single α-helices (SAH domains in myosin motor proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Simm

    Full Text Available Stable single-alpha helices (SAHs are versatile structural elements in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins acting as semi-flexible linkers and constant force springs. This way SAH-domains function as part of the lever of many different myosins. Canonical myosin levers consist of one or several IQ-motifs to which light chains such as calmodulin bind. SAH-domains provide flexibility in length and stiffness to the myosin levers, and may be particularly suited for myosins working in crowded cellular environments. Although the function of the SAH-domains in human class-6 and class-10 myosins has well been characterised, the distribution of the SAH-domain in all myosin subfamilies and across the eukaryotic tree of life remained elusive. Here, we analysed the largest available myosin sequence dataset consisting of 7919 manually annotated myosin sequences from 938 species representing all major eukaryotic branches using the SAH-prediction algorithm of Waggawagga, a recently developed tool for the identification of SAH-domains. With this approach we identified SAH-domains in more than one third of the supposed 79 myosin subfamilies. Depending on the myosin class, the presence of SAH-domains can range from a few to almost all class members indicating complex patterns of independent and taxon-specific SAH-domain gain and loss.

  18. Force Modelling in Orthogonal Cutting Considering Flank Wear Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Kanti Bhikhubhai; Lalwani, Devdas I.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to provide a predictive cutting force model during orthogonal cutting by combining two different force models, that is, a force model for a perfectly sharp tool plus considering the effect of edge radius and a force model for a worn tool. The first force model is for a perfectly sharp tool that is based on Oxley's predictive machining theory for orthogonal cutting as the Oxley's model is for perfectly sharp tool, the effect of cutting edge radius (hone radius) is added and improve model is presented. The second force model is based on worn tool (flank wear) that was proposed by Waldorf. Further, the developed combined force model is also used to predict flank wear width using inverse approach. The performance of the developed combined total force model is compared with the previously published results for AISI 1045 and AISI 4142 materials and found reasonably good agreement.

  19. The poor man's scanning force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra-Vela, Claudio; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2002-01-01

    The Macroscope (Zypman F R and Guerra-Vela C 2001 Eur. J. Phys. 22 17-30), an educational large-scale version of a scanning force microscope's cantilever-tip system, is used in the presence of nonlinear forces. This paper presents quantitative experimental evidence confirming the validity of the beam model (BM) (Eppel S J, Todd B A and Zypman F R 2000 Materials Issues and Modeling for Device Nanofabrication ed L Merhari et al (Pittsburgh, PA: Materials Research Society) pp 584, 189) as a proper reconstruction algorithm. As a teaching laboratory experiment, the force measurements are first done directly with a variety of dynamometer-like setups. Subsequently, the measurements are performed indirectly with the Macroscope from the cantilever resonant frequency shifts and the BM algorithm. Two central results of this work lie in its ability to compare forces obtained by traditional algorithms with known forces, and to illustrate in a hands-on fashion the principles behind the working of a scanning force microscope. (author)

  20. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  1. Allan Hills Stable Water Isotopes, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes stable water isotope values at 10 m resolution along an approximately 5 km transect through the main icefield of the Allan Hills Blue Ice...

  2. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the pharmacokinetic profile or mode of action of a drug substance. Secondly, stable isotopes may be used for the assessment of drug products or drug delivery systems by determination of parameters such as the bioavailability or the release profile. Thirdly, patients may be assessed in relation to patient-specific drug treatment; this concept is often called personalized medicine. In this article, the application of stable isotope technology in the aforementioned three areas is reviewed, with emphasis on developments over the past 25 years. The applications are illustrated with examples from clinical studies in humans. PMID:21801197

  3. Tannaka duality and stable infinity-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanari, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of fine tannakian infinity-categories and prove Tannaka duality results for symmetric monoidal stable infinity-categories over a field of characteristic zero. We also discuss several examples.

  4. On Stable Marriages and Greedy Matchings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manne, Fredrik; Naim, Md; Lerring, Hakon; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2016-12-11

    Research on stable marriage problems has a long and mathematically rigorous history, while that of exploiting greedy matchings in combinatorial scientific computing is a younger and less developed research field. In this paper we consider the relationships between these two areas. In particular we show that several problems related to computing greedy matchings can be formulated as stable marriage problems and as a consequence several recently proposed algorithms for computing greedy matchings are in fact special cases of well known algorithms for the stable marriage problem. However, in terms of implementations and practical scalable solutions on modern hardware, the greedy matching community has made considerable progress. We show that due to the strong relationship between these two fields many of these results are also applicable for solving stable marriage problems.

  5. Minimizing tip-sample forces in jumping mode atomic force microscopy in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Esteban, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Horcas, I. [Nanotec Electronica S.L., Centro Empresarial Euronova 3, Ronda de Poniente 12, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Hernando-Perez, M. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ares, P. [Nanotec Electronica S.L., Centro Empresarial Euronova 3, Ronda de Poniente 12, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Perez-Berna, A.J.; San Martin, C.; Carrascosa, J.L. [Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CNB-CSIC), Darwin 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pablo, P.J. de [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Herrero, J., E-mail: julio.gomez@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, C-3, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    Control and minimization of tip-sample interaction forces are imperative tasks to maximize the performance of atomic force microscopy. In particular, when imaging soft biological matter in liquids, the cantilever dragging force prevents identification of the tip-sample mechanical contact, resulting in deleterious interaction with the specimen. In this work we present an improved jumping mode procedure that allows detecting the tip-sample contact with high accuracy, thus minimizing the scanning forces ({approx}100 pN) during the approach cycles. To illustrate this method we report images of human adenovirus and T7 bacteriophage particles which are prone to uncontrolled modifications when using conventional jumping mode. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvement in atomic force microscopy in buffer solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak force detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Subtracting the cantilever dragging force. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forces in the 100 pN range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imaging of delicate viruses with atomic force microscopy.

  6. Seasonal Cyclicity in Trace Elements and Stable Isotopes of Modern Horse Enamel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels J de Winter

    Full Text Available The study of stable isotopes in fossil bioapatite has yielded useful results and has shown that bioapatites are able to faithfully record paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic parameters from archeological to geological timescales. In an effort to establish new proxies for the study of bioapatites, intra-tooth records of enamel carbonate stable isotope ratios from a modern horse are compared with trace element profiles measured using laboratory micro X-Ray Fluorescence scanning. Using known patterns of tooth eruption and the relationship between stable oxygen isotopes and local temperature seasonality, an age model is constructed that links records from six cheek upper right teeth from the second premolar to the third molar. When plotted on this age model, the trace element ratios from horse tooth enamel show a seasonal pattern with a small shift in phase compared to stable oxygen isotope ratios. While stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in tooth enamel are forced respectively by the state of the hydrological cycle and the animal's diet, we argue that the seasonal signal in trace elements reflects seasonal changes in dust intake and diet of the animal. The latter explanation is in agreement with seasonal changes observed in carbon isotopes of the same teeth. This external forcing of trace element composition in mammal tooth enamel implies that trace element ratios may be used as proxies for seasonal changes in paleo-environment and paleo-diet.

  7. Seasonal Cyclicity in Trace Elements and Stable Isotopes of Modern Horse Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Niels J; Snoeck, Christophe; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The study of stable isotopes in fossil bioapatite has yielded useful results and has shown that bioapatites are able to faithfully record paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic parameters from archeological to geological timescales. In an effort to establish new proxies for the study of bioapatites, intra-tooth records of enamel carbonate stable isotope ratios from a modern horse are compared with trace element profiles measured using laboratory micro X-Ray Fluorescence scanning. Using known patterns of tooth eruption and the relationship between stable oxygen isotopes and local temperature seasonality, an age model is constructed that links records from six cheek upper right teeth from the second premolar to the third molar. When plotted on this age model, the trace element ratios from horse tooth enamel show a seasonal pattern with a small shift in phase compared to stable oxygen isotope ratios. While stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in tooth enamel are forced respectively by the state of the hydrological cycle and the animal's diet, we argue that the seasonal signal in trace elements reflects seasonal changes in dust intake and diet of the animal. The latter explanation is in agreement with seasonal changes observed in carbon isotopes of the same teeth. This external forcing of trace element composition in mammal tooth enamel implies that trace element ratios may be used as proxies for seasonal changes in paleo-environment and paleo-diet.

  8. The Reactivity of Stable Metallacyclobutenes and Vinylcarbenes

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Ryan Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1. Historical Development of Stable Metallacyclobutenes Fred Tebbe and co-workers synthesized the first stable metallacyclobutene complexes in the late 1970’s by treatment of an intermediate titanium methylene species – later popularized as the “Tebbe reagent” – with acetylenes. Robert Grubbs at Caltech further studied this system, using it to detail a degenerate metathesis reaction and to isolate a metallacyclobutane complex – which was implicated in the emerging field of alkene meta...

  9. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Force generation within tissues during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Karen

    During embryonic development, multicellular tissues physically change shape, move, and grow. Changes in epithelial tissue organization are often accomplished by local movements of cells that are driven largely by forces generated by the motor protein myosin II. These forces are patterned to orient cell movements, resulting in changes in tissue shape and organization to build functional tissues and organs. To investigate the mechanisms of force generation in vivo, we use the fruit fly embryo as a model system. Spatial patterns of forces orient cell movements to drive rapid tissue elongation along the head-to-tail axis of the embryo. I will describe how studying embryos generated with engineered myosin variants provides insight into where, when, and how forces are generated to efficiently reorganize tissues. We found that a myosin variant that is locked-in to the active or ``on'' state accelerates cell movements, while two mutant myosin variants associated with human disease produce slowed cell movement. These myosin variants all disrupt tissue elongation, but live imaging and biophysical measurements reveal distinct effects on myosin organization and dynamics within cells and uncover mechanisms that control the spatial and temporal patterns of force generation. These studies shed light not only on how defects in force generation contribute to disease but also on physical principles at work in active, living materials.

  11. Controllable growth of stable germanium dioxide ultra-thin layer by means of capacitively driven radio frequency discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svarnas, P., E-mail: svarnas@ece.upatras.gr [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26 504, Patras (Greece); Botzakaki, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, Rion 26 504 (Greece); Skoulatakis, G.; Kennou, S.; Ladas, S. [Surface Science Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26 504 (Greece); Tsamis, C. [NCSR “Demokritos”, Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology & Microsystems, Aghia Paraskevi 15 310, Athens (Greece); Georga, S.N.; Krontiras, C.A. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, Rion 26 504 (Greece)

    2016-01-29

    It is well recognized that native oxide of germanium is hygroscopic and water soluble, while germanium dioxide is thermally unstable and it is converted to volatile germanium oxide at approximately 400 °C. Different techniques, implementing quite complicated plasma setups, gas mixtures and substrate heating, have been used in order to grow a stable germanium oxide. In the present work a traditional “RF diode” is used for germanium oxidation by cold plasma. Following growth, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that traditional capacitively driven radio frequency discharges, using molecular oxygen as sole feedstock gas, provide the possibility of germanium dioxide layer growth in a fully reproducible and controllable manner. Post treatment ex-situ analyses on day-scale periods disclose the stability of germanium oxide at room ambient conditions, offering thus the ability to grow (ex-situ) ultra-thin high-k dielectrics on top of germanium oxide layers. Atomic force microscopy excludes any morphological modification in respect to the bare germanium surface. These results suggest a simple method for a controllable and stable germanium oxide growth, and contribute to the challenge to switch to high-k dielectrics as gate insulators for high-performance metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and to exploit in large scale the superior properties of germanium as an alternative channel material in future technology nodes. - Highlights: • Simple one-frequency reactive ion etcher develops GeO{sub 2} thin layers controllably. • The layers remain chemically stable at ambient conditions over day-scale periods. • The layers are unaffected by the ex-situ deposition of high-k dielectrics onto them. • GeO{sub 2} oxidation and high-k deposition don't affect the Ge morphology significantly. • These conditions contribute to improved Ge-based MOS structure fabrication.

  12. Active Magnetic Bearings – Magnetic Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Parameter identification procedures and model validation are major steps towards intelligent machines supported by active magnetic bearings (AMB). The ability of measuring the electromagnetic bearing forces, or deriving them from measuring the magnetic flux, strongly contributes to the model...... of the work is the characterization of magnetic forces by using two experimental different experimental approaches. Such approaches are investigated and described in details. A special test rig is designed where the 4 poles - AMB is able to generate forces up to 1900 N. The high precision characterization...... of the magnetic forces are led by using different experimental tests: (I) by using hall sensors mounted directly on the poles (precise measurements of the magnetic flux) and by an auxiliary system, composed of strain gages and flexible beams attached to the rotor; (II) by measuring the input current and bearing...

  13. Motorway maintenance work

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Built 20 years ago, the airport section of the Geneva motorway bypass is now in need of maintenance work and alterations to bring it into line with the new standards. Two-lane traffic will be maintained in both directions during the work, which will be carried out in 2006 and 2007, but there will be various temporary special traffic arrangements in force. We should like to thank you in advance for your understanding. Civil Engineering Department, DAEL, State of Geneva More information: tel. 163 or www.autoroute-aeroport.ch Fewer cars, fewer traffic jams, with www.covoiturage.ch

  14. Stochastic systems driven by alpha-stable noises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Ditlevsen, P.

    1998-01-01

    It has almost become a standard in stochastic mechanics applications of stochasticdifferential equations that the driving forces are modeled as Gaussian white noises, that is, as scalar or vector Brownianmotion increments.However, this modeling may not always lead to responses that comply well...... with observed data. In particular the tailsof the observed response distributions may even for linear systems be more fat than the tails obtained for Gaussianwhite noise input. Also the excitation may show jumps that cannot be modeled by Gaussian white noise. The paper supports the possibility of using...... the larger class of so-calledalpha-stable white noises to provide a better fit. A geophysical application concerning ice age climate variations is described....

  15. Ultrathin and stable Nickel films as transparent conductive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilli, M.L., E-mail: marialuisa.grilli@enea.it [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Di Sarcina, I. [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Bossi, S. [ENEA, Robotics Laboratory, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); The Biorobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera, Pisa (Italy); Rinaldi, A.; Pilloni, L.; Piegari, A. [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2015-11-02

    Ultrathin stable transparent conductive nickel films were deposited on quartz substrates by radio frequency sputtering at room temperature. Such films showed visible transmittance up to 80% and conductivity up to 1.8 × 10{sup 4} S/cm, further increased to 2,3 × 10{sup 5} S/cm by incorporation of a micrometric silver grid. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed quite compact, smooth and low surface roughness films. Excellent film stability, ease, fast and low cost process fabrication make these films highly competitive compared to indium tin oxide alternative transparent conductors. Films were characterized regarding their morphological, optical and electrical properties. - Highlights: • Indium-free transparent conductors are proposed. • Ultrathin Ni films are fabricated with a very fast process at room temperature. • Films have conductivity values up to 1.8 × 10{sup 4} S/cm. • Ni ultrathin films are good candidates for UV and NIR optoelectronic applications.

  16. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal...Air Force Research Laboratory for accurately predicting compositions of new amorphous alloys specifically based on aluminium with properties superior

  17. Local Search Approaches in Stable Matching Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the

  18. Aeromobility and work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Claus

    2006-01-01

    . The boundary between work and tourism is not distinct and there is a very complex connection between travel, work, tourism, and play. He shows that actually, there is a strong ‘material' impact from supposedly ‘immaterial' organisations and this ‘materiality' is particularly linked to the extension of forms......In this paper, the hypothesis is that there is a connection between international aeromobility, knowledge organisations, and environmental impacts. The object is therefore to examine the driving forces, mechanisms, and patterns of meaning behind the increase in international long-distance work...... mobility. The author will draw on a case study which involves two Danish examples of ‘knowledge organisations'. He argues that it is necessary to rethink central concepts of travel, tourism, and working life, in order to understand and describe this kind of international mobility in these organisations...

  19. Working Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... working-parent families are no longer exceptional. The Impact of Working When both parents are occupied with ... and perform a relaxation exercise. Or during your coffee breaks, forgo coffee and doughnuts and take a ...

  20. Stable blood lubricated hydrodynamic journal bearing with magnetic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanoski, S B; Belawski, H; Horvath, D; Smith, W A; Golding, L R

    1998-01-01

    The Cleveland Clinic Foundation's Innovative Ventricular Assist System (IVAS) is distinguished by the use of a special hydrodynamic journal bearing to support the rotating assembly of the blood pump. In a permanently implanted blood pump, this bearing's characteristics of long life and high reliability are of paramount importance. In addition, this bearing's inherent self-pumping flow and the axial through flow caused by an imposed end-to-end pressure difference provides good washing, thus guarding against deposition. The basic computer analysis and preliminary testing results of this bearing were previously presented. This article reports the ongoing studies (both analytic and in vitro tests) on this innovative bearing as a component of the IVAS in general, with particular emphasis on its stable operating characteristics and reliability. The absence of vibration attributable to hydrodynamic instabilities related to the thick fluid film are both calculated and demonstrated during testing. A stable operating center of the rotor is shown to be inherent under magnetic side loads and resulting hydrodynamic bearing forces. A low shear as a result of large fluid-film thicknesses has been calculated, and low hemolysis has been shown by in vitro testing. Several unique design features of the bearing are believed to be responsible for this high level of performance.

  1. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  2. Hispanics in the Work Force, Part III: Hispanic Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escutia, Marta M.; Prieto, Margarita

    This report presents statistics on the high unemployment rate of Hispanic youth, examines reasons for it, evaluates Federal government response to the problem, and discusses policy implications. Minority youth bear a disproportionate burden of unemployment. Among the barriers to Hispanic youth's successful participation in the labor market are low…

  3. Officers at work in a multicultural police force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijes, C.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine cross-cultural perception and cooperation between black, Curacaoan and white Dutch police officers in The Netherlands. It also, compares the findings with similar research carried out in the Dutch Internal Revenue Service.

  4. REPORT FROM THE STS NATIONAL DATABASE WORK FORCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, David M.; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Prager, Richard L.; Wright, Cameron D.; Clarke, David R.; Pasquali, Sara; O’Brien, Sean M.; Dokholyan, Rachel S.; Meehan, Paul; McDonald, Donna E.; Jacobs, Marshall L.; Mavroudis, Constantine; Shahian, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Several distinct definitions of postoperative death have been used in various quality reporting programs. Some have defined a postoperative mortality as a patient who expires while still in the hospital, while others have considered all deaths occurring within a predetermined, standardized time interval after surgery. While if continues to collect mortality data using both these individual definitions, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) believes that either alone may be inadequate. Accordingly, the STS prefers a more encompassing metric, Operative Mortality, which is defined as (1) all deaths occurring during the hospitalization in which the operation was performed, even if after 30 days; and (2) all deaths occurring after discharge from the hospital, but before the end of the thirtieth postoperative day. This manuscript provides clarification for some uncommon but important scenarios where the correct application of this definition may be problematic. PMID:23799748

  5. Cultural Diversity in the Workplace: Managing a Multicultural Work Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Larry G.; Ross-Gordon, Jovita M.

    1990-01-01

    The influx of minorities into the workplace requires attention to their participation in workplace training, to race relations and organizational culture, and to potential communication difficulties. Human resource professionals must address cultural diversity issues as they affect the attainment of organizational goals. (SK)

  6. The bacterial fimbrial tip acts as a mechanical force sensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Aprikian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that the catch bond mechanism, where binding becomes stronger under tensile force, is a common property among non-covalent interactions between biological molecules that are exposed to mechanical force in vivo. Here, by using the multi-protein tip complex of the mannose-binding type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli, we show how the entire quaternary structure of the adhesive organella is adapted to facilitate binding under mechanically dynamic conditions induced by flow. The fimbrial tip mediates shear-dependent adhesion of bacteria to uroepithelial cells and demonstrates force-enhanced interaction with mannose in single molecule force spectroscopy experiments. The mannose-binding, lectin domain of the apex-positioned adhesive protein FimH is docked to the anchoring pilin domain in a distinct hooked manner. The hooked conformation is highly stable in molecular dynamics simulations under no force conditions but permits an easy separation of the domains upon application of an external tensile force, allowing the lectin domain to switch from a low- to a high-affinity state. The conformation between the FimH pilin domain and the following FimG subunit of the tip is open and stable even when tensile force is applied, providing an extended lever arm for the hook unhinging under shear. Finally, the conformation between FimG and FimF subunits is highly flexible even in the absence of tensile force, conferring to the FimH adhesin an exploratory function and high binding rates. The fimbrial tip of type 1 Escherichia coli is optimized to have a dual functionality: flexible exploration and force sensing. Comparison to other structures suggests that this property is common in unrelated bacterial and eukaryotic adhesive complexes that must function in dynamic conditions.

  7. Electrochemical force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Collins, Liam F.; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2017-01-10

    A system and method for electrochemical force microscopy are provided. The system and method are based on a multidimensional detection scheme that is sensitive to forces experienced by a biased electrode in a solution. The multidimensional approach allows separation of fast processes, such as double layer charging, and charge relaxation, and slow processes, such as diffusion and faradaic reactions, as well as capturing the bias dependence of the response. The time-resolved and bias measurements can also allow probing both linear (small bias range) and non-linear (large bias range) electrochemical regimes and potentially the de-convolution of charge dynamics and diffusion processes from steric effects and electrochemical reactivity.

  8. ForcePAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, J.; Damkilde, Lars

    2009-01-01

    ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design and engin......ForcePAD is a 2-dimensional finite element application that started as a concept application for finite element modeling. Over the course of 10 years the application has been evolved into an application that is used extensively in both an educational setting as well as a tool for design...

  9. Modeling capillary forces for large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrangeli, M.; Arutinov, G.; Smits, E.C.P.; Lambert, P.

    2014-01-01

    Originally applied to the accurate, passive positioning of submillimetric devices, recent works proved capillary self-alignment as effective also for larger components and relatively large initial offsets. In this paper, we describe an analytic quasi-static model of 1D capillary restoring forces

  10. Optical forces through guided light deflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton

    2013-01-01

    . In this work we look into the object shaping aspect and its potential for controlled optical manipulation. Using a simple bent waveguide as example, our numerical simulations show that the guided deflection of light efficiently converts incident light momentum into optical force with one order...

  11. The American Psychological Association Task Force assessment of violent video games: Science in the service of public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L; Appelbaum, Mark; Dodge, Kenneth A; Graham, Sandra; Nagayama Hall, Gordon C; Hamby, Sherry; Fasig-Caldwell, Lauren G; Citkowicz, Martyna; Galloway, Daniel P; Hedges, Larry V

    2017-01-01

    A task force of experts was convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) to update the knowledge and policy about the impact of violent video game use on potential adverse outcomes. This APA Task Force on Media Violence examined the existing literature, including the meta-analyses in the field, since the last APA report on media violence in 2005. Because the most recent meta-analyses were published in 2010 and reflected work through 2009, the task force conducted a search of the published studies from 2009-2013. These recently published articles were scored and assessed by a systematic evidentiary review, followed by a meta-analysis of the high utility studies, as documented in the evidentiary review. Consistent with the literature that we reviewed, we found that violent video game exposure was associated with: an increased composite aggression score; increased aggressive behavior; increased aggressive cognitions; increased aggressive affect, increased desensitization, and decreased empathy; and increased physiological arousal. The size of the effects was similar to that in prior meta-analyses, suggesting a stable result. Our task force concluded that violent video game use is a risk factor for adverse outcomes, but found insufficient studies to examine any potential link between violent video game use and delinquency or criminal behavior. Our technical report is the basis of this article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Narcissistic Force Meets Systemic Resistance: The Energy Clash Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedikides, Constantine; Campbell, W Keith

    2017-05-01

    This article focuses on the interplay between narcissistic leaders and organizations. It attempts to capture the gist of this interplay with a model outlining the narcissistic organizational trajectory. The Energy Clash Model borrows and adapts a phase/state physics metaphor to conceptualize narcissism as a force that enters or emerges in a stable system (i.e., organization) as a leader, destabilizes it, and stabilizes it at a different state or is expelled. The model consists of three time-contingent phases: perturbation, conflict, and resolution. Narcissists create instability through waves of excitement, proposed reforms, and an inspiring vision for organization's future ( perturbation). With the passage of time, though, systemic awareness and alertness intensify, as organizational costs-in terms of human resources and monetary losses-accrue. Narcissistic energy clashes directly with the organization ( conflict), a clash likely to restabilize the system eventually. The conflict may provoke the exit of the narcissistic leader or his or her accommodation, that is, steps or controls negotiated between the system and the leader ( resolution). Although narcissism is subject to organizational liability, narcissistic energy, when managed and directed properly, may contribute to organizational innovation and evolution. Thus, several interventions for working with narcissistic leaders are discussed.

  13. Stable chaos in fluctuation driven neural circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo-Garcia, David; Torcini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nonlinear instabilities in fluctuation driven (balanced) neural circuits are studied. • Balanced networks display chaos and stable phases at different post-synaptic widths. • Linear instabilities coexists with nonlinear ones in the chaotic regime. • Erratic motion appears also in linearly stable phase due to stable chaos. - Abstract: We study the dynamical stability of pulse coupled networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons against infinitesimal and finite perturbations. In particular, we compare mean versus fluctuations driven networks, the former (latter) is realized by considering purely excitatory (inhibitory) sparse neural circuits. In the excitatory case the instabilities of the system can be completely captured by an usual linear stability (Lyapunov) analysis, whereas the inhibitory networks can display the coexistence of linear and nonlinear instabilities. The nonlinear effects are associated to finite amplitude instabilities, which have been characterized in terms of suitable indicators. For inhibitory coupling one observes a transition from chaotic to non chaotic dynamics by decreasing the pulse-width. For sufficiently fast synapses the system, despite showing an erratic evolution, is linearly stable, thus representing a prototypical example of stable chaos

  14. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  15. Work Experience and Work Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Jon; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the interrelations of work experience and psychological involvement in work among male college graduates over a 10-year period. Both the occupational socialization and the occupational selection hypotheses are supported by the data analysis. (Author/JOW)

  16. Feedback Control of Floor Reaction Force Based on Force-Reflecting-Type Multilateral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Kazuki; Katsura, Seiichiro

    Real-world haptics is being studied not only for improving feedback on real-world haptic information in teleoperation but also for developing key technologies for future human support. For the remote operating of systems at distant places, haptic information is required in addition to visual information. The haptic information around a work environment can be the floor reaction force, which can be obtained using a movement-type haptic device. The floor reaction force from the environment that the mobile haptic device touches is fed back accurately to the operator. First, this paper proposes a general force-reflecting-type multilateral control. Second, this paper extends the control to feedback control of the floor reaction force by using force-reflecting-type multilateral control and a novel haptic device employing a biped robot with a slave system. The position response of a master system is transformed to a leg tip position command for the biped-type haptic device. In addition, the floor reaction force determined by the biped-type haptic device is fed back to the master system. The proposed method can determine the force feedback to the sole of the foot, which is not possible with a conventional stationary system. As a result, the floor reaction force from a large area can be obtained, and the operability of the control system is improved by using the proposed system.

  17. Toward a stable solid-electrolyte-interfaces on nickel-rich cathodes: LiPO2F2 salt-type additive and its working mechanism for LiNi0.5Mn0.25Co0.25O2 cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weimin; Zheng, Guorui; Lin, Min; Zhao, Wengao; Li, Dongjiang; Guan, Xiaoyun; Ji, Yajuan; Ortiz, Gregorio F.; Yang, Yong

    2018-03-01

    Although the LiNi0.5Mn0.25Co0.25O2 holds the merits of high theoretical capacities and a relatively high operating voltage, the battery performance suffers from the severe cycling decay due to the unstable solid electrolyte interface on the cathode. Herein, we present LiPO2F2 as a salt-type electrolyte additive to enhance the cycling stability of large-size crystallite LiNi0.5Mn0.25Co0.25O2 cathodes. Results demonstrate that 1 wt% LiPO2F2 can significantly improve not only the initial coulombic efficiency by 3%, but also the cycling stability and rate capability at 25 °C. Furthermore, the discharge capacity of LiNi0.5Mn0.25Co0.25O2 cathodes still maintain 156 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles even when the temperature increases to 55 °C. In-depth experimental characterization and theoretical calculation indicate that a new stable and thin (e.g. 15-20 nm) film formed on the surface of the cathodes, with composition of LiPO2F2, LiF, etc., which significantly reduces charge transfer impedance of the electrodes, and therefore significantly improves the cycling and rate performance of LiNi0.5Mn0.25Co0.25O2.

  18. due to Capillary Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen M. Ouakad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present modeling and analysis for the static behavior and collapse instabilities of doubly-clamped and cantilever microbeams subjected to capillary forces. These forces can be as a result of a volume of liquid trapped underneath the microbeam during the rinsing and drying process in fabrication. The model considers the microbeam as a continuous medium, the capillary force as a nonlinear function of displacement, and accounts for the mid-plane stretching and geometric nonlinearities. The capillary force is assumed to be distributed over a specific length underneath the microbeam. The Galerkin procedure is used to derive a reduced-order model consisting of a set of nonlinear algebraic and differential equations that describe the microbeams static and dynamic behaviors. We study the collapse instability, which brings the microbeam from its unstuck configuration to touch the substrate and gets stuck in the so-called pinned configuration. We calculate the pull-in length that distinguishes the free from the pinned configurations as a function of the beam thickness and gap width for both microbeams. Comparisons are made with analytical results reported in the literature based on the Ritz method for linear and nonlinear beam models. The instability problem, which brings the microbeam from a pinned to adhered configuration is also investigated. For this case, we use a shooting technique to solve the boundary-value problem governing the deflection of the microbeams. The critical microbeam length for this second instability is also calculated.

  19. The fifth force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, E.; Sudarsky, D.; Szafer, A.; Talmadge, C.; Aronson, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    We present a phenomenological description of the ''fifth force'' which focuses on the implications of the existing data from satellite and geophysical measurements of gravity, the Eoetvoes experiment, decays into hyperphotons, and the energy-dependence of the K 0 - anti K 0 parameters

  20. Magnetic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelmann, Leon

    Principle of MFM In magnetic force microscopy (MFM), the magnetic stray field above a very flat specimen, or sample, is detected by placing a small magnetic element, the tip, mounted on a cantilever spring very close to the surface of the sample (Figure 1). Typical dimensions are a cantilever length

  1. Separation problems and forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 1350002 ISSN 0219-0613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : separation * set of uniqueness * forcing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2012 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219061313500025

  2. Allegiance: Egypt Security Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    expected after the uprising of 2011 never truly materialized; the Interior Ministry instituted various cosmetic changes, but its basic construct and...military forces located there. The masked men appeared to be shooting and the army responded, shooting back.284 Whatever the stories

  3. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...

  4. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...... is controlled using wall mounted ventilation flaps. In the paper an algorithm for air flow control is presented meeting the needs for temperature and humidity while taking the air flow pattern in consideration. To obtain simple and realisable controllers a model based control design method is applied....... In the design dynamic models for temperature and humidity are very important elements and effort is put into deriving and testing the models. It turns out that non-linearities are dominating in both models making feedback linearization the natural design method. The air controller as well as the temperature...

  5. On some topological properties of stable measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Krabbe

    1996-01-01

    Summary The paper shows that the set of stable probability measures and the set of Rational Beliefs relative to a given stationary measure are closed in the strong topology, but not closed in the topology of weak convergence. However, subsets of the set of stable probability measures which...... are characterized by uniformity of convergence of the empirical distribution are closed in the topology of weak convergence. It is demonstrated that such subsets exist. In particular, there is an increasing sequence of sets of SIDS measures who's union is the set of all SIDS measures generated by a particular...... system and such that each subset consists of stable measures. The uniformity requirement has a natural interpretation in terms of plausibility of Rational Beliefs...

  6. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed.

  7. Air-stable n-type colloidal quantum dot solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun

    2014-06-08

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer promise in flexible electronics, light sensing and energy conversion. These applications rely on rectifying junctions that require the creation of high-quality CQD solids that are controllably n-type (electron-rich) or p-type (hole-rich). Unfortunately, n-type semiconductors made using soft matter are notoriously prone to oxidation within minutes of air exposure. Here we report high-performance, air-stable n-type CQD solids. Using density functional theory we identify inorganic passivants that bind strongly to the CQD surface and repel oxidative attack. A materials processing strategy that wards off strong protic attack by polar solvents enabled the synthesis of an air-stable n-type PbS CQD solid. This material was used to build an air-processed inverted quantum junction device, which shows the highest current density from any CQD solar cell and a solar power conversion efficiency as high as 8%. We also feature the n-type CQD solid in the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of atmospheric NO2. This work paves the way for new families of electronic devices that leverage air-stable quantum-tuned materials. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  8. Stable Blind Deconvolution over the Reals from Additional Autocorrelations

    KAUST Repository

    Walk, Philipp

    2017-10-22

    Recently the one-dimensional time-discrete blind deconvolution problem was shown to be solvable uniquely, up to a global phase, by a semi-definite program for almost any signal, provided its autocorrelation is known. We will show in this work that under a sufficient zero separation of the corresponding signal in the $z-$domain, a stable reconstruction against additive noise is possible. Moreover, the stability constant depends on the signal dimension and on the signals magnitude of the first and last coefficients. We give an analytical expression for this constant by using spectral bounds of Vandermonde matrices.

  9. Strategies for stable water splitting via protected photoelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bae, Dowon; Seger, Brian; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2017-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar-fuel conversion is a promising approach to provide clean and storable fuel (e.g., hydrogen and methanol) directly from sunlight, water and CO2. However, major challenges still have to be overcome before commercialization can be achieved. One of the largest barriers...... photocathodes. In addition, we review protection layer approaches and their stabilities for a wide variety of experimental photoelectrodes for water reduction. Finally, we discuss key aspects which should be addressed in continued work on realizing stable and practical PEC solar water splitting systems....

  10. Quasi-stable injection channels in a wakefield accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Wiltshire-Turkay, Mara; Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Particle-driven plasma-wakefield acceleration is a promising alternative to conventional electron acceleration techniques, potentially allowing electron acceleration to energies orders of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved. In this work we investigate the dependence of the energy gain on the position at which electrons are injected into the wake. Test particle simulations show previously unobserved complex structure in the parameter space, with quasi-stable injection channels forming for particles injected in narrow regions away from the centre of the wake. The result is relevant to the planning and tuning of experiments making use of external injection.

  11. Fifth force, sixth force and all that

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Tonin Zanchin, V.

    1988-01-01

    In the recent literature, a few claims appeared about possible deviations from the ordinary gravitational laws (both at the terrestrial and at the galactic level). The experimental evidence does not seem to be conclusive; nor its is clear if new forces are showing up, or if we have to accept actual deviations from Newton or Einstein gravitation (in the latter case, the validity of the very Equivalence Principle might be on the stage). In such a situation, the attempts by various authors at explaining the ''new effects'' just on the basis of the ordinary theory of General Relativity (for instance, in terms of quantum gravity) can be regarded as logically instance, in terms of quantum gravity) can be regarded as logically questionable. In this pedagogically oriented paper, the problem is approached within the classical realm, by exploring whether the possible new effects can be accounted for through minimal modifications of the standard formulatiaon of General Relativity: in particular, through exploitation and extension of the role of the cosmological constant

  12. Identification of stable fly attractant compounds in vinasse, a byproduct of sugarcane-ethanol distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvez Serra, N S; Goulart, H F; Triana, M F; Dos Santos Tavares, S; Almeida, C I M; DA Costa, J G; Santana, A E G; Zhu, J J

    2017-12-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is a worldwide pest of livestock. Recent outbreaks of stable flies in sugarcane fields in Brazil have become a serious problem for livestock producers. Larvae and pupae found inside sugarcane stems after harvesting may indicate that stable flies use these stems as potential oviposition or larval development sites. Field observations suggest that outbreaks of stable flies are associated with the vinasse and filter cake derived from biomass distillation in sugarcane ethanol production that are used as fertilizers in sugarcane fields. Adult stable flies are attracted to vinasse, which appears to present an ideal larval development site. The primary goal of the present study is to demonstrate the role of vinasse in influencing the sensory physiological and behavioural responses of stable flies, and to identify its associated volatile attractant compounds. Both laboratory and field studies showed that vinasse is extremely attractive to adult stable flies. Chemical analyses of volatiles collected revealed a wide range of carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenols and aldehydes as potential attractant compounds. These newly identified attractants could be used to develop a tool for the attractant-baited mass trapping of stable flies in order to reduce infestations. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. THE DESIGN AND OPTIMIZING THE HYDRAULIC EQUIPMENT PROVIDING A STABLE POSITION CARRIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta SAPIETOVA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a hydraulic device, which ensures stable contact of the working member with transported material – pile of metal chips formed during machining of oversized bearing rings. Virtual prototype of the conveyor is modeled in the working environment of MSC.ADAMS.

  14. R-Stable Embedded DIRKN Method of Orders 4(3) for Solving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The motivation for this work comes from the fact that not much work seems to have been done on the embedded implicit RKN methods compared to the explicit case. In the present consideration, we derive coefficients of the method with minimized truncation error coefficients and show that it is R-stable.

  15. Self-adjusting entropy-stable scheme for compressible Euler equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiao-Han; Nie Yu-Feng; Cai Li; Feng Jian-Hu; Luo Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a self-adjusting entropy-stable scheme is proposed for solving compressible Euler equations. The entropy-stable scheme is constructed by combining the entropy conservative flux with a suitable diffusion operator. The entropy has to be preserved in smooth solutions and be dissipated at shocks. To achieve this, a switch function, which is based on entropy variables, is employed to make the numerical diffusion term be automatically added around discontinuities. The resulting scheme is still entropy-stable. A number of numerical experiments illustrating the robustness and accuracy of the scheme are presented. From these numerical results, we observe a remarkable gain in accuracy. (paper)

  16. Chaos as an intermittently forced linear system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Steven L; Brunton, Bingni W; Proctor, Joshua L; Kaiser, Eurika; Kutz, J Nathan

    2017-05-30

    Understanding the interplay of order and disorder in chaos is a central challenge in modern quantitative science. Approximate linear representations of nonlinear dynamics have long been sought, driving considerable interest in Koopman theory. We present a universal, data-driven decomposition of chaos as an intermittently forced linear system. This work combines delay embedding and Koopman theory to decompose chaotic dynamics into a linear model in the leading delay coordinates with forcing by low-energy delay coordinates; this is called the Hankel alternative view of Koopman (HAVOK) analysis. This analysis is applied to the Lorenz system and real-world examples including Earth's magnetic field reversal and measles outbreaks. In each case, forcing statistics are non-Gaussian, with long tails corresponding to rare intermittent forcing that precedes switching and bursting phenomena. The forcing activity demarcates coherent phase space regions where the dynamics are approximately linear from those that are strongly nonlinear.The huge amount of data generated in fields like neuroscience or finance calls for effective strategies that mine data to reveal underlying dynamics. Here Brunton et al.develop a data-driven technique to analyze chaotic systems and predict their dynamics in terms of a forced linear model.

  17. A single magnetic nanocomposite cilia force sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-04-20

    The advancements in fields like robotics and medicine continuously require improvements of sensor devices and more engagement of cooperative sensing technologies. For example, instruments such as tweezers with sensitive force sensory heads could provide the ability to sense a variety of physical quantities in real time, such as the amount and direction of the force applied or the texture of the gripped object. Force sensors with such abilities could be great solutions toward the development of smart surgical tools. In this work, a unique force sensor that can be integrated at the tips of robotic arms or surgical tools is reported. The force sensor consists of a single bioinspired, permanent magnetic and highly elastic nanocomposite cilia integrated on a magnetic field sensing element. The nanocomposite is prepared from permanent magnetic nanowires incorporated into the highly elastic polydimethylsiloxane. We demonstrate the potential of this concept by performing several experiments to show the performance of the force sensor. The developed sensor element has a 200 μm in diameter single cilium with 1:5 aspect ratio and shows a detection range up to 1 mN with a sensitivity of 1.6 Ω/mN and a resolution of 31 μN. The simple fabrication process of the sensor allows easy optimization of the sensor performance to meet the needs of different applications.

  18. Theory for nonlinear dynamic force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnham, Oscar; Andersson, Magnus

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) is an experimental technique that is commonly used to assess information on the strength, energy landscape, and lifetime of noncovalent bio-molecular interactions. DFS traditionally requires an applied force that increases linearly with time so that the bio-complex under investigation is exposed to a constant loading rate. However, tethers or polymers can modulate the applied force in a nonlinear manner. For example, bacterial adhesion pili and polymers with worm-like chain properties are structures that show nonlinear force responses. In these situations, the theory for traditional DFS cannot be readily applied. In this work, we expand the theory for DFS to also include nonlinear external forces while still maintaining compatibility with the linear DFS theory. To validate the theory, we modeled a bio-complex expressed on a stiff, an elastic, and a worm-like chain polymer, using Monte Carlo methods, and assessed the corresponding rupture force spectra. It was found that the nonlinear DFS (NLDFS) theory correctly predicted the numerical results. We also present a protocol suggesting an experimental approach and analysis method of the data to estimate the bond length and the thermal off-rate.

  19. Biodegradable Piezoelectric Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eli J; Ke, Kai; Chorsi, Meysam T; Wrobel, Kinga S; Miller, Albert N; Patel, Avi; Kim, Insoo; Feng, Jianlin; Yue, Lixia; Wu, Qian; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Lo, Kevin W-H; Laurencin, Cato T; Ilies, Horea; Purohit, Prashant K; Nguyen, Thanh D

    2018-01-30

    Measuring vital physiological pressures is important for monitoring health status, preventing the buildup of dangerous internal forces in impaired organs, and enabling novel approaches of using mechanical stimulation for tissue regeneration. Pressure sensors are often required to be implanted and directly integrated with native soft biological systems. Therefore, the devices should be flexible and at the same time biodegradable to avoid invasive removal surgery that can damage directly interfaced tissues. Despite recent achievements in degradable electronic devices, there is still a tremendous need to develop a force sensor which only relies on safe medical materials and requires no complex fabrication process to provide accurate information on important biophysiological forces. Here, we present a strategy for material processing, electromechanical analysis, device fabrication, and assessment of a piezoelectric Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) polymer to create a biodegradable, biocompatible piezoelectric force sensor, which only employs medical materials used commonly in Food and Drug Administration-approved implants, for the monitoring of biological forces. We show the sensor can precisely measure pressures in a wide range of 0-18 kPa and sustain a reliable performance for a period of 4 d in an aqueous environment. We also demonstrate this PLLA piezoelectric sensor can be implanted inside the abdominal cavity of a mouse to monitor the pressure of diaphragmatic contraction. This piezoelectric sensor offers an appealing alternative to present biodegradable electronic devices for the monitoring of intraorgan pressures. The sensor can be integrated with tissues and organs, forming self-sensing bionic systems to enable many exciting applications in regenerative medicine, drug delivery, and medical devices.

  20. Faster and Simpler Approximation of Stable Matchings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Paluch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We give a 3 2 -approximation algorithm for finding stable matchings that runs in O(m time. The previous most well-known algorithm, by McDermid, has the same approximation ratio but runs in O(n3/2m time, where n denotes the number of people andm is the total length of the preference lists in a given instance. In addition, the algorithm and the analysis are much simpler. We also give the extension of the algorithm for computing stable many-to-many matchings.

  1. Bordism, stable homotopy and adams spectral sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kochman, Stanley O

    1996-01-01

    This book is a compilation of lecture notes that were prepared for the graduate course "Adams Spectral Sequences and Stable Homotopy Theory" given at The Fields Institute during the fall of 1995. The aim of this volume is to prepare students with a knowledge of elementary algebraic topology to study recent developments in stable homotopy theory, such as the nilpotence and periodicity theorems. Suitable as a text for an intermediate course in algebraic topology, this book provides a direct exposition of the basic concepts of bordism, characteristic classes, Adams spectral sequences, Brown-Peter

  2. Drawing works

    OpenAIRE

    Healey, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Michael Healey is an excellent example of a Renaissance artist: that is, someone who doesn’t limit himself to one medium and whose work crosses over many artistic disciplines. A very well known painter and an award winning designer, his work encompasses drawing, painting and printmaking. A recent collaborative research project even involves sculpture; working with a distinguished academic colleague in Australia, Professor Mike Esson, Healey won a prestigious UK research gran...

  3. Gemstone Grinding Process Improvement by using Impedance Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamprommarat Chumpol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chula Automatic Faceting Machine has been developed by The Advance Manufacturing Research Lab, Chulalongkorn University to support Thailand Gems-Industry. The machine has high precision motion control by using position and force control. A contact stiffness model is used to estimate grinding force. Although polished gems from the Faceting Machine have uniform size and acceptable shape, the force of the grinding and polishing process cannot be maintain constant and has some fluctuation due to indirect force control. Therefor this research work propose a new controller for this process based on an impedance direct force control to improve the gemstone grinding performance during polishing process. The grinding force can be measured through motor current. The results show that the polished gems by using impedance direct force control can maintain uniform size as well as good shape and high quality surface.

  4. The Cytoskeleton and Force Response Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Philip Goodwin

    2003-01-01

    examined the roles of several actin filament disassembly factors in the global reduction of cellular actin filaments. The calcium regulated actin filament severing protein gelsolin is not necessary for the increased actin turnover, as cells derived from gelsolin null and wildtype mice still show a reduction in total actin filament content. Instead, our work suggests that the actin binding protein cofilin may be important for these changes in actin dynamics. Cofilin binds to and enhances the disassembly of actin filaments. Using immunological methods, we observe transient changes in the phosphorylation state of cofilin upon force application that suggests that cofilin may mediate actin filament turnover. Early after force application, cofilin is transiently dephosphorylated, activating its actin disassembly activity. Subsequently, we find a hyper-phosphorylation of cofilin, rendering it inactive. This reduction in cofilin activity may explain the stability of the force induced actin structuttes. In testing this hypothesis, we aimed to generate cells that express the constituitively active kinase (LIM-kinase) that phosphorylates cofilin. lnidial attempts in the cell lines used for the our previous studies proved unsuccessful. While we prepare this work for pubication, we are continuing to study other cell lines and tissue sources to determine whether they show a reduction in F-actin content after force application.

  5. Receptum Liability of Skippers, Innkeepers and Stable Keepers in Roman Law

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet YEŞİLLER

    2013-01-01

    Our study discusses the regulations regarding the liabilities of skippers, innkeepers and stable keepers in Roman Law. It is clear from the resources that "actio de damno aut furto adversus nautas, caupones, stabularios and receptum, nautae, cauponis, stabularii" responsibilities used to be regulated in addition to custodia liability arising from the hire of work between the parties, particularly because personnels of skippers, innkeepers and stable keepers were unreliable. These practices, w...

  6. Forcing clique immersions through chromatic number

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Gregory; Le, Tien-Nam; Wollan, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Building on recent work of Dvo\\v{r}\\'ak and Yepremyan, we show that every simple graph of minimum degree $7t+7$ contains $K_t$ as an immersion and that every graph with chromatic number at least $3.54t + 4$ contains $K_t$ as an immersion. We also show that every graph on $n$ vertices with no stable set of size three contains $K_{2\\lfloor n/5 \\rfloor}$ as an immersion.

  7. Manual for the Use of Stable Isotopes in Entomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    This publication was originally intended as an update to the Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Nuclear Techniques in Insect Research and Control (Third Edition) which was published in 1992. It focused mainly on the use of radionuclides in entomological research and the application of gamma irradiation to entomological problems, in particular for Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programmes. Since the publication of the third edition of this manual the global scientific environment has changed dramatically, in part due to technological advances, evident from the widespread use of molecular techniques and the ubiquitous use of computing. There have also been significant changes in the external political environment which have had an impact on the day to day scientific work. From an environmental perspective it is no longer acceptable to release radionuclides into the field, and it has become increasingly expensive to use them in the laboratory due to essential safety considerations. From a social perspective the perceived risk associated with using radionuclides is deemed far greater than it may have been in the past. So, as with many technologies, it is the changes in the external political and social environment which has led to a shift in usage. The decline in the use of radionuclides in entomological research is a result of pressures from the external environment rather than a reflection of their scientific usefulness. Considering these aspects, many of the methodologies described in the 1992 manual are now deemed outdated or obsolete, with the exception of the use of the SIT. Given the increasing global importance of SIT as an effective insect pest control method that is integrated as part of an areawide approach, the Insect Pest Control subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division published a definitive handbook on SIT in 2005, Sterile Insect Technique. Principles and Practice in Area-wide Integrated Pest Management. Scientific boundaries are extended as a

  8. Case work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Ian Frank

    2016-01-01

    Answers to the question just what is the ?case? partly defined the fields of sociology and social work in early 20th century Chicago. Drawing on the archives of the University of Chicago, I describe and appraise the way the ?case? figured in social work at Chicago and elsewhere. I ask...... the corresponding question of sociology. Finally, I briefly consider why not much came of social work and sociology ploughing similar territory in ways that served for a time to hallmark their identities. This analysis opens up ways of rethinking how social work and sociological research are distinctive...

  9. Manifestations of shoulder fatigue in prolonged activities involving low-force contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Bosch, T.; Dieën, J. van

    2009-01-01

    Shoulder fatigue has been suggested to be a useful risk indicator for shoulder disorders in repetitive, low-force work tasks. In contrast to high-force or purely isometric tasks, it is unclear whether measurable fatigue develops in realistic low-force work. The question addressed in this review was:

  10. Torque and Suspension Force in a Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Masatsugu; Chiba, Akira; Akagi, Hirofumi; Fukao, Tadashi

    Bearingless switched reluctance motors, which can control rotor radial positions with magnetic force, have been proposed. The bearingless switched reluctance motors are characterized by integration of switched reluctance motors and magnetic bearings. These motors have two kinds of stator windings composed of motor main windings and suspension windings in the same stator in order to produce suspension force that can realize rotor shaft suspension without mechanical contacts or lubrication. For successful stable operation, accurate theoretical formulae of instantaneous torque and suspension force are necessary to a rotational speed controller and a rotor radial position controller. This paper derives the theoretical formulae of the instantaneous torque and the suspension force from an assumption of simple permeance distribution. This derivation process makes an assumption that fringing fluxes are distributed on elliptical lines. It is shown with experimental results that the derived theoretical formulae are very accurate in terms of practical application.

  11. Probing surfaces with single-polymer atomic force microscope experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedsam, C; Gaub, H E; Netz, R R

    2006-03-01

    In the past 15 years atomic force microscope (AFM) based force spectroscopy has become a versatile tool to study inter- and intramolecular interactions of single polymer molecules. Irreversible coupling of polymer molecules between the tip of an AFM cantilever and the substrate allows one to study the stretching response up to the high force regime of several nN. For polymers that glide or slip laterally over the surface with negligible friction, on the other hand, the measured force profiles exhibit plateaus which allow one to extract the polymer adsorption energies. Long-term stable polymer coatings of the AFM tips allow for the possibility of repeating desorption experiments from solid supports with individual molecules many times, yielding good sampling statistics and thus reliable estimates for adsorption energies. In combination with recent advances in theoretical modeling, a detailed picture of the conformational statistics, backbone elasticity, and the adsorption characteristics of single polymer molecules is obtained.

  12. Mitigated-force carriage for high magnetic field environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtka, Gerard M; Ludtka, Gail M; Wilgen, John B; Murphy, Bart L

    2014-05-20

    A carriage for high magnetic field environments includes a first work-piece holding means for holding a first work-piece, the first work-piece holding means being disposed in an operable relationship with a work-piece processing magnet having a magnetic field strength of at least 1 Tesla. The first work-piece holding means is further disposed in operable connection with a second work-piece holding means for holding a second work-piece so that, as the first work-piece is inserted into the magnetic field, the second work-piece is simultaneously withdrawn from the magnetic field, so that an attractive magnetic force imparted on the first work-piece offsets a resistive magnetic force imparted on the second work-piece.

  13. Increased energy in stable dry-band arcs due to length compression

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X.; Rowland, S. M.; Terzija, V.

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of dry-band arcs on outdoor composite insulators can degrade the polymeric materials' surface and ultimately may lead to insulator failure. The degradation processes are generally considered as aging effects occurring over long periods of time, from years to decades. In this paper, it is shown that if a stable dryband arc is physically compressed in length by external forces, such as electrolyte deformation due to wind or gravity, the arcing activities will become more severe. ...

  14. Labor force plans and labor force status: U.S. women of the college class of 1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Leppel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Many U.S. women who were in their late 60s at the turn of the century were still employed. These women graduated from college in the 1950s, an era when women's labor force participation was low. Data from the U.S. Department of Labor Women's Bureau Survey of the college class of 1957 was used to examine labor force expectations of these women when they completed college. Logit analysis was applied to four labor force categories: full-time, part-time, unemployed, and not in the labor force. In 1957, many women underestimated their future labor force participation. By 1964, though, the trend toward increasing future work expectations may have begun. After examining the retirement literature and factors encouraging older women to continue working, Current Population Survey data on college-educated women aged 65 to 69 in 2003 were used to explore the labor force participation of this cohort later in life.

  15. Integration of Stable Droplet Formation on a CD Microfluidic Device for Extreme Point of Care Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Shruthi Vatsyayani

    With the advent of microfluidic technologies for molecular diagnostics, a lot of emphasis has been placed on developing diagnostic tools for resource poor regions in the form of Extreme Point of Care devices. To ensure commercial viability of such a device there is a need to develop an accurate sample to answer system, which is robust, portable, isolated yet highly sensitive and cost effective. This need has been a driving force for research involving integration of different microsystems like droplet microfluidics, Compact-disc (CD)microfluidics along with sample preparation and detection modules on a single platform. This work attempts to develop a proof of concept prototype of one such device using existing CD microfluidics tools to generate stable droplets used in point of care diagnostics (POC diagnostics). Apart from using a fairly newer technique for droplet generation and stabilization, the work aims to develop this method focused towards diagnostics for rural healthcare. The motivation for this work is first described with an emphasis on the current need for diagnostic testing in rural health-care and the general guidelines prescribed by WHO for such a sample to answer system. Furthermore, a background on CD and droplet microfluidics is presented to understand the merits and de-merits of each system and the need for integrating the two. This phase of the thesis also includes different methods employed/demonstrated to generate droplets on a spinning platform. An overview on the detection platforms is also presented to understand the challenges involved in building an extreme point of care device. In the third phase of the thesis, general manufacturing techniques and materials used to accomplish this work is presented. Lastly, design trials for droplet generation is presented. The shortcomings of these trials are solved by investigating mechanisms pertaining to design modification and use of agarose based droplet generation to ensure a more robust sample

  16. Work cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornby, L.

    1981-01-01

    A simple work cabinet is described for handling materials such as radiopharmaceuticals. The cabinet includes a perforated working surface to which an operator can gain hand and forearm access through an aperture. Clean air is supplied through a high efficiency particulate air filter and withdrawn through the perforated surface. (U.K.)

  17. Sedentary work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dorte; Rosthøj, Susanne; Burr, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between five-year changes in occupational sitting and body mass index (BMI) in working adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from The Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (2005 and 2010, n=3.482). Data on occupational sitting, weight...

  18. Paper works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2018-01-01

    of their land and natural resources, but also of labor and territorial sovereignty. This case shows how an Andean campesino community counters such movements by a wide repertoire of legal and social actions that works simultaneously in legal and extra-legal domains. Paper works mediate claims to territorial...... history writing....

  19. Some interesting consequences from Newton's modified expression of gravitational force in the vector model for gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Van On

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, based on the Vector model for gravitational field we show some interesting consequence from Newton's modified expression of gravitational force: dividing the space into regions around galaxies, maximal sire of stable galaxies. (author)

  20. Physics investigate the forces of nature

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Have you ever noticed that the physical world works in certain ways? Skateboarders use force and motion to perform tricks. If you jump up as high as you can, you'll quickly fall back to the ground. Baseball players use gravity to bring the ball back down when they throw it. When you flip a switch, electricity powers your toaster. Rock bands use electricity to put on a show. The fascinating science of physics helps you understand why forces, motion, gravity, electricity, light, and sound work in predictable ways. Combining inquiry-based activities with physics topics, Physics: Investigate the Forces of Nature features graphic novel illustrations, fascinating sidebars, youtube links, and a glossary of important vocabulary to illuminate the complex world of physics and bring it to life. Projects include designing a skateboard park that maps the forces at work on the skateboarder and the skateboard, and creating a stage design for a rock band that places electric current where it is needed. Additional materials i...

  1. Atomic force microscopy on liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Christian; Schulz, Benjamin

    This chapter provides an introduction to the atomic force microscopy (AFM) on thermotropic liquid crystals. We first give a general introduction to the technique of AFM and then describe the special requirements that have to be met for the imaging of liquid-crystalline surfaces. We also discuss the relation between the quality or reliability of the imaging results and various parameters of the scanning conditions. We briey review the existing work on AFM on liquid crystals and finally describe applications beyond the imaging, such as molecular force spectroscopy or manipulation of surface structures.

  2. Technology as a driving force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvund, T. [Norsk Hydro A/S (Norway)

    1994-12-31

    The competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental shelf has been put firmly on the agenda in Norway since the report from a working group set up by the Ministry of Industry and Energy was released in February this year. If there is to be secured a long future for oil and gas activities, a reduction in the time and costs used in the projects of the order of 40-50%, without jeopardizing the high safety and environmental standards achieved in Norway. The paper addresses how technology can be a driving force in achieving these aims. But technology alone cannot do the job. Progress and changes in several other areas are also necessary, and the new scenario also calls for improved relations between all actors in the North Sea, authorities, oil companies, contractors and labour unions. 15 figs.

  3. Technology as a driving force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvund, T.

    1994-01-01

    The competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental shelf has been put firmly on the agenda in Norway since the report from a working group set up by the Ministry of Industry and Energy was released in February this year. If there is to be secured a long future for oil and gas activities, a reduction in the time and costs used in the projects of the order of 40-50%, without jeopardizing the high safety and environmental standards achieved in Norway. The paper addresses how technology can be a driving force in achieving these aims. But technology alone cannot do the job. Progress and changes in several other areas are also necessary, and the new scenario also calls for improved relations between all actors in the North Sea, authorities, oil companies, contractors and labour unions. 15 figs

  4. Probing living bacterial adhesion by single cell force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Regina, Viduthalai R.

    Bacteria initiate attachment to the surfaces with the aid of different extracellular polymers. To quantitatively study how these polymers mediate bacterial adhesion and possibly their interactions, it is essential to go down to single cell level, with in mind that cell-to-cell variation should...... with a commercial cell adhesive CellTakTM. The method was applied to four different bacterial strains, and single-cell adhesion was measured on three surfaces (fresh glass, hydrophilic glass, mica). Attachment to the cantilever was stable during the 2 h of AFM force measurements, and viability was confirmed by Live...

  5. Functionalization of gold and nanocrystalline diamond atomic force microscope tips for single molecule force spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Michael E.

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has fueled interest in nanotechnology because of its ability to image surfaces at the nanometer level and act as a molecular force sensor. Functionalization of the surface of an AFM tip surface in a stable, controlled manner expands the capabilities of the AFM and enables additional applications in the fields of single molecule force spectroscopy and nanolithography. Two AFM tip functionalizations are described: the assembly of tripodal molecular tips onto gold AFM tips and the photochemical attachment of terminal alkenes to nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) AFM tips. Two separate tripodal molecules with different linker lengths and a monopodal molecule terminated with biotin were synthesized to attach to a gold AFM tip for single molecule force spectroscopy. The immobilization of these molecules was examined by contact angle measurements, spectroscopic ellipsometry, infrared, and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. All three molecules displayed rupture forces that agreed with previously reported values for the biotin--avidin rupture. The tripodal molecular tip displayed narrower distribution in their force histograms than the monopodal molecular tip. The performance of the tripodal molecular tip was compared to the monopodal molecular tip in single molecule force spectroscopy studies. Over repeated measurements, the distribution of forces for the monopodal molecular tip shifted to lower forces, whereas the distribution for the tripodal molecular tip remained constant throughout. Loading rate dependence and control experiments further indicated that the rupture forces of the tripod molecular tips were specific to the biotin--NeutrAvidin interaction. The second functionalization method used the photochemical attachment of undecylenic acid to NCD AFM tips. The photochemical attachment of undecylenic acid to hydrogen-terminated NCD wafer surfaces was investigated by contact angle measurements, x

  6. Stable isotope analysis of dynamic lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Joost; Bailey, Andrew P; Koster, Grielof; Gould, Alex P; Postle, Anthony D

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic pathway flux is a fundamental element of biological activity, which can be quantified using a variety of mass spectrometric techniques to monitor incorporation of stable isotope-labelled substrates into metabolic products. This article contrasts developments in electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for the measurement of lipid metabolism with more established gas chromatography mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry methodologies. ESI-MS combined with diagnostic tandem MS/MS scans permits the sensitive and specific analysis of stable isotope-labelled substrates into intact lipid molecular species without the requirement for lipid hydrolysis and derivatisation. Such dynamic lipidomic methodologies using non-toxic stable isotopes can be readily applied to quantify lipid metabolic fluxes in clinical and metabolic studies in vivo. However, a significant current limitation is the absence of appropriate software to generate kinetic models of substrate incorporation into multiple products in the time domain. Finally, we discuss the future potential of stable isotope-mass spectrometry imaging to quantify the location as well as the extent of lipid synthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: BBALIP_Lipidomics Opinion Articles edited by Sepp Kohlwein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope geochemistry of the Ewekoro formation from Ibese Corehole, eastern Dahomey basin, southwestern Nigeria. ME Nton, MO ... Preserved pore types such as; intercrystaline, moldic and vuggy pores were observed as predominant conduits for fluids. The major ...

  8. petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Subsurface samples of the predominantly carbonate Ewekoro Formation, obtained from Ibese core hole within the Dahomey basin were used in this study. Investigations entail petrographic, elemental composition as well as stable isotopes (carbon and oxygen) geochemistry in order to deduce the different microfacies and ...

  9. Substitution of stable isotopes in Chlorella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaumenhaft, E.; Katz, J. J.; Uphaus, R. A.

    1969-01-01

    Replacement of biologically important isotopes in the alga Chlorella by corresponding heavier stable isotopes produces increasingly greater deviations from the normal cell size and changes the quality and distribution of certain cellular components. The usefulness of isotopically altered organisms increases interest in the study of such permuted organisms.

  10. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  11. Stable propagation of 'selfish'genetic elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    viruses such as the Epstein-Barr virus (Harris et al 1985;. Kanda et al 2001) and bovine papilloma virus (Lehman and Botchan 1998; Ilves et al 1999), which exist pre- dominantly as extrachromosomal episomes, have been shown to utilize chromosome tethering as a means for stable segregation. The tethering mechanism ...

  12. Unconditionally stable perfectly matched layer boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.

    2007-01-01

    A brief review is given of a systematic, product-formula based approach to construct unconditionally stable algorithms for solving the time-dependent Maxwell equations. The fundamental difficulties that arise when we want to incorporate uniaxial perfectly matched layer boundary conditions into this

  13. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that 13C and 18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution ...

  14. Connected domination stable graphs upon edge addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set S of vertices in a graph G is a connected dominating set of G if S dominates G and the subgraph induced by S is connected. We study the graphs for which adding any edge does not change the connected domination number. Keywords: Connected domination, connected domination stable, edge addition ...

  15. Stable magnetic remanence in antiferromagnetic goethite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangway, D W; McMahon, B E; Honea, R M

    1967-11-10

    Goethite, known to be antiferromagnetic, acquires thermoremanent magnetization at its Neel temperature of 120 degrees C. This remanence, extremely stable, is due to the presence of unbalanced spins in the antiferromagnetic structure; the spins may result from grain size, imperfections, or impurities.

  16. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyan, S.; Froehlich, Th.

    2014-01-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known “electromagnetic force” compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20 S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10 6  S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1 S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations

  17. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyan, S., E-mail: suren.vasilyan@tu-ilmenau.de; Froehlich, Th. [Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology, Ilmenau University of Technology, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known “electromagnetic force” compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20 S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10{sup 6 }S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1 S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations.

  18. Three-nucleon forces and the trinucleon bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Frois, B.

    1986-04-01

    A summary of the bound-state working group session of the ''International Symposium on the Three-Body Force in the Three-Nucleon System'' is presented. The experimental evidence for three-nucleon forces has centered on two ground state properties: the tritium binding energy and the trinucleon form factors. Both are discussed

  19. Force Modulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better

  20. Suicide and forced marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Walter, Garry

    2013-03-01

    The prevailing view that the vast majority of those who complete suicide have an underlying psychiatric disorder has been recently challenged by research on the contribution of "predicaments", in the absence of mental illness, to suicide. In this paper, we sought data to support the notion that forced marriage may lead to suicide without the presence of psychiatric disorder. Historical records, newspapers, and the electronic media were searched for examples. Two examples from ancient times and six from the last hundred years were located and described. These cases suggest that forced marriage may lead to suicide and complements earlier findings that loss of fortune, health, liberty, and reputation may lead to suicide in the absence of mental disorder.

  1. Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying basalt weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly basaltic, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from basaltic Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.

  2. Flora rapid reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Васильевич Туганаев

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Flora rapid reaction forces ­– there are explerents that have high productivity and weak competitiveness. Their innately functional allocation is to plant disturbed acres as soon as possible preventing by that biosphere homeostasis disturbance. Disturbed acres were used to take place in geological history. Nowadays they take especially big areas. Considering a historical line of Dactylis glomerata L. authors suggest to separate out an especial group of anthropochores which they call medieophytes

  3. Air Force Leadership Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    College, Air University, Maxwell AFB, AL. He grew up as part of an Air Force family, entered active duty in 1996, and is a career Aircraft Maintenance... artificially limit them to capping out at O-6 if we want to encourage diversity in our most senior leadership levels as we seek to create a stronger...but I am not sure it does. I find it interesting that as of 31 December 2016 the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence , Surveillance and

  4. Ball lightning as a force-free magnetic knot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranada; Soler; Trueba

    2000-11-01

    The stability of fireballs in a recent model of ball lightning is studied. It is shown that the balls shine while relaxing in an almost quiescent expansion, and that three effects contribute to their stability: (i) the formation in each one during a process of Taylor relaxation of a force-free magnetic field, a concept introduced in 1954 in order to explain the existence of large magnetic fields and currents in stable configurations of astrophysical plasmas; (ii) the so called Alfven conditions in magnetohydrodynamics; and (iii) the approximate conservation of the helicity integral. The force-free fields that appear are termed "knots" because their magnetic lines are closed and linked.

  5. Biological factors of natural and artificial ecosystems stable (unstable) functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechurkin, Nikolai S.

    The problem of sustainable development of humanity on Earth and the problem of supporting human life in space have the same scientific and methodological bases. The key to solve both problems is a long term maintenance of balanced material cycle. As a whole, natural or artificial ecosystems are to be more closed than open, but their elements (links of systems) are to be substantially open in interactions with each other. Prolonged stable interactions of different links have to have unique joint results - closed material cycling or biotic turnover. It is necessary to include, at least, three types of main links into any system to support real material cycling: producers, consumers, reducers. Producer links are now under studies in many laboratories. It is evident that the higher productivity of link, the lower link stability. Especially, it concerns with parasite impact to plants. As usual, artificial ecosystems are more simple (incomplete) than natural ecosystems, sometimes, they have not enough links for prolonged stable functioning. For example, life support system for space flight can be incomplete in consumer link, having only some crew persons, instead of interacting populations of consumers. As for reducer link, it is necessary to "organize" a special coordinated work of microbial biocenoses to fulfill proper cycling. Possible evolution of links, their self development is a matter of special attention for the maintenance of prolonged stable functioning. It's the most danger for systems with populations of quickly reproducing, so-called, R - strategists, according to symbols of logistic equation. From another side, quick reproduction of R - strategists is able to increase artificial ecosystems and their links functioning. After some damages of system, R - strategist's link can be quickly "self repaired" up to level of normal functioning. Some experimental data of this kind and mathematical models are to be discussed in the paper. This work is supported by

  6. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  7. ``Force,'' ontology, and language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2009-06-01

    We introduce a linguistic framework through which one can interpret systematically students’ understanding of and reasoning about force and motion. Some researchers have suggested that students have robust misconceptions or alternative frameworks grounded in everyday experience. Others have pointed out the inconsistency of students’ responses and presented a phenomenological explanation for what is observed, namely, knowledge in pieces. We wish to present a view that builds on and unifies aspects of this prior research. Our argument is that many students’ difficulties with force and motion are primarily due to a combination of linguistic and ontological difficulties. It is possible that students are primarily engaged in trying to define and categorize the meaning of the term “force” as spoken about by physicists. We found that this process of negotiation of meaning is remarkably similar to that engaged in by physicists in history. In this paper we will describe a study of the historical record that reveals an analogous process of meaning negotiation, spanning multiple centuries. Using methods from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar, we will present an analysis of the force and motion literature, focusing on prior studies with interview data. We will then discuss the implications of our findings for physics instruction.

  8. Modeling the response of Northwest Greenland to enhanced ocean thermal forcing and subglacial discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlighem, M.; Wood, M.; Seroussi, H. L.; Bondzio, J. H.; Rignot, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Glacier-front dynamics is an important control on Greenland's ice mass balance. Warm and salty Atlantic water, which is typically found at a depth below 200-300 m, has the potential to trigger ice-front retreats of marine-terminating glaciers, and the corresponding loss in resistive stress leads to glacier acceleration and thinning. It remains unclear, however, which glaciers are currently stable but may retreat in the future, and how far inland and how fast they will retreat. Here, we quantify the sensitivity and vulnerability of marine-terminating glaciers along the Northwest coast of Greenland (from 72.5° to 76°N) to ocean forcing using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), and its new ice front migration capability. We rely on the ice melt parameterization from Rignot et al. 2016, and use ocean temperature and salinity from high-resolution ECCO2 simulations on the continental shelf to constrain the thermal forcing. The ice flow model includes a calving law based on a Von Mises criterion. We investigate the sensitivity of Northwest Greenland to enhanced ocean thermal forcing and subglacial discharge. We find that some glaciers, such as Dietrichson Gletscher or Alison Gletscher, are sensitive to small increases in ocean thermal forcing, while others, such as Illullip Sermia or Qeqertarsuup Sermia, are very difficult to destabilize, even with a quadrupling of the melt. Under the most intense melt experiment, we find that Hayes Gletscher retreats by more than 50 km inland into a deep trough and its velocity increases by a factor of 10 over only 15 years. The model confirms that ice-ocean interactions are the triggering mechanism of glacier retreat, but the bed controls its magnitude. This work was performed at the University of California Irvine under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cryospheric Sciences Program (#NNX15AD55G), and the National Science Foundation's ARCSS program (#1504230).

  9. On the Concept of Force: How Understanding Its History Can Improve Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2010-01-01

    Some physicists have pointed out that we do not know what force is. The most common definition of force in textbooks has been criticized for more than two centuries. Many studies have shown that the concept of force is a problem for teaching. How to conceive force on the basis of the concepts and criticism of force in the works of Newton, Euler,…

  10. Force transmission in epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Effect of Work on Health and Work Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Alavinia (Seyed Mahammad)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn many countries through the industrial world the population is aging. Despite an increased life expectancy, improved living conditions, and better health status, the average time people spend in paid work is decreasing. There are several mechanisms of withdrawal from the labor force

  12. Nonlinearly Additive Forces in Multivalent Ligand Binding to a Single Protein Revealed with Force Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratto, T V; Rudd, R E; Langry, K C; Balhorn, R L; McElfresh, M W

    2005-07-15

    We present evidence of multivalent interactions between a single protein molecule and multiple carbohydrates at a pH where the protein can bind four ligands. The evidence is based not only on measurements of the force required to rupture the bonds formed between ConcanavalinA (ConA) and {alpha}-D-mannose, but also on an analysis of the polymer-extension force curves to infer the polymer architecture that binds the protein to the cantilever and the ligands to the substrate. We find that although the rupture forces for multiple carbohydrate connections to a single protein are larger than the rupture force for a single connection, they do not scale additively with increasing number. Specifically, the most common rupture forces are approximately 46, 66, and 85 pN, which we argue corresponds to 1, 2, and 3 ligands being pulled simultaneously from a single protein as corroborated by an analysis of the linkage architecture. As in our previous work polymer tethers allow us to discriminate between specific and non-specific binding. We analyze the binding configuration (i.e. serial versus parallel connections) through fitting the polymer stretching data with modified Worm-Like Chain (WLC) models that predict how the effective stiffness of the tethers is affected by multiple connections. This analysis establishes that the forces we measure are due to single proteins interacting with multiple ligands, the first force spectroscopy study that establishes single-molecule multivalent binding unambiguously.

  13. Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children are harmed when their mothers work. A child’s development is influenced more by the emotional health of ... children for school, both socially and intellectually. The Importance of Quality Child Care Parents all wish for the best start ...

  14. Working hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, G.

    1988-01-01

    The author says ''barehand'' methods, where specially trained utility workers are called in conductive suits to equalize voltage over their bodies, to maintain high-voltage transmission lines are on the rise. Utilities are building lines at higher voltages and selling more power to other utilities, making it highly inconvenient to take the lines out of service. However, some unions view the barehand work with less than enthusiasm. Touching lines energized at hundreds of thousands of volts demands flawless equipment and rigid work procedures followed to the letter. Some local unions contend that adequate safety procedures and training, and appropriate penalties for workplace negligence, should be in place before utilities may do barehand work. The author discusses some of the methods of barehand work and the equipment used, i.e. steel-mesh lineman's suit, bucket truck's boom, helicopters, and robots

  15. Applying a Commercial Atomic Force Microscope for Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy Techniques and Investigation of Cell-cell Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Ayon, Gabriela Monserratt

    The field of research of this thesis is Condensed Matter Physics applied to Biology. Specifically it describes the development of different Atomic Force Microscopy techniques and tools towards the study of living cells in physiological solution. Particular interest is put into the understanding of the influence of noise in the determination of ordered liquid layers above a mica surface - as work towards the study of the role of water and ions in biological processes - and the influence of "diving bell" to boost the Q factor and allow stable imaging and force spectroscopy with tips based on Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy [LeDue, 2010 and LeDue, 2008]. By combining SNOM techniques as a local illumination method (and thus avoiding photo bleaching of individual molecules) and high resolution AFM techniques we will be able to investigate mechano-transduction and associated signaling in living cells and individual proteins.

  16. Tendon Force Transmission at the Nanoscale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this study is connective tissues, in particular tendon. Connective tissues consist of an extracellular matrix made of the protein collagen, which is responsible for the mechanical integrity of the body. While connective tissues may appear simple, there are still many aspects...... of connective tissue function that are poorly understood. One such aspect is the microscopic mechanisms of force transmission through tendons over macroscopic distances. Force transmission is at the heart of tendon function, but the large range of scales in the hierarchical structure of tendons has made...... it difficult to tackle. The tendon hierarchy ranges from molecules (2 nm) over fibrils (200 nm), fibers (2 μm) and fascicles (200 μm) to tendons (10 mm), and to derive the mechanisms of force transmission it is necessary to know the mechanical behavior at each hierarchical level. The aim of the present work...

  17. Limits on new forces coexisting with electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloor, H.; Fischbach, E.; Talmadge, C.; Greene, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the limits arising from different electromagnetic systems on the existence of a possible new electromagnetic analogue of the fifth force. Although such a force may have no intrinsic connection to electromagnetism (or gravity), its effects could be manifested through various anomalies in electromagnetic systems, for appropriate values of the coupling strength and range. Our work generalizes that of Bartlett and Loegl (who considered the case of a massive vector field coexisting with massless electrodynamics) to encompass a broad class of phenomenological interactions mediated by both scalar and vector exchanges. By combining data from both gravitational and electromagnetic systems, one can eventually set limits on a new force whose range λ extends from the subatomic scale (λ∼10 -15 m) to the astrophysical scale (λ∼10 12 m)

  18. Forces between permanent magnets: experiments and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Manuel I

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a very simple, low-cost experimental setup designed for measuring the force between permanent magnets. The experiment consists of placing one of the magnets on a balance, attaching the other magnet to a vertical height gauge, aligning carefully both magnets and measuring the load on the balance as a function of the gauge reading. A theoretical model is proposed to compute the force, assuming uniform magnetisation and based on laws and techniques accessible to undergraduate students. A comparison between the model and the experimental results is made, and good agreement is found at all distances investigated. In particular, it is also found that the force behaves as r −4 at large distances, as expected. (paper)

  19. Forces between permanent magnets: experiments and model

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Manuel I.

    2017-03-01

    This work describes a very simple, low-cost experimental setup designed for measuring the force between permanent magnets. The experiment consists of placing one of the magnets on a balance, attaching the other magnet to a vertical height gauge, aligning carefully both magnets and measuring the load on the balance as a function of the gauge reading. A theoretical model is proposed to compute the force, assuming uniform magnetisation and based on laws and techniques accessible to undergraduate students. A comparison between the model and the experimental results is made, and good agreement is found at all distances investigated. In particular, it is also found that the force behaves as r -4 at large distances, as expected.

  20. Changing Demographics and the Impact on Air Force Officer Retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armstrong, Brenda

    2000-01-01

    ... for a work/life balance among both military members and their civilian counterparts. As the labor shortage for professional skills continues, the Air Force must look for innovative ways to retain its officers...