Sample records for stable upland zone

  1. Structural organization of process zones in upland watersheds of central Nevada and its influence on basin connectivity, dynamics, and wet meadow complexes (United States)

    Jerry R. Miller; Mark L. Lord; Lionel F. Villarroel; Dru Germanoski; Jeanne C. Chambers


    The drainage network within upland watersheds in central Nevada can be subdivided into distinct zones each dominated by a unique set of processes on the basis of valley form, the geological materials that comprise the valley floor, and the presence or absence of surficial channels. On hillslopes, the type and structure (frequency, length, and spatial arrangement) of...

  2. Turbulence Spreading into Linearly Stable Zone and Transport Scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.; Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.


    We study the simplest problem of turbulence spreading corresponding to the spatio-temporal propagation of a patch of turbulence from a region where it is locally excited to a region of weaker excitation, or even local damping. A single model equation for the local turbulence intensity I(x, t) includes the effects of local linear growth and damping, spatially local nonlinear coupling to dissipation and spatial scattering of turbulence energy induced by nonlinear coupling. In the absence of dissipation, the front propagation into the linearly stable zone occurs with the property of rapid progression at small t, followed by slower subdiffusive progression at late times. The turbulence radial spreading into the linearly stable zone reduces the turbulent intensity in the linearly unstable zone, and introduces an additional dependence on the rho* is always equal to rho i/a to the turbulent intensity and the transport scaling. These are in broad, semi-quantitative agreements with a number of global gyrokinetic simulation results with zonal flows and without zonal flows. The front propagation stops when the radial flux of fluctuation energy from the linearly unstable region is balanced by local dissipation in the linearly stable region

  3. The role of near-stream riparian zones in the hydrology of steep upland catchments (United States)

    McDonnell, Jeffery J.; McGlynn, B.L.; Kendall, K.; Shanley, J.; Kendall, C.


    Surface and subsurface waters were monitored and sampled at various topographic positions in a 40.5-ha headwater catchment to test several hypotheses of runoff generation and stream chemical and isotopic evolution during snowmelt. Transmissivity feedback was observed on the hillslopes during the melt period. Groundwater levels and stream DOC were highly correlated with stream discharge. Hysteresis in the groundwater-streamflow relation suggests that localized water flux from the riparian areas controlled the rising limb and main peak response of the melt hydrograph, whilst hillslope drainage controlled the timing and volume of the falling limb. Lateral flow from upslope positions was detected in the riparian zone.

  4. Investigating Unsaturated Zone Travel Times with Tritium and Stable Isotopes (United States)

    Visser, A.; Thaw, M.; Van der Velde, Y.


    Travel times in the unsaturated zone are notoriously difficult to assess. Travel time tracers relying on the conservative transport of dissolved (noble) gases (tritium-helium, CFCs or SF6) are not applicable. Large water volume requirements of other cosmogenic radioactive isotopes (sulfur-35, sodium-22) preclude application in the unsaturated zone. Prior investigations have relied on models, introduced tracers, profiles of stable isotopes or tritium, or a combination of these techniques. Significant unsaturated zone travel times (UZTT) complicate the interpretation of stream water travel time tracers by ranked StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions. Close examination of rSAS functions in a sloping soil lysimeter[1] show the effect of the UZTT on the shape of the rSAS cumulative distribution function. We studied the UZTT at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SS-CZO) using profiles of tritium and stable isotopes (18O and 2H) in the unsaturated zone, supported by soil water content data. Tritium analyses require 100-500 mL of soil water and therefore large soil samples (1-5L), and elaborate laboratory procedures (oven drying, degassing and noble gas mass spectrometry). The high seasonal and interannual variability in precipitation of the Mediterranean climate, variable snow pack and high annual ET/P ratios lead to a dynamic hydrology in the deep unsaturated soils and regolith and highly variable travel time distributions. Variability of the tritium concentration in precipitation further complicates direct age estimates. Observed tritium profiles (>3 m deep) are interpreted in terms of advective and dispersive vertical transport of the input variability and radioactive decay of tritium. Significant unsaturated zone travel times corroborate previously observed low activities of short-lived cosmogenic radioactive nuclides in stream water. Under these conditions, incorporating the UZTT is critical to adequately reconstruct stream water travel time distributions. 1


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Arkhipova


    Full Text Available We studied the change of forestland in the Central Russian Upland within the deciduous forest, forest-steppe, and steppe zones using old maps (XVIII-XX cc. and current satellite images. The forest distribution within the Central Russian Upland has been relatively stable during the last 220 years. On average, the decrease in the forested area was small. However, we identified significant changes in certain regions. In the southern part of CRU, the significant increase of the forested land is caused by the forest protection of abatis woodland and afforestation. During the last 100 years, reforestation took place mainly in the Oka basin due to both afforestation and natural reforestation. New forests appeared generally in ravines within all zones. The analysis of the abatis forests changes from the XVIII to XX cc. allowed us to identify forested area within the Central Russian Upland prior to active development.

  6. First use of a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) technique to trace sediment transport in upland forest catchments of Chile. (United States)

    Bravo-Linares, Claudio; Schuller, Paulina; Castillo, Alejandra; Ovando-Fuentealba, Luis; Muñoz-Arcos, Enrique; Alarcón, Oscar; de Los Santos-Villalobos, Sergio; Cardoso, Renan; Muniz, Marcelo; Meigikos Dos Anjos, Roberto; Bustamante-Ortega, Ramón; Dercon, Gerd


    Land degradation is a problem affecting the sustainability of commercial forest plantations. The identification of critical areas prone to erosion can assist this activity to better target soil conservation efforts. Here we present the first use of the carbon-13 signatures of fatty acids (C14 to C24) in soil samples for spatial and temporal tracing of sediment transport in river bodies of upland commercial forest catchments in Chile. This compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) technique was tested as a fingerprinting approach to determine the degree of soil erosion in pre-harvested forest catchments with surface areas ranging from 12 to 40ha. For soil apportionment a mixing model based on a Bayesian inference framework was used (CSSIAR v.2.0). Approximately four potential sediment sources were used for the calculations of all of the selected catchments. Unpaved forestry roads were shown to be the main source of sediment deposited at the outlet of the catchments (30-75%). Furthermore, sampling along the stream channel demonstrated that sediments were mainly comprised of sediment coming from the unpaved roads in the upper part of the catchments (74-98%). From this it was possible to identify the location and type of primary land use contributing to the sediment delivered at the outlet of the catchments. The derived information will allow management to focus efforts to control or mitigate soil erosion by improving the runoff features of the forest roads. The use of this CSSI technique has a high potential to help forestry managers and decision makers to evaluate and mitigate sources of soil erosion in upland forest catchments. It is important to highlight that this technique can also be a good complement to other soil erosion assessment and geological fingerprinting techniques, especially when attempting to quantify (sediment loads) and differentiate which type of land use most contributes to sediment accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Geochronological correlation of the late Precambrian sequences on and around the stable zones of Equatorial Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahen, L.


    Very few radiometric age determinations have a bearing on the late Precambrian sequences of the stable zones of Equatorial Africa. A geochronological correlation of these sequences must therefore rest upon a compilation of ages from these stable zones and the corresponding mobile zones. About 15 ages of varying precision more or less well tied up with the stratigraphical sequences, together with results of the study of stromatolite assemblages allow a provisional correlation to be made. One conclusion of this correlation is that most mixtites surrounding the Congo basin are in a 950 +- 50 Ma age bracket and are presumably to be correlated. (Auth.)

  8. Analytical modelling of stable isotope fractionation of volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone


    Bouchard, D.; Cornaton, F.; Höhener, P.; Hunkeler, D.


    Analytical models were developed that simulate stable isotope ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near a point source contamination in the unsaturated zone. The models describe diffusive transport of VOCs, biodegradation and source ageing. The mass transport is governed by Fick's law for diffusion. The equation for reactive transport of VOCs in the soil gas phase was solved for different source geometries and for different boundary conditions. Model results were compared to experiment...

  9. Analytical modelling of stable isotope fractionation of volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone (United States)

    Bouchard, Daniel; Cornaton, Fabien; Höhener, Patrick; Hunkeler, Daniel


    Analytical models were developed that simulate stable isotope ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near a point source contamination in the unsaturated zone. The models describe diffusive transport of VOCs, biodegradation and source ageing. The mass transport is governed by Fick's law for diffusion. The equation for reactive transport of VOCs in the soil gas phase was solved for different source geometries and for different boundary conditions. Model results were compared to experimental data from a one-dimensional laboratory column and a radial-symmetric field experiment. The comparison yielded a satisfying agreement. The model results clearly illustrate the significant isotope fractionation by gas phase diffusion under transient state conditions. This leads to an initial depletion of heavy isotopes with increasing distance from the source. The isotope evolution of the source is governed by the combined effects of isotope fractionation due to vaporisation, diffusion and biodegradation. The net effect can lead to an enrichment or depletion of the heavy isotope in the remaining organic phase, depending on the compound and element considered. Finally, the isotope evolution of molecules migrating away from the source and undergoing degradation is governed by a combined degradation and diffusion isotope effect. This suggests that, in the unsaturated zone, the interpretation of biodegradation of VOC based on isotopic data must always be based on a model combining gas phase diffusion and degradation.

  10. Relict thermokarst carbon source kept stable within gas hydrate stability zone of the South Kara Sea (United States)

    Portnov, A.; Mienert, J.; Winsborrow, M.; Vadakkepuliyambatta, S.; Semenov, P.


    Substantial shallow sources of carbon can exist in the South Kara Sea shelf, extending offshore from the permafrost areas of Yamal Peninsula and the Polar Ural coast. Our study presents new evidence for >250 buried relict thermokarst units. These amalgamated thawing wedges formed in the uppermost permafrost of the past and are still recognizable in today's non-permafrost areas. Part of these potential carbon reservoirs are kept stable within the South Kara Sea gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). We utilize an extensive 2D high-resolution seismic dataset, collected in the South Kara Sea in 2005-2006 by Marine Arctic Geological Expedition (MAGE), to map distinctive U-shaped units that are acoustically transparent. These units appear all over the study area in water depths 50-250 m. Created by thermal erosion into Cretaceous-Paleogene bedrock, they are buried under the younger glacio-marine deposits and reach hundreds of meters wide and up to 100 meters thick. They show the characteristics of relict thermokarst, generated during ancient episode(s) of sea level regression of the South Kara Sea. These thermokarst units are generally limited by the Upper Regional Unconformity, which is an erosional horizon created by several glaciation events during the Pleistocene. On land, permafrost is known to sequester large volumes of carbon, half of which is concentrated within thermokarst structures. Based on modern thermokarst analogues we demonstrate with our study that a significant amount of organic carbon can be stored under the Kara Sea. To assess the stability of these shallow carbon reservoirs we carried out GHSZ modeling, constrained by geochemical analyses, temperature measurements and precise bathymetry. This revealed a significant potential for a GHSZ in water depths >225 m. The relict thermokast carbon storage system is stable under today's extremely low bottom water temperatures ( -1.7 °C) that allows for buried GHSZ, located tens of meters below the seabed

  11. Manganese and land-use in upland catchments in Scotland. (United States)

    Heal, K V


    Manganese (Mn) in surface waters is a micronutrient, but elevated concentrations are toxic to fish and impair drinking water quality. In Scotland, undesirable Mn concentrations (> 0.05 mg l(-1)) occur predominantly in upland freshwaters because the acidic pH and organic nature of catchment soils favour Mn mobilisation. The relationship between upland land-use in Scotland and Mn concentrations in surface waters is reviewed. Conifer afforestation is associated with enhanced Mn in runoff. Mn is leached from conifer foliage and litter, and mature conifers enhance acid deposition and loss of Mn from acidified catchment soils. After harvesting, increased soil pools of water-soluble Mn and elevated Mn concentrations in runoff have been observed. Liming, fertiliser addition, drainage ditch construction and ploughing to improve upland pastures, and muirburn on grouse moors may also increase Mn concentrations in runoff, but the evidence is less clear-cut. The extent to which land-use influences Mn concentrations in upland catchments in Scotland is modified by catchment hydrology and soil type. Catchment geology, instream processes and standing water stratification are probably lesser influences on Mn concentrations in surface waters of upland catchments in Scotland. The location of land-use in upland catchments, especially in the riparian zone, is critical in determining its effect on Mn in runoff. Climate change is expected to increase Mn concentrations in runoff from upland catchments in Scotland because of predicted changes in soil hydrology.

  12. Stable Heliconius butterfly hybrid zones are correlated with a local rainfall peak at the edge of the Amazon basin. (United States)

    Rosser, Neil; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Mallet, James


    Multilocus clines between Müllerian mimetic races of Heliconius butterflies provide a classic example of the maintenance of hybrid zones and their importance in speciation. Concordant hybrid zones in the mimics Heliconius erato and H. melpomene in northern Peru were carefully documented in the 1980s, and this prior work now permits a historical analysis of the movement or stasis of the zones. Previous work predicted that these zones might be moving toward the Andes due to selective asymmetry. Extensive deforestation and climate change might also be expected to affect the positions and widths of the hybrid zones. We show that the positions and shapes of these hybrid zones have instead remained remarkably stable between 1985 and 2012. The stability of this interaction strongly implicates continued selection, rather than neutral mixing following secondary contact. The stability of cline widths and strong linkage disequilibria (gametic correlation coefficients Rmax = 0.35-0.56 among unlinked loci) over 25 years suggest that mimetic selection pressures on each color pattern locus have remained approximately constant (s ≈ 0.13-0.40 per locus in both species). Exceptionally high levels of precipitation at the edge of the easternmost Andes may act as a population density trough for butterflies, trapping the hybrid zones at the foot of the mountains, and preventing movement. As such, our results falsify one prediction of the Pleistocene Refugium theory: That the ranges of divergent species or subspecies should be centered on regions characterized by maxima of rainfall, with hybrid zones falling in more arid regions between them. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. How old is upland catchment water? (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe; Gilfedder, Benjamin


    Understanding the dynamics of water supply catchments is an essential part of water management. Upland catchments provide a continuous, reliable source of high quality water not only for some of the world's biggest cities, but also for agriculture and industry. Headwater streams control river flow in lowland agricultural basins as the majority of river discharge emerges from upland catchments. Many rivers are perennial and flow throughout the year, even during droughts. However, it is still unclear how reliable and continuous upland catchment water resources really are. Despite many efforts in upland catchment research, there is still little known about where the water is stored and how long it takes to travel through upper catchments. Resolving these questions is crucial to ensure that this resource is protected from changing land use and to estimate potential impacts from a changing climate. Previous research in this important area has been limited by existing measurement techniques. Knowledge to date has relied heavily on the use of variation in stable isotope signals to estimate the age and origin of water from upland catchments. The problem with relying on these measures is that as the water residence time increases, the variation in the stable isotope signal decreases. After a maximum period of four years, no variation can be detected This means that to date, the residence time in upland catchments is likely to have been vastly underestimated. Consequently, the proportion of water flow out of upland river catchments to the total river flow is also underestimated. Tritium (3H) combines directly with water molecules and enters the flow paths with the infiltrating water. Its half-life (12.32 years) makes it ideal to describe residence times in upper catchment reservoirs as it can theoretically measure water up to about 150 years old. The bomb pulse peak in the southern hemisphere was several orders of magnitude lower than in the northern hemisphere. Hence the

  14. Use of stable carbon isotope analysis to assess natural attenuation of organic contaminants in the unsaturated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, D.; Hunkeler, D.; Aravena, R.; Kjeldsen, P.; Gaganis, P.; Hohener, P.


    Introduction Natural attenuation is an attractive remediation strategy when dealing with petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated sites because of its cost efficiency. The unsaturated zone can play an important role in regulating the contaminant transfer between soil and groundwater. On one hand, contaminants from the soil zone may be degraded in the unsaturated zone thus preventing groundwater contamination. On the other hand, contaminants diffusing from the subsurface towards the atmosphere may be eliminated before reaching potential targets. Biodegradation is usually the main process leading to contaminant destruction and is usually considered to be the only process to influence 13 C/ 12 C ratio of organic contaminants in the saturated zone. Therefore, carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis has been used as a tool to demonstrate biodegradation (Griebler et al. 2004, Steinbach et al. 2004). Carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation occurs during biodegradation as a consequence of the slightly faster cleavage of chemical bonds between light isotopes of an element compared to heavy isotopes. The difference in degradation rates leads to an enrichment of the heavy isotopes in the residual contaminant pool compared to the initial value. Most of the field studies focused on the saturated zone (Meckenstock et al. 2004) compare to only few studies on the unsaturated zone (Kirtland et al. 2005, Stehmeier et al. 1999). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether compound-specific stable isotope analysis can be used to demonstrate biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the unsaturated zone. The study included a field experiment and mathematical simulations. At the field site, a defined mixture of hydrocarbons was buried in a sandy unsaturated zone and the evolution of concentration and isotope ratios of various hydrocarbons was followed using a dense network of sampling points. The study was complemented with two mathematical simulations performed to gain insight into the

  15. Multi-Zone hybrid model for failure detection of the stable ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi; Schiøler, Henrik; Soltani, Mohsen


    In this paper, a conceptual multi-zone model for climate control of a live stock building is elaborated. The main challenge of this research is to estimate the parameters of a nonlinear hybrid model. A recursive estimation algorithm, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is implemented for estimation...

  16. Structured heterogeneity in a marine terrace chronosequence: Upland mottling (United States)

    Schulz, Marjorie S.; Stonestrom, David A.; Lawrence, Corey R.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Fitzpatrick, John; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Manning, Jane; Mnich, Meagan


    Soil mottles generally are interpreted as a product of reducing conditions during periods of water saturation. The upland soils of the Santa Cruz, CA, marine terrace chronosequence display an evolving sequence of reticulate mottling from the youngest soil (65 ka) without mottles to the oldest soil (225 ka) with well-developed mottles. The mottles consist of an interconnected network of clay and C-enriched regions (gray, 2.5Y 6/1) bordered by leached parent material (white, 2.5Y 8/1) within a diminishing matrix of oxidized parent material (orange, 7.5YR 5/8). The mottles develop in soils that formed from relatively uniform nearshore sediments and occur below the depth of soil bioturbation. To explore how a presumably wetland feature occurs in an unsaturated upland soil, physical and chemical characteristics of mottle separates (orange, gray, and white) were compared through the deep time represented by the soil chronosequence. Mineralogical, isotopic, and surface-area differences among mottle separates indicate that rhizogenic centimeter-scale mass transfer acting across millennia is an integral part of weathering, pedogenesis, and C and nutrient transfer. Elemental analysis, electron microscopy, and Fe-isotope systematics indicate that mottle development is driven by deep roots together with their fungal and microbial symbionts. Taken together, these data suggest that deep soil horizons on old stable landforms can develop reticulate mottling as the long-term imprint of rhizospheric processes. The processes of rhizogenic mottle formation appear to regulate pedogenesis, nutrients, and C sequestration at depth in unsaturated zones.

  17. Element cycling in upland/peatland watersheds Chapter 8. (United States)

    Noel Urban; Elon S. Verry; Steven Eisenreich; David F. Grigal; Stephen D. Sebestyen


    Studies at the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) have measured the pools, cycling, and transport of a variety of elements in both the upland and peatland components of the landscape. Peatlands are important zones of element retention and biogeochemical reactions that greatly influence the chemistry of surface water. In this chapter, we summarize findings on nitrogen (N...

  18. Investigation of Vertical Migration of Pollutants through the Unsaturated Zone Using Stable Isotopes and Trace Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.A.


    Vertical migration of pollutants through unsaturated zone is a complicated process and is affected by a number of factors like type of soil, its chemical properties, or organic matter content, in addition to climatic conditions and biological activity of microorganisms in soil. Soil properties that influence water movement through unsaturated zone are important for determining flow paths, reactions between soil and pollutants and the ultimate destination of these pollutants, and may improve the diagnosis of the potential pollution risk. Three soil cores were sampled to a depth up to 100 cm from cultivated clayey soil, sewage irrigated sandy soil and fertilized sandy soil. The samples were collected at intervals of 5 or 10 cm. The δ 13 C signature of the soil shifted significantly towards that of C 3 -type vegetation in soil cores. The general trend toward heavier 13 C enrichment with depth could be due to isotopic fractionation occurring during decomposition of soil organic matters. Increased δ 15 N with depth in the soil cores suggests that microbial mineralization, denitrification, or volatilization processes caused the enriched δ 15 N signatures. Decreasing nitrogen percent and nitrate values with depth also help support the idea of microbiological processes. The results indicate that concentrations of major and trace elements varied widely among the different soil types and decreased with depths in the studied soil profile. The accumulation pattern for these elements in the soil profiles follows the order: Co < Ni < Mo < Ag < Sr < V < Cu < Cr < Zn < Mn < B < Mg < Al < Fe. The relationships between element concentrations against ph and organic matter contents show antithetical relationships and suggest evidence that these elements arise from anthropogenic input. The results of this study show that there exists risk for the environment due to notable migration of pollutants through the unsaturated zone and that the migrations were also observed to be highly

  19. Preliminary investigation into the zone of support influence and stable span between support units.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Daehnke, A


    Full Text Available ).........................................................................................................31 Figure 2.2.12Graph showing the effect of clamping stresses on the factor of safety of wedge- shaped blocks (after Daehnke et al., 1998).......................................................31 Figure 2.3.1(a) Joint with in... support unit (b = 1,0 m, j = 40o, F = 200 kN, w = 0,5 m).. ........................66 Figure 4.3.2 Maximum extent of the zone of support influence governed by bedding plane friction angle, ϕ, and bedding plane height, b...

  20. Bacterioplankton communities of Crater Lake, OR: Dynamic changes with euphotic zone food web structure and stable deep water populations (United States)

    Urbach, E.; Vergin, K.L.; Larson, G.L.; Giovannoni, S.J.


    The distribution of bacterial and archaeal species in Crater Lake plankton varies dramatically over depth and with time, as assessed by hybridization of group-specific oligonucleotides to RNA extracted from lakewater. Nonmetric, multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of relative bacterial phylotype densities revealed complex relationships among assemblages sampled from depth profiles in July, August and September of 1997 through 1999. CL500-11 green nonsulfur bacteria (Phylum Chloroflexi) and marine Group I crenarchaeota are consistently dominant groups in the oxygenated deep waters at 300 and 500 m. Other phylotypes found in the deep waters are similar to surface and mid-depth populations and vary with time. Euphotic zone assemblages are dominated either by ??-proteobacteria or CL120-10 verrucomicrobia, and ACK4 actinomycetes. MDS analyses of euphotic zone populations in relation to environmental variables and phytoplankton and zooplankton population structures reveal apparent links between Daphnia pulicaria zooplankton population densities and microbial community structure. These patterns may reflect food web interactions that link kokanee salmon population densities to community structure of the bacterioplankton, via fish predation on Daphnia with cascading consequences to Daphnia bacterivory and predation on bacterivorous protists. These results demonstrate a stable bottom-water microbial community. They also extend previous observations of food web-driven changes in euphotic zone bacterioplankton community structure to an oligotrophic setting. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. State of radionuclides in seawater. Comparison of natural stable and artificial radioactive isotope s of mercury and zinc in natural waters of the arid zone of the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhmatov, U; Khikmatov, K; Kist, A.A.; Kulmatov, R.A.; Teshabaev, S.T.; Volkov, A.A.


    This paper studies the state of stable and artificial radioactive isotopes of merury and zinc in natural waters of the arid zone of the USSR by radioactivity and radiochemical methods. Convergent results have been obtained for the dissolved forms of mercury and zinc in natural waters of the arid zone in a comparison of the results of radioactivation analysis and laboratory simulation using the radionuclides mercury-203 and zinc-65

  2. Evaluation of the contamination by stable and unstable isotopes in the coastal zones associated to hydrographic basins of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria Meneses, Luis Guillermo; Lizano Rodriguez, Omar G.; Salazar Matarrita, Alfonso; Jimenez Dam, Ricardo


    The degree of contamination by the stable and unstable isotopes concentration in sediments of beaches of Costa Rica is evaluated. It establishes relations between the trace elements in sediments from beaches not associated to hydrographic basins and associated sediments to basins. The totality of sediments coming of beaches were analyzed by the technique of gamma spectroscopy and x-rays spectroscopy. It was determined that the beaches associated to bays and gulfs present greater concentrations as for the presence of radioactive isotopes. In addition, the existing concentrations for unstable isotopes present low values in the zones of open sea; whereas the values of radiation background in beaches and gulfs allow, to future, to detect if is presenting anthropogenic contamination of origin in that type of isotopes or could be a greater presence of these. The obtained results show that the values of radiation of background in beaches were unknown, as well as the unstable isotopes concentration. Also was found the presence of Cs 137, which comes normally from nuclear blasts. The work already includes two published documents [es

  3. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all cultivated...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton means...

  5. Positron annihilation lifetime in float-zone n-type silicon irradiated by fast electrons: a thermally stable vacancy defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, Nikolay [Martin Luther University Halle, Department of Physics, von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Ion-Plasma and Laser Technologies (Institute of Electronics), 700170 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Emtsev, Vadim; Oganesyan, Gagik [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard [Martin Luther University Halle, Department of Physics, von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Elsayed, Mohamed [Martin Luther University Halle, Department of Physics, von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Minia University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, 61519 Minia (Egypt); Kozlovskii, Vitalii [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    Temperature dependency of the average positron lifetime has been investigated for n-type float-zone silicon, n-FZ-Si(P), subjected to irradiation with 0.9 MeV electrons at RT. In the course of the isochronal annealing a new defect-related temperature-dependent pattern of the positron lifetime spectra has been revealed. Beyond the well known intervals of isochronal annealing of acceptor-like defects such as E-centers, divacancies and A-centers, the positron annihilation at the vacancy defects has been observed in the course of the isochronal annealing from ∝ 320 C up to the limit of reliable detecting of the defect-related positron annihilation lifetime at ≥ 500 C. These data correlate with the ones of recovery of the concentration of the charge carriers and their mobility which is found to continue in the course of annealing to ∝ 570 C; the annealing is accomplished at ∝650 C. A thermally stable complex consisting of the open vacancy volume and the phosphorus impurity atom, V{sub op}-P, is suggested as a possible candidate for interpreting the data obtained by the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. An extended couple of semi-vacancies, 2V{sub s-ext}, as well as a relaxed inwards a couple of vacancies, 2V{sub inw}, are suggested as the open vacancy volume V{sub op} to be probed with the positron. It is argued that a high thermal stability of the V{sub s-ext} PV{sub s-ext} (or V{sub inw}PV{sub inw.}) configuration is contributed by the efficiency of PSi{sub 5} bonding. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Towards a science of sustainable upland management in developing countries (United States)

    Carpenter, Richard A.; Harper, David E.


    Farmers attempting to subsist in tropical uplands often rely upon unsustainable resource use practices that lead to soil erosion, declining crop yields, and a loss of soil productivity capacity. Other uses of tropical uplands, including logging and conversion of forest to rangelands, have similar results. The undesirable effects of these actions are felt on-site, at the watershed level, and even nationally. Ecological cause-effect relationships are poorly understood, and few examples exist of the successful integration of ecological knowledge with upland development. It is hypothesized that recent results of ecological research could be applied to uplands management so that stable sustainable systems of human use may be established. A second hypothesis is that statistically reliable data can be obtained from experiments in upland situations, although natural variations of soils, weather, and vegetation are great. To test these hypotheses, research involving multinational collaboration among American and Southeast Asian scientists has begun. The objective of the work is to provide credible quantitative information to help policy and decision makers and resident farmers to plan and implement improved practices based on ecological principles. Some findings to date include: 1. Ecological principles are difficult to relate to the practical context of upland agroecosystems. Indeed, the null hypothesis is necessary for planning experiments and demonstrations. 2. The “signal-to-noise” ratio in these field experiments is low, and the detection of changes due to human intervention in soil erosion, nutrient movement, and plant productivity is difficult. 3. Obstacles to field research in developing countries include logistic, cultural, political, and institutional factors. It is essential that local land managers participate from the start with scientific researchers in designing experiments. 4. Planned collaboration among academic and government scientists facilitates

  7. Methods for snowmelt forecasting in upland Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Moore


    Full Text Available Snow, whilst not a dominant feature of Britain's maritime climate, can exert a significant influence on major floods through its contribution as snowmelt. Flood warning systems which fail to take account of melting snow can prove highly misleading. Selected results of a study on methods for improved snowmelt forecasting using trail catchments in upland Britain are presented here. Melt models considered range from a temperature excess formulation, with the option to include wind and rain heating effects, to a full energy budget melt formulation. Storage of melt in the pack is controlled by a store with two outlets, allowing slow release of water followed by rapid release once a critical liquid water content is reached. For shallow snow packs, a partial cover curve determines the proportion of the catchment over which snow extends. The melt, storage and release mechanisms together constitute the PACK snowmelt module which provides inputs to the catchment model. Either a lumped or distributed catchment model can be used, configured to receive snowmelt inputs from elevation zones within the catchment; a PACK snowmelt module operates independently within each zone and its inputs are controlled by appropriate elevation lapse rates. Measurements of snow depth and/or water equivalent, from snow cores or a snow pillow, are assimilated to correct for a lack of direct snowfall measurements needed to maintain a water balance during snowfall. The updating scheme involves operating a PACK module at the measurement site (the 'point model' in parallel to PACK modules in the catchment model, with point model errors being transferred using a proportioning scheme to adjust the snowpack water contents of the catchment model. The results of the assessment of different model variants broadly favour the simpler model formulations. Hourly automatic monitoring of water equivalent using the snow pillow can help in updating the model but preferential melting from the

  8. Characterization of Mixing Processes in the Confluence Zone between the Three Gorges Reservoir Mainstream and the Daning River Using Stable Isotope Analysis. (United States)

    Zhao, Yunyun; Zheng, Binghui; Wang, Lijing; Qin, Yanwen; Li, Hong; Cao, Wei


    Understanding the interaction processes between the mainstream and its tributaries and detailing the rates of contribution of water and nutrients from two different waterbodies in the confluence zone are essential for water management in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). The stable isotope ratios of hydrogen (δD) and oxygen (δ(18)O) were applied to explore the interactions between the TGR mainstream and a typical tributary, the Daning River. The results of the model calculations showed that approximately 78.9% of the water and 88% of the nitrate in the confluence zone were from the TGR mainstream. The dynamic vertical distributions of the mixing ratios, major ion contributions, and flow velocities indicated that the water mass from the Yangtze River mainstream flowed backward from the confluence zone up to the tributary along the surface and upper-middle layers, whereas water from the tributary flowed into the mainstream through the lower-middle and bottom layers. This study demonstrates the value of hydrogen and oxygen isotope tracers in accurately describing water mass mixing processes and estimating the rates of contribution of different nutrient sources in the confluence zone, which will provide valuable information for controlling algal blooms in the future.

  9. Cryptic Methane Emissions from Upland Forest Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megonigal, Patrick [Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Pitz, Scott [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States)


    This exploratory research on Cryptic Methane Emissions from Upland Forest Ecosystems was motivated by evidence that upland ecosystems emit 36% as much methane to the atmosphere as global wetlands, yet we knew almost nothing about this source. The long-term objective was to refine Earth system models by quantifying methane emissions from upland forests, and elucidate the biogeochemical processes that govern upland methane emissions. The immediate objectives of the grant were to: (i) test the emerging paradigm that upland trees unexpectedly transpire methane, (ii) test the basic biogeochemical assumptions of an existing global model of upland methane emissions, and (iii) develop the suite of biogeochemical approaches that will be needed to advance research on upland methane emissions. We instrumented a temperate forest system in order to explore the processes that govern upland methane emissions. We demonstrated that methane is emitted from the stems of dominant tree species in temperate upland forests. Tree emissions occurred throughout the growing season, while soils adjacent to the trees consumed methane simultaneously, challenging the concept that forests are uniform sinks of methane. High frequency measurements revealed diurnal cycling in the rate of methane emissions, pointing to soils as the methane source and transpiration as the most likely pathway for methane transport. We propose the forests are smaller methane sinks than previously estimated due to stem emissions. Stem emissions may be particularly important in upland tropical forests characterized by high rainfall and transpiration, resolving differences between models and measurements. The methods we used can be effectively implemented in order to determine if the phenomenon is widespread.

  10. The high Andes, gene flow and a stable hybrid zone shape the genetic structure of a wide-ranging South American parrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer H Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the gene flow in some organisms is strongly affected by physical barriers and geographical distance, other highly mobile species are able to overcome such constraints. In southern South America, the Andes (here up to 6,900 m may constitute a formidable barrier to dispersal. In addition, this region was affected by cycles of intercalating arid/moist periods during the Upper/Late Pleistocene and Holocene. These factors may have been crucial in driving the phylogeographic structure of the vertebrate fauna of the region. Here we test these hypotheses in the burrowing parrot Cyanoliseus patagonus (Aves, Psittaciformes across its wide distributional range in Chile and Argentina. Results Our data show a Chilean origin for this species, with a single migration event across the Andes during the Upper/Late Pleistocene, which gave rise to all extant Argentinean mitochondrial lineages. Analyses suggest a complex population structure for burrowing parrots in Argentina, which includes a hybrid zone that has remained stable for several thousand years. Within this zone, introgression by expanding haplotypes has resulted in the evolution of an intermediate phenotype. Multivariate regressions show that present day climatic variables have a strong influence on the distribution of genetic heterogeneity, accounting for almost half of the variation in the data. Conclusions Here we show how huge barriers like the Andes and the regional environmental conditions imposed constraints on the ability of a parrot species to colonise new habitats, affecting the way in which populations diverged and thus, genetic structure. When contact between divergent populations was re-established, a stable hybrid zone was formed, functioning as a channel for genetic exchange between populations.

  11. Evapotranspiration partitioning in the highest alpine meadow zones through in-situ chamber and dual stable water isotope approaches (United States)

    Cui, J.; Tian, L.


    Understanding plant functionality within the water cycles of grassland ecosystems is crucial for obtaining both regional water balance and plant adaptability in the context of ongoing climate change. The transpiration to evapotranspiration ratio (T/ET) is an indicator of plant's contribution to ecosystem water cycle. In this study, we used high-frequency laser spectroscopy (L2130-i), three custom-built chambers, and eddy covariance techniques, to constrain the role played by plants in evapotranspiration over an alpine meadow ecosystem in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP). Three different sizes of chambers are used to direct measure the isotopic compositions in evapotranspiration (δET), evaporation (δE) and transpiration (δT). The consistent T/ET between δ18O and δD manifests that chamber and dual isotope tracers are robust methods to estimate T/ET in alpine meadow zone. Sensitivity analysis shows that the isotopic composition of evapotranspiration is the main contributor to, and the uncertainty source for, the T/ET estimate. The influence of meteorological and biotic factors on T/ET is also discussed. The results from this study indicate that plants play an important role in the water cycles of alpine meadow ecosystems despite the sparse distribution of plant cover. We also synthesized the published T/ET data over the entire TP region, and found a good relation between T/ET and leaf area index (LAI). Moreover, soil water content played some role in controlling T/ET beyond the LAI in arid/semiarid regions such as the TP. More than half of the TP is covered by grassland, but its low biomass and shallow rooting depth make it very vulnerable to climate change variables such as air temperature warming and variations in precipitation. Given the crucial role played by plants in an ecosystem's water cycle, any variations in grassland cover are likely to exert a critical impact on the regional hydrological cycle, and even the regional climate.

  12. The role of tolerant genotypes and plant nutrients in the management of acid soil infertility in upland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahrawat, K.L.; Jones, M.P.; Diatta, S.


    As in other parts of the humid tropics, acid-related problems are the major constraint to crop production on low-activity clay soils in the humid and sub-humid zones of West Africa. The upland ecosystem of West Africa is very important to rice production. About 70% of upland rice is grown in the humid zone of the sub-region. To increase and stabilize rice productivity of the acid uplands at reasonable levels, a strategy is needed that integrates the use of tolerant cultivars with soil and plant-nutrient management. Research conducted on Alfisols and Ultisols of the humid-forest and savannah zones in West Africa showed that upland rice is a robust crop, possessing a wide range of tolerance to acid-soil conditions. Recent research at WARDA showed also that acid-soil tolerance can be enhanced through interspecific Oryza sativa x O. glaberrima progenies, which not only possess increased tolerance of acid-soil conditions, but also have superior overall adaptability to diverse upland environments in the sub-region. Our research on the diagnosis of acid-soil infertility problems on the Ultisols and Alfisols of the humid savannah and forest zones indicates that P deficiency is the most important nutrient disorder for upland rice. In the forest zone, response to N depended on the application of P. In the savannah and forest-savannah transition zones, N deficiency was more important than P deficiency. Among other plant nutrients, the application of Ca and Mg (as plant nutrients) did not appear initially to improve the performance of acid-tolerant upland rice cultivars. The results from a long-term study on an Ultisol with four acid-tolerant rice cultivars, revealed that they differed in agronomic and physiological P efficiencies, and the efficiencies were higher at lower rates of P. The amounts of total P removed in three successive crops were similar for all four cultivars although P-harvest index was 10 to 12% higher in the P-efficient than the inefficient cultivars. The

  13. Oak-Black Bear Relationships in Southeastern Uplands (United States)

    Joseph D. Clark


    Bears (Ursus americanus) primarily occur in upland habitats in the Southeast because uplands were the last to be developed for agriculture and were more likely to become publicly owned. National parks and forests created in the early to mid-1900s served as sources to supply surrounding uplands with bears. Bears could not survive in southeastern...

  14. Applying group selection in upland hardwoods (United States)

    Gary w. Miller; H. Clay Smith


    Interest in applying group selection in upland hardwoods has grown in recent years, primarily in response to public opposition to the aesthetic effects of clearcutting. Critics suggest that an uneven-aged silvicultural practice such as group selection might be a suitable compromise--drastically reducing negative visual effects of harvesting trees while continuing to...

  15. 77 FR 19925 - Upland Cotton Base Quality (United States)


    ...: This rule makes technical changes to the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) upland cotton marketing... future changes to the base quality specifications that define the base quality characteristics of a... the future. This amendment will apply starting with the 2012 crop. DATES: Effective date: April 3...

  16. Impacts of forestry planting on primary production in upland lakes from north-west Ireland. (United States)

    Stevenson, Mark A; McGowan, Suzanne; Anderson, N John; Foy, Robert H; Leavitt, Peter R; McElarney, Yvonne R; Engstrom, Daniel R; Pla-Rabés, Sergi


    Planted forests are increasing in many upland regions worldwide, but knowledge about their potential effects on algal communities of catchment lakes is relatively unknown. Here, the effects of afforestation were investigated using palaeolimnology at six upland lake sites in the north-west of Ireland subject to different extents of forest plantation cover (4-64% of catchment area). (210)Pb-dated sediment cores were analysed for carotenoid pigments from algae, stable isotopes of bulk carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N), and C/N ratios. In lakes with >50% of their catchment area covered by plantations, there were two- to sixfold increases in pigments from cryptophytes (alloxanthin) and significant but lower increases (39-116%) in those from colonial cyanobacteria (canthaxanthin), but no response from biomarkers of total algal abundance (β-carotene). In contrast, lakes in catchments with forestry practices, although all lakes exhibited fluctuations in pigments and geochemical variables due to peat cutting and upland grazing prior to forest plantation. Taken together, patterns suggest that increases in cyanobacteria and cryptophyte abundance reflect a combination of mineral and nutrient enrichment associated with forest fertilization and organic matter influx which may have facilitated growth of mixotrophic taxa. This study demonstrates that planted forests can alter the abundance and community structure of algae in upland humic lakes of Ireland and Northern Ireland, despite long histories of prior catchment disturbance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. In situ unsaturated zone water stable isotope (2H and 18O) measurements in semi-arid environments: a soil water balance (United States)

    Gaj, Marcel; Beyer, Matthias; Koeniger, Paul; Wanke, Heike; Hamutoko, Josefina; Himmelsbach, Thomas


    Stable isotopes (deuterium, 2H, and oxygen-18, 18O) of soil water were measured in the field using a liquid water isotope analyzer (tunable off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscope, OA-ICOS, LGR) and commercially available soil gas probes (BGL-30, UMS, Munich) in the semi-arid Cuvelai-Etosha Basin (CEB), Namibia. Results support the applicability of an in situ measurement system for the determination of stable isotopes in soil pore water. High spatial and temporal resolution was achieved in the study area with reasonable accuracy and measurements were in agreement with laboratory-based cryogenic vacuum extraction and subsequent cavity ring-down laser spectroscopic isotope analysis (CRDS, L2120-i, Picarro Inc.). After drift and span correction of the in situ isotope data, precision for over 140 measurements taken during two consecutive field campaigns (June and November 2014) was 1.8 and 0.48 ‰ for δ2H and δ18O, respectively. Mean measurement trueness is determined using quality check standards and was 5 and 0.3 ‰ for δ2H and δ18O, respectively. The isotope depth profiles are used quantitatively to calculate a soil water balance. The contribution of transpiration to total evapotranspiration ranged between 72 and 92 %. Shortly after a rain event, the contribution of transpiration was much lower, at 35 to 50 %. Potential limitations of such an in situ system are related to environmental conditions which could be minimized by using a temperature-controlled chamber for the laser spectrometer. Further, the applicability of the system using previously oven-dried soil material might be limited by physicochemical soil properties (i.e., clay minerals). Uncertainty in the in situ system is suggested to be reduced by improving the calibration procedure and further studying fractionation effects influencing the isotope ratios in the soil water, especially at low water contents. Furthermore, the influence of soil-respired CO2 on isotope values within the root zone

  18. Stable isotope (S, O, H and C) studies of the phyllic and potassic phyllic alteration zones of the porphyry copper deposit at Sungun, East Azarbaidjan, Iran (United States)

    Calagari, Ali Asghar


    The porphyry copper deposit (PCD) at Sungun is located in East Azarbaidjan, NW of Iran. The magmatic suites in the Sungun area are a part of the NW-SE trending Cenozoic magmatic belt of Iran. The Sungun porphyries occur as stocks and dikes. The stocks are divided into two groups, I and II. Porphyry Stock II, ranging in composition from quartz monzonite through granodiorite to granite, hosts the Sungun PCD. Four distinct types of hypogene alterations were recognized at Sungun: (1) potassic; (2) potassic-phyllic; (3) phyllic; and (4) propylitic. Stable isotope (S, O, H, and C) studies were restricted to within the phyllic and potassic-phyllic alteration zones, where numerous cross-cutting quartz, sulfides, carbonates, and sulfate veinlets are present. The objective of these studies was to determine the origin of the ore-forming solutions, and their important components (e.g. sulfur and carbon). Twenty sulfide and four sulfate samples were taken from sulfide and gypsum veinlets within Porphyry Stock II and the associated skarn zone for sulfur isotopic analyses. The δ34S values of sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, galena, sphalerite) and sulfate (gypsum) range from -4.6 to -0.2‰ (mean of -1.5‰) and from 10.9 to 14.4‰ (mean of 12.9‰), respectively. These values are almost analogous to those from El Salvador (Chile) and Ajo (Arizona), and Twin Buttes (Arizona), and strongly suggest a magmatic source for the sulfur at Sungun. Twenty-eight fluid inclusion-rich quartz samples from quartz veinlets beneath the supergene zones of the Porphyry Stock II were chosen for O and H isotopic analyses. The δ18O (of quartz) and δD (of fluid inclusions in quartz) values range from 8.3 to 10.2‰ (mean of 9.2‰) and -58 to -75‰ (mean of -66‰) relative to Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW), respectively. The calculated δ18O values of the fluids range from 4.4‰ (T=375 ° C) to 7.6‰ (T=570 ° C) with a mean of 6.4‰. The δ18O and δD values of the fluids lie

  19. CRSMP Potential Coastal and Upland Borrow Sites 2012 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Upland debris basins and coastal borrow sites as identified originally in the California Shoreline Database compiled by Noble Consultants (Jon Moore). Later updates...

  20. Radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.


    Following the 1986 Chernobyl accident large areas of uplands in the United Kingdom were contaminated by radiocaesium. Consequently, the level of radiocaesium in the tissues of some sheep exceeded 1000 Bq kg -1 fresh weight This is the limit adopted within the UK above which meat cannot enter the food chain. In 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep in areas of west Cumbria, north Wales and Scotland. Whilst the number of farms under restriction has reduced considerably, some still remain restricted in 2002. Although a number of workers had noted considerable variability between the radiocaesium activities of individuals within sheep flocks there had been no analyses of causal effects. The work described here, combined studies on three upland farms within west Cumbria with controlled feeding experiments, to systematically assess the parameters which may contribute to such variability. Results from all three farms demonstrate a temporally consistent ranking of the 137 Cs activity concentration of individual sheep within the study flocks. As there was also a correlation between the 137 Cs activity concentration of ewes and their pre-weaned lambs it is likely that the same ewes are producing lambs in excess of the intervention limit in subsequent years. It is difficult to generalise as to which factors will contribute to 137 Cs variability within a given upland flock; factors contributing to variation were not consistent between the study farms. However, the location grazed and/or vegetation selected by animals was a causal factor to the observed variability at all three farms. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle of sheep was found to be determined by live-weight change and dry matter intake. Subsequent studies have suggested that protein turnover may be a potential mechanism for the relationship between dry matter intake and radiocaesium transfer. This hypothesis is supported by current understanding of protein-dry matter

  1. Upland hardwood habitat types in southwestern North Dakota (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad


    The Daubenmire habitat type method was used to classify the upland hardwood draws of southwestern North Dakota. Preliminary data analysis indicates there are four upland habitat types: Fraxinus pennsylvanica/Prunus virginiana; F. pnnseanica-Ulmus americana/P. virginiana; Populus...

  2. Adoption Study Of Seed Priming Technology In Upland Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption study was carried out during 2003 cropping season on randomly selected 83 farmers out of the 300 that participated in the upland rice seed priming technology transfer between year 2000 – 2002 to determine the impact of the technology on upland rice production in five States of Nigeria, through the use of ...

  3. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: potential for improved water quality management (United States)

    Despite considerable heterogeneity over space and time, biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. Recently, these heterogeneous processes have been co...

  4. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion signatures of hydrothermal fluids in transcrustal fault zones: significance for orogenic, Archean lode-gold mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumayr, P.; Hagemann, S.G.; Groves, D.I.


    Full text: Large to giant (>1t) gold deposits are typically hosted in second- and third-order structures adjacent to largely barren, transcrustal fault zones. Gold-bearing hydrothermal fluids have been channelled within the transcrustal fault zones from mantle and deep crustal sources into the second- and third-order structures, where gold has been deposited. Transcrustal fault zones are long-lived structures with specific deformation events relating to gold deposition in the second- and third-order structures. For example the Archaean Perseverance Fault in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia evolved from a wide (5km) ductile shear zone during D2 to a narrow ( 2 -CH 4 -dominated compositions with minor H 2 O and H 2 S components, whereas there are H 2 O-dominated H 2 O-CO 2 +CH 4 fluids with a significant H 2 S component in the second- and third-order shear zones at the Sigma gold deposit, a major gold deposit 5km to the north of the CTZ. These differences can be explained by continuous phase separation, with CO 2 -vapour escape into the upper portions of the ductile uncapped CTZ, contrasting with in-situ phase separation of the gold-bearing fluids in crack-seal veins in the second-order shear zones at Sigma, with trapping of both the episodic vapour and liquid components in individual sealed veins. Gold mineralization in the second- and third-order structures appears to be controlled by the high H 2 S activity of the aqueous hydrothermal fluids. because gold was likely carried in a bisulphide complex and was deposited during sulfidation reactions in the wallrock and phase separation in the quartz vein. In contrast, the carbonic fluids in the CTZ lacked the ability to carry significant metal ligands due to their low H 2 S activity. Oxygen isotopes from hydrothermal quartz within the CTZ (13.3 to 15.6 per mil, av. 14.0 per mil; VSMOW) are heavier than those from mineralized quartz veins in second- and third-order shear zones (11.8 to 19.6 per mil, av. 12.2 per

  5. Modeling the Response of Climate and Precipitation Oxygen Stable Isotopes to the Tectonic Development of the Indian Collision Zone during the Cenozoic (United States)

    Botsyun, S.; Sepulchre, P.; Donnadieu, Y.; Risi, C.; Licht, A.; Caves, J. K.


    Tectonics-climate interaction as well as the impact of greenhouse forcing on climate has become a major focus of paleoclimate studies since the quarter of the century. The Himalayas and the Tibetan plateau owes its current height to the Cenozoic collision between Indian and Asian plates, since 55 Ma. However, the timing and rate of surface elevations remain controversial and its impact on Asian climate and the onset of monsoon systems is highly debated. Stable oxygen paleoaltimetry is considered to be a very efficient and widely applied technique, but has limitations from two sides: 1) the link between stable oxygen composition of precipitation and climate is not well established, 2) Cenozoic climate over Asia is poorly reconstructed. With a purpose of filling the gap in our knowledge of climate variability over Asia during the Cenozoic climate we use the atmospheric general circulation model LMDZ. Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene boundary conditions have been applied together with various scenarios of TP growth. The results of our numerical modeling show a significant influence of paleogeography on the Asian climate. Moreover, we use isotope-equipped atmospheric model LMDZ-iso for understanding the controlling factors of δ18O in precipitation. Experiments with reduced height over the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas have been designed. We develop a theoretical expression for the precipitation composition. In addition, realist Cenozoic boundary conditions together with isotope-equipped atmospheric model allowed reconstructing δ18O in paleoprecipitation for several periods during the Cenozoic, while comparison of simulated δ18O patterns with data from carbonate archives allowed revealing possible limitations of paleoelevation techniques based on stable oxygen isotopes.

  6. Evidence of a Biological Response to the Nitrogen Cascade in UK Upland Lakes? (United States)

    Simpson, G. L.; Curtis, C. J.


    Recent research has begun to undermine the prevailing paradigm that biological productivity in remote, oligotrophic lakes is limited by the availability of phosphorus (P). Many nutrient poor fresh waters are nitrogen (N) limited and, in areas that have received high levels of anthropogenic N deposition relative to baselines, lakes have switched from N to P limitation. Palaeoecological data from sensitive arctic and alpine lakes suggests that algal communities have responded to the increase in available nutrients. Direct evidence of a response to enhanced N deposition from less sensitive, oligotrophic lakes is less compelling. Is the biological response limited to ultraoligotrophic freshwaters or are the effects of enhanced N deposition more widespread? Palaeoecological data from 18 oligotrophic lakes, from upland regions located throughout the UK are presented and summarised. These data comprise geochemical and stable isotope measurements, and diatom and algal pigment proxy records. {δ 15}N and carbon-nitrogen ratio (C:N) records document a widespread and consistent geochemical perturbation of the in-lake N-cycle and the stimulation of autochthonous production dating from early to mid 1900s. Regional bioassay surveys across a range of UK upland lakes indicates that N-limitation of phytoplankton primary production is common. At sites receiving high N deposition inputs P-limitation is prevalent suggestive of a switch from limitation by N to P. Biological palaeoproxies document significant changes in algal composition, but direct interpretation as a nutrient N response is hampered at many sites by the dual acidifying role of N. We discuss the palaeoecological evidence for a biological response in light of results from intensive studies using natural abundance isotope tracing of {δ 15}NNO3 and {δ 18}ONO3, seasonal assessments of nutrient status of UK upland lakes, and biological monitoring records. In addition we evaluate the degree to which climate, N deposition

  7. In-situ unsaturated zone stable water isotope (2H and 18O) measurements in semi-arid environments using tunable off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (United States)

    Gaj, M.; Beyer, M.; Koeniger, P.; Wanke, H.; Hamutoko, J.; Himmelsbach, T.


    Stable isotopes (deuterium, 2H, and oxygen-18, 18O) of soil pore water were measured directly in the field using tunable off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and commercially available soil gas probes in a semi-arid region of the Cuvelai-Etosha-Basin, Namibia. High spatial and temporal resolution was achieved in the study area with reasonable accuracy and measurements were in agreement with laboratory-based cryogenic vacuum extraction and subsequent cavity ring down laser spectroscopic isotope analysis (CRDS). After drift correction of the isotope data, mean precision for over 140 measurements of two consecutive field campaigns in June and November 2014 were 1.8 and 0.46 ‰ for δ2H and 18O, respectively. Mean Accuracy using quality check standards was 5 and 0.3 ‰ for δ2H and δ18O, respectively. Results support the applicability of an in-situ measurement system for the determination of stable isotopes in soil pore water. Spatio-temporal variability could be deduced with the observed data in an extremely dry evaporation dominated environment which was sporadically affected by intermittent rainfall.

  8. The pursuit of sustainable livelihoods in Vietnam's Northern uplands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    Despite remarkable achievements in economic growth and poverty reduction, disparities between upland & lowland areas in Vietnam still exist. Numerous development programs have been implemented in upland areas but have frequently failed to achieve their objectives. The top-down approach...... capital & are able to strategically negotiate with external actors & incorporate elements of intervention in existing livelihood strategies. Other actors are constrained by intervention as a result of dependency on inputs, technology for intensive farming, as well as by inequality & debt....

  9. Responses of Isolated Wetland Herpetofauna to Upland Forest Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.R.; Hanlin, H.G.; Wigley, T.B.; Guynn, D.C. Jr.


    Measurement of responses of herpetofauna at isolated wetlands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina to disturbance of adjacent loblolly pine forest. Many species of isolated wetland herpetofauna in the Southeastern Coastal Plain may tolerate some disturbance in adjacent upland stands. Responses of isolated wetland herpetofauna to upland silviculture and the need for adjacent forested buffers likely depend on the specific landscape context in which the wetlands occur and composition of the resident herpetofaunal community


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B


    The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted pilot scale testing to evaluate the effectiveness of using hydraulic fracturing as a means to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) system performance. Laboratory and field research has shown that significant amounts of solvents can be entrapped in low permeability zones by capillary forces and removal by SVE can be severely limited due to low flow rates, mass transfer resistance of the hydrophobic compounds by trapped interparticle water, and diffusion resistance. Introducing sand-filled fractures into these tight zones improves the performance of SVE by (1) increasing the overall permeability of the formation and thereby increasing SVE flow rates, (2) shortening diffusion pathways, and (3) increasing air permeability by improving pore water removal. The synergistic effect of the fracture well completion methods, fracture and flow geometry, and pore water removal appears to increase the rate of solvent mass removal over that of increasing flow rate alone. A field test was conducted where a conventional well in the SRS Upland Unit was tested before and after hydraulic fracturing. ERTS teamed with Clemson University through the South Carolina University and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program utilizing their expertise in fracturing and fracture modeling. The goals of the fracturing pilot testing were to evaluate the following: (1) The effect of hydraulic fractures on the performance of a conventional well. This was the most reliable way to remove the effects of spatial variations in permeability and contaminant distribution on relative well performance. It also provided data on the option of improving the performance of existing wells using hydraulic fractures. (2) The relative performance of a conventional SVE well and isolated hydraulic fractures. This was the most reliable indicator of the performance of hydraulic fractures that could be created in a

  11. Constraining the thermal and tectonic evolution of a greenschist facies shear zone on Syros, Greece by using stable isotopes and mineral chemistry. (United States)

    Cisneros, M.; Barnes, J.; Behr, W. M.


    Retrograde metamorphic rocks are key to understanding the exhumation history of high-pressure/low-temperature terranes. The Cycladic Blueschist Unit of Syros, Greece experienced peak metamorphic conditions of 15 kbar and 500 °C at 50 Ma and was subsequently exhumed to the shallow-crust ( 1-3 km) by 15 Ma; however, the processes associated with exhumation from mantle depths to the mid-crust remain poorly understood. We present structural, microstructural, and geochemical analyses of greenschist facies metamafic rocks exposed on Lotos beach in Syros that help to constrain the early exhumation history of these rocks. The outcrop preserves two main fabrics: 1) an early transposition foliation (Ss) defined by tight, isoclinal folds with shallow hingelines, and 2) upright open folds with a steep axial-planar cleavage (Sc). Ss is associated with viscous deformation and alignment of both amphibole and epidote into the foliation plane, whereas Sc is associated with semi-brittle deformation, amphibole overgrowths, and boudinage in elongate epidote (ep). Amphiboles display a progressive evolution from Na-to-Ca-rich end-members and exhibit continuous crystallization throughout Ss and Sc, as evidenced by new amphibole growth and overgrowths oriented parallel to foliation. Cal-qtz precipitates in ep boudin necks and chl + cal pseudomorphs after actinolite represent the last stage of lower greenschist facies metamorphism. These results indicate that foliation-forming deformation initiated prior-to or during blueschist facies and continued through lowermost greenschist facies. Oxygen isotope thermometry indicates that qtz-cal pairs equilibrated at 187 °C. Carbon and oxygen isotope values of fluids in equilibrium with qtz-cal pairs (δ18O and δ13C ≈ 0 ‰) indicate a seawater-derived fluid source. Preliminary results suggest this shear zone experienced cooling during decompression, followed by interaction with fluids transferred along a low-angle detachment.

  12. Cryoplanation Terraces: A Characteristic Upland Periglacial Landscape (United States)

    Nyland, K. E.; Nelson, F. E.; Queen, C. W.


    Cryoplanation terraces (CTs) are alternating sequences of rubble-covered scarps and gently sloping treads ascending ridgecrests and hillsides, often culminating in extensive summit flats. CTs are ubiquitous in cold, unglaciated upland environments extending from the Ural Mountains to the Mackenzie Mountains. CTs are large erosional landforms cut in bedrock, but many examples appear to be largely independent of geologic structure. Although process investigations have never been carried out on cryoplanation terraces, the traditional interpretation that they are formed by intensified weathering and transport processes associated with late-lying snow cover, referred to by the shorthand term nivation, has been challenged in recent literature. The new spatial-analytic and field investigations reported here provide strong evidence in support of the "nivation formation hypothesis." The elevation trends of CTs and the glacial snowline are very similar, rising from 200-300 m.a.s.l. on islands in the Bering Sea (central Beringia) to 1200 m.a.s.l. near the Alaska-Yukon border in far-eastern Beringia. This correspondence indicates that, like cirques, CT formation is controlled by the mass balance of localized, late-lying snow. Exploratory data collected during the summer of 2016 at three sites in interior and western Alaska provide additional support for the nivation hypothesis. Four sedimentological lines of investigation were employed to observe relative patterns of weathering intensity and duration across terraces: 1) rock fracture distribution patterns; 2) clast shape indices; 3) Schmidt hammer rebound values; and 4) weathering-rind thickness. Preliminary results from transect-based sampling of these variables indicate that CT treads are time-transgressive surfaces, where progressively more weathered clasts are present with increasing distance downslope from scarp-tread junctures. Results from the preliminary field work support the nivation hypothesis of CT formation, but

  13. The relationship between Plasmodium infection, anaemia and nutritional status in asymptomatic children aged under five years living in stable transmission zones in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. (United States)

    Maketa, Vivi; Mavoko, Hypolite Muhindo; da Luz, Raquel Inocêncio; Zanga, Josué; Lubiba, Joachim; Kalonji, Albert; Lutumba, Pascal; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre


    Malaria is preventable and treatable when recommended interventions are properly implemented. Thus, diagnosis and treatment focus on symptomatic individuals while asymptomatic Plasmodium infection (PI) plays a role in the sustainability of the transmission and may also have an impact on the morbidity of the disease in terms of anaemia, nutritional status and even cognitive development of children. The objective of this study was to assess PI prevalence and its relationship with known morbidity factors in a vulnerable but asymptomatic stratum of the population. A simple random sample, household survey in asymptomatic children under the age of five was conducted from April to September 2012 in two health areas of the health zone of Mont Ngafula 1, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The PI prevalence were 30.9% (95% CI: 26.5-35.9) and 14.3% (95% CI: 10.5-18.1) in Cité Pumbu and Kindele health areas, respectively, (OR: 2.7; p <0.001). All were Plasmodium falciparum infected and 4% were co-infected with Plasmodium malariae. In Cité Pumbu and Kindele, the prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin <11 g/dL) was 61.6% (95% CI: 56.6-66.5) and 39.3% (95% CI: 34.0-44.6), respectively, (OR: 2.5; p <0.001). The health area of Cité Pumbu had 32% (95% CI: 27.5-37.0) of chronic malnutrition (HAZ score ≤ -2SD) compared to 5.1% (95% CI: 2.8-7.6) in Kindele. PI was predictor factor for anaemia (aOR: 3.5, p =0.01) and within infected children, there was an inverse relationship between parasite density and haemoglobin level (β = -5*10(-5), p <0.001). Age older than 12 months (aOR: 3.8, p = 0.01), presence of anaemia (aOR: 3.4, p =0.001), chronic malnutrition (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.01), having a single parent/guardian (aOR: 1.6, p =0.04), and the non-use of insecticide-treated nets (aOR: 1.7, p = 0.04) were all predictors for PI in the overall population. PI in asymptomatic children was correlated with anaemia and chronic malnutrition and was thus a harmful condition in the study

  14. Chlorine Stable Isotopes to reveal contribution of magmatic chlorine in subduction zones: the case of the Kamchatka-Kuril and the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arcs (United States)

    Agrinier, Pierre; Shilobreeva, Svetlana; Bardoux, Gerard; Michel, Agnes; Maximov, Alexandr; Kalatcheva, Elena; Ryabinin, Gennady; Bonifacie, Magali


    By using the stable isotopes of chlorine (δ 37Cl), we have shown that magmatic chlorine (δ 37Cl ≤ -0.6 ‰ [1]) is different from surface chlorine (δ 37Cl ≈ 0 ‰ [1]) in hydrothermal system of Soufrière and Montagne Pelé from the young arc volcanic system of Lesser Antilles. First measurements on condensed chlorides from volcanic gases (e.g. [2], [3]) did not permitted to get sensible δ 37Cl values on degassed chlorine likely because chlorine isotopes are fractionated during the HClgas - chloride equilibrium in the fumaroles or during sampling artifacts. Therefore we have developed an alternative strategy based on the analysis of chloride in thermal springs, streams, sout{f}lowing on the flanks of the volcanoes. Due to the highly hydrophilic behavior of Cl, we hypothesize that thermal springs incorporate chlorine without fractionation of chlorine isotopes and might reflect the chlorine isotopic composition degassed by magmas [1]. Indeed Thermal spring with low δ 37Cl chlorides (≤ -0.6 perthousand{}) are linked with magmatic volatiles characters (3He ratio at 5 Ra at and δ 13C CO2 quad ≈ -3 perthousand{}). To go further in the potentiality of using the Chlorine isotopes to reveal contribution of magmatic chlorine in volcanic systems, we have started the survey of thermal springs and wells waters in the Kamchatka-Kuril volcanic mature Arc (on sites Mutnovsky, Paratunka, Nalychevsky, Khodutkinsky, Paramushir Island, identified by Taran, 2009 [4] for concentrations of chloride). Preliminary results show δ 37Cl values ranging from 0.5 to -0.2 ‰ and generally higher chloride concentrations. The δ 37Cl values are higher than the value recorded for the young arc volcanic system of lesser Antilles. At present moment very few negative δ 37Cl have been measured in the Kamchatka-Kuril volcanic mature Arc. [1] Li et al., 2015 EPSL in press. [2] Sharp et al. 2010 GCA. [3] Rizzo et al., 2013, EPSL, 371, 134. [4] Taran, 2009, GCA, 73, 1067

  15. High-resolution C and O stable isotope geochemistry of the early Aptian OAE1a at Cau (Prebetic Zone, Spain): Preliminary results from sediment core. (United States)

    Alejandro Ruiz-Ortiz, Pedro; Aguado, Roque; Castro, José Manuel; Gallego, David; de Gea, Ginés Alfonso; Jarvis, Ian; Molina, José Miguel; Nieto, Luis Miguel; Pancost, Richard; Quijano, María Luisa; Reolid, Matías; Rodriguez, Rafael; Skelton, Peter; Weisser, Helmut


    The occurrence of time intervals of enhanced deposition of organic matter (OM) during the Cretaceous, defined as Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE), reflect abrupt changes in global carbon cycling. The Aptian OAE1a (120 Ma), represents an excellent example, recorded in all the main ocean basins, associated to massive burial of organic matter in marine sediments [1]. Much research has been done on the OAE1a from different sections in the world over the last decades, including the definition of the C-isotope stratigraphy of the event [2]. Notwithstanding, higher-resolution studies across the entire event will be crucial to shed light into the precise timing and rates of the different environmental and biotic changes that occurred. The Cau section is located in the easternmost part of the Prebetic Zone (Betic Cordillera), which represents the platform deposits of the Southern Iberian palaeomargin. The Lower Aptian of the Cau section is represented by a hemipelagic unit (Almadich Formation, ca. 200 m thick), deposited in a highly subsiding sector of a tilted block, located in the distal parts of the Prebetic Platform. Previous studies of the Lower Aptian of the Cau section have focused on the stratigraphy, bioevents, C-isotope stratigraphy, and organic and elemental geochemistry [3], [4], and in the reconstruction of pCO2 from organic geochemistry proxies [5]. All these studies reveal that the Cau section represents an excellent site to investigate the OAE 1a, based on its unusual high thickness and stratigraphic continuity, the quality and preservation of fossils and the geochemical signatures. Here we present the first results of a high-resolution carbonate C-isotope study based on the the analysis of three new research cores drilled at Cau in autumn 2015 [6]. These new data represent an important advance in the knowledge of the C-isotope record of the OAE 1a, presenting a more continuous record at a higher resolution than previous studies. This leads to the refining of the

  16. Linking Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Soil Moisture with Upland Soil Iron Reduction (United States)

    Hodges, C. A.; Markewitz, D.; Thompson, A.


    Iron minerals play important roles in governing soil nutrient availability and carbon dynamics. Periods of intermittent anoxia (low-oxygen) in upland soils can drive microbial reduction and dissolution of iron minerals. However, quantifying ecosystem-scale iron reduction in upland soils is challenging. The key condition necessary for soil iron reduction is water saturation of soil micropores, even if the entire soil profile is not flooded. We assessed soil moisture and texture across three first-order watersheds at the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory in South Carolina, USA over one year using electromagnetic induction (EMI). From these point measurements, we have created monthly maps of interpolated soil moisture. From the EMI data, we found that locations that remain relatively wet or dry throughout the year are not related to hill-slope position but to differences in soil texture along a catena. Across a gradient of soil moisture and texture (based on soil conductivity from the EMI probe) we installed passive redox sensors and conducted in situ iron reduction experiments. This data will be presented and the relationships between iron reduction, the spatial distribution of soil moisture/clay content, and the significance of these data with respect to soil carbon cycling will be discussed.

  17. Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.

  18. Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble's meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam's shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study

  19. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.


    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  20. Impacts of small scale flow regulation on sediment dynamics in an ecologically important upland river. (United States)

    Quinlan, E; Gibbins, C N; Batalla, R J; Vericat, D


    Flow regulation is widely recognized as affecting fluvial processes and river ecosystems. Most impact assessments have focused on large dams and major water transfer schemes, so relatively little is known about the impacts of smaller dams, weirs and water diversions. This paper assesses sediment dynamics in an upland river (the Ehen, NW England) whose flows are regulated by a small weir and tributary diversion. The river is important ecologically due to the presence of the endangered freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera, a species known to be sensitive to sedimentary conditions. Fine sediment yield for the 300-m long study reach was estimated to be 0.057 t km(-2) year(-1), a very low value relative to other upland UK rivers. Mean in-channel storage of fine sediment was also low, estimated at an average of around 40 g m(-2). Although the study period was characterized by frequent high flow events, little movement of coarser bed material was observed. Data therefore indicate an extremely stable fluvial system within the study reach. The implication of this stability for pearl mussels is discussed.

  1. Selection and characterization of a novel photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line in upland cotton. (United States)

    Ma, Jianhui; Wei, Hengling; Liu, Ji; Song, Meizhen; Pang, Chaoyou; Wang, Long; Zhang, Wenxiang; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun


    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) shows strong heterosis. However, heterosis is not widely utilized owing to the high cost of hybrid seed production. Creation of a photoperiod-sensitive genetic male sterile line could substantially reduce the cost of hybrid seed production in upland cotton. Such a mutant with virescent marker was found by space mutation in near-earth orbit and its traits had been stable after 4 years of selection in Anyang and Sanya, China. This mutant was fertile with an 11-12.5 h photoperiod when the temperature was higher than 21.5 °C and was sterile with a 13-14.5 h photoperiod. Genetic analysis indicated that both traits were controlled by a single recessive gene or two closely linked genes. Also, the cytological observations and transcriptome profiling analysis showed that the degradation of pollen grain cytoplasm should be the primary reason why the mutant line were male sterile under long-day conditions. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Structure and dynamics of an upland old- growth forest at Redwood National Park, California (United States)

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Stuart, John D.


    Many current redwood forest management targets are based on old-growth conditions, so it is critical that we understand the variability and range of conditions that constitute these forests. Here we present information on the structure and dynamics from six one-hectare forest monitoring plots in an upland old-growth forest at Redwood National Park, California. We surveyed all stems =20 cm DBH in 1995 and 2010, allowing us to estimate any systematic changes in these stands. Stem size distributions for all species and for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.) alone did not appreciably change over the 15 year observation interval. Recruitment and mortality rates were roughly balanced, as were basal area dynamics (gains from recruitment and growth versus losses from mortality). Similar patterns were found for Sequoia alone. The spatial structure of stems at the plots suggested a random distribution of trees, though the pattern for Sequoia alone was found to be significantly clumped at small scales (forests, including populations of Sequoia, have been generally stable over the past 15 years at this site, though it is possible that fire exclusion may be affecting recruitment of smaller Sequoia (forests that encourage uniform spatial arrangements do not appear to mimic current upland old-growth conditions.

  3. The Landscape Ecological Impact of Afforestation on the British Uplands and Some Initiatives to Restore Native Woodland Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunce Robert G. H.


    Full Text Available The majority of forest cover in the British Uplands had been lost by the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, because of felling followed by overgrazing by sheep and deer. The situation remained unchanged until a government policy of afforestation, mainly by exotic conifers, after the First World War up to the present day. This paper analyses the distribution of these predominantly coniferous plantations, and shows how they occupy specific parts of upland landscapes in different zones throughout Britain Whilst some landscapes are dominated by these new forests, elsewhere the blocks of trees are more localised. Although these forests virtually eliminate native ground vegetation, except in rides and unplanted land, the major negative impacts are at the landscape level. For example, drainage systems are altered and ancient cultural landscape patterns are destroyed. These impacts are summarised and possible ways of amelioration are discussed. By contrast, in recent years, a series of projects have been set up to restore native forest cover, as opposed to the extensive plantations of exotic species. Accordingly, the paper then provides three examples of such initiatives designed to restore native forests to otherwise bare landscapes, as well as setting them into a policy context. Whilst such projects cover a limited proportion of the British Uplands they nevertheless restore forest to landscapes at a local level.

  4. An assessment of crop water deficits of the plants growing on the Małopolska Upland (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Agnieszka


    Full Text Available The problem of water scarcity is unfavourable for the economy, with the most significant water deficits felt by agriculture. In Poland water deficits in agriculture are occurring more frequently, causing losses in yield, not only in the Lowland areas but also in the Uplands. This paper presents an assessment of the water deficits at various excedance probability levels for four varieties of field crop and for soil types with various water retention capacity, which occur in the Małopolska Upland. Calculations were performed by balancing the amount of available soil water in the root zone. The study was based on the meteorological data from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management for the years 1971–2010. Daily precipitation data from six rainfall stations: Borusowa, Igołomia, Książ Wielki, Miechów, Olewin and Sielec was utilised as well as average decadal air temperature, water vapour pressure, wind speed and sunshine hours from the meteorological station at Kraków–Balice. The water deficits at an excedance probability level of 20% fluctuated during the growing season from 5 mm (Phaeozems to 190 mm (Leptosols. In the Małopolska Upland in soils with a medium capacity to retain water (110–160 mm, water deficits have occurred even in years of average rainfall (with probability 50%. This study confirms the considerable impact of the high variability of the soil and pluvial conditions in the region on the water deficits of the field crops.

  5. Agricultural knowledge transfer and innovation processes in Vietnam's northwestern uplands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Thi Minh; Neef, Andreas; Hoffmann, Volker


    This paper assesses processes of adoption of agricultural innovations introduced to the northwestern uplands of Vietnam since the late 1950s as a result of external driving forces and the motivation of adopting farmers. We found that innovations which meet the immediate needs of food security...... and income generation in the uplands are adopted by a high number of farmers, but tend to be less environmentally sound. Innovations driven by political and ecological interests, i.e. of the type “adoption for political and social rewards” and “adoption for a sustainable environment,” are accepted by only...

  6. 75 FR 70221 - City of Upland Public Works Department; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Upland Public Works Department; Notice of Application Accepted for.... Applicant: City of Upland Public Works Department. e. Name of Project: Upland Hydrogeneration Project... Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Anthony M. La, Public Works...

  7. 77 FR 47063 - Notice of Availability of Draft Revisions; Upland Erosion Control, Revegetation, and Maintenance... (United States)


    ... Availability of Draft Revisions; Upland Erosion Control, Revegetation, and Maintenance Plan; Wetland and... Projects is revising its Upland Erosion Control, Revegetation, and Maintenance Plan (Plan) and Wetland and... minimizing erosion and enhancing revegetation in uplands and the extent and duration of project-related...

  8. The Lowland-to-Upland Transition--Modelling Plant Responses to Environmental Change. (United States)

    Woodward, F I


    A published correlative model has predicted that the distributional limits of plants and vegetation zones on mountains will increase in altitude with global warming. I test this hypothesis using results from published experimental studies. Investigations and models of the responses of leaf growth to temperature are in accord with the prediction. However, the individualistic responses of species to CO 2 enrichment indicate that the prediction is unlikely to be true for all species: growth is stimulated by CO 2 enrichment for some species but not for others. Wind speed generally increases with altitude on mountains, and plants from high altitude tend to be more wind resistant than species from the lowland. Therefore it is expected that, particularly on wind-swept mountains, global warming will not necessarily be followed by the spread of lowland species into the uplands. © 1993 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Nutrition and Food Security in Uplands of Vietnam and Thailand ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research team will aim to achieve the following: -characterize the nutritional situation, nutrition practices, knowledge, and food consumption patterns in participating upland communities; -identify local farming practices and potential practices that can be tested as nutrition-sensitive agricultural solutions; -analyze the ...

  10. Determinants of Yield Gap in Upland Rice Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inability of the Nigerian rice economy to satisfy the domestic demand and the consequent growth of rice import quantity and value remains a cause of concern. The magnitude and determinants of upland rice yield gap were examined and analyzed in this study. Employing a multi-stage sampling technique, data were ...

  11. Height prediction equations for even-aged upland oak stands (United States)

    Donald E. Hilt; Martin E. Dale


    Forest growth models that use predicted tree diameters or diameter distributions require a reliable height-prediction model to obtain volume estimates because future height-diameter relationships will not necessarily be the same as the present height-diameter relationship. A total tree height prediction equation for even-aged upland oak stands is presented. Predicted...

  12. Economics of upland rice (Oriza sativa) production in Ivo local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic analysis of upland rice production in Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State was done. Data were generated through structured questionnaire and oral interview schedules administered on one hundred and twenty rice farmers, which were selected randomly from the local government area. The data were ...

  13. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Upland Rice ( Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the analysis, it was observed that majority (80%) of the upland rice producers are males with mean age of 47 years. ... Meanwhile, the study identified inadequate capital, lack of new varieties of rice, poor market information, lack of government incentives, incidence of pest and diseases, and poor rural infrastructures as ...

  14. Influence of intercrops on pests' populations in upland rice ( Oriza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice and groundnut (100,000 - 200,000 plants/ha) intercrop is recommended for reduced incidence of C. zacconius and N. viridula. This result demonstrates that a careful selection of crop combination and plant population could lead to reduced insect pests' incidence in upland rice. Key words: intercrops, plant populations, ...

  15. Ghost forest creation and the conversion of uplands to wetlands (United States)

    Kirwan, M. L.; Schieder, N. W.; Reay, W.


    Global sea level rise rates began accelerating sharply in the late 19th century, with an approximate tripling in sea level rise rates in many regions of the world. Some portions of the coastal landscape, such as marshes and barrier islands, survive relative sea level rise by natural eco-geomorphic processes that allow them to build elevation vertically and migrate landward. In contrast, adjacent uplands typically occupied by forests and agricultural fields have limited ability to resist the impacts of sea level rise. This portion of the coastal landscape consists of mostly salt intolerant plants, receives little mineral sediment deposition, and rarely builds elevation through the accumulation of soil organic matter. Thus, ghost forests- dead trees surrounded by marshland- are a prominent feature of many low-relief coastal landscapes, and represent a striking visual indicator of upland to wetland conversion. Here, we report preliminary results of several efforts designed to quantify rates and drivers of upland to wetland conversion in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Drone based canopy monitoring and ground-based seedling experiments suggest that ghost forests are created by episodic, storm-driven adult tree mortality paired with continuous seedling mortality. Preliminary comparisons between sediment cores and historical photographs from 5 sites in Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina suggest that modern coastal forest retreat is 2-10 times faster than late-Holocene retreat rates, and that rates have accelerated in most decades since the 1930's. Finally, historical T-Sheet maps suggest that approximately 100,000 acres (400 km2) of uplands have converted to wetlands in the Chesapeake region, and that about 1/3 of all present-day marsh was created by upland drowning since the late 19th Century. Together, these observations indicate rapid coastal transgression, where low-relief, terrestrial portions of the coastal landscape are perhaps more sensitive to

  16. Competition Between Barrier Island Migration and Marsh-Upland Migration Could Determine the Fate of Coastal Lagoons Under Sea Level Rise. (United States)

    Duran Vinent, O.; Kirwan, M. L.


    Although marshes can modulate their vertical growth to adjust to sea level rise, wave-induced marsh edge erosion seems to be unstoppable, eating away large chunks of marshes around coastal lagoons in low-sediment environments. Because lagoon size is ultimately constrained by barrier islands, a positive feedback ensues by which barrier migration decreases lagoon size and wind fetch, which in turn reduces marsh edge erosion. Under sea level rise, back-barrier marshes and bay sediments are eventually exposed at the seashore where they are eroded away by waves, thereby increasing barrier island migration rate and further mitigating fetch-driven marsh erosion. We study this feedback using a simple model that couples barrier, lagoon, marsh, and upland components of the coastal landscape. We find that the final state of the ecosystem is controlled by the relation between barrier migration rate, marsh edge erosion rate and marsh upland propagation rate. Our results suggest there are two stable, extreme long-term scenarios, which are a function of the rate of sea level rise and sediment availability: (i) a growing lagoon devoid of marshes, for slowly migrating barrier islands and limited upland marsh transgression; and (ii) a marsh filled lagoon, for fast migrating barrier islands, and unconstrained upland marsh transgression.

  17. Understanding the social and economic aspects of upland rice farming (United States)

    Taridala, S. A. A.; Abdullah, W. G.; Suaib; Wahyuni, S.; Wianti, N. I.; Zani, M.; Jabuddin, L. O.; Yusria, W. O.; Limi, M. A.; Ekaputri, A. S.


    The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the socio-economic characteristics of upland rice farmers, and (2) to analyze the productivity of farming in South Konawe Regency of Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The analysis used in this research was combine economic research through quantitative and qualitative analysis. This research was conducted by survey method. The results showed that (1) farmers are generally in productive age, dominated by men, with low formal education level, and moderate family members, (2) upland rice farming is cultivated in medium land area, with fixed costs higher than variable cost, productivity that has been increased but still lower than rice paddy, and the price of rice production is relatively higher than rice paddy production price, and (3) feasible to cultivate dryland rice, and has a high efficiency value.

  18. Stand model for upland forests of Southern Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, D.L.; Shugart, H.H.; West, D.C.


    A forest stand growth and composition simulator (FORAR) was developed by modifying a stand growth model by Shugart and West (1977). FORAR is a functional stand model which used ecological parameters to relate individual tree growth to environment rather than using Markov probability matrices or differential equations to determine single tree or species replacement rates. FORAR simulated tree growth and species composition of upland forests of Union County, Ark., by considering 33 tree species on a /sup 1///sub 12/ ha circular plot.

  19. Mixed Grazing Systems Benefit both Upland Biodiversity and Livestock Production (United States)

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Moorby, Jon M.; Vale, James E.; Evans, Darren M.


    Background With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. Methods Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management ‘systems’ we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i) incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii) integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii) altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv) replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. Results, Conclusion and Significance We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity

  20. Mixed grazing systems benefit both upland biodiversity and livestock production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21(st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously.Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management 'systems' we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years.We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity, suggesting a 'win-win' solution for farmers and

  1. Fiber quality of upland cotton under different irrigation depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco P. Cordão Sobrinho


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAiming to evaluate the effect of irrigation depths on fiber quality of upland cotton, an experiment was conducted from July to December 2010 in Barbalha-CE, Brazil. The treatments consisted of a factorial combination of two upland cotton cultivars (BRS Aroeira and BRS Araripe and five irrigation depths (260.93, 418.93, 514.21, 711.81 and 894.68 mm, arranged in a split-plot design with four replicates. A line-source sprinkler irrigation system was used and irrigation depth in the control treatment was calculated according to the crop evapotranspiration. The analysed fiber quality variables were: fiber percentage, length, uniformity, short-fiber index, resistance, elongation at rupture, micronaire index, maturity, degree of yellowing, reflectance degree and count strength product (CSP index. The irrigation depths influenced fiber length, short-fiber index, strength, micronaire index, maturity and reflectance degree. The cultivars influenced fiber percentage, length and color (degree of yellowing. The best results of fiber quality were found with irrigation depths of 514.21 and 418.93 mm for the upland cotton cultivars BRS Araripe and BRS Aroeira, respectively.

  2. The role of igneous sills in shaping the Martian uplands (United States)

    Wilhelms, D. E.; Baldwin, R. J.


    Relations among geologic units and landforms suggest that igneous sills lie beneath much of the intercrater and intracrater terrain of the Martian uplands. The igneous rocks crop out along the upland-lowland front and in crater floors and other depressions that are low enough to intersect the sill's intrusion horizons. It is suggested that heat from the cooling sills melted some of the ice contained in overlying fragmental deposits, creating valley networks by subsurface flow of the meltwater. Terrains with undulatory, smooth surfaces and softened traces of valleys were created by more direct contact with the sills. Widespread subsidence following emplacement of the sills deformed both them and the nonvolcanic deposits that overlie them, accounting for the many structures that continue from ridged plains into the hilly uplands. Crater counts show that the deposit that became valleyed, softened, and ridged probably began to form (and to acquire interstitial ice) during or shortly after the Middle Noachian Epoch, and continued to form as late as the Early Hesperian Epoch. The upper layers of this deposit, many of the visible valleys, and the ridged plains and postulated sills all have similar Early Hesperian ages. Continued formation of valleys is indicated by their incision of fresh-appearing crater ejecta. The dependence of valley formation on internal processes implies that Mars did not necessarily have a dense early atmosphere or warm climate.

  3. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.


    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  4. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.


    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  5. The Influence of Dam Removal on Upland Soils (United States)

    Lafrenz, M. D.; Bean, R. A.; Uthman, D.


    Driven largely by anadromous fish passage issues, several dams have been removed in the Pacific Northwest and several more are slated to be removed there and in other regions of North America. While much effort has gone into modeling and monitoring the geomorphic and ecologic response of stream channels to dam removal, little research has investigated changes in upland soils following inundation resulting from dam construction, and none had evaluated how these upland soils would respond to dewatering following dam removal. The removal of a relatively large dam - Marmot Dam on the Sandy River in Northwest Oregon, presented an opportunity to evaluate the effect of dewatering on what were formerly upland rather than floodplain soils. We compared the dewatered soils to downstream upland soils that had not been inundated and modified a "ripening" index, which had been developed to characterize dewatered estuary soils in Dutch polders, in order to evaluate the physical and chemical changes taking place in these soils. Two years following dam removal, the previously inundated soils have higher organic matter percentage, cation exchange capacity, and nitrogen levels than downstream soils that were not inundated; yet, this new riparian area is largely devoid of vegetation while the downstream soils maintain a thick (10 cm) O horizon. The carbon to nitrogen ratios (C:N) of upstream surface horizons are low (13:1) and increase markedly with soil depth (54:1); the C:N ratios of downstream soils are typical of other forested soils in this region (28:1 at the surface and 26:1 at depth). Prior to dam removal, it is likely that all upstream, inundated soils had high C:N ratios due to the persistent anaerobic conditions under the reservoir. Following dam removal, soil microbes needing to supplement their nitrogen consumption with soluble nitrogen likely out-competed higher plants for plant available nitrogen. The C:N ratio should have dropped to an equilibrium; this was not

  6. Measuring yield performance of upland cotton varieties using adaptability, stability and principal component analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.


    Nine upland cotton varieties/strains were tested over 36 environments in Pakistan so as to determine their stability in yield performance. The regression coefficient (b) was used as a measure of adaptability, whereas parameters such as coefficient of determination (r2) and sum of squared deviations from regression (s/sup 2/d) were used as measure of stability. Although the regression coefficients (b) of all varieties did not deviate significantly from the unit slope, the varieties CRIS-5A. BII-89, DNH-40 and Rehmani gave b value closer to unity implying their better adaptation. Lower s/sub 2/d and higher r/sub 2/ of CRIS- 121 and DNH-40 suggest that both of these are fairly stable. The results indicate that, generally, adaptability and stability parameters are independent of each in as much as not all of the parameters simultaneously favoured one variety over the other excepting the variety DNH-40, which was stable based on majority of the parameters. Principal component analysis revealed that the first two components (latent roots) account for about 91.4% of the total variation. The latent vectors of first principal component (PCA1) were smaller and positive which also suggest that most of the varieties were quite adaptive to all of the test environments. (author)

  7. Synthesis of the Results of the Field Verification Program Upland Disposal Alternative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folsom, Bobby


    ...) procedures for predicting potential contaminant mobility into animals. The upland disposal site was constructed within a protected area using conventional construction techniques and was hydraulically filled from barges...

  8. Mercury Speciation and Bioaccumulation In Riparian and Upland Food Webs of the White Mountains Region, New Hampshire, USA (United States)

    Rodenhouse, N.; Gebauer, R.; Lowe, W.; McFarland, K.; Bank, M. S.


    The soils and foods webs associated with mid to high elevation, forested, headwater streams are potential hotspots for mercury methylation and bioaccumulation but are not well studied. We tested the hypothesis that spatial variation in mercury bioaccumulation in upland taxa associated with headwater streams can be explained by variation in soil conditions promoting Hg methylation such as soil moisture, pH, and sulfur and organic matter content. We sampled at high (c. 700m) and mid elevation (c. 500m) in northern hardwood forest adjacent to and away from (75m) replicate headwater streams in the Hubbard Brook and Jeffers Brook watersheds of the White Mountains region, New Hampshire, USA. These forested watersheds differed primarily in soil calcium content and pH. We measured and assessed spatial variation in total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations in soils, insects, spiders, salamanders and birds. We also tested whether trophic position, as determined by nitrogen stable isotopes, was a major predictor of Hg bioaccumulation across these riparian and upland forest taxa. We found elevated levels of THg in all measured components of the food web, and conditions for methylation were better in the upland forest sites compared to the riparian sites located adjacent to headwater streams. Both THg and MeHg in biota were positively correlated with trophic position as indicated by 15N enrichment. In fact, trophic position was a better predictor of THg and MeHg content than spatial location, but the spatial patterning of bioaccumulation differed among taxa. Our data show that that significant Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification can occur in soils and food webs of mid to high elevation temperate deciduous forests of the Northeast. They also suggest that mercury methylation in forested watersheds is a widespread phenomenon and not limited to areas with high soil moisture, such as lotic environments.

  9. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia


    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  10. Hydrodynamic modelling of small upland lakes under strong wind forcing (United States)

    Morales, L.; French, J.; Burningham, H.


    Small lakes (Area important source of water supply. Lakes also provide an important sedimentary archive of environmental and climate changes and ecosystem function. Hydrodynamic controls on the transport and distribution of lake sediments, and also seasonal variations in thermal structure due to solar radiation, precipitation, evaporation and mixing and the complex vertical and horizontal circulation patterns induced by the action of wind are not very well understood. The work presented here analyses hydrodynamic motions present in small upland lakes due to circulation and internal scale waves, and their linkages with the distribution of bottom sediment accumulation in the lake. For purpose, a 3D hydrodynamic is calibrated and implemented for Llyn Conwy, a small oligotrophic upland lake in North Wales, UK. The model, based around the FVCOM open source community model code, resolves the Navier-Stokes equations using a 3D unstructured mesh and a finite volume scheme. The model is forced by meteorological boundary conditions. Improvements made to the FVCOM code include a new graphical user interface to pre- and post process the model input and results respectively, and a JONSWAT wave model to include the effects of wind-wave induced bottom stresses on lake sediment dynamics. Modelled internal scale waves are validated against summer temperature measurements acquired from a thermistor chain deployed at the deepest part of the lake. Seiche motions were validated using data recorded by high-frequency level sensors around the lake margins, and the velocity field and the circulation patterns were validated using the data recorded by an ADCP and GPS drifters. The model is shown to reproduce the lake hydrodynamics and reveals well-developed seiches at different frequencies superimposed on wind-driven circulation patterns that appear to control the distribution of bottom sediments in this small upland lake.

  11. Annual patterns of Cs-133 concentration in British upland vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willey, N.J.


    Samples of Juncus effusus, Erica tetralix, Calluna vulgaris, Vaccinium myrtillus, Molinia caerulea, Pteridium aquilinum and Festuca ovina (all species characteristic of upland Britain) were taken from the field over a one year period and analysed for Cs-133 by electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentrations of Cs-133 in all plant species varied significantly over the course of the year. Species characteristic of waterlogged sites had the lowest and least variable Cs-133 concentrations. There were significant differences in the timing and magnitude of maximum Cs-133 concentrations in the species sampled. (author)

  12. Annual patterns of Cs-133 concentration in British upland vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willey, N.J. [Univ. of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Martin, M.H. [Bristol Univ. (United Kingdom)


    Samples of Juncus effusus, Erica tetralix, Calluna vulgaris, Vaccinium myrtillus, Molinia caerulea, Pteridium aquilinum and Festuca ovina (all species characteristic of upland Britain) were taken from the field over a one year period and analysed for Cs-133 by electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentrations of Cs-133 in all plant species varied significantly over the course of the year. Species characteristic of waterlogged sites had the lowest and least variable Cs-133 concentrations. There were significant differences in the timing and magnitude of maximum Cs-133 concentrations in the species sampled. (author).

  13. Selected Oxfordian brachiopods from Zalas (Cracow Upland, Poland) (United States)

    Radwańska, Urszula


    Small brachiopods of the families Craniidae Menke, 1828 and Thecidellinidae Elliott, 1958 were selected from the Oxfordian sequence which lies transgressively upon a Variscan rhyodacite laccolite exposed at Zalas in the Cracow Upland, southern Poland, a site which is well-known due to various kinds of ubiquitous fossils. The craniids include three species: Craniscus bipartitus (Münster in Goldfuss, 1837), Craniscus tripartitus (Münster in Goldfuss, 1837) and Craniscus antiquior (Jelly, 1843), and the thecidellinids - two species: Rioultina zalasensis sp. nov. and Rioultina wapiennensis Krawczyński, 2008. The species described herein indicate tropical or subtropical waters, and a moderately (?) deep character of the sea basin at Zalas.

  14. Leaf application of silicic acid to upland rice and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Si (stabilized silicic acid, Silamol® leaf application on mineral nutrition and yield in upland rice and corn crops. The treatments were the control (without Si and Si foliar split spraying using 2 L ha-1 of the Silamol® commercial product, with 0.8% soluble Si as concentrated stabilized silicic acid. Silicon leaf application increased the concentrations of K, Ca and Si in rice and corn leaves, the number of panicles per m2 of rice and the number of grains per ear of corn; accordingly, the Si leaf application provided a higher grain yield in both crops.

  15. Genetic Analysis and QTL Detection on Fiber Traits Using Two Recombinant Inbred Lines and Their Backcross Populations in Upland Cotton. (United States)

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Wang, Xiaocui; Liu, Fang; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Li, Yuhua; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping


    Cotton fiber, a raw natural fiber material, is widely used in the textile industry. Understanding the genetic mechanism of fiber traits is helpful for fiber quality improvement. In the present study, the genetic basis of fiber quality traits was explored using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and corresponding backcross (BC) populations under multiple environments in Upland cotton based on marker analysis. In backcross populations, no significant correlation was observed between marker heterozygosity and fiber quality performance and it suggested that heterozygosity was not always necessarily advantageous for the high fiber quality. In two hybrids, 111 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber quality were detected using composite interval mapping, in which 62 new stable QTL were simultaneously identified in more than one environment or population. QTL detected at the single-locus level mainly showed additive effect. In addition, a total of 286 digenic interactions (E-QTL) and their environmental interactions [QTL × environment interactions (QEs)] were detected for fiber quality traits by inclusive composite interval mapping. QE effects should be considered in molecular marker-assisted selection breeding. On average, the E-QTL explained a larger proportion of the phenotypic variation than the main-effect QTL did. It is concluded that the additive effect of single-locus and epistasis with few detectable main effects play an important role in controlling fiber quality traits in Upland cotton. Copyright © 2016 Shang et al.

  16. Relevance of ruminants in upland mixed-farming systems in East Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ifar, S.


    In Indonesia, upland agriculture is associated with resource-poor farmers, land degradation, and low agricultural production. The common premise is that cattle productivity in upland areas is low and that this is mainly caused by a shortage of feed. The area chosen to carry out this study on the

  17. 78 FR 34374 - Notice of Availability of Final Revisions to the Upland Erosion Control, Revegetation, and... (United States)


    ... Availability of Final Revisions to the Upland Erosion Control, Revegetation, and Maintenance Plan and Wetland... revised its Upland Erosion Control, Revegetation, and Maintenance Plan (Plan) and Wetland and Waterbody... staff's baseline mitigation measures for minimizing erosion, enhancing revegetation, and minimizing the...

  18. a study of access to sanitation profiles of rural upland and coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    Th upland and coastal communities also dump wastes indiscriminately in nearby bushes, resu environmental pollution with consequential epide. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess to sanitation, and compare basic sanitation between upland and coastal communities of. Ibom State. MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  19. Temperature of upland and peatland soils in a north central Minnesota forest (United States)

    Dale S. Nichols


    Soil temperature strongly influences physical, chemical, and biological activities in soil. However, soil temperature data for forest landscapes are scarce. For 6 yr, weekly soil temperatures were measured at two upland and four peatland sites in north central Minnesota. One upland site supported mature aspen forest, the other supported short grass. One peatland site...

  20. Projected irrigation requirements for upland crops using soil moisture model under climate change in South Korea (United States)

    An increase in abnormal climate change patterns and unsustainable irrigation in uplands cause drought and affect agricultural water security, crop productivity, and price fluctuations. In this study, we developed a soil moisture model to project irrigation requirements (IR) for upland crops under cl...

  1. Disentangling the impacts of climate and human colonization on the flora and fauna of the Australian arid zone over the past 100 ka using stable isotopes in avian eggshell (United States)

    Miller, Gifford H.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Magee, John W.; Gagan, Michael K.


    Throughout the Quaternary, the flora and fauna of Australia evolved and adapted to the high-amplitude, low- and high-frequency climate changes that characterized the ice-age cycles. However, during the last glacial cycle, between ∼120 and 15 ka, unprecedented irreversible changes in flora and fauna occurred, and in that same interval modern humans established their first firm presence in the landscape. Disentangling the impacts of the first-order trend toward a colder, drier planet through the Late Quaternary from the impacts of human colonization has been challenging, from both the chronological and paleoenvironmental perspectives. We utilize the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen preserved in near-continuous time series of Dromaius (emu) eggshell from five regions across Australia to provide independent reconstructions of ecosystem status and climate over the past 100 ka. Carbon isotopes are determined by the diet consumed by the female bird, whereas oxygen isotopes record the status of local moisture balance in the months prior to breeding. Together, δ13C and δ18O provide ecosystem status and climate from the same dated sample, reducing correlation uncertainties between proxies. Combined with recent improvements in the chronologies of Late Quaternary shorelines fringing inland lake basins and deflation during arid times, these data collectively reaffirm that Australia generally became increasingly, albeit irregularly, drier from the last interglaciation through to the last glacial maximum. Dromaius eggshell δ18O documents peak aridity between 30 and 15 ka, but shows no evidence of exceptional climate change between 60 and 40 ka. In contrast, Dromaius δ13Cdiet documents an irreversible loss of the majority of palatable summer-rainfall-related C4 grasses across the Australian arid zone between 50 and 45 ka, about the same time that the giant megafaunal bird, Genyornis, became extinct, and coincident with human dispersal across the continent. Our data

  2. Relationship of some upland rice genotype after gamma irradiation (United States)

    Suliartini, N. W. S.; Wijayanto, T.; Madiki, A.; Boer, D.; Muhidin; Juniawan


    The objective of the research was to group local upland rice genotypes after being treated with gamma irradiation. The research materials were upland rice genotypes resulted from mutation of the second generation and two parents: Pae Loilo (K3D0) and Pae Pongasi (K2D0) Cultivars. The research was conducted at the Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute, Malang Regency, and used the augmented design method. Research data were analyzed with R Program. Eight hundred and seventy one genotypes were selected with the selection criteria were based on yields on the average parents added 1.5 standard deviation. Based on the selection, eighty genotypes were analyzed with cluster analyses. Nine observation variables were used to develop cluster dendrogram using average linked method. Genetic distance was measured by euclidean distance. The results of cluster dendrogram showed that tested genotypes were divided into eight groups. Group 1, 2, 7, and 8 each had one genotype, group 3 and 6 each had two genotypes, group 4 had 25 genotypes, and group 5 had 51 genotypes. Check genotypes formed a separate group. Group 6 had the highest yield per plant of 126.11 gram, followed by groups 5 and 4 of 97.63 and 94.08 gram, respectively.

  3. Leaf gas exchange and yield of three upland rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez


    Full Text Available Studies of physiological parameters associated with crop performance and growth in different groups of upland rice (Oryza sativa L. may support plant breeding programs. We evaluated the role of gas exchange rates and dry matter accumulation (DMA as traits responsible for yields in a traditional (cv. ‘Caiapó’, intermediate (cv. ‘Primavera’ and modern (cv. ‘Maravilha’ upland rice cultivars. Leaf gas exchange rates, DMA, leaf area index (LAI, harvest indexes (HI and yield components were measured on these genotypes in the field, under sprinkler irrigation. Panicles per m2 and DMA at flowering (FL and heading, as well as CO2 assimilation rates (A were similar across these cultivars. The highest yield was found in ‘Primavera’, which may be explained by (i a two-fold higher HI compared to the other cultivars, (ii greater rates of DMA during spikelet formation and grain-filling, as well as (iii a slow natural decrease of A in this cultivar, at the end of the season (between FL and maturation.

  4. Soil N, P, and C dynamics of upland and seasonally flooded forests of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L. Vourlitis


    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in cerrado nutrient availability and mineralization are poorly understood, especially for “hyperseasonal” cerrado, which experiences both flooding and drought over an annual cycle. Here we quantified seasonal variations in soil ammonium (NH4+, phosphorus (P, and organic C (SOC concentration and net mineralization in upland and seasonally flooded cerrado forests of the Brazilian Pantanal, and hypothesized that NH4+, P, and SOC concentrations and net mineralization would decline under flooding and increase during the dry season as soil becomes unsaturated. We found that C and nutrient concentrations and mineralization were significantly affected by seasonal variations in hydrology; however, differences between flooded and upland forests varied over time and were not always related to flooding. Soil extractable P, but not net mineralization, was approximately 10-times higher in the upland forest, while the flooded forest had higher extractable NH4+ concentration than the upland forest under both flooded and drained conditions. Soil C concentration was significantly higher in the upland forest even though C mineralization was similar for both forests. Thus, despite the large seasonal and spatial variations in hydrology, the effects of flooding depended on the particular response variable studied and the season. While a limited survey of the literature indicates that forests exposed to intermittent flooding had on average higher concentrations of extractable NH4+ and P, the upland and hyperseasonal forests studied here were richer in extractable NH4+ (upland and flooded and P (upland compared to other upland and hyperseasonal forests and woodlands. Given that the forests studied here shared nearly a third of the total tree species and had similar physiognomy, these results suggest that nutrient controls on cerrado structural diversity may be similar in upland and hyperseasonal cerrado.

  5. Transpiration response of upland rice to water deficit changed by different levels of eucalyptus biochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Gomes Pereira


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus biochar on the transpiration rate of upland rice 'BRSMG Curinga' as an alternative means to decrease the effect of water stress on plant growth and development. Two-pot experiments were carried out using a completely randomized block design, in a split-plot arrangement, with six replicates. Main plots were water stress (WS and no-water stress (NWS, and the subplots were biochar doses at 0, 6, 12 and 24% in growing medium (sand. Total transpirable soil water (TTSW, the p factor - defined as the average fraction of TTSW which can be depleted from the root zone before water stress limits growth -, and the normalized transpiration rate (NTR were determined. Biochar addition increased TTSW and the p factor, and reduced NTR. Consequently, biochar addition was able to change the moisture threshold (p factor of the growing medium, up to 12% maximum concentration, delaying the point where transpiration declines and affects yield.

  6. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: Potential for improved water quality management (United States)

    Philippe Vidon; Craig Allan; Douglas Burns; Tim P. Duval; Noel Gurwick; Shreeram Inamdar; Richard Lowrance; Judy Okay; Durelle Scott; Stephen Sebestyen


    Biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. These heterogeneous processes have recently been conceptualized as "hot spots and moments" of retention, degradation, or production. Nevertheless, studies investigating...

  7. Effects of harvesting on nitrogen and phosphorus availability in riparian management zone soils in Minnesota, USA (United States)

    Douglas N. Kastendick; Eric K. Zenner; Brian J. Palik; Randall K. Kolka; Charles R. Blinn


    Riparian management zones (RMZs) protect streams from excess nutrients, yet few studies have looked at soil nutrients in forested RMZs or the impacts of partial harvesting on nutrient availability. We investigated the impacts of upland clearcutting in conjunction with uncut and partially harvested RMZs (40% basal area reduction) on soil nutrients in forests in...

  8. QTLs Analysis and Validation for Fiber Quality Traits Using Maternal Backcross Population in Upland Cotton (United States)

    Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Yanpeng; Wang, Yumei; Shang, Lianguang; Hua, Jinping


    Cotton fiber is renewable natural fiber source for textile. Improving fiber quality is an essential goal for cotton breeding project. In present study, F14 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was backcrossed by the maternal parent to obtain a backcross (BC) population, derived from one Upland cotton hybrid. Three repetitive field trials were performed by randomized complete block design with two replicates in three locations in 2015, together with the BC population, common male parent and the RIL population. Totally, 26 QTLs in BC population explained 5.00–14.17% of phenotype variation (PV) and 37 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected in RIL population explaining 5.13–34.00% of PV. Seven common QTLs detected simultaneously in two populations explained PV from 7.69 to 23.05%. A total of 20 QTLs in present study verified the previous results across three environments in 2012. Particularly, qFL-Chr5-2 controlling fiber length on chromosome 5 explained 34.00% of PV, while qFL-Chr5-3 only within a 0.8 cM interval explained 13.93% of PV on average in multiple environments. These stable QTLs explaining great variation offered essential information for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to improve fiber quality traits. Lots of epistasis being detected in both populations acted as one of important genetic compositions of fiber quality traits. PMID:29312408

  9. New insights on ecosystem mercury cycling revealed by stable isotopes of mercury in water flowing from a headwater peatland catchment (United States)

    Glenn E. Woerndle; Martin Tsz-Ki Tsui; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Joel D. Blum; Xiangping Nie; Randall K. Kolka


    Stable isotope compositions of mercury (Hg) were measured in the outlet stream and in soil cores at different landscape positions in a 9.7-ha boreal upland-peatland catchment. An acidic permanganate/persulfate digestion procedure was validated for water samples with high dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations through Hg spike addition analysis. We report a...

  10. Radioactivity monitoring in Irish upland lakes 1988 - 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, M.; McGarry, A.T.; Lyons, S.; McEnri, C.; Cunningham, J.D.


    In 1988, monitoring of radioactivity in upland lakes was initiated in areas of Ireland which had been subjected to highest deposition following the Chernobyl accident. The monitoring programme was continued in 1989 and extended in 1990 to include 25 lakes in 13 counties. This survey provided a comprehensive national picture of the distribution of Chernobyl contamination in Irish freshwater lakes. In 1991 and 1992, the monitoring programme concentrated on those lakes which had shown highest levels in the 1990 survey. This report details the results of the freshwater lake monitoring programme for the years 1988 - 1992. As assessment of the radiation doses to those consumers who include relatively large amounts of freshwater fish in their diet is also made

  11. Effects of periodic fire on composition and long-term dynamics of Arkansas upland hardwood forests (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich


    Prescribed fire (at historic periodic fire frequencies) is seen as an important but little understood tool in the assortment of management techniques that could help restore oak to Arkansas upland hardwood forests and facilitate the maintenance of these keystone species.

  12. Learning to change, changing to learn : managing natural resources for sustainable agriculture in the Philippine uplands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campilan, D.M.


    The study explores problem situations in natural resource management in the Philippine uplands. It examines, through a knowledge systems perspective, the changing nature of development intervention that is required as sustainability becomes an important criterion of agricultural

  13. Effect Of Shade Organic Materials And Varieties On Growth And Production Of Upland Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Ginting


    Full Text Available Abstract There is a shade factor and low organic matter content of the soil is a problem that needs to be addressed in the development of upland rice cultivation as intercrops in the plantation area. Based on these considerations then one study that needs to be done is to conduct experiments on the effect of shade factor combined with the the provision of the organic material to the some varieties of upland rice that has been recommended nationally. The objective of experiment is to study the influence of shade organic materials and varieties on the growth and production of upland rice. This research using experimental design of Split - Split Plot Design with 3 treatment factors and 3 replications or blocks. The first factor is the treatment of shade with 3 levels shade percentage 0 20 and 40. The second factor is the dosage of organic material consists of 3 levels 0 g polybag 25 g polybag 50 g polybag and 75 g polybag. The third factor is the treatment of varieties consists of 4 types of upland rice varieties Si Kembiri Situ Patengggang Situ Bagendit and Tuwoti. The research results showed that the effect of shade on upland rice varieties decrease number of tillers number of panicles number of productive grains grain production per hill of uplnd rice plants and total sugar content of upland rice plants. Effect of organic matter increases number of panicles number of productive grains grain production per hill of upland rice plants and total sugar content of upland rice plants. It is known that the the variety of Situ Patenggang provides better growth and production compared with three other varieties Si Kembiri Situ Bagendit and Tuwoti in shaded conditions.

  14. Upscaling of greenhouse gas emissions in upland forestry following clearfell (United States)

    Toet, Sylvia; Keane, Ben; Yamulki, Sirwan; Blei, Emanuel; Gibson-Poole, Simon; Xenakis, Georgios; Perks, Mike; Morison, James; Ineson, Phil


    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by forest management activities are limited. Management such as clearfelling may, however, have major impacts on the GHG balance of forests through effects of soil disturbance, increased water table, and brash and root inputs. Besides carbon dioxide (CO2), the biogenic GHGs nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) may also contribute to GHG emissions from managed forests. Accurate flux estimates of all three GHGs are therefore necessary, but, since GHG emissions usually show large spatial and temporal variability, in particular CH4 and N2O fluxes, high-frequency GHG flux measurements and better understanding of their controls are central to improve process-based flux models and GHG budgets at multiple scales. In this study, we determined CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions following felling in a mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) stand in an upland forest in northern England. High-frequency measurements were made along a transect using a novel, automated GHG chamber flux system ('SkyLine') developed at the University of York. The replicated, linear experiment aimed (1) to quantify GHG emissions from three main topographical features at the clearfell site, i.e. the ridges on which trees had been planted, the hollows in between and the drainage ditches, and (2) to determine the effects of the green-needle component of the discarded brash. We also measured abiotic soil and climatic factors alongside the 'SkyLine' GHG flux measurements to identify drivers of the observed GHG emissions. All three topographic features were overall sources of GHG emissions (in CO2 equivalents), and, although drainage ditches are often not included in studies, GHG emissions per unit area were highest from ditches, followed by ridges and lowest in hollows. The CO2 emissions were most important in the GHG balance of ridges and hollows, but CH4 emissions were very high from the drainage ditches, contributing to over 50% of their overall net GHG emissions

  15. Groundwater connectivity of upland-embedded wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (United States)

    Neff, Brian; Rosenberry, Donald O.


    Groundwater connections from upland-embedded wetlands to downstream waterbodies remain poorly understood. In principle, water from upland-embedded wetlands situated high in a landscape should flow via groundwater to waterbodies situated lower in the landscape. However, the degree of groundwater connectivity varies across systems due to factors such as geologic setting, hydrologic conditions, and topography. We use numerical models to evaluate the conditions suitable for groundwater connectivity between upland-embedded wetlands and downstream waterbodies in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota (USA). Results show groundwater connectivity between upland-embedded wetlands and other waterbodies is restricted when these wetlands are surrounded by a mounding water table. However, connectivity exists among adjacent upland-embedded wetlands where water–table mounds do not form. In addition, the presence of sand layers greatly facilitates groundwater connectivity of upland-embedded wetlands. Anisotropy can facilitate connectivity via groundwater flow, but only if it becomes unrealistically large. These findings help consolidate previously divergent views on the significance of local and regional groundwater flow in the prairie pothole region.

  16. Releasing Pattern of Applied Phosphorus and Distribution Change of Phosphorus Fractions in the Acid Upland Soils with Successive Resin Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Hartono


    Full Text Available The releasing pattern of applied P in the acid upland soils and the soil properties influencing the pattern were studied. Surface horizons of six acid upland soils from Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan were used in this study. The releasing pattern of applied P (300 mg P kg-1 of these soils were studied by successive resin extraction. P fractionation was conducted to evaluate which fractions released P to the soil solution after successive resin extraction. The cumulative of resin-Pinorganic (Pi release of soils was fitted to the first order kinetic. Regression analyses using factor scores obtained from the previous principal components analyses was applied to determine soil properties influencing P releasing pattern. The results suggested that the maximum P release was significantly (P < 0.05 increased by acidity plus 1.4 nm mineral-related factor (PC2 i.e. exchangeable Al and 1.4 nm minerals (smectite and vermiculite and decreased by oxide related factor (PC1 i.e. aluminum (Al plus 1/2 iron (Fe (by ammonium oxalate, crystalline Al and Fe oxides, cation exchange capacity, and clay content. P fractionation analysis after successive resin extraction showed that both labile and less labile in the form of NaHCO3-Pi and NaOH-Pi fractions, respectively, can be transformed into resin-Pi when in the most labile resin-Pi is depleted. Most of P released in high oxides soils were from NaOH-Pi fraction while in low oxides soils were from NaHCO3-Pi. P release from the former fraction resulted in the maximum P release lower than that of the latter one. When NaHCO3-Pi was high, NaOH-Pi was relatively more stable than NaHCO3-Pi despite resin-Pi removal. NaHCO3-Pi and NaOH-Pi are very important P fractions in replenishing resin-Pi in these acid upland soils.

  17. Stable Isotope Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  18. Geomorphic controls on fluvial carbon exports and emissions from upland swamps in eastern Australia. (United States)

    Cowley, Kirsten; Looman, Arun; Maher, Damien T; Fryirs, Kirstie


    Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are upland wetlands, similar to fens in the Northern Hemisphere and are found at the headwaters of low-order streams on the plateaus of Eastern Australia. They are classified as endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. Previous works have identified particular geomorphic characteristics that are important to carbon storage in these low energy sediment accumulation zones. Changes in the geomorphic structure of THPSS, such as channelisation, may have profound implications for carbon storage. To assess the effect of channelisation on carbon budgets in these ecosystems it is essential to identify and quantify differences in carbon export, emissions and stocks of carbon of intact swamps and those that have become channelised. We undertook seasonal sampling of the perched swamp aquifers and surface waters of two intact swamps and two channelised fills in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, to investigate differences in carbon exports and emissions between the two swamp types. We found that channelised fills' mean CO 2 emissions were almost four times higher than intact swamps with mean CH 4 emissions up to five times higher. Annual fluvial carbon exports for channelised fills were up to 18 times that of intact swamps. Channelised fill exports and emissions can represent up to 2% of the total swamp carbon stocks per annum which is 40 times higher than the intact swamps. This work clearly demonstrates that changes in geomorphic structure brought about by incision and channelisation results in profound changes to the carbon storage function of THPSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Water quality, biodiversity, and codes of practice in relation to harvesting forest plantations in streamside management zones (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Philip J. Smethurst; Brenda Baillie; Kevin C. Petrone


    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are special landscape units that include riparian areas and adjacent lands that mitigate the movement of sediment, nutrients and other chemicals from upland forest and agricultural management areas into streams. The size, shape, and management of SMZs are governed by various combinations of economic, ecological, and regulatory factors...

  20. Correlations and Correlated Responses in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echekwu, CA.


    Full Text Available Plant breeders must be concerned with the total array of economic characters in their efforts to develop a crop variety acceptable to farmers. Their selection endeavours must therefore take into consideration how changes in one trait affect, simultaneously changes in other economic attributes. The importance of correlations and correlated responses is therefore self evident in plant breeding endeavours. In this study F3 progenies from a cross between two cotton lines SAMCOT-9 x Y422 were evaluated for two years and performance data were used to obtain correlations between nine agronomic and fibre quality traits in upland cotton. The results indicated that plant helght was significantly and positively correlated with seed cotton yield, number of sympodial and monopodial branches, seed index, fibre length and micronaire index. Positive and significant correlations were also obtained between : seed cotton yield, tint percent and fibre strength and fibre length. Significant negative correlations were obtained between : plant height and lint percent ; number of monopodial branches, sympodial branches and lint percent ; fibre length, fibre strength and micronaire index. The correlated responses in the other eight traits when selection was practiced for seed cotton yield in the present study shows that it might be more profitable to practice direct selection for seed cotton yield compared to selecting for seed cotton yield through any of the other traits.

  1. Evaluation on selected dwarf and semidwarf mutants of upland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyanti Sumanggono, A.M.


    Seratus malam local upland rice variety was irradiated with gamma-rays at doses of O.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 kGy. Observation of radiation effect was carried out on root and shoot length of M 1 seedlings; plant height, panicle length and number of tiller and seed sterility in M 1 plants. Selection for dwarf and semi-dwarf characteristics were done in M 2 plants, and selected again in M 3 . Observation on radiation effect indicated that 'Seratus Malam' seems to be more resistant than the lowland rice varieties. Increasing doses of radiation caused increasing frequency of chlorophyll mutations as well as chlorophyll mutants. Whereas, selection of dwarf or semi-dwarf in M 2 plants seems that mutant and mutation frequencies decreased as the dose increased. Dose of 0.2 kGy was suitable for selection of dwarf or semi-dwarf plants. Plant height could be influenced by environmental condition. Many of the selected M 2 plants were not really dwarf or semi-dwarf mutants. M 3 evaluation of the selected M 2 plants was really beneficial in the mutant selection. (author)

  2. Sunlit Uplands: The Genius of the NICE Reference Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Langley


    Full Text Available The NICE reference case has received widespread acceptance in health technology assessment. The lifetime cost-per-QALY model and constructed claims for product impact have been widely emulated in country-specific guidelines for formulary submission as well as in publications in the leading health technology journals. Unfortunately, from the perspective of the standards of normal science, adherence to the reference case standard means that the claims made are typically non-evaluable. They have to be taken at face value. They may suggest potential evaluable hypotheses for clinical and cost-effectiveness claims, but there is no requirement in the reference case for claims to be put in an evaluable form and for manufacturers to suggest possible protocols for product impact assessment. This is not an acceptable situation. Absent the standards for falsification and replication, which are at the core of the scientific method, we have no idea whether the claims accepted by NICE are right or even if they are wrong. If we accept the reference case paradigm should we conclude that the sunlit uplands of formulary decisions based on non-evaluable simulated claims for cost-effectiveness has been reached? Have we rejected natural selection in favor of intelligent design? Conflict of Interest None Type: Commentary

  3. Assessment of chitin decomposer diversity within an upland grassland. (United States)

    Krsek, M; Wellington, E M


    The breakdown of chitin within an acidic upland grassland was studied. The aim was to provide a molecular characterisation of microorganisms involved in chitin degradation in the soil using soil microcosms and buried litter bags containing chitin. The investigation involved an examination of the effects of liming on the microbial communities within the soil and their chitinolytic activity. Microcosm experiments were designed to study the influence of lime and chitin enrichment on the grassland soil bacterial community ex situ under controlled environmental conditions. Bacterial and actinomycete counts were determined and total community DNA was extracted from the microcosms and from chitin bags buried at the experimental site. PCR based on specific 16S rRNA target sequences provided products for DGGE analysis to determine the structure of bacterial and actinomycete communities. Chitinase activity was assessed spectrophotometrically using chitin labelled with remazol brilliant violet. Both liming and chitin amendment increased bacterial and actinomycete viable counts and the chitinase activity. DGGE band patterns confirmed changes in bacterial populations under the influence of both treatments. PCR products amplified from DNA isolated from chitin bags were cloned and sequenced. Only a few matched known species but a prominent coloniser of chitin proved to be Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

  4. Quantification of upland thermokarst features with high resolution remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belshe, E F; Schuur, E A G; Grosse, G


    Climate-induced changes to permafrost are altering high latitude landscapes in ways that could increase the vulnerability of the vast soil carbon pools of the region. Permafrost thaw is temporally dynamic and spatially heterogeneous because, in addition to the thickening of the active layer, localized thermokarst features form when ice-rich permafrost thaws and the ground subsides. Thermokarst produces a diversity of landforms and alters the physical environment in dynamic ways. To estimate potential changes to the carbon cycle it is imperative to quantify the size and distribution of thermokarst landforms. By performing a supervised classification on a high resolution IKONOS image, we detected and mapped small, irregular thermokarst features occurring within an upland watershed in discontinuous permafrost of Interior Alaska. We found that 12% of the Eight Mile Lake (EML) watershed has undergone thermokarst, predominantly in valleys where tussock tundra resides. About 35% of the 3.7 km 2 tussock tundra class has likely transitioned to thermokarst. These landscape level changes created by permafrost thaw at EML have important implications for ecosystem carbon cycling because thermokarst features are forming in carbon-rich areas and are altering the hydrology in ways that increase seasonal thawing of the soil. (letter)

  5. Spatial and temporal zoning of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in the Sossego iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: Paragenesis and stable isotope constraints (United States)

    Monteiro, Lena V.S.; Xavier, R.P.; Carvalho, E.R.; Hitzman, M.W.; Johnson, C.A.; Souza, Filho C.R.; Torresi, I.


    The Sossego iron oxide–copper–gold deposit (245 Mt @ 1.1% Cu, 0.28 g/t Au) in the Carajás Mineral Province of Brazil consists of two major groups of orebodies (Pista–Sequeirinho–Baiano and Sossego–Curral) with distinct alteration assemblages that are separated from each other by a major high angle fault. The deposit is located along a regional WNW–ESE-striking shear zone that defines the contact between metavolcano–sedimentary units of the ∼2.76 Ga Itacaiúnas Supergroup and tonalitic to trondhjemitic gneisses and migmatites of the ∼2.8 Ga Xingu Complex. The deposit is hosted by granite, granophyric granite, gabbro, and felsic metavolcanic rocks. The Pista–Sequeirinho–Baiano orebodies have undergone regional sodic (albite–hematite) alteration and later sodic–calcic (actinolite-rich) alteration associated with the formation of massive magnetite–(apatite) bodies. Both these alteration assemblages display ductile to ductile–brittle fabrics. They are cut by spatially restricted zones of potassic (biotite and potassium feldspar) alteration that grades outward to chlorite-rich assemblages. The Sossego–Curral orebodies contain weakly developed early albitic alteration and very poorly developed subsequent calcic–sodic alteration. These orebodies contain well-developed potassic alteration assemblages that were formed during brittle deformation that resulted in the formation of breccia bodies. Breccia matrix commonly displays coarse mineral infill suggestive of growth into open space. Sulfides in both groups of deposits were precipitated first with potassic alteration and more importantly with a later assemblage of calcite–quartz–epidote–chlorite. In the Sequeirinho orebodies, sulfides range from undeformed to deformed; sulfides in the Sossego–Curral orebodies are undeformed. Very late, weakly mineralized hydrolytic alteration is present in the Sossego/Currral orebodies. The sulfide assemblage is dominated by chalcopyrite with

  6. A Canadian upland forest soil profile and carbon stocks database. (United States)

    Shaw, Cindy; Hilger, Arlene; Filiatrault, Michelle; Kurz, Werner


    "A Canadian upland forest soil profile and carbon stocks database" was compiled in phases over a period of 10 years to address various questions related to modeling upland forest soil carbon in a national forest carbon accounting model. For 3,253 pedons, the SITES table contains estimates for soil organic carbon stocks (Mg/ha) in organic horizons and mineral horizons to a 100-cm depth, soil taxonomy, leading tree species, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, province or territory, terrestrial ecozone, and latitude and longitude, with an assessment of the quality of information about location. The PROFILES table contains profile data (16,167 records by horizon) used to estimate the carbon stocks that appear in the SITES table, plus additional soil chemical and physical data, where provided by the data source. The exceptions to this are estimates for soil carbon stocks based on Canadian National Forest Inventory data (NFI [2006] in REFERENCES table), where data were collected by depth increment rather than horizon and, therefore, total soil carbon stocks were calculated separately before being entered into the SITES table. Data in the PROFILES table include the carbon stock estimate for each horizon (corrected for coarse fragment content), and the data used to calculate the carbon stock estimate, such as horizon thickness, bulk density, and percent organic carbon. The PROFILES table also contains data, when reported by the source, for percent carbonate carbon, pH, percent total nitrogen, particle size distribution (percent sand, silt, clay), texture class, exchangeable cations, cation and total exchange capacity, and percent Fe and Al. An additional table provides references (REFERENCES table) for the source data. Earlier versions of the database were used to develop national soil carbon modeling categories based on differences in carbon stocks linked to soil taxonomy and to examine the potential of using soil taxonomy and leading tree species to improve

  7. Genetic progress after cycles of upland rice recurrent selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Peixoto de Morais Júnior


    Full Text Available Periodic assessment of the genetic progress made in recurrent selection programs is essential for assessing the evolution of the programs and identifying the main factors that have contributed to this progress. This study aimed to estimate genetic progress in grain yield, plant height and days-to-flowering achieved in the CNA6 population of upland rice (Oryza sativa L., after four cycles of recurrent selection; and evaluate the genetic potential of this population to generate superior inbred lines after each selection cycle. The experimental data were obtained from progeny yield trials of each recurrent selection cycle. These trials were carried out in two or three locations per cycle, and consisted of S0:2 progenies and at least three checks. Federer’s augmented block design, with one replication on location (the environment, was adopted. Results revealed genetic progress for grain yield and plant height, with total genetic gains of 375.87 kg ha−1 and -3.90 cm, respectively, during the four selection cycles. The annual relative gain observed for grain yield was 1.54 %. The genetic potential of the population was analysed by the expected proportion of superior inbred lines. The standard adopted as the limit for obtaining superior inbred lines was the average of the checks for each trait. The genetic potential for grain yield and plant height increased during the study period. For days-to-flowering, no genetic gain occurred; however, the genetic potential of the population to generate superior inbred lines for this trait was maintained after the selection cycles.

  8. Drought tolerance studies through WSSI and stomata in upland cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Jatoi, W.A.; Soomro, Z.A.; Khan, N.U.; Hassan, G.; Khakwani, A.A.; Veesar, N.F.


    Water stress susceptibility index (WSSI) and stomatal conductance were used to determine the stress tolerance of 10 upland cotton cultivars during 2009 at Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. The experiment was conducted in spilt plot design with irrigations as main plots and cultivars as sub-plots. Two irrigation treatments were used i.e. one has two irrigations (water stress) and other has eight irrigations (non-stress). Analysis of variance revealed significant genotypic differences about WSSI for all the traits. Non-significant interaction between irrigations and cultivars for seed cotton yield and boll weight exhibited varietals stability over irrigation regimes, whereas significant interactions between above parameters for plant height and bolls per plant suggested genotypic instability over irrigation treatments for these traits. Overall, cultivars mean performance for all the traits in stress conditions was poor as compared to non-stress conditions, nevertheless some cultivars exhibited nonsignificant mean differences in both irrigation regimes, thus showing higher stress tolerance. The WSSI values of seed cotton yield as displayed in bi plot revealed that cultivars CRIS-477, CRIS-483 and CRIS-486 were found highly susceptible to water stress. Cultivars CRIS-476, CRIS-482, CRIS-487 and NIAB-78 were characterized as highly susceptible with minimum production even under optimum irrigation conditions. Cultivar CRIS-9 was moderately tolerant as produced low production. However, cultivars CRIS-485 and CRIS-484 were found highly stress tolerant because of minimum WSSI value and lower stomatal conductance. Negative correlations between water stress and WSSI for seed cotton yield and plant height revealed that any increase in the degree of stress caused a corresponding decrease in WSSI. (author)

  9. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich


    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  10. Tissue and size-related changes in the fatty acid and stable isotope signatures of the deep sea grenadier fish Coryphaenoides armatus from the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone region of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Sharples, Caroline J.; Webster, Lynda; Walsham, Pamela; Lacaze, Jean-Pierre; Cousins, Nicola J.


    Coryphaenoides armatus is a cosmopolitan deep-sea fish that plays a major role in the ecology of abyssal ecosystems. We investigated the trophic ecology and physiology of this species by determining the δ13C, δ15N and fatty acid signatures of muscle, liver and ovary tissues of individuals collected from ∼2700 m to the north and south of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, NE Atlantic. Fatty acid and δ13C data both suggested that C. armatus shows an ontogenetic dietary shift, with the relative contributions of benthic and pelagic prey decreasing and increasing respectively as the animals grow. They also indicated that dietary overlap between animals living to the north and south of the CGFZ increases as they grow, suggesting that larger animals forage over greater distances and are not hindered by the presence of the CGFZ. Comparison of tissue-specific fatty acid signatures with previously published data suggests compositional homeostasis of the fatty acids 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) in the muscle, and 18:1(n-9) in the liver tissues. We ascribe this primarily to strict physiological requirements for these compounds, rather than simply to their abundance in the diet. We pose several speculative mechanisms to explain the observed trends in tissue-specific δ13C and δ15N values, illustrating some of the numerous processes that can influence the isotopic signatures of bulk tissues.

  11. Cooking quality of upland and lowland rice characterized by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Mendonça Garcia


    Full Text Available Rice cooking quality is usually evaluated by texture and stickiness characteristics using many different methods. Gelatinization temperature, amylose content, viscosity (Brookfield viscometer and Rapid Visco Analyzer, and sensory analysis were performed to characterize culinary quality of rice grains produced under two cropping systems and submitted to different technologies. All samples from the upland cropping system and two from the irrigated cropping system presented intermediate amylose content. Regarding stickiness, BRS Primavera, BRS Sertaneja, and BRS Tropical showed loose cooked grains. Irrigated cultivars presented less viscosity and were softer than upland cultivars. Upland grain samples had similar profile on the viscoamylografic curve, but the highest viscosity peaks were observed for BRS Alvorada, IRGA 417, and SCS BRS Piracema among the irrigated cropping system samples. In general, distinct grain characteristics were observed between upland and irrigated samples by cluster analysis. The majority of the upland cultivars showed soft and loose grains with adequate cooking quality confirmed by sensory tests. Most of the irrigated cultivars, however, presented soft and sticky grains. Different methodologies allowed to improve the construction of the culinary profile of the varieties studied.

  12. From hilltop to kettle hole: what trends across the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone are revealed by organic matter stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) composition? (United States)

    Kayler, Z. E.; Nitzsche, K. N.; Gessler, A.; Kaiser, M. L.; Hoffmann, C.; Premke, K.; Ellerbrock, R.


    fractions. At the kettle hole catchment scale, we found that the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone and other areas with high soil moisture correlated with isotopic patterns of the OM fractions. Kettle hole sediment OM fraction patterns were consistently different despite receiving substantial material from the surrounding landscape.

  13. Methane Production Explained Largely by Water Content in the Heartwood of Living Trees in Upland Forests (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Ping; Han, Shi-Jie; Li, Huan-Long; Deng, Feng-Dan; Zheng, Yan-Hai; Liu, Hai-Feng; Han, Xing-Guo


    Most forests worldwide are located in upland landscapes. Previous studies have mainly focused on ground methane (CH4) flux in upland forests, and living tree stem-based CH4 processes and fluxes are thus relatively poorly understood. This study investigated the relationship between CH4 concentration and water content in the heartwood of living trees in midtemperate, warm temperate, and subtropical upland forests and also measured seasonal changes of in situ stem CH4 flux and the CH4 concentration and water content in the heartwood of Populus davidiana Dode in a warm temperate upland forest. We found that approximately 4-13% of tree stems or approximately 8-31% of tree species had a substantial CH4 concentration of ≥10,000 μL L-1 in their heartwood across the three types of upland forests. The heartwood CH4 concentration was related to water content by a power function. A threshold of water content occurred beyond which CH4 was produced at high levels in the heartwood. The CH4 emissions from the breast height stems of P. davidiana ranged from 202.1 to 331.6 μg m-2 h-1 on a stem surface area basis during July-October 2016 and were significantly linearly correlated with the CH4 concentration or water content in the heartwood throughout the experimental period, but the linear correlation was not significant at daily and monthly scales. Temperature was not a limiting factor for CH4 production during July-October 2016, and thus, most of the CH4 production may be explained by water content in the heartwood of living trees in upland forests.

  14. stableGP (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  15. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. (United States)


    ... and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. 1427.25 Section 1427.25 Agriculture Regulations of the..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.25 Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. (a) CCC will...

  16. 76 FR 68745 - Notice of Intent To Update the Upland Erosion Control and Revegetation and Maintenance Plan and... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD12-2-000] Notice of Intent To Update the Upland Erosion Control and Revegetation and Maintenance Plan and the Wetland and... Projects is in the process of reviewing its Upland Erosion Control, Revegetation and Maintenance Plan (Plan...

  17. Fluvial sediment inputs to upland gravel bed rivers draining forested catchments: potential ecological impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Marks


    Full Text Available As identified by the detailed long-term monitoring networks at Plynlimon, increased sediment supply to upland fluvial systems is often associated with forestry land-use and practice. Literature is reviewed, in the light of recent results from Plynlimon sediment studies, to enable identification of the potential ecological impacts of fluvial particulate inputs to upland gravel bed rivers draining forested catchments similar to the headwaters of the River Severn. Both sediment transport and deposition can have significant impacts upon aquatic vertebrates, invertebrates and plants.

  18. Transport processes for Chernobyl-labelled sediments: preliminary evidence from upland mid-Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnett, P.J.P.; Leeks, G.J.L.; Cambray, R.S.


    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 resulted in a significant increase in the inventory of radiocaesium retained in the soil in many regions of the United Kingdom. The deposition of 134 Cs provides a convenient tool for the examination of erosional processes in upland systems. Detailed soil sampling has been undertaken within the Plynlimon experimental catchments to establish the pattern of deposition of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides. The preliminary results of a combined radiometric and mineral magnetic approach to the study of the transport of Chernobyl-labelled sediments and their source areas on these upland catchments in mid-Wales are described. (author)

  19. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin


    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  20. Uncovering the Minor Contribution of Land-Cover Change in Upland Forests to the Net Carbon Footprint of a Boreal Hydroelectric Reservoir. (United States)

    Dessureault, Pierre-Luc; Boucher, Jean-François; Tremblay, Pascal; Bouchard, Sylvie; Villeneuve, Claude


    Hydropower in boreal conditions is generally considered the energy source emitting the least greenhouse gas per kilowatt-hour during its life cycle. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative contribution of the land-use change on the modification of the carbon sinks and sources following the flooding of upland forested territories to create the Eastmain-1 hydroelectric reservoir in Quebec's boreal forest using Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector. Results suggest a carbon sink loss after 100 yr of 300,000 ± 100,000 Mg CO equivalents (COe). A wildfire sensitivity analysis revealed that the ecosystem would have acted as a carbon sink as long as hydroelectric reservoir in the boreal zone can be. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Heterotic studies and inbreeding depression in f/sub 2/populations of upland cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panni, M.K.


    To study the genetic potential, heterotic effects and inbreeding depression, 8 X 8 F/sub 2/diallel populations with parental lines of upland cotton were grown during crop season 2010 in a randomized complete block design at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Highly significant ( p = 0.01 ) variations were noticed among parental lines and F/sub 2/ populations for all the traits. According to genotypes mean performance for various traits, plant height varied from 101.60 to 126.30 cm and 98.60 to 140.60 cm, bolls plant/sup -1/ (12.87 to 19.53; 12.13 to 22.60), boll weight (3.80 to 5.01 g; 3.04 to 5.38 g) and seed cotton yield plant/sup -1/ varied from 55.74 to 85.47 g and 45.57 to 96.05 g in parental cultivars and their F/sub 2/ populations, respectively. However, 12 and 7 F/sub 2/ populations manifested significant heterosis over mid and better parents for plant height, 7 and 3 for bolls plant/sup -1/, 13 and 9 for boll weight and 13 and 5 F/sub 2/ populations for seed cotton yield plant/sup -1/, respectively. F/sub 2/ populations i.e. CIM-554 X CIM-473, CIM-554 X CIM-499, CIM-496 X SLH-284, CIM-473 X CIM-446 and CIM-554 X SLH-284 with low mean values for plant height performed better and manifested highly significant heterotic values over mid and better parents for bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield. By comparing F/sub 2/ mean values with F/sub 1/s, inbreeding depression was observed for plant height (0.66 to 23. 99%), bolls per plant (5.00 to 63.16%), boll weight (0.20 to 23.24%) and seed cotton yield (0.44 to 75.52%). However, 62% of F/sub 2/ populations revealed negative values for inbreeding depression, 14% for bolls per plant, 77% for boll weight and 21% for yield, revealed that these F/sub 2/ populations were more stable and performed better than F/sub 1/s even after segregation. Although, F/sub 2/ populations may display less heterosis as compared to F/sub 1/, but still better than high parents and can be used as

  2. Upland Forest Linkages to Seasonal Wetlands: Litter Flux, Processing, and Food Quality (United States)

    Brian J. Palik; Darold P. Batzer; Christel Kern


    The flux of materials across ecosystem boundaries has significant effects on recipient systems. Because of edge effects, seasonal wetlands in upland forest are good systems to explore these linkages. The purpose of this study was to examine flux of coarse particulate organic matter as litter fall into seasonal wetlands in Minnesota, and the relationship of this flux to...

  3. Composition and physical properties of arugula, shepherd's purse, and upland cress oils (United States)

    The fatty acid, tocopherol and phytosterol profiles of arugula [AO; Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. subsp. sativa (Mill.) Thell.], upland cress [UCO; Barbarea verna (Mill.) Asch.], and shepherd's purse [SPO; Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.] oils are reported, along with their physical properties. The...

  4. Integration of C4-specific ppdk gene of Echinochloa to C3 upland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 18, 2008 ... rice though increased photoinhibition was noted under high light intensity. Key words: Pyrurate ... PPDK is regarded as an important target in efforts to .... transgenic upland rice. The introduction of C4 photosynthetic enzyme into C3 plants was intended to improve the efficiency of solar energy utilization.

  5. Interactions between nitrogenous fertilizers and methane cycling in wetland and upland soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.


    Recent dynamics and uncertainties in global methane budgets necessitate research of controls of sources and sinks of atmospheric methane. Production of methane by methanogenic archaea in wetlands is a major source while consumption by methane oxidizing bacteria in upland soils is a major sink.

  6. The role of young, recently disturbed upland hardwood forest as high quality food patches (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Roger W. Perry; Craig A. Harper; Douglas J. Levey; John M. McCord


    Young (1-10 year post-disturbance) upland hardwood forests function as high-quality food patches by providing abundant fruit, and nutritious foliage and flowers that attract pollinating and foliar arthropods and support high populations of small mammals that, in turn, are prey for numerous vertebrate predators. Reductions in basal area increase light penetration to the...

  7. Fire scars and tree vigor following prescribed fires in Missouri Ozark upland forests (United States)

    Aaron P. Stevenson; Rose-Marie Muzika; Richard P. Guyette


    The goal of our project was to examine basal fire scars caused by prescribed fires and tree vigor in upland forests of the Missouri Ozarks. Fire scar data were collected in 100 plots from black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.), scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muench.), Shumard oak (Q. shumardii Buckl.), post oak (Q...

  8. Regeneration alternatives for upland white spruce after buring and logging in interior Alaska (United States)

    R. V. Densmore; G. P. Juday; John C. Zasada


    Site-preparation and regeneration methods for white spruce (Picea glaucu (Meench) Voss) were tested near Fairbanks Alaska, on two upland sites which had been burned in a wildfire and salvage logged. After 5 and 10 years, white spruce regeneration did not differ among the four scarification methods but tended to be lower without scarification....

  9. The state of mixed shortleaf pine-upland oak management in Missouri (United States)

    Elizabeth M. Blizzard; David R. Larsen; Daniel C. Dey; John M. Kabrick; David Gwaze


    Mixed shortleaf pine-upland oak stands allow flexibility in type and timing of regeneration, release, and harvesting treatments for managers; provide unique wildlife and herbaceous community niches; and increase visual diversity. Most of the research to date focused on growing pure pine or oak stands, with little research on today's need to grow pine-oak mixtures...

  10. Lead poisoning in upland-foraging birds of prey in Canada. (United States)

    Clark, A J; Scheuhammer, A M


    We examined the degree of lead exposure, based on tissue-lead concentrations, in 184 raptors of 16 species found dead across Canada. The most prevalent species available for examination were Red-tailed hawks, Great horned owls, and Golden eagles (n = 131). The majority of individuals examined had very low lead accumulation, however 3-4% of total mortality in these 3 most commonly encountered species was attributed to lead poisoning. In addition, 1 of 9 Bald Eagles found dead far from aquatic environments was lead poisoned; and a single Turkey Vulture had a highly elevated bone-lead concentration (58 microg/g dry weight). Evidence from our study, along with other published research, indicates that upland-foraging birds of prey and scavengers that typically include game birds and mammals in their diets, are at risk for lead poisoning from the ingestion of lead projectiles from ammunition used in upland hunting. The use of non-lead ammunition for hunting upland game would effectively remove the only serious source of high lead exposure and lead poisoning for upland-foraging raptors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrizal Yusuf


    Full Text Available In 2008, introduction of upland rice promising lines and varieties as intercropping rubber plant had been done at Sibunga-Bunga Hilir village STM Hulu Sub District, Deli Serdang District, North Sumatra Province, there are two promise line and two pre-eminent upland rice varieties were planted among six until 18 mounths old rubber plants. Aim of this assessment was to improving productivity and farmers income through the utilization of land available under rubber plants by upland rice. The assessment was conducted using 2.0 ha upland done by three cooperator farmers and 1, 5 ha done by non-cooperator farmers. The activity was started in September 2008 and was completed January 2009. A field day was done on 13 January 2009. The result of the assessment showed that TB409-B-TB-14-3 promise lines gave the highest yield (4.32 t per ha, followed by TB490C-TB-1-2-1 (4, 28 t per ha, Situ Patenggang variety (3.66 t per ha and Limboto variety (3.17 t per ha. The financial analysis for TB409-B-TB-14-3 promise line showed that net profit of IDR 5.42 m per ha, with a B/C ratio of 0.63. Break event point was reached at IDR 1.989 per kg giving positive margin of IDR 1.211 per kg.

  12. A study of access to sanitation profiles of rural upland and coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In developing countries, e.g., Nigeria, several communities have limited access to sanitation and sanitation facilities, thus such communities dump their solid and liquid wastes indiscriminately. The aim of this study was to assess access to sanitation, and compare basic sanitation facilities between upland and coastal ...

  13. Changes in Microbial Nitrogen Across a 100-Year Chronosequence of Upland Hardwood Forests (United States)

    Travis W. Idol; Phillip E. Pope; Felix, Jr. Ponder


    Soil microorganisms mediate many of the major processes involved in soil N cycling. Also, they are strong competitors with plants for available soil N. Thus, changes in microbial N because of forest harvesting may have significant impacts on N availability and overall forest N cycling. A chronosequence of upland hardwood forest stands in southern Indiana, USA, ranging...

  14. Mercury and Organic Carbon Relationships in Streams Draining Forested Upland/Peatland Watersheds (United States)

    R. K. Kolka; D. F. Grigal; E. S. Verry; E. A. Nater


    We determined the fluxes of total mecury (HgT), total organic carbon (TOC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from five upland/peatland watersheds at the watershed outlet. The difference between TOC and DOC was defined as particulate OC (POC). Concentrations of HgT showed moderate to strong relationships with POC (R2 = 0.77) when all watersheds...

  15. Multi-Proxy reconstruction of environmental dynamics and colonization impacts in the Mauritian uplands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, E.J.; Slaikovska, M.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Rijsdijk, K.F.; Vélez, M.I.; Prins, M.; Baider, C.; Florens, F.B.V.


    A 115 cm long sediment core retrieved from the exposed uplands of Mauritius, a small oceanic island in the Indian Ocean, shows environmental change from the uninhabited era into post-colonization times. Well-preserved fossil pollen and diatoms in the uppermost 30 cm of the core reflect environmental

  16. Growth and yield predictions for upland oak stands. 10 years after initial thinning (United States)

    Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale


    The purpose of this paper is to furnish part of the needed information, that is, quantitative estimates of growth and yield 10 years after initial thinning of upland oak stands. All estimates are computed from a system of equations. These predictions are presented here in tabular form for convenient visual inspection of growth and yield trends. The tables show growth...

  17. Armillaria root disease affects oak coppice regeneration in upland Missouri Ozark forests (United States)

    J. N. Bruhn; D. C. Dey; K. K. Kromroy; J. D. Mihail; J. M. Kabrick; J. J., Jr. Wetteroff


    Coppice regeneration is favored in North America for oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration. Although models of oak stump sprouting do not consider Armillaria root disease, many oak stumps in upland Ozark forest stands carry active Armillaria root crown infections. The spatial pattern of sprouting on oak stumps is...

  18. Tolerance of upland rice cultivars to aluminum and acidic pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas B. de Freitas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although the upland rice has been known by its moderate tolerance to aluminum, the presence of exchangeable aluminum in acidic soils may inhibit and compromise the adequate plant growth. However, there are few reports detailing modern cultivars used by Brazilian farmers with respect to their susceptibility to aluminum toxicity. This study aimed to characterize the cultivars currently used in the upland rice production with respect to their tolerance to aluminum and their growth under low pH conditions without aluminum. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design, in a 2 x 9 factorial scheme: presence and absence of aluminum in the nutrient solution and nine upland rice cultivars (BRS Monarca, BRS Pepita, BRS Bonança, BRS Primavera, BRS Sertaneja, Maravilha, IAC 202, ANCambará and ANa7007, with four replicates. Based on the distribution of upland rice cultivars in quartiles, they were divided into two groups; aluminum-tolerant group: BRS Pepita, BRS Primavera and ANa7007; and aluminum-susceptible group: BRS Monarca, BRS Bonança, BRS Sertaneja, Maravilha, IAC 202 and ANCambará.

  19. Thinning results from a mixed upland hardwood stand after 35 years (United States)

    Ronald J., Jr. Myers; Kenneth R. Roeder; W. Henry McNab


    A long-term study of precommercial thinning was installed in a 6-year-old oak-dominated stand regenerated by clearcutting in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Three levels of residual stand density were tested: control (no thinning), and 200, and 400 residual trees per acre (TPA). Objectives of the study were to determine the response of an upland...

  20. A Decision-Making Model For Managing or Regenerating Southern Upland Hardwoods (United States)

    K. Kyle Cunningham; Andrew W. Ezell; Keith L. Belli; John D. Hodges


    A decision-making model for managing or regenerating southern upland hardwoods is being created for three physiographic provinces including the Cumberland Plateau, Western Highland Rim, and Upper Coastal Plain. The model performs a stand evaluation, from a silvicultural standpoint, and declares a stand as being either manageable or in need of regeneration. Model...

  1. Evaluation of the performance of three varieties of upland rice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performances of three different varieties of improved upland rice (ITA 257; EX-CHINA; ITA 315) were evaluated in a 2 year study under Abakaliki environmental condition. The design of the experiment was a randomized complete Block Design with 3 replications. ITA 315 and EX-China, on the average, had greater ...

  2. The resilience of upland-oak forest canopy trees to chronic and acute precipitation manipulations (United States)

    Paul J. Hanson; Timothy J. Tschaplinski; Stand D. Wullschleger; Donald e. Todd; Robert M. Auge


    Abstract—Implications of chronic (±33 percent) and acute (-100 percent) precipitation change were evaluated for trees of upland-oak forests of the eastern United States. Chronic manipulations have been conducted since 1993, and acute manipulations of dominant canopy trees (Quercus prinus; Liriodendron tulipifera) were initiated in 2003. Through 12...

  3. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  4. Upland and in-stream controls on baseflow nutrient dynamics in tile-drained agroecosystem watersheds (United States)

    Ford, William I.; King, Kevin; Williams, Mark R.


    In landscapes with low residence times (e.g., rivers and reservoirs), baseflow nutrient concentration dynamics during sensitive timeframes can contribute to deleterious environmental conditions downstream. This study assessed upland and in-stream controls on baseflow nutrient concentrations in a low-gradient, tile-drained agroecosystem watershed. We conducted time-series analysis using Empirical mode decomposition of seven decade-long nutrient concentration time-series in the agricultural Upper Big Walnut Creek watershed (Ohio, USA). Four tributaries of varying drainage areas and three main-stem sites were monitored, and nutrient grab samples were collected weekly from 2006 to 2016 and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). Statistically significant seasonal fluctuations were compared with seasonality of baseflow, watershed characteristics (e.g., tile-drain density), and in-stream water quality parameters (pH, DO, temperature). Findings point to statistically significant seasonality of all parameters with peak P concentrations in summer and peak N in late winter-early spring. Results suggest that upland processes exert strong control on DRP concentrations in the winter and spring months, while coupled upland and in-stream conditions control watershed baseflow DRP concentrations during summer and early fall. Conversely, upland flow sources driving streamflow exert strong control on baseflow NO3-N, and in-stream attenuation through transient and permanent pathways impacts the magnitude of removal. Regarding TN and TP, we found that TN was governed by NO3-N, while TP was governed by DRP in summer and fluvial erosion of P-rich benthic sediments during higher baseflow conditions. Findings of the study highlight the importance of coupled in-stream and upland management for mitigating eutrophic conditions during environmentally sensitive timeframes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutoro Sutoro


    Full Text Available Java Island is one of origins of a large number of indigenous upland rice accessions, which may serve as valuable plant genetic resources for future crop improvement in Indonesia. However, these landraces especially non-glutinous and glutinous rice are rapidly being lost because of land-use, agricultural practices and other factors. A better understanding of genetic diversity of local upland rice is important for crop improvement program, crop management and conservation strategy. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of upland rice landraces originating from Java Island. A total of 82 upland rice accessions comprising of 55 non-glutinous rice and 27 glutinous type were genotyped using the 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The result showed that a total of 74 alleles were found with major allele frequency found on RM431 (0.96. Most of the SSR markers (56.3% showed high discriminating power as represented by polymorphic informa-tion content (PIC value higher than 0.5. A moderate genetic diversity index was detected in all landraces, which was 0.55. Genetic diversity index of non-glutinous and glutinous rice were 0.54 and 0.53, respectively. Their genetic distance was about 0.057. The phylogenetic tree generated two main clusters that demonstrated discrimination among landraces according to the individual genetic properties rather than their geographical origins and grain types (non-glutinous and glutinous type. The levels of genetic diversity were varied across rice types and geographical origins. According to the regions, the closest genetic distance was found between upland rice landraces from Central Java and West Java (0.040. The information derived from this study is important, in combination with phenotypic data, to identify desired useful traits came from different origins of the gene pool to be used for breeding purposes.

  6. Permafrost collapse alters soil carbon stocks, respiration, CH4 , and N2O in upland tundra. (United States)

    Abbott, Benjamin W; Jones, Jeremy B


    Release of greenhouse gases from thawing permafrost is potentially the largest terrestrial feedback to climate change and one of the most likely to occur; however, estimates of its strength vary by a factor of thirty. Some of this uncertainty stems from abrupt thaw processes known as thermokarst (permafrost collapse due to ground ice melt), which alter controls on carbon and nitrogen cycling and expose organic matter from meters below the surface. Thermokarst may affect 20-50% of tundra uplands by the end of the century; however, little is known about the effect of different thermokarst morphologies on carbon and nitrogen release. We measured soil organic matter displacement, ecosystem respiration, and soil gas concentrations at 26 upland thermokarst features on the North Slope of Alaska. Features included the three most common upland thermokarst morphologies: active-layer detachment slides, thermo-erosion gullies, and retrogressive thaw slumps. We found that thermokarst morphology interacted with landscape parameters to determine both the initial displacement of organic matter and subsequent carbon and nitrogen cycling. The large proportion of ecosystem carbon exported off-site by slumps and slides resulted in decreased ecosystem respiration postfailure, while gullies removed a smaller portion of ecosystem carbon but strongly increased respiration and N2 O concentration. Elevated N2 O in gully soils persisted through most of the growing season, indicating sustained nitrification and denitrification in disturbed soils, representing a potential noncarbon permafrost climate feedback. While upland thermokarst formation did not substantially alter redox conditions within features, it redistributed organic matter into both oxic and anoxic environments. Across morphologies, residual organic matter cover, and predisturbance respiration explained 83% of the variation in respiration response. Consistent differences between upland thermokarst types may contribute to the

  7. Mountain Lions of the Flagstaff Uplands: 2003-2006 Progress Report (United States)

    Mattson, David J.


    Executive Summary Stakeholders in management of mountain lions in the Flagstaff Uplands of northern Arizona have expressed increasing concern about both potential impacts of humans on lions and potential risks posed by lions to humans. A series of human-mountain lion encounters during 2000-2001 on Mt. Elden, immediately adjacent to Flagstaff, and similar incidents during 2004 near Tucson brought increased attention to management of human safety in mountain lion range. These human-centered concerns, together with long-standing questions about how the human infrastructure centered on Flagstaff might be affecting lion movements led us to initiate a mountain lion study in 2003 which we plan to continue through 2009. Our study focuses on movements and other behaviors of mountain lions, with the goal of providing information that can be used to increase human safety, decrease human impacts, and, overall, provide insight into the ecology of lions in this region. To serve this goal, we have focused on collecting data that will be the basis of explanatory models that can provide spatially-explicit predictions of mountain lion activity, specify the effects of human facilities, such as highways and urban areas, and provide insight into when, where, and how often different kinds of lions kill different kinds of prey. During 2003-2006, we captured six female and five male mountain lions in the Flagstaff Uplands, 10 of which we fitted with collars that collected up to six high-precision GPS fixes per day, transmitted daily to our offices via Argos satellites. This timely delivery of data allowed us to visit kill sites and other foci of localized activity to collect detailed information on lion behavior. By June 2006 we had obtained 9357 GPS locations and visited 394 sites, at which we documented 218 kills, 165 of which were by five females and 53 by five males. These data were the basis for preliminary analyses presented in this report. All lions during all seasons exhibited a

  8. Embedded Controller Design for Pig Stable Ventilation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob

    present an early result for performing system identification for zone based climate dynamics, based on an idea of guaranteed internal flow directions. Paper 6 presents a verified stable distributed temperature controller for pig stables divided into zones. Paper 7 is an expanded journal version of paper 6......This thesis focuses on zone based climate control in pig stables and how to implement climate controllers in a new range of products. The presented controllers are based on simple models of climate dynamics and simple models of actuators. The implementation uses graphical point and click features...... from the Mathworks' range of products and automatic code generation. It is furthermore shown how to build new climate control systems based on cheap and readily available hardware and software. An early result for performing system identification for zone based climate dynamics is also presented...

  9. Genetic differentiation revealed by selective loci of drought-responding EST-SSRs between upland and lowland rice in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xia

    Full Text Available Upland and lowland rice (Oryza sativa L. represent two of the most important rice ecotypes adapted to ago-ecosystems with contrasting soil-water conditions. Upland rice, domesticated in the water-limited environment, contains valuable drought-resistant characters that can be used in water-saving breeding. Knowledge about the divergence between upland and lowland rice will provide valuable cues for the evolution of drought-resistance in rice. Genetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice was explored by 47 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs located in drought responding expressed sequence tags (ESTs among 377 rice landraces. The morphological traits of drought-resistance were evaluated in the field experiments. Different outlier loci were detected in the japonica and indica subspecies, respectively. Considerable genetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice on these outlier loci was estimated in japonica (Fst = 0.258 and indica (Fst = 0.127. Furthermore, populations of the upland and lowland ecotypes were clustered separately on these outlier loci. A significant correlation between genetic distance matrices and the dissimilarity matrices of drought-resistant traits was determined, indicating a certain relationship between the upland-lowland rice differentiation and the drought-resistance. Divergent selections occur between upland and lowland rice on the drought-resistance as the Qsts of some drought-resistant traits are significantly higher than the neutral Fst. In addition, the upland- and lowland-preferable alleles responded differently among ecotypes or allelic types under osmotic stress. This shows the evolutionary signature of drought resistance at the gene expression level. The findings of this study can strengthen our understanding of the evolution of drought-resistance in rice with significant implications in the improvement of rice drought-resistance.

  10. Determining source areas of biodegradable dissolved organic matter in two peatland catchments with different upland forest types, Minnesota, USA (United States)

    Sebestyen, S. D.; Funke, M.; Cotner, J.


    Long-term studies at the Marcell Experimental Forest in Minnesota have shown that peatland catchments have distinct landscape areas (peatlands or upland mineral soils), with unique hydrological and biogeochemical processes that affect flows of water and solutes. Nonetheless, little has been known about the relative importance of source areas or forest cover types on the biodegradability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as waters water move from bogs or uplands to outlet streams. In this study, we measured biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) from multiple sources (upland surface and subsurface runoff, upland-peatland interfaces in laggs, and stream outlets) in two catchments having different upland forest types, deciduous or coniferous. We measured: total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to calculate DOC:TN and DOC:DON; short-term (48-hour) bacterial respiration (BR); long-term (one-year), bottle incubation assays of BDOC; streamflow; and volumes of upland runoff along surface and subsurface flowpaths. We also experimented by mixing various waters to assess priming effects on BDOC concentrations and BR. The BDOC concentrations and BR were greater in upland surface runoff than in subsurface flow, laggs, or outlets, indicating that DOC in the upland surface runoff was most biodegradable. We did not observe priming effects with the mixing of any waters. In terms of catchment hydrology, most streamflow (43 to 87%) was derived from bogs, not uplands. Consequently, bogs were more important sources of biodegradable DOC. Nonetheless, there was some effect of upland cover type: BDOC concentrations and BR were greater in the outlet of the coniferous catchment than the deciduous catchment, which could be due to greater TN relative to carbon in the coniferous than in the deciduous upland catchment (C:N < 100 versus 130-150; respectively). The results show that source areas and compositional differences among catchments

  11. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  12. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.


    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  13. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  14. Reducing bird-strike risk at Portsmouth International Airport (PSM) through research on breeding upland sandpiper habitat. (United States)


    This report summarizes the results of a study to identify the habitat use and behavior of the upland sandpiper, : a state-endangered bird species, at Portsmouth International Airport (PSM), which is near the Great Bay National : Wildlife Refuge (GBNW...

  15. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.


    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  16. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.


    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  17. Do diatoms run downhill? Using biodiversity of terrestrial and aquatic diatoms to identify hydrological connectivity between aquatic zones in Luxembourg (United States)

    Pfister, L.; Wetzel, C. E.; Martinez-Carreras, N.; Frentress, J.; Ector, L.; Hoffmann, L.; McDonnell, J. J.


    Diatoms are siliceous unicellular algae, and range in size between a few and more than 500 micrometers. Diatoms are spread worldwide, live in many aquatic habitats, have many life forms and their short generation time make them respond rapidly to environmental changes. Their taxonomic diversity represents a valuable tool to assess water quality as each taxon has specific responses to environmental factors. Recently, diatoms have been used as tracers to detect the onset/cessation of surface runoff through binary classification of terrestrial and aquatic species in the Attert basin in Luxembourg. In order to continue the validation of these first results, we have collected samples during rain events at different seasons of the year using automatic stream water samplers, grab samples of diatoms from various terrestrial and subaerial substrates (bryophytes, litter and leaves), as well as from aquatic habitats (epilithon, epipelon and drift samples). This new type of information will be used to constrain assumptions of the conventional tracer-based hydrograph separation technique (i.e. using geochemistry and stable isotopes). The first results concerning the diatom flora, based on 39 samples, revealed 152 species belonging to 38 genera. The most species-rich genera were Pinnularia (15.8% - 24 taxa), Eunotia (13.2% - 20 taxa), Gomphonema (8.6% - 13 taxa), Navicula (7.2% - 11 taxa) and Stauroneis (5.3% - 8 taxa). The flora are mainly composed of oligotrophic and/or acidophilic taxa (32.0%), ubiquitous (14.0%) or poorly known ecologically species (43.0%). The most important taxa found in drift samples were Fragilariforma virescens, Fragilaria capucina sensu lato, Planothidium lanceolatum, Eunotia minor, Achnanthidium kranzii, Karayevia oblongella and Eunotia incisa. In the riparian zone (n = 10), 102 species were observed, with Eunotia exigua var. tenella, Eunotia botuliformis and Pinnularia perirrorata being among the most frequent. Epilithic samples from the main channel

  18. The silviculture, nutrition and economics of short rotation willow coppice in the uplands of mid-Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.J.; Randerson, P.F.; Slater, F.M.


    The potential of short rotation coppice as a biomass crop on land over 250m (the uplands) of mid Wales was studied. The results found in this study indicate that growing short rotation coppice willow in the uplands is a viable proposition with regard to establishment success and yields. In the event of a secure wood chip market in Wales, returns to the grower would be comparable to those from sheep production. (author)

  19. Caesium distribution and cycling in upland pastures of N. Wales and Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Kirton, J.A.; Mitchell, N.G.


    The distribution and cycling of radiocaesium in upland pastures typical of N. Wales and Cumbria has been studied at a number of sites from September 1986 to present. The content of radiocaesium associated with vegetation rarely exceeded 5 % of the total in vegetation, root mat and soil (to 5 cm below root mat). Repeat sampling at permanent sites provides evidence for lateral transport of radiocaesium deposited from Chernobyl and indicates that the distribution of post-Chernobyl caesium three years after the accident is different from that of pre-Chernobyl caesium. Variation in radiocaesium concentration of more than a factor of ten occurs between individual plant species with Trichophorum caespitosum, Narthecium ossifragum, Carex spp and immature flowers of Eriophorum vaginatum showing highest concentrations. Though some species show a close correlation between radiocaesium and potassium concentration, this is not universal. The results of the study are being used in the development of a mathematical model to describe radiocaesium transfer in upland pastures. (author)

  20. Association mapping analysis of fiber yield and quality traits in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). (United States)

    Ademe, Mulugeta Seyoum; He, Shoupu; Pan, Zhaoe; Sun, Junling; Wang, Qinglian; Qin, Hongde; Liu, Jinhai; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun; Xu, Dongyong; Yang, Jinlong; Ma, Zhiying; Zhang, Jinbiao; Li, Zhikun; Cai, Zhongmin; Zhang, Xuelin; Zhang, Xin; Huang, Aifen; Yi, Xianda; Zhou, Guanyin; Li, Lin; Zhu, Haiyong; Pang, Baoyin; Wang, Liru; Jia, Yinhua; Du, Xiongming


    Fiber yield and quality are the most important traits for Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Identifying high yield and good fiber quality genes are the prime concern of researchers in cotton breeding. Association mapping offers an alternative and powerful method for detecting those complex agronomic traits. In this study, 198 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were used to screen markers associated with fiber yield and quality traits with 302 elite Upland cotton accessions that were evaluated in 12 locations representing the Yellow River and Yangtze River cotton growing regions of China. Three subpopulations were found after the estimation of population structure. The pair-wise kinship values varied from 0 to 0.867. Only 1.59% of the total marker locus pairs showed significant linkage disequilibrium (LD, p cotton molecular breeding programs.

  1. Short term dynamics of diatoms in an upland stream and implications for monitoring eutrophication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Martyn G.


    Diatom-based pollution indices can give incorrect results when influenced by certain environmental conditions. - A study designed to examine the effect of intermittent diffuse nutrient inputs on diatom assemblages in a small upland stream in northern England was confounded by other changes that occurred in the stream just before fertilisation started. A flora dominated by attached diatoms changed, over a period of about 3 weeks to one dominated by motile Nitzschia spp. In the absence of any likely human causes, the most likely reason for this change was undercutting of a meander upstream, releasing fine silts which favoured motile diatoms. Changes due to fertilisation by phosphorus were also recorded, with an increase in the proportion of Epithemia in samples, possibly favoured by the lower N:P ratio caused by the increased P concentration. The implication of these changes for monitoring eutrophication and ecological status in upland streams is discussed

  2. Land Reform and Rural Households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen TRUNG THANH


    Full Text Available This paper is the abstract of my doctoral dissertation entitled “The Impactof Land Reform on Rural Households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam” at theJustus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany under the supervision of Prof. Dr.Siegfried Bauer. The study examined the impact of the recent land reform inVietnam on the economy of rural households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam.It was found that the land reform has positive impact on three important aspects ofrural household’s economy, namely crop production, land market participation, andafforestation. However, further improvement in terms of private land rights isneeded for a more sustainable development in the region.

  3. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert


    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  4. Engineering Geology and Geomorphology of Streambank Erosion. Report 2. Yazoo River Basin Upland, Mississippi. (United States)


    terrace deposits of the Citronelle Formation (Pliocene or Pleistocene), which in turn are capped by Pleistocene loess. Isolated exposures of... Citronelle also are found capping hills to the east beyond the bluff line. The Quaternary alluvium occurring in the broad, flat valleys consists primarily of...upland streams of the Yazoo River Basin range from clay to gravel. The gravel is derived from the Citronelle and terrace deposits located along the

  5. Dendroclimatic signals deduced from riparian versus upland forest interior pines in North Karelia, Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helama, Samuli; Arentoft, Birgitte W.; Collin-Haubensak, Olivier


    with the tree-ring chronologies were related to snow conditions at the start of the growing season. Deeper snowpack led to reduced upland pine growth, possibly due to delayed snowmelt and thus postponed onset of the growing season. Warm late winters were followed by increased riparian pine growth because...... a strong correlation with warm-season temperatures, indicating an encouraging possibility of summer temperature reconstruction using middle/south boreal pine tree-ring archives....

  6. N mineralization, nitrification, and N uptake across a 100-year chronosequence upland hardwood forests (United States)

    Travis W. Idol; Phillip E. Pope; Felix, Jr. Ponder


    Net N mineralization, nitrification, and N uptake were monitored in the A (0-8 cm) and B (8-30 cm) soil horizons from 1997 to 1999 across a chronosequence of upland hardwood forest stands in southern Indiana, USA. Stand ages were 1, 6, 12, 31, and 80-100 years at the beginning of the study. Contrary to previous studies, there was no apparent stimulation of N...

  7. Impact of contour hedgerows on upland maize yields in the Philippines


    Shively, Gerald E.


    Metadata only record This paper investigates the impact of contour hedgerows on maize yields. The author applies and agricultural production function to assess data from upland Philippine maize farms and hedgerows of double rows of the nitrogen-fixing species Desmodium rensonii and Flemengia macrophylla. Although the findings show a positive long term impact on maize yields, the short term impact of hedgerows is negative; they reduce land available for cultivation and decrease productivity...

  8. Methylmercury dynamics at the upland-peatland interface: Topographic and hydrogeochemical controls (United States)

    Carl P. J. Mitchell; Brian A. Branfireun; Randall K. Kolka


    Peatlands are important environments for the transformation of atmospherically deposited inorganic mercury into the bioaccumulative form, methylmercury (MeHg), which may accumulate in downstream aquatic biota, particularly in fish. In recent research, it was suggested that MeHg production and/or accumulation ‘‘hot spots’’ at the upland-peatland interface were the...

  9. Investigation of 137Cs cycling in the upland deciduous sedge, Eriophorum vaginatum l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D. R.; Eason, W. R.; Dighton, J.


    Relatively high levels of 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident in indigenous vegetation in infertile upland habitats in the UK have been partly attributed to plant strategies that permit efficient use of limited nutrient resources. This study investigated temporal and spatial patterns of 137 Cs allocation in root-labelled Eriophorum vaginatum plants in relation to its well-documented nutrient retrieval and storage strategy. (author)

  10. Molecular Analysis of a Bacterial Chitinolytic Community in an Upland Pasture†


    Metcalfe, A. C.; Krsek, M.; Gooday, G. W.; Prosser, J. I.; Wellington, E. M. H.


    The effects of agricultural-improvement treatments on the chitinolytic activity and diversity of a microbial community were investigated within an upland pasture. The treatments of interest were lime and treated sewage sludge, both commonly applied to pasture land to improve fertility. Burial of chitin-containing litter bags at the field site resulted in enrichment of bacteria according to 16S rRNA fingerprinting. Chitinolytic-activity measurements showed that the highest activity occurred in...

  11. Population pressure and migration: implications for upland development in the Philippines. (United States)

    Cruz, M C; Zosa-feranil, I; Goce, C L


    The identification of Philippine upland sites using topographic maps and photographs, the estimation of population from the 1980 census, and the verification of major migration streams was carried out. The upland population numbered 14.4 million persons according to the 1980 Census. After 1948 up to 1960 the movement of people from the Visayas regions to the frontier lands of Mindanao occurred. The 2nd wave of predominantly urbanward migration occurred after 1960, although in the early 1970s some 47,000 migrants moved to the uplands from Metropolitan Manila. The early-period migrants tended to be young males between 20 and 34 years of age. Migrants tended to be 45-54 years old in the period after 1960. The results of 3 macro-migration econometric models indicated that the availability of land in the uplands was the decisive determinant of movement, and in the long distance interregional flows, the actual length of distance traveled emerged as significant. Factors such as population and education at the areas of destination were significant for the shorter, interprovincial flows. At the municipality level land-related variables were more significant than demographic factors. The factors of distance and demographic size accounted for the large variability in migration. 3 villages in the Mount Makiling watershed were used to evaluate circumstances of movement, frequency, and mode of travel, and the socioeconomic correlates such as income, occupation, ownership status, and education. The average age of migrants was 26 years, about 1/2 of them were married, and the rest were single males in 1960-1970. According to a multiple regression model the determinants of migrant incomes were: 1) acquisition of lands of good quality, 2) access to credit for purchase of inputs, 3) increased commercialization of farming activities, 4) promotion of diversified cropping patterns, and 5) planting of perennials.

  12. A source of methane from upland forests in the Brazilian Amazon. (United States)

    Janaina Braga do Carmo; Michael Keller; Jadson Dezincourt Dias; Plinio Barbosa de Camargo; Patrick Crill


    We sampled air in the canopy layer of undisturbed upland forests during wet and dry seasons at three sites in the Brazilian Amazon region and found that both methane(CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios increased at night. Such increases were consistent across sites and seasons. A canopy layer budget model based on measured soil-atmosphere fluxes of CO2 was...

  13. Hydrologic cycling of mercury and organic carbon in a forested upland-bog watershed (United States)

    R. K. Kolka; D. F. Grigal; E. A. Nater; E. S. Verry


    The hydrologic cyvling of total Hg (HgT) and organic C (OC) was studies for a 1-yr period in a northern Minnesota forested watershed, consisting of an upland surrounding a bog peatland with a narrow lagg at their interface. Throughfall and sternflow contributed twice as much HgT as seven times as much OC to the forested watershed than atmospheric deposition in a...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A major problem affecting some upland rice cultivars is the increase in plant size when subjected to high doses of nitrogen fertilizer, leading to high levels of lodging. A method to reduce the height of upland rice, and therefore lodging, would be to use plant growth regulators. However, little information exists on the effect of these regulators on plant physiological processes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of trinexapac-ethyl application in upland rice via analysis of growth and gas exchange. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions using the BRS Primavera cultivar. A completely randomized design with eight replications was used. Treatments were carried out with and without the application of the plant growth regulator, and plants were subject to two-stage assessments in which physiological and gas-exchange indices were measured. The use of trinexapac-ethyl improved the growth of rice plants from the flowering to the physiological maturity stage, resulting in higher values of leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, and leaf matter ratio in treated plants. At the same time, it provided smaller reduction in net CO2 assimilation at the physiological maturity stage. Thus, net/apparent assimilation rate did not change after the application of growth regulator, but relative growth rate decreased in these treated plants. These results indicate the occurrence of self-shading in rice plants induced by what might be a supra-optimum trinexapac-ethyl concentration.

  15. Characterization and Functional Analysis of PEBP Family Genes in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Congcong; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Hantao; Song, Meizhen; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun


    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a naturally occurring photoperiod-sensitive perennial plant species. However, sensitivity to the day length was lost during domestication. The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family, of which three subclades have been identified in angiosperms, functions to promote and suppress flowering in photoperiod pathway. Recent evidence indicates that PEBP family genes play an important role in generating mobile flowering signals. We isolated homologues of the PEBP gene family in upland cotton and examined their regulation and function. Nine PEBP-like genes were cloned and phylogenetic analysis indicated the genes belonged to four subclades (FT, MFT, TFL1 and PEBP). Cotton PEBP-like genes showed distinct expression patterns in relation to different cotton genotypes, photoperiod responsive and cultivar maturity. The GhFT gene expression of a semi-wild race of upland cotton were strongly induced under short day condition, whereas the GhPEBP2 gene expression was induced under long days. We also elucidated that GhFT but not GhPEBP2 interacted with FD-like bZIP transcription factor GhFD and promote flowering under both long- and short-day conditions. The present result indicated that GhPEBP-like genes may perform different functions. This work corroborates the involvement of PEBP-like genes in photoperiod response and regulation of flowering time in different cotton genotypes, and contributes to an improved understanding of the function of PEBP-like genes in cotton.

  16. Transformations of ammonium nitrogen in upland and floored soils amended with crop residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulakh, M.S.


    The effect of crop residues on the nitrification, denitrification, nitrogen immobilization and NH 4 + -fixation of 15 NH 4 + -N at varying soil moisture levels was investigated under laboratory conditions. In a period of 96h, about 34 per cent of 15 NH 4 + -N nitrified in the upland soil (60 per cent saturation), whereas it was only 11 per cent in flooded soil (120 per cent saturation). Addition of straw progressively increased nitrification in the flooded soil (but not in upland soil) and with 1.0 per cent straw, the amount of 15 NH 4 + -N nitrified was almost equal at all the three moisture levels studied. Incorporation of straw increased the immobilization of added N from 12 to 29 per cent in upland soil but its effect was negligible in the submerged soil. Fixed NH 4 + -N which ranged from 1 to 9 per cent of added N was not influenced either by straw or by soil moisture. The contribution of fertilizer N towards total denitrification losses decreased from 69 per cent in aerobic soil (without straw) to 30 per cent in anaerobic soil due to reduced nitrification of applied NH 4 + -N. These results confirm that losses of applied N through denitrification could be reduced if the source of N is ammoniacal fertilizers. (author). 3 tabs., 2 figs., 16 refs

  17. Upland Habitat Quality and Historic Landscape Composition Influence Genetic Variation of a Pond-Breeding Salamander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah R. Alexander


    Full Text Available Understanding the temporal and spatial scale at which habitat alteration impacts populations is important for conservation and management. Amphibians have declined more than other vertebrates, and pond-breeding species are particularly susceptible to habitat loss and fragmentation because they have terrestrial and aquatic life stages. One approach to management of pond-breeding species is protection of core upland habitat surrounding the breeding pond. We used genetic variation as an indicator of population status in a common amphibian species, spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum, to determine how amount of suitable upland habitat relates to population status in the greater Charlotte, North Carolina, USA metropolitan area. We developed candidate models to evaluate the relative influence of historical and contemporary forested habitat availability on population genetic variation at two spatial scales of upland area (164 m and 2000 m at four time intervals over the past seven decades (1938, 1978, 1993, 2005. We found that historical land cover best predicted contemporary allelic richness. Inbreeding coefficient and observed heterozygosity were not effectively predicted by forest cover at either spatial or temporal scales. Allelic richness was best predicted at the smaller spatial scale in the 1993 time interval. Predicting and understanding how future landscape configuration affects genetic variation of common and rare species is imperative for the conservation of amphibian and other wildlife populations.

  18. Hydraulic modelling of the spatial and temporal variability in Atlantic salmon parr habitat availability in an upland stream. (United States)

    Fabris, Luca; Malcolm, Iain Archibald; Buddendorf, Willem Bastiaan; Millidine, Karen Jane; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Soulsby, Chris


    We show how spatial variability in channel bed morphology affects the hydraulic characteristics of river reaches available to Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) under different flow conditions in an upland stream. The study stream, the Girnock Burn, is a long-term monitoring site in the Scottish Highlands. Six site characterised by different bed geometry and morphology were investigated. Detailed site bathymetries were collected and combined with discharge time series in a 2D hydraulic model to obtain spatially distributed depth-averaged velocities under different flow conditions. Available habitat (AH) was estimated for each site. Stream discharge was used according to the critical displacement velocity (CDV) approach. CDV defines a velocity threshold above which salmon parr are not able to hold station and effective feeding opportunities or habitat utilization are reduced, depending on fish size and water temperature. An average value of the relative available habitat () for the most significant period for parr growth - April to May - was used for inter-site comparison and to analyse temporal variations over 40years. Results show that some sites are more able than others to maintain zones where salmon parr can forage unimpeded by high flow velocities under both wet and dry conditions. With lower flow velocities, dry years offer higher values of than wet years. Even though can change considerably across the sites as stream flow changes, the directions of change are consistent. Relative available habitat (RAH) shows a strong relationship with discharge per unit width, whilst channel slope and bed roughness either do not have relevant impact or compensate each other. The results show that significant parr habitat was available at all sites across all flows during this critical growth period, suggesting that hydrological variability is not a factor limiting growth in the Girnock. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fine-mapping qFS07.1 controlling fiber strength in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). (United States)

    Fang, Xiaomei; Liu, Xueying; Wang, Xiaoqin; Wang, Wenwen; Liu, Dexin; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Dajun; Teng, Zhonghua; Tan, Zhaoyun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Fengjiao; Jiang, Maochao; Jia, Xiuling; Zhong, Jianwei; Yang, Jinghong; Zhang, Zhengsheng


    KEY MESSAGE: qFS07.1 controlling fiber strength was fine-mapped to a 62.6-kb region containing four annotated genes. RT-qPCR and sequence of candidate genes identified an LRR RLK gene as the most likely candidate. Fiber strength is an important component of cotton fiber quality and is associated with other properties, such as fiber maturity, fineness, and length. Stable QTL qFS07.1, controlling fiber strength, had been identified on chromosome 7 in an upland cotton recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from a cross (CCRI35 × Yumian1) described in our previous studies. To fine-map qFS07.1, an F 2 population with 2484 individual plants from a cross between recombinant line RIL014 and CCRI35 was established. A total of 1518 SSR primer pairs, including 1062, designed from chromosome 1 of the Gossypium raimondii genome and 456 from chromosome 1 of the G. arboreum genome (corresponding to the QTL region) were used to fine-map qFS07.1, and qFS07.1 was mapped into a 62.6-kb genome region which contained four annotated genes on chromosome A07 of G. hirsutum. RT-qPCR and comparative analysis of candidate genes revealed a leucine-rich repeat protein kinase (LRR RLK) family protein to be a promising candidate gene for qFS07.1. Fine mapping and identification of the candidate gene for qFS07.1 will play a vital role in marker-assisted selection (MAS) and the study of mechanism of cotton fiber development.

  20. [Responses of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in upland red soil]. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Man-Qiang; He, Yuan-Qiu; Fan, Jian-Bo; Chen, Yan


    Soil biota plays a key role in ecosystem functioning of red soil. Based on the long-term inorganic fertilization field experiment (25-year) in an upland red soil, the impacts of different inorganic fertilization managements, including NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), NPKCaS (NPK plus gypsum fertilizers), NP (nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers), NK (nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) and PK (phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), on the assemblage of soil nematodes during the growing period of peanut were investigated. Significant differences among the treatments were observed for total nematode abundance, trophic groups and ecological indices (P NPKCaS > NPK > NP > NK. The total number of nematodes was significantly higher in NPKCaS and PK than in NPK, NP and NK except in May. Plant parasitic nematodes were the dominant trophic group in all treatments excepted in NPKCaS, and their proportion ranged between 38% and 65%. The dominant trophic group in NPKCaS was bacterivores and represented 42.1%. Furthermore, the higher values of maturity index, Wasilewska index and structure index in NPKCaS indicated that the combined application of NPK and gypsum could remarkably relieve soil acidification, resulting in a more mature and stable soil food web structure. While, that of the NK had the opposite effect. In conclusion, our study suggested that the application of both gypsum and phosphate is an effective practice to improve soil quality. Moreover, the analysis of nematode assemblage is relevant to reflect the impact of different inorganic fertilizer on the red soil ecosystem.

  1. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark


    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  2. Nitrates and phosphates in cave waters of Kraków-Częstochowa Upland, southern Poland. (United States)

    Różkowski, Jacek; Różkowski, Kazimierz; Rahmonov, Oimahmad; Rubin, Hanna


    The paper presents the varied presence of nitrates and phosphates in water from caves located in Częstochowa and Kraków, in urban, strongly anthropogenic conditions, representing the vadose zone of the fissure-karstic-porous massif of Upper Jurassic limestones. Hydrochemical research was carried out by the authors in the Cave on the Stone in Częstochowa in 2012-2015, in caves of the Zakrzówek horst from 1996 to 2002, and in the Dragon's Cave by the research team of J. Motyka in 1995-1998. A number of NO 3 and PO 4 measurements were performed in waters sampled at these research sites: 20 measurements each of NO 3 and PO 4 at the Cave on the Stone, 228 of NO 3 and 422 of PO 4 at Zakrzówek, and 19 each of NO 3 and PO 4 at the Dragon's Cave. To assess the quality aspect of N and P compounds in waters from the Cave on the Stone, the results of geochemical modelling were processed using PHREEQC software. In cave waters, the oxidised form of nitrogen NO 3 - predominates; in surface waters in the vicinity, unoxidised forms prevail: NH 4+ , NH 3 , and NH 4 SO 4 - . Among phosphorus speciations, dissolved forms are dominant: HPO 4 2- , H 2 PO 4 - , and the insoluble form CaHPO 4 ; in surface waters, these forms are practically absent. Transformations of water chemistry in 'urban' caves, often centuries old, manifest themselves in, inter alia, the occurrence of multi-ionic waters, including seasonal variations and extremely diversified concentrations, with very high concentrations in subpopulations of NO 3 (0.2-485 mg dm -3 ) and P (0.02-6.87 mg dm -3 ). The common presence of NO 3 in waters of the phreatic zone of the Częstochowa Upland, an area developed in an agricultural direction, is documented by, inter alia, the exploitation of intakes supplying the city of Częstochowa (10-57 mg dm -3 , 2011) and crenological studies from 2008 to 2015 (NO 3 , 2-58 mg dm -3 ), at simultaneously low phosphate concentrations (PO 4 , 0.02-0.24 mg dm -3 ).

  3. Characteristics of Fault Zones in Volcanic Rocks Near Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Sweetkind; Ronald M. Drake II


    During 2005 and 2006, the USGS conducted geological studies of fault zones at surface outcrops at the Nevada Test Site. The objectives of these studies were to characterize fault geometry, identify the presence of fault splays, and understand the width and internal architecture of fault zones. Geologic investigations were conducted at surface exposures in upland areas adjacent to Yucca Flat, a basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site; these data serve as control points for the interpretation of the subsurface data collected at Yucca Flat by other USGS scientists. Fault zones in volcanic rocks near Yucca Flat differ in character and width as a result of differences in the degree of welding and alteration of the protolith, and amount of fault offset. Fault-related damage zones tend to scale with fault offset; damage zones associated with large-offset faults (>100 m) are many tens of meters wide, whereas damage zones associated with smaller-offset faults are generally a only a meter or two wide. Zeolitically-altered tuff develops moderate-sized damage zones whereas vitric nonwelded, bedded and airfall tuff have very minor damage zones, often consisting of the fault zone itself as a deformation band, with minor fault effect to the surrounding rock mass. These differences in fault geometry and fault zone architecture in surface analog sites can serve as a guide toward interpretation of high-resolution subsurface geophysical results from Yucca Flat.

  4. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  5. The Stable Concordance Genus


    Kearney, M. Kate


    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  6. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří


    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  7. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.


    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  8. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig


    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  9. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue


    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  10. Fate of {sup 14}C-labeled dissolved organic matter in paddy and upland soils in responding to moisture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangbi [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Huanjiang 547100 (China); Wang, Aihua [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Li, Yang; Hu, Lening; Zheng, Hua; He, Xunyang [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Huanjiang 547100 (China); Ge, Tida; Wu, Jinshui [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Kuzyakov, Yakov [Department of Soil Science of Temperate Ecosystems, Department of Agricultural Soil Science, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Su, Yirong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Huanjiang 547100 (China)


    Soil organic matter (SOM) content in paddy soils is higher than that in upland soils in tropical and subtropical China. The dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration, however, is lower in paddy soils. We hypothesize that soil moisture strongly controls the fate of DOM, and thereby leads to differences between the two agricultural soils under contrasting management regimens. A 100-day incubation experiment was conducted to trace the fate and biodegradability of DOM in paddy and upland soils under three moisture levels: 45%, 75%, and 105% of the water holding capacity (WHC). {sup 14}C labeled DOM, extracted from the {sup 14}C labeled rice plant material, was incubated in paddy and upland soils, and the mineralization to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and incorporation into microbial biomass were analyzed. Labile and refractory components of the initial {sup 14}C labeled DOM and their respective half-lives were calculated by a double exponential model. During incubation, the mineralization of the initial {sup 14}C labeled DOM in the paddy soils was more affected by moisture than in the upland soils. The amount of {sup 14}C incorporated into the microbial biomass (2.4–11.0% of the initial DOM-{sup 14}C activity) was less affected by moisture in the paddy soils than in the upland soils. At any of the moisture levels, 1) the mineralization of DOM to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} within 100 days was 1.2–2.1-fold higher in the paddy soils (41.9–60.0% of the initial DOM-{sup 14}C activity) than in the upland soils (28.7–35.7%), 2) {sup 14}C activity remaining in solution was significantly lower in the paddy soils than in the upland soils, and 3) {sup 14}C activity remaining in the same agricultural soil solution was not significantly different among the three moisture levels after 20 days. Therefore, moisture strongly controls DOM fate, but moisture was not the key factor in determining the lower DOM in the paddy soils than in the upland soils. The UV absorbance of DOM at 280 nm

  11. Construction of a plant-transformation-competent BIBAC library and genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Kyung; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Meiping; Goebel, Mark; Kim, Hee Jin; Triplett, Barbara A; Stelly, David M; Zhang, Hong-Bin


    Cotton, one of the world's leading crops, is important to the world's textile and energy industries, and is a model species for studies of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. Here, we report the construction of a plant-transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library and comparative genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with one of its diploid putative progenitor species, G. raimondii Ulbr. We constructed the cotton BIBAC library in a vector competent for high-molecular-weight DNA transformation in different plant species through either Agrobacterium or particle bombardment. The library contains 76,800 clones with an average insert size of 135 kb, providing an approximate 99% probability of obtaining at least one positive clone from the library using a single-copy probe. The quality and utility of the library were verified by identifying BIBACs containing genes important for fiber development, fiber cellulose biosynthesis, seed fatty acid metabolism, cotton-nematode interaction, and bacterial blight resistance. In order to gain an insight into the Upland cotton genome and its relationship with G. raimondii, we sequenced nearly 10,000 BIBAC ends (BESs) randomly selected from the library, generating approximately one BES for every 250 kb along the Upland cotton genome. The retroelement Gypsy/DIRS1 family predominates in the Upland cotton genome, accounting for over 77% of all transposable elements. From the BESs, we identified 1,269 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), of which 1,006 were new, thus providing additional markers for cotton genome research. Surprisingly, comparative sequence analysis showed that Upland cotton is much more diverged from G. raimondii at the genomic sequence level than expected. There seems to be no significant difference between the relationships of the Upland cotton D- and A-subgenomes with the G. raimondii genome, even though G

  12. Inside out: high-efficiency plant regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of upland and lowland switchgrass cultivars. (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Rong; Cen, Hui-Fang; Yan, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Yun-Wei; Zhang, Wan-Jun


    Selection of pre-embryogenic callus from a core structure from mature seed-derived callus is the key for high-efficiency plant regeneration and transformation of switchgrass different cultivars. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified as a dedicated biofuel crop. For its trait improvement through biotechnological approaches, we have developed a highly efficient plant regeneration and genetic transformation protocol for both lowland and upland cultivars. We identified and separated a pre-embryogenic "core" structure from the seed-derived callus, which often leads to development of highly regenerative type II calluses. From the type II callus, plant regeneration rate of lowland cultivars Alamo and Performer reaches 95%, and upland cultivars Blackwell and Dacotah, 50 and 76%, respectively. The type II callus was also amenable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transformation efficiency of 72.8% was achieved for lowland cultivar Alamo, and 8.0% for upland cultivar Dacotah. PCR, Southern blot and GUS staining assays were performed to verify the transgenic events. High regenerative callus lines could be established in 3 months, and transgenic plants could be obtained in 2 months after Agrobacterium infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on successful plant regeneration and recovery of transgenic plants from upland switchgrass cultivars by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The method presented here could be helpful in breaking through the bottleneck of regeneration and transformation of lowland and upland switchgrass cultivars and probably other recalcitrant grass crops.

  13. Distribution of tetraether lipids in agricultural soils - differentiation between paddy and upland management (United States)

    Mueller-Niggemann, Cornelia; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Marxen, Anika; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Schwark, Lorenz


    Rice paddies constitute almost a fifth of global cropland and provide more than half of the world's population with staple food. At the same time, they are a major source of methane and therewith significantly contribute to the current warming of Earth's atmosphere. Despite their apparent importance in the cycling of carbon and other elements, however, the microorganisms thriving in rice paddies are insufficiently characterized with respect to their biomolecules. Hardly any information exists on human-induced alteration of biomolecules from natural microbial communities in paddy soils through varying management types (affecting, e.g., soil or water redox conditions, cultivated plants). Here, we determined the influence of different land use types on the distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), which serve as molecular indicators for microbial community structures, in rice paddy (periodically flooded) and adjacent upland (non-flooded) soils and, for further comparison, forest, bushland and marsh soils. To differentiate local effects on GDGT distribution patterns, we collected soil samples in locations from tropical (Indonesia, Vietnam and Philippines) and subtropical (China and Italy) sites. We found that differences in the distribution of isoprenoid GDGTs (iGDGTs) as well as of branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) are predominantly controlled by management type and only secondarily by climatic exposition. In general, upland soil had higher crenarchaeol contents than paddy soil, which by contrast was more enriched in GDGT-0. The GDGT-0 / crenarchaeol ratio, indicating the enhanced presence of methanogenic archaea, was 3-27 times higher in paddy soils compared to other soils and increased with the number of rice cultivation cycles per year. The index of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbons (TEX86) values were 1.3 times higher in upland, bushland and forest soils than in paddy soils, potentially due to differences in soil temperature. In all soils br

  14. Genetic determinants of semi-dwarf characters induced in Oryza sativa for upland rice cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.; Poisson, C.


    Numerous semi-dwarf mutants have been obtained by applying gamma irradiation to tall upland varieties. They show better lodging resistance and retain their adaptation to upland cultivation conditions (MARIE, 1974). These mutants are also of interest as cross breeding parents. If the breeder knows the genes for semi-dwarfness, he can use different ones so as to avoid the risk of a narrow genetic base. Five induced mutants and one deviant from a sixth one, were used in this study. The semi-dwarf characters were analysed in two steps: Comparison of the stem morphology of the conventional varieties and of the induced mutants; Studying the behaviour of hybrid F 1 and F 2 segregations. Three types of genetic control for induced semi-dwarfness have been found on the basis of the six mutants used: A recessive single-gene determinant in IRAT 115; A recessive single-gene determinant different from the preceding one and common to IRAT 13, IRAT 177, IRAT 250 and IRAT 257; A semi-dominant single-gene determinant in IRAT 194. For his hybridization programme, the rice breeder therefore has at his disposal various upland semi-dwarf mutants, which are capable of transmitting this character in accordance with simple Mendelian rules. However, he has to test also their general cross breeding value. IRAT 13, from which most IRAT varieties released so far originated (including IRAT 104, IRAT 170 and IRAT 112), is undoubtedly a good parent. Mutants IRAT 177, IRAT 250 and IRAT 257, which have the same gene for semi-dwarfness, have been used more recently. They exhibit an excellent ability for combination with tall upland varieties, while being differentiated by a few features (better recombination for seed shedding or resistance to Pyricularia oryzae with IRAT 257 and for grain character with IRAT 177 or 250). The recombination observed in the crosses involving IRAT 115 and conventional upland varieties seems poor. Paradoxically, IRAT 115 has been found to become an excellent parent after

  15. The State of Microbial Communities in Paleosoils of the Solonetz Complex on the Severnye Yergeni Upland as Indicator of Climate Humidity in the Mid-Sarmatian Age (1st Century AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khomutova Tatyana E.


    Full Text Available The total and live biomass, the abundance and ecological-trophic structure of microbial communities in the paleosoils of the solonetz complex buried beneath the mid-Sarmatian (1st century AD kurgan, located in the dry steppe zone of the Severnye Yergeni Upland (Volgograd oblast, have been studied. The total biomass in paleosoils was comparable to and in some cases exceeded that of the recent background analogs. The share of microbial carbon in the total organic carbon of the paleosoils (40–58% was higher than in recent soils (20–26%. The live cells in microbial communities of the paleosoils constituted 2.4–10.2%, which is comparable to recent soil parameters. The ecological-trophic structure of microbial communities and their olygotrophy indices were generally similar to the parameters of recent background soils. The impact of the degree of alkalinity on the changes in the values of microbiological parameters in different horizons of the sub-kurgan paleosoils was evident throughout the profile; however, in each soil horizon it significantly affected only a single trophic group of the microbial community. The microbiological data obtained show that in the first century AD, the climatic conditions in the dry steppes of the Severnye Yergeni Upland were more humid as compared to the recent conditions.

  16. Detection, Validation, and Application of Genotyping-by-Sequencing Based Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Upland Cotton

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    M. Sariful Islam


    Full Text Available The presence of two closely related subgenomes in the allotetraploid Upland cotton, combined with a narrow genetic base of the cultivated varieties, has hindered the identification of polymorphic genetic markers and their use in improving this important crop. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS is a rapid way to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers; however, these SNPs may be specific to the sequenced cotton lines. Our objective was to obtain a large set of polymorphic SNPs with broad applicability to the cultivated cotton germplasm. We selected 11 diverse cultivars and their random-mated recombinant inbred progeny for SNP marker development via GBS. Two different GBS methodologies were used by Data2Bio (D2B and the Institute for Genome Diversity (IGD to identify 4441 and 1176 polymorphic SNPs with minor allele frequency of ≥0.1, respectively. We further filtered the SNPs and aligned their sequences to the diploid reference genome. We were able to use homeologous SNPs to assign 1071 SNP loci to the At subgenome and 1223 to the Dt subgenome. These filtered SNPs were located in genic regions about twice as frequently as expected by chance. We tested 111 of the SNPs in 154 diverse Upland cotton lines, which confirmed the utility of the SNP markers developed in such approach. Not only were the SNPs identified in the 11 cultivars present in the 154 cotton lines, no two cultivars had identical SNP genotypes. We conclude that GBS can be easily used to discover SNPs in Upland cotton, which can be converted to functional genotypic assays for use in breeding and genetic studies.

  17. Changes in upland wildlife habitat on farmland in Illinois 1920-1987 (United States)

    Ribic, C.A.; Warner, R.E.; Mankin, P.C.


    An index of upland wildlife habitat was developed to investigate patterns and changes in habitat over time, using four years (1920, 1940, 1964, 1987) and the state of Illinois as an example. The index was composed of two subdivisions that described, at the county level, the quantity of wildlife habitat and a third subdivision that described farming disturbances that impacted the quality of the habitat. Data came from the US Census of Agriculture. The first subdivision that reflected quantity of habitat was called the wildlife habitat subdivision and was the sum of percentage woodland on farms, percentage farmland in nonrow crops, and percentage farmland in set-aside programs. The second subdivision that reflected the quantity of habitat was termed the soil-related features subdivision and was the sum of the percentage of farmland that was not highly erodible, the percentage of farmland in soil-protecting crops, and the percentage of farmland in conservation tillage. The third subdivision, reflecting the quality of the habitat, was the farming disturbance subdivision and was the sum of the percentage of grazing and the percentage of land on which fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides were applied. Overall, major decreases occurred between 1920 and 1987 in the subdivisions reflecting the quantity of wildlife habitat and a major increase occurred in the subdivision associated with farming disturbance, reflecting the intensification of agriculture in the state. However, there was variability throughout the state, with some counties being more favorable to wildlife (as measured by the subdivisions) than others. Most of the changes within the state for the subdivisions reflecting quantity of upland wildlife habitat occurred during 1940 while changes in the farming disturbance subdivision (reflecting habitat quality) occurred in 1964. By 1987, the western and southern parts of Illinois were the most favorable for wildlife as reflected in all three subdivisions. Upland

  18. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid


    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  19. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.


    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  20. Breeding bird response to partially harvested riparian management zones (United States)

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Peterson, Anna; Hanowski, JoAnn; Blinn, Charles R.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Niemi, Gerald


    We compared avian communities among three timber harvesting treatments in 45-m wide even-age riparian management zones (RMZs) placed between upland clearcuts and along one side of first- or second-order streams in northern Minnesota, USA. The RMZs had three treatments: (1) unharvested, (2) intermediate residual basal area (RBA) (targeted goal 11.5 m2/ha, realized 16.0 m2/ha), and (3) low RBA (targeted goal 5.7 m2/ha, realized 8.7 m2/ha). Surveys were conducted one year pre-harvest and three consecutive years post-harvest. There was no change in species richness, diversity, or total abundance associated with harvest but there were shifts in the types of birds within the community. In particular, White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) and Chestnut-sided Warblers (Dendroica pensylvanica) increased while Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus) decreased. The decline of avian species associated with mature forest in the partially harvested treatments relative to controls indicates that maintaining an unharvested RMZ adjacent to an upland harvest may aid in maintaining avian species associated mature forest in Minnesota for at least three years post-harvest. However, our observations do not reflect reproductive success, which is an area for future research.

  1. Interaction between C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under elevated CO 2: Impact of mycorrhizae (United States)

    Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Liming; Chen, Xin; Hu, Shuijin


    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment may impact arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) development and function, which could have subsequent effects on host plant species interactions by differentially affecting plant nutrient acquisition. However, direct evidence illustrating this scenario is limited. We examined how elevated CO 2 affects plant growth and whether mycorrhizae mediate interactions between C 4 barnyard grass ( Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.) and C 3 upland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) in a low nutrient soil. The monocultures and combinations with or without mycorrhizal inoculation were grown at ambient (400 ± 20 μmol mol -1) and elevated CO 2 (700 ± 20 μmol mol -1) levels. The 15N isotope tracer was introduced to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated N acquisition of plants. Elevated CO 2 stimulated the growth of C 3 upland rice but not that of C 4 barnyard grass under monoculture. Elevated CO 2 also increased mycorrhizal colonization of C 4 barnyard grass but did not affect mycorrhizal colonization of C 3 upland rice. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased the shoot biomass ratio of C 4 barnyard grass to C 3 upland rice under both CO 2 concentrations but had a greater impact under the elevated than ambient CO 2 level. Mycorrhizae decreased relative interaction index (RII) of C 3 plants under both ambient and elevated CO 2, but mycorrhizae increased RII of C 4 plants only under elevated CO 2. Elevated CO 2 and mycorrhizal inoculation enhanced 15N and total N and P uptake of C 4 barnyard grass in mixture but had no effects on N and P acquisition of C 3 upland rice, thus altering the distribution of N and P between the species in mixture. These results implied that CO 2 stimulation of mycorrhizae and their nutrient acquisition may impact competitive interaction of C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under future CO 2 scenarios.

  2. Calcium and Phosphor Status of Beef Cattle in Upland and Lowland of Jratunseluna River Basin in Central Java (United States)

    Sutrisno; Subrata, A.; Surahmanto; Christiyanto, M.; Surono; Achmadi, J.; Wahyono, F.; Pangestu, E.


    The study was aimed to obtain information regarding feed given and mineralstatus (Ca, P) in fodder and beef cattle in Jratunseluna river basin. Feed and drinking water given by farmers identified for 14 days and extracted sampling for mineralanalysis, t-test was used to compare mineral status in upland and lowland. Results of the research showed that feed given by farmers were varying. The ratio of forage/concentrates in lowland and upland areas was different, i.e. 67: 33 and 30: 70, respectivelly. Ca content on forage given in upland areas ranged from 0.17 to 0.74%, and concentrates from 0.002 to 0.49%, while Ca content on forage given in lowland areas ranged from 0.33 to 0.52%, and concentrates ranged from 0.38 to 0.49%. P content on forage in upland areas ranged from 0.02 to 0.04%, concentrates ranged from 0.018 to 0.09%,while P content on forage in lowland areas ranged from 0.03 to 0.07%, and concentrates ranged from 0.04 to 0.07% . Ca and P consumption in upland areas were 301.06 and 54.73 g, and 391.92 and 65.70 g in lowland.Caand P content of beef cattle’s hair in upland were 0.14 and 0.01%, while in lowland areas were 0.11 and 0.03%.It can be concluded that Ca and P intakeof beef cattle in Jratunseluna river basin were less and mineral status of Ca and P in marginal condition.

  3. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

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    C. Rubaire-Akiiki


    Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  4. Providing plastic zone extrusion (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen


    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  5. Assessing the continuity of the upland sediment cascade, fluvial geomorphic response of an upland river to an extreme flood event: Storm Desmond, Cumbria, UK. (United States)

    Joyce, Hannah; Hardy, Richard; Warburton, Jeff


    Hillslope erosion and accelerated lake sedimentation are often viewed as the source and main storage elements in the upland sediment cascade. However, the continuity of sediment transfer through intervening valley systems has rarely been evaluated during extreme events. Storm Desmond (4th - 6th December, 2015) produced record-breaking rainfall maximums in the UK: 341.4 mm rainfall was recorded in a 24 hour period at Honister Pass, Western Lake District, and 405 mm of rainfall was recorded in a 38 hour period at Thirlmere, central Lake District. The storm was the largest in a 150 year local rainfall series, and exceeded previous new records set in the 2005 and 2009 floods. During this exceptional event, rivers over topped flood defences, and caused damage to over 257 bridges, flooded over 5000 homes and businesses, and caused substantial geomorphic change along upland rivers. This research quantifies the geomorphic and sedimentary response to Storm Desmond along a regulated gravel-bed river: St John's Beck. St John's Beck (length 7.8 km) is a channelised low gradient river (0.005) downstream of Thirlmere Reservoir, which joins the River Greta, and flows through Keswick, where major flooding has occurred, before discharging into Bassenthwaite Lake. St John's Beck has a history of chronic sediment aggradation, erosion and reports of historic flooding date back to 1750. During Storm Desmond, riverbanks were eroded, coarse sediment was deposited across valuable farmland and access routes were destroyed, including a bridge and footpaths, disrupting local business. A sediment budget framework has been used to quantify geomorphic change and sedimentary characteristics of the event along St John's Beck. The volume and sediment size distribution of flood deposits, channel bars, tributary deposits, floodplain scour, riverbank erosion and in-channel bars were measured directly in the field and converted to mass using local estimates of coarse and fine sediment bulk densities

  6. The Supergalactic Habitable Zone (United States)

    Mason, Paul


    Habitability in the local universe is examined. Constrained by metal abundance and exposure to sterilizing events, life as we know it requires significantly long periods of stable environmental conditions. Planets within galaxies undergoing major mergers, active AGN, starburst episodes, and merging black holes pose serious threats to long-term habitability. Importantly, the development of several layers of protection from high-energy particles such as a thick atmosphere, a strong planetary magnetic field, an astrosphere, and a galactic magnetic field is of great benefit. Factors such as star type and activity, planet type and composition, the location of a planet within its host galaxy, and even the location within a supercluster of galaxies can affect the potential habitability of planets. We discuss the concept of the Supergalactic Habitable Zone introduced by Mason and Biermann in terms of habitability in the local universe and find that galaxies near the center of the Virgo cluster, for example, have a much lower probability for the development of life as we know it as compared to locations in the Milky Way.

  7. Dynamic QTL and epistasis analysis on seedling root traits in upland cotton. (United States)

    Liang, Qingzhi; Li, Pengbo; Hu, Cheng; Hua, Hua; Li, Zhaohu; Rong, Yihua; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping


    Roots are involved in acquisition of water and nutrients, as well as in providing structural support to plant. The root system provides a dynamic model for developmental analysis. Here, we investigated quantitative trait loci (QTL), dynamic conditional QTL and epistatic interactions for seedling root traits using an upland cotton F2 population and a constructed genetic map. Totally, 37 QTLs for root traits, 35 dynamic conditional QTLs based on the net increased amount of root traits (root tips, forks, length, surface area and volume) (i) after transplanting 10 days compared to 5 days, and (ii) after transplanting 15 days to 10 days were detected. Obvious dynamic characteristic of QTL and dynamic conditional QTL existed at different developmental stages of root because QTL and dynamic conditional QTL had not been detected simultaneously. We further confirmed that additive and dominance effects of QTL qRSA-chr1-1 in interval time 5 to 10 DAT (days after transplant) offset the effects in 10 to 15 DAT. Lots of two-locus interactions for root traits were identified unconditionally or dynamically, and a few epistatic interactions were only detected simultaneously in interval time of 5-10 DAT and 10-15 DAT, suggesting different interactive genetic mechanisms on root development at different stages. Dynamic conditional QTL and epistasis effects provide new attempts to understand the dynamics of roots and provide clues for root architecture selection in upland cotton.

  8. Challenges and dilemmas: fieldwork with upland minorities in socialist Vietnam, Laos and southwest China. (United States)

    Turner, Sarah


    The Chinese, Vietnamese and Lao spaces within the upland Southeast Asian massif, sheltering over 80 million people belonging to geographically dispersed and politically fragmented minority populations, have only recently reopened to overseas academic endeavours. Undertaking social sciences research there among ethnic minority groups is underscored by a specific set of challenges, dilemmas, and negotiations. This special issue brings together Western academics and post-fieldwork doctoral students from the realms of social anthropology and human geography, who have conducted in-depth fieldwork among ethnic minorities in upland southwest China, northern Vietnam, and southern Laos. The articles provide insights into the struggles and constraints they faced in the field, set against an understanding of the historical context of field research in these locales. In this unique context that nowadays interweaves economic liberalisation with centralised and authoritarian political structures, the authors explore how they have negotiated and manoeuvred access to ethnic minority voices in complex cultural configurations. The ethical challenges raised and methodological reflections offered will be insightful for others conducting fieldwork in the socialist margins of the Southeast Asian massif and beyond. This specific context is introduced here, followed by a critique of the literature on the core themes that contributors raise.

  9. The use of different clustering methods in the evaluation of genetic diversity in upland cotton

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    Laíse Ferreira de Araújo

    Full Text Available The continuous development and evaluation of new genotypes through crop breeding is essential in order to obtain new cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic divergences between cultivars of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. using the agronomic and technological characteristics of the fibre, in order to select superior parent plants. The experiment was set up during 2010 at the Federal University of Ceará in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Eleven cultivars of upland cotton were used in an experimental design of randomised blocks with three replications. In order to evaluate the genetic diversity among cultivars, the generalised Mahalanobis distance matrix was calculated, with cluster analysis then being applied, employing various methods: single linkage, Ward, complete linkage, median, average linkage within a cluster and average linkage between clusters. Genetic variability exists among the evaluated genotypes. The most consistant clustering method was that employing average linkage between clusters. Among the characteristics assessed, mean boll weight presented the highest contribution to genetic diversity, followed by elongation at rupture. Employing the method of mean linkage between clusters, the cultivars with greater genetic divergence were BRS Acacia and LD Frego; those of greater similarity were BRS Itaúba and BRS Araripe.

  10. Doses and application methods of Azospirillum brasilense in irrigated upland rice

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    Nayara F. S. Garcia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study was carried out in Selvíria-MS, in the 2011/12 and 2012/13 agricultural years, aiming to evaluate the efficiency of Azospirillum brasilense in nitrogen fixation in upland rice, as a function of doses and application methods of the inoculant containing this diazotrophic bacterium. The experimental design was randomized blocks, arranged in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme, with 4 doses of inoculant (control without inoculation, 100, 200 and 300 mL of the commercial product ha-1 and 4 application methods (seed inoculation, application in the sowing furrow, soil spraying after sowing, and foliar spraying at the beginning of plant tillering, with 4 replicates. During the experiment, the agronomic characteristics, production components and yield of the rice crop were evaluated. It was concluded that the inoculant containing Azospirillum brasilense promotes increase (19% in the yield of upland rice under sprinkler irrigation when used at the dose of 200 mL ha-1, regardless of the application methods.

  11. Tropical secondary forests regenerating after shifting cultivation in the Philippines uplands are important carbon sinks. (United States)

    Mukul, Sharif A; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer


    In the tropics, shifting cultivation has long been attributed to large scale forest degradation, and remains a major source of uncertainty in forest carbon accounting. In the Philippines, shifting cultivation, locally known as kaingin, is a major land-use in upland areas. We measured the distribution and recovery of aboveground biomass carbon along a fallow gradient in post-kaingin secondary forests in an upland area in the Philippines. We found significantly higher carbon in the aboveground total biomass and living woody biomass in old-growth forest, while coarse dead wood biomass carbon was higher in the new fallow sites. For young through to the oldest fallow secondary forests, there was a progressive recovery of biomass carbon evident. Multivariate analysis indicates patch size as an influential factor in explaining the variation in biomass carbon recovery in secondary forests after shifting cultivation. Our study indicates secondary forests after shifting cultivation are substantial carbon sinks and that this capacity to store carbon increases with abandonment age. Large trees contribute most to aboveground biomass. A better understanding of the relative contribution of different biomass sources in aboveground total forest biomass, however, is necessary to fully capture the value of such landscapes from forest management, restoration and conservation perspectives.

  12. Genome-wide identification and characterization of JAZ gene family in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). (United States)

    Li, Wen; Xia, Xiao-Cong; Han, Li-Hong; Ni, Ping; Yan, Jing-Qiu; Tao, Miao; Huang, Geng-Qing; Li, Xue-Bao


    Plant JAZ (Jasmonate ZIM-domain) proteins play versatile roles in multiple aspects of plant development and defense. However, little is known about the JAZ family in allotetraploid upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) so far. In this study, 30 non-redundant JAZ genes were identified in upland cotton through genome-wide screening. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 30 proteins in cotton JAZ family are further divided into five groups (I - V), and members in the same group share highly conserved motif structures. Subcellular localization assay demonstrated that GhJAZ proteins are localized in the cell nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that GhJAZs display different expression patterns in cotton tissues, and most of them could be induced by Jasmonic (JA). Furthermore, some GhJAZ genes are preferentially expressed in cotton ovules and fibers, and showed differential expression in ovules of wild type cotton and fiberless mutant (fl) during fiber initiation. GhJAZ proteins could interact with each other to form homodimer or heterodimer, and they also interacted with some JA signaling regulators and the proteins involved in cotton fiber initiation. Collectively, our data suggested that some GhJAZ proteins may play important roles in cotton fiber initiation and development by regulating JA signaling as well as some fiber-related proteins.

  13. The Politics of PVC: Technology and Institutions in Upland Water Management in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Badenoch


    Full Text Available Conflict over water has grown in the mountainous areas of Thailand since the replacement of opium with alternative crops. PVC-sprinkler irrigation has enabled dry-season expansion of these cash crops on sloping lands, intensifying demand for water when it is most scarce. The technology and institutions that form the backbone of these irrigation systems have evolved simultaneously in a process of adaptive governance, in which local farmers draw on local social resources to balance competition and cooperation. Common conceptions of upstream – downstream conflict, pitting Thai against ethnic minorities in a struggle for resources, dominate the discourse of watersheds in Thailand. Upland water users themselves are diverse and their resource management systems are dynamic, even if they are not recognised as legitimate users of water. Understanding how upland communities create local systems of resource governance through dry-season irrigation is highly relevant for governance at higher levels, such as in the efforts to establish watershed networks and river basin organisations.

  14. Soil-to-Plant Transfer Factors of {sup 99}Tc for Korean Major Upland Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lim, Kwang Muk; Jun, In; Keum, Dong Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Reserach Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In order to investigate the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) of {sup 99}Tc for Korean major upland crops (soybean, radish and Chinese cabbage), pot experiments were performed in a greenhouse. Soils were collected from four upland fields (two for soybean and two for radish and Chinese cabbage) around Gyeongju radioactive-waste disposal site. Three to four weeks before sowing, dried soils were mixed with a {sup 99}Tc solution and the mixtures were put into pots and irrigated. TF values were expressed as the ratios of the {sup 99}Tc concentrations in plants (Bq kg{sup -1}-dry or fresh) to those in soils (Bq kg{sup -1}-dry). There was no great difference in the TF value between soils. The TF values for soybean seeds were extremely lower than those for the straws, indicating a very low mobility of {sup 99}Tc to seeds. As representative TF values of{sup 99}Tc,1.8 X 10{sup -1}, 1.2 X 10{sup 1}, 3.2 X 10{sup 2} and 1.3 X 10{sup 2} (for dry plants), arithmetic means for two soils, were proposed for soybean seeds, radish roots, radish leaves and Chinese cabbage leaves, respectively. In the case of the vegetables, proposals for fresh plants were also made. The proposed values are not sufficiently representative so successive updates are needed.

  15. Result of Six Local Upland Rice Cultivars of East Kalimantan at Different Plant Spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rusdiansyah


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of six upland rice cultivars from East Kalimantan over different plant spacing. The experiment was conducted at Kutai Kartanegara district in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The experimental design used was the factorial experiment in Randomized Completely Block Design (RCDB with three replications. The first factor was six upland rice cultivars of East Kalimantan, i.e.: v1 (Mayas Pancing, v2 (Gedagai, v3 (Bogor Putih, v4 (Mayas Putih, v5 (Serai and v6 (Kunyit. The second factor was plant spacing i.e.: j1 (20 x 20 cm and j2 (30 x 30 cm. The results showed that among the six cultivars, Gedagai, Bogor Putih and Kunyit produced higher yield than other varieties.  Gedagai and Bogor Putih cultivars produced higher yield of 2.99 ton ha-1 at plant spacing 20 x 20 cm, whereas Kunyit produced higher yield of 2.66 ton ha-1 at plant spacing 30 x 30 cm. The agronomic characters showed that plant height of the six cultivars differed significantly at harvest time. In addition, highly significant differences of harvest time were observed of the six cultivars.Doi:

  16. Relationships between vegetation dynamics and hydroclimatic drivers in the northern high-latitude uplands (United States)

    Wang, H.; Tetzlaff, D.; Buttle, J. M.; Carey, S. K.; Laudon, H.; McNamara, J. P.; Soulsby, C.; Spence, C.


    IPCC projections show that climate warming will be particularly high in northern high-latitude regions, which has profound ecohydrological implications: a small rise of temperature may result in lower water availability in summer due to less rainfall and more evapotranspiration, increase flooding risks by accelerating melting rates in spring, and more rain rather than snow in winter, etc. These impacts will affect vegetation communities by altering timing of the spring "green-up" and fall "senescence". Change in vegetation water use will feedback to atmospheric and hydrological cycles. Here, we report results from the PLATO "Plant-water interlinkages in northern uplands - mediation of climate change?" project where we investigate water uptake by plants and consequent water availability in northern regions along a cross-regional climate gradient to understand future responses to change in high-latitude uplands. Six sites in Sweden (Krycklan), Canada (Wolf Creek; Baker Creek; Dorset), Scotland (Girnock) and the USA (Dry Creek) span moisture and energy gradients found at high-latitudes. We are presenting preliminary results of vegetation phenology changes from 2000 to 2014 by analysing remote sensing vegetation indices. The relationship between vegetation phenology and climatic drivers (temperature and precipitation) is also investigated.

  17. Elevated atmospheric deposition and dynamics of mercury in a remote upland forest of southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xuewu; Feng Xinbin; Zhu Wanze; Rothenberg, S.; Yao Heng; Zhang Hui


    Mt. Gongga area in southwest China was impacted by Hg emissions from industrial activities and coal combustion, and annual means of atmospheric TGM and PHg concentrations at a regional background station were 3.98 ng m -3 and 30.7 pg m -3 , respectively. This work presents a mass balance study of Hg in an upland forest in this area. Atmospheric deposition was highly elevated in the study area, with the annual mean THg deposition flux of 92.5 μg m -2 yr -1 . Total deposition was dominated by dry deposition (71.8%), and wet deposition accounted for the remaining 28.2%. Forest was a large pool of atmospheric Hg, and nearly 76% of the atmospheric input was stored in forest soil. Volatilization and stream outflow were identified as the two major pathways for THg losses from the forest, which yielded mean output fluxes of 14.0 and 8.6 μg m -2 yr -1 , respectively. - Upland forest ecosystem is a great sink of atmospheric mercury in southwest China.

  18. Forest response and recovery following disturbance in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. (United States)

    Schäfer, Karina V R; Renninger, Heidi J; Carlo, Nicholas J; Vanderklein, Dirk W


    Carbon and water cycling of forests contribute significantly to the Earth's overall biogeochemical cycling and may be affected by disturbance and climate change. As a larger body of research becomes available about leaf-level, ecosystem and regional scale effects of disturbances on forest ecosystems, a more mechanistic understanding is developing which can improve modeling efforts. Here, we summarize some of the major effects of physical and biogenic disturbances, such as drought, prescribed fire, and insect defoliation, on leaf and ecosystem-scale physiological responses as well as impacts on carbon and water cycling in an Atlantic Coastal Plain upland oak/pine and upland pine forest. During drought, stomatal conductance and canopy stomatal conductance were reduced, however, defoliation increased conductance on both leaf-level and canopy scale. Furthermore, after prescribed fire, leaf-level stomatal conductance was unchanged for pines but decreased for oaks, while canopy stomatal conductance decreased temporarily, but then rebounded the following growing season, thus exhibiting transient responses. This study suggests that forest response to disturbance varies from the leaf to ecosystem level as well as species level and thus, these differential responses interplay to determine the fate of forest structure and functioning post disturbance.

  19. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledvina, Joseph A.


    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  20. Integrating hydrogeophysics and hydrological tracers to characterise the spatial structure of groundwater storage in the critical zone of montane environments (United States)

    Dick, J.; Tetzlaff, D.; Bradford, J.; Soulsby, C.


    It is increasingly recognised that groundwater (GW) in montane watersheds has a major influence on the distribution of vegetation communities and ecosystem function, as well as sustaining downstream river flows. In glaciated landscapes, complex and heterogenous drift deposits can have a dominant influence on GW stores and fluxes, and form a poorly understood component of the critical zone. Given the logistical problems and limitations of drilling observation wells in such terrain, hydrogeophysics has outstanding potential to help characterise aquifer structure and understand shallow GW in the critical zone of montane environments. We present the results of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in an intensively monitored 3.2km2 watershed in the Scottish Highlands with a strong glacial past. We sought to characterise the structure and spatial organisation of GW stores in diverse quaternary drift deposits. This utilized distributed ERT transects that provided a basis for spatial interpolation using geostatistical methods and high resolution LiDAR surveys. Some transects coincided with shallow observation wells that were used to "ground-truth" the inversion of resistivity data. The surveys showed that the drifts covered around 70% of the catchment and varied from 5m deep on the hillslopes to 40m in the valleys. The water table was within 0.2m of the soil surface in the valley bottom areas and about 1.5m deep on steeper hillslopes. The water content of drifts inferred by the ERT surveys and characterisation of the aquifer properties showed highest water content in the peat (~80%) and basal till (20-30%), and low storage in moraine deposits (10%). Upscaling these estimates of inferred storage to the catchment scale indicated around ~2-3 m of GW storage, equivalent to around 4-6 years of effective precipitation. This generally compared well with independent storage estimates inferred from long-term stable isotope time series collected from the aquifers

  1. Stable Continental Region Earthquakes in South China (United States)

    Liu, L.

    This paper reviews some remarkable characteristics of earthquakes in a Stable Continental Region (SCR) of the South China Block (SCB). The kernel of the SCB is the Yangtze platform solidified in late Proterozoic time, with continental growth to the southeast by a series of fold belts in Paleozoic time. The facts that the deviatoric stress is low, the orientations of the major tectonic features in the SCB are substantially normal to the maximum horizontal principal stress, and a relatively uniform crust, seem to be the major reasons for lack of significant seismicity in most regions of the SCB. Earthquakes in this region are mainly associated with three seismic zones: (1) the Southeast China Coast seismic zone related to Guangdong-Fujian coastal folding belt (associated with Eurasia-Philippine Sea plate collision); (2) the Southern Yellow Sea seismic zone associated with continental shelf rifts and basins; and (3) the Downstream Yangtze River seismic zone spatially coinciding with Tertiary rifts and basin development. All three seismic zones are close to one or two major economic and population centers in the SCB so that they pose significant seismic hazards. Earthquake focal mechanisms in the SCB are consistent with strike-slip to normal faulting stress regimes. Because of the global and national economic significance of the SCB and its dense population, the seismic hazard of the region is of outstanding importance. Comparing the SCB with another less developed region, a pending earthquake with the same size and tectonic setting would cause substantially more severe social and economic losses in the SCB. This paper also compiles an inventory of historic moderate to great earthquakes in the SCB; most of the data are not widely available in English literature.

  2. Paleosols and climate in the southeast of the Central Russian Upland during the Middle and Late Bronze ages (the 25th-15th Centuries BC) (United States)

    Demkin, V. A.; Borisov, A. V.; Udal'Tsov, S. N.


    Paleosol studies of kurgans dating back to the Middle and Late Bronze ages (the Catacomb, Pokrovskaya, and Srubnaya cultural epochs; 4500-3500 BP) have been performed within the dry steppe zone in the southeast of the Central Russian Upland. The studied kurgans occupy the upper parts of local interfluves differing in the lithology of their upper horizons. The specificity of the Middle Holocene pedogenesis as related to the local lithologic and geomorphic conditions has been characterized. During the past 4500 years, local soils have been subjected to evolutionary changes related to climatic fluctuations. These changes manifested themselves at the subtype level with substitution of dark chestnut soils for chestnut soils. The climatic conditions during the Catacomb and Pokrovskaya cultural epochs (4.5-3.8 ka BP) were more arid than those at present. The maximum aridization of the climate took place at the end of the third and the first quarter of the second millennia BC. Detailed descriptions of the morphology of kurgan bodies and buried paleosols make it possible to hypothesize about the seasons of the kurgan construction and the technology of this work.

  3. Numerical reconstruction of Late-Cenosoic evolution of normal-fault scarps in Baikal Rift Zone (United States)

    Byzov, Leonid; San'kov, Vladimir


    Numerical landscape development modeling has recently become a popular tool in geo-logic and geomorphic investigations. We employed this technique to reconstruct Late-Cenosoic evolution of Baikal Rift Zone mountains. The objects of research were Barguzin Range and Svyatoy Nos Upland. These structures are formed under conditions of crustal extension and bounded by active normal faults. In our experiments we used instruments, engineered by Greg Tucker (University of Colo-rado) - CHILD (Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development) and 'Bedrock Fault Scarp'. First program allowed constructing the complex landscape model considering tectonic uplift, fluvial and hillslope processes; second program is used for more accurate simulating of triangular facet evolution. In general, our experiments consisted in testing of tectonic parameters, and climatic char-acteristic, erosion and diffusion properties, hydraulic geometry were practically constant except for some special runs. Numerous experiments, with various scenarios of development, showed that Barguzin range and Svyatoy Nos Upland has many common features. These structures characterized by internal differentiation, which appear in height and shape of slopes. At the same time, individual segments of these objects are very similar - this conclusion refers to most developing parts, with pronounced facets and V-shaped valleys. Accordingly modelling, these landscapes are in a steady state and are undergoing a uplift with rate 0,4 mm/yr since Early Pliocene (this solution accords with AFT-dating). Lower segments of Barguzin Range and Svyatoy Nos Upland also have some general fea-tures, but the reasons of such similarity probably are different. In particular, southern segment of Svyatoy Nos Upland, which characterized by relative high slope with very weak incision, may be formed as result very rapid fault movement or catastrophic landslide. On the other hand, a lower segment of Barguzin Range (Ulun segment, for example

  4. Trace Gas Fluxes From Through-Canopy Measurements in an Upland Forest of the Eastern Brazilian Amazon (United States)

    Crill, P.; Keller, M.; Silva, H.; Dias, J. D.; Albuquerque, S.; Czepiel, P.; de Oliveira, R. C.


    Methane (CH4) is a radiatively active trace gas whose atmospheric budget has been perturbed by humans. Wetlands have been recognized as the main natural source of CH4 for the past 30 years. Current inverse models indicate that tropical sources account for the bulk of CH4 emissions. The largest sources are likely wetlands, agriculture and burning and that these sources may be underestimated. As part of the LBA experiment, we automatically sampled CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in profiles through two forest canopies at sites 67 and 83 km south of Santarém, Pará. CH4 and CO2 can have a strong diurnal signal. CH4 mixing ratios correlated well with CO2. Both gases had column maxima in the early morning near dawn because of stable nocturnal conditions. However there were differences in the profiles. Highest CO2 mixing ratios tended to occur near the surface due to the strong respiration source of CO2. Often the lowest mixing ratios of CH4 were found near the surface which is consistent with a weak soil sink. Calculations of the CH4 flux of example periods from different seasons were made by correlating height weighted averages of the half hourly ambient mixing ratios of CH4 and CO2 and relating this correlation to the ratio of coincident nocturnal NEE CO2 eddy correlation fluxes made during windy nights at two towers at the same sites and automated chamber flux measurements made at the km67 site. Fluxes were calculated to be between 2.2 and 23.3 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. If the area of the upland forest area of the Amazon basin is 5 x 106 km2, we then estimate a CH4 source strength of 4 to 43 Tg y-1. This estimate is consistent with a flux of 4 to 38 Tg y-1 calculated from a survey of profile and flux measurements made during the dry and wet seasons at three other sites across the Amazon basin.

  5. High Resolution Consensus Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Fiber Strength, Length and Micronaire on Chromosome 25 of the Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is an important agricultural crop that provides renewable natural fiber resources for the global textile industry. Technological developments in the textile industry and improvements in human living standards have increased the requirement for supplies and better quality cotton. Upland cotton 0-153 is an elite cultivar harboring strong fiber strength genes. To conduct quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping for fiber quality in 0-153, we developed a population of 196 recombinant inbred lines (RILs from a cross between 0-153 and sGK9708. The fiber quality traits in 11 environments were measured and a genetic linkage map of chromosome 25 comprising 210 loci was constructed using this RIL population, mainly using simple sequence repeat markers and single nucleotide polymorphism markers. QTLs were identified across diverse environments using the composite interval mapping method. A total of 37 QTLs for fiber quality traits were identified on chromosome 25, of which 17 were stably expressed in at least in two environments. A stable fiber strength QTL, qFS-chr25-4, which was detected in seven environments and was located in the marker interval between CRI-SNP120491 and BNL2572, could explain 6.53%-11.83% of the observed phenotypic variations. Meta-analysis also confirmed the above QTLs with previous reports. Application of these QTLs could contribute to improving fiber quality and provide information for marker-assisted selection.

  6. High Resolution Consensus Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Fiber Strength, Length and Micronaire on Chromosome 25 of the Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Junwen; Muhammad, Jamshed; Cai, Juan; Jia, Fei; Shi, Yuzhen; Gong, Juwu; Shang, Haihong; Liu, Aiying; Chen, Tingting; Ge, Qun; Palanga, Koffi Kibalou; Lu, Quanwei; Deng, Xiaoying; Tan, Yunna; Li, Wei; Sun, Linyang; Gong, Wankui; Yuan, Youlu


    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important agricultural crop that provides renewable natural fiber resources for the global textile industry. Technological developments in the textile industry and improvements in human living standards have increased the requirement for supplies and better quality cotton. Upland cotton 0-153 is an elite cultivar harboring strong fiber strength genes. To conduct quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for fiber quality in 0-153, we developed a population of 196 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between 0-153 and sGK9708. The fiber quality traits in 11 environments were measured and a genetic linkage map of chromosome 25 comprising 210 loci was constructed using this RIL population, mainly using simple sequence repeat markers and single nucleotide polymorphism markers. QTLs were identified across diverse environments using the composite interval mapping method. A total of 37 QTLs for fiber quality traits were identified on chromosome 25, of which 17 were stably expressed in at least in two environments. A stable fiber strength QTL, qFS-chr25-4, which was detected in seven environments and was located in the marker interval between CRI-SNP120491 and BNL2572, could explain 6.53%-11.83% of the observed phenotypic variations. Meta-analysis also confirmed the above QTLs with previous reports. Application of these QTLs could contribute to improving fiber quality and provide information for marker-assisted selection.

  7. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.


    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  8. Short-term stem mortality of 10 deciduous broadleaved species following prescribed burning in upland forests of the southern US (United States)

    Tara L. Keyser; Virginia L. McDaniel; Robert N. Klein; Dan G. Drees; Jesse A. Burton; Melissa M. Forder


    In upland forests of the southern US, management is increasingly focussed on the restoration and maintenance of resilient structures and species compositions, with prescribed burning being the primary tool used to achieve these goals and objectives. In this study, we utilised an extensive dataset comprising 91 burn units and 210 plots across 13 National Park Service...

  9. Replacing soybean meal with Upland cottonseed, Pima cottonseed, or extruded Pima cottonseed cake on production of lactating dairy cows (United States)

    Cottonseed is an important dietary ingredient for dairy cows and is fed principally as upland cottonseed. However, Pima cotton production is growing in the U.S. Pima cottonseed contains greater levels of protein, oil and gossypol, a potentially toxic compound. Heating cottonseed promotes the gossypo...

  10. 78 FR 8018 - Establishment of the Indiana Uplands Viticultural Area and Modification of the Ohio River Valley... (United States)


    ... adequate information as to the identity and quality of the product. The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade... effective, wine bottlers using ``Indiana Uplands'' in a brand name, including a trademark, or in another... with a brand name that includes a viticultural area name or other term identified as being...

  11. Sources, transformations, and hydrological processes that control stream nitrate and dissolved organic matter concentrations during snowmelt in an upland forest (United States)

    Stephen D. Sebestyen; Elizabeth W. Boyer; James B. Shanley; Carol Kendall; Daniel H. Doctor; George R. Aiken; Nobuhito Ohte


    We explored catchment processes that control stream nutrient concentrations at an upland forest in northeastern Vermont, USA, where inputs of nitrogen via atmospheric deposition are among the highest in the nation and affect ecosystem functioning. We traced sources of water, nitrate, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) using stream water samples collected at high...

  12. Individual-tree basal area growth, survival, and total height models for upland hardwoods in the Boston Mountains of Arkansa (United States)

    Paul A. Murphy; David L. Graney


    Models were developed for individual-tree basal area growth, survival, and total heights for different species of upland hardwoods in the Boston Mountains of north Arkansas. Data used were from 87 permanent plots located in an array of different sites and stand ages; the plots were thinned to different stocking levels and included unthinned controls. To test these...

  13. Mapping upland hardwood site quality and productivity with GIS and FIA in the Blue Ridge of North Carolina (United States)

    Claudia A. Cotton; Stephen R. Prisley; Thomas R. Fox


    The forested ecosystems of the southern Appalachians are some of the most diverse in North America due to the variability in climate, soils, and geologic parent material coupled with the complex topography found throughout the region. These same characteristics cause stands of upland hardwoods to be extremely variable with regard to site quality and productivity. Site...

  14. Groundwater recharge assessment in an upland sandstone aquifer of southern California (United States)

    Manna, F.; Cherry, J. A.; McWhorter, D. B.; Parker, B. L.


    The Chloride Mass Balance (CMB) method was used to obtain long-term recharge values for the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site, which features a groundwater flow system beneath an upland ridge formed of sandstone and shale beds in the Simi Hills, Ventura County, southern California. This application relied on the availability of on-site measurements of bulk atmospheric chloride deposition comprised of dry fallout and wet concentration, a large number of groundwater samples (∼1490) collected over three decades from 206 wells spanning a depth range from 10 to 360 m, and measurements of chloride in surface runoff during rain events. The use of the CMB method is suited to the assessment of recharge for the study area because the mean chloride values in groundwater show minimal spatial trends, indicating no sources other than atmospheric. In addition, the Cl/Br ratio was used to exclude wells with possible anthropogenic chloride. The site-wide average recharge ranges between 1.8 and 9.5% of the mean annual precipitation (455 mm) with a mean value of 4.2%. The measured surface runoff varies from 2.3 to 10.2% with mean value of 6.1% (28 mm) and, therefore, the volume of water lost to evapotranspiration is between 95.9 and 80.3% with a mean value of 89.6% (408 mm). The long-term recharge calculated using the CMB method is consistent with tritium distribution based on a subset of groundwater monitoring wells and with an analysis of steady flow in the groundwater mound beneath the SSFL. Furthermore, the recharge value matches those in the literature for sandstone aquifers in arid and semi-arid climates. This recharge estimate has important relevance for site characterization in terms of constraining the volumetric groundwater flow rates and water balance and understanding the mechanisms of transport towards the water table. Moreover, this is the first application of the CMB in an upland area of California. Hence, the method is demonstrated to be robust and

  15. Micronutrient and Silicon Uptake and Removal by Upland Rice Cultivars with Different Plant Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Upland rice cultivars manifest different nutritional demands. A field study was conducted to quantify the extraction, distribution, and removal of micronutrients and silicon by the upland rice cultivars. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block-split plot design. Plots consisted of three cultivars (Caiapó – traditional, BRS Primavera – intermediate, and Maravilha – modern of upland rice. Split-plots consisted of plant samplings, which occurred at 39, 46, 55, 67, 75, 83, 92, 102, 111, 118, and 125 days after emergence (DAE. Up to the end of tillering (46 DAE, all cultivars exhibited low demand for most micronutrients and Si, and took up less than 24 % of the total B, Cu, and Si, but around 31 % of the total Zn. The period of greatest uptake of micronutrients and Si occurred from 65 to 80 DAE in the Caiapó and BRS Primavera cultivars, and after 80 DAE in the Maravilha cultivar. The Caiapó and BRS Primavera cultivars took up their necessary demand of B, Mn, and Fe in the first 98 DAE and Cu, Zn, and Si up to 105 DAE, but the Maravilha cultivar took up these nutrients for two to three weeks longer. The quantities of micronutrients and Si taken up by cultivars Caiapó, BRS Primavera, and Maravilha did not exhibit large differences, and these cultivars took up between 98-135 g B, 103-110 g Cu, 1,157-1,460 g Fe, 1,278-1,424 g Mn, 240-285 g Zn, and 111-124 kg Si per hectare. The BRS Primavera cultivar showed greater removal of nutrients, with average amounts per hectare of 19.7 g B, 25.8 g Cu, 200 g Fe, 234.2 g Mn, 102.4 g Zn, and 32.6 kg Si, while the other cultivars removed smaller amounts per hectare (14.4 g B, 19.9 g Cu, 160.7 g Fe, 136.3 g Mn, 67 g Zn, and 21.9 kg Si. The BRS Primavera showed a greater removal of nutrients because it has a higher yield and allocates a greater quantity of nutrients to the panicles.

  16. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory (United States)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad


    structure of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, detailed description of the deep structure of Caspian zone, Kur and Caspian megadepressions, identification of nappe-folded structure of the Absheron Peninsula and the Absheron threshold at the border of Middle and South Caspian, justification of the possible hydrocarbon concentration at the tectonically stratified substantial complexes of mountain and foothill areas, etc. Based on the outcomes of implemented researches, some general conclusions and schemes were drawn for some parts of the project region within the plate tectonics conceptual frameworks, to include the territories of Lesser Caucasus and South Caspian. Analysis and comparison of these data with macroseismic and instrumental data allowed us to conduct seismotectonic studies in a region and develop a new scheme of seismotectonic map with outlined recent and forecasted seismic activity. There also correlated foci zones of earthquakes with subhorizontal and subvertical borders in earth crust, which shows their structure-dynamic relationship. In the one hand, the earthquake foci zones belong to the faults of the basement which extend to sedimentary cover and their intersection knots. On the other hand, there appearing inner-block seismogenic levels, namely, in seismic generation acts all the earth crust: tectonic stress results on movements along fault zones, as well as lateral displacements along non-stable contacts of the structure-substance complexes of different competency.

  17. Meteoric precipitation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Chemical and stable isotope analyses, 2006-09 (United States)

    Moscati, Richard J.; Scofield, Kevin M.


    Meteoric precipitation samples collected in 2006-09 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were analyzed for chemistry and stable isotope composition. Precipitation is the major source of infiltration to the unsaturated zone and of recharge to the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain.

  18. Formulating Phenological Equations for Rainfed Upland Rice in Bastar Plateau and Assessment of Genotype X Environment Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Sao, A.; Salam, J. L.; Kanwar, R. R.; Kumari, P.


    Upland rice encompasses 12 percent of global rice production area in the lowest yielding ecosystem, produced by poorest farmers with 0.5 ha average operational holdings. Due to subtle selection over long period of time, upland rice has become drought tolerant potential crop and harbors great genetic potential for future water limited rice. It has also precious traits like high pestilent insect resistant possibility and short growing season. In present investigation, 18 new genotypes were tested for upland ecology during Kharif 2013 and 2014, to identify promising genotypes and formulate phenological relationships at phenotypic and genotypic levels and estimate G x E interactions with uncertain weather parameters. The test populations exhibited enough variation to carry on crop breeding research however, genotypes responded differentially to water stress and late season drought with respect to morphological and yield traits. Considering secondary productivity factors (SPF), days to flowering, plant height, panicles per unit area, spikelet fertility and harvest index was observed to be major contributors for water scarce survivals. Biased selection for earliness cause reduction in grain yield due to shortened vegetative phase hence, research is to be focused to minimize the yield penalty associated with earliness. Among the genotypes evaluated, IR-83381-B-B-137-3 and IR-86857-46-1-1-2 was found to be promising for rainfed breeding programme as parent material. Based on results of farmer field and station trials, existing upland rice variety CR 40 is concluded as promising for upland ecology and will be crucial to uplift the economy of poor and marginal farmers of Chhattisgarh. (author)

  19. BRSMG Caravera: cultivar de arroz para terras altas BRSMG Caravera: upland rice cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Alves Soares


    Full Text Available Foi disponibilizada a cultivar BRSMG Caravera, de arroz de terras altas, para o cultivo em Minas Gerais. A cultivar possui arquitetura moderna, resistência ao acamamento, ciclo de maturação de 113 dias, moderada resistência às principais doenças, à exceção da brusone-da-panícula, à qual é moderadamente suscetível, alto potencial produtivo, grão tipo longo-fino de alta qualidade culinária.It is available the cultivar BRSMG Caravera of upland rice for Minas Gerais, Brazil. The cultivar has a modern architecture, lodging resistance, 113-day maturation cycle, moderate resistance to the main diseases, except for panicle blast - to which it is moderately susceptible -, high yielding potential, thin and long grains of high cooking quality.

  20. Marketing patterns of agricultural commodities in an upland area of Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. van Ommeren


    Full Text Available In the uplands of Central Java a wide variety of dry cultivated crops are produced for subsistence as well as for cash. The marketing channels for these crops are also diverse. The producers can choose between selling at the market place or at their farms; either to consumers or traders; or they can sell their products to wholesalers in the towns. However, this freedom of choice is not absolute and is determined by the quantity of the merchandise. Farmers/who can sell large amounts of produce are able to bypass some steps in the hierarchical order of market places or traders. Thus, producers with relatively large farmlands can sell their commodities in more profitable ways compared to those with /smaller farms. Moreover, the latter are often forced to sell their produce below market value to traders who provided them with advance or who bought the crop before harvest (tebasan, because of their need for cash

  1. The role of the plant litter layer in the recycling of radiocaesium in upland habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrill, A.D.; Kennedy, V.H.; Dent, T.L.; Thomson, A.J.


    Field and laboratory studies have been used to investigate the role of the plant litter layer in upland habitats. Radiocaesium, deposited unhomogeneously, by the Chernobyl accident, ranged from 1 3000 - 2 400 Bq kgsup(-1) in a range of plant litters in May 1992. In the field 45% of the 137 Cs in heather litter was released over a two year period. Litter leachates contained 0.1 -0.7 Bq 1 -1 of 137 Cs. Microbial population size has also been shown to affect 137 Cs release rates in laboratory experiments on heather and spruce litter. 137 Cs distribution within litter has been investigated by sequential extraction techniques and it was shown that there is a potential long term immobilization of c. 20% of litter 137 Cs by the lignin component. (author)

  2. Thermal Performance of Traditional House in the Upland Central Celebes of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nastiti N.E Nastiti N.E


    Full Text Available House presents special problems for design in relation to climate as it accommodates variety of uses over 24-hour period. It is widely known in the tropical countries that traditional houses are more sensitive to the prevailing climate and able to provide comfortable internal environment for the occupants. Tambi as one of traditional houses in upland Central Celebes Indonesia is believed to be thermally comfortable, yet there still no empirical evidence to approve it. Present study conducted empirical studies on typical traditional Tambi houses to evaluate their thermal performance. External and internal climatic conditions were measured in each house and were analysed. Results of the study showed that typical traditional Tambi house are not able to maintain the internal temperature within the comfort range for a preiod of 24- hours. Thermal quality of the house, however, were improving as indicated by internal temperatures which were more satisfactory than the external temperatures.

  3. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability. (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K


    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  4. The damaging effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) pollen grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yanjie [College of Agronomy, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing Jiangsu 210095 (China); Wu Lijun; Wu Yuejin [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wang Qingya [College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 (China); Tang Canming [College of Agronomy, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing Jiangsu 210095 (China)], E-mail:


    With the aim to study the effects of an ion beam on plant cells, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar 'Sumian 22' pollen grains were irradiated in vacuum (7.8 x 10{sup -3} Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with an energy of 20 keV at various fluences ranging from 0.26 x 10{sup 16} to 0.78 x 10{sup 16} N{sup +}/cm{sup 2}. The irradiation effects on pollen grains were tested, considering the ultrastructural changes in the exine and interior walls of pollen grains, their germination rate, the growth speed of the pollen tubes in the style, fertilization and boll development after the pistils were pollinated by the pollen grains which had been implanted with nitrogen ions. Nitrogen ions entered the pollen grains by etching and penetrating the exine and interior walls and destroying cell structures. A greater percentage of the pollen grains were destroyed as the fluence of N{sup +} ions increased. Obviously, the nitrogen ion beam penetrated the exine and interior walls of the pollen grains and produced holes of different sizes. As the ion fluence increased, the amount and the density of pollen grain inclusions decreased and the size of the lacuna and starch granules increased. Pollen grain germination rates decreased with increasing ion fluence. The number of pollen tubes in the style declined with increased ion implantation into pollen grains, but the growth speed of the tubes did not change. All of the pollen tubes reached the end of the style at 13 h after pollination. This result was consistent with that of the control. Also, the weight and the diameter of the ovary decreased and shortened with increased ion beam implantation fluence. No evident change in the fecundation time of the ovule was observed. These results indicate that nitrogen ions can enter pollen grains and cause a series of biological changes in pollen grains of upland cotton.

  5. Ecosystem response to removal of exotic riparian shrubs and a transition to upland vegetation (United States)

    Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Cooper, David J.


    Understanding plant community change over time is essential for managing important ecosystems such as riparian areas. This study analyzed historic vegetation using soil seed banks and the effects of riparian shrub removal treatments and channel incision on ecosystem and plant community dynamics in Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona. We focused on how seeds, nutrients, and ground water influence the floristic composition of post-treatment vegetation and addressed three questions: (1) How does pre-treatment soil seed bank composition reflect post-treatment vegetation composition? (2) How does shrub removal affect post-treatment riparian vegetation composition, seed rain inputs, and ground water dynamics? and (3) Is available soil nitrogen increased near dead Russian olive plants following removal and does this influence post-treatment vegetation? We analyzed seed bank composition across the study area, analyzed differences in vegetation, ground water levels, and seed rain between control, cut-stump and whole-plant removal areas, and compared soil nitrogen and vegetation near removed Russian olive to areas lacking Russian olive. The soil seed bank contained more riparian plants, more native and fewer exotic plants than the extant vegetation. Both shrub removal methods decreased exotic plant cover, decreased tamarisk and Russian olive seed inputs, and increased native plant cover after 2 years. Neither method increased ground water levels. Soil near dead Russian olive trees indicated a short-term increase in soil nitrogen following plant removal but did not influence vegetation composition compared to areas without Russian olive. Following tamarisk and Russian olive removal, our study sites were colonized by upland plant species. Many western North American rivers have tamarisk and Russian olive on floodplains abandoned by channel incision, river regulation or both. Our results are widely applicable to sites where drying has occurred and vegetation

  6. Rainwater Harvesting, its Prospects and Challenges in the Uplands of Talugtog, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. Contreras


    Full Text Available The prospects and challenges facing eight small water impounding projects (SWIPs in Talugtog, Nueva Ecija, an upland municipality located in Central Luzon, Philippines were evaluated using rapid appraisal and documentation of projects, interview of farmers and local officials, and a review of related studies undertaken on the same project sites. The challenges include the deterioration of structural facilities, inactive farmers associations, watershed degradation, and climate change. It also aims to evaluate improvement and innovation in the future implementation of SWIPs as rainwater harvesting facilities. The site was selected because it has the largest number of SWIPs established as one of the coping strategies during the 1997 1998 severe El Nino. Because of its location, it has no major irrigation systems and relies only on local rainwater storage facilities. The study involves 8 SWIPs established in two clusters (i. e., 5 and 3 SWIPs in a watershed as rainwater conservation and management facilities. Results indicated these clusters of SWIPs offer multiple benefits in terms of supplemental irrigation, inland fish production, and water for domestic purposes and livestock production. They also serve as strategic small-scale upland structures that enhance recharging of groundwater, prevent flooding, and provide value-adding activities such as recreation, soil and water conservation, and environmental benefits. Previous studies also identified their benefits at the farm and community levels as conserved rainwater through storage in SWIPs is translated into more economic uses. However, some SWIPs are confronted with various challenges; deterioration of structural facilities, inactive farmer associations, unabated watershed degradation, and threats of climate change. These are seriously affecting the overall performance of SWIPs. Immediate actions should include the strengthening of small water impounding system associations (SWISA, repair and

  7. Conservation agriculture practices in rainfed uplands of India improve maize-based system productivity and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Pradhan


    Full Text Available Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift towards more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over three years (2011-2014 of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation i.e. minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e. conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  8. Understanding the mobilisation of metal pollution associated with historical mining in a carboniferous upland catchment. (United States)

    Valencia-Avellan, Magaly; Slack, Rebecca; Stockdale, Anthony; Mortimer, Robert John George


    Point and diffuse pollution from metal mining has led to severe environmental damage worldwide. Mine drainage is a significant problem for riverine ecosystems, it is commonly acidic (AMD), but neutral mine drainage (NMD) can also occur. A representative environment for studying metal pollution from NMD is provided by carboniferous catchments characterised by a circumneutral pH and high concentrations of carbonates, supporting the formation of secondary metal-minerals as potential sinks of metals. The present study focuses on understanding the mobility of metal pollution associated with historical mining in a carboniferous upland catchment. In the uplands of the UK, river water, sediments and spoil wastes were collected over a period of fourteen months, samples were chemically analysed to identify the main metal sources and their relationships with geological and hydrological factors. Correlation tests and principal component analysis suggest that the underlying limestone bedrock controls pH and weathering reactions. Significant metal concentrations from mining activities were measured for zinc (4.3 mg l -1 ), and lead (0.3 mg l -1 ), attributed to processes such as oxidation of mined ores (e.g. sphalerite, galena) or dissolution of precipitated secondary metal-minerals (e.g. cerussite, smithsonite). Zinc and lead mobility indicated strong dependence on biogeochemistry and hydrological conditions (e.g. pH and flow) at specific locations in the catchment. Annual loads of zinc and lead (2.9 and 0.2 tonnes per year) demonstrate a significant source of both metals to downstream river reaches. Metal pollution results in a large area of catchment having a depleted chemical status with likely effects on the aquatic ecology. This study provides an improved understanding of geological and hydrological processes controlling water chemistry, which is critical to assessing metal sources and mobilization, especially in neutral mine drainage areas.

  9. The damaging effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) pollen grains (United States)

    Yu, Yanjie; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Qingya; Tang, Canming


    With the aim to study the effects of an ion beam on plant cells, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar "Sumian 22" pollen grains were irradiated in vacuum (7.8 × 10-3 Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with an energy of 20 keV at various fluences ranging from 0.26 × 1016 to 0.78 × 1016 N+/cm2. The irradiation effects on pollen grains were tested, considering the ultrastructural changes in the exine and interior walls of pollen grains, their germination rate, the growth speed of the pollen tubes in the style, fertilization and boll development after the pistils were pollinated by the pollen grains which had been implanted with nitrogen ions. Nitrogen ions entered the pollen grains by etching and penetrating the exine and interior walls and destroying cell structures. A greater percentage of the pollen grains were destroyed as the fluence of N+ ions increased. Obviously, the nitrogen ion beam penetrated the exine and interior walls of the pollen grains and produced holes of different sizes. As the ion fluence increased, the amount and the density of pollen grain inclusions decreased and the size of the lacuna and starch granules increased. Pollen grain germination rates decreased with increasing ion fluence. The number of pollen tubes in the style declined with increased ion implantation into pollen grains, but the growth speed of the tubes did not change. All of the pollen tubes reached the end of the style at 13 h after pollination. This result was consistent with that of the control. Also, the weight and the diameter of the ovary decreased and shortened with increased ion beam implantation fluence. No evident change in the fecundation time of the ovule was observed. These results indicate that nitrogen ions can enter pollen grains and cause a series of biological changes in pollen grains of upland cotton.

  10. Genetic differentiation between upland and lowland populations shapes the Y-chromosomal landscape of West Asia. (United States)

    Balanovsky, O; Chukhryaeva, M; Zaporozhchenko, V; Urasin, V; Zhabagin, M; Hovhannisyan, A; Agdzhoyan, A; Dibirova, K; Kuznetsova, M; Koshel, S; Pocheshkhova, E; Alborova, I; Skhalyakho, R; Utevska, O; Mustafin, Kh; Yepiskoposyan, L; Tyler-Smith, C; Balanovska, E


    Y-chromosomal variation in West Asian populations has so far been studied in less detail than in the neighboring Europe. Here, we analyzed 598 Y-chromosomes from two West Asian subregions-Transcaucasia and the Armenian plateau-using 40 Y-SNPs and 17 Y-STRs and combined them with previously published data from the region. The West Asian populations fell into two clusters: upland populations from the Anatolian, Armenian and Iranian plateaus, and lowland populations from the Levant, Mesopotamia and the Arabian Peninsula. This geographic subdivision corresponds with the linguistic difference between Indo-European and Turkic speakers, on the one hand, and Semitic speakers, on the other. This subdivision could be traced back to the Neolithic epoch, when upland populations from the Anatolian and Iranian plateaus carried similar haplogroup spectra but did not overlap with lowland populations from the Levant. We also found that the initial gene pool of the Armenian motherland population has been well preserved in most groups of the Armenian Diaspora. In view of the contribution of West Asians to the autosomal gene pool of the steppe Yamnaya archaeological culture, we sequenced a large portion of the Y-chromosome in haplogroup R1b samples from present-day East European steppe populations. The ancient Yamnaya samples are located on the "eastern" R-GG400 branch of haplogroup R1b-L23, showing that the paternal descendants of the Yamnaya still live in the Pontic steppe and that the ancient Yamnaya population was not an important source of paternal lineages in present-day West Europeans.

  11. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K.


    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011–2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize–cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs. PMID:27471508

  12. Chromite and other mineral deposits in serpentine rocks of the Piedmont Upland, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware (United States)

    Pearre, Nancy C.; Heyl, Allen V.


    The Piedmont Upland in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware is about 160 miles long and at the most 50 miles wide. Rocks that underlie the province are the Baltimore gneiss of Precambrian age and quartzite, gneiss, schist, marble, phyllite, and greenstone, which make up the Glenarm series of early Paleozoic (?) age. These are intruded by granitic, gabbroic, and ultramaflc igneous rocks. Most of the ultramaflc rocks, originally peridotite, pyroxenite, and dunite, have been partly or completely altered to serpentine and talc; they are all designated by the general term serpentine. The bodies of serpentine are commonly elongate and conformable with the enclosing rocks. Many have been extensively quarried for building, decorative, and crushed stone. In addition, chromite, titaniferous magnetite, rutile, talc and soapstone, amphibole asbestos, magnesite, sodium- rich feldspar (commercially known as soda spar), and corundum have been mined or prospected for in the serpentine. Both high-grade massive chromite and lower grade disseminated chromite occur in very irregular and unpredictable form in the serpentine, and placer deposits of chromite are in and near streams that drain areas underlain by serpentine. A group of unusual minerals, among them kammererite, are typical associates of high-grade massive chromite but are rare in lower grade deposits. Chromite was first discovered in the United States at Bare Hills, Md., around 1810. Between 1820 and 1850, additional deposits were discovered and mined in Maryland and Pennsylvania, including the largest deposit of massive chromite ever found in the United States the Wood deposit, in the State Line district. A second period of extensive chromite mining came during the late 1860's and early 1870's. Production figures are incomplete and conflicting. Estimates from the available data indicate that the aggregate production from 27 of 40 known mines before 1900 totaled between 250,000 and 280,000 tons of lode-chromite ore

  13. Dynamical attraction to stable processes


    Fisher, Albert M.; Talet, Marina


    We apply dynamical ideas within probability theory, proving an almost-sure invariance principle in log density for stable processes. The familiar scaling property (self-similarity) of the stable process has a stronger expression, that the scaling flow on Skorokhod path space is a Bernoulli flow. We prove that typical paths of a random walk with i.i.d. increments in the domain of attraction of a stable law can be paired with paths of a stable process so that, after applying a non-random regula...

  14. Multiscale remote sensing analysis to monitor riparian and upland semiarid vegetation (United States)

    Nguyen, Uyen

    The health of natural vegetation communities is of concern due to observed changes in the climatic-hydrological regime and land cover changes particularly in arid and semiarid regions. Monitoring vegetation at multi temporal and spatial scales can be the most informative approach for detecting change and inferring causal agents of change and remediation strategies. Riparian communities are tightly linked to annual stream hydrology, ground water elevations and sediment transport. These processes are subject to varying magnitudes of disturbance overtime and are candidates for multi-scale monitoring. My first research objective focused on the response of vegetation in the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, to reduced base flows and climate change. I addressed the correlation between riparian vegetation and hydro-climate variables during the last three decades in one of the remaining undammed rivers in the southwestern U.S. Its riparian forest is threatened by the diminishing base flows, attributed by different studies either to increases in evapotranspiration (ET) due to conversion of grasslands to mesquite shrublands in the adjacent uplands, or to increased regional groundwater pumping to serve growing populations in surrounding urban areas and or to some interactions of those causes. Landsat 5 imagery was acquired for pre- monsoon period, when riparian trees had leafed out but before the arrival of summer monsoon rains in July. The result has showed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from both Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) had significant decreases which positively correlated to river flows, which decreased over the study period, and negatively correlated with air temperatures, which have increased by about 1.4°C from 1904 to the present. The predictions from other studies that decreased river flows could negatively impact the riparian forest were supported by this study. The pre-monsoon Normalized Different Vegetation

  15. Uptake and accumulation of 137Cs by upland grassland soil fungi: a potential pool of Cs immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighton, J.; Clint, G.M.; Poskitt, J.


    Reports of high concentrations of fallout radiocaesium in basidiomycete fruit bodies after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and speculation that fungi could be long-term 137 Cs accumulators led us to ask if fungi could be long-term 137 Cs accumulators. We used six common upland grassland species to try to estimate their importance in the immobilization of 137 Cs. Uptake of Cs by these species ranged from 44 to 235 nmol Cs g − 1d.w. h − 1. Efflux studies indicate that more than 40% of the Cs taken up is bound within the hyphae. We estimate that the fungal component of the soil could immobilize the total radiocaesium fallout received in upland grasslands following the Chernobyl accident

  16. Assessing Silicon Availability in Soils of Rice-Growing Lowlands and Neighboring Uplands in Benin and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Abe


    Full Text Available Silicon (Si is known as a beneficial nutrient in the cultivation of rice, playing a key role in photosynthesis enhancement, lodging resistance and tolerance to various environmental stress. The present study aimed to examine available Si content in both lowland soils (n = 29 and neighboring upland soils (n = 21 collected from Benin and Nigeria and to evaluate the validity of the assessment results through a pot experiment. Our results revealed that the acetate-buffer method predicted Si concentration in rice straw at the harvest stage (R2 = 0.68, P 0.05, and 76% of the uplands and 38% of the lowlands were deficient (< 50 mg/kg in acetate-buffer soluble Si. These findings suggest that the Si-deficiency soils prevail across the study area, making rice plants starved for Si and prone to environmental stress.

  17. Diversity of nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS) gene fragments in forested upland and wetland soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemé, Anders; Braker, Gesche; Tiedje, James M.


    The genetic heterogeneity of nitrite reductase gene (nirK and nirS) fragments from denitrifying prokaryotes in forested upland and marsh soil was investigated using molecular methods. nirK gene fragments could be amplified from both soils, whereas nirS gene fragments could be amplified only from...... the marsh soil. PCR products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and representative fragments were sequenced. The diversity of nirK clones was lower than the diversity of nirS clones. Among the 54 distinct nirK RFLP patterns identified in the two soils, only one...... marsh clones and all upland clones. Only a few of the nirK clone sequences branched with those of known denitrifying bacteria. The nirS clones formed two major clusters with several subclusters, but all nirS clones showed less than 80% identity to nirS sequences from known denitrifying bacteria. Overall...

  18. Characterization of contamination, source and degradation of petroleum between upland and paddy fields based on geochemical characteristics and phospholipid fatty acids. (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Wang, Renqing; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng; Dai, Jiulan


    To evaluate contamination caused by petroleum, surface soil samples were collected from both upland and paddy fields along the irrigation canals in the Hunpu wastewater irrigation region in northeast China. N-alkanes, terpanes, steranes, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) in the surface soil samples were analyzed. The aliphatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest in the samples obtained from the upland field near an operational oil well; it was lowest at I-3P where wastewater irrigation promoted the downward movement of hydrocarbons. The Hunpu region was found contaminated by heavy petroleum from oxic lacustrine fresh water or marine deltaic source rocks. Geochemical parameters also indicated significantly heavier contamination and degradation in the upland fields compared with the paddy fields. Principal component analysis based on PLFA showed various microbial communities between petroleum contaminated upland and paddy fields. Gram-negative bacteria indicated by 15:0, 3OH 12:0, and 16:1(9) were significantly higher in the paddy fields, whereas Gram-positive bacteria indicated by i16:0 and 18:1(9)c were significantly higher in the upland fields (p petroleum contamination. Poly-unsaturated PLFA (18:2omega6, 9; indicative of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and fungi) was also significantly elevated in the upland fields. This paper recommends more sensitive indicators of contamination and degradation of petroleum in soil. The results also provide guidelines on soil pollution control and remediation in the Hunpu region and other similar regions.

  19. Growth responses of Picea abies to climate in the central part of the Ceskomoravska Upland (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybníček, M.; Čermák, P.; Žid, T.; Kolář, Tomáš


    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2012), s. 21-30 ISSN 1641-1307 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Norway spruce * precipitation * temperature * tree - ring width * habitual diagnostic * Ceskomoravská Upland Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2012

  20. Species-specific Mechanisms Contributing to the Mesophication of Upland Oak Stands in the Absence of Fire (United States)

    Babl, E. K.; Alexander, H. D.; Siegert, C. M.; Willis, J. L.; Berry, A. I.


    Upland oak forests of the eastern United States are shifting dominance towards shade-tolerant, fire-intolerant species. This shift is hypothesized to be driven by anthropogenic fire suppression and lead to mesophication, a positive feedback loop where shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species (i.e. mesophytes) create a cool, moist understory, reducing forest flammability and promoting their own proliferation at the expense of pyrophytic, shade-intolerant species such as oaks. There have been few empirical studies identifying mechanisms of mesophication, and these studies have yet to extensively explore potential mesophytes other than red maple (Acer rubrum). To address this issue, we sampled four hypothesized mesophytes (A. rubrum, A. saccharum, Carya glabra, and Fagus grandifolia) and two upland oak species (Quercus alba and Q. montana) across a gradient of sizes (20-60 cm DBH) in western Kentucky. We quantified canopy, bark, and leaf litter traits among upland oaks and mesophytes that may lead to differences in forest flammability. Preliminary results show that mesophytes had thinner and smoother bark than upland oaks and an increased canopy volume (normalized to stem volume), traits known to influence water movement through the canopy and understory microclimate. Maple leaf litter also decomposed faster, which could decrease fuel loads; after 6 months, red and sugar maple leaf litter lost 37% of original mass compared to 32%, 22%, and 14% mass loss in hickory, oak, and American beech litter, respectively. Furthermore, volumetric soil moisture of the soil organic layer beneath the canopies of mesophytes was 62% moister two days following a rainfall event compared to oaks. These differences in soil organic layer water retention after rainfall could lead to fuel discontinuity. These findings suggest that mesophytes may alter future forest flammability through their bark, canopy, and leaf litter traits which may modify fuel moisture, loads, and continuity and that a

  1. Land management as a factor controlling dissolved organic carbon release from upland peat soils 1: spatial variation in DOC productivity. (United States)

    Yallop, A R; Clutterbuck, B


    The importance of soil storage in global carbon cycling is well recognised and factors leading to increased losses from this pool may act as a positive feedback mechanism in global warming. Upland peat soils are usually assumed to serve as carbon sinks, there is however increasing evidence of carbon loss from upland peat soils, and DOC concentrations in UK rivers have increased markedly over the past three decades. A number of drivers for increasing DOC release from peat soils have been proposed although many of these would not explain fine-scale variations in DOC release observed in many catchments. We examined the effect of land use and management on DOC production in upland peat catchments at two spatial scales within the UK. DOC concentration was measured in streams draining 50 small-scale catchments (b3 km2) in three discrete regions of the south Pennines and one area in the North Yorkshire Moors. Annual mean DOC concentration was also derived from water colour data recorded at water treatment works for seven larger scale catchments (1.5-20 km2) in the south Pennines. Soil type and land use/management in all catchments were characterised from NSRI digital soil data and ortho-corrected colour aerial imagery. Of the factors assessed, representing all combinations of soil type and land use together with catchment slope and area, the proportion of exposed peat surface resulting from new heather burning was consistently identified as the most significant predictor of variation in DOC concentration. This relationship held across all blanket peat catchments and scales. We propose that management activities are driving changes in edaphic conditions in upland peat to those more favourable for aerobic microbial activity and thus enhance peat decomposition leading to increased losses of carbon from these environments.

  2. Long-term studies of land degradation in the Sneeuberg uplands, eastern Karoo, South Africa: A synthesis


    Boardman, J.; Foster, I.; Rowntree, K.; Favis-Mortlock, D.; Mol, L.; Suich, H.; Gaynor, D.


    For the past 15 yr, the Sneeuberg uplands in the eastern Karoo, South Africa, have been a focus for research on land degradation by the above authors and other colleagues. Earlier work in the Karoo emphasised vegetation change whereas we concentrate on physical changes to the landscape at the small catchment scale, e.g., bare, degraded areas (badlands) and gully (donga) systems. Analysis of sedimentation in farm dams allows for reconstruction of environmental histories using 210Pb, 137Cs, geo...

  3. Thinning, Age, and Site Quality Influence Live Tree Carbon Stocks in Upland Hardwood Forests of the Southern Appalachians (United States)

    Tara L. Keyser; Stanley J. Zarnoch


    This study examines the effects of thinning, age, and site quality on aboveground live tree carbon (ATC) (Mg/ha) stocks in upland hardwood forests of mixed-species composition in the southern Appalachian Mountains. In 1974, 80 plots ranging in size from 0.06 to 0.1 ha were established in even-aged, mixed-hardwood forests throughout the southern Appalachians. All trees...

  4. Partial Dominance, Overdominance, Epistasis and QTL by Environment Interactions Contribute to Heterosis in Two Upland Cotton Hybrids. (United States)

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Cai, Shihu; Wang, Xiaocui; Li, Yuhua; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Hua, Jinping


    Based on two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, two corresponding backcross (BC) populations were constructed to elucidate the genetic basis of heterosis in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The yield, and yield components, of these populations were evaluated in three environments. At the single-locus level, 78 and 66 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected using composite interval mapping in RIL and BC populations, respectively, and 29 QTL were identified based on mid-parental heterosis (MPH) data of two hybrids. Considering all traits together, a total of 50 (64.9%) QTL with partial dominance effect, and 27 (35.1%) QTL for overdominance effect were identified in two BC populations. At the two-locus level, 120 and 88 QTL with main effects (M-QTL), and 335 and 99 QTL involved in digenic interactions (E-QTL), were detected by inclusive composite interval mapping in RIL and BC populations, respectively. A large number of QTL by environment interactions (QEs) for M-QTL and E-QTL were detected in three environments. For most traits, average E-QTL explained a larger proportion of phenotypic variation than did M-QTL in two RIL populations and two BC populations. It was concluded that partial dominance, overdominance, epistasis, and QEs all contribute to heterosis in Upland cotton, and that partial dominance resulting from single loci and epistasis play a relatively more important role than other genetic effects in heterosis in Upland cotton. Copyright © 2016 Shang et al.

  5. Epistasis together with partial dominance, over-dominance and QTL by environment interactions contribute to yield heterosis in upland cotton. (United States)

    Shang, Lianguang; Liang, Qingzhi; Wang, Yumei; Zhao, Yanpeng; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping


    QTL mapping based on backcross and RIL populations suggests that epistasis together with partial dominance, over-dominance and their environmental interactions of QTLs play an important role in yield heterosis in upland cotton. A backcross population (BC) was constructed to explore the genetic basis of heterosis in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). For yield and yield components, recombinant inbred line (RIL) and BC populations were evaluated simultaneously at three different locations. A total of 35 and 30 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected based on the RILs and BC data, respectively. Six (16.7 %) additive QTLs, 19 (52.8 %) partial dominant QTLs and 11 (30.6 %) over-dominant QTLs were detected by single-locus analysis using composite interval mapping in BC population. QTLs detected for mid-parent heterosis (MPH) were mostly related to those detected in the BC population. No significant correlation was found between marker heterozygosity and performance. It indicated that heterozygosity was not always favorable for performance. Two-locus analysis revealed 46, 25 and 12 QTLs with main effects (M-QTLs), and 55, 63 and 33 QTLs involved in digenic interactions (E-QTLs) were detected for yield and yield components in RIL, BC and MPH, respectively. A large number of M-QTLs and E-QTLs showed QTL by environment interactions (QEs) in three environments. These results suggest that epistasis together with partial dominance, over-dominance and QEs all contribute to yield heterosis in upland cotton.

  6. Application of Bokashi Botom Ash for Increasing Upland Rice Yield and Decreasing Grain Pb Content in Vitric Hapludans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Sondari


    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiment was conducted at Agricultural Faculty of Winaya Mukti University Tanjungsari SumedangRegency, from May to October 2009. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of bokashi bottom ashon the growth, yield, and Pb content of upland rice. The experiment used a Randomized completely Block Design(RBD which consisted of five treatments and five replications. The treatments were level of bokashi bottom ash i.e.0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 Mg ha-1. The results showed that the application of bokashi bottom ash increased the growth andyield of upland rice of Situbagendit variety except plant height at age of 21 days after seedling (DAS. Application15 Mg ha -1 of bokashi bottom ash gave the best effect to the plant height, number of leaves, number of tillers andshoot/root ratio, while applications of 10, 15 and 20 Mg ha -1 increased number of productive tillers, amount of filledgrains, and weight of grains. Bokashi bottom ash did not affect the heavy metal content of upland rice grain ofSitubagendit variety.

  7. Functional characterization of GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 homologs from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wei, Jianghui; Fan, Shuli; Song, Meizhen; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Chengshe; Yu, Shuxun


    In Arabidopsis flowering pathway, MADS-box genes encode transcription factors, with their structures and functions highly conserved in many species. In our study, two MADS-box genes GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were cloned from upland cotton CCRI36 and transformed into Arabidopsis. GhSOC1 was additionally transformed into upland cotton. Comparative analysis demonstrated sequence conservation between GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 and genes of other plant species. Tissue-specific expression analysis of GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 revealed spatiotemporal expression patterns involving high transcript levels in leaves, shoot apical buds, and flowers. In addition, overexpression of both GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 in Arabidopsis accelerated flowering, with GhMADS42 transgenic plants showing abnormal floral organ phenotypes. Overexpression of GhSOC1 in upland cotton also produced variations in floral organs. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that GhSOC1 could regulate GhMADS41 and GhMADS42, but not FLOWERING LOCUS T, by directly binding to the genes promoter. Finally, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation approaches were undertaken to better understand the interaction of GhSOC1 and other MADS-box factors. These experiments showed that GhSOC1 can interact with APETALA1/FRUITFULL-like proteins in cotton. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gas exchange rates, plant height, yield components, and productivity of upland rice as affected by plant regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate gas exchange rates, plant height, yield components, and productivity of upland rice, as affected by type and application time of plant growth regulators. A randomized block design, in a 4x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates was used. Treatments consisted of three growth regulators (mepiquat chloride, trinexapac-ethyl, and paclobutrazol, besides a control treatment applied at two different phenological stages: early tillering or panicle primordial differentiation. The experiment was performed under sprinkler-irrigated field conditions. Net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, plant transpiration, and water-use efficiency were measured four times in Primavera upland rice cultivar, between booting and milky grain phenophases. Gas exchange rates were neither influenced by growth regulators nor by application time. There was, however, interaction between these factors on the other variables. Application of trinexapac-ethyl at both tillering and differentiation stages reduced plant height and negatively affected yield components and rice productivity. However, paclobutrazol and mepiquat chloride applied at tillering, reduced plant height without affecting rice yield. Mepiquat chloride acted as a growth stimulator when applied at the differentiation stage, and significantly increased plant height, panicle number, and grain yield of upland rice.

  9. Influence of geology, regolith and soil on fluid flow pathways in an upland catchment in central NSW, Australia (United States)

    Bernardi, Tony


    Influence of geology, regolith and soil on fluid flow pathways in an upland catchment in central NSW, Australia. Tony Bernardi and Leah Moore Dryland Salinity Hazard Mitigation Program (DSHMP), University of Canberra, ACT 2601, AUSTRALIA The diversity of salt expression in central NSW has defied classification because salt expression, mobilisation and transport is highly variable and is typically site specific. Hydrological models are extensively used to simulate possible outcomes for a range of land use changes to mitigate the mobilisation and transport of salt into the streams or across the land surface. The ability of these models to mimic reality can be variable thereby reducing the confidence in the models outputs and uptake of strategic management changes by the community. This study focuses on a 250 ha semi-arid sub-catchment of Little River catchment in central west NSW in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. We propose that an understanding the structure of the landforms and configuration of rock, regolith and soil materials at the study site influences fluid flow pathways in the landscape and can be related to observed variations in the chemical composition and salinity of surface and aquifer water. Preliminary geological mapping of the site identified the dominant rock type as a pink and grey dacite and in localised mid-slope areas, a coarsely crystalline biotite-phyric granodiorite. Samples were taken at regular intervals from natural exposures in eroded stream banks and in excavations made during the installation of neutron moisture meter tubes. In order to establish mineral weathering pathways, samples were taken from the relatively unweathered core to the outer weathered 'onion skins' of corestones on both substrates, and then up through the regolith profile, including the soil zone, to the land surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was conducted on the rock and soil/saprock samples. Electromagnetic induction (EMI

  10. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones (United States)

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael


    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  11. Work zone safety analysis. (United States)


    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  12. Iowa Work Zone Fatalities (United States)


    From March through November, the Iowa DOT may have up to 500 road construction work zones, and each of the department's maintenance garages may establish one or more short-term work zones per day. Couple that with the work of cities and counties, and...

  13. Transfer of radioactive caesium from soil to vegetation and comparison with potassium in upland grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Kirton, J.A.; Mitchell, N.G.; Morris, C.


    The distribution and transfer of caesium and potassium between soils and vegetation has been investigated by field sampling and experimental studies on soils and vegetation typical of upland grassland in north west England. Total 137 Cs content to a depth of 0.05 m below root matt ranged from 13 000 to 18 000 Bq m -2 . This caesium content derives from three sources: the Windscale accident of 1957, weapons-testing fallout which peaked in the early 1960s, and the Chernobyl accident in May 1986. From 2200 to 6200 Bq m -2 is attributed to the first two sources, and the remainder to Chernobyl. During accelerated growth of vegetation, on monoliths in glasshouse conditions over the winter of 1986/87, 137 Cs was transferred from soil and root matt to new growth, such that concentrations in fresh growth were similar to or higher than those observed in the field during December 1986. Removal of caesium by successive cuts resulted in up to 25% of the original estimated total being removed over a 240 day period. Increased concentrations coincided with the emergence of Carex sp. and Trichophorum caespitosum, as well

  14. Main Effect QTL with Dominance Determines Heterosis for Dynamic Plant Height in Upland Cotton. (United States)

    Shang, Lianguang; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Yumei; Su, Ying; Wang, Xiaocui; Li, Yuhua; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Liu, Fang; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping


    Plant height, which shows dynamic development and heterosis, is a major trait affecting plant architecture and has an indirect influence on economic yield related to biological yield in cotton. In the present study, we carried out dynamic analysis for plant height and its heterosis by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping at multiple developmental stages using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and their backcross progeny. At the single-locus level, 47 QTL were identified at five developmental stages in two hybrids. In backcross populations, QTL identified at an early stage mainly showed partial effects and QTL detected at a later stage mostly displayed overdominance effects. At the two-locus level, we found that main effect QTL played a more important role than epistatic QTL in the expression of heterosis in backcross populations. Therefore, this study implies that the genetic basis of plant height heterosis shows dynamic character and main effect QTL with dominance determines heterosis for plant height in Upland cotton. Copyright © 2016 Shang et al.

  15. Chernobyl fallout in three areas of upland pasture in West Cumbria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horrill, A.D.; Howard, D.M. (Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Grange-on-Sands (United Kingdom). Merlewood Research Station)


    Concentrations of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs originating from Chernobyl fallout have been measured in standing vegetation of three upland pastures over a 3-year period. An exponential decay curve has been used in the past to describe concentrations on agricultural crops over a short time span (about 200 days). A better fit to the later stages of the present 3-year span can be obtained by a power curve or a double exponential. Examples of curves fitted by different methods are given and a range of predicted values calculated for the time to return to pre-Chernobyl levels. Total inventories for the three pastures were established with sites at Corney Fell, Ennerdale and Wastwater containing 16 000, 12 200 and 14 100 Bq m{sup -2} {sup 137}Cs, respectively. On these sites the pre-Chernobyl contribution of {sup 137}Cs is calculated as 17%, 38% and 34%. In all three soils which are a peat, brown podzolic soil and a brown earth the main deposition of the Chernobyl material is held in the top layers which are highly organic. (author).

  16. Proteomics profiling of fiber development and domestication in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). (United States)

    Hu, Guanjing; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Pathak, Dharminder; Chen, Sixue; Wendel, Jonathan F


    Comparative proteomic analyses were performed to detail the evolutionary consequences of strong directional selection for enhanced fiber traits in modern upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Using two complementary proteomic approaches, 2-DE and iTRAQ LC-MS/MS, fiber proteomes were examined for four representative stages of fiber development. Approximately 1,000 protein features were characterized using each strategy, collectively resulting in the identification and functional categorization of 1,223 proteins. Unequal contributions of homoeologous proteins were detected for over a third of the fiber proteome, but overall expression was balanced with respect to the genome-of-origin in the allopolyploid G. hirsutum. About 30% of the proteins were differentially expressed during fiber development within wild and domesticated cotton. Notably, domestication was accompanied by a doubling of protein developmental dynamics for the period between 10 and 20 days following pollination. Expression levels of 240 iTRAQ proteins and 293 2-DE spots were altered by domestication, collectively representing multiple cellular and metabolic processes, including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis and destination, defense and stress response. Analyses of homoeolog-specific expression indicate that duplicated gene products in cotton fibers can be differently regulated in response to selection. These results demonstrate the power of proteomics for the analysis of crop domestication and phenotypic evolution.

  17. Harvest season and head rice yield of upland rice cultivars submitted to parboiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Mendonça Garcia


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE This work aimed to evaluate the effects of parboiling on the yield of upland rice cultivars harvested at different times. The cultivars were BRS Primavera and BRS Sertaneja, harvested at 30 and 47 days after flowering (DAF. For parboiling, samples were soaked in water bath at 65 °C in grain: water ratio of 1:1.6 in order to reach 25% and 30% moisture, and then were autoclaved for 10 minutes at 120 °C and 1.1 kg/cm2 of pressure. After drying up to 13% moisture in a greenhouse with forced air at 40 °C, samples were benefited, followed by separation using the trieur equipment and weighing to obtain the head rice yield. The results showed a higher yield for head rice harvested at 30 DAF than at 47 DAF (BRS Primavera 63.2 and 38.7%; BRS Sertaneja 68.5 and 55.7%, respectively. Parboiling increased the head rice yield, regardless of harvest season, but partly reflected the potential of the cultivar origin: BRS Primavera 70.06%, BRS Sertaneja 74.94%. It is concluded that the harvest season is one of the factors that most influence the quality of industrial rice and the effect of parboiling also depends on the potential of the material source.

  18. Regeneration alternatives for upland white spruce after burning and logging in interior Alaska (United States)

    Densmore, R.V.; Juday, G.P.; Zasada, J.C.


    Site-preparation and regeneration methods for white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) were tested near Fairbanks, Alaska, on two upland sites which had been burned in a wildfire and salvage logged. After 5 and 10 years, white spruce regeneration did not differ among the four scarification methods but tended to be lower without scarification. Survival of container-grown planted seedlings stabilized after 3 years at 93% with scarification and at 76% without scarification. Broadcast seeding was also successful, with one or more seedlings on 80% of the scarified 6-m2 subplots and on 60% of the unscarified subplots after 12 years. Natural regeneration after 12 years exceeded expectations, with seedlings on 50% of the 6-m2 subplots 150 m from a seed source and on 28% of the subplots 230 m from a seed source. After 5 years, 37% of the scarified unsheltered seed spots and 52% of the scarified seed spots with cone shelters had one or more seedlings, but only 16% of the unscarified seed spots had seedlings, with and without funnel shelters. Growth rates for all seedlings were higher than on similar unburned sites. The results show positive effects of burning in interior Alaska, and suggest planting seedlings, broadcast seeding, and natural seedfall, alone or in combination, as viable options for similar sites.

  19. The effect of shade on chlorophyll and anthocyanin content of upland red rice (United States)

    Muhidin; Syam’un, E.; Kaimuddin; Musa, Y.; Sadimantara, G. R.; Usman; Leomo, S.; Rakian, T. C.


    Upland red rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food and contains anthocyanin, which can act as antioxidants, plays an important role both for the plant itself and for human health. Levels of antioxidants in rice can be affected by the availability of light. The results showed that the difference of shade, cultivar, and interaction both significantly affect the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll. The results also showed that shade could increase chlorophyll in all cultivars tested. The highest levels of chlorophyll a were present in the moderate shade level (n2), then decreased at the shelter level (n3) and increased again at high levels (n4). While on chlorophyll content b, it appears that shade increased chlorophyll b in all cultivars tested and this increase was linear to the increase of shade. The shade treatment may increase the anthocyanin content and the increase depending on the type of cultivar. Increased levels of anthocyanin highest due to shade occurred on Jangkobembe cultivar. The original level of anthocyanin on Jangkobembe cultivar averaged 0.096 mg g-1 increased to 2.487 mg g-1 or increased 26 fold. It is concluded that the shade had a significant effect on the chlorophyll and anthocyanin content.

  20. LIDAR and SODAR Measurements of Wind Speed and Direction in Upland Terrain for Wind Energy Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon McKeogh


    Full Text Available Detailed knowledge of the wind resource is necessary in the developmental and operational stages of a wind farm site. As wind turbines continue to grow in size, masts for mounting cup anemometers—the accepted standard for resource assessment—have necessarily become much taller, and much more expensive. This limitation has driven the commercialization of two remote sensing (RS tools for the wind energy industry: The LIDAR and the SODAR, Doppler effect instruments using light and sound, respectively. They are ground-based and can work over hundreds of meters, sufficient for the tallest turbines in, or planned for, production. This study compares wind measurements from two commercial RS instruments against an instrumented mast, in upland (semi-complex terrain typical of where many wind farms are now being installed worldwide. With appropriate filtering, regression analyses suggest a good correlation between the RS instruments and mast instruments: The RS instruments generally recorded lower wind speeds than the cup anemometers, with the LIDAR more accurate and the SODAR more precise.

  1. Genome-wide identification and characterization of TCP transcription factor genes in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). (United States)

    Li, Wen; Li, Deng-Di; Han, Li-Hong; Tao, Miao; Hu, Qian-Qian; Wu, Wen-Ying; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Li, Xue-Bao; Huang, Geng-Qing


    TCP proteins are plant-specific transcription factors (TFs), and perform a variety of physiological functions in plant growth and development. In this study, 74 non-redundant TCP genes were identified in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genome. Cotton TCP family can be classified into two classes (class I and class II) that can be further divided into 11 types (groups) based on their motif composition. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that GhTCPs display different expression patterns in cotton tissues. The majority of these genes are preferentially or specifically expressed in cotton leaves, while some GhTCP genes are highly expressed in initiating fibers and/or elongating fibers of cotton. Yeast two-hybrid results indicated that GhTCPs can interact with each other to form homodimers or heterodimers. In addition, GhTCP14a and GhTCP22 can interact with some transcription factors which are involved in fiber development. These results lay solid foundation for further study on the functions of TCP genes during cotton fiber development.

  2. Functional Characterization of a Dihydroflavanol 4-Reductase from the Fiber of Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). (United States)

    Wang, Le; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Peng; Fan, Qiang; Wu, Yao; Peng, Qing-Zhong; Xia, Gui-Xian; Wu, Jia-He


    Dihydroflavanol 4-reductase (DFR) is a key later enzyme involved in two polyphenols' (anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs)) biosynthesis, however it is not characterized in cotton yet. In present reports, a DFR cDNA homolog (designated as GhDFR1) was cloned from developing fibers of upland cotton. Silencing GhDFR1 in cotton by virus-induced gene silencing led to significant decrease in accumulation of anthocyanins and PAs. More interestingly, based on LC-MS analysis, two PA monomers, (-)-epicatachin and (-)-epigallocatachin, remarkably decreased in content in fibers of GhDFR1-silenced plants, but two new monomers, (-)-catachin and (-)-gallocatachin were present compared to the control plants infected with empty vector. The ectopic expression of GhDFR1 in an Arabidopsis TT3 mutant allowed for reconstruction of PAs biosynthesis pathway and led to accumulation of PAs in seed coat. Taken together, these data demonstrate that GhDFR1 contributes to the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and PAs in cotton.

  3. The Genetic Basis of Upland/Lowland Ecotype Divergence in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Milano


    Full Text Available The evolution of locally adapted ecotypes is a common phenomenon that generates diversity within plant species. However, we know surprisingly little about the genetic mechanisms underlying the locally adapted traits involved in ecotype formation. The genetic architecture underlying locally adapted traits dictates how an organism will respond to environmental selection pressures, and has major implications for evolutionary ecology, conservation, and crop breeding. To understand the genetic architecture underlying the divergence of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum ecotypes, we constructed a genetic mapping population through a four-way outbred cross between two northern upland and two southern lowland accessions. Trait segregation in this mapping population was largely consistent with multiple independent loci controlling the suite of traits that characterizes ecotype divergence. We assembled a joint linkage map using ddRADseq, and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL for traits that are divergent between ecotypes, including flowering time, plant size, physiological processes, and disease resistance. Overall, we found that most QTL had small to intermediate effects. While we identified colocalizing QTL for multiple traits, we did not find any large-effect QTL that clearly controlled multiple traits through pleiotropy or tight physical linkage. These results indicate that ecologically important traits in switchgrass have a complex genetic basis, and that similar loci may underlie divergence across the geographic range of the ecotypes.

  4. The Genetic Basis of Upland/Lowland Ecotype Divergence in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) (United States)

    Milano, Elizabeth R.; Lowry, David B.; Juenger, Thomas E.


    The evolution of locally adapted ecotypes is a common phenomenon that generates diversity within plant species. However, we know surprisingly little about the genetic mechanisms underlying the locally adapted traits involved in ecotype formation. The genetic architecture underlying locally adapted traits dictates how an organism will respond to environmental selection pressures, and has major implications for evolutionary ecology, conservation, and crop breeding. To understand the genetic architecture underlying the divergence of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) ecotypes, we constructed a genetic mapping population through a four-way outbred cross between two northern upland and two southern lowland accessions. Trait segregation in this mapping population was largely consistent with multiple independent loci controlling the suite of traits that characterizes ecotype divergence. We assembled a joint linkage map using ddRADseq, and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for traits that are divergent between ecotypes, including flowering time, plant size, physiological processes, and disease resistance. Overall, we found that most QTL had small to intermediate effects. While we identified colocalizing QTL for multiple traits, we did not find any large-effect QTL that clearly controlled multiple traits through pleiotropy or tight physical linkage. These results indicate that ecologically important traits in switchgrass have a complex genetic basis, and that similar loci may underlie divergence across the geographic range of the ecotypes. PMID:27613751

  5. Disturbance effects on species diversity and functional diversity in riparian and upland plant communities. (United States)

    Biswas, Shekhar R; Mallik, Azim U


    Understanding disturbance effects on species diversity and functional diversity is fundamental to conservation planning but remains elusive. We quantified species richness, diversity, and evenness and functional richness, diversity, and evenness of riparian and upland plants along 24 small streams subjected to a range of anthropogenic disturbances in the boreal forest of northwestern Ontario, Canada. We included a total of 36 functional traits related to productivity, competitive ability, reproduction, disturbance tolerance, life history, and tolerance to habitat instability. Using nested ANOVA, we examined the response of diversity indices to disturbance and whether it followed the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) and varied with habitat stability. We found that, like species richness and diversity, functional richness and diversity reached peaks at moderate disturbance intensity; functional diversity followed the predictions of the IDH. Second, disturbance-habitat-stability coupling has very little effect on overall species and functional diversity, but the effect on particular life forms and functions may be significant. Since species richness and diversity patterns are context and system dependent, our findings should be most applicable to similar temperate riparian systems.

  6. Characteristics of the flora of fallow lands on rendzina soils on the Twardowice Plateau (Silesian Upland

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    Beata Babczyńska-Sendek


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations on the flora of fallow lands on rendzina soils. The research was carried out in the area of the Twardowice Plateau (the Silesian Upland within 9 areas adjacent to xerothermic grasslands. The investigated flora consisted of 220 vascular plant species with the dominance of native taxa. Plants of xerothermic grasslands and thermophilous edges were the most numerous (32%. The dominance of Libanotis pyrenaica in 4 of the examined areas should be emphasized. The percentage of meadow species was also considerable (25%. Anthropophytes comprised 18% of the flora of fallow lands and archaeophytes prevailed among them (9%. Solidago canadensis, an invasive species, was the constant component of the investigated fallows and sometimes its coverage was remarkable. As a result of the high proportion of xerothermic and thermophilous plants, plants associated with dry soils and soils having an intermediate character between dry and fresh, as well as plants preferring slightly acidic to alkaline soils poor in nitrogen compounds predominated in the investigated fallows. Perennial plants prevailed (65% in the studied flora and slightly more than half of the species reproduced only by seeds. Competitive plant species (C strategists had the highest proportion (39% and species with intermediate strategies CSR, CR and CS were also numerous. The investigations have shown that there are favourable conditions for settling and growth of many xerothermic species in the investigated fallow lands. Moreover, the neighbouring grasslands are the seed source for these areas.

  7. The adaptability of upland rice waxy mutant (Oryza sativa L.) to marginal land in Batumarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwimahyani, Ita; Mitrosuhardjo, M.M.


    A field experiment had been conducted at Batumarta, Lampung Province to test the adaptability of upland rice waxy mutant (DT 20.11.84) at marginal land. Similar experiments had also been conducted in fertilize soil at Ps. Jumat, Jakarta and Citayam, Kabupaten Bogor. Agronomic evaluation such as number of tiller, panicle length number of seeds per tiller, and weight of 1000 grains from waxy mutant line, which were cultivated at Batumarta showed adaptability was better than the original variety (Danau Tempe). Grains yield of waxy mutant line per ha at marginal land (Batubara) was higher than Danau Tempe i.e 2,34 and 1,89 ton/ha respectively. In addition to grain yield of waxy mutant line at Psr Jumat, Jakarta and Citayam, Bogor was lower than Danau Tempe. The Low of grain yield that waxy mutant compared with the original variety line was caused by number of tiller and panicle length of waxy mutant line also low. Results of experiment can be concluded that waxy mutant line was favourable growing at marginal land when compared with the original variety. (author)

  8. A new method for prediction of radiocaesium levels in vegetation: evidence from Irish uplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, E.J.; Synnott, H.J.; Colgan, P.A.


    Vegetation and soil samples from three upland areas in the Republic of Ireland were collected and analysed for radiocaesium. The data were used to investigate temporal trends in vegetation and to examine the relationships among radiocaesium concentrations in soils and various plant species. Radionuclide concentrations in Calluna vulgaris were compared with those in Erica cinerea. Erica tetralix and Juncus squarrosus and a consistent pattern emerged on all three study sites. No marked seasonal variations in concentrations were observed in these species. Clearly defined seasonal behaviour was, however, observed in Scirpus caespitosus. Concentrations were highest in Calluna vulgaris and Scirpus caespitosus, reaching peak activities of approximately 2000 Bq kg -1 dry weight. Concentrations in the other species were considerably less. A plant-to-plant ratio system is proposed as a new method for prediction of radionuclide concentrations in plants. Values calculated for plant-to-plant ratios are compared to traditional soil-to-plant ratios values and field data are used to test the performance of these ratios. The data demonstrate that the plant-to-plant ratio system can produce predictions as accurately as the soil-to-plant system. Results further suggest that the two systems are intrinsically related and that ratio values tend to be site specific but are of some value for between site predictions. (author)

  9. Lowland-upland migration of sauropod dinosaurs during the Late Jurassic epoch. (United States)

    Fricke, Henry C; Hencecroth, Justin; Hoerner, Marie E


    Sauropod dinosaurs were the largest vertebrates ever to walk the Earth, and as mega-herbivores they were important parts of terrestrial ecosystems. In the Late Jurassic-aged Morrison depositional basin of western North America, these animals occupied lowland river-floodplain settings characterized by a seasonally dry climate. Massive herbivores with high nutritional and water needs could periodically experience nutritional and water stress under these conditions, and thus the common occurrence of sauropods in this basin has remained a paradox. Energetic arguments and mammalian analogues have been used to suggest that migration allowed sauropods access to food and water resources over a wide region or during times of drought or both, but there has been no direct support for these hypotheses. Here we compare oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O) of tooth-enamel carbonate from the sauropod Camarasaurus with those of ancient soil, lake and wetland (that is, 'authigenic') carbonates that formed in lowland settings. We demonstrate that certain populations of these animals did in fact undertake seasonal migrations of several hundred kilometres from lowland to upland environments. This ability to describe patterns of sauropod movement will help to elucidate the role that migration played in the ecology and evolution of gigantism of these and associated dinosaurs.

  10. Molecular analysis of a bacterial chitinolytic community in an upland pasture. (United States)

    Metcalfe, A C; Krsek, M; Gooday, G W; Prosser, J I; Wellington, E M H


    The effects of agricultural-improvement treatments on the chitinolytic activity and diversity of a microbial community were investigated within an upland pasture. The treatments of interest were lime and treated sewage sludge, both commonly applied to pasture land to improve fertility. Burial of chitin-containing litter bags at the field site resulted in enrichment of bacteria according to 16S rRNA fingerprinting. Chitinolytic-activity measurements showed that the highest activity occurred in those bags recovered from sludge-amended plots, which correlated well with increased counts of actinobacteria in samples from these chitin bags. Our findings suggest that sewage sludge increases the fertility of the soil in terms of chitinase activity. Ten clone libraries were constructed from family 18 subgroup A chitinases, PCR amplified from litter bags buried in soil in July 2000 or in September 2000, in a separate study. Analysis of these libraries by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing showed that they were dominated by actinobacterium-like chitinase sequences. This suggests that actinobacteria have an important chitinolytic function in this soil ecosystem. Our findings showed that sludge application increased chitinolytic activity but decreased the diversity of chitinases present.

  11. Molecular Analysis of a Bacterial Chitinolytic Community in an Upland Pasture† (United States)

    Metcalfe, A. C.; Krsek, M.; Gooday, G. W.; Prosser, J. I.; Wellington, E. M. H.


    The effects of agricultural-improvement treatments on the chitinolytic activity and diversity of a microbial community were investigated within an upland pasture. The treatments of interest were lime and treated sewage sludge, both commonly applied to pasture land to improve fertility. Burial of chitin-containing litter bags at the field site resulted in enrichment of bacteria according to 16S rRNA fingerprinting. Chitinolytic-activity measurements showed that the highest activity occurred in those bags recovered from sludge-amended plots, which correlated well with increased counts of actinobacteria in samples from these chitin bags. Our findings suggest that sewage sludge increases the fertility of the soil in terms of chitinase activity. Ten clone libraries were constructed from family 18 subgroup A chitinases, PCR amplified from litter bags buried in soil in July 2000 or in September 2000, in a separate study. Analysis of these libraries by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing showed that they were dominated by actinobacterium-like chitinase sequences. This suggests that actinobacteria have an important chitinolytic function in this soil ecosystem. Our findings showed that sludge application increased chitinolytic activity but decreased the diversity of chitinases present. PMID:12324355

  12. Main Effect QTL with Dominance Determines Heterosis for Dynamic Plant Height in Upland Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianguang Shang


    Full Text Available Plant height, which shows dynamic development and heterosis, is a major trait affecting plant architecture and has an indirect influence on economic yield related to biological yield in cotton. In the present study, we carried out dynamic analysis for plant height and its heterosis by quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping at multiple developmental stages using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs and their backcross progeny. At the single-locus level, 47 QTL were identified at five developmental stages in two hybrids. In backcross populations, QTL identified at an early stage mainly showed partial effects and QTL detected at a later stage mostly displayed overdominance effects. At the two-locus level, we found that main effect QTL played a more important role than epistatic QTL in the expression of heterosis in backcross populations. Therefore, this study implies that the genetic basis of plant height heterosis shows dynamic character and main effect QTL with dominance determines heterosis for plant height in Upland cotton.

  13. Identification of Meloidogyne species associated with upland ornamentals plants in Costa Rica.

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    Stefany Solano-González


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify nematodes species of the genus Meloidogyne associated with upland ornamental plants. We sampled ten ornamental species in a commercial nursery in San Isidro, Heredia, Costa Rica between 2011-2012. Morphometric measurements of the stylet length, the tail length, and the hyaline region of J2s, as well as perineal patterns of egg-carrying females were used for identification, Genomic DNA was extracted from single J2s and molecular analyses were performed by amplifying the intergenic region between cytochrome oxidase subunit II of the COII and the long subunit of the ARN ribosomal genes by PCR-RFLP. Combining these methods allowed identification of five species of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. hispanica, M. incognita and M. javanica, and new restriction enzyme patterns were reported for M. hapla and M. javanica using AluI. Additionally, a preliminary report of M. hispanica was described by sequencing the 28S and 18S regions.

  14. Water Use for Cultivation Management of Watermelon in Upland Field on Sand Dune (United States)

    Hashimoto, Iwao; Senge, Masateru; Itou, Kengo; Maruyama, Toshisuke

    Early-maturing cultivation of watermelon in a plastic tunnel was invetigated in upland field on sand dune on the coast of the Japan Sea to find water use to control blowing sand and to transplant seedlings. This region has low precipitation, low humidity, and strong wind in March and April, when sand is readily blown in the field. Water is used to control blowing sand on days with precipitation below 5 mm, minimum humidity below the meteorological average in April, and maximum wind velocity above the meteorological average in April. For the rooting and growth of watermelon seedlings, soil temperature needs to be raised because it is low in April. Ridges are mulched with transparent, porous polyethylene films 10 or more days before transplanting the seedlings and irrigated with sprinklers on fine days for the thermal storage of solar energy. The stored heat steams the mulched ridges to raise soil temperature to 15°C or higher on the day of transplanting the seedlings. The total amount of irrigation water used for watermelon cultivation was 432.7 mm, of which 23.6 mm was for blowing sand control and 26.6 mm was for transplanting the seedlings. The combined amount, 50.2 mm, is 11.6% of the total amount of water used for cultivation management.

  15. Navigating fieldwork politics, practicalities and ethics in the upland borderlands of northern Vietnam. (United States)

    Bonnin, Christine


    In this article, I detail and evaluate the negotiations I had to broker to conduct ethnographic research on marketplace vendors and trade in the upland borderlands of northern Vietnam. Working with the analogy of the numerous 'lines' I was constrained by, had to manoeuvre around, and at times crossed over, I begin with a discussion of the 'official lines' or state regulations imposed upon my research and how I worked with, or negotiated these limitations. I then reveal the important 'border guards' or gatekeepers, such as local state actors and also field assistants, who enabled or constrained access to informants in numerous different ways. I also highlight the logistical and practical lines that I had to accept and indeed, often draw, to accomplish my study. I conclude with a consideration of how friendships in the field drew me beyond the lines I had originally drawn around my research. These relationships furthered my anxiety over the possibilities for conducting research that ultimately contributes towards social justice in a constrained political setting such as that which presently characterises Vietnam.

  16. Red imported fire ant impacts on upland arthropods in Southern Mississippi (United States)

    Epperson, D.M.; Allen, Craig R.


    Red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) have negative impacts on a broad array of invertebrate species. We investigated the impacts of fire ants on the upland arthropod community on 20???40 ha study sites in southern Mississippi. Study sites were sampled from 19972000 before, during, and after fire ant bait treatments to reduce fire ant populations. Fire ant abundance was assessed with bait transects on all sites, and fire ant population indices were estimated on a subset of study sites. Species richness and diversity of other ant species was also assessed from bait transects. Insect biomass and diversity was determined from light trap samples. Following treatments, fire ant abundance and population indices were significantly reduced, and ant species diversity and richness were greater on treated sites. Arthropod biomass, species diversity and species richness estimated from light trap samples were negatively correlated with fire ant abundance, but there were no observable treatment effects. Solenopsis invicta has the potential to negatively impact native arthropod communities resulting in a potential loss of both species and function.

  17. Upland and wetland vegetation establishment on coal slurry in northern Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeel, V.A.; Nawrot, J.R.


    Since the Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory's (CWRL) Mined Land Reclamation Program's first establishment of a wetland on slurry in 1976, industry, state, and federal agency interest in reclamation alternatives for inactive slurry has increased. CWRL has been involved in pre-reclamation site characterization and monitoring for inactive slurry impoundments throughout Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Washington. Geochemical site characterization of three slurry impoundments at the AECI Bee Veer Mine located near Macon, Missouri began in April 1990. A substrate sampling grid was established for all slurry impoundments with a centerline orientated parallel to the discharge to decant flow pattern. Surface (0--6 in.) and subsurface (30--36 in.) slurry samples were collected annually and analyzed for acid-base balance, immediate acidity macro- and micro-nutrients, potential phytotoxic metallic ions and salts, and texture. Water table elevations and water quality were monitored quarterly from shallow (≤12 ft.) piezometers. General reclamation plans included annual (3 years) incremental limestone amendments (35--50 tons/acre) and direct vegetation establishment. Cool and warm season grasses dominate vegetation cover in upland habitats (slurry cell RDA1) while wetland habitats (palustrine emergent seasonally-permanently inundated) have been established in slurry cells (RDA2 and RDA3). Isolated hot spots continue to be amended with limestone and supplemental vegetation establishment is scheduled

  18. Factors contributing to radiocaesium variability in upland sheep flocks in west Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L.; Wright, S.M.; Howard, B.J.; Crout, N.M.J.


    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, restrictions were placed on the movement and slaughter of sheep within upland areas of the UK because radiocaesium activity concentrations in their meat exceeded 1000 Bq kg -1 fresh weight. Some farms remain under restriction in 2007. From 1991 to 1993 detailed studies were conducted on three sheep farms within the restricted area of west Cumbria to systematically assess the various parameters which may contribute to the observed variability in radiocaesium activity concentrations within sheep flocks. This paper reports the spatial variation in soil and vegetation activity concentrations across the grazed areas at these farms and determines the influence of grazing behaviour on variability in 137 Cs activity concentrations between individual sheep within the flocks. Together with previously reported results, these new data are used to draw conclusions on the factors determining variability within the three flocks. However, the factors are too site specific to be able to generalise the findings to other farms within the restricted areas of the UK

  19. Epilithic algae from caves of the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland

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    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska


    Full Text Available This paper describes the first study of algae assemblages in 20 caves in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland, in the period between 2005-2006. The investigations showed mostly on epilithic algae and their subaeric habitats (rock faces within caves and walls at cave entrances. The morphological and cytological variability of algae were studied in fresh samples, in cultures grown on agar plates and in SPURR preparations. A total of 43 algae species was identified, mostly epilithic species and tolerant of low light intensities. The largest group was formed by representatives of the division Chlorophyta (24 species, and then the division Chrysophyta (Heterokontophyta - 17 species, with 9 species belonging to the class Bacillariophyceae, 7 species - Xanthophyceae and 1 species representing the class Eustigmatophyceae. Dinophyta (2 species constituted the last and the smallest group. Among the collected algae, the following species deserve special attention: Thelesphaera alpina, Bracteacoccus minor, Trachychloron simplex, Tetracystis intermedia and T. cf. isobilateralis. The last species was not earlier found in Europe. Identification of species was greatly aided by examination of cell ultrastructure, which provided an array of further features, increasing chances of correct species identification. Furthermore, the studies focused that algae, although usually remaining under dominance of cyanobacteria, excellently differentiate this special area and even enrich it.

  20. Polyphasic characterization of bacteria obtained from upland rice cultivated in Cerrado soil

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    Lívia Fabiana Braga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to characterize 20 isolates obtained from upland rice plants, based on phenotypic (morphology, enzymatic activity, inorganic phosphate solubilization, carbon source use, antagonism, genotypic assays (16S rRNA sequencing and plant growth promotion. Results showed a great morphological, metabolic and genetic variability among bacterial isolates. All isolates showed positive activity for catalase and protease enzymes and, 90% of the isolates showed positive activity for amylase, catalase and, nitrogenase. All isolates were able to metabolize sucrose and malic acid in contrast with mannitol, which was metabolized only by one isolate. For the other carbon sources, we observed a great variability in its use by the isolates. Most isolates showed antibiosis against Rhizoctonia solani (75% and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (55% and, 50% of them showed antibiosis against both pathogens. Six isolates showed simultaneous ability of antibiosis, inorganic phosphate solubilization and protease activity. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene all the isolates belong to Bacillus genus. Under greenhouse conditions, two isolates (S4 and S22 improved to about 24%, 25%, 30% and 31% the Total N, leaf area, shoot dry weight and root dry weight, respectively, of rice plants, indicating that they should be tested for this ability under field conditions.

  1. Saussurea involucrata SiDhn2 gene confers tolerance to drought stress in upland cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.; Zhu, J.; Mu, J.; Zhu, J.; Liang, Z.; Zhang, L.


    Severe water shortage has long been acknowledged as one major limiting factor for global cotton production, and cultivation of cotton varieties with strong drought resistance is of important economic and social significances. In this study, the Xinjiang upland cotton variety Xinluzao 42 was transformed with the SiDhn2 gene by optimized agrobacterium transformation system. The integration of SiDhn2 gene into cotton genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization, and the drought resistance of transgenic and corresponding receptor cotton plants and their physiological indexes under drought stress were detailedly analyzed. Multiple physiological and biochemical indexes including soluble sugar content, free proline content, chlorophyll content, relative water content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration in transgenic cotton expressing SiDhn2 gene under drought stress were significantly higher than those of receptor cotton. More importantly, the transgenic cotton plants exhibited remarkably decreased boll abscission rate and highly increased seed yield, indicating the significant role of SiDhn2 gene in cotton drought resistance and its great application potential in agricultural production. (author)

  2. Characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins family and their role in drought stress tolerance in upland cotton. (United States)

    Magwanga, Richard Odongo; Lu, Pu; Kirungu, Joy Nyangasi; Lu, Hejun; Wang, Xingxing; Cai, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Zhongli; Zhang, Zhenmei; Salih, Haron; Wang, Kunbo; Liu, Fang


    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are large groups of hydrophilic proteins with major role in drought and other abiotic stresses tolerance in plants. In-depth study and characterization of LEA protein families have been carried out in other plants, but not in upland cotton. The main aim of this research work was to characterize the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein families and to carry out gene expression analysis to determine their potential role in drought stress tolerance in upland cotton. Increased cotton production in the face of declining precipitation and availability of fresh water for agriculture use is the focus for breeders, cotton being the backbone of textile industries and a cash crop for many countries globally. In this work, a total of 242, 136 and 142 LEA genes were identified in G. hirsutum, G. arboreum and G. raimondii respectively. The identified genes were classified into eight groups based on their conserved domain and phylogenetic tree analysis. LEA 2 were the most abundant, this could be attributed to their hydrophobic character. Upland cotton LEA genes have fewer introns and are distributed in all chromosomes. Majority of the duplicated LEA genes were segmental. Syntenic analysis showed that greater percentages of LEA genes are conserved. Segmental gene duplication played a key role in the expansion of LEA genes. Sixty three miRNAs were found to target 89 genes, such as miR164, ghr-miR394 among others. Gene ontology analysis revealed that LEA genes are involved in desiccation and defense responses. Almost all the LEA genes in their promoters contained ABRE, MBS, W-Box and TAC-elements, functionally known to be involved in drought stress and other stress responses. Majority of the LEA genes were involved in secretory pathways. Expression profile analysis indicated that most of the LEA genes were highly expressed in drought tolerant cultivars Gossypium tomentosum as opposed to drought susceptible, G. hirsutum. The tolerant

  3. Tissue radionuclide concentrations in water birds and upland birds on the Hanford Site (USA) from 1971-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delistraty, Damon, E-mail: [Washington State Department of Ecology, N. 4601 Monroe Street, Spokane, WA 99205-1295 (United States); Van Verst, Scott [Washington State Department of Health, Olympia, WA (United States)


    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result, there is a need to characterize contaminant effects on site biota. Within this framework, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in bird tissue, obtained from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The database was sorted by avian group (water bird vs. upland bird), radionuclide (over 20 analytes), tissue (muscle, bone, liver), location (onsite vs. offsite), and time period (1971-1990 vs. 1991-2009). Onsite median concentrations in water birds were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in onsite upland birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990) and Sr-90 in bone (1991-2009), perhaps due to behavioral, habitat, or trophic species differences. Onsite median concentrations in water birds were higher (borderline significance with Bonferroni P = 0.05) than those in offsite birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990). Onsite median concentrations in the earlier time period were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in the later time period for Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Sr-90 in water bird muscle and for Cs-137 in upland bird muscle tissue. Median concentrations of Sr-90 in bone were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in muscle for both avian groups and both locations. Over the time period, 1971-2009, onsite median internal dose was estimated for each radionuclide in water bird and upland bird tissues. However, a meaningful dose comparison between bird groups was not possible, due to a dissimilar radionuclide inventory, mismatch of time periods for input radionuclides, and lack of an external dose estimate. Despite these limitations, our results contribute toward ongoing efforts to characterize ecological risk at the Hanford Site. - Highlights: > Radionuclides evaluated in bird tissues on the Hanford Site

  4. Shelf-Stable Food Safety (United States)

    ... is an MRE? Is an MRE shelf stable? What foods are packaged in retort packages? What is aseptic ... type of package is used for aseptic processing? What foods are packaged in aseptic packages? Can I microwave ...

  5. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.


    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  6. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  7. The Coastal Squeeze: Rising seas and upland plant invasions differentially affect vertical exchange of greenhouse gases (United States)

    Quinn, R. K.; Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Kroeger, K. D.; Martin, R.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.; Ishtiaq, K. S.; Brannon, E.; Egan, K.; Tang, J.


    Biological invasions and sea level rise may significantly alter greenhouse gas fluxes from coastal marshes and their roles as major global carbon sinks. A spatial gradient in a coastal wetland was used to test how greenhouse gas fluxes may vary in response to either invasion by Phragmites australis or inundation by sea level rise. Net fluxes of CO2, N2O, and CH4 were compared between four zones of a New England coastal marsh (Sage Lot Pond, MA): the native low (Spartina alterniflora) and high marsh vegetation zones (Distichlis spicata and Juncus gerardii- dominated), invasive Phragmites australis zones, and permanently inundated, bare ponds. To test for potential proxies of greenhouse gas fluxes, plant properties were analyzed for relationships to CO2 or CH4 fluxes using a multivariate non-linear data-analytics model. Gas fluxes were also measured from a range of differently sized ponds and compared to die-back areas in two additional RI marshes. High precision infrared-based spectrometers were used to measure the gas fluxes in flux chambers. Among the native marsh zones, greatest CO2 uptake rates were found in S. alterniflora low marsh zones (averaging from -1 to -14 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1). Further, invasive Phragmites zones displayed significantly larger CO2 uptake rates (-7 to -15 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1) than the native (high) marsh zone (sinks nor sources). Among the plant properties in this study, belowground biomass was the strongest proxy for CO2 fluxes in native marsh zones, while abiotic properties are more likely to drive shifts in methane fluxes. Gas fluxes in multiple ponds and adjacent die back areas suggest a successional transition from strong C sinks in vegetated marshes to C sources. These findings signal clear potential for two alternative ecosystem fates- either inundation by rising seas or alteration by biological plant invasions- to produce opposite impacts on marsh carbon cycling.

  8. Presynaptic Active Zone Density during Development and Synaptic Plasticity. (United States)

    Clarke, Gwenaëlle L; Chen, Jie; Nishimune, Hiroshi


    Neural circuits transmit information through synapses, and the efficiency of synaptic transmission is closely related to the density of presynaptic active zones, where synaptic vesicles are released. The goal of this review is to highlight recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the number of active zones per presynaptic terminal (active zone density) during developmental and stimulus-dependent changes in synaptic efficacy. At the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), the active zone density is preserved across species, remains constant during development, and is the same between synapses with different activities. However, the NMJ active zones are not always stable, as exemplified by the change in active zone density during acute experimental manipulation or as a result of aging. Therefore, a mechanism must exist to maintain its density. In the central nervous system (CNS), active zones have restricted maximal size, exist in multiple numbers in larger presynaptic terminals, and maintain a constant density during development. These findings suggest that active zone density in the CNS is also controlled. However, in contrast to the NMJ, active zone density in the CNS can also be increased, as observed in hippocampal synapses in response to synaptic plasticity. Although the numbers of known active zone proteins and protein interactions have increased, less is known about the mechanism that controls the number or spacing of active zones. The following molecules are known to control active zone density and will be discussed herein: extracellular matrix laminins and voltage-dependent calcium channels, amyloid precursor proteins, the small GTPase Rab3, an endocytosis mechanism including synaptojanin, cytoskeleton protein spectrins and β-adducin, and a presynaptic web including spectrins. The molecular mechanisms that organize the active zone density are just beginning to be elucidated.

  9. Presynaptic active zone density during development and synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenaëlle L Clarke


    Full Text Available Neural circuits transmit information through synapses, and the efficiency of synaptic transmission is closely related to the density of presynaptic active zones, where synaptic vesicles are released. The goal of this review is to highlight recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the number of active zones per presynaptic terminal (active zone density during developmental and stimulus-dependent changes in synaptic efficacy. At the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, the active zone density is preserved across species, remains constant during development, and is the same between synapses with different activities. However, the NMJ active zones are not always stable, as exemplified by the change in active zone density during acute experimental manipulation or as a result of aging. Therefore, a mechanism must exist to maintain its density. In the central nervous system (CNS, active zones have restricted maximal size, exist in multiple numbers in larger presynaptic terminals, and maintain a constant density during development. These findings suggest that active zone density in the CNS is also controlled. However, in contrast to the NMJ, active zone density in the CNS can also be increased, as observed in hippocampal synapses in response to synaptic plasticity. Although the numbers of known active zone proteins and protein interactions have increased, less is known about the mechanism that controls the number or spacing of active zones. The following molecules are known to control active zone density and will be discussed herein: extracellular matrix laminins and voltage-dependent calcium channels, amyloid precursor proteins, the small GTPase Rab3, an endocytosis mechanism including synaptojanin, cytoskeleton protein spectrins and β-adducin, and a presynaptic web including spectrins. The molecular mechanisms that organize the active zone density are just beginning to be elucidated.

  10. VT Data - Zoning 20081203, Norwich (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — BASE DISTRICTS. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator. All...

  11. VT Data - Zoning 20170710, Woodstock (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — BASE DISTRICTS. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator. All...

  12. VT Data - Zoning 20170227, Fairlee (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — BASE DISTRICTS. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator. All...

  13. VT Data - Zoning 20120709, Huntington (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning district data for the Town of Huntington, Vermont. For details regarding each zoning district refer to the current zoning regulations on town of Huntington's...

  14. VT Data - Zoning 20170727, Westford (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning District data for Westford, Vermont. Data corresponds to the zoning regulations adopted by the Town of Westford. For details and descriptions of all zoning...

  15. Characterization of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larval developmental habitat at round hay bale feeding sites. (United States)

    Talley, Justin; Broce, Alberto; Zurek, Ludek


    In this study, we examined the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), larval developmental habitat within the round hay bale feeding sites on cattle pastures, and we identified three zones with distinct characteristics around two types of hay feeders (ring and cone). The parameters monitored in each zone included stable fly emergence, substrate temperature, moisture, pH, thickness of hay-manure layer, and concentration of fecal coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca) as indicators of fecal material. All measurements were conducted during the period of high stable fly prevalence (HSF) in May-June and low stable fly prevalence (LSF) in July-August to better understand the environmental factors influencing stable fly seasonality. Substrate temperature and fecal coliform concentration were the only two significantly different factors between HSF and LSF. Temperatures ranged from 21 to 25 degrees C during HSF versus 25-30 degrees C in LSF but all were within the range for successful stable fly development. Fecal coliform concentrations ranged from 4.2 x 10(3) to 4.1 x 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g of the substrate during HSF and from undetectable (stable fly development (egg to adult). Temperature was significantly higher and stable fly developmental time significantly shorter in all substrates containing hay when compared with that of manure alone, but no significant differences were detected in stable fly emergence among the substrates. These results strongly indicate that the fecal microbial community plays an important role in stable fly larval development in hay feeding sites and that it is the main factor behind stable fly developmental seasonality on pastures. Our results also demonstrate that animal manure mixed with hay provides conditions for faster stable fly development than manure alone; however, hay does not significantly affect overall stable fly emergence.

  16. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

  17. Speeds in school zones. (United States)


    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  18. Promise Zones for Applicants (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  19. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  20. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh


    Full Text Available This research describes a quantitative methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probabilistic mineral prospectivity map. In order to arrive at out objective, we provide a plausible answer to the following question: "Which...

  1. Microbial community response to permafrost thaw after wildfire in an Alaskan upland boreal forest (United States)

    Tas, N.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Wang, S.; Berhe, A. A.; Wickland, K. P.; Waldrop, M. P.; Jansson, J. K.


    Fire is a major factor controlling the long-term dynamics of soil carbon in Alaskan boreal forests. Wildfire not only contributes to a significant global emission of greenhouse gasses but also can indirectly result in the deepening of the active layer and thawing of near-surface permafrost due to reductions in organic layer depth and increases in heat flux through soil. Although boreal ecosystems are fire-adapted, increased fire frequency and rising global temperatures may result in warmer soils and therefore increase the metabolic rates of decomposer microbes and result in accelerated permafrost decomposition and greenhouse gas fluxes. In addition to fire-mediated changes in soil and vegetation structure, changes in the soil microbial community structure are likely to have consequences for rates of soil carbon cycling. In this study we aimed to define the impact of fire on soil microbial communities in an upland black spruce forest and to assess microbial metabolic potential for soil respiration, methanogenesis, and nitrous oxide (N2O) flux. Soil samples from two fire impacted and three control (unburned) locations were collected near Nome Creek, AK, an upland moderately drained black spruce forest. This location was within the Boundary fire that burned between mid-June and the end of August 2004. Soil temperature measurements from before and after the fire showed that soils were warmer after the fire event and the permafrost thawed below 1m. At each sampling location, soil and permafrost samples were collected every 10 cm to a depth of 1 m. Besides biochemical characterization, CO2, CH4, N2O fluxes and potential activities of enzymes involved in extracellular decomposition of complex organic molecules (hemicellulose, chitin and lignin) were measured. The microbial community composition in the samples was determined by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and microbial metabolic potential was assessed via sequencing of total genomic DNA (metagenomics) in selected active

  2. Micromonospora endophytica sp. nov., an endophytic actinobacteria of Thai upland rice (Oryza sativa). (United States)

    Thanaboripat, Dusanee; Thawai, Chitti; Kittiwongwattana, Chokchai; Laosinwattana, Chamroon; Koohakan, Prommart; Parinthawong, Nonglak


    An actinobacterial strain, DCWR9-8-2(T), was isolated from a leaf of Thai upland rice (Oryza sativa) collected in Chumporn province, Thailand. Strain DCWR9-8-2(T) is Gram-stain-positive aerobic bacteria that produce single spores directly on the vegetative hypha. Cell wall peptidoglycan of this strain exhibits meso-diaminopimelic acid and glycine, the reducing sugars of whole-cell hydrolysate are arabinose, glucose, ribose, xylose and small amount of mannose. The phospholipid profiles in the membrane are comprised of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The major menaquinones are MK-9(H4) and MK-10(H6). The diagnostic cellular fatty acids are iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 72.5 mol%. The result of 16S rRNA sequence analysis of the strain revealed that this strain was closely related to Micromonospora auratinigra TT1-11(T) (99.25%). On the other hand, the result of gyrB gene sequence analysis revealed that this strain was closed to M. eburnea JCM 12345(T) (96.30%). In addition, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some phenotypic properties supported that this strain should be judged as a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name M. endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCWR9-8-2(T) (=BCC 67267(T)=NBRC 110008(T)).

  3. The estimation of Adonis vernalis populations in chosen patches of Lublin Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow


    Full Text Available The number of Adonis vernalis populations, their size and abundance in xerothermic communities of the Lublin Upland have decreased significantly in the last 40-50 years, which indicates that there is a real risk of species extinction in the studied area. The paper is an attempt to indicate the possible factors which influence the decrease of Adonis vernalis populations. Detailed studies were carried out in six sites differing habitat conditions, land use and the size of Adonis vernalis populations. Observations were made of the abundance of blooming and the number of anthers per flower. The ability for reproduction was estimated indirectly by the mass of pollen delivered and its biological value. The populations of Adonis vernalis differ in number of anthers per flower (94.4 - 131.5, on average, the mass of pollen delivered (0.83 mg - 3.18 mg per 100 anthers, on average, the biological value of pollen and the size of pollen grains. Generally, stronger populations were characterized by better quality and a higher quantity of pollen. Potential energy of pollen in flowers from Pliszczyn and Łabunie was 69-72%, compared to 36%-47% in the remaining populations. Grass burning did not cause a reduction of potential biological value of Adonis vernalis pollen. Xerothermic swards in Pliszczyn and Kąty regularly burnt developed strong, most abundant populations of Adonis vernalis with favorable pollen. The development of the shrub layer, if it is out of control, stands in the way of satisfactory reproduction of halophilous Adonis vernalis.

  4. Development of a short duration upland rice mutant line through anther culture of gamma irradiated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyin San Myint; Khine Oo Aung; Khin Soe


    This experiment was conducted in the field and at the tissue culture laboratory of the Plant Physiology Division, CARI, Yezin from 1994 to 1997. Upland rice, Yar-2 was used as the test variety. Dried seeds (14% moisture content) were treated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 300, 350, 400 and 450 Gy respectively. These seeds were planted separately according to the gamma-ray treatment they received. At booting stage, tillers were cut. Anthers from the top and middle portion of the panicle were taken. The pollen, at developmental stage in each anther, was examined using Acetocarmine dye. Pollens at the uninucleate to early binucleare stage were selected. Tillers having pollens at the above-mentioned stage were placed in a dark room at 25(±) 1 C and 16 hours photoperiod. When plantlets were obtained from these media, well-developed green plantlets were selected and planted in Yoshida solution to attain vigorous root growth. Diploid and haploid plants were formed from the anther culture method. At the heading stage, haploid plants were treated with colchicines to promote development into diploid plants. At maturity, plants produced from materials treated with different gamma doses were harvested separately. These homozygous lines were planted in the field and the characters were compared with their parents grown at the same time. The highest callus induction rate was found in materials treated with 450 Gy of gamma rays, but the lowest green plant regeneration rate was also observed at this dose. Among the forty-five homozygous lines obtained of the above materials, 7 lines, all from the 450 Gy gamma rays treated material, flowered earlier than the parents. One of the 7 early flowering lines, mutant line No 18, matured 19 days earlier but had the same yield as the parent. All other lines had a lower yield than the parent. Comparisons of yield and yield components of mutant line 18 and Yar-2 (parent) and comparison of quality characters are shown in tables

  5. Functional characterization of an anthocyanidin reductase gene from the fibers of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). (United States)

    Zhu, Yue; Wang, Haiyun; Peng, Qingzhong; Tang, Yuntao; Xia, Guixian; Wu, Jiahe; Xie, De-Yu


    Metabolic profiling, gene cloning, enzymatic analysis, ectopic expression, and gene silencing experiments demonstrate that the anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) pathway is involved in the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins in upland cotton. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are oligomeric or polymeric flavan-3-ols, however, the biosynthetic pathway of PAs in cotton remains to be elucidated. Here, we report on an anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) gene from cotton fibers and the ANR pathway of PAs. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated that leaves, stems, roots, and early developing fibers produced PAs and their monomers, including (-)-epicatechin, (-)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, and (-)-gallocatechin. Crude PA extractions from different tissues were boiled in Butanol:HCl. Cyanidin, delphinidin, and pelargonidin were produced, indicating that cotton PAs include diverse extension unit structures. An ANR cDNA homolog (named GhANR1) was cloned from developing fibers. The open reading frame, composed of 1,011 bp nucleotides, was expressed in E. coli to obtain a recombinant protein. In the presence of NADPH, the recombinant enzyme catalyzed cyanidin, delphinidin, and pelargonidin to (-)-epicatechin and (-)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin and (-)-gallocatechin, and (-)-epiafzelechin and (-)-afzelechin, respectively. The ectopic expression of GhANR11 in an Arabidopsis ban mutant allowed for the reconstruction of the ANR pathway and PA biosynthesis in the seed coat. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of GhANR11 led to a significant increase in anthocyanins and a decrease in the PAs, (-)-epicatechin, and (-)-catechin in the stems and leaves of VIGS-infected plants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the ANR pathway contributes to the biosynthesis of flavan-3-ols and PAs in cotton.

  6. Comparative genomic analysis of the PKS genes in five species and expression analysis in upland cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqiang Su


    Full Text Available Plant type III polyketide synthase (PKS can catalyse the formation of a series of secondary metabolites with different structures and different biological functions; the enzyme plays an important role in plant growth, development and resistance to stress. At present, the PKS gene has been identified and studied in a variety of plants. Here, we identified 11 PKS genes from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and compared them with 41 PKS genes in Populus tremula, Vitis vinifera, Malus domestica and Arabidopsis thaliana. According to the phylogenetic tree, a total of 52 PKS genes can be divided into four subfamilies (I–IV. The analysis of gene structures and conserved motifs revealed that most of the PKS genes were composed of two exons and one intron and there are two characteristic conserved domains (Chal_sti_synt_N and Chal_sti_synt_C of the PKS gene family. In our study of the five species, gene duplication was found in addition to Arabidopsis thaliana and we determined that purifying selection has been of great significance in maintaining the function of PKS gene family. From qRT-PCR analysis and a combination of the role of the accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs in brown cotton fibers, we concluded that five PKS genes are candidate genes involved in brown cotton fiber pigment synthesis. These results are important for the further study of brown cotton PKS genes. It not only reveals the relationship between PKS gene family and pigment in brown cotton, but also creates conditions for improving the quality of brown cotton fiber.

  7. Geochemical characterization of the largest upland lake of the Brazilian Amazonia: Impact of provenance and processes (United States)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix; Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir Martins; da Silva, Marcio Sousa; Nascimento, Wilson, Júnior; Powell, Mike A.; Reis, Luiza Santos; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Rodrigues, Tarcísio Magevski; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro


    Lake Três Irmãs (LTI), the largest upland lake in the Brazilian Amazonia, located in Serra dos Carajás, was characterized using multi-elemental and isotope geochemistry (δ13C and δ15N) to understand the significance of organic and inorganic sources, weathering and sedimentary processes on the distribution of elements in lake bottom (surficial) sediments. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from sedimentary organic matter suggest C3 terrestrial plants (forests > canga vegetation), macrophytes and freshwater DOC as the main sources. Sediments are depleted in most of the major oxides (except Fe2O3 and P2O5) when compared to upper continental crust (UCC) and their spatial distribution is highly influenced by catchment lithology. Principal Component Analysis revealed that most of the trace elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, Sc, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Y, V, Cr, Ga, Co, Ni) and REEs are closely correlated with Al and Ti (PC1; Group-1), so their redistribution is less influenced by post-depositional process. This is due to their relative immobility and being hosted by Al-bearing minerals during laterization. High Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mafic Index of Alteration (MIA) and Index of Laterization (IOL) values indicate intense chemical weathering at source areas, but the weathering transformation was better quantified by IOL. A-CN-K plot along with elemental ratios (Al/K, Ti/K, Ti/Zr, La/Al, Cr/Th, Co/Th, La/Sm, La/Gd, Zr/Y, and Eu/Eu*) as well as chondrite-normalized REE patterns show that the detritic sediments are mainly sourced from ferruginous laterites and soils in the catchment, which may have characteristics similar to mafic rocks.

  8. Link between DOC in near surface peat and stream water in an upland catchment. (United States)

    Clark, Joanna M; Lane, Stuart N; Chapman, Pippa J; Adamson, John K


    Hydrologic transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peat soils may differ to organo-mineral soils in how they responded to changes in flow, because of differences in soil profile and hydrology. In well-drained organo-mineral soils, low flow is through the lower mineral layer where DOC is absorbed and high flow is through the upper organic layer where DOC is produced. DOC concentrations in streams draining organo-mineral soils typically increase with flow. In saturated peat soils, both high and low flows are through an organic layer where DOC is produced. Therefore, DOC in stream water draining peat may not increase in response to changes in flow as there is no switch in flow path between a mineral and organic layer. To verify this, we conducted a high-resolution monitoring study of soil and stream water at an upland peat catchment in northern England. Our data showed a strong positive correlation between DOC concentrations at -1 and -5 cm depth and stream water, and weaker correlations between concentrations at -20 to -50 cm depth and stream water. Although near surface organic material appears to be the key source of stream water DOC in both peat and organo-mineral soils, we observed a negative correlation between stream flow and DOC concentrations instead of a positive correlation as DOC released from organic layers during low and high flow was diluted by rainfall. The differences in DOC transport processes between peat and organo-mineral soils have different implications for our understanding of long-term changes in DOC exports. While increased rainfall may cause an increase in DOC flux from peat due to an increase in water volume, it may cause a decrease in concentrations. This response is contrary to expected changes in DOC exports from organo-mineral soils, where increase rainfall is likely to result in an increase in flux and concentration.

  9. Future of forest gardens in the Uvan uplands of Sri Lanka (United States)

    Nuberg, Ian K.; Evans, David G.; Senanayake, Ranil


    Forest gardens are traditional agroecosystems in the humid tropics that have evolved a forestlike structure and as such are commonly thought to be a good example of sustainable agriculture. While this may be true in the sense of soil protection and maintenance of biodiversity, they are not necessarily maintainable in the context of competing land use in the landscape. Such appears to be the case of forest gardens in the uplands of Uva Province of Sri Lanka. This paper reports an agroecological analysis of forest gardens and other forms of land use in Uva, and discusses how this understanding can be used to make use of the good properties of forest gardens. It shows that although they have very real environmental and social benefits, they are unable to satisfy the material needs of a rural population undergoing demographic and cultural changes. However, the alternative land-use systems, both private smallholder and state owned, have serious deficiencies with respect to long-term sustainability, and it is essential to develop appropriate alternatives. It should be possible to design a smallholder farming system that incorporates the high productivity of market gardens (i.e., the cultivation of seasonal crops such as vegetables) with, at least, the high stability and biophysical sustainability of the forest garden. Considerable work still needs to be done on the design of such a system as well as the agency for its development and promotion. The paper treats the forest gardens of Uva as a case study from which some general conclusions can be drawn with respect to the conscious development of forest garden systems elsewhere in the tropics.

  10. Reproductive rate and temporal spacing of nesting of red-winged blackbirds in upland habitat (United States)

    Dolbeer, Richard A.


    The literature contains numerous studies on Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) reproduction. Francis (1971) summarized eight studies dealing with nesting success. These and other studies have also provided information on breeding chronology, clutch sizes, sex ratios, survival rates for eggs and nestlings, reproductive physiology, and other life history aspects of reproduction. With few exceptions, these studies have provided no data on the number of young fledged per female, per territorial male, or per unit area. This is especially true for upland nesting habitats where, at least in the midwestern United States, most Red-wings now nest (Graber and Graber 1963, Dyer et al. 1973). Also insufficient quantitative information is available on the extent and nature of renesting (i.e. nesting more than once in a nesting season) and on movements of adult females during the nesting season.A better understanding of these aspects of reproduction is critical for the development of an accurate population-dynamics model for the species. Such a model is sorely needed to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of proposed population management strategies in places where blackbirds are deemed a health or safety hazard, or cause damage to agricultural crops (Tosh et al. 1970, Solman 1971, Stone et al. 1972).This study had three objectives: (1) to determine the distribution, size, and number of Red-winged Blackbird territories for an old-field habitat; (2) to determine the number of nesting females, nesting success, extent of renesting, and number of young fledged for these territories; and (3) to examine movements of female Red-wings during the nesting season.

  11. Mississippi Basin Carbon Project: upland soil database for sites in Nishnabotna River basin, Iowa (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Fries, T.L.; Haughy, R.; Kramer, L.; Zheng, Shuhui


    The conversion of land from its native state to an agricultural use commonly results in a significant loss of soil carbon (Mann, 1985; Davidson and Ackerman, 1993). Globally, this loss is estimated to account for as much as 1/3 of the net CO2 emissions for the period of 1850 to 1980 (Houghton and others, 1983). Roughly 20 to 40 percent of original soil carbon is estimated to be lost as CO2 as a result of agricultural conversion, or "decomposition enhancement". Global models use this estimate along with land conversion data to provide agricultural contributions of CO2 emissions for global carbon budgets (Houghton and others, 1983; Schimel, 1995). Soil erosion rates are significantly (10X) higher on croplands than on their undisturbed equivalents (Dabney and others, 1997). Most of the concern over erosion is related to diminished productivity of the uplands (Stallings, 1957; McGregor and others, 1969; Rhoton, 1990) or to increased hazards and navigability of the lowlands in the late 1800's to early 1900's. Yet because soil carbon is concentrated at the soil surface, with an exponential decline in concentration with depth (Harden et al, 1999), it is clear that changes in erosion rates seen on croplands must also impact soil carbon storage and terrestrial carbon budgets as well. As yet, erosional losses of carbon are not included in global carbon budgets explicitly as a factor in land conversion nor implicitly as a portion of the decomposition enhancement. However, recent work by Lal and others (1995) and by Stallard (1998) suggests that significant amounts of eroded soil may be stored in man-made reservoirs and depositional environments as a result of agricultural conversion. Moreover, Stallard points out that eroding soils have the potential for replacing part of the carbon trapped in man-made reservoirs. If true, then the global carbon budget may grossly underestimate or ignore a significant sink term resulting from the burial of eroded soil.

  12. Mississippi Basin Carbon Project; upland soil database for sites in Yazoo Basin, northern Mississippi (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Fries, T.L.; Huntington, T.G.


    The conversion of land from its native state to an agricultural use commonly results in a significant loss of soil carbon (Mann, 1985; Davidson and Ackerman, 1993). Globally, this loss is estimated to account for as much as 1/3 of the net CO2 emissions for the period of 1850 to 1980 (Houghton et al, 1983). Roughly 20 to 40 percent of original soil carbon is estimated to be lost as CO2 as a result of agricultural conversion, or 'decomposition enhancement', and global models use this estimate along with land conversion data to provide agricultural contributions of CO2 emissions for global carbon budgets (Houghton and others, 1983; Schimel, 1995). As yet, erosional losses of carbon are not included in global carbon budgets explicitly as a factor in land conversion nor implicitly as a portion of the decomposition enhancement. However, recent work by Lal et al (1995) and by Stallard (1998) suggests that significant amounts of eroded soil may be stored in man-made reservoirs and depositional environments as a result of agricultural conversion. Moreover, Stallard points out that if eroding soils have the potential for replacing part of the carbon trapped in man-made reservoirs, then the global carbon budget may grossly underestimate or ignore a significant sink term resulting from the burial of eroded soil. Soil erosion rates are significantly (10X) higher on croplands than on their undisturbed equivalents (Dabney et al, 1997). Most of the concern over erosion is related to diminished productivity of the uplands (Stallings, 1957; McGregor et al, 1993; Rhoton and Tyler, 1990) or to increased hazards and navigability of the lowlands in the late 1800's to early 1900's. Yet because soil carbon is concentrated at the soil surface, with an exponential decline in concentration with depth, it is clear that changes in erosion rates seen on croplands must also impact soil carbon storage and terrestrial carbon budgets as well.

  13. Water track distribution and effects on carbon dioxide flux in an eastern Siberian upland tundra landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curasi, Salvatore R; Loranty, Michael M; Natali, Susan M


    Shrub expansion in tundra ecosystems may act as a positive feedback to climate warming, the strength of which depends on its spatial extent. Recent studies have shown that shrub expansion is more likely to occur in areas with high soil moisture and nutrient availability, conditions typically found in sub-surface water channels known as water tracks. Water tracks are 5–15 m wide channels of subsurface water drainage in permafrost landscapes and are characterized by deeper seasonal thaw depth, warmer soil temperatures, and higher soil moisture and nutrient content relative to adjacent tundra. Consequently, enhanced vegetation productivity, and dominance by tall deciduous shrubs, are typical in water tracks. Quantifying the distribution of water tracks may inform investigations of the extent of shrub expansion and associated impacts on tundra ecosystem carbon cycling. Here, we quantify the distribution of water tracks and their contribution to growing season CO 2 dynamics for a Siberian tundra landscape using satellite observations, meteorological data, and field measurements. We find that water tracks occupy 7.4% of the 448 km 2 study area, and account for a slightly larger proportion of growing season carbon uptake relative to surrounding tundra. For areas inside water tracks dominated by shrubs, field observations revealed higher shrub biomass and higher ecosystem respiration and gross primary productivity relative to adjacent upland tundra. Conversely, a comparison of graminoid-dominated areas in water tracks and inter-track tundra revealed that water track locations dominated by graminoids had lower shrub biomass yet increased net uptake of CO 2 . Our results show water tracks are an important component of this landscape. Their distribution will influence ecosystem structural and functional responses to climate, and is therefore of importance for modeling. (letter)

  14. Spatial and vertical distribution of mercury in upland forest soils across the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Justin B.; Friedland, Andrew J.; Engerbretson, Teresa R.; Kaste, James M.; Jackson, Brian P.


    Assessing current Hg pools in forest soils of the northeastern U.S. is important for monitoring changes in Hg cycling. The forest floor, upper and lower mineral horizons were sampled at 17 long-term upland forest sites across the northeastern U.S. in 2011. Forest floor Hg concentration was similar across the study region (274 ± 13 μg kg −1 ) while Hg amount at northern sites (39 ± 6 g ha −1 ) was significantly greater than at western sites (11 ± 4 g ha −1 ). Forest floor Hg was correlated with soil organic matter, soil pH, latitude and mean annual precipitation and these variables explained approximately 70% of the variability when multiple regressed. Mercury concentration and amount in the lower mineral soil was correlated with Fe, soil organic matter and latitude, corresponding with Bs horizons of Spodosols (Podzols). Our analysis shows the importance of regional and soil properties on Hg accumulation in forest soils. -- Highlights: •Mercury in the forest floor and mineral soil was quantified at 17 sites. •Concentrations and amounts were regressed with regional factors and soil properties. •Forest floor Hg was most explained by soil organic matter, pH, and precipitation. •Mineral soil Hg was explained by latitude, Fe concentration, and soil organic matter. •Mineral soil Hg was greatest in Bs horizons of Spodosols due to podzolization. -- Forest floor Hg was correlated with soil organic matter, pH, latitude, and mean annual precipitation. Mineral soil Hg was greatest in Bs horizons of Spodosols

  15. Impacts of prescribed fire on Pinus rigida Mill. in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. (United States)

    Carlo, Nicholas J; Renninger, Heidi J; Clark, Kenneth L; Schäfer, Karina V R


    A comparative analysis of the impacts of prescribed fire on three upland forest stands in the Northeastern Atlantic Plain, NJ, USA, was conducted. Effects of prescribed fire on water use and gas exchange of overstory pines were estimated via sap-flux rates and photosynthetic measurements on Pinus rigida Mill. Each study site had two sap-flux plots, one experiencing prescribed fire and one control (unburned) plot for comparison before and after the fire. We found that photosynthetic capacity in terms of Rubisco-limited carboxylation rate and intrinsic water-use efficiency was unaffected, while light compensation point and dark respiration rate were significantly lower in the burned vs control plots post-fire. Furthermore, quantum yield in pines in the pine-dominated stands was less affected than pines in the mixed oak/pine stand, as there was an increase in quantum yield in the oak/pine stand post-fire compared with the control (unburned) plot. We attribute this to an effect of forest type but not fire per se. Average daily sap-flux rates of the pine trees increased compared with control (unburned) plots in pine-dominated stands and decreased in the oak/pine stand compared with control (unburned) plots, potentially due to differences in fuel consumption and pre-fire sap-flux rates. Finally, when reference canopy stomatal conductance was analyzed, pines in the pine-dominated stands were more sensitive to changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD), while stomatal responses of pines in the oak/pine stand were less affected by VPD. Therefore, prescribed fire affects physiological functioning and water use of pines, but the effects may be modulated by forest stand type and fuel consumption pattern, which suggests that these factors may need to be taken into account for forest management in fire-dominated systems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  16. Microbial degradation of 15N-labeled rice residues in soil during two years' incubation under flooded and upland conditions, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Shinjiro; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu.


    The decay of rice residue was investigated after incubation periods of from 1 to 24 months at 30 0 C under both blooded and upland soil conditions. Tops and roots of rice plants were cut into about 10-mm length, and separately incorporated in soil which had been passed through a 0.5-mm sieve. Plant debris were fractionated physically according to their sizes and divided into five groups (> 4 mm, 4 - 2 mm, 2 - 1 mm, 1 - 0.5 mm, and 0.5 - 0.25 mm). Carbon loss from the soils amended with rice residues and decrease in the weight of total plant debris proceeded at a rapid speed in the early periods (around 4 months) and then at a slow speed in the subsequent periods under both flooded and upland soil conditions. The distribution of the plant debris in the decomposition processes differed under flooded and upland conditions. Under flooded conditions, 2 - 4 mm-sized plant debris were retained for a long period with slow transformation into the smaller fractions. In contrast, under upland conditions, change of plant debris from large to small size fractions proceeded gradually. This continuous change could be attributed to the high decomposing activities of fungi under upland conditions. (author)

  17. A Coupled Groundwater-Surface Water Modeling Framework for Simulating Transition Zone Processes. (United States)

    Mugunthan, Pradeep; Russell, Kevin T; Gong, Binglei; Riley, Michael J; Chin, Arthur; McDonald, Blair G; Eastcott, Linda J


    There is an identified need for fully representing groundwater-surface water transition zone (i.e., the sediment zone that connects groundwater and surface water) processes in modeling fate and transport of contaminants to assist with management of contaminated sediments. Most existing groundwater and surface water fate and transport models are not dynamically linked and do not consider transition zone processes such as bioturbation and deposition and erosion of sediments. An interface module is developed herein to holistically simulate the fate and transport by coupling two commonly used models, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) and SEAWAT, to simulate surface water and groundwater hydrodynamics, while providing an enhanced representation of the processes in the transition zone. Transition zone and surface water contaminant processes were represented through an enhanced version of the EFDC model, AQFATE. AQFATE also includes SEDZLJ, a state-of-the-science surface water sediment transport model. The modeling framework was tested on a published test problem and applied to evaluate field-scale two- and three-dimensional contaminant transport. The model accurately simulated concentrations of salinity from a published test case. For the field-scale applications, the model showed excellent mass balance closure for the transition zone and provided accurate simulations of all transition zone processes represented in the modeling framework. The model predictions for the two-dimensional field case were consistent with site-specific observations of contaminant migration. This modeling framework represents advancement in the simulation of transition zone processes and can help inform risk assessment at sites where contaminant sources from upland areas have the potential to impact sediments and surface water. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry of the Mount Everest region (United States)

    Gebelin, A.; Mulch, A.; Teyssier, C.; Jessup, M. J.; Law, R. D.; Brunel, M.


    Long-term climatic evolution and atmospheric circulation patterns are influenced to a first order by the topography of the largest mountain ranges. Reconstructing the Neogene elevation history of the Mount Everest region is of particular interest for understanding the tectonic history of the Himalaya-Tibet orogen as well as global scale atmospheric circulation and biotic changes through time. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry uses the isotopic lapse rate of precipitations preserved in the near-surface record. In the absence of surface deposits such as paleosols, volcanic ashes, or lacustrine limestone that record the stable isotopic composition of early to mid-Miocene water preserved in the highly erosive Himalayan range, we conduct stable-isotope paleoaltimetry based on the hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of hydrous minerals that crystallized in the South Tibetan detachment (STD) shear zone at ~17 Ma. For paleoaltimetry reconstruction we compare stable isotope records from the STD mylonitic footwall to age-equivalent oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) measured within pedogenic carbonate from Siwalik foreland paleosols that developed near Miocene sea level. The relative differences between meteoric water compositions in the foreland basin and the δ18Owater calculated from the hydrogen isotope composition of syntectonic minerals suggest that by ~17 Ma the central Himalaya was at an elevation similar to what it is today, and that a rain shadow likely existed at that time. Our results demonstrate the power of shear-zone based paleoaltimetry in eroded mountain belts, call for caution in interpreting basin-based stable isotope paleoaltimetry in the rain shadow of the mid-Miocene Himalayan range and suggest that strengthening of the South Asian monsoon may have occurred in early to mid-Miocene, earlier than previously thought.

  19. Partial Dominance, Overdominance and Epistasis as the Genetic Basis of Heterosis in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (United States)

    Wang, Yumei; Hua, Jinping


    Determination of genetic basis of heterosis may promote hybrid production in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). This study was designed to explore the genetic mechanism of heterosis for yield and yield components in F2: 3 and F2: 4 populations derived from a hybrid ‘Xinza No. 1’. Replicated yield field trials of the progenies were conducted in 2008 and 2009. Phenotypic data analyses indicated overdominance in F1 for yield and yield components. Additive and dominance effects at single-locus level and digenic epistatic interactions at two-locus level were analyzed by 421 marker loci spanning 3814 cM of the genome. A total of 38 and 49 QTLs controlling yield and yield components were identified in F2: 3 and F2: 4 populations, respectively. Analyses of these QTLs indicated that the effects of partial dominance and overdominance contributed to heterosis in Upland cotton simultaneously. Most of the QTLs showed partial dominance whereas 13 QTLs showing overdominance in F2:3 population, and 19 QTLs showed overdominance in F2:4. Among them, 21 QTLs were common in both F2: 3 and F2: 4 populations. A large number of two-locus interactions for yield and yield components were detected in both generations. AA (additive × additive) epistasis accounted for majority portion of epistatic effects. Thirty three complementary two-locus homozygotes (11/22 and 22/11) were the best genotypes for AA interactions in terms of bolls per plant. Genotypes of double homozygotes, 11/22, 22/11 and 22/22, performed best for AD/DA interactions, while genotype of 11/12 performed best for DD interactions. These results indicated that (1) partial dominance and overdominance effects at single-locus level and (2) epistasis at two-locus level elucidated the genetic basis of heterosis in Upland cotton. PMID:26618635

  20. Drought-induced root plasticity of two upland NERICA varieties under conditions with contrasting soil depth characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Makori Menge


    Full Text Available To identify differences in root plasticity patterns of two upland New Rice for Africa (NERICA varieties, NERICA 1 and 4, in response to drought under conditions with contrasting soil profile characteristics, soil moisture gradients were imposed using a sloping bed system with depths ranging 30–65 cm and a line-source sprinkler system with a uniformly shallow soil layer of 20 cm depth. Varietal differences in shoot and root growths were identified only under moderate drought conditions, 11–18% v/v soil moisture content. Further, under moderate drought soil conditions where roots could penetrate into the deep soil layer, deep root development was greater in NERICA 4 than in NERICA 1, which contributed to maintaining dry matter production. However, under soil conditions with underground impediment to deep root development, higher shoot dry weight was noted for NERICA 1 than for NERICA 4 at 11–18% v/v soil moisture content, which was attributed to increased lateral root development in the shallow soil layer in NERICA 1. Enhanced lateral root development in the 0–20-cm soil layer was identified in NERICA 1 even under soil conditions without an impediment to deep root development; however, this did not contribute to maintaining dry matter production in upland rice. Thus, we show different root developmental traits associated with drought avoidance in the two NERICA varieties, and that desirable root traits for upland rice cultivation vary depending on the target soil environment, such as the distribution of soil moisture and root penetration resistance.

  1. Prairies Thrive Where Row Crops Drown: A Comparison of Yields in Upland and Lowland Topographies in the Upper Midwest US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. von Haden


    Full Text Available Cellulosic biofuel production is expected to increase in the US, and the targeted establishment of biofuel agriculture in marginal lands would reduce competition between biofuels and food crops. While poorly drained, seasonally saturated lowland landscape positions are marginal for production of row crops and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., it is unclear whether species-diverse tallgrass prairie yield would suffer similarly in saturated lowlands. Prairie yields typically increase as graminoids become more dominant, but it is uncertain whether this trend is due to greater aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP or higher harvest efficiency in graminoids compared to forbs. Belowground biomass, a factor that is important to ecosystem service provisioning, is reduced when switchgrass is grown in saturated lowlands, but it is not known whether the same is true in species-diverse prairie. Our objectives were to assess the effect of topography on yields and live belowground biomass in row crops and prairie, and to determine the mechanisms by which relative graminoid abundance influences tallgrass prairie yield. We measured yield, harvest efficiency, and live belowground biomass in upland and lowland landscape positions within maize silage (Zea mays L., winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., and restored tallgrass prairie. Maize and winter wheat yields were reduced by more than 60% in poorly drained lowlands relative to well-drained uplands, but diverse prairie yields were equivalent in both topographic settings. Prairie yields increased by approximately 45% as the relative abundance of graminoids increased from 5% to 95%. However, this trend was due to higher harvest efficiency of graminoids rather than greater ANPP compared to forbs. In both row crops and prairie, live belowground biomass was similar between upland and lowland locations, indicating consistent biomass nutrient sequestration potential and soil organic matter inputs between topographic

  2. High-resolution coproecology: using coprolites to reconstruct the habits and habitats of New Zealand's extinct upland moa (Megalapteryx didinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie R Wood

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the diet and ecology of extinct herbivores has important implications for understanding the evolution of plant defence structures, establishing the influences of herbivory on past plant community structure and composition, and identifying pollination and seed dispersal syndromes. The flightless ratite moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes were New Zealand's largest herbivores prior to their extinction soon after initial human settlement. Here we contribute to the knowledge of moa diet and ecology by reporting the results of a multidisciplinary study of 35 coprolites from a subalpine cave (Euphrates Cave on the South Island of New Zealand. Ancient DNA analysis and radiocarbon dating revealed the coprolites were deposited by the extinct upland moa (Megalapteryx didinus, and span from at least 6,368±31 until 694±30 (14C years BP; the approximate time of their extinction. Using pollen, plant macrofossil, and ancient DNA analyses, we identified at least 67 plant taxa from the coprolites, including the first evidence that moa fed on the nectar-rich flowers of New Zealand flax (Phormium and tree fuchsia (Fuchsia excorticata. The plant assemblage from the coprolites reflects a highly-generalist feeding ecology for upland moa, including browsing and grazing across the full range of locally available habitats (spanning southern beech (Nothofagus forest to tussock (Chionochloa grassland. Intact seeds in the coprolites indicate that upland moa may have been important dispersal agents for several plant taxa. Plant taxa with putative anti-browse adaptations were also identified in the coprolites. Clusters of coprolites (based on pollen assemblages, moa haplotypes, and radiocarbon dates, probably reflect specimens deposited at the same time by individual birds, and reveal the necessity of suitably large sample sizes in coprolite studies to overcome potential biases in diet interpretation.

  3. Apatite fission-track evidence of widespread Eocene heating and exhumation in the Yukon-Tanana Upland, interior Alaska (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Murphy, J.M.


    We present an apatite fission-track (AFT) study of five plutonic rocks and seven metamorphic rocks across 310 km of the Yukon-Tanana Upland in east-central Alaska. Samples yielding ???40 Ma AFT ages and mean confined track lengths > 14 ??m with low standard deviations cooled rapidly from >120??C to 40 Ma suggest partial annealing and, therefore, lower maximum temperatures (???90-105??C). A few samples with single-grain ages of ???20 Ma apparently remained above ???50??C after initial cooling. Although the present geothermal gradient in the western Yukon-Tanana Upland is ???32??C/km, it could have been as high as 45??C/km during a widespread Eocene intraplate magmatic episode. Prior to rapid exhumation, samples with ???40 Ma AFT ages were >3.8-2.7 km deep and samples with >50 Ma AFT ages were >3.3-2.0 km deep. We calculate a 440-320 m/Ma minimum rate for exhumation of all samples during rapid cooling. Our AFT data, and data from rocks north of Fairbanks and from the Eielson deep test hole, indicate up to 3 km of post-40 Ma vertical displacement along known and inferred northeast-trending high-angle faults. The predominance of 40-50 Ma AFT ages throughout the Yukon-Tanana Upland indicates that, prior to the post-40 Ma relative uplift along some northeast-trending faults, rapid regional cooling and exhumation closely followed the Eocene extensional magmatism. We propose that Eocene magmatism and exhumation were somehow related to plate movements that produced regional-scale oroclinal rotation, northward translation of outboard terranes, major dextral strike-slip faulting, and subduction of an oceanic spreading ridge along the southern margin of Alaska.

  4. Subduction zones seen by GOCE gravity gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Švarc, Mario; Herceg, Matija; Cammarano, Fabio

    . Few pattern recognition methods were tested on all 6 gravity gradient tensor components represented as global scale maps with resolution of 100km (corresponds to the resolution of the GOCE satellite data). By adjusting pattern recognition methods’ features and optimizing various input patterns...... and used as starting point for analysis based on image processing. On obtained maps, locations of known subduction zones were represented with characteristic elongated patterns and cross-sections. Cross sections of well-known subduction zones were used as input patterns for pattern recognition method......, the best method was applied. That is a combination of methods based on SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features) and MSER (Maximally Stable Extremal Regions) algorithms provided in MATLAB’s Computer Vision System Toolbox. Based on 6 gravity gradient components, the global gradient anomaly maps were produced...

  5. Investigation of Tin and Molybdenum concentrations in the Soils in the southern part of the Silesian Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bureć-Drewniak W.


    Full Text Available Majority of soils from the southern part of the Silesian Upland (Poland are highly degraded and contain elevated levels of heavy metals. Detailed studies, including dissemination, mobility and bioavailability have been conducted for most heavy metals, except tin and molybdenum. Therefore, the purpose of presented studies was evaluation of molybdenum and tin pollution and determination of their mobility and bioavailability in all soil types derived from the investigated area. A total of 9920 soil samples, including 5256 topsoil samples and 4664 subsoil samples were analyzed. Comparison of elements concentration between topsoil and subsoil allows identification of the source of pollution (natural or anthropogenic of tested elements.

  6. Stable carbon isotope time series from tropical tree rings indicate a precipitation signal


    E. Fichtler; Gerhard Helle; M. Worbes


    Although studies on stable-carbon isotopes in trees from temperate zones provide abundant paleoclimatic data, tropical trees are still understudied in this context. Therefore this study examined the variability of intra- and inter-annual stable-carbon isotopic pattern in several tree species from various tropical climates. The delta C-13 Values of samples of 12 broadleaved trees (seven species) from various paleotropical and neotropical sites along a climatic moisture gradient were investigat...

  7. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.


    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  8. Monitoring of stable glaucoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Holtzer-Goor (Kim); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T. Plochg; E. van Sprundel (Esther)


    textabstractA high workload for ophthalmologists and long waiting lists for patients challenge the organization of ophthalmic care. Tasks that require less specialized skills, like the monitoring of stable (well controlled) glaucoma patients could be substituted from ophthalmologists to other

  9. The zone of tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titaeva, N.A.; Taskaev, A.I.


    Peculiarities of radionuclide migration in the zone of tundra are considered. High 232 Th content, high 232 Th/ 238 U values at low 238 U and 226 Ra concentrations in rocks are shown to be characteristic for the chosen zone. Data on methods of 238 U and 232 Th determination in natural waters, as well as content of radionuclides in water and bottom sediments are presented. Formation of soils under the conditions of mountain tundra is shown to result in noticeable redistribution of radioactive elements as well as all their isotopes. Data on U, Th, Ra isotope content in different plants and certain organs of plants are presented. Principal statistical parameters both of content of certain U, Th, Ra isotopes and their isotope relations on the whole by soil and vegetation of the investigated region are presented. When characterizing storage of isotopes of different elements in vegetation of the zone of tundra it is necessary to note that the dependence 226 Ra( 228 Ra)> 228 Th> 227 Th> 230 Th> 232 Th> 238 U> 234 U is typical for it. Intensity of radionuclide inclusion in the biogenic migration cycle in the zone of tundra is higher than in the zone of taiga

  10. Transcriptome analysis reveals that distinct metabolic pathways operate in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive upland cotton varieties subjected to salinity stress. (United States)

    Guo, Jinyan; Shi, Gongyao; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Liwei; Xu, Wenying; Wang, Yumei; Su, Zhen; Hua, Jinping


    Salinity stress is one of the most devastating abiotic stresses in crop plants. As a moderately salt-tolerant crop, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a major cash crop in saline areas and a suitable model for salt stress tolerance research. In this study, we compared the transcriptome changes between the salt-tolerant upland cotton cultivar Zhong 07 and salt-sensitive cultivar Zhong G5 in response to NaCl treatments. Transcriptional regulation, signal transduction and secondary metabolism in two varieties showed significant differences, all of which might be related to mechanisms underlying salt stress tolerance. The transcriptional profiles presented here provide a foundation for deciphering the mechanism underlying salt tolerance. Based on our findings, we proposed several candidate genes that might be used to improve salt tolerance in upland cotton. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Freeway work zone lane capacity. (United States)


    The focus of this report is a capacity analysis of two long-term urban freeway Work Zones. Work Zone #1 : tapered four mainline lanes to two, using two separate tapers; Work Zone #2 tapered two mainline lanes to one. : Work Zone throughput was analyz...

  12. an evaluation of the productivity of alagba series for upland crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 2, 2012 ... Identifying and managing these constraints is therefore fundamental to formulating sustainable production systems. This work is an effort to identify such soil constraints that are inherent in Alagba series, found mainly in the humid agro ecological zone of. Nigeria (Dudal, 1980). Materials and Methods.

  13. Gene expression in developing fibres of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was massively altered by domestication. (United States)

    Rapp, Ryan A; Haigler, Candace H; Flagel, Lex; Hovav, Ran H; Udall, Joshua A; Wendel, Jonathan F


    Understanding the evolutionary genetics of modern crop phenotypes has a dual relevance to evolutionary biology and crop improvement. Modern upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed following thousands of years of artificial selection from a wild form, G. hirsutum var. yucatanense, which bears a shorter, sparser, layer of single-celled, ovular trichomes ('fibre'). In order to gain an insight into the nature of the developmental genetic transformations that accompanied domestication and crop improvement, we studied the transcriptomes of cotton fibres from wild and domesticated accessions over a developmental time course. Fibre cells were harvested between 2 and 25 days post-anthesis and encompassed the primary and secondary wall synthesis stages. Using amplified messenger RNA and a custom microarray platform designed to interrogate expression for 40,430 genes, we determined global patterns of expression during fibre development. The fibre transcriptome of domesticated cotton is far more dynamic than that of wild cotton, with over twice as many genes being differentially expressed during development (12,626 versus 5273). Remarkably, a total of 9465 genes were diagnosed as differentially expressed between wild and domesticated fibres when summed across five key developmental time points. Human selection during the initial domestication and subsequent crop improvement has resulted in a biased upregulation of components of the transcriptional network that are important for agronomically advanced fibre, especially in the early stages of development. About 15% of the differentially expressed genes in wild versus domesticated cotton fibre have no homology to the genes in databases. We show that artificial selection during crop domestication can radically alter the transcriptional developmental network of even a single-celled structure, affecting nearly a quarter of the genes in the genome. Gene expression during fibre development within accessions and expression

  14. Statistical assessment on a combined analysis of GRYN-ROMN-UCBN upland vegetation vital signs (United States)

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.


    As of 2013, Rocky Mountain and Upper Columbia Basin Inventory and Monitoring Networks have multiple years of vegetation data and Greater Yellowstone Network has three years of vegetation data and monitoring is ongoing in all three networks. Our primary objective is to assess whether a combined analysis of these data aimed at exploring correlations with climate and weather data is feasible. We summarize the core survey design elements across protocols and point out the major statistical challenges for a combined analysis at present. The dissimilarity in response designs between ROMN and UCBN-GRYN network protocols presents a statistical challenge that has not been resolved yet. However, the UCBN and GRYN data are compatible as they implement a similar response design; therefore, a combined analysis is feasible and will be pursued in future. When data collected by different networks are combined, the survey design describing the merged dataset is (likely) a complex survey design. A complex survey design is the result of combining datasets from different sampling designs. A complex survey design is characterized by unequal probability sampling, varying stratification, and clustering (see Lohr 2010 Chapter 7 for general overview). Statistical analysis of complex survey data requires modifications to standard methods, one of which is to include survey design weights within a statistical model. We focus on this issue for a combined analysis of upland vegetation from these networks, leaving other topics for future research. We conduct a simulation study on the possible effects of equal versus unequal probability selection of points on parameter estimates of temporal trend using available packages within the R statistical computing package. We find that, as written, using lmer or lm for trend detection in a continuous response and clm and clmm for visually estimated cover classes with “raw” GRTS design weights specified for the weight argument leads to substantially

  15. Ecological Responses to Five Years of Experimental Nitrogen Application in an Upland Jack-pine Stand (United States)

    Melaschenko, N.; Berryman, S.; Straker, J.; Berg, K.; McDonough, A.; Watmough, S. A.


    A five-year experimental study was conducted to evaluate the response of an upland jack-pine (Pinus banksiana) forest to elevated levels of nitrogen (N) deposition in Northern Alberta. N deposition in the region is expected to increase with industrial expansion of oil sands activity, and there is regional interest to set N critical loads for sensitive ecosystems. In this study, N was applied as NH4NO3 above a jack-pine canopy via helicopter, annually for five years (2010-2015) at dosages equivalent to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Approximately 35% of the applied N was retained in the canopy while 65% reached understory vegetation dominated by lichens and mosses. We measured a significant increase in tissue N concentrations of common ground lichens (Cladonia mitis and C. stellaris) and ground moss (Pleurozium schreberi) as well as epiphytic lichens (Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia mesomorpha). On an annual basis, the applied N was primarily captured in the lichen and moss understory, dominated by C. mitis. In the highest treatments, N concentrations in C. mitis were 1.5-2.5 times greater than pre-treatment values. Peak N concentrations in the ground moss Pleurozium schreberi (1.4%) indicate that a threshold of N saturation was reached by year 3. We observed no changes in community composition of vascular and non-vascular plants, or changes in vascular plant tissue N. Chlorophyll levels in C. mitis increased with N treatment, but there was no indication of toxicity or changes to decomposition and growth. After five years of N application, only Peltigera polydactylon, a ground cyanolichen, appeared to be negatively impacted where the thalli showed necrosis at deposition loads >10kg N ha-1 yr-1. No changes to biomass or N ecosystem processes were observed. Based on these observations, we provide evidence that the first adverse ecological effects of N deposition in jack-pine stands occurred at deposition rates of 10 kg N ha-1 yr-1.

  16. Transcriptional analysis of defense mechanisms in upland tetraploid switchgrass to greenbugs. (United States)

    Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Palmer, Nathan A; Scully, Erin D; Prochaska, Travis J; Koch, Kyle G; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Bradshaw, Jeffrey D; Twigg, Paul; Amundsen, Keenan; Sattler, Scott E; Sarath, Gautam


    ROS and several defensive metabolites in an upland switchgrass cultivar were observed in response to GB feeding. The early loss and apparent recovery in primary metabolism by 15-DAI would suggest that these transcriptional changes in later stages of GB infestation could underlie the recovery response categorized for this switchgrass cultivar. These results can be exploited to develop switchgrass lines with more durable resistance to GB and potentially other aphids.

  17. Anthropogenic change in water bodies in the southern part of the Silesian Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machowski Robert


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the anthropogenic change in water bodies in the southern part of the Silesian Upland as exemplified by the town of Knurów. The assessment was based on topographic maps from the years 1827-1828, 1928-1936, 1960 and 1993, and on a 2011 orthophotomap. The cartographic materials used were processed as required for analysis purposes. Maps were calibrated in the Quantum GIS program on the basis of map corner coordinates and using the common points method. In Knurów, four main types of water bodies were distinguished with respect to their origins: reservoirs impounded by dams, flooded mineral workings, industrial water bodies and water bodies in subsidence basins and hollows. Historically, the first water bodies to appear were reservoirs impounded by dams, which dominated until the 1930s. They later fell into disuse and were completely dismantled. Water bodies in mineral workings formed in the early 20th century and were associated with the excavation of raw materials for producing bricks. The period of their greatest significance were the 1960s, when they constituted slightly more than 46% of water bodies in total and accounted for nearly 40% of overall surface area. At the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century, industrial reservoirs began to appear. Within the town of Knurów, those were sedimentation tanks that held mine water, washery effluent, backfill and cooling water, fire-fighting water pools and tanks, tanks at sewage treatment plants, industrial water tanks and others. Presently, these account for 41.4% (29 of the total number of water bodies and have a total surface area of 32.0 ha (25,2%. Within the study area, water bodies in subsidence basins and hollows only began to form in the second half of the 20th century. In 2011, such water bodies numbered 38 (54.3% and occupied an area of 90.4 ha (71.2%.

  18. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig


    is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections......The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...

  19. Nuclear free zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffel, T.


    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used? The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system

  20. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik


    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... for the ventilation equipment. To   overcome a shortcoming in Simulink to solve algebraic equations and matrix inversions, we have developed the library inspired by the so called dynamic node technique. We present simulation results using the presented library, and concludes with visions for further...

  1. How Attractive Is Upland Olive Groves Landscape? Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process and GIS in Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr Nekhay


    Full Text Available The upland olive groves of Andalusia (Southern Spain are an example of fragile landscape from an ecological point of view. The wildfire and soil erosion risks that can result in the desertification of the area are the main components of fragility. This paper focuses on the visual quality assessment of this agricultural system as a mean to their economic and environmental sustainability. The case study is represented by the upland olive groves of the municipality of Montoro where rural tourism is an important economic activity. We carried out a personal interview survey on 480 citizens to determine their visual preferences regarding three representative types of olive plantation landscape to be transferred to landscape level through a Geographical Information Systems (GIS. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP multicriteria decision-making technique was the method used to derive preferences from the survey. The results suggest that olive farming systems with grass vegetation cover between the trees are the preferred landscape type (0.42, followed very closely by the non-productive olive groves (0.41. The conventional olive farming system was the least preferred landscape (0.17. The visual quality map presents five categories, revealing that most of the olive groves in the study area belong to the very low visual quality category (93% of the total area.

  2. Effects of rice straw mulching on N2O emissions and maize productivity in a rain-fed upland. (United States)

    Wu, Xiao Hong; Wang, Wei; Xie, Xiao Li; Yin, Chun Mei; Hou, Hai Jun


    In the hilly areas of southern China, uplands and paddies are located adjacent to each other. Using rice straw as mulch for upland soil may improve crop production and partially replace chemical fertilizers, which may mitigate N 2 O emissions. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the potential of rice straw mulching for mitigating N 2 O emissions and increasing crop production. The treatments included no mulching (CK), 5000 kg ha -1 of straw mulching (SM5), and 10,000 kg ha -1 of straw mulching (SM10). Moreover, all the treatments received equivalent amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from chemical fertilizers plus rice straw. Relative to CK, cumulative N 2 O emissions decreased by 23.1 and 33.5% with SM5 and SM10, respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between N 2 O fluxes and soil water-filled pore space (WPFS) (r 2  = 0.495, P mulching, while achieving improved crop yield. This management strategy has great potential, and this study provides an important reference for low-carbon agriculture.

  3. [Effects of combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers on the available phosphorus content of upland red soil]. (United States)

    Jing, Yan; Chen, Xiao-min; Liu, Zu-xiang; Huang, Qian-ru; LiI, Qiu-xia; Chen, Chen; Lu, Shao-shan


    Aiming at the low content of available phosphorus in upland red soil of Southern China, this paper studied the effects of combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers on the available phosphorus and organic carbon contents and the pH of this soil. With the combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers, the soil physical and chemical properties improved to different degrees. As compared with the control, the soil pH and the soil organic carbon and available phosphorus contents at different growth stages of oil rape after the combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers all had an improvement, with the increments at bolting stage, flowering stage, and ripening stage being 16%, 24% and 26%, 23%, 34% and 38%, and 100%, 191% and 317% , respectively. The soil pH and the soil organic carbon and available phosphorus contents were increased with the increasing amount of applied biochar. Under-the application of biochar, the soil available phosphorus had a significant correlation with the soil pH and soil organic carbon content. This study could provide scientific basis to improve the phosphorus deficiency and the physical and chemical properties of upland red soil.

  4. Shifts in indigenous microbial communities during the anaerobic degradation of pentachlorophenol in upland and paddy soils from southern China. (United States)

    Chen, Yating; Tao, Liang; Wu, Ke; Wang, Yongkui


    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a common persistent pesticide in soil that has generated a significant environmental problem worldwide. Therefore, anaerobic degradation of PCP by the soil indigenous microbial community has gained increasing attention. However, little information is available concerning the functional microorganisms and the potential shifts in the microbial community associated with PCP degradation. In this study, we conducted a set of experiments to determine which components of the indigenous microbial community were capable of degrading PCP in soils of two land use types (upland and paddy soils) in southern China. Our results showed that the PCP degradation rate was significantly higher in paddy soils than that in upland soils. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) high-throughput sequencing revealed significant differences in microbial taxonomic composition between the soil with PCP and blank (soil without PCP) with Acinetobacter, Clostridium, Coprococcus, Oxobacter, and Sedimentibacter dominating the PCP-affected communities. Acinetobacter was also apparently enriched in the paddy soils with PCP (up to 52.2 %) indicated this genus is likely to play an important role in PCP degradation. Additionally, the Fe(III)-reducing bacteria Clostridium may also be involved in PCP degradation. Our data further revealed hitherto unknown metabolisms of potential PCP degradation by microorganisms including Coprococcus, Oxobacter, and Ruminiclostridium. Overall, these findings indicated that land use types may affect the PCP anaerobic degradation rate via the activities of indigenous bacterial populations and extend our knowledge of the bacterial populations responsible for PCP degradation.

  5. Timing of the deglaciation and the late-glacial vegetation development on the Pandivere Upland, North Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Amon


    Full Text Available In this study, the deglaciation chronology of the Pandivere Upland is defined, and the late-glacial vegetation trends of north-eastern Estonia are summarised. The multi-proxy study includes accelerated mass spectrometry 14 C dating, plant macrofossil, magnetic susceptibility, loss-on-ignition and grain-size distribution data of the lacustrine sediment record from one previously unpublished study site (Kursi, and the study discusses the results in combination with five previously published study locations from the area. The results indicate that the deglaciation of the Pandivere Upland started at approximately 14 200 cal. yr BP and was completed by 13 800 cal. yr BP. The ice recession rate was approximately 180 m yr -1 . Based on these new radiocarbon dates, the Baltic Ice Lake stage A 1 submerged the northern and western ice-free areas of Estonia by ca. 13 800 cal. yr BP. The prevalent vegetation type in north-eastern Estonia during the late-glacial period was tundra with local variations in the dominant shrub species. The region remained treeless until the Holocene.

  6. Phosphate Adsorption Capacity and Organic Matter Effect on Dynamics of P Availability in Upland Ultisol and Lowland Inceptisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Ultisols and Inceptisols were used to investigate the adsorption-desorption capacity of P and the effect of organic matter on the dynamics of P availability in tropical acid soils. The experiment consisted of two sub-experiments. Sub-experiment I was to study the adsorption-desorption capacity of Ultisols, Fresh-water lowland Inceptisols, and tidal-swamp Inceptisols. Therefore, surface soils (0 to 30 cm of each tested soil were treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 170, and 200 mg P kg-1 of soil. Sub-experiment II was to study the effects of organic matter application (0, 5, 10, and 15 Mg ha-1 on the dynamics of available P following 60d incubation under room temperature. P fertilizer application significantly affected water soluble-P (WSP (pUpland Ultisol>fresh-water Lowland Inceptisol. OM application increased the BKP in all tested soils as compared to the control. Differences in pattern of soil available P dynamics over time were detected between upland soil and two lowland soils used in the current experiment.

  7. History of natural resource use and environmental impacts in an interfluvial upland forest area in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Siren


    Full Text Available Much of the research done on environmental impacts by Amazonian indigenous peoples in the past focus on certain areas where archaeological remains are particularly abundant, such as the Amazon River estuary, the seasonally inundated floodplain of the lower Amazon, and various sites in the forest-savannah mosaic of the southern Amazon The environmental history of interfluvial upland areas has received less attention. This study reconstructed the history of human use of natural resources in an upland area of 1400 km2 surrounding the indigenous Kichwa community of Sarayaku in the Ecuadorian Amazon, based on oral history elicited from local elders as well as historical source documents and some modern scientific studies. Although data is scarce, one can conclude that the impacts of humans on the environment have varied in time and space in quite intricate ways. Hunting has affected, and continues affecting, basically the whole study area, but it is now more concentrated in space than what it has probably ever been before. Also forest clearing has become more concentrated in space but, in addition, it has gone from affecting only hilltops forests to affecting alluvial plains as well as hilltops and, lately, also the slopes of the hills.

  8. Residence half-time of {sup 137}Cs in the top-soils of Japanese paddy and upland fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komamura, Misako [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tsumura, Akito; Kodaira, Kiyoshi


    A series of top-soil samples of 14 paddy fields and 10 upland fields in Japan, were annually collected during more than 30 years, to be examined in the contents of {sup 137}Cs. The data, which were obtained by the use of a gamma spectrometric system, received some statistical treatments to distinguish the annual decline of {sup 137}Cs contents from deviations. Then the authors calculated `residence half-time of {sup 137}Cs` within top-soil, and `eluviation rate of {sup 137}Cs` from top to the sub-layer of the soil. The following nationwide results were obtained irrespective of paddy or upland field: (1) The `apparent residence half-time` was estimated as 16 - 17 years. This consists of both effects of eluviation and nuclear disintegration. (2) The true residence half-time` was reported as 41 - 42 years. This depends on the eluviation speed of {sup 137}Cs exclusively, because the influence of nuclear disintegration has been compensated. (3) The eluviation rate of {sup 137}Cs from top-soil down to the sub-soil was 1.6 - 1.7% per year. (4) The ratio of distribution of {sup 137}Cs between top-soil and the sub-soil was estimated to be 6:4 as average at the date of 1996. (author)

  9. Identifying Differences in Abiotic Stress Gene Networks between Lowland and Upland Ecotypes of Switchgrass (DE-SC0008338)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Kevin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Buell, Robin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Zhao, Bingyu [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Zhang, Xunzhong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)


    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm-season C4 grass that is a target lignocellulosic biofuel species for use in the United States due to its local adaption capabilities and high biomass accumulation. Two ecotypes of switchgrass have been described. Members of the lowland ecotype are taller, have narrower leaf blades and generate more biomass compared to individuals from the upland ecotype. Additionally, lowland plants are generally found in the southern United States while upland switchgrass is more typically present in the northern United States. These differences are important as it is envisioned that switchgrass for biofuel production will typically be grown on marginal lands in the northern United States to supplement and diversify farmers' traditional crop incomes. While lowland switchgrass is more productive, it has poor winter survivability in northern latitudes where upland switchgrass is expected to be grown for biofuel use. Abiotic stresses likely to be encountered by switchgrass include drought and salinity. Despite initially being described as preferring wetter environments, members of the lowland ecotype have been characterized as being more drought tolerant than plants of the upland ecotype. Nonetheless, direct trials have indicated that variation for drought tolerance exists in both ecotypes, but prior to this project, only a relatively small number of switchgrass lines had been tested for drought responses. Similarly, switchgrass cultivars have not been widely tested for salt tolerance, but a few studies have shown that even mild salt stress can inhibit growth. The effects of drought and salt stress on plant growth are complex. Both drought and salinity affect the osmotic potential of plant cells and negatively affect plant growth due to reduced water potential and reduced photosynthesis that results from lower stomatal conductance of CO2. Plants respond to drought and salt stress by activating genes that directly attempt to

  10. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh


    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  11. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D


    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  12. Nuclear weapons free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.


    The article analyses the concept and problems of the two nuclear weapons free zones in Latin America and in the South Pacific established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty of Rarotonga. So far the nuclear weapons states except China have refused to sign the additional protocols of the Treaties or have signed them only with considerable provisos. Therefore they don't fully recognize the nuclear weapons free status of those zones, or they don't recognize it at all. Both Treaties contain no provisions to regulate the transit of nuclear weapons through the zones. This allows de facto the stationing of nuclear weapons in the military bases of the US which are located within the nuclear weapons free zone of Latin America. The Treaty of Tlatelolco contains also the right of the states, party to the Treaty, to explode nuclear devices for peaceful purposes. Since peaceful and military nuclear explosions cannot be distinguished technically, this right could also undermine the nuclear weapons free status of the region. Important nuclear threshold countries like Argentina and Brazil have furthermore refrained from putting the Treaty into force. (orig.) [de

  13. Arid Zone Hydrology (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  14. Buffer Zone Sign Template (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  15. Buffer Zone, Nicosia


    Sorensen, Marie Louise


    Images of the United Nations Buffer Zone or Green Line which has partitioned Cyprus since 1974 The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n° 217411.

  16. Quaternary chronostratigraphy and stable isotope paleoecology of Big Bone Lick, Kentucky, USA (United States)

    Tankersley, Kenneth Barnett; Murari, Madhav Krishna; Crowley, Brooke E.; Owen, Lewis A.; Storrs, Glenn W.; Mortensen, Litsa


    Big Bone Lick (BBL) in northern Kentucky, USA has been a critical geologic site in the historical development of North American Quaternary vertebrate paleontology since the 1700s. Sedimentology, geoarcheology, paleontology, accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses were undertaken to develop a chronostratigraphy and history of erosion and deposition for the site to provide a foundation for understanding taphonomy, and species extinction and adaptation to periods of climatic and environmental change. Three geomorphic surfaces are recognized at BBL representing significant periods of floodplain aggradation since the last glacial maximum (26.5-19 ka) dating to the Oldest Dryas (Tazewell, 25-19 ka), the Older Dryas (Cary, 14-12 ka), and late Holocene (5 ka to the present). Unconformities suggest significant periods of degradation during the transitions from cold and dry to warm and moist climates from the Oldest Dryas (Tazewell) to Bølling Oscillation, from the Older Dryas (Cary) to the Allerød, and from the Younger Dryas (Valders) to the Holocene Climatic Optimum. Increased anthropogenic activities since 5 ka may have increased soil upland erosion and floodplain aggradation. Stable isotopes demonstrate that the landscape has been dominated by C3 vegetation since the last glacial maximum.

  17. Copper stable isotopes to trace copper behavior in wetland systems. (United States)

    Babcsányi, Izabella; Imfeld, Gwenaël; Granet, Mathieu; Chabaux, François


    Wetlands are reactive zones of the landscape that can sequester metals released by industrial and agricultural activities. Copper (Cu) stable isotope ratios (δ(65)Cu) have recently been used as tracers of transport and transformation processes in polluted environments. Here, we used Cu stable isotopes to trace the behavior of Cu in a stormwater wetland receiving runoff from a vineyard catchment (Alsace, France). The Cu loads and stable isotope ratios were determined in the dissolved phase, suspended particulate matter (SPM), wetland sediments, and vegetation. The wetland retained >68% of the dissolved Cu and >92% of the SPM-bound Cu, which represented 84.4% of the total Cu in the runoff. The dissolved Cu became depleted in (65)Cu when passing through the wetland (Δ(65)Cuinlet-outlet from 0.03‰ to 0.77‰), which reflects Cu adsorption to aluminum minerals and organic matter. The δ(65)Cu values varied little in the wetland sediments (0.04 ± 0.10‰), which stored >96% of the total Cu mass within the wetland. During high-flow conditions, the Cu flowing out of the wetland became isotopically lighter, indicating the mobilization of reduced Cu(I) species from the sediments and Cu reduction within the sediments. Our results demonstrate that the Cu stable isotope ratios may help trace Cu behavior in redox-dynamic environments such as wetlands.

  18. 76 FR 44803 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... (United States)


    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local... safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, regulated navigation areas or drawbridge...

  19. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... (United States)


    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... published in the Federal Register. This document lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local... safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, regulated navigation areas or drawbridge...

  20. On the bistable zone of milling processes. (United States)

    Dombovari, Zoltan; Stepan, Gabor


    A modal-based model of milling machine tools subjected to time-periodic nonlinear cutting forces is introduced. The model describes the phenomenon of bistability for certain cutting parameters. In engineering, these parameter domains are referred to as unsafe zones, where steady-state milling may switch to chatter for certain perturbations. In mathematical terms, these are the parameter domains where the periodic solution of the corresponding nonlinear, time-periodic delay differential equation is linearly stable, but its domain of attraction is limited due to the existence of an unstable quasi-periodic solution emerging from a secondary Hopf bifurcation. A semi-numerical method is presented to identify the borders of these bistable zones by tracking the motion of the milling tool edges as they might leave the surface of the workpiece during the cutting operation. This requires the tracking of unstable quasi-periodic solutions and the checking of their grazing to a time-periodic switching surface in the infinite-dimensional phase space. As the parameters of the linear structural behaviour of the tool/machine tool system can be obtained by means of standard modal testing, the developed numerical algorithm provides efficient support for the design of milling processes with quick estimates of those parameter domains where chatter can still appear in spite of setting the parameters into linearly stable domains. © 2015 The Authors.

  1. [Influence of paddy rice-upland crop rotation of cold-waterlogged paddy field on crops produc- tion and soil characteristics]. (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Li, Qing-hua; Lin, Cheng; He, Chun-mei; Zhong, Shao-jie; Li, Yu; Lin, Xin-jian; Huang, Jian-cheng


    Two consecutive years (4-crop) experiments were conducted to study the influence of different paddy rice-upland crop rotation in cold-waterlogged paddy field on the growth of crops and soil characteristics. The result showed that compared with the rice-winter fallow (CK) pattern, the two-year average yield of paddy rice under four rotation modes, including rape-rice (R-R), spring corn-rice (C-R), Chinese milk vetch-rice (M-R) and bean-rice (B-R), were increased by 5.3%-26.7%, with significant difference observed in C-R and R-R patterns. Except for M-R pattern, the annual average total economic benefits were improved by 79.0%-392.4% in all rotation pattern compared with the CK, and the ration of output/input was enhanced by 0.06-0.72 unit, with the most significant effect found in the C-R pattern. Likewise, compared with the CK, the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of rice plant were all increased during the full-tillering stage of rice in all rotation patterns. The rusty lines and rusty spots of soils were more obvious compared with the CK during the rice harvest, particularly in R-R, C-R and B-R patterns. The ratio of water-stable soil macro aggregates of plough layer of soil (> 2 mm) decreased at different levels in all rotation patterns while the ratios of middle aggregate (0.25-2 mm, expect for M-R) and micro aggregate of soil (available nutrient increased. The amounts of soil bacteria in C-R and B-R patterns, fungi in B-R rotation pattern, cellulose bacteria in R-R, C-R and B-R patterns and N-fixing bacteria in B-R pattern were improved by 285.7%-403.0%, 221.7%, 64.6-92.2% and 162.2%, respectively. Moreover, the differences in all microorganisms were significant. Thus, based on the experimental results of cold-waterlogged paddy field, it was concluded that changing from single cropping rice system to C-R, R-R and B-R rotation patterns had good effect in terms of improving total yield and economic benefits, and soil


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Lukashov


    Full Text Available The morphostructure of the region is a natural result of active geodynamics in the eastern Stanovoe Upland. Extreme seismic conditions become apparent in rare devastating earthquakes (up to 10-11 in the Mercally scale, as well as in frequent slight ones. Seismic events affect topography and produce seismic deformations of different scale and morphology. Areal disturbances (like the New Namarakit Lake in the South-Muya Mountains origin and, more often, local deformations (like destructions of the Kodar ridge rocky saddles or clamms [gorges] opening are evident. Using morphotectonic analysis methods the morphostructural scheme of the Kodar-Udocan section of the Baikal rift zone (perhaps pull-apart basin is done. In our model piedmont and mountain territories are divided in five level groups of blocks. Neotectonic movements’ amplitude is estimated at 5000 m.

  3. Evaluation of Ohio work zone speed zones process. (United States)


    This report describes the methodology and results of analyses performed to determine the effectiveness of Ohio Department of Transportation processes for establishing work zone speed zones. Researchers observed motorists speed choice upstream of a...

  4. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_EnterpriseZone (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class of Miami Dade County Enterprise Zones. Enterprise Zones are special areas in the county where certain incentives from the State are available...

  5. Varying stable nitrogen isotope ratios of different coastal marsh plants and their relationships with wastewater nitrogen and land use in New England, USA. (United States)

    Wigand, Cathleen; McKinney, Richard A; Cole, Marci L; Thursby, Glen B; Cummings, Jean


    The stable nitrogen isotope ratios of some biota have been used as indicators of sources of anthropogenic nitrogen. In this study the relationships of the stable nitrogen isotope ratios of marsh plants, Iva frutescens (L.), Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex Steud, Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl, Spartina alterniflora Loisel, Ulva lactuca (L.), and Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) with wastewater nitrogen and land development in New England are described. Five of the six plant species (all but U. lactuca) showed significant relationships of increasing delta (15)N values with increasing wastewater nitrogen. There was a significant (P land in the watershed. The delta (15)N of P. australis and I. frustescens is apparently an indicator of local inputs near the upland border, while the delta (15)N of Spartina relates with the integrated, watershed-sea nitrogen inputs.

  6. Sonic logging for detecting the excavation disturbed and fracture zones (United States)

    Lin, Y. C.; Chang, Y. F.; Liu, J. W.; Tseng, C. W.


    This study presents a new sonic logging method to detect the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) and fracture zones in a tunnel. The EDZ is a weak rock zone where its properties and conditions have been changed by excavation, which results such as fracturing, stress redistribution and desaturation in this zone. Thus, the EDZ is considered as a physically less stable and could form a continuous and high-permeable pathway for groundwater flow. Since EDZ and fracture zone have the potential of affecting the safety of the underground openings and repository performance, many studies were conducted to characterize the EDZ and fracture zone by different methods, such as the rock mass displacements and strain measurements, seismic refraction survey, seismic tomography and hydraulic test, etc. In this study, we designed a new sonic logging method to explore the EDZ and fracture zone in a tunnel at eastern Taiwan. A high power and high frequency sonic system was set up which includes a two hydrophones pitch-catch technique with a common-offset immersed in water-filled uncased wells and producing a 20 KHz sound to scan the well rock. Four dominant sonic events were observed in the measurements, they are refracted P- and S-wave along the well rock, direct water wave and the reverberation in the well water. Thus the measured P- and S-wave velocities, the signal-to-noise ratio of the refraction and the amplitudes of reverberation along the well rock were used as indexes to determine the EDZ and fracture zone. Comparing these indexes with core samples shows that significant changes in the indexes are consistent with the EDZ and fracture zone. Thus, the EDZ and fracture zone can be detected by this new sonic method conclusively.

  7. Effect of soil texture, tailwater height, and pore-water pressure on the morphodynamics of migrating headcuts in upland concentrated flows (United States)

    Rill and gully erosion in upland and agricultural areas can result in significant soil degradation worldwide, and headcuts are the primary mechanism by which this landscape dissection occurs. Experiments were conducted to further examine the morphodynamic behavior of actively migrating headcuts in u...

  8. Stand structure, fuelloads, and fire behavior in riparian and upland forests, Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA; a comparison of current and reconstructed conditions (United States)

    Kip Van de Water; Malcolm North


    Fire plays an important role in shaping many Sierran coniferous forests, but longer fire return intervals and reductions in area burned have altered forest conditions. Productive, mesic riparian forests can accumulate high stem densities and fuel loads, making them susceptible to high-severity fire. Fuels treatments applied to upland forests, however, are...

  9. The Role of Social Constructions and Biophysical Attributes of the Environment in Decision-Making in the Context of Biofuels and Rubber Production Partnership Regimes in Upland Philippines (United States)

    Montefrio, M. F.


    Burgeoning attention in biofuels and natural rubber has spurred interest among governments and private companies in integrating marginalized communities into global commodity markets. Upland farmers from diverse cultural backgrounds and biophysical settings today are deciding whether to agree with partnership proposals from governments and private firms to grow biofuels and natural rubber. In this paper, I examine whether upland farmers' socio-environmental constructions (evaluative beliefs, place satisfaction, and ecological worldviews) and the actual biophysical attributes (land cover and soil types) of upland environments, respectively, function as significant predictors of the intent and decisions of indigenous and non-indigenous farmers to cooperate with government and private actors to establish certain biofuel crops and natural rubber production systems in Palawan, Philippines. Drawing from ethnography and statistical analysis of household surveys, I propose that social constructions and the biophysical attributes of the environment are closely related with each other and in turn both influence individual decision-making behavior in resource-based production partnership regimes. This has significant implications on the resilience of socio-ecological systems, particularly agro-ecosystems, as certain upland farmers prefer to engage in intensive, monocrop production of biofuels and natural rubber on relatively more biodiverse areas, such as secondary forests and traditional shifting cultivation lands. The study aims to advance new institutional theories of resource management, particularly Ostrom's Institutional Analysis and Development and Socio-Ecological Systems frameworks, and scholarship on environmental decision-making in the context of collective action.

  10. Effect of replacing soybean meal protein with protein from upland cottonseed, Pima cottonseed, or extruded Pima cottonseed on production of lactating dairy cows (United States)

    Pima cotton production is increasing in the U.S., but Pima cottonseed contains higher concentrations of the toxic pigment gossypol than conventional upland cottonseed. Heating promotes gossypol reaction with protein, reducing gossypol absorption and toxicity. The objective of this study was to asses...

  11. Overexpression of MIC-3 indicates a direct role for the MIC gene family in mediating Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) resistance to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) (United States)

    Major quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped to Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) chromosomes 11 and 14 that govern the highly resistant phenotype in response to infection by root-knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood & White); however, nearly nothing is known regarding the ...

  12. The application of single-tree selection compared to diameter-limit cutting in an upland oak-hickory forest on the Cumberland Plateau in Jackson County, Alabama (United States)

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; Greg Janzen


    Cumberland Plateau region upland oak forests have undergone a myriad of disturbances (including periods of few and minor disturbances). Traditional timber harvesting practices such as diameter-limit cutting have negatively altered species composition and skewed stand structure, especially on medium-quality sites. We assessed the ability of single-tree selection to...

  13. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień


    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  14. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.


    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  15. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.


    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  16. Vadose Zone VOC Mass Transfer Testing At The SRS Miscellaneous Chemical Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B


    Active remedial activities have been ongoing since 1996 to address low levels of solvent contamination at the Miscellaneous Chemical Basin at SRS. Contaminant levels in the subsurface may be approaching levels where mass transfer limitations are impacting the efficiency of the remedial action. Rate limited mass transfer effects have been observed at other sites in the vadose zone at the SRS, however, detailed measurements and evaluation has not been undertaken. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the mass transfer rates are very slow from the fine grain sediments. This conclusion is based on the observation that measured soil gas concentrations tend to be low in permeable zones relative to the higher concentrations found in fine grain zones. Decreasing soil gas concentration with depth below the ''upland unit'' at several areas at SRS is also evidence of slow diffusion rates. In addition, due to the length of time since disposal ceased at the MCB, we hypothesize that mobile solvents have migrated downward, and the solvent remaining in the upper fine grain zone (''upland unit'') are trapped in fine grain material and are primarily released by gas diffusion (Riha and Rossabi 2004). Natural weathering and other chemical solutions disposed with the solvents can further enhance this effect by increasing the micro-porosity in the clays (kaolinite). This microporosity can result in increased entrapment of water and solvents by capillary forces (Powers, et. al., 2003). Also supporting this conclusion is the observation that active SVE has proven ineffective on VOC removal from the fine grain zones at the SRS. Adsorption and the very slow release phenomenon have been documented similarly in the literature especially for old solvent spills such as at the SRS (Pavlostathis and Mathavan 1992; Oostrom and Lenhard 2003). Mass transfer relationships need to be developed in order to optimize remediation activities and to determine actual

  17. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System (United States)

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  18. Work zone intrusion alarm effectiveness. (United States)


    16. Abstract : The New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) commissioned a study to evaluate how : effective a work zone safety device known as the SonoBlaster! Work Zone Intrusion Alarm would be : in protecting maintenance workers fro...

  19. VT Data - Zoning 20070306, Marlboro (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning districts, Marlboro, Vermont. Surface water buffer overlay is in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created by WRC in 2005. Marlboro's zoning bylaw...

  20. Potential of arid zone vegetation as a source of substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassham, J.A.


    Three aspects of the potential of vegetation in arid zones as a source of substrates are discussed. The first includes the limitations on efficiency of conversion of solar energy to the stored chemical energy of biomass in green plants, and the subsequent biochemical pathways of carbon dioxide fixation and biosynthesis. Second is the potential of plants endogenous to arid zones. Finally, the use of covered agriculture or controlled environmental agriculture (CEA) is considered both in its present form and in terms of possible extenion to the large scale production of stable crops. (JGB)

  1. Chemical nature of humic substances in two typical Chinese soils (upland vs paddy soil): A comparative advanced solid state NMR study. (United States)

    Xu, Jisheng; Zhao, Bingzi; Chu, Wenying; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Jiabao


    Knowledge of the structural features of humic substances (HSs) is essential for elucidating the mechanisms of humification in different soil environments and realizing their profound roles in environmental issues. The aim of this work was to investigate the chemical structures of fulvic acid (FA), humic acid (HA) and humin (HM) fractions isolated from an upland soil (Fluvisol) and a paddy soil (Anthrosol) typical in China using advanced solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The results revealed that there were great structural differences of HSs between the two soils. The two FAs showed distinct quantitative differences in aliphatics with more polysaccharides in the FA from the upland soil than from the paddy soil. The HM from the upland soil differed from the paddy soil HM in having more proteins/peptides (23% vs 20%), total aromatics (21% vs 12%) as well as fewer lipids (24% vs 35%) and polysaccharides (27% vs 31%). The HM fractions represented the most different components of organic matter between the two soils. The degree of difference between the two HAs fell in between that of FAs and HM fractions. In particular, the HA from the upland soil had relatively greater degree of aromaticity. Our study indicated that the upland soil exhibited a higher degree of humification compared with the paddy soil. Among the three humic fractions, the FAs featured COO/N-CO groups, and the HAs were more enriched in protonated aromatic C for both soils. In contrast, the two HM fractions contained more O-alkyl C and fewer aromatics than did the other humic fractions, being closer to the original organic materials in soils. We speculate that the evolutionary route of HSs is likely to be the transformation of original organic materials into HM, followed by increased degradation, further oxidization and conversion into HA, and then into FA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota


    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  3. The food spectrum of sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus L. and kestrel (Falco tinnunculus L. in the Chřiby Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tomešek


    Full Text Available In 2006–2008, mapping the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus L. and kestrel (Falco tinnunculus L. occurred in the SE part of the Chřiby Upland. At the same time, the food spectrum of these birds of prey was determined during nesting periods. The area under monitoring represented about 25–30 km2.In each of the species, food was always monitored in a period from February to July at four nesting localities. The food spectrum was analysed by the direct observation of birds of prey, according to leftovers of food in the surroundings of nests and in nests of the predators. In Accipiter nisus, the food spectrum consisted of birds (85 %, mammals (3 % and other animals (12 %. Turdus merula was the most frequent prey. In Falco tinnunculus, the food spectrum consisted of birds (18 %, mammals (76 % and other animals (6 %. Microtus arvalis was unambiguously the most frequent prey.

  4. Seasonal phosphatase activity in three characteristic soils of the English uplands polluted by long-term atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, B.L.; Baxter, Robert; Whitton, B.A.


    High soil phosphatase activities confirm strong biological phosphorus limitations due to nitrogen deposition. - Phosphomonoesterase activities were determined monthly during a seasonal cycle in three characteristic soil types of the English uplands that have been subject to long-term atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Activities (μmol para-nitrophenol g -1 soil dry wt. h -1 ) ranged between 83.9 and 307 in a blanket peat (total carbon 318 mg g -1 , pH 3.9), 45.2-86.4 in an acid organic grassland soil (total carbon 354 mg g -1 , pH 3.7) and 10.4-21.1 in a calcareous grassland soil (total carbon 140 mg g -1 , pH 7.3). These are amongst the highest reported soil phosphomonoesterase activities and confirm the strong biological phosphorus limitation in this environment

  5. Geomorphic Response to Neotectonic Rise of the Middle Russian Upland: the case of the Ostrogozhsk Uplift (European Russia) (United States)

    Romanovskaya, Maria; Bessudnov, Alexandr; Kosevich, Natalya; Kuznetsova, Tatyana


    The Ostrogozhsk Neotectonic Uplift is located in the south of the Middle Russian Upland (East European Plain). Tectonically, it is associated with the northeastern wing of the Voronezh Anteclise. Our geomorphological study of the area has shown that the Ostrogozhsk Uplift is an actively growing structure (Romanovskaya, 2015). According to recent studies neotectonic uplift amplitude can be estimated at more than 200 m. This growth has played a major role in landscape formation all around. This is clearly demonstrated by the following: recent dramatic changes in the flow directions of the rivers Don and Tikhaya Sosna as they had to bypass growing upland; instances of damming up, which created numerous oxbow lakes and led to waterlogging in floodplains; increase in the density of the erosion grid on the upland itself. On three sides, the Uplift slopes down towards neotectonic depressions. Lying at markedly different altitudes, the upland and the river floodplains connected with the depressions now possess contrasting local climates and support contrasting ecosystems. Land rise and concomitant fall of the groundwater table intensified erosion, weathering, karst and slope wash processes. These, in turn, have created numerous canyon-shaped ravines, very steep slopes (>60°) and interconnected bastion-like relief forms. Surrounded by protections in the form of steep slopes and water courses, the area is now a natural fortress which has favored human habitation since the Late Paleolithic Age. In a location in the Tikhaya Sosna river basin, gully erosion has exposed a large accumulation of ancient horse bones and human-made stone artifacts (Upper Paleolithic Multi-Level Archaeological Site Divnogorie-9, 13.5 ka - 14 ka BP) (Kuznetsova, 2014) and a cemetery left by the Mayatskoye medieval settlement (9th-10th centuries AD). Superimposed on the geology of the area, neotectonic movements and erosion have led to the formation of a very peculiar relief type - an assemblage of

  6. Influence of environmental variables on the density of shrub and tree seedlings in an Upland Forest in the Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolpho Gonçalves Dias Terceiro


    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the influence of luminosity and distance from an igarapé on seedling density in an upland forest in the Central Amazon. Twenty plots were installed, where we measured the percentage of canopy openness, and the distance from an igarapé, and we also counted the number of seedlings. We obtained a linear regression of canopy openness with the seedling density and an ANOVA of seedling density according to the distance from an igarapé. We registered a total of 229 seedling individuals (seedling density = 11 plants/m2. Among the environmental variables measured, only canopy openness has positively influenced on seedling density. Small amplitude in the increase in luminosity can cause an increased seedling density. Seedling density did not differ with regard to the distance from an igarapé, due to low competitiveness and adaptations by species occurring in the wetlands.

  7. Sources, transformations, and hydrological processes that control stream nitrate and dissolved organic matter concentrations during snowmelt in an upland forest (United States)

    Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Shanley, James B.; Kendall, Carol; Doctor, Daniel H.; Aiken, George R.; Ohte, Nobuhito


    We explored catchment processes that control stream nutrient concentrations at an upland forest in northeastern Vermont, USA, where inputs of nitrogen via atmospheric deposition are among the highest in the nation and affect ecosystem functioning. We traced sources of water, nitrate, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) using stream water samples collected at high frequency during spring snowmelt. Hydrochemistry, isotopic tracers, and end‐member mixing analyses suggested the timing, sources, and source areas from which water and nutrients entered the stream. Although stream‐dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) both originated from leaching of soluble organic matter, flushing responses between these two DOM components varied because of dynamic shifts of hydrological flow paths and sources that supply the highest concentrations of DOC and DON. High concentrations of stream water nitrate originated from atmospheric sources as well as nitrified sources from catchment soils. We detected nitrification in surficial soils during late snowmelt which affected the nitrate supply that was available to be transported to streams. However, isotopic tracers showed that the majority of nitrate in upslope surficial soil waters after the onset of snowmelt originated from atmospheric sources. A fraction of the atmospheric nitrogen was directly delivered to the stream, and this finding highlights the importance of quick flow pathways during snowmelt events. These findings indicate that interactions among sources, transformations, and hydrologic transport processes must be deciphered to understand why concentrations vary over time and over space as well as to elucidate the direct effects of human activities on nutrient dynamics in upland forest streams.

  8. The biogeochemistry of arsenic in a remote UK upland site: trends in rainfall and runoff, and comparisons with urban rivers. (United States)

    Rowland, A P; Neal, C; Reynolds, B; Jarvie, H P; Sleep, D; Lawlor, A J; Neal, M


    Ten years of monitoring of rainfall and streams in the remote acidic and acid sensitive moorland and afforested moorland of upland mid-Wales reveals concentrations of arsenic (As) typically rainfall and they have declined over time probably in response to reductions in global emissions. There is a corresponding reduction within the streams except for forested systems where concentrations up to doubled following clear-fell. Within the streams there are both annual cycling and diurnal cycling of As. The annual cycling gives maxima during the summer months and this probably reflects the importance of groundwater inputs and mineralisation/desorption from the surface soil layers. Correspondingly, the diurnal cycling occurs during the summer months at low flow periods with As concentrations highest in the afternoon/evening. For the urban/industrial basins of northern England with historically a much higher As deposition, land contamination and effluent discharges, comparative data indicate As concentrations around three fold higher: strong seasonal patterns are observed for the same reasons as with the uplands. Across the sites, the As concentrations are over an order of magnitude lower than that of environmental concern. Nonetheless, the results clearly show the effects of declining emissions on rainfall deposition and some indication of areas of historic contamination. Arsenic is mainly present in the <0.45 fraction, but cross-flow filtration indicates that approx. 43% is in the colloidal phase at the clean water sites, and 16% in the colloidal phase at the contaminated sites. Part of this colloidal component may well be associated with organic carbon.

  9. Quantifying the impacts of agricultural management and climate change on soil organic carbon changes in the uplands of Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liming; Wang, Guangxiang; Zheng, Qiaofeng; Liu, Yaling; Yu, Dongsheng; Shi, Xuezheng; Xing, Shihe; Chen, Hanyue; Fan, Xieyu


    In order to implement optimal farming practices for increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) in agro-ecosystems, there is a need for understanding how management practices and climate change alter SOC levels. This study quantified the influence of agricultural management practices and climatic factors on SOC changes in Eastern China’s upland-crop fields in northern Jiangsu Province for the period of 2010–2039, by using the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC, version 9.5) model. We utilized the currently most detailed soil database, which is at a scale of 1:50,000, containing 17,024 soil polygons derived from 983 upland soil profiles. Across all the examined scenarios of agricultural management practices, our results show that the carbon sequestration potential in the upper layer soil (0–50 cm) of the study area varied from 6.93 to 155.11 Tg C during 2010–2039, with an average rate of 59 to 1317 kg C ha-1 year-1. As a promising alternative, the combined scenario of crop residue return rate of 50% and farmyard manure incorporation rate of 50% is recommended for agricultural management practice in this region. Meanwhile, climate conditions play a significant role in the annual SOC changes as well. Air temperature increase of 2–4 °C leads to 3.41–7.51 Tg C decrease in SOC under conventional management for the entire study region. Decreasing or increasing precipitation by 20% would increase 0.57 Tg C or decrease 1.09 Tg C under the conventional management scenario, respectively. Additionally, among all the soil groups, the fluvo-aquic soils have the highest C sequestration rate in most scenarios. Our findings could be used to inform optimal agricultural management toward climate mitigation.

  10. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju


    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  11. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.


    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  12. Uses of stable isotopes in fish ecology (United States)

    Analyses of fish tissues (other than otoliths) for stable isotope ratios can provide substantial information on fish ecology, including physiological ecology. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon frequently are used to determine the mix of diet sources for consumers. Stable i...

  13. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A


    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  14. Stable States of Biological Organisms (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.


    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  15. Theory of stable allocations II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana


    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Shapley provided the fundamental theoretical contribution to this field of research, whereas Roth, a professor at the Harvard University in Boston, developed and upgraded these theoretical investigations by applying them to the American market of medical doctors. Namely, their research helps explain the market processes at work, for instance, when doctors are assigned to hospitals, students to schools and human organs for transplant to recipients.

  16. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.


    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  17. Molecular differences in transition zone and peripheral zone prostate tumors (United States)

    Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Rider, Jennifer R.; Carlsson, Jessica; Gerke, Travis; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Penney, Kathryn L.; Sesso, Howard D.; Loda, Massimo; Fall, Katja; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Pawitan, Yudi; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Andrén, Ove


    Prostate tumors arise primarily in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate, but 20–30% arise in the transition zone (TZ). Zone of origin may have prognostic value or reflect distinct molecular subtypes; however, it can be difficult to determine in practice. Using whole-genome gene expression, we built a signature of zone using normal tissue from five individuals and found that it successfully classified nine tumors of known zone. Hypothesizing that this signature captures tumor zone of origin, we assessed its relationship with clinical factors among 369 tumors of unknown zone from radical prostatectomies (RPs) and found that tumors that molecularly resembled TZ tumors showed lower mortality (P = 0.09) that was explained by lower Gleason scores (P = 0.009). We further applied the signature to an earlier study of 88 RP and 333 transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) tumor samples, also of unknown zone, with gene expression on ~6000 genes. We had observed previously substantial expression differences between RP and TURP specimens, and hypothesized that this might be because RPs capture primarily PZ tumors, whereas TURPs capture more TZ tumors. Our signature distinguished these two groups, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 87% (P zones. Zone of origin may be important to consider in prostate tumor biomarker research. PMID:25870172

  18. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  19. Urban Terrain Zone Characteristics (United States)


    concern in this study centers largely on whether the site is restrictive to urban expansion or permits it. For example, • Tel Aviv’s growth has been... urban growth has been rapid and have high proportions of framed buildings. These are Tel Aviv, Beirut, Panama City, Caracas, Kuala Lumpur, Tunis, and...Sea) 3) Asia and 4) Latin America. 56 Open SpKO 9.42 dethed 21-.0 27.32 42.3 X Figure 22. Urban terrain zones, major groups: Area. 57 Table 3 Urban

  20. Mediastinal Gray Zone Lymphoma. (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Mukesh; Saha, Rajat; Misra, Deepti Shuklia; Malhotra, Veena


    A 50-year-old male presented with cough and breathlessness. A positron emissoin tomography scan revealed FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose) avid mediastinal mass. Tru-cut biopsy showed fibrotic stromal tissue with cellular infiltrate consisting of abnormal lymphoid cells and few large cells with smudged nucleus. Immunohistochemistry revealed diffuse positivity with CD20, focal positivity for CD30 and rare CD15 positive cells. Histological picture and immune profile showed overlaping features of non-Hodgkin's as well as Hodgkin's lymphoma. A diagnosis of mediastinal gray zone lymphoma was made. The patient showed a complete metabolic response to six cycles of chemotherapy.

  1. Smartphones and Time Zones (United States)

    Baird, William; Secrest, Jeffery; Padgett, Clifford; Johnson, Wayne; Hagrelius, Claire


    Using the Sun to tell time is an ancient idea, but we can take advantage of modern technology to bring it into the 21st century for students in astronomy, physics, or physical science classes. We have employed smartphones, Google Earth, and 3D printing to find the moment of local noon at two widely separated locations. By reviewing GPS time-stamped photos from each place, we are able to illustrate that local noon is longitude-dependent and therefore explain the need for time zones.

  2. France's seismic zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.


    In order to assess the seismic hazard in France in relation to nuclear plant siting, the CEA, EDF and the BRGM (Mine and Geology Bureau) have carried out a collaboration which resulted in a seismic-tectonic map of France and a data base on seismic history (SIRENE). These studies were completed with a seismic-tectonic zoning, taking into account a very long period of time, that enabled a probabilistic evaluation of the seismic hazard in France, and that may be related to adjacent country hazard maps

  3. Metallogeny of subduction zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokhtin N. O.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the multistage mechanism of the Earth's crust enrichment in ore elements in underthrust zones. The processes of metamorphism and the formation of hydrothermal solutions at pulling of the watered oceanic lithospheric plate into the subduction zone have been described. Some physical and chemical transformation regularities of structural-material complexes in these areas and mechanisms of the formation of ore deposits have been discussed. Spatio-temporal patterns of the localization of a number of endogenetic and exogenetic deposits have been described using metallogeny of the Ural and the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma Fold Belts as an example. It has been shown that in nature there are several effective mechanisms of the enrichment of the crust in ore minerals. One of them is the process of pulling into subduction zone of metalliferous sediments and ferromanganese crusts as well as seabed nodules, their metamorphic transformation, partial melting and transition of ore components into magmatic melts and mineralized fluids. In the future this leads to the release of ore material by magmas and hydrothermal solutions into the folded formations of island-arc and Andean types and the formation of igneous, metasomatic and hydrothermal deposits. Another, yet no less powerful natural mechanism of a conveyor enrichment of the crust in ore elements is the process of destruction and sedimentation of mineral deposits formed in the folded areas as well as the formation of placers and their transfer to the marginal parts of the continent. Later, during the collision of active and passive margins of two lithospheric plates, such as the collision of the Kolyma Massif with the eastern part of the Siberian craton in the middle of the Mesozoic there was a thrusting of a younger lithospheric plate over a more ancient one. As a result, the sedimentary sequences of the passive margin of the Siberian plate were submerged and partially melted by the basic magmas

  4. The Near Zone to Far Zone Transformation (N2F)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackfield, Donald T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Poole, Brian R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    N2F is a C/C++ code used to calculate the far zone electromagnetic (EM) field, given E and H near zone field data. The method used by N2F can be found in Ref. 1 and 2. N2F determines the far field EΦ and Eθ in spherical coordinates for near zone data calculated in either Cartesian or Cylindrical geometry.

  5. Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico (United States)

    Buss, Heather L.; Brantley, Susan L.; Scatena, Fred; Bazilevskaya, Katya; Blum, Alex E.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Jiménez, Rafael; White, Arthur F.; Rother, G.; Cole, D.


    Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world's oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g. soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared with the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream

  6. Experimental studies on unsaturated zone surrounding rock using Characterizing Laboratory test on Unsaturated zonE (CLUE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Hirohito; Suzuki, Hideaki; Sugita, Yutaka; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Komatsu, Mitsuru; Nishigaki, Makoto


    In geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), unsaturated zone will be developed around the disposal tunnel due to the construction of the tunnel. The development of the unsaturated zone would lead to the intrusion of the air into the surrounding rock and then oxygen would dissolve into ground water. Dissolved air affects the redox potential of the ground water and also oxidizes minerals existed in surrounding rock and changes their sorption capacity. These influences would change the geochemical conditions of the repository and affect the corrosion behavior of the overpack. Therefore, Characterizing Laboratory test on Unsaturated zonE (CLUE) was designed and assembled to understand the development process of the unsaturated zone. The CLUE is designed from the viewpoint of the hydraulic characteristics. CLUE has two test tanks. The test tank A uses glass beads to simulate rock mass, the test tank B uses rock block sample. Fundamental hydraulic data of the glass beads on saturation/unsaturation conditions for numerical analysis was obtained. Tests using the test tank A used the piezometer and frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) to measure the unsaturation behavior. From the results of the test tank A, the unsaturated zone was developed around the tunnel. The piezometer and FDR measured the distribution and the time history of the unsaturated zone well. In stable condition, measurement data was in good agreement with the analytical results. (author)

  7. The effect of nonlinearity on unstable zones of Mathieu equation (United States)

    Saryazdi, M. Gh


    Mathieu equation is a well-known ordinary differential equation in which the excitation term appears as the non-constant coefficient. The mathematical modelling of many dynamic systems leads to Mathieu equation. The determination of the locus of unstable zone is important for the control of dynamic systems. In this paper, the stable and unstable regions of Mathieu equation are determined for three cases of linear and nonlinear equations using the homotopy perturbation method. The effect of nonlinearity is examined in the unstable zone. The results show that the transition curves of linear Mathieu equation depend on the frequency of the excitation term. However, for nonlinear equations, the curves depend also on initial conditions. In addition, increasing the amplitude of response leads to an increase in the unstable zone.

  8. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - Volusia County Enterprise Zones (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Florida's Enterprise Zone Program encourages economic growth and investment in distressed areas by offering tax advantages and incentives to businesses that are...

  9. Stable Treemaps via Local Moves. (United States)

    Sondag, Max; Speckmann, Bettina; Verbeek, Kevin


    Treemaps are a popular tool to visualize hierarchical data: items are represented by nested rectangles and the area of each rectangle corresponds to the data being visualized for this item. The visual quality of a treemap is commonly measured via the aspect ratio of the rectangles. If the data changes, then a second important quality criterion is the stability of the treemap: how much does the treemap change as the data changes. We present a novel stable treemapping algorithm that has very high visual quality. Whereas existing treemapping algorithms generally recompute the treemap every time the input changes, our algorithm changes the layout of the treemap using only local modifications. This approach not only gives us direct control over stability, but it also allows us to use a larger set of possible layouts, thus provably resulting in treemaps of higher visual quality compared to existing algorithms. We further prove that we can reach all possible treemap layouts using only our local modifications. Furthermore, we introduce a new measure for stability that better captures the relative positions of rectangles. We finally show via experiments on real-world data that our algorithm outperforms existing treemapping algorithms also in practice on either visual quality and/or stability. Our algorithm scores high on stability regardless of whether we use an existing stability measure or our new measure.

  10. The zone of alienation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagorski, A.


    Ten years after the nuclear disaster, people still live and die in Chernobyl. Thousands of people continue to live and work there. Roughly 500 have moved back into their old homes inside the alienation zone. Fewer than half still alive. Medical researchers in the area insist that immune systems are weakened by doses of radiation far lower than previously thought. However, an European Union sponsored study concluded that Chernobyl's toll has been exaggerated. Thus, while 760 children in the contaminated area have developed thyroid cancer, only three have died as a result. Yet in and around Chernobyl, people carry on their lives and the Ukrainian Government says it can't afford to close the plant without billions of dollars in Western aid. ills

  11. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan


    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  12. Work Zone Data Collection Trailer (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Work Zone Data Collection Trailer was designed and constructed to enhance data collection and analysis capabilities for the "Evaluating Roadway Construction Work...

  13. Numerical simulation of stable fatigue crack growth rate using a cohesive zone model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silitonga, S.; Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Snijder, H.H.


    Predicting the remaining fatigue life of a structure with crack(s) is generally conducted by the fracture mechanics method. This method is aimed at predicting the crack growth and final fracture due to fluctuating loads. The crack growth curve required for these calculations is constructed on the

  14. Stable isotope analyses of web-spinning spider assemblages along a headwater stream in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. Kelly


    Full Text Available Web-spinning spiders that inhabit stream channels are considered specialists of aquatic ecosystems and are major consumers of emerging aquatic insects, while other spider taxa are more commonly found in riparian forests and as a result may consume more terrestrial insects. To determine if there was a difference in spider taxa abundance between riverine web-spinning spider assemblages within the stream channel and the assemblages 10 m into the riparian forest, we compared abundances for all web-spinning spiders along a headwater stream in El Yunque National Forest in northeast Puerto Rico. By using a nonmetric dimensional scaling (NMDS abundance analysis we were able to see a clear separation of the two spider assemblages. The second objective of the study was to determine if aquatic insects contributed more to the diet of the spider assemblages closest to the stream channel and therefore stable isotope analyses of δ15N and δ13C for web-spinning spiders along with their possible prey were utilized. The results of the Bayesian mixing model (SIAR however showed little difference in the diets of riverine (0 m, riparian (10 m and upland (25 m spiders. We found that aquatic insects made up ∼50% of the diet for web-spinning spiders collected at 0 m, 10 m, and 25 m from the stream. This study highlights the importance of aquatic insects as a food source for web-spinning spiders despite the taxonomic differences in assemblages at different distances from the stream.

  15. Timber tree-based contour hedgerow system on sloping acid upland soils: the use of 15N in quantifying tree-crop interaction in agroforestry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, Crispina M.; Pailagao, Charmaine; Grafia, Alfonso O.; Rivera, Faye G.; Mercado, Agustin R. Jr.


    As the population pressures in the upland increase, agroforestry is inevitably the most appropriate technology to enhance the productive and protective functions of farming systems to benefit both the people living inside and outside the watersheds in a suitable manner. Contour hedgerow is one of the agroforestry systems suitable for sloping uplands where farmers grow tree crops as hedgerows and food crops as alleycrops. Smallholder farmers in Southeast Asia have begun farming timber trees in association with food crops on infertile soils as the dominant enterprise using their own capital resources. A collaborative study between the International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) and Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) was established to evaluate the performance of fast growing timber trees as hedgerows on subsistence cereal based farming systems, and the role of N-fixing trees as interplant in enhancing the growth of the trees as well as the cereal crops. There were 4 fast growing timber trees being compared: Acacia mangium (N-fixing), Gmelina arborea (non-N-fixing), Euclyptus deglupta (non-N-fixing), and Swietenia macrophylla (non-N-fixing). A mangium was also used as interplant to determine its influence on the growth of the non-N-fixing trees as well as to the cereal crops. Ammonium sulfate enriched with 10.12 15 N atom percent was applied in solution to the upland rice, as alleycrop, at the rate of 69 kgN/ha in the isotope subplot in 2 splits: 30 days after emergence and at panicle initiation stage. This study was conducted in acid upland soil in Claveria, Misamis Oriental. Acacia mangium grew faster compared with G. arborea, E. deglupta, while S. macrophylla grew lower. The growth of E. deglupta and G. arborea was positively affected by N-fixing interplant in low soil fertility environment. G. arborea and A. mangium produced the highest lateral pruning biomass supplying organic nutrients to the associated annual crops. The amount of

  16. Evapotranspiration patterns in complex upland forests reveal contrasting topographic thresholds of non-linearity (United States)

    Metzen, D.; Sheridan, G. J.; Benyon, R. G.; Bolstad, P. V.; Nyman, P.; Lane, P. N. J.


    Large areas of forest are often treated as being homogeneous just because they fall in a single climate category. However, we observe strong vegetation patterns in relation to topography in SE Australian forests and thus hypothesise that ET will vary spatially as well. Spatial heterogeneity evolves over different temporal scales in response to climatic forcing with increasing time lag from soil moisture (sub-yearly), to vegetation (10s -100s of years) to soil properties and topography (>100s of years). Most importantly, these processes and time scales are not independent, creating feedbacks that result in "co-evolved stable states" which yield the current spatial terrain, vegetation and ET patterns. We used up-scaled sap flux and understory ET measurements from water-balance plots, as well as LiDAR derived terrain and vegetation information, to infer links between spatio-temporal energy and water fluxes, topography and vegetation patterns at small catchment scale. Topography caused variations in aridity index between polar and equatorial-facing slopes (1.3 vs 1.8), which in turn manifested in significant differences in sapwood area index (6.9 vs 5.8), overstory LAI (3.0 vs 2.3), understory LAI (0.5 vs 0.4), sub-canopy radiation load (4.6 vs 6.8 MJ m-2 d-1), overstory transpiration (501 vs 347 mm a-1) and understory ET (79 vs 155 mm a-1). Large spatial variation in overstory transpiration (195 to 891 mm a-1) was observed over very short distances (100s m); a range representative of diverse forests such as arid open woodlands and wet mountain ash forests. Contrasting, non-linear overstory and understory ET patterns were unveiled between aspects, and topographic thresholds were lower for overstory than understory ET. While ET partitioning remained stable on polar-facing slopes regardless of slope position, overstory contribution gradually decreased with increasing slope inclination on equatorial aspects. Further, we show that ET patterns and controls underlie strong

  17. Functional characterization of a novel jasmonate ZIM-domain interactor (NINJA) from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). (United States)

    Wang, Le; Wu, Shu-Ming; Zhu, Yue; Fan, Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-Nan; Hu, Guang; Peng, Qing-Zhong; Wu, Jia-He


    The jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway plays roles in plant development and defence against biotic and abiotic stresses. We isolated a cotton NINJA (novel interactor of JA ZIM-domain) gene, designated GhNINJA, which contains a 1305 bp open read frame. The GhNINJA gene encodes a 434 amino acid peptide. According to quantitative real-time PCR analysis, GhNINJA is preferentially expressed in roots, and its expression level is greatly induced by Verticillium dahliae infection. Through a virus-induced gene silencing technique, we developed GhNINJA-silenced cotton plants, which had significantly decreased expression of the target gene with an average expression of 6% of the control. The regenerating lateral root growth of silenced plants was largely inhibited compared to the control. Analysis by microscopy demonstrated that the cell length of the root differentiation zone in GhNINJA-silenced plants is significantly shorter than those of the control. Moreover, the silenced plants exhibited higher tolerance to V. dahliae infection compared to the control, which was linked to the increased expression of the defence marker genes PDF1.2 and PR4. Together, these data indicated that knockdown of GhNINJA represses the root growth and enhances the tolerance to V. dahliae. Therefore, GhNINJA gene can be used as a candidate gene to breed the new cultivars for improving cotton yield and disease resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.


    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  19. The Mobility and Dispersal of Augmented Gravel in Upland Channels: a Knowledge-limited Practise in Supply-limited Channels (United States)

    Downs, P. W.; Gilvear, D. J.


    Most river restoration research has been directed at rivers in the highly populated alluvial lowlands: significantly less is known about effectively rehabilitating upland channels, in part because the dynamics of sediment transfer are less well understood. Upland gravel augmentation is thus both a somewhat unproven method for rehabilitating degraded aquatic habitats in sediment-poor reaches, but also a natural experiment in better understanding sediment dynamics in steep, hydraulically-complex river channels. Monitoring on the River Avon in SW England since Water Year (WY) 2015 uses seismic impact plates, RFID-tagged particles and detailed channel bed mapping to establish the mobility rates of augmented particles, their dispersal distances and settling locations relative to flows received. Particles are highly, and equally, mobile: in WY2015, 17 sub-bankfull flows moved at least 60% of augmented particles with volumetric movement non-linearly correlated to flow energy but not to particle size. Waning rates of transport over the year suggest supply limitations. This relationship breaks down early in WY2017 where a two-year flow event moved 40% of the particles in just two months - confounding factors may include particle mass differences and particle supplies from upstream. Median particle travel distances correlate well to energy applied and suggest a long-tailed fan of dispersal with supplemental controls including channel curvature, boulder presence and stream power. Locally, particles are deposited preferentially around boulders and in sheltered river margins but also perched in clusters above the low-flow channel. High tracer mobility makes median transport distances highly dependent on the survey length - in WY2017 some particles travelled 300 m in a 3-month period that included the two-year flood event. Further, in WY2017 median transport distance as a function of volumetric transport suggested significant transport beyond the target reach. The observed

  20. Productive responses of breeding Cashmere goats and their kids to different stocking rates on improved upland pastures. (United States)

    Celaya, R; Moreno-Gonzalo, J; López López, C; Ferreira, L M M; García, U; Ferre, I; Osoro, K


    Although goat meat production could be an option for diversification in improved upland pastures in northern Spain, precise information on the optimal grazing management to enhance goat performance and maximize production per unit land area is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 3 stocking rates, high stocking rate (HSR; 20 goats/ha), medium stocking rate (MSR; 15 goats/ha), and low stocking rate (LSR; 10 goats/ha), on gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections and productive responses of Cashmere goats grazing such pastures. Treatments were replicated twice on 6 paddocks sown with and and with a high presence of the native grass . The experiment lasted 3 grazing seasons (from spring to autumn). Pastures were sampled for sward height and botanical and proximate composition. Body weight and BCS changes of goats were monitored and GI nematode infections were assessed by fecal egg counts (FEC). The established treatments resulted in lower mean sward height in the HSR than in the MSR and LSR (9.6, 11.5, and 14.4 cm, respectively; < 0.001). Pasture botanical composition and nutritive quality did not differ between treatments. The mean FEC of does across the 3 grazing seasons were greater ( < 0.05) in the HSR than in the LSR. spp., , and were the most prevalent nematode species identified in coprocultures. Does showed more favorable ( < 0.001) BW and BCS changes in the LSR than in the MSR and HSR (-14, -30, and -52 g/d and -0.1, -0.3, and -0.7 BCS units [scale 1 to 5], respectively). Greater ( < 0.001) kids' BW gains were observed in the LSR and MSR (average 94 g/d) compared with the HSR (70 g/d). Inversely, kid output per unit land area was greater in the HSR than in the MSR and LSR (320, 258, and 192 kg∙ha∙yr, respectively; < 0.001), whereas daily kids' BW gains per hectare were greater ( < 0.001) in the HSR and MSR (average 1.37 kg∙d∙ha) compared with the LSR (0.98 kg∙d∙ha). A medium stocking rate of 15 goats/ha could


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gonera


    Full Text Available The Miechów Upland is one of the meaningful areas for study the Miocene geology. Middle Miocene (Karpatian to Early Sarmatian sediments have been recognised there. The deposits are highly variegated in regard of lithology. Brackish and fresh-water Karpatian sediments are followed by different rocks of broad marine transgression during Moravian, ended by the early Sarmatian ones. Depending on the prominent paleo relief of the Cretaceous basement, a varieties of sediments have been deposited during this time. Marly claystones, silts, sands with mudstone intercalations and detrital limestones (Rhodolith bioherms are the most common. Also the Middle Badenian sulphate evaporates are in the Miechów Upland. State of the Miocene stratotype outcrops had been checked in this area. The access to most of them is impossible cause soil and vegetation coverage within the abandoned opencasts. The only exception is the small, still working silt-pit of the local brick-yard. The solution is effective to both animate the local economy and warrant the access to stratotype section. Due to fertile Pleistocene loess soils the region is extensively use by agriculture, but touched by relevant economic and social problems. The arriving to small-scale opencast mining, accompanied with innovative manufacturing of the resources (silts, clays, sands and carbonates is proposed. Modern mining elaborates a way of working in high level of accordance with the ecological engineering principles and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR standards so shall not generate nasty threats to the state of soils and agricultural character of the region. A development of unique, regional products on the base of local resources (e.g. unique, regional decorative stones or pottery is worth to be consider by the LEADER program activities. The initiation of innovative mining enterprises and handcraft seems to be a good strategy to improve local economy and promising solution to highlight the image

  2. Effectiveness of Direct Application of Phosphate Rock in Upland Acid Inceptisols Soils on Available-P and Maize Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Source of P fertilizer which is used by farmers in upland acid soils area is generally acidulated phosphate rock (PR,such as tripel super phosphate (TSP, super phosphate 36% P2O5 (SP-36, as well as partial acidulated phosphate rock (PAPR which contain 10-30% P2O5. Their effectiveness, however, varies and depends on the soil and planttypes. Phosphate rock fertilizers have a high prospects for acid soils because its effectiveness equals to the SP-36,cheaper, slow release, and its application can also leave the residual P in the soil that available for plants for next few seasons. Field experiment aimed to study the effectiveness of direct application of PR at upland acid soils and its effect on soil available-P as well as maize (Zea mays L. yield was conducted in Acid Inceptisols of Ciampea,Bogorin wet season years 2008/2009. The experiment was arranged by a Randomized Completely Block Design with 3 replications. Maize of P-12 variety was used as a plant indicator. The treatment consisted of 6 levels of phosphate rock: 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 kg P ha-1, as well as one level of SP-36 40 kg P ha-1 as standard fertilizer. In addition, urea of 300 kg ha-1 and KCl of 100 kg ha-1 were used as basal fertilization. The result showed that the application of PRin the amount ranging from 20 to 60 kg P ha-1 increased total-P and available-P, and pH, decreased exchangeable Al in the soils as well as increased maize straw and grain. Phosphate rock application at 40 kg P ha-1 level was equally effective as SP-36 in the tested soils. Critical level of soil P for maize grown in the soil was 675 and 5.00 mg P2O5 kg-1 extracted with HCl 25% and Bray I, respectively. The requirement of P for maize grown in the soil to achieve maximum profit was 38 kg P ha-1 and 17.5 kg P ha-1 or equivalent to PR of 583 and 268 kg ha-1 in low (soil P critical level soil P status, respectively.

  3. Genome-wide association study identified genetic variations and candidate genes for plant architecture component traits in Chinese upland cotton. (United States)

    Su, Junji; Li, Libei; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Caixiang; Gu, Lijiao; Wang, Hantao; Wei, Hengling; Liu, Qibao; Huang, Long; Yu, Shuxun


    Thirty significant associations between 22 SNPs and five plant architecture component traits in Chinese upland cotton were identified via GWAS. Four peak SNP loci located on chromosome D03 were simultaneously associated with more plant architecture component traits. A candidate gene, Gh_D03G0922, might be responsible for plant height in upland cotton. A compact plant architecture is increasingly required for mechanized harvesting processes in China. Therefore, cotton plant architecture is an important trait, and its components, such as plant height, fruit branch length and fruit branch angle, affect the suitability of a cultivar for mechanized harvesting. To determine the genetic basis of cotton plant architecture, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using a panel composed of 355 accessions and 93,250 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified using the specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing method. Thirty significant associations between 22 SNPs and five plant architecture component traits were identified via GWAS. Most importantly, four peak SNP loci located on chromosome D03 were simultaneously associated with more plant architecture component traits, and these SNPs were harbored in one linkage disequilibrium block. Furthermore, 21 candidate genes for plant architecture were predicted in a 0.95-Mb region including the four peak SNPs. One of these genes (Gh_D03G0922) was near the significant SNP D03_31584163 (8.40 kb), and its Arabidopsis homologs contain MADS-box domains that might be involved in plant growth and development. qRT-PCR showed that the expression of Gh_D03G0922 was upregulated in the apical buds and young leaves of the short and compact cotton varieties, and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) proved that the silenced plants exhibited increased PH. These results indicate that Gh_D03G0922 is likely the candidate gene for PH in cotton. The genetic variations and candidate genes identified in this study lay a foundation

  4. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox


    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  5. Growth responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) to the climate in the south-eastern part of the Ceskomoravska Upland (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybníček, M.; Čermák, P.; Kolář, Tomáš; Žid, T.


    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2012), s. 149-157 ISSN 1733-8387 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Ceskomoravska Upland * Norway spruce * precipitation * temperature * tree ring Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2012

  6. Modeling tidal marsh distribution with sea-level rise: evaluating the role of vegetation, sediment, and upland habitat in marsh resiliency. (United States)

    Schile, Lisa M; Callaway, John C; Morris, James T; Stralberg, Diana; Parker, V Thomas; Kelly, Maggi


    Tidal marshes maintain elevation relative to sea level through accumulation of mineral and organic matter, yet this dynamic accumulation feedback mechanism has not been modeled widely in the context of accelerated sea-level rise. Uncertainties exist about tidal marsh resiliency to accelerated sea-level rise, reduced sediment supply, reduced plant productivity under increased inundation, and limited upland habitat for marsh migration. We examined marsh resiliency under these uncertainties using the Marsh Equilibrium Model, a mechanistic, elevation-based soil cohort model, using a rich data set of plant productivity and physical properties from sites across the estuarine salinity gradient. Four tidal marshes were chosen along this gradient: two islands and two with adjacent uplands. Varying century sea-level rise (52, 100, 165, 180 cm) and suspended sediment concentrations (100%, 50%, and 25% of current concentrations), we simulated marsh accretion across vegetated elevations for 100 years, applying the results to high spatial resolution digital elevation models to quantify potential changes in marsh distributions. At low rates of sea-level rise and mid-high sediment concentrations, all marshes maintained vegetated elevations indicative of mid/high marsh habitat. With century sea-level rise at 100 and 165 cm, marshes shifted to low marsh elevations; mid/high marsh elevations were found only in former uplands. At the highest century sea-level rise and lowest sediment concentrations, the island marshes became dominated by mudflat elevations. Under the same sediment concentrations, low salinity brackish marshes containing highly productive vegetation had slower elevation loss compared to more saline sites with lower productivity. A similar trend was documented when comparing against a marsh accretion model that did not model vegetation feedbacks. Elevation predictions using the Marsh Equilibrium Model highlight the importance of including vegetation responses to sea

  7. Reduced ABA Accumulation in the Root System is Caused by ABA Exudation in Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Gaoshan1) and this Enhanced Drought Adaptation. (United States)

    Shi, Lu; Guo, Miaomiao; Ye, Nenghui; Liu, Yinggao; Liu, Rui; Xia, Yiji; Cui, Suxia; Zhang, Jianhua


    Lowland rice (Nipponbare) and upland rice (Gaoshan 1) that are comparable under normal and moderate drought conditions showed dramatic differences in severe drought conditions, both naturally occurring long-term drought and simulated rapid water deficits. We focused on their root response and found that enhanced tolerance of upland rice to severe drought conditions was mainly due to the lower level of ABA in its roots than in those of the lowland rice. We first excluded the effect of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism on root-accumulated ABA levels in both types of rice by monitoring the expression of four OsNCED genes and two OsABA8ox genes. Next, we excluded the impact of the aerial parts on roots by suppressing leaf-biosynthesized ABA with fluridone and NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), and measuring the ABA level in detached roots. Instead, we proved that upland rice had the ability to export considerably more root-sourced ABA than lowland rice under severe drought, which improved ABA-dependent drought adaptation. The investigation of apoplastic pH in root cells and root anatomy showed that ABA leakage in the root system of upland rice was related to high apoplastic pH and the absence of Casparian bands in the sclerenchyma layer. Finally, taking some genes as examples, we predicted that different ABA levels in rice roots stimulated distinct ABA perception and signaling cascades, which influenced its response to water stress. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  8. Habitable zone limits for dry planets. (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Sleep, Norman H; Zahnle, Kevin J


    Most discussion of habitable planets has focused on Earth-like planets with globally abundant liquid water. For an "aqua planet" like Earth, the surface freezes if far from its sun, and the water vapor greenhouse effect runs away if too close. Here we show that "land planets" (desert worlds with limited surface water) have wider habitable zones than aqua planets. For planets at the inner edge of the habitable zone, a land planet has two advantages over an aqua planet: (i) the tropics can emit longwave radiation at rates above the traditional runaway limit because the air is unsaturated and (ii) the dry air creates a dry stratosphere that limits hydrogen escape. At the outer limits of the habitable zone, the land planet better resists global freezing because there is less water for clouds, snow, and ice. Here we describe a series of numerical experiments using a simple three-dimensional global climate model for Earth-sized planets. Other things (CO(2), rotation rate, surface pressure) unchanged, we found that liquid water remains stable at the poles of a low-obliquity land planet until net insolation exceeds 415 W/m(2) (170% that of modern Earth), compared to 330 W/m(2) (135%) for the aqua planet. At the outer limits, we found that a low-obliquity land planet freezes at 77%, while the aqua planet freezes at 90%. High-obliquity land and aqua planets freeze at 58% and 72%, respectively, with the poles offering the last refuge. We show that it is possible that, as the Sun brightens, an aqua planet like Earth can lose most of its hydrogen and become a land planet without first passing through a sterilizing runaway greenhouse. It is possible that Venus was a habitable land planet as recently as 1 billion years ago.

  9. The interrelationship of households economics activities of upland rice farmers in rain-fed farming in Ponjong Sub-district, Gunungkidul District, Indonesia (United States)

    Rini, W. D. E.; Harisudin, M.; Supriyadi; Rahayu, E. S.


    Gunungkidul is one of the regencies at Yogyakarta, Indonesia which is 90% occupied by dry land, and thus vulnerable to climate change impact. Since dryland relies on water only from rain to meet crop water requirement, part of land management is rainfed. This condition encourages farmers to make the right decision regarding their additional income to meet household needs. Under the limited land resources, farmers decided to plant upland rice once or twice a year. The aim of the study is to analyze the interrelationship of households economics activities of upland rice farmers in rain-fed farming based on production, labor allocation, and consumption. The research method is descriptive analysis, with research site Ponjong sub-district, determined by the purposive method. Sampling method using proportional random sampling. Economics model was determined by using simultaneous equation model, with 2 SLS estimation method. The results showed that the household economics model of upland rice farmers in the rainfed land can be explained by using farmers household model and there is a linkage between production, labor allocation, and consumption.

  10. A synthesis of growing-season, non-growing season, and annual methane emission measurements among temperate, boreal, and tundra wetlands and uplands (United States)

    Treat, C. C.; Bloom, A. A.; Marushchak, M. E.


    Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, while upland soils are a consistent sink of atmospheric methane. Wetland methane emissions are highly variable among sites, years, and temporal scales due to differences in production, oxidation, and transport pathways. Currently, process model predictions of methane emissions from wetlands remain challenging due to uncertain parameterizations of net methane production and emission processes. Here, we synthesize growing season, non-growing season, and annual methane emissions from chamber and eddy-covariance measurements for more than 150 sites in undisturbed temperate, boreal, and tundra wetlands and uplands. We compare the magnitude of fluxes among regions, wetland classifications, vegetation classifications, and environmental variables. Growing season measurements were most abundant in bogs, fens, and tundra sites, while marshes and swamps were relatively undersampled. Annual methane emissions were largest from marshes and lowest from upland mineral soils. Non-growing season emissions accounted for large fraction of annual methane emissions, especially in tundra sites. These results provide constraints for methane emissions from temporal, boreal, and arctic wetlands utilizing the numerous flux measurements conducted over the past 25 years. We find that state-of-the-art model ensembles are seasonally biased; in particular, the vast majority of models overestimate predictions of the growing season to annual wetland methane emission ratio across all biomes.

  11. Quantitative and qualitative damage caused by Oebalus poecilus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae to upland rice cultivated in new agricultural frontier of the Amazon rainforest (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oebalus poecilus (Dallas 1851 is one of the stink bug species of great economic importance for rice producers in Brazil of irrigated, flood and upland cropping systems. These pentatomids are known as stink bugs of panicles, because both nymphs and adults feed mainly on panicles. Stink bug attacks result in pecky (spots seeds, lower mass, germinative reduction and deformed grains. Bearing these factors in mind, the aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative losses in commercial cultivars of upland rice (Cambará variety, submitted to different population levels of stink bugs of panicles, O. poecilus, at different reproductive growth stages. The results show that in upland rice (Cambará variety, the rice grains are susceptible to quantitative (number and weight and qualitative (pecky, atrophy, chalky and broken grains damage during all panicle development. However, when the insects feed during anthesis/caryopsis and milky stage cause significantly greater percentage of empty grains (up to 83% than when they feed of grains during later phases of panicle development. This characteristic was also observed for the reduction in grain weight. This information may benefit producers and other researchers, allowing them to focus on the monitoring efforts of O. poecilus in most susceptible phases of the attack of this insect. This will enable decision-making about what control measures should be taken, and when, in order to control stink bugs of panicles.

  12. Net Greenhouse Gas Budget and Soil Carbon Storage in a Field with Paddy–Upland Rotation with Different History of Manure Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Takakai


    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes were measured from paddy–upland rotation (three years for soybean and three years for rice with different soil fertility due to preceding compost application for four years (i.e., 3 kg FW m−2 year−1 of immature or mature compost application plots and a control plot without compost. Net greenhouse gas (GHG balance was evaluated by integrating CH4 and N2O emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions calculated from a decline in soil carbon storage. N2O emissions from the soybean upland tended to be higher in the immature compost plot. CH4 emissions from the rice paddy increased every year and tended to be higher in the mature compost plot. Fifty-two to 68% of the increased soil carbon by preceding compost application was estimated to be lost during soybean cultivation. The major component of net GHG emission was CO2 (82–94% and CH4 (72–84% during the soybean and rice cultivations, respectively. Net GHG emissions during the soybean and rice cultivations were comparable. Consequently, the effects of compost application on the net GHG balance from the paddy–upland rotation should be carefully evaluated with regards to both advantages (initial input to the soil and disadvantages (following increases in GHG.

  13. Evidences of uplands during the Campanian time, Espirito Santo Basin; Evidencias de terras altas no Campaniano da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maizatto, Jose Ricardo; Lana, Cecilia Cunha; Ribeiro, Andrea Wallau Souto; Ferreira, Elizabete Pedrao [PETROBRAS S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo A. Miguez de Mello. P e D.], Emails:,,,


    The palynological analysis carried out in four wells in the Espirito Santo Basin has revealed an expressive abundance of Callialasporites sp. cf. Perotrilites sp. sensu Herngreen (1975) pollen grains, during the Campanian-Maastrichtian interval and, especially, in the middle Campanian. The high abundance of this species was related to the paleoflora adaptation to the favorable paleoecological conditions. The Callialasporites genus belongs to the Podocarpaceae family (gymnosperm), which, nowadays, occurs mainly in upland areas. Therefore, it is possible to relate the high abundance of this species to the development of podocarpacean paleoflora in uplands during the middle Campanian. The apatite fission tracks analysis (AFTA) data was developed in the project entitled 'Tectonic Evolution and Thermal History of the Southeast Brazilian and West African Margins' (UFRGS/UNICAMP/PETROBRAS). According to AFTA data of the Espirito Santo state coastal region, an important tectonic event occurred, causing an uplift process with a posterior denudation of the area during the Campanian (80 Ma). This data correlates with the proposed palynological interpretation to explain the abundance of Callialasporites sp. cf. Perotrilites sp. sensu Herngreen (1975). This event would be associated with the creation of uplands that favored the development of podocarpacean paleoflora adapted to mountainous paleoecological conditions. (author)

  14. Presynaptic active zones of mammalian neuromuscular junctions: Nanoarchitecture and selective impairments in aging. (United States)

    Badawi, Yomna; Nishimune, Hiroshi


    Neurotransmitter release occurs at active zones, which are specialized regions of the presynaptic membrane. A dense collection of proteins at the active zone provides a platform for molecular interactions that promote recruitment, docking, and priming of synaptic vesicles. At mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), muscle-derived laminin β2 interacts with presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels to organize active zones. The molecular architecture of presynaptic active zones has been revealed using super-resolution microscopy techniques that combine nanoscale resolution and multiple molecular identification. Interestingly, the active zones of adult NMJs are not stable structures and thus become impaired during aging due to the selective degeneration of specific active zone proteins. This review will discuss recent progress in the understanding of active zone nanoarchitecture and the mechanisms underlying active zone organization in mammalian NMJs. Furthermore, we will summarize the age-related degeneration of active zones at NMJs, and the role of exercise in maintaining active zones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Just Around the Riverbend: Seasonal hydrologic controls on dynamic hyporheic zone redox biogeochemistry (United States)

    Saup, C. M.; Sawyer, A. H.; Williams, K. H.; Wilkins, M.


    Upland rivers host exceptionally strong linkages between the terrestrial and aquatic elemental cycles. The weathering of mineral phases, coupled with degradation of organic matter and anthropogenic influences can result in the export of carbon, metals, and nutrients in upland fluvial systems, often decreasing downstream water quality with negative impacts on both human usage and ecosystem functioning. Within these fluvial networks, zones of hyporheic mixing—regions within the riverbed where surface water and groundwater mix—are thought to represent hotspots of biogeochemical activity, thus exerting significant control over elemental cycling and solute export. To investigate how the deeper exchange of oxic river water into the riverbed during snowmelt-driven peak discharge affects microbial degradation (oxidation) of carbon pools, depth resolved pore water samples were recovered from multiple locations around a representative meander on the East River near Crested Butte, CO. At each location, a series of temperature and redox probes were installed in the riverbed to track the extent of hyporheic mixing and the impact of this process on riverbed biogeochemistry. We complemented this real-time data with discrete samples collected during peak flow, intermediate flow, and base flow at a 10 cm resolution over 70 cm vertical profiles for a suite of microbiological and geochemical analyses. Results revealed elevated pore fluid concentrations of dissolved metals and recalcitrant DOC species under reducing conditions induced by base flow, while regions that were more influenced by down-welling oxic surface water hosted distinct microbial communities and lower metal concentrations. Overall, our results indicate that mixing-driven vertical redox gradients exert a strong control on biogeochemical processing in riverbeds, with implications for downstream water quality and solute export from watersheds.

  16. Combining pyrosequencing and isotopic approaches to assess denitrification in a hyporheic zone. (United States)

    Kim, Heejung; Kaown, Dugin; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Jin-Yong; Lee, Kang-Kun


    Hyporheic zones are considered hot spots for numerically vast and phylogenetically diverse microbial communities. However, biogeochemical effects of hyporheic zones have rarely been investigated in detail because of the difficulty in accurately measuring denitrification in these zones. To date, little is known about the hydroecology of hyporheic zones. The effect of changes in hydraulic conditions on the community variations of indigenous microorganisms and water quality was examined based on the depth of the hyporheic zone. In particular, we report on the use of the pyrosequencing technique to elucidate denitrifying bacteria (DNB) community profiles combined with the stable isotope composition of nitrate and hydrological patterns in the hyporheic zones to reveal whether denitrification occurs. δ 15 N-NO 3 and δ 18 O-NO 3 values of nitrate were analyzed to evaluate the transformation processes of nitrate in upwelling and downwelling areas and mixed zones. The isotope values indicated different origins of water in upwelling and downwelling zones and that denitrification occurred predominantly in the upwelling areas. Analyses of microbial communities in the hyporheic zone showed that the new genera, species, and isotope data were associated with the hydrological uniqueness of the hyporheic zones. The 16S rRNA sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the DNB communities distributed and gathered the genus Comamonas denitrificans within the mixing patterns of the hyporheic zones and that the relative scarcity of these microbes in these zones was caused by the lack of appropriate substrates. The delineation of the surface water-groundwater mixing zone was quantitatively determined by systematically combining the hydrological and heat transfer analyses and by comparing denitrifying bacteria communities and N isotope data. This study showed that pyrosequencing and isotopic approaches are useful for evaluating the transformation processes of

  17. Environmental Zoning: Some methodological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, Paul; Voogd, Henk


    The purpose of this article is to discuss some methodological problems of environmental zoning. The principle of environmental zoning will be elaborated. In addition an overview is given of a number of approaches that have been followed in practice to arrive at an integral judgement. Finally some

  18. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, M.S.


    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, δ-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal

  19. Deciduous Forest Zone of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The semi-deciduous forest Zone of Ghana contains some of the most productive soils of the country (Ahn, 1970; Adu, 1992). The. Zone, which covers some 48,000 km, has adequate rainfall for the cultivation of large. Scale plantation crops, such as cocoa Theo- broma cacao, oil palm (Elaeisguineensis) and lemon (Citrus ...

  20. Instrumentation for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  1. Management of coastal zone vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  2. The role of upland wetlands in modulating snowmelt runoff in the semi-arid Andes (United States)

    Hevia, Andres; Sproles, Eric; Soulsby, Chris; Tetzlaff, Doerthe


    The wetlands, or bofedales, of semi-arid northern central Chile (29°-32°S) provide a critical store of water that modulate spring snowmelt runoff. Water released from bofedales helps sustain flows throughout the dry portions of the year, providing fresh water to downstream residents and a robust tourist, agricultural, and mining economy. In the Río Claro watershed (30°S, 1515 km2, 800m to 5500 m a.s.l.) a series fourteen bofedales have formed at natural choke points in the valley bottoms of the headwater reaches. The highly erosive dynamic of this watershed provides ample sediment, and some of these bofedales are up to 30 m deep. Annual precipitation in the region is limited to 4-6 events annually that fall primarily as snow at elevations above 3500 m. The subsurface storage of the headwaters is limited by the steep terrain of the headwater catchments that are devoid of soils and primarily underlain by granite bedrock. Downstream, irrigated area has increased by 200% between 1985 and 2005, driven by the cultivation of table grapes for export. For over 70 years local water managers have flooded the bodfedales during spring runoff to augment late season flow when irrigation demand peaks. While this low-tech strategy has worked in the past, a recent 8-year drought has raised concerns over long-term water security. We apply geophysical and geographic measurements, water quality, and stable isotopic tracers to calculate the volume of water storage and residence times in the bofedales of Río Claro. This information will be used to evaluate the reliability of the bofedale system as compared to a proposed reservoir in the headwaters of the Río Claro. Additionally, estimating the storage and residence times of the will help reduce uncertainty for modeling efforts currently underway in Río Claro.

  3. Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J. Weir


    Full Text Available A conceptual model of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ is developed, to a depth of 25 km, formed from three constant density layers. The upper layer is formed from eruption products. A constant rate of eruption is assumed, which eventually implies a constant rate of extension, and a constant rate of volumetric creation in the middle and bottom layers. Tectonic extension creates volume which can accomodate magmatic intrusions. Spreading models assume this volume is distributed throughout the whole region, perhaps in vertical dykes, whereas rifting models assume the upper crust is thinned and the volume created lies under this upper crust. Bounds on the heat flow from such magmatic intrusions are calculated. Heat flow calculations are performed and some examples are provided which match the present total heat output from the TVZ of about 4200 MW, but these either have extension rates greater than the low values of about 8 ± 4 mm/a being reported from GPS measurements, or else consider extension rates in the TVZ to have varied over time.

  4. Unravelling the Identity, Metabolic Potential and Global Biogeography of the Atmospheric Methane-Oxidizing Upland Soil Cluster α. (United States)

    Pratscher, Jennifer; Vollmers, John; Wiegand, Sandra; Dumont, Marc G; Kaster, Anne-Kristin


    Understanding of global methane sources and sinks is a prerequisite for the design of strategies to counteract global warming. Microbial methane oxidation in soils represents the largest biological sink for atmospheric methane. However, still very little is known about the identity, metabolic properties and distribution of the microbial group proposed to be responsible for most of this uptake, the uncultivated upland soil cluster α (USCα). Here, we reconstructed a draft genome of USCα from a combination of targeted cell sorting and metagenomes from forest soil, providing the first insights into its metabolic potential and environmental adaptation strategies. The 16S rRNA gene sequence recovered was distinctive and suggests this crucial group as a new genus within the Beijerinckiaceae, close to Methylocapsa. Application of a fluorescently labelled suicide substrate for the particulate methane monooxygenase enzyme (pMMO) coupled to 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) allowed for the first time a direct link of the high-affinity activity of methane oxidation to USCα cells in situ. Analysis of the global biogeography of this group further revealed its presence in previously unrecognized habitats, such as subterranean and volcanic biofilm environments, indicating a potential role of these environments in the biological sink for atmospheric methane. © 2018 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. 14C age of the ash found in the peat bed of upland dog, Nakagawa-Gun, Hokkaido

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yaeko; Kondo, Tsutomu; Fujiwara, Koichiro.


    The determination of the 14 C age of volcanic ash forming thin layer, which was found in a peat bed, was carried out. The samples were collected from the peat bed which distributes on the flat top of upland about 450m above sea level. The moor spread in the experimental plantation of the agricultural department of Hokkaido University. The thin layer of volcanic ash was found 20 cm deep in the peat bed and with about 1-3 cm thickness. The determination of 14 C age was made on the peat directly beneath the volcanic ash layer, along with the mineralogical studies. The obtained 14 C age was 480 480 +- 100 Y.B.P. (A.D. 1470), and this is presumed to be the age of eruption of the volcanic ash. The color of the ash was greenish yellow or orange in wet state, and grayish white in dry state. The volcanic ash was fine grained pumiceous, and round or nearly round grains predominate. By macroscopic observation, the grains were found to be composed of fibrous volcanic glass. The volcanic ash was well sorted, and the central grain size was 0.11 mm. Heavy liquid method was applied for the determination of heavy minerals. The weight percentage of heavy minerals was 1.59, and the characteristic of this ash was the entire absence of amphibole. Further investigation is necessary for clarifying the distribution of volcanic ash and the source of eruption. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  6. Environmental constraints on plant transpiration and the hydrological implications in a northern high latitude upland headwater catchment (United States)

    Wang, H.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.


    Vegetation affects water, carbon and energy transfer in the soil-plant-atmosphere system and mediates land-atmosphere interactions by altering surface albedo, roughness and soil macro-porosity, intercepting rainfall and transpiring water from soil layers. Vegetation water use (Ec) is regulated by stomata behaviour which is constrained by environmental variables including radiation, temperature, vapour pressure deficit, and soil water content. The relative influences of these variables on Ec are usually site specific reflecting climate and species differences. At a catchment scale, Ec can account for a large proportion of total evapotranspiration, and hence regulates water storage and fluxes in the soils, groundwater reservoirs and streams. In this study, we estimated transpiration from short vegetation (Calluna vulgaris) using the Maximum Entropy Production model (MEP), and measured sap flow of two forest plantations, together with meteorological variables, soil moisture and streamflow in an upland headwater catchment in northern Scotland. Our objectives were to investigate the environmental constraints on Ec in this wet humid and cool summer climate, and the hydrological responses and regulations of Ec in terms of rainfall and streamflow. Results will assist the assessment of hydrological implications of land management in terms of afforestation/deforestation.

  7. Phosphorus and Iron Deficiencies Influences Rice Shoot Growth in an Oxygen Dependent Manner: Insight from Upland and Lowland Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenjira Mongon


    Full Text Available Rice is the main staple crop for one-third of the world population. To maximize yields, large quantities and constant input of fertilizers containing essential nutrients such as phosphorus (P and iron (Fe are added. Rice can germinate in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, but the crosstalk between oxygen (O2 and nutrients such as P and Fe on plant growth remains obscure. The aim of this work was to test whether such interactions exist, and, if so, if they are conserved between up- and lowland rice varieties. To do so, we assessed shoot and root biomass as well as inorganic phosphate (Pi accumulation in four rice varieties, including two lowland rice varieties Nipponbare and Suphanburi 1 (SPR1 (adapted to non-aerated condition and two upland rice varieties CMU122 and Sew Mae Jun (SMJ (adapted to aerated condition under various conditions of Pi and/or Fe deficiencies, in aerated and non-areated solution. Under these different experimental conditions, our results revealed that the altered shoot biomass in Nipponbare and SPR1 was O2-dependent but to a lesser extent in CMU122 and SMJ cultivars. In this perspective, discovering the biological significance and molecular basis of these mineral elements and O2 signal interaction is needed to fully appreciate the performance of plants to multiple environmental changes.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of five genes encoding pentatricopeptide repeat proteins from Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). (United States)

    Yang, Luming; Zhu, Huayu; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhang, Tianzhen


    The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein family is one of the largest and most complex families in plants. These proteins contain multiple 35-amino acid repeats that are proposed to form a super helix capable of binding RNA. PPR proteins have been implicated in many crucial functions broadly involving organelle biogenesis and plant development. In this study, we identified many genes encoding PPR protein in Upland cotton through an extensive survey of the database of Gossypium hirsutum. Furthermore, we isolated five full-length cDNA of PPR genes from G. hirsutum 0-613-2R which were named GhPPR1-GhPPR5. Domain analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences of GhPPR1-5 contained from 5 to 10 PPR motifs and those PPR proteins were divided into two different PPR subfamilies. GhPPR1-2 belonged to the PLS subfamily and GhPPR3-5 belonged to the P subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis of the five GhPPR proteins and 18 other plant PPR proteins also revealed that the same subfamily clustered together. All five GhPPR genes were differentially but constitutively expressed in roots, stems, leaves, pollens, and fibers based on the gene expression analysis by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. This study is the first report and analysis of genes encoding PPR proteins in cotton.

  9. Effects of clover density on N2O emissions and plant-soil N transfers in a fertilised upland pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Katja; Bloor, Juliette M. G.; Ambus, Per


    that clover density had indirect effects on the sensitivity of N2O emissions to abiotic and biotic factors possibly via changes in soil pH. Overall, our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity in clover abundance may have relatively little impact on field-scale N2O emissions in fertilized grasslands.......-labelled fertilizer application and automatic chamber measurements was used to investigate N2O fluxes and soil-plant N transfers for high- and low-density clover patches in an intensively-managed, upland pasture (Auvergne, France) over the course of one growing season. During the six-month study period, N2O fluxes...... 15N-labelled fertilizer peaked at 40% shortly after fertilizer application, but the dominant source of N2O fluxes was the soil N pool. Contrary to expectations, clover density had no significant effects on N content or patterns of 15N recovery in plant or soil mineral N pools. Nevertheless, we found...

  10. Biomass, gas exchange, and nutrient contents in upland rice plants affected by application forms of microorganism growth promoters. (United States)

    Nascente, Adriano Stephan; de Filippi, Marta Cristina Corsi; Lanna, Anna Cristina; de Souza, Alan Carlos Alves; da Silva Lobo, Valácia Lemes; da Silva, Gisele Barata


    Microorganisms are considered a genetic resource with great potential for achieving sustainable development of agricultural areas. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of microorganism application forms on the production of biomass, gas exchange, and nutrient content in upland rice. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in a completely randomized design in a factorial 7 × 3 + 1, with four replications. The treatments consisted of combining seven microorganisms with three application forms (microbiolized seed; microbiolized seed + soil drenched with a microorganism suspension at 7 and 15 days after sowing (DAS); and microbiolized seed + plant sprayed with a microorganism suspension at 7 and 15 DAS) and a control (water). Treatments with Serratia sp. (BRM32114), Bacillus sp. (BRM32110 and BRM32109), and Trichoderma asperellum pool provided, on average, the highest photosynthetic rate values and dry matter biomass of rice shoots. Plants treated with Burkolderia sp. (BRM32113), Serratia sp. (BRM32114), and Pseudomonas sp. (BRM32111 and BRM32112) led to the greatest nutrient uptake by rice shoots. Serratia sp. (BRM 32114) was the most effective for promoting an increase in the photosynthetic rate, and for the greatest accumulation of nutrients and dry matter at 84 DAS, in rice shoots, which differed from the control treatment. The use of microorganisms can bring numerous benefits of rice, such as improving physiological characteristics, nutrient uptake, biomass production, and grain yield.

  11. Rates of nitrogen from nitric and ammoniacal sources required by upland rice genotypes originating from Brazil and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Augusto Sandoval Contreras


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial growth, nitrogen (N uptake, and agronomic efficiency after the use of N fertilizers in upland rice cultivation. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse by using pots filled with surface-layer (0 to 20 cm soil collected from the municipality of Jaguapitã, Paraná. The experimental design was completely randomized with 4 replications. A factorial scheme of 5 × 2 was used, in which the factors were 5 N rates (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 kg ha-1 N and 2 cultivars of rice (Fedearroz Lagunas [Colombian] and IAPAR- 9 [Brazilian]. The N sources tested were ammonium sulfate (Experiment I and calcium nitrate (Experiment II. The following variables were evaluated: number of tillers per pot (NTP, dry mass of the shoots (DMS, N content in the dry mass (NCDM, and agronomic efficiency of N fertilizer (AEN. The data obtained in the experiments were evaluated using analysis of variance, and mean values were compared using Tukey’s test at 5% significance for rice cultivar effects or adjusted to polynomial regression equations for N rates. Use of calcium nitrate yielded higher values of NTP, NCDM, and AEN. The cultivar Lagunas showed higher NTP, while IAPAR-9 showed higher DMS. An increase in N rates, for both sources, resulted in the increase of NTP, DMS, and NCDM; however, AEN was decreased.

  12. Amphibian and reptile community response to coarse woody debris manipulations in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Audrey, K.; Moseley, Kurtis, R.; McCay, Timothy, S.; Castleberry, Steven, B .; Kilgo, John, C.; Ford, W., Mark


    Coarse woody debris (CWD) has been identified as a key microhabitat component for groups that are moisture and temperature sensitive such as amphibians and reptiles. However, few experimental manipulations have quantitatively assessed amphibian and reptile response to varying CWD volumes within forested environments. We assessed amphibian and reptile response to large-scale, CWD manipulation within managed loblolly pine stands in the southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States from 1998 to 2005. Our study consisted of two treatment phases: Phase I treatments included downed CWD removal (removal of all downed CWD), all CWD removal (removal of all downed and standing CWD), pre-treatment snag, and control; Phase II treatments included downed CWD addition (downed CWD volume increased 5-fold), snag addition (standing CWD volume increased 10-fold), all CWD removal (all CWD removed), and control. Amphibian and anuran capture rates were greater in control than all CWD removal plots during study Phase I. In Phase II, reptile diversity and richness were greater in downed CWD addition and all CWD removal than snag addition treatments. Capture rate of Rana sphenocephala was greater in all CWD removal treatment than downed CWD addition treatment. The dominant amphibian and snake species captured are adapted to burrowing in sandy soil or taking refuge under leaf litter. Amphibian and reptile species endemic to upland southeastern Coastal Plain pine forests may not have evolved to rely on CWD because the humid climate and short fire return interval have resulted in historically low volumes of CWD.

  13. [Effects of different multiple cropping systems on paddy field weed community under long term paddy-upland rotation]. (United States)

    Yang, Bin-Juan; Huang, Guo-Qin; Xu, Ning; Wang, Shu-Bin


    Based on a long term field experiment, this paper studied the effects of different multiple cropping systems on the weed community composition and species diversity under paddy-upland rotation. The multiple cropping rotation systems could significantly decrease weed density and inhibited weed growth. Among the rotation systems, the milk vetch-early rice-late maize --> milk vetchearly maize intercropped with early soybean-late rice (CCSR) had the lowest weed species dominance, which inhibited the dominant weeds and decreased their damage. Under different multiple cropping systems, the main weed community was all composed of Monochoia vaginalis, Echinochloa crusgalli, and Sagittaria pygmae, and the similarity of weed community was higher, with the highest similarity appeared in milk vetch-early rice-late maize intercropped with late soybean --> milk vetch-early maize-late rice (CSCR) and in CCSR. In sum, the multiple cropping rotations in paddy field could inhibit weeds to a certain extent, but attentions should be paid to the damage of some less important weeds.

  14. Assessment of Genetic Variation and Population Structure of Diverse Rice Genotypes Adapted to Lowland and Upland Ecologies in Africa Using SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Noelle Ndjiondjop


    Full Text Available Using interspecific crosses involving Oryza glaberrima Steud. as donor and O. sativa L. as recurrent parents, rice breeders at the Africa Rice Center developed several ‘New Rice for Africa (NERICA’ improved varieties. A smaller number of interspecific and intraspecific varieties have also been released as ‘Advanced Rice for Africa (ARICA’. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genetic variation, relatedness, and population structure of 330 widely used rice genotypes in Africa using DArTseq-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. A sample of 11 ARICAs, 85 NERICAs, 62 O. sativa spp. japonica, and 172 O. sativa spp. indica genotypes were genotyped with 27,560 SNPs using diversity array technology (DArT-based sequencing (DArTseq platform. Nearly 66% of the SNPs were polymorphic, of which 15,020 SNPs were mapped to the 12 rice chromosomes. Genetic distance between pairs of genotypes that belong to indica, japonica, ARICA, and NERICA varied from 0.016 to 0.623, from 0.020 to 0.692, from 0.075 to 0.763, and from 0.014 to 0.644, respectively. The proportion of pairs of genotypes with genetic distance > 0.400 was the largest within NERICAs (35.1% of the pairs followed by ARICAs (18.2%, japonica (17.4%, and indica (5.6%. We found one pair of japonica, 11 pairs of indica, and 35 pairs of NERICA genotypes differing by <2% of the total scored alleles, which was due to 26 pairs of genotypes with identical pedigrees. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and the model-based population structure analysis all revealed two distinct groups corresponding to the lowland (primarily indica and lowland NERICAs and upland (japonica and upland NERICAs growing ecologies. Most of the interspecific lowland NERICAs formed a sub-group, likely caused by differences in the O. glaberrima genome as compared with the indica genotypes. Analysis of molecular variance revealed very great genetic differentiation (FST = 0.688 between the

  15. Assessment of Genetic Variation and Population Structure of Diverse Rice Genotypes Adapted to Lowland and Upland Ecologies in Africa Using SNPs. (United States)

    Ndjiondjop, Marie Noelle; Semagn, Kassa; Sow, Mounirou; Manneh, Baboucarr; Gouda, Arnaud C; Kpeki, Sèdjro B; Pegalepo, Esther; Wambugu, Peterson; Sié, Moussa; Warburton, Marilyn L


    Using interspecific crosses involving Oryza glaberrima Steud. as donor and O. sativa L. as recurrent parents, rice breeders at the Africa Rice Center developed several 'New Rice for Africa (NERICA)' improved varieties. A smaller number of interspecific and intraspecific varieties have also been released as 'Advanced Rice for Africa (ARICA)'. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genetic variation, relatedness, and population structure of 330 widely used rice genotypes in Africa using DArTseq-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A sample of 11 ARICAs, 85 NERICAs, 62 O. sativa spp. japonica , and 172 O. sativa spp. indica genotypes were genotyped with 27,560 SNPs using diversity array technology (DArT)-based sequencing (DArTseq) platform. Nearly 66% of the SNPs were polymorphic, of which 15,020 SNPs were mapped to the 12 rice chromosomes. Genetic distance between pairs of genotypes that belong to indica, japonica, ARICA, and NERICA varied from 0.016 to 0.623, from 0.020 to 0.692, from 0.075 to 0.763, and from 0.014 to 0.644, respectively. The proportion of pairs of genotypes with genetic distance > 0.400 was the largest within NERICAs (35.1% of the pairs) followed by ARICAs (18.2%), japonica (17.4%), and indica (5.6%). We found one pair of japonica, 11 pairs of indica, and 35 pairs of NERICA genotypes differing by <2% of the total scored alleles, which was due to 26 pairs of genotypes with identical pedigrees. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and the model-based population structure analysis all revealed two distinct groups corresponding to the lowland (primarily indica and lowland NERICAs) and upland (japonica and upland NERICAs) growing ecologies. Most of the interspecific lowland NERICAs formed a sub-group, likely caused by differences in the O. glaberrima genome as compared with the indica genotypes. Analysis of molecular variance revealed very great genetic differentiation ( F ST = 0.688) between the lowland and upland

  16. An optimal design for millimeter-wide facture plugging zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Kang


    Full Text Available Lost circulation control in millimeter-wide fractures has been a challenge in well drilling all the time. Low pressure-bearing capacity of a plugging zone will result in excessive consumption of lost circulation materials (LCMs and extra down time. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted on the plugging of millimeter-wide fractures to evaluate the plugging effects of different types of LCM including rigid granules, elastic particles and fiber. Maximum plugging pressure, total loss volume before sealing and plugging time were taken as the evaluation index of the LCM plugging effect. According to the experimental results, the synergistic plugging mechanisms of different LCM combinations were also analyzed. Experimental results showed that the total loss volume of the plugging zone formed by rigid and elastic particle combination was generally greater than 400 mL, and the maximum plugging pressure of the plugging zone formed by elastic particle and fiber combination was generally less than 6 MPa. In contrast, the plugging zone formed by the combination of the three types of LCMs has the maximum plugging pressure of up to 13 MPa and total loss volume before sealing of 75 mL. In the synergistic plugging process, rigid granules form a frame with high pressure-bearing capacity in the narrower parts of the fractures; elastic particles generate elastic force through elastic deformation to increase the friction between a fracture and a plugging zone to make the plugging zone more stable; fibers filling in the pore space between the particles increase the tightness and integrity of the plugging zone. The experimental results can provide guidance for the optimal design of LCMs used in the field.

  17. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.


    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  18. physico-chemical and stable isotopes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper details the mineralogical, chemical and stable isotope abundances of calcrete in the Letlhakeng fossil valley. The stable isotope abundances (O and C) of calcretes yielded some values which were tested against the nature of the calcretes – pedogenic or groundwater type. The Kgalagadi (Kalahari) is a vast ...

  19. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.


    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015


    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  20. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.


    Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar