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Sample records for stable trim attitudes

  1. Stable isogeometric analysis of trimmed geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marussig, Benjamin; Zechner, Jürgen; Beer, Gernot; Fries, Thomas-Peter

    2017-04-01

    We explore extended B-splines as a stable basis for isogeometric analysis with trimmed parameter spaces. The stabilization is accomplished by an appropriate substitution of B-splines that may lead to ill-conditioned system matrices. The construction for non-uniform knot vectors is presented. The properties of extended B-splines are examined in the context of interpolation, potential, and linear elasticity problems and excellent results are attained. The analysis is performed by an isogeometric boundary element formulation using collocation. It is argued that extended B-splines provide a flexible and simple stabilization scheme which ideally suits the isogeometric paradigm.

  2. TRIM28 epigenetic corepressor is indispensable for stable induced pluripotent stem cell formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Klimczak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellular reprogramming proceeds in a stepwise pathway initiated by binding and transcription of pluripotency factors followed by genome-wide epigenetic changes. Priming events, such as erasure of DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling determines the success of pluripotency acquisition later. Therefore, growing efforts are made to understand epigenetic regulatory network that makes reprogramming possible and efficient. Here, we analyze the role of transcriptional corepressor TRIM28, involved in heterochromatin formation, during the process of reprogramming of mouse somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells. We demonstrate that Trim28 knockdown (Trim28 KD causes that emerging iPS cells differentiate immediately back into MEFs therefore they fail to yield stable iPS cell colonies. To better comprehend the mechanism of TRIM28 action in reprogramming, we performed a reverse-phase protein array (RPPA using in excess of 300 different antibodies and compared the proteomic profiles of wild-type and Trim28 KD cells during reprogramming. We revealed the differences in the dynamics of reprogramming of wild-type and Trim28 KD cells. Interestingly, proteomic profile of Trim28 KD cells at the final stage of reprogramming resembled differentiated state rather than maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal, strongly suggesting spontaneous differentiation of Trim28 KD cells back to their parental cell type. We also observed that action of TRIM28 in reprogramming is accompanied by differential enrichment of proteins involved in cell cycle, adhesion and stemness. Collectively, these results suggest that regulation of epigenetic modifications coordinated by TRIM28 plays a crucial role in reprogramming process.

  3. Download Trim.Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRIM.FaTE is a spatially explicit, compartmental mass balance model that describes the movement and transformation of pollutants over time, through a user-defined, bounded system that includes both biotic and abiotic compartments.

  4. Energy dissipation/transfer and stable attitude of spatial on-orbit tethered system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weipeng; Song, Mingzhe; Deng, Zichen

    2018-01-01

    For the Tethered Satellite System, the coupling between the platform system and the solar panel is a challenge in the dynamic analysis. In this paper, the coupling dynamic behaviors of the Tethered Satellite System that is idealized as a planar flexible damping beam-spring-mass composite system are investigated via a structure-preserving method. Considering the coupling between the plane motion of the system, the oscillation of the spring and the transverse vibration of the beam, the dynamic model of the composite system is established based on the Hamiltonian variational principle. A symplectic dimensionality reduction method is proposed to decouple the dynamic system into two subsystems approximately. Employing the complex structure-preserving approach presented in our previous work, numerical iterations are performed between the two subsystems with weak damping to study the energy dissipation/transfer in the composite system, the effect of the spring stiffness on the energy distribution and the effect of the particle mass on the stability of the composite system. The numerical results show that: the energy transfer approach is uniquely determined by the initial attitude angle, while the energy dissipation speed is mainly depending on the initial attitude angle and the spring stiffness besides the weak damping. In addition, the mass ratio between the platform system and the solar panel determines the stable state as well as the time needed to reach the stable state of the composite system. The numerical approach presented in this paper provides a new way to deal with the coupling dynamic system and the conclusions obtained give some useful advices on the overall design of the Tethered Satellite System.

  5. Total Risk Integrated Methodology (TRIM) - TRIM.FaTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRIM.FaTE is a spatially explicit, compartmental mass balance model that describes the movement and transformation of pollutants over time, through a user-defined, bounded system that includes both biotic and abiotic compartments.

  6. An Introduction To PC-TRIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Mills

    1989-01-01

    The timber resource inventory model (TRIM) has been adapted to run on person al computers. The personal computer version of TRIM (PC-TRIM) is more widely used than its mainframe parent. Errors that existed in previous versions of TRIM have been corrected. Information is presented to help users with program input and output management in the DOS environment, to...

  7. Discordant evolution of the adjacent antiretroviral genes TRIM22 and TRIM5 in mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L Sawyer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available TRIM5alpha provides a cytoplasmic block to retroviral infection, and orthologs encoded by some primates are active against HIV. Here, we present an evolutionary comparison of the TRIM5 gene to its closest human paralogs: TRIM22, TRIM34, and TRIM6. We show that TRIM5 and TRIM22 have a dynamic history of gene expansion and loss during the evolution of mammals. The cow genome contains an expanded cluster of TRIM5 genes and no TRIM22 gene, while the dog genome encodes TRIM22 but has lost TRIM5. In contrast, TRIM6 and TRIM34 have been strictly preserved as single gene orthologs in human, dog, and cow. A more focused analysis of primates reveals that, while TRIM6 and TRIM34 have evolved under purifying selection, TRIM22 has evolved under positive selection as was previously observed for TRIM5. Based on TRIM22 sequences obtained from 27 primate genomes, we find that the positive selection of TRIM22 has occurred episodically for approximately 23 million years, perhaps reflecting the changing pathogenic landscape. However, we find that the evolutionary episodes of positive selection that have acted on TRIM5 and TRIM22 are mutually exclusive, with generally only one of these genes being positively selected in any given primate lineage. We interpret this to mean that the positive selection of one gene has constrained the adaptive flexibility of its neighbor, probably due to genetic linkage. Finally, we find a striking congruence in the positions of amino acid residues found to be under positive selection in both TRIM5alpha and TRIM22, which in both proteins fall predominantly in the beta2-beta3 surface loop of the B30.2 domain. Astonishingly, this same loop is under positive selection in the multiple cow TRIM5 genes as well, indicating that this small structural loop may be a viral recognition motif spanning a hundred million years of mammalian evolution.

  8. Analisa Pengaruh Trim terhadap Konsumsi Bahan Bakar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Salim Salim Aris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trim merupakan salah satu kondisi pada kapal dimana terdapat perbedaan draft pada bagian haluan dan buritan. Kapal bergerak dengan kecepatan dinasnya (Vs pada kondisi normal continuous rating.Pada tahap pendesainan kapal tahanan total kapal (Rt didapatkan pada kondisi kapal even keel. Namun pada pengoperasianya kapal jarang berada pada kondisi even keel tapi berada pada kondisi trim, baik trim by stern ataupun trim by bow. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mendapatkan tahanan total yang minimum dengan variasi trim yang dibuat pada kondisi displasemen 100%, 95%, 90%, 75% dan 55%. Dan juga berapa konsumsi bahan bakar yang dibutuhkan. Untuk dapat melakukan penelitian ini diperlukan pembuatan trim diagram untuk mengetahui variasi trim yang menghasilkan displasemen yang sama. Dan juga dibutuhkan software MAXSURF 11.12 untuk menganalisa tahanan dari variasi trim yang dibuat. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh bahwa variasi trim yang menghasilkan tahanan total paling minimal adalah trim by stern, namun terdapat satu kondisi dimana tahan total yang paling minimum adalah trim by bow yaitu pada saat kondisi 100% displasemen. Hal ini dikarenakan pada kondisi tersebut area transom pada kapal ketika trim by stern banyak tercelup di dalam air, sedangkan ketika trim by bow hanya sedikit area transom yang tercelup di dalam air. Sehingga menyebabkan tambahan tahanan total pada saat trim by stern. Sedangkan untuk konsumsi bahan bakar yang dibutuhkan berbanding lurus dengan besarnya daya yang dibutuhkan.

  9. Analisa Pengaruh Trim terhadap Konsumsi Bahan Bakar

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Salim Salim Aris; Indrajaya Gerianto Gerianto Gerianto; I Made Ariana

    2013-01-01

    Trim merupakan salah satu kondisi pada kapal dimana terdapat perbedaan draft pada bagian haluan dan buritan. Kapal bergerak dengan kecepatan dinasnya (Vs) pada kondisi normal continuous rating.Pada tahap pendesainan kapal tahanan total kapal (Rt) didapatkan pada kondisi kapal even keel. Namun pada pengoperasianya kapal jarang berada pada kondisi even keel tapi berada pada kondisi trim, baik trim by stern ataupun trim by bow. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mendapatkan tahanan total yang minimu...

  10. Analisa Pengaruh Trim Terhadap Konsumsi Bahan Bakar

    OpenAIRE

    Aris, Nur Salim Salim; Gerianto, Indrajaya Gerianto Gerianto; Ariana, I Made

    2013-01-01

    Trim merupakan salah satu kondisi pada kapal dimana terdapat perbedaan draft pada bagian haluan dan buritan. Kapal bergerak dengan kecepatan dinasnya (Vs) pada kondisi normal continuous rating.Pada tahap pendesainan kapal tahanan total kapal (Rt) didapatkan pada kondisi kapal even keel. Namun pada pengoperasianya kapal jarang berada pada kondisi even keel tapi berada pada kondisi trim, baik trim by stern ataupun trim by bow. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mendapatkan tahanan total yang minimu...

  11. TRIM15 is a focal adhesion protein that regulates focal adhesion disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchil, Pradeep D.; Pawliczek, Tobias; Reynolds, Tracy D.; Ding, Siyuan; Hinz, Angelika; Munro, James B.; Huang, Fang; Floyd, Robert W.; Yang, Haitao; Hamilton, William L.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Xiong, Yong; Calderwood, David A.; Mothes, Walther

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Focal adhesions are macromolecular complexes that connect the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Dynamic turnover of focal adhesions is crucial for cell migration. Paxillin is a multi-adaptor protein that plays an important role in regulating focal adhesion dynamics. Here, we identify TRIM15, a member of the tripartite motif protein family, as a paxillin-interacting factor and a component of focal adhesions. TRIM15 localizes to focal contacts in a myosin-II-independent manner by an interaction between its coiled-coil domain and the LD2 motif of paxillin. Unlike other focal adhesion proteins, TRIM15 is a stable focal adhesion component with restricted mobility due to its ability to form oligomers. TRIM15-depleted cells display impaired cell migration and reduced focal adhesion disassembly rates, in addition to enlarged focal adhesions. Thus, our studies demonstrate a cellular function for TRIM15 as a regulatory component of focal adhesion turnover and cell migration. PMID:25015296

  12. Effects of high voltage pulse trimming on structural properties of thick-film resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimirović Zdravko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, compact and reliable electronic devices including up-to-date ceramic micro-electro-mechanical systems require thick-film resistors with significantly reduced dimensions and stable and precise resistance values. For that reason, instead of standard laser trimming method, high voltage pulse trimming of thick-film resistors is being introduced. This method allows controlled and reliable resistance adjustment regardless of resistor position or dimensions and without the presence of cuts. However, it causes irreversible structural changes in the pseudorandom network formed during sintering causing the changes in conducting mechanisms. In this paper results of the experimental investigation of high voltage pulse trimming of thick-film resistors are presented. Obtained results are analyzed and correlations between resistance and low-frequency noise changes and changes in conducting mechanisms in resistors due to high voltage pulse trimming are observed. Sources of measured fluctuations are identified and it is shown that this type of trimming is a valid alternative trimming method to the dominant laser trimming. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III44003 and III45007

  13. Is the effect of justice system attitudes on recidivism stable after youths' first arrest? Race and legal socialization among first-time youth offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Adam; Cavanagh, Caitlin; Donley, Sachiko; Frick, Paul J; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Youth who hold negative attitudes toward the justice system are more likely to engage in crime. It is particularly important to study attitudes early in someone's criminal career when they may still be open to change. To date, however, there has been no empirical test assessing whether the relation between attitudes and behavior changes after a first arrest. Using a sample of 1,216 first-time, male, juvenile offenders from the Crossroads Study, the present study explored: (a) racial/ethnic differences in the longitudinal patterns of youths' attitudes; and (b) reciprocal associations between youths' attitudes and both their offending behavior and rearrests in the 2.5 years after their first arrest. The results indicated that White youths' attitudes remained largely stable, Black youths' attitudes became more negative, and Latino youths' attitudes became more negative but only among Latino youth who reoffended. Although the results indicated that youths' attitudes were related to both offending and rearrest, the bidirectional relation between attitudes and offending weakened across time. After 2.5 years after their first arrest, attitudes no longer predicted offending or rearrests. These novel findings suggest that a youth's first contact is likely the most impactful. When it comes to young offenders' interactions with the justice system, first impressions matter. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Automotive Body Trim and Glass; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help students become employable with skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the required service of the automotive trim and glass mechanic. The course of study includes an orientation to the course, service tools and bench skills development, and a study…

  15. Resistive RAMs as analog trimming elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziza, H.; Perez, A.; Portal, J. M.

    2018-04-01

    This work investigates the use of Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) as an analog trimming device. The analog storage feature of the RRAM cell is evaluated and the ability of the RRAM to hold several resistance states is exploited to propose analog trim elements. To modulate the memory cell resistance, a series of short programming pulses are applied across the RRAM cell allowing a fine calibration of the RRAM resistance. The RRAM non volatility feature makes the analog device powers up already calibrated for the system in which the analog trimmed structure is embedded. To validate the concept, a test structure consisting of a voltage reference is evaluated.

  16. TRIM.FaTE Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRIM.FaTE Evaluation Report is composed of three volumes. Volume I presents conceptual, mechanistic, and structural complexity evaluations of various aspects of the model. Volumes II and III present performance evaluation.

  17. Peak-Seeking Control for Trim Optimization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovators have developed a peak-seeking algorithm that can reduce drag and improve performance and fuel efficiency by optimizing aircraft trim in real time. The...

  18. Trim waste minimization at the Pinellas Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaneuville, D.

    1992-01-01

    Bacteria counts and several methods of slowing bacterial growth in machine trim coolant are suggested to reduce the frequency of coolant replacement without risking employee health or the longevity of the product or machinery. On-site treatment and disposal of waste trim are recommended to further reduce waste volume. This paper discusses the benefits of these efforts, including projected cost savings based on partial implementation at the Department of Energy's Pinellas Plant

  19. Optimal aeroelastic trim for rotorcraft with constrained, non-unique trim solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schank, Troy C.

    New rotorcraft configurations are emerging, such as the optimal speed helicopter and slowed-rotor compound helicopter which, due to variable rotor speed and redundant lifting components, have non-unique trim solution spaces. The combination of controls and rotor speed that produce the best steady-flight condition is sought among all the possible solutions. This work develops the concept of optimal rotorcraft trim and explores its application to advanced rotorcraft configurations with non-unique, constrained trim solutions. The optimal trim work is based on the nonlinear programming method of the generalized reduced gradient (GRG) and is integrated into a multi-body, comprehensive aeroelastic rotorcraft code. In addition to the concept of optimal trim, two further developments are presented that allow the extension of optimal trim to rotorcraft with rotors that operate over a wide range of rotor speeds. The first is the concept of variable rotor speed trim with special application to rotors operating in steady autorotation. The technique developed herein treats rotor speed as a trim variable and uses a Newton-Raphson iterative method to drive the rotor speed to zero average torque simultaneously with other dependent trim variables. The second additional contribution of this thesis is a novel way to rapidly approximate elastic rotor blade stresses and strains in the aeroelastic trim analysis for structural constraints. For rotors that operate over large angular velocity ranges, rotor resonance and increased flapping conditions are encountered that can drive the maximum cross-sectional stress and strain to levels beyond endurance limits; such conditions must be avoided. The method developed herein captures the maximum cross-sectional stress/strain based on the trained response of an artificial neural network (ANN) surrogate as a function of 1-D beam forces and moments. The stresses/strains are computed simultaneously with the optimal trim and are used as constraints

  20. Stable Attitude of Seafloor Geodetic Benchmarks Confirmed Through Diving Surveys After the 2004 Fff-Kii Peninsula Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, H.; Tadokoro, K.; Okuda, T.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kido, M.; Osada, Y.; Kurihara, K.

    2006-12-01

    Tohoku University, Nagoya University, and Japan Coast Guard (JCG) deployed benchmarks for GPS/Acoustic seafloor positioning in Kumano-nada, Central Japan, which detected horizontal crustal deformation caused by the off-Kii Peninsula earthquake M7.4 on September 5, 2004 (Tadokoro et al., 2005; Kido et al., 2006). It would be the first to observe crustal deformation on the seafloor associated with an offshore earthquake. When we, working on the GPS/A seafloor positioning, reported on results of observation, we were often requested to answer the following question: "Can the benchmarks be sunk and tilted due to the shaking of the sedimented seafloor?" Indeed the benchmarks are precision acoustic transponders (PXPs) and we dropped them from the sea surface assuming soft and stable landing on the sediment. Moreover, a branch of the aftershock distribution of the off-Kii Peninsula earthquake extended close to the benchmarks. It would be the first experience for the benchmarks for cm-order seafloor geodesy to be shaked by large earthquakes. We had a chance to carry out diving surveys there by using the ROV "Dolphin 3K" of JAMSTEC during the NT06-07 cruise of the R/V Natsushima to obtain the following results. (1) We observed 10 PXPs (Tohoku 4, Nagoya 3, JCG 3) on the seafloor. All of them stood stably on the flat sedimented bottom with their bases partly sunk in the mud. We could not find any indication that the earthquake changed the attitude of some of the benchmarks. (2) We recovered one of the PXPs, which were deployed by JCG 6 years ago as the first benchmarks around the Japanese Islands. We could confirm little erosion of the instrument made of stainless frames and a glass sphere covered with a hard hut. (3) We could not find any feature on the bottom indicating local crustal deformation. This research was partly supported by the Research Revolution 2002 Program, MEXT, Japan.

  1. TRIM65 negatively regulates p53 through ubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [Department of Respiration, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Ma, Chengyuan [Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Zhou, Tong [Department of Endocrinology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Liu, Ying [Department of Respiration, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Sun, Luyao [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Yu, Zhenxiang, E-mail: zhenxiangyu2015@gmail.com [Department of Respiration, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China)

    2016-04-22

    Tripartite-motif protein family member 65 (TRIM65) is an important protein involved in white matter lesion. However, the role of TRIM65 in human cancer remains less understood. Through the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) gene alteration database, we found that TRIM65 is upregulated in a significant portion of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients. Our cell growth assay revealed that TRIM65 overexpression promotes cell proliferation, while knockdown of TRIM65 displays opposite effect. Mechanistically, TRIM65 binds to p53, one of the most critical tumor suppressors, and serves as an E3 ligase toward p53. Consequently, TRIM65 inactivates p53 through facilitating p53 poly-ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Notably, chemotherapeutic reagent cisplatin induction of p53 is markedly attenuated in response to ectopic expression of TRIM65. Cell growth inhibition by TRIM65 knockdown is more significant in p53 positive H460 than p53 negative H1299 cells, and knockdown of p53 in H460 cells also shows compromised cell growth inhibition by TRIM65 knockdown, indicating that p53 is required, at least in part, for TRIM65 function. Our findings demonstrate TRIM65 as a potential oncogenic protein, highly likely through p53 inactivation, and provide insight into development of novel approaches targeting TRIM65 for NSCLC treatment, and also overcoming chemotherapy resistance. - Highlights: • TRIM65 expression is elevated in NSCLC. • TRIM65 inactivates p53 through mediating p53 ubiquitination and degradation. • TRIM65 attenuates the response of NSCLC cells to cisplatin.

  2. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trim systems. 23.677 Section 23.677 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... flutter characteristics. Irreversible tab systems must have adequate rigidity and reliability in the...

  3. 14 CFR 25.255 - Out-of-trim characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Out-of-trim characteristics. 25.255 Section 25.255 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...-trim characteristics. (a) From an initial condition with the airplane trimmed at cruise speeds up to...

  4. TRIM22 Inhibits HIV-1 Transcription Independently of Its E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity, Tat, and NF-κB-Responsive Long Terminal Repeat Elements▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaste-Rudnitski, Anna; Marelli, Sara S.; Pultrone, Cinzia; Pertel, Thomas; Uchil, Pradeep D.; Mechti, Nadir; Mothes, Walther; Poli, Guido; Luban, Jeremy; Vicenzi, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies identified clones of the U937 promonocytic cell line that were either permissive or nonpermissive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. These clones were investigated further in the search for host restriction factors that could explain their differential capacity to support HIV-1 replication. Among known HIV-1 restriction factors screened, tripartite motif-containing protein 22 (TRIM22) was the only factor constitutively expressed in nonpermissive and absent in permissive U937 cells. Stable TRIM22 knockdown (KD) rescued HIV-1 long-terminal-repeat (LTR)-driven transcription in KD-nonpermissive cells to the levels observed in permissive cells. Conversely, transduction-mediated expression of TRIM22 in permissive cells reduced LTR-driven luciferase expression by ∼7-fold, supporting a negative role of TRIM22 in HIV-1 transcription. This finding was further confirmed in the human T cell line A3.01 expressing TRIM22. Moreover, overexpression of TRIM22 in 293T cells significantly impaired basal and phorbol myristate acetate-ionomycin-induced HIV-1 LTR-driven gene expression, whereas inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced viral transcription was a consequence of lower basal expression. In agreement, TRIM22 equally inhibited an LTR construct lacking the tandem NF-κB binding sites. In addition, TRIM22 did not affect Tat-mediated LTR transactivation. Finally, these effects were independent of TRIM22 E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity. In the context of replication-competent virus, significantly higher levels of HIV-1 production were observed in KD-nonpermissive versus control nonpermissive U937 cells after infection. In contrast, lower peak levels of HIV-1 replication characterized U937 and A3.01 cells expressing TRIM22 versus their control transduced counterpart. Thus, nuclear TRIM22 significantly impairs HIV-1 replication, likely by interfering with Tat- and NF-κB-independent LTR-driven transcription. PMID:21345949

  5. Trim65: a cofactor for regulation of the microRNA pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shitao; Wang, Lingyan; Fu, Bishi; Dorf, Martin E

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) comprise a large family of non-protein coding transcripts which regulate gene expression in diverse biological pathways of both plants and animals. We recently used a systematic proteomic approach to generate a protein interactome map of the human miRNA pathway involved in miRNA biogenesis and processing. The interactome expands the number of candidate proteins in the miRNA pathway and connects the network to other cellular processes. Functional analyses identified TRIM65 and at least 3 other proteins as novel regulators of the miRNA pathway. Biochemical studies established that TRIM65 forms stable complexes with TNRC6 proteins and these molecules co-localize in P-body-like structures. Gain of function and RNAi analyses reveal that TRIM65 negatively regulates miRNA-driven suppression of mRNA translation by targeting TNRC6 proteins for ubiquitination and degradation. The potential molecular mechanisms which regulate TRIM65 catalytic activity are discussed.

  6. Backbone resonance assignments of the PRYSPRY domain of TRIM25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chen; Penumutchu, Srinivasa R; Hung, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Huiying; Lin, Tianwei; Yu, Chin

    2015-10-01

    TRIM25 is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family and has been implicated in the regulation of innate immune signaling via the RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I) pathway for antiviral defense. As the essential first step towards the structural and functional characterization of the TRIM25/RIG-I interaction, the backbone resonance of the PRYSPRY domain of TRIM25 is assigned here based on triple-resonance experiments using uniformly [(2)H, (13)C, (15)N]-labeled protein.

  7. TRIM45, a novel human RBCC/TRIM protein, inhibits transcriptional activities of ElK-1 and AP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuequn; Li Yongqing; Qi Xinzhu; Yuan Wuzhou; Ai Jianping; Zhu Chuanbing; Cao Lei; Yang Hong; Liu Fang; Wu Xiushan; Liu Mingyao

    2004-01-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play important roles in a variety of cellular functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, development, oncogenesis, and apoptosis. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of the human tripartite motif-containing protein 45 (TRIM45), a novel member of the TRIM family, from a human embryonic heart cDNA library. TRIM45 has a predicted 580 amino acid open reading frame, encoding a putative 64-kDa protein. The N-terminal region harbors a RING finger, two B-boxes, and a predicted α-helical coiled-coil domain, which together form the RBCC/TRIM motif found in a large family of proteins, whereas the C-terminal region contains a filamin-type immunoglobulin (IG-FLMN) domain. Northern blot analysis indicates that TRIM45 is expressed in a variety of human adult and embryonic tissues. In the cell, TRIM45 protein is expressed both in cytoplasm and in cell nucleus. Overexpression of TRIM45 in COS-7 cells inhibits the transcriptional activities of ElK-1 and AP-1. These results suggest that TRIM45 may act as a new transcriptional repressor in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway

  8. Role of TRIM33 in Wnt signaling during mesendoderm differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaojie; Zuo, Feifei; Luo, Maoguo; Sun, Ye; Bai, Jianbo; Xi, Qiaoran

    2017-10-01

    Tripartite motif 33 (TRIM33), a member of the transcription intermediate factor 1 (TIF1) family of transcription cofactors, mediates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling through its PHD-Bromo cassette in mesendoderm differentiation during early mouse embryonic development. However, the role of the TRIM33 RING domain in embryonic differentiation is less clear. Here, we report that TRIM33 mediates Wnt signaling by directly regulating the expression of a specific subset of Wnt target genes, and this action is independent of its RING domain. We show that TRIM33 interacts with β-catenin, a central player in Wnt signaling in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). In contrast to previous reports in cancer cell lines, the RING domain does not appear to function as the E3 ligase for β-catenin, since neither knockout nor overexpression of TRIM33 had an effect on β-catenin protein levels in mESCs. Furthermore, we show that although TRIM33 seems to be dispensable for Wnt signaling through a reporter assay, loss of TRIM33 significantly impairs the expression of a subset of Wnt target genes, including Mixl1, in a Wnt signaling-dependent manner. Together, our results indicate that TRIM33 regulates Wnt signaling independent of the E3 ligase activity of its RING domain for β-catenin in mESCs.

  9. Performance of trim coils made by a novel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Goodzeit, C.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Skaritka, J.; Thompson, P.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    A precision, automated method of manufacturing trim coils based on printed circuit technology has been developed. Excellent quench performance and increased radiation resistance have been achieved in recently-tested models of sextupole trim coils developed for operation inside 40 mm-aperture SSC Main Collider dipoles. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  10. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 25.407 Section 25.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... in the direction that would assist the pilot, and the deflections are— (a) For elevator trim tabs...

  11. Surveillance for Intracellular Antibody by Cytosolic Fc Receptor TRIM21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. McEwan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available TRIM21 has emerged as an atypical Fc receptor that is broadly conserved and widely expressed in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. Viruses that traffic surface-bound antibodies into the cell during infection recruit TRIM21 via a high affinity interaction between Fc and TRIM21 PRYSPRY domain. Following binding of intracellular antibody, TRIM21 acts as both antiviral effector and sensor for innate immune signalling. These activities serve to reduce viral replication by orders of magnitude in vitro and contribute to host survival during in vivo infection. Neutralization occurs rapidly after detection and requires the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The microbial targets of this arm of intracellular immunity are still being identified: TRIM21 activity has been reported following infection by several non-enveloped viruses and intracellular bacteria. These findings extend the sphere of influence of antibodies to the intracellular domain and have broad implications for immunity. TRIM21 has been implicated in the chronic auto-immune condition systemic lupus erythematosus and is itself an auto-antigen in Sjögren’s syndrome. This review summarises our current understanding of TRIM21’s role as a cytosolic Fc receptor and briefly discusses pathological circumstances where intracellular antibodies have been described, or are hypothesized to occur, and may benefit from further investigations of the role of TRIM21.

  12. Performance of trim coils made by a novel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Goodzeit, C.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Skaritka, J.; Thompson, P.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    A precision, automated method of manufacturing trim coils based on printed circuit technology has been developed. Excellent quench performance and increased radiation resistance have been achieved in recently-tested models of sextupole trim coils developed for operation inside 40 mm-aperture SSC Main Collider dipoles. 6 refs., 2 figs

  13. TRIM family: Pleiotropy and diversification through homomultimer and heteromultimer formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Luisa M; Meroni, Germana

    2012-01-01

    The TRIM family is composed of multidomain ubiquitin E3 ligases characterized by the presence of the N-terminal tripartite motif (RING, B-boxes, and coiled coil). TRIM proteins transfer the ubiquitin moiety to specific substrates but are also involved in ubiquitin-like modifications, in particular SUMOylation and ISGylation. The TRIM family members are involved in a plethora of biological and physiological processes and, when altered, are implicated in many pathological conditions. Growing evidence indicates the pleiotropic effect of several TRIM genes, each of which might be connected to very diverse cellular processes. As a way to reconcile a single family member with several functions, we propose that structural features, that is, their ability to homo- and hetero-di(multi)merize, can increase and diversify TRIM ubiquitin E3 ligase capability. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. TRIM5α and TRIM22 Are Differentially Regulated According to HIV-1 Infection Phase and Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravesh; Patel, Vinod; Mureithi, Marianne W.; Naranbhai, Vivek; Ramsuran, Duran; Tulsi, Sahil; Hiramen, Keshni; Werner, Lise; Mlisana, Koleka; Altfeld, Marcus; Luban, Jeremy; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Dheda, Keertan; Abdool Karim, Salim S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The antiviral role of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo is not fully understood. To test the hypothesis that TRIM5α and TRIM22 have differential transcriptional regulation and distinct anti-HIV roles according to infection phase and compartment, we measured TRIM5α, TRIM22, and type I interferon (IFN-I)-inducible myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during primary and chronic HIV-1 infection, with chronic infection samples being matched PBMCs and central nervous system (CNS)-derived cells. Associations with biomarkers of disease progression were explored. The impact of IFN-I, select proinflammatory cytokines, and HIV on TRIM E3 ligase-specific expression was investigated. PBMCs from individuals with primary and chronic HIV-1 infection had significantly higher levels of MxA and TRIM22 than did PBMCs from HIV-1-negative individuals (P infection had lower levels of TRIM5α than did PBMCs from primary infection or HIV-1-uninfected PBMCs (P = 0.0001 for both). In matched CNS-derived samples and PBMCs, higher levels of MxA (P = 0.001) and TRIM5α (P = 0.0001) in the CNS were noted. There was a negative correlation between TRIM22 levels in PBMCs and plasma viral load (r = −0.40; P = 0.04). In vitro, IFN-I and, rarely, proinflammatory cytokines induced TRIM5α and TRIM22 in a cell type-dependent manner, and the knockdown of either protein in CD4+ lymphocytes resulted in increased HIV-1 infection. These data suggest that there are infection-phase-specific and anatomically compartmentalized differences in TRIM5α and TRIM22 regulation involving primarily IFN-I and specific cell types and indicate subtle differences in the antiviral roles and transcriptional regulation of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo. IMPORTANCE Type I interferon-inducible TRIM E3 ligases are a family of intracellular proteins with potent antiviral activities mediated through diverse mechanisms. However, little is known about the contribution of these proteins

  15. TRIM5alpha Modulates Immunodeficiency Virus Control in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Yon Lim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytoplasmic TRIM5alpha proteins of certain mammalian lineages efficiently recognize the incoming capsids of particular retroviruses and potently restrict infection in a species-specific manner. Successful retroviruses have evolved capsids that are less efficiently recognized by the TRIM5alpha proteins of the natural hosts. To address whether TRIM5alpha contributes to the outcome of retroviral infection in a susceptible host species, we investigated the impact of TRIM5 polymorphisms in rhesus monkeys on the course of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infection. Full-length TRIM5alpha cDNAs were derived from each of 79 outbred monkeys and sequenced. Associations were explored between the expression of particular TRIM5 alleles and both the permissiveness of cells to SIV infection in vitro and clinical sequelae of SIV infection in vivo. Natural variation in the TRIM5alpha B30.2(SPRY domain influenced the efficiency of SIVmac capsid binding and the in vitro susceptibility of cells from the monkeys to SIVmac infection. We also show the importance in vivo of the interaction of SIVmac with different allelic forms of TRIM5, demonstrating that particular alleles are associated with as much as 1.3 median log difference in set-point viral loads in SIVmac-infected rhesus monkeys. Moreover, these allelic forms of TRIM5 were associated with the extent of loss of central memory (CM CD4+ T cells and the rate of progression to AIDS in the infected monkeys. These findings demonstrate a central role for TRIM5alpha in limiting the replication of an immunodeficiency virus infection in a primate host.

  16. Trimming and procrastination as inversion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, George E.

    1996-12-01

    By examining the processes of truncating and approximating the model space (trimming it), and by committing to neither the objectivist nor the subjectivist interpretation of probability (procrastinating), we construct a formal scheme for solving linear and non-linear geophysical inverse problems. The necessary prior information about the correct model xE can be either a collection of inequalities or a probability measure describing where xE was likely to be in the model space X before the data vector y0 was measured. The results of the inversion are (1) a vector z0 that estimates some numerical properties zE of xE; (2) an estimate of the error δz = z0 - zE. As y0 is finite dimensional, so is z0, and hence in principle inversion cannot describe all of xE. The error δz is studied under successively more specialized assumptions about the inverse problem, culminating in a complete analysis of the linear inverse problem with a prior quadratic bound on xE. Our formalism appears to encompass and provide error estimates for many of the inversion schemes current in geomagnetism, and would be equally applicable in geodesy and seismology if adequate prior information were available there. As an idealized example we study the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary, using satellite measurements of field elements at sites assumed to be almost uniformly distributed on a single spherical surface. Magnetospheric currents are neglected and the crustal field is idealized as a random process with rotationally invariant statistics. We find that an appropriate data compression diagonalizes the variance matrix of the crustal signal and permits an analytic trimming of the idealized problem.

  17. Atropos: specific, sensitive, and speedy trimming of sequencing reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Didion

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A key step in the transformation of raw sequencing reads into biological insights is the trimming of adapter sequences and low-quality bases. Read trimming has been shown to increase the quality and reliability while decreasing the computational requirements of downstream analyses. Many read trimming software tools are available; however, no tool simultaneously provides the accuracy, computational efficiency, and feature set required to handle the types and volumes of data generated in modern sequencing-based experiments. Here we introduce Atropos and show that it trims reads with high sensitivity and specificity while maintaining leading-edge speed. Compared to other state-of-the-art read trimming tools, Atropos achieves significant increases in trimming accuracy while remaining competitive in execution times. Furthermore, Atropos maintains high accuracy even when trimming data with elevated rates of sequencing errors. The accuracy, high performance, and broad feature set offered by Atropos makes it an appropriate choice for the pre-processing of Illumina, ABI SOLiD, and other current-generation short-read sequencing datasets. Atropos is open source and free software written in Python (3.3+ and available at https://github.com/jdidion/atropos.

  18. Investigation on Eigenfrequency of a Cylindrical Shell Resonator under Resonator-Top Trimming Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kai; Hu, Youwang; Deng, Guiling; Sun, Xiaoyan; Su, Wenyi; Lu, Yunpeng; Duan, Ji'an

    2017-09-02

    The eigenfrequency of a resonator plays a significant role in the operation of a cylindrical shell vibrating gyroscope, and trimming is aimed at eliminating the frequency split that is the difference of eigenfrequency between two work modes. In this paper, the effects on eigenfrequency under resonator-top trimming methods that trim the top of the resonator wall are investigated by simulation and experiments. Simulation results show that the eigenfrequency of the trimmed mode increases in the holes-trimming method, whereas it decreases in the grooves-trimming method. At the same time, the untrimmed modes decrease in both holes-trimming and grooves-trimming methods. Moreover, grooves-trimming is more efficient than holes-trimming, which indicates that grooves-trimming can be a primary trimming method, and holes-trimming can be a precision trimming method. The rigidity condition after grooves-trimming is also studied to explain the variation of eigenfrequency. A femtosecond laser is employed in the resonator trimming experiment by the precise ablation of the material. Experimental results are in agreement with the simulation results.

  19. TRIM.FaTE Public Reference Library Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRIM.FaTE is a spatially explicit, compartmental mass balance model that describes the movement and transformation of pollutants over time, through a user-defined, bounded system that includes both biotic and abiotic compartments.

  20. Magnetic field trimming studies for a separated-sector cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, E.D.; Martin, J.A.; Mallory, M.L.; McDaniel, F.E.; Irwin, F.

    1975-01-01

    Magnetic field studies were made for a four-sector, K = 330 (E = Kq 2 /A MeV), separated-sector cyclotron using a 1 / 10 scale model of a single sector equipped with 11 trimming coils. Data are presented showing the effects of saturation at high magnetic fields on the field contour and on the trimming coil characteristics. Some implications of these measurements for the design of separated-sector machine magnets are given. (U.S.)

  1. Loss of heterozygosity of TRIM3 in malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulay, Jean-Louis; Stiefel, Urs; Taylor, Elisabeth; Dolder, Béatrice; Merlo, Adrian; Hirth, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are frequent primary brain tumors associated with poor prognosis and very limited response to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Besides sharing common growth features with other types of solid tumors, gliomas are highly invasive into adjacent brain tissue, which renders them particularly aggressive and their surgical resection inefficient. Therefore, insights into glioma formation are of fundamental interest in order to provide novel molecular targets for diagnostic purposes and potential anti-cancer drugs. Human Tripartite motif protein 3 (TRIM3) encodes a structural homolog of Drosophila brain tumor (brat) implicated in progenitor cell proliferation control and cancer stem cell suppression. TRIM3 is located within the loss of allelic heterozygosity (LOH) hotspot of chromosome segment 11p15.5, indicating a potential role in tumor suppression. ... Here we analyze 70 primary human gliomas of all types and grades and report somatic deletion mapping as well as single nucleotide polymorphism analysis together with quantitative real-time PCR of chromosome segment 11p15.5. Our analysis identifies LOH in 17 cases (24%) of primary human glioma which defines a common 130 kb-wide interval within the TRIM3 locus as a minimal area of loss. We further detect altered genomic dosage of TRIM3 in two glioma cases with LOH at 11p15.5, indicating homozygous deletions of TRIM3. Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome segment 11p15.5 in malignant gliomas suggests TRIM3 as a candidate brain tumor suppressor gene

  2. An Investigation of Open Loop Flight Control Equations of Motion Used to Predict Flight Control Surface Deflections at Non-Steady State Trim Conditions (Project HAVE TRIM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Gary

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of Project HAVE TRIM, An Investigation of Open Loop Flight Control Equations of Motion Used To Predict Flight Control Surface Deflections at Non-Steady State Trim Conditions...

  3. Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox: Trim and Static Stability Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the technical background of the Trim and Static module of the Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox. This module performs a low-fidelity stability and control assessment of an aircraft model for a set of flight critical conditions. This is attained by determining if the control authority available for trim is sufficient and if the static stability characteristics are adequate. These conditions can be selected from a prescribed set or can be specified to meet particular requirements. The prescribed set of conditions includes horizontal flight, take-off rotation, landing flare, steady roll, steady turn and pull-up/ push-over flight, for which several operating conditions can be specified. A mathematical model was developed allowing for six-dimensional trim, adjustable inertial properties, asymmetric vehicle layouts, arbitrary number of engines, multi-axial thrust vectoring, engine(s)-out conditions, crosswind and gyroscopic effects.

  4. Non-local means filter for trim statics

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong

    2014-08-05

    Structures will be mispositioned across prestack migration gathers in the presence of inaccuracies in the velocity model. Stacking these misaligned gathers runs the risk of destroying important structures in the stacked migration image. To mitigate this problem, we propose a trim statics inspired by the non-local means algorithm originally developed for image denoising. This method differs from the conventional one in two fundamental respects. First, the trim statics are computed by comparing image patches instead of individual image traces. Second, no global pilot trace is needed because only two migration images at a time participate in trim statics and are stacked into one image. A multitude of migration images are stacked recursively in this two-to-one fashion. Tests with a Gulf of Mexico dataset show a noticeable improvement in the feature coherency of the stacked migration image.

  5. Loss of heterozygosity of TRIM3 in malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolder Béatrice

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant gliomas are frequent primary brain tumors associated with poor prognosis and very limited response to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Besides sharing common growth features with other types of solid tumors, gliomas are highly invasive into adjacent brain tissue, which renders them particularly aggressive and their surgical resection inefficient. Therefore, insights into glioma formation are of fundamental interest in order to provide novel molecular targets for diagnostic purposes and potential anti-cancer drugs. Human Tripartite motif protein 3 (TRIM3 encodes a structural homolog of Drosophila brain tumor (brat implicated in progenitor cell proliferation control and cancer stem cell suppression. TRIM3 is located within the loss of allelic heterozygosity (LOH hotspot of chromosome segment 11p15.5, indicating a potential role in tumor suppression. ... Methods Here we analyze 70 primary human gliomas of all types and grades and report somatic deletion mapping as well as single nucleotide polymorphism analysis together with quantitative real-time PCR of chromosome segment 11p15.5. Results Our analysis identifies LOH in 17 cases (24% of primary human glioma which defines a common 130 kb-wide interval within the TRIM3 locus as a minimal area of loss. We further detect altered genomic dosage of TRIM3 in two glioma cases with LOH at 11p15.5, indicating homozygous deletions of TRIM3. Conclusion Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome segment 11p15.5 in malignant gliomas suggests TRIM3 as a candidate brain tumor suppressor gene.

  6. CFD-Based Over-Determined Trim Analysis for Optimum Aerodynamic Efficiency, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this Phase I project is to develop a nonlinear trim module in FUN3D for enabling the determined and over-determined trim analyses to be...

  7. TRIM E3 ligases interfere with early and late stages of the retroviral life cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep D Uchil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of the TRIpartite interaction Motif (TRIM family of E3 ligases have been shown to exhibit antiviral activities. Here we report a near comprehensive screen for antiretroviral activities of 55 TRIM proteins (36 human, 19 mouse. We identified approximately 20 TRIM proteins that, when transiently expressed in HEK293 cells, affect the entry or release of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV, murine leukemia virus (MLV, or avian leukosis virus (ALV. While TRIM11 and 31 inhibited HIV entry, TRIM11 enhanced N-MLV entry by interfering with Ref1 restriction. Strikingly, many TRIM proteins affected late stages of the viral life cycle. Gene silencing of endogenously expressed TRIM 25, 31, and 62 inhibited viral release indicating that they play an important role at late stages of the viral life cycle. In contrast, downregulation of TRIM11 and 15 enhanced virus release suggesting that these proteins contribute to the endogenous restriction of retroviruses in cells.

  8. High expression of TRIM11 correlates with poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Li, Liang; Qian, Xiaoxing; Ge, Yongsheng; Xu, Geliang

    2017-03-01

    Tripartite Motif Containing 11 (TRIM11), a member of TRIM proteins is overexpressed in gliomas and lung cancer. However, the role of TRIM11 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown. Herein, we aimed to investigate the expression and clinical significance role of TRIM11 in HCC. In this study, our data showed significant higher TRIM11 in HCC tissues (n=117) than in the matched non-tumor liver (NTL) tissues (Pprotein expression was significantly increased compared with the matched NTL (Pprotein expression in HCC tissues was significantly associated with pathological grade (Pprotein expression. Furthermore, we found that TRIM11 protein was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free (Pexpression was significantly elevated in HCC tissues. The overexpression of TRIM11 is closely associated with HCC progression and poor survival of the patients, indicating TRIM11 is a potential therapeutic target for HCC patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Young-Mi, E-mail: youngmi_ham@hms.harvard.edu [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Mahoney, Sarah Jane [Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-α, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors.

  10. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Young-Mi; Mahoney, Sarah Jane

    2013-01-01

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-α, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors

  11. Trimming of curved surfaces in computer-aided design

    OpenAIRE

    Makarov, A.

    2008-01-01

    The work examines methods of free-form surfaces limitation by arbitrary contour in CAD/CAM systems. Algorithms of surfaces contour trimming in automatic and automated modes are described. The article represents results of the algorithm realization in CAD/CAM system SPOP-3.

  12. Robust estimators based on generalization of trimmed mean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, Lukáš; Bejda, P.

    (2018) ISSN 0361-0918 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Breakdown point * Estimators * Geometric median * Location * Trimmed mean Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.457, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/adam-0481224. pdf

  13. TRIM timber projections: an evaluation based on forest inventory measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Mills

    1989-01-01

    Two consecutive timberland inventories collected from permanent plots in the natural pine type in North Carolina were used to evaluate the timber resource inventory model (TRIM). This study compares model predictions with field measurements and examines the effect of inventory data aggregation on the accuracy of projections. Projections were repeated for two geographic...

  14. Prognostic indicators and the importance of trimming in noninfective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prognostic indicators and the importance of trimming in noninfective claw disorders in cattle. ... features of chronic laminitis occurred concurrently with heel or sole erosion, white line separation, sole ulcers, horizontal hoof wall fissures and double soles. In most smallholder farms, cows with these disorders were neglected to ...

  15. Trim Magnet Polarities, Dispersion, and Response Data in Sector 23

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, A; Fuchsberger, K; Kain, V; Lamont, M; Ponce, L; Tomás, R; Venturnini-Delsolaro, W; Wenninger, J; Zimmermann, F

    2008-01-01

    During the first LHC injection test, on 10 August 2008, the horizontal dispersion measured with beam 1 at the end of Sector 23 differed from the model prediction close to point 3. Beam-based polarity checks performed during the same period indicated an inversion of the trim quadrupole QTL11.R2. Combined with other evidence, like electrical drawings and earlier Hall-probe measurements of warm magnets, this gave rise to the hypothesis of a systematic error. Indeed a model inversion of all trim quadrupoles (QT or QTL) attached to a defocusing main quadrupole (actually the odd-numbered trim quadrupoles in Sector 23) reproduced the dispersion measurement. An analysis of kick-response measurements independently revealed an optics error left of point 3, and confirmed the inversion of the odd-numbered trim quadrupoles in this sector. After changing the polarity of the suspected set of quadrupoles prior to the second injection test on August 24, the measured dispersion nicely traced the model prediction.

  16. The Timber Resource Inventory Model (TRIM): a projection model for timber supply and policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Tedder; R.N. La Mont; J.C. Kincaid

    1987-01-01

    TRIM (Timber Resource Inventory Model) is a yield table projection system developed for timber supply projections and policy analysis. TRIM simulates timber growth, inventories, management and area changes, and removals over the projection period. Programs in the TRIM system, card-by-card descriptions of required inputs, table formats, and sample results are presented...

  17. GO Trimming: Systematically reducing redundancy in large Gene Ontology datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koop Ben F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased accessibility of gene expression tools has enabled a wide variety of experiments utilizing transcriptomic analyses. As these tools increase in prevalence, the need for improved standardization in processing and presentation of data increases, as does the need to guard against interpretation bias. Gene Ontology (GO analysis is a powerful method of interpreting and summarizing biological functions. However, while there are many tools available to investigate GO enrichment, there remains a need for methods that directly remove redundant terms from enriched GO lists that often provide little, if any, additional information. Findings Here we present a simple yet novel method called GO Trimming that utilizes an algorithm designed to reduce redundancy in lists of enriched GO categories. Depending on the needs of the user, this method can be performed with variable stringency. In the example presented here, an initial list of 90 terms was reduced to 54, eliminating 36 largely redundant terms. We also compare this method to existing methods and find that GO Trimming, while simple, performs well to eliminate redundant terms in a large dataset throughout the depth of the GO hierarchy. Conclusions The GO Trimming method provides an alternative to other procedures, some of which involve removing large numbers of terms prior to enrichment analysis. This method should free up the researcher from analyzing overly large, redundant lists, and instead enable the concise presentation of manageable, informative GO lists. The implementation of this tool is freely available at: http://lucy.ceh.uvic.ca/go_trimming/cbr_go_trimming.py

  18. TRIM5α association with cytoplasmic bodies is not required for antiretroviral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Byeongwoon; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Park, Do Hyun; Rogers, Thomas; Stremlau, Matthew; Sodroski, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5α, restricts infection by particular retroviruses. Many TRIM proteins form cytoplasmic bodies of unknown function. We investigated the relationship between cytoplasmic body formation and the structure and antiretroviral activity of TRIM5α. In addition to diffuse cytoplasmic staining, the TRIM5α proteins from several primate species were located in cytoplasmic bodies of different sizes; by contrast, TRIM5α from spider monkeys did not form cytoplasmic bodies. Despite these differences, all of the TRIM5α proteins exhibited the ability to restrict infection by particular retroviruses. Treatment of cells with geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, resulted in disappearance or reduction of the TRIM5α-associated cytoplasmic bodies, yet exerted little effect on the restriction of retroviral infection. Studies of green fluorescent protein-TRIM5α fusion proteins indicated that no TRIM5α domain is specifically required for association with cytoplasmic bodies. Apparently, the formation of cytoplasmic bodies is not required for the antiretroviral activity of TRIM

  19. Welfare Consequences of Omitting Beak Trimming in Barn Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2017-01-01

    housing laying hens in the barn system. Each farm participated with a flock of beak-trimmed hens (T) and a flock of non-trimmed (NT) hens that were visited around 32 and 62 weeks of age. During visits, the condition of plumage, skin, feet, and keel bone of 100 hens was assessed. Mortality was recorded...... by the producers. NT flocks had a lower prevalence of hens with good plumage condition around 32 weeks of age (94.1 vs. 99.6%, P condition at 62 weeks of age (63.6 vs. 15.2%, P ... of keel bone damage was higher among hens with poor plumage condition than hens with moderate/good plumage condition (31.5 vs. 22.2%; P condition of plumage, skin, and keel bone, and tended to increase mortality, highlighting...

  20. Structure and catalytic activation of the TRIM23 RING E3 ubiquitin ligase: DAWIDZIAK et al.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawidziak, Daria M. [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Virginia; Sanchez, Jacint G. [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Virginia; Wagner, Jonathan M. [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Virginia; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K. [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Virginia; Pornillos, Owen [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Virginia

    2017-07-24

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins comprise a large family of RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligases that regulate important biological processes. An emerging general model is that TRIMs form elongated antiparallel coiled-coil dimers that prevent interaction of the two attendant RING domains. The RING domains themselves bind E2 conjugating enzymes as dimers, implying that an active TRIM ligase requires higher-order oligomerization of the basal coiled-coil dimers. Here, we report crystal structures of the TRIM23 RING domain in isolation and in complex with an E2–ubiquitin conjugate. Our results indicate that TRIM23 enzymatic activity requires RING dimerization, consistent with the general model of TRIM activation.

  1. Microstructural investigations of the trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Green, D. E.; Sohmshetty, R.; Alpas, A. T.

    2017-10-01

    In order to reduce vehicle weight while maintaining crashworthiness, advanced high strength steels (AHSSs), such as DP980, are extensively used for manufacturing automotive body components. During trimming operations, the high tensile strength of DP980 sheets tends to cause damage of the trim edge of D2 die inserts, which result in deterioration of the edge quality. The objective of this work is to study the damage microstructures at the trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheets as a function of the number of trimming cycles. A mechanical press equipped with AISI D2 tool steel inserts was used to continuously trim 1.4 mm thick sheets of DP980 at a rate of 30 strokes/min. Cross-sectional SEM images of the trimmed edges revealed that the sheared edge quality of the DP980 sheets decreased, indicated by an increase in the burr width, with an increase in the number of trims from 40,000 to 70,000. Plastic strains were estimated using the displacements of the martensite plates within plastic flow fields of ferrite. Site-specific cross-sectional TEM samples, excised from the trimmed edge using the in-situ `lift-out' technique by focused ion-beam (FIB)-milling, revealed cracking at the ferrite/martensite interfaces after 70,000 cycles indicating an increase in the depth of deformation zone possibly due to trimming with a chipped and blunted die edge.

  2. TRIM37 inhibits PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and migration of airway smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Li, Ying; Cheng, Ruiduo; Gao, Jie; Li, Yanyang; Lou, Chunyan

    2018-02-21

    Tripartite motif 37 (TRIM37) belongs to the TRIM family of proteins and has been reported to be involved in the progression of asthma. However, the effects of TRIM37 on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) proliferation and migration are still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of TRIM37 on cell proliferation and migration in platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-stimulated ASMCs, and the potential molecular mechanisms was also explored. Our data demonstrated that the expression of TRIM37 was significantly decreased in ASMCs stimulated with PDGF-BB. In addition, overexpression of TRIM37 efficiently suppressed PDGF-BB-induced ASMCs proliferation and migration. Furthermore, overexpression of TRIM37 obviously inhibited the protein expression levels of β-catenin, c-Myc and cyclinD1 in PDGF-BB-stimulated ASMCs. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator LiCl significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of TRIM37 on cell proliferation and migration in PDGF-BB-stimulated ASMCs. Taken together, these results demonstrate that TRIM37 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of ASMCs cultured with PDGF-BB through suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. TRIM45 negatively regulates NF-κB-mediated transcription and suppresses cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Mio; Sato, Tomonobu; Nukiwa, Ryota; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NF-κB plays an important role in cell survival and carcinogenesis. ► TRIM45 negatively regulates TNFα-induced NF-κB-mediated transcription. ► TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. ► TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-κB signal and regulates cell growth. -- Abstract: The NF-κB signaling pathway plays an important role in cell survival, immunity, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and organogenesis. Activation of NF-κB is regulated by several posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, neddylation and ubiquitination. The NF-κB signaling pathway is activated by two distinct signaling mechanisms and is strictly modulated by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. It has been reported that overexpression of TRIM45, one of the TRIM family ubiquitin ligases, suppresses transcriptional activities of Elk-1 and AP-1, which are targets of the MAPK signaling pathway. In this study, we showed that TRIM45 also negatively regulates TNFα-induced NF-κB-mediated transcription by a luciferase reporter assay and that TRIM45 lacking a RING domain also has an activity to inhibit the NF-κB signal. Moreover, we found that TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. These findings suggest that TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-κB signal and regulates cell growth.

  4. TRIM8 downregulation in glioma affects cell proliferation and it is associated with patients survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micale, Lucia; Fusco, Carmela; Fontana, Andrea; Barbano, Raffaela; Augello, Bartolomeo; De Nittis, Pasquelena; Copetti, Massimiliano; Pellico, Maria Teresa; Mandriani, Barbara; Cocciadiferro, Dario; Parrella, Paola; Fazio, Vito Michele; Dimitri, Lucia Maria Cecilia; D’Angelo, Vincenzo; Novielli, Chiara; Larizza, Lidia; Daga, Antonio; Merla, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Human gliomas are a heterogeneous group of primary malignant brain tumors whose molecular pathogenesis is not yet solved. In this regard, a major research effort has been directed at identifying novel specific glioma-associated genes. Here, we investigated the effect of TRIM8 gene in glioma. TRIM8 transcriptional level was profiled in our own glioma cases collection by qPCR and confirmed in the independent TCGA glioma cohort. The association between TRIM8 expression and Overall Survival and Progression-free Survival in TCGA cohort was determined by using uni-multivariable Cox regression analysis. The effect of TRIM8 on patient glioma cell proliferation was evaluated by performing MTT and clonogenic assays. The mechanisms causing the reduction of TRIM8 expression were explored by using qPCR and in vitro assays. We showed that TRIM8 expression correlates with unfavorable clinical outcome in glioma patients. We found that a restored TRIM8 expression induced a significant reduction of clonogenic potential in U87MG and patient’s glioblastoma cells. Finally we provide experimental evidences showing that miR-17 directly targets the 3′ UTR of TRIM8 and post-transcriptionally represses the expression of TRIM8. Our study provides evidences that TRIM8 may participate in the carcinogenesis and progression of glioma and that the transcriptional repression of TRIM8 might have potential value for predicting poor prognosis in glioma patients. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1449-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  5. SUMO-interacting motifs of human TRIM5α are important for antiviral activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Arriagada

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Human TRIM5α potently restricts particular strains of murine leukemia viruses (the so-called N-tropic strains but not others (the B- or NB-tropic strains during early stages of infection. We show that overexpression of SUMO-1 in human 293T cells, but not in mouse MDTF cells, profoundly blocks N-MLV infection. This block is dependent on the tropism of the incoming virus, as neither B-, NB-, nor the mutant R110E of N-MLV CA (a B-tropic switch are affected by SUMO-1 overexpression. The block occurred prior to reverse transcription and could be abrogated by large amounts of restricted virus. Knockdown of TRIM5α in 293T SUMO-1-overexpressing cells resulted in ablation of the SUMO-1 antiviral effects, and this loss of restriction could be restored by expression of a human TRIM5α shRNA-resistant plasmid. Amino acid sequence analysis of human TRIM5α revealed a consensus SUMO conjugation site at the N-terminus and three putative SUMO interacting motifs (SIMs in the B30.2 domain. Mutations of the TRIM5α consensus SUMO conjugation site did not affect the antiviral activity of TRIM5α in any of the cell types tested. Mutation of the SIM consensus sequences, however, abolished TRIM5α antiviral activity against N-MLV. Mutation of lysines at a potential site of SUMOylation in the CA region of the Gag gene reduced the SUMO-1 block and the TRIM5α restriction of N-MLV. Our data suggest a novel aspect of TRIM5α-mediated restriction, in which the presence of intact SIMs in TRIM5α, and also the SUMO conjugation of CA, are required for restriction. We propose that at least a portion of the antiviral activity of TRIM5α is mediated through the binding of its SIMs to SUMO-conjugated CA.

  6. Limit law of the iterated logarithm for B-valued trimmed sums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is well known that the trimmed sums play an important role in probability and statis- tics, since trimming is a standard method to decrease the effect of large sample elements in statistical procedures, e.g., for constructing robust estimators and tests. A great amount of work has been done during the last decades on the limit ...

  7. TRIM32 regulates skeletal muscle stem cell differentiation and is necessary for normal adult muscle regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Nicklas

    Full Text Available Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H is an inherited autosomal recessive disease of skeletal muscle caused by a mutation in the TRIM32 gene. Currently its pathogenesis is entirely unclear. Typically the regeneration process of adult skeletal muscle during growth or following injury is controlled by a tissue specific stem cell population termed satellite cells. Given that TRIM32 regulates the fate of mammalian neural progenitor cells through controlling their differentiation, we asked whether TRIM32 could also be essential for the regulation of myogenic stem cells. Here we demonstrate for the first time that TRIM32 is expressed in the skeletal muscle stem cell lineage of adult mice, and that in the absence of TRIM32, myogenic differentiation is disrupted. Moreover, we show that the ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 controls this process through the regulation of c-Myc, a similar mechanism to that previously observed in neural progenitors. Importantly we show that loss of TRIM32 function induces a LGMD2H-like phenotype and strongly affects muscle regeneration in vivo. Our studies implicate that the loss of TRIM32 results in dysfunctional muscle stem cells which could contribute to the development of LGMD2H.

  8. Nuclear TRIM25 Specifically Targets Influenza Virus Ribonucleoproteins to Block the Onset of RNA Chain Elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Nicholas R; Zhou, Ligang; Guo, Yusong R; Zhao, Chen; Tao, Yizhi J; Krug, Robert M; Sawyer, Sara L

    2017-11-08

    TRIM25 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that activates RIG-I to promote the antiviral interferon response. The NS1 protein from all strains of influenza A virus binds TRIM25, although not all virus strains block the interferon response, suggesting alternative mechanisms for TRIM25 action. Here we present a nuclear role for TRIM25 in specifically restricting influenza A virus replication. TRIM25 inhibits viral RNA synthesis through a direct mechanism that is independent of its ubiquitin ligase activity and the interferon pathway. This activity can be inhibited by the viral NS1 protein. TRIM25 inhibition of viral RNA synthesis results from its binding to viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs), the structures containing individual viral RNA segments, the viral polymerase, and multiple viral nucleoproteins. TRIM25 binding does not inhibit initiation of capped-RNA-primed viral mRNA synthesis by the viral polymerase. Rather, the onset of RNA chain elongation is inhibited because TRIM25 prohibits the movement of RNA into the polymerase complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome-wide association study for claw disorders and trimming status in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, van der D.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) might add to a better understanding of the development of claw disorders and the need for trimming. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to perform a GWAS on claw disorders and trimming status and to validate the results for claw disorders

  10. Vegetally localized Xenopus trim36 regulates cortical rotation and dorsal axis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuykendall, Tawny N; Houston, Douglas W

    2009-09-01

    Specification of the dorsoventral axis in Xenopus depends on rearrangements of the egg vegetal cortex following fertilization, concomitant with activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. How these processes are tied together is not clear, but RNAs localized to the vegetal cortex during oogenesis are known to be essential. Despite their importance, few vegetally localized RNAs have been examined in detail. In this study, we describe the identification of a novel localized mRNA, trim36, and characterize its function through maternal loss-of-function experiments. We find that trim36 is expressed in the germ plasm and encodes a ubiquitin ligase of the Tripartite motif-containing (Trim) family. Depletion of maternal trim36 using antisense oligonucleotides results in ventralized embryos and reduced organizer gene expression. We show that injection of wnt11 mRNA rescues this effect, suggesting that Trim36 functions upstream of Wnt/beta-catenin activation. We further find that vegetal microtubule polymerization and cortical rotation are disrupted in trim36-depleted embryos, in a manner dependent on Trim36 ubiquitin ligase activity. Additionally, these embryos can be rescued by tipping the eggs 90 degrees relative to the animal-vegetal axis. Taken together, our results suggest a role for Trim36 in controlling the stability of proteins regulating microtubule polymerization during cortical rotation, and subsequently axis formation.

  11. Effect of Hardwood Sawmill Edging and Trimming Practices on Furniture Part Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Carmen Regalado; Eugene M. Wengert; Fred M. Lamb; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    In a recent edging and trimming study at three hardwood sawmills, it was observed that the lumber volume produced was approximately 10 percent less than would be necessary to make the most valuable lumber. Furthermore, the excess portion of wood that was removed from the edging and trimming process contained a large percentage of clear wood. In light of rising costs...

  12. The effects of different bill-trimming methods on the well-being of Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, L A; Cheng, H-W; Garner, J P; Pajor, E A; Mench, J A

    2007-09-01

    Pekin ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism, but this practice has been criticized because of the resulting potential for acute and chronic pain. The goal of this experiment was to compare 2 different bill-trimming methods, hot blade trimming with cautery (TRIM) and cautery only (tip-searing; SEAR), on the behavior, bill morphology, and weight gain of Pekin ducks. Ducklings (n = 192, 96 per sex) were trimmed at the hatchery and assigned to 12 floor pens (3.66 x0.91 m) by treatment. Behavior was evaluated by scan sampling, and plumage condition was scored using a 0 to 3 scoring system. Thirty-six ducks were randomly euthanized at 3 and 6 wk of age, and their bills were collected for examination. Following fixation and decalcification, the bills were embedded in paraffin wax and sectioned longitudinally. Alternate sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome for the connective tissues, and with Bielschowsky's silver impregnation, Bodian's staining, and Holmes' staining for the nerve fibers. Trimmed ducks engaged in fewer bill-related behaviors and rested more than untrimmed ducks (NOTRIM) during the first 2 wk posttrim. Ducks in the SEAR and NOTRIM groups showed similar patterns of weight gain, but those in the TRIM group had a lower rate of gain than ducks in the SEAR group during the first week posttrim and had a lower rate of gain than those in the NOTRIM group for 2 wk posttrim. Feather scores of ducks in the NOTRIM group were significantly worse than those in the TRIM or SEAR group by 18 d, and scores continued to deteriorate at a greater rate than those of trimmed ducks throughout the study. Both trimming methods caused connective tissue proliferation in the bill stumps, but the TRIM method caused thicker scar tissue than the SEAR method. No neuromas were found with either trimming method, but there were more nerve fibers in bill stumps of the SEAR ducks than the TRIM ducks. These results suggest that

  13. Genetic parameters for claw disorders and the effect of preselecting cows for trimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Spek, D; van Arendonk, J A M; Vallée, A A A; Bovenhuis, H

    2013-09-01

    Claw disorders are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding from an economical and welfare point of view. Selection for reduced claw disorders can be based on hoof trimmer records. Typically, not all cows in a herd are trimmed. Our objectives were to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for claw disorders and investigate the effect of selecting cows for trimming. The data set contained 50,238 cows, of which 20,474 cows had at least one claw trimming record, with a total of 29,994 records. Six claw trimmers scored 14 different claw disorders: abscess (AB), corkscrew claw (CC), (inter-)digital dermatitis or heel erosion (DER), double sole (DS), hardship groove (HG), interdigital hyperplasia (IH), interdigital phlegmon (IP), sand crack (SC), super-foul (SF), sole hemorrhage (SH), sole injury (SI), sole ulcer (SU), white line separation (WLS), yellow discoloration of the sole (YD), and a combined claw disorder trait. Frequencies of the claw disorders for trimmed cows ranged from 0.1% (CC, YD, HG) to 23.8% (DER). More than half of the cows scored had at least one claw disorder. Heritability on the observed scale ranged from 0.02 (DS, SH) to 0.14 (IH) and on the underlying scale from 0.05 to 0.43 in trimmed cows. Genetic correlations between laminitis-related claw disorders were moderate to high, and the same was found for hygiene-related claw disorders. The effect of selecting cows for trimming was first investigated by including untrimmed cows in the analyses and assuming they were not affected by claw disorders. Heritabilities on the underlying scale showed only minor changes. Second, different subsets of the data were created based on the percentage of trimmed cows in the herd. Heritabilities for IH, DER, and SU tended to decrease when a higher percentage of cows in the herd were trimmed. Finally, a bivariate model with a claw disorder and the trait "trimming status" was used, but heritabilities were similar. Heritability for trimming status was

  14. Research on cylindrical resonators’ damping asymmetry trimming method utilizing damping characteristic of piezoelectric electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangkun Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The damping asymmetry of cylindrical resonators is one of the major sources which result in the gyroscope’s drift. In this paper, a new approach for trimming the damping asymmetry of cylindrical resonators is proposed. The damping asymmetry trimming model is established to analyze the additional damping’s influences. Furthermore, piezoelectric electrodes’ effects on the cylindrical resonator’s damping characteristic are figured out through the finite element simulation. The procedures of this trimming method are also summarized based on theoretical analysis. At last, these theoretical analysis and simulation results are utilized to compensate the damping asymmetry of cylindrical resonators and the procedures of this trimming method are also summarized. Experiments are also implemented to verify this trimming method.

  15. Efficient running of steam generator trims fuel cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.; Eltouny, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    E scaling energy prices have led to drastic changes in the operating philosophy of the worldwide industry. About 50% of the thermal energy in industry is being consumed in steam boilers. The new energy reduction programs that have been adopted in egypt draw attention to the boilers, not only to trim energy consumption and improve the production of steam but also to save as much money as possible in doing it. Organization for energy planning (OEP) has started a program for 'Boiler efficiency improvement' in industry since 2 years. The program aimed at performing energy audits in a selective number of industries in both public and private sectors using fire tube boilers produced locally by El Nasr company. As a result of audits an evaluation of performance of this type of boilers was,performed. The energy profiles and the common problems affecting the efficiency of boilers were determined. Energy conservation opportunities (ECO) were identified. 9 figs

  16. Epoxy resin casting of trim coils for superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajra, D.P.; Sarkar, S.C.; Saha, Subimal; Chaudhuri, J.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    The life of any magnet depends on the soundness of the coil insulation, its aging properties and initial and final endurance limitations. The insulation of water-cooled trim coils for superconducting cyclotron is made of glass fibre tape with heat cured unfilled epoxy resin combination. This type of insulation has been selected to achieve excellent stability against thermal and electromagnetic stresses, tight dimensional control, good dielectric strength, non-hygroscopic and considerably low vapour-pressure as it will be inside rough vacuum. The process development and the difficulties encountered for appropriate selection of epoxy resin combination, potting, vacuum process, curing cycle, control of coil dimension to achieve a sound coil absolutely free from cracks, trapped air and voids has been discussed. (author)

  17. 77 FR 67399 - Trim Systems Operating Corp., a Subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc., Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,393] Trim Systems Operating..., applicable to workers and former workers of Trim Systems Operating Corp., a subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle.... The amended notice applicable to TA-W-81,393 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of Trim Systems...

  18. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  19. High resolution micro ultrasonic machining for trimming 3D microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanath, Anupam; Li, Tao; Gianchandani, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of a high resolution micro ultrasonic machining (HR-µUSM) process suitable for post fabrication trimming of complex 3D microstructures made from fused silica. Unlike conventional USM, the HR-µUSM process aims for low machining rates, providing high resolution and high surface quality. The machining rate is reduced by keeping the micro-tool tip at a fixed distance from the workpiece and vibrating it at a small amplitude. The surface roughness is improved by an appropriate selection of abrasive particles. Fluidic modeling is performed to study interaction among the vibrating micro-tool tip, workpiece, and the slurry. Using 304 stainless steel (SS304) tool tips of 50 µm diameter, the machining performance of the HR-µUSM process is characterized on flat fused silica substrates. The depths and surface finish of machined features are evaluated as functions of slurry concentrations, separation between the micro-tool and workpiece, and machining time. Under the selected conditions, the HR-µUSM process achieves machining rates as low as 10 nm s −1  averaged over the first minute of machining of a flat virgin sample. This corresponds to a mass removal rate of ≈20 ng min −1 . The average surface roughness, S a , achieved is as low as 30 nm. Analytical and numerical modeling are used to explain the typical profile of the machined features as well as machining rates. The process is used to demonstrate trimming of hemispherical 3D shells made of fused silica. (paper)

  20. Genetic evaluation of claw health traits accounting for potential preselection of cows to be trimmed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croué, Iola; Fikse, Freddy; Johansson, Kjell; Carlén, Emma; Thomas, Gilles; Leclerc, Hélène; Ducrocq, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Claw lesions are one of the most important health issues in dairy cattle. Although the frequency of claw lesions depends greatly on herd management, the frequency can be lowered through genetic selection. A genetic evaluation could be developed based on trimming records collected by claw trimmers; however, not all cows present in a herd are usually selected by the breeder to be trimmed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the importance of the preselection of cows for trimming, to account for this preselection, and to estimate genetic parameters of claw health traits. The final data set contained 25,511 trimming records of French Holstein cows. Analyzed claw lesion traits were digital dermatitis, heel horn erosion, interdigital hyperplasia, sole hemorrhage circumscribed, sole hemorrhage diffused, sole ulcer, and white line fissure. All traits were analyzed as binary traits in a multitrait linear animal model. Three scenarios were considered: including only trimmed cows in a 7-trait model (scenario 1); or trimmed cows and contemporary cows not trimmed but present at the time of a visit (considering that nontrimmed cows were healthy) in a 7-trait model (scenario 2); or trimmed cows and contemporary cows not trimmed but present at the time of a visit (considering lesion records for trimmed cows only), in an 8-trait model, including a 0/1 trimming status trait (scenario 3). For scenario 3, heritability estimates ranged from 0.02 to 0.09 on the observed scale. Genetic correlations clearly revealed 2 groups of traits (digital dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and interdigital hyperplasia on the one hand, and sole hemorrhage circumscribed, sole hemorrhage diffused, sole ulcer, and white line fissure on the other hand). Heritabilities on the underlying scale did not vary much depending on the scenario: the effect of the preselection of cows for trimming on the estimation of heritabilities appeared to be negligible. However, including untrimmed cows as healthy

  1. General Model for Retroviral Capsid Pattern Recognition by TRIM5 Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jonathan M; Christensen, Devin E; Bhattacharya, Akash; Dawidziak, Daria M; Roganowicz, Marcin D; Wan, Yueping; Pumroy, Ruth A; Demeler, Borries; Ivanov, Dmitri N; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K; Sundquist, Wesley I; Pornillos, Owen

    2018-02-15

    Restriction factors are intrinsic cellular defense proteins that have evolved to block microbial infections. Retroviruses such as HIV-1 are restricted by TRIM5 proteins, which recognize the viral capsid shell that surrounds, organizes, and protects the viral genome. TRIM5α uses a SPRY domain to bind capsids with low intrinsic affinity ( K D of >1 mM) and therefore requires higher-order assembly into a hexagonal lattice to generate sufficient avidity for productive capsid recognition. TRIMCyp, on the other hand, binds HIV-1 capsids through a cyclophilin A domain, which has a well-defined binding site and higher affinity ( K D of ∼10 μM) for isolated capsid subunits. Therefore, it has been argued that TRIMCyp proteins have dispensed with the need for higher-order assembly to function as antiviral factors. Here, we show that, consistent with its high degree of sequence similarity with TRIM5α, the TRIMCyp B-box 2 domain shares the same ability to self-associate and facilitate assembly of a TRIMCyp hexagonal lattice that can wrap about the HIV-1 capsid. We also show that under stringent experimental conditions, TRIMCyp-mediated restriction of HIV-1 is indeed dependent on higher-order assembly. Both forms of TRIM5 therefore use the same mechanism of avidity-driven capsid pattern recognition. IMPORTANCE Rhesus macaques and owl monkeys are highly resistant to HIV-1 infection due to the activity of TRIM5 restriction factors. The rhesus macaque TRIM5α protein blocks HIV-1 through a mechanism that requires self-assembly of a hexagonal TRIM5α lattice around the invading viral core. Lattice assembly amplifies very weak interactions between the TRIM5α SPRY domain and the HIV-1 capsid. Assembly also promotes dimerization of the TRIM5α RING E3 ligase domain, resulting in synthesis of polyubiquitin chains that mediate downstream steps of restriction. In contrast to rhesus TRIM5α, the owl monkey TRIM5 homolog, TRIMCyp, binds isolated HIV-1 CA subunits much more tightly

  2. Abba is an essential TRIM/RBCC protein to maintain the integrity of sarcomeric cytoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domsch, Katrin; Ezzeddine, Nader; Nguyen, Hanh T

    2013-08-01

    Organized sarcomeric striations are an evolutionarily conserved hallmark of functional skeletal muscles. Here, we demonstrate that the Drosophila Abba protein, a member of the TRIM/RBCC superfamily, has a pivotal regulatory role in maintaining proper sarcomeric cytoarchitecture during development and muscle usage. abba mutant embryos initially form muscles, but F-actin and Myosin striations become progressively disrupted when the muscles undergo growth and endure increased contractile forces during larval development. Abnormal Myosin aggregates and myofiber atrophy are also notable in the abba mutants. The larval defects result in compromised muscle function, and hence important morphogenetic events do not occur properly during pupation, leading to lethality. Abba is localized at larval Z-discs, and genetic evidence indicates that abba interacts with α-actinin, kettin/D-titin and mlp84B, genes that encode important Z-disc proteins for stable myofibrillar organization and optimal muscle function. RNAi experiments and ultrastructural analysis reveal that Abba has an additional crucial role in sarcomere maintenance in adult muscles. Abba is required to ensure the integrity and function of Z-discs and M-lines. Rescue experiments further show that Abba function is dependent upon its B-box/coiled-coil domain, NHL repeats and RING finger domain. The importance of these presumed protein-protein interactions and ubiquitin ligase-associated domains supports our hypothesis that Abba is needed for specific protein complex formation and stabilization at Z-discs and M-lines.

  3. Cyclophilin A potentiates TRIM5α inhibition of HIV-1 nuclear import without promoting TRIM5α binding to the viral capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallori Burse

    Full Text Available The host immunophilin cyclophilin A (CypA binds to the capsid protein (CA of HIV-1 and regulates its infectivity. Depending on the target cell type, CypA can either promote or inhibit HIV-1 infection. The ability of CypA to promote HIV-1 infection has been extensively studied and linked to several steps in early replication including uncoating, reverse transcription and nuclear import. By contrast, the mechanism by which CypA inhibits infection is less well understood. We investigated the mechanism by which CypA potentiates restriction of HIV-1 by the tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5α. Depletion of TRIM5α in the African green monkey cell line Vero, resulted in a loss of inhibition of infection by CypA, demonstrating that inhibition by CypA is mediated by TRIM5α. Complementary genetic and biochemical assays failed to demonstrate an ability of CypA to promote binding of TRIM5α to the viral capsid. TRIM5α inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcription in a proteasome-dependent manner; however, we observed that inhibition of proteasome activity did not reduce the ability of CypA to inhibit infection, suggesting that CypA acts at a step after reverse transcription. Accordingly, we observed a CypA-dependent reduction in the accumulation of nuclear HIV-1 DNA, indicating that CypA specifically promotes TRIM5α inhibition of HIV-1 nuclear import. We also observed that the ability of CypA to inhibit HIV-1 infection is abolished by amino acid substitutions within the conserved CPSF6-binding surface in CA. Our results indicate that CypA inhibits HIV-1 infection in Vero cells not by promoting TRIM5α binding to the capsid but by blocking nuclear import of the HIV-1 preintegration complex.

  4. TRIM26 functions as a novel tumor suppressor of hepatocellular carcinoma and its downregulation contributes to worse prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi, E-mail: wangyichenben@163.com [Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Baoan Hospital of Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518101 (China); He, Du, E-mail: hdu1234@163.com [Department of Oncology, The Central Hospital of Enshi Autonomous of Prefecture, Enshi Clinical College of Wuhan University, Enshi, Hubei, 445000 (China); Yang, Liang, E-mail: yliang0689@163.com [Department of Oncology, Qianjiang Central Hospital, Qianjiang, Hubei, 433100 (China); Wen, Bo, E-mail: tjwb001@126.com [Department of Urology, The Affiliated Baoan Hospital of Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518101 (China); Dai, Jinfen, E-mail: brilliant_510@126.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430060 (China); Zhang, Qian, E-mail: anny9655@126.com [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430071 (China); Kang, Jian, E-mail: 984190619@qq.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430060 (China); He, Weiyang, E-mail: 996114664@qq.com [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430071 (China); Ding, Qianshan, E-mail: iamdqs@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430060 (China); He, De, E-mail: 18938027146@126.com [Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Baoan Hospital of Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518101 (China)

    2015-07-31

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the one of the most common malignancies worldwide and its prognosis is extremely poor. Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play crucial roles in cancer cell biology but the function of tripartite motif 26 (TRIM26) has not been investigated. We demonstrated that low expression level of TRIM26 in tumor samples was significantly correlated with worse prognosis in HCC patients. We also demonstrated its expression level was associated with several clinicopathologic features such as AFP level and T stage of HCC patients. Furthermore, we validated that TRIM26 was significantly downregulated in HCC tissue compared with normal liver tissue. To further clarify the functional role of TRIM26 in HCC, We confirmed that TRIM26 silencing can promote cancer cell proliferation, colony forming, migration and invasion in vitro with HCC cell lines HepG2 and Bel-7402. Then we utilized bioinformatic tool to predict gene influenced by TRIM26, showing TRIM26 could modulate gene sets about cancer cell metabolism. In conclusion, we proved that TRIM26 is a novel tumor suppressor modulating multiple metabolism-related pathways in HCC. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the function of TRIM26 in cancer biology. Our findings provide useful insight into the mechanism of HCC origin and progression. Moreover, TRIM26 may represent a novel therapeutic target for HCC. - Highlights: • TRIM26 is down-regulated in liver cancer samples and functions as a novel tumor suppressor. • Down-regulation of TRIM26 is associated with worse prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). • Knockdown of TRIM26 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells. • TRIM26 may function in abnormal metabolic progress of HCC.

  5. TRIM3 regulates the motility of the kinesin motor protein KIF21B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Labonté

    Full Text Available Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs are molecular motors that transport cellular cargo along the microtubule cytoskeleton. KIF21B is a neuronal kinesin that is highly enriched in dendrites. The regulation and specificity of microtubule transport involves the binding of motors to individual cargo adapters and accessory proteins. Moreover, posttranslational modifications of either the motor protein, their cargos or tubulin regulate motility, cargo recognition and the binding or unloading of cargos. Here we show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIM3, also known as BERP, interacts with KIF21B via its RBCC domain. TRIM3 is found at intracellular and Golgi-derived vesicles and co-localizes with the KIF21B motor in neurons. Trim3 gene deletion in mice and TRIM3 overexpression in cultured neurons both suggested that the E3-ligase function of TRIM3 is not involved in KIF21B degradation, however TRIM3 depletion reduces the motility of the motor. Together, our data suggest that TRIM3 is a regulator in the modulation of KIF21B motor function.

  6. TRIM32 ubiquitin E3 ligase, one enzyme for several pathologies: From muscular dystrophy to tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Elisa; Meroni, Germana

    2016-10-01

    TRIM32 is a member of the TRIpartite Motif family characterised by the presence of an N-terminal three-domain-module that includes a RING domain, which confers E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, one or two B-box domains and a Coiled-Coil region that mediates oligomerisation. Several TRIM32 substrates were identified including muscular proteins and proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and cell motility. As ubiquitination is a versatile post-translational modification that can affect target turnover, sub-cellular localisation or activity, it is likely that diverse substrates may be differentially affected by TRIM32-mediated ubiquitination, reflecting its multi-faceted roles in muscle physiology, cancer and immunity. With particular relevance for muscle physiology, mutations in TRIM32 are associated with autosomal recessive Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2H, a muscle-wasting disease with variable clinical spectrum ranging from almost asymptomatic to wheelchair-bound patients. In this review, we will focus on the ability of TRIM32 to mark specific substrates for proteasomal degradation discussing how the TRIM32-proteasome axis may (i) be important for muscle homeostasis and for the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy; and (ii) define either an oncogenic or tumour suppressive role for TRIM32 in the context of different types of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. TRIM11 negatively regulates IFNβ production and antiviral activity by targeting TBK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younglang Lee

    Full Text Available The innate immune response is a host defense mechanism against infection by viruses and bacteria. Type I interferons (IFNα/β play a crucial role in innate immunity. If not tightly regulated under normal conditions and during immune responses, IFN production can become aberrant, leading to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we identified TRIM11 (tripartite motif containing 11 as a novel negative regulator of IFNβ production. Ectopic expression of TRIM11 decreased IFNβ promoter activity induced by poly (I:C stimulation or overexpression of RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I signaling cascade components RIG-IN (constitutively active form of RIG-I, MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein, or TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase-1. Conversely, TRIM11 knockdown enhanced IFNβ promoter activity induced by these stimuli. Moreover, TRIM11 overexpression inhibited the phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF3 and expression of IFNβ mRNA. By contrast, TRIM11 knockdown increased the IRF3 phosphorylation and IFNβ mRNA expression. We also found that TRIM11 and TBK1, a key kinase that phosphorylates IRF3 in the RIG-I pathway, interacted with each other through CC and CC2 domain, respectively. This interaction was enhanced in the presence of the TBK1 adaptor proteins, NAP1 (NF-κB activating kinase-associated protein-1, SINTBAD (similar to NAP1 TBK1 adaptor or TANK (TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator. Consistent with its inhibitory role in RIG-I-mediated IFNβ signaling, TRIM11 overexpression enhanced viral infectivity, whereas TRIM11 knockdown produced the opposite effect. Collectively, our results suggest that TRIM11 inhibits RIG-I-mediated IFNβ production by targeting the TBK1 signaling complex.

  8. Development of the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] trim coil beam tube assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaritka, J.; Kelly, E.; Schneider, W.

    1987-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider uses ≅9600 dipole magnets. The magnets have been carefully designed to exhibit minimal magnetic field harmonics. However, because of superconductor magnetization effects, iron saturation and conductor/coil positioning errors, certain harmonic errors are possible and must be corrected by use of multipole correctors called trim coils. For the most efficient use of axial space in the magnet, and lowest possible current, a distributed internal correction coil design is planned. The trim coil assembly is secured to the beam tube, a uhv tube with special strength, size, conductivity and vacuum. The report details the SSC trim coil/beam tube assembly specifications, history, and ongoing development

  9. TRIM5α selectively binds a restriction-sensitive retroviral capsid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luban Jeremy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract TRIM5 is a potent retrovirus inhibitor that targets viruses bearing particular capsid (CA residues. In most primate species, retroviral restriction requires the C-terminal SPRY domain unique to the α-isoform of TRIM5, but the mechanism by which susceptible viruses are recognized and targeted for restriction is unknown. Here we show that TRIM5α binds retroviral CA from detergent-stripped virions in a SPRY-dependent manner with sufficient discrimination to account for the exquisite specificity of restriction.

  10. Attitudes and attitude change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    attitude theory. Why is this important? Attitudinal concepts can be found in every area of marketing. Concepts like ad liking, brand attitude, quality perception, product preference, perceived benefit, perceived risk, perceived value, and customer satisfaction can all be understood as particular types......, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two...... perspectives: Understanding attitude structure: how is an attitude cognitively represented in a consumer's mind, including its components (intra-attitudinal structure) and its associations with other psychological variables (inter-attitudinal structure)? Understanding information processing: what...

  11. Parallel-Computing Concepts and Methods in Large Scale Floquet Analysis of Helicopter Trim and Stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaonkar, G

    1998-01-01

    Rotorcraft stability investigation involves a nonlinear trim analysis for the control inputs and periodic responses, and, as a follow-up, a linearized stability analysis for the Floquet transition matrix (FTM...

  12. Synchronization Of TRIMs Principles In The Legislation Of Mining Sector In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Lanini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research are to know and explain synchronizing the principles of TRIMs at the foreign direct investment FDI and mining regulation in Indonesia. The research using normative research that conducted through library or document study such legal resources as primary sources secondary and tertiary sources that will be studied with applied legal approach comparative history and conceptual approach. Research results are revealing that synchronizing between the principles of TRIMs and Investment act 2007and Mineral and Coal act 2009 were not harmonized. It should be TRIMs and investment act 2007 have some similarity principles as harmonized even though Mineral and Coal act 2009 does not enough accessibility for the principles of TRIMs. Implication of the Mineral and Coal act 2009 raise a strong and real authority of the state even central or local government. Those policy results an overlap regulation caused state management system over natural resources ineffective.

  13. International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) with Enhanced Trimming, Release 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains the latest official release of International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) with Enhanced Trimming, provided in a common...

  14. Helicopter trimming and tracking control using direct neural dynamic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, R; Si, Jennie

    2003-01-01

    This paper advances a neural-network-based approximate dynamic programming control mechanism that can be applied to complex control problems such as helicopter flight control design. Based on direct neural dynamic programming (DNDP), an approximate dynamic programming methodology, the control system is tailored to learn to maneuver a helicopter. The paper consists of a comprehensive treatise of this DNDP-based tracking control framework and extensive simulation studies for an Apache helicopter. A trim network is developed and seamlessly integrated into the neural dynamic programming (NDP) controller as part of a baseline structure for controlling complex nonlinear systems such as a helicopter. Design robustness is addressed by performing simulations under various disturbance conditions. All designs are tested using FLYRT, a sophisticated industrial scale nonlinear validated model of the Apache helicopter. This is probably the first time that an approximate dynamic programming methodology has been systematically applied to, and evaluated on, a complex, continuous state, multiple-input multiple-output nonlinear system with uncertainty. Though illustrated for helicopters, the DNDP control system framework should be applicable to general purpose tracking control.

  15. MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox Trim and Static Stability Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis

    2012-01-01

    MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox (MASCOT) utilizes geometric, aerodynamic, and inertial inputs to calculate air vehicle stability in a variety of critical flight conditions. The code is based on fundamental, non-linear equations of motion and is able to translate results into a qualitative, graphical scale useful to the non-expert. MASCOT was created to provide the conceptual aircraft designer accurate predictions of air vehicle stability and control characteristics. The code takes as input mass property data in the form of an inertia tensor, aerodynamic loading data, and propulsion (i.e. thrust) loading data. Using fundamental nonlinear equations of motion, MASCOT then calculates vehicle trim and static stability data for the desired flight condition(s). Available flight conditions include six horizontal and six landing rotation conditions with varying options for engine out, crosswind, and sideslip, plus three take-off rotation conditions. Results are displayed through a unique graphical interface developed to provide the non-stability and control expert conceptual design engineer a qualitative scale indicating whether the vehicle has acceptable, marginal, or unacceptable static stability characteristics. If desired, the user can also examine the detailed, quantitative results.

  16. Real-time value optimization of edging and trimming operations for rough, green hardwood lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Hang Song; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    For edging/trimming operations in hardwood sawmills, an operator examines both sides—or just the waney-edged side—of each board, and makes a quick assessment of grade potential. The operator then decides where to edge and/or trim the board to achieve the intended grade and, presumably, maximum value. However, human operators can only achieve lumber values that are 62-...

  17. Lead intoxication in dogs: risk assessment of feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game

    OpenAIRE

    H?g?sen, Helga R.; ?rnsrud, Robin; Knutsen, Helle K.; Bernhoft, Aksel

    2016-01-01

    Background Expanding lead-based bullets, commonly used for hunting of big?game, produce a scattering of lead particles in the carcass around the wound channel. Trimmings around this channel, which are sometimes fed to dogs, may contain lead particles. The aim of this study was to assess potential health effects of feeding dogs such trimmings. Results Lead ingestion most commonly causes gastrointestinal and neurological clinical signs, although renal, skeletal, haematological, cardiovascular a...

  18. Roles of TRIM32 in Corneal Epithelial Cells After Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Cui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epithelial cells play important roles as a critical barrier in protecting the cornea from microbial pathogens infection. Methods: In this study, we were aiming to investigate the role of E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32 in corneal epithelial cells in response to Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Results: We found the expression of TRIM32 was increased after infected with HSV-1 both in murine corneas and cultured human epithelial (HCE cells. Furthermore, knockdown of the expression of TRIM32 significantly aggravated HSV-1 induced herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK in mice and promoted the replication of HSV-1 in cultured HCE cells. We also observed that silencing of TRIM32 resulted in the decreased expression of IFN-β and suppressed activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, we found TRIM32 positively regulate IFN-β production in corneal epithelial cells through promoting K63-linked polyubiquitination of stimulator of interferon genes (STING. Conclusion: In conclusion, our data suggested that TRIM32 as a crucial positive regulator of HSV-1 induced IFN-β production in corneal epithelial cells, and it played a predominant role in clearing HSV-1 from the cornea.

  19. On the optimal trimming of high-throughput mRNA sequence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D MacManes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread and rapid adoption of high-throughput sequencing technologies has afforded researchers the opportunity to gain a deep understanding of genome level processes that underlie evolutionary change, and perhaps more importantly, the links between genotype and phenotype. In particular, researchers interested in functional biology and adaptation have used these technologies to sequence mRNA transcriptomes of specific tissues, which in turn are often compared to other tissues, or other individuals with different phenotypes. While these techniques are extremely powerful, careful attention to data quality is required. In particular, because high-throughput sequencing is more error-prone than traditional Sanger sequencing, quality trimming of sequence reads should be an important step in all data processing pipelines. While several software packages for quality trimming exist, no general guidelines for the specifics of trimming have been developed. Here, using empirically derived sequence data, I provide general recommendations regarding the optimal strength of trimming, specifically in mRNA-Seq studies. Although very aggressive quality trimming is common, this study suggests that a more gentle trimming, specifically of those nucleotides whose Phred score < 2 or < 5, is optimal for most studies across a wide variety of metrics.

  20. The polar warhead of a TRIM24 bromodomain inhibitor rearranges a water-mediated interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiuyang; Li, Fudong; Bao, Hongyu; Jiang, Yiyang; Zhang, Shuya; Ma, Rongsheng; Gao, Jia; Wu, Jihui; Ruan, Ke

    2017-04-01

    Tripartite motif-containing protein 24 (TRIM24) is closely correlated with multiple cancers, and a recent study demonstrated that the bromodomain of TRIM24 is essential for the proliferation of lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer. Here, we identify three new inhibitors of the TRIM24 bromodomain using NMR fragment-based screening. The crystal structures of two new inhibitors in complex with the TRIM24 bromodomain reveal that the water-bridged interaction network is conserved in the same fashion as those for known benzoimidazolone inhibitors. Interestingly, the polar substitution on the warhead of one new inhibitor pulls the whole ligand approximately 2 Å into the inner side pocket of the TRIM24 bromodomain, and thus exhibits a binding mode significantly different from other known bromodomain ligands. This mode provides a useful handle for further hit-to-lead evolution toward novel inhibitors of the TRIM24 bromodomain. Structural data are available in the PDB under the accession numbers 5H1T, 5H1U, and 5H1V. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  1. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Tischler, Mark B.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, precisely and repeatably than in previous wind tunnel tests. This control system also allowed the rotor trim state to be maintained during transients and drift in wind tunnel flow, and through changes in IBC actuation. The ability to maintain a consistent rotor trim state was key to quickly and accurately evaluating the effect of IBC on rotor performance, vibration, noise and loads. This paper presents details of the design and implementation of the trim control system including the rotor system hardware, trim control requirements, and trim control hardware and software implementation. Results are presented showing the effect of IBC on rotor trim and dynamic response, a validation of the rotor dynamic simulation used to calculate the initial control gains and tuning of the control system, and the overall performance of the trim control system during the wind tunnel test.

  2. Attitudes towards mental health and help-seeking in railway workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, C A M; Brooks, S K; Jones, N; Greenberg, N

    2016-03-01

    TRiM (Trauma Risk Management) has been shown to improve mental health and attitudes towards mental health in high-risk occupational groups; however, there has been no research into how TRiM might work for railway workers. To assess whether attending a TRiM training course alters mental health and attitudes to mental health-related help-seeking in railway workers. Workers completed a survey assessing mental health and attitudes towards mental health and help-seeking, before and after a 2-day TRiM course; follow-up questionnaires were administered 4 months post-course. Fifty railway employees completed the questionnaires. Post-course scores for cohesion and mental health peer literacy (i.e. feeling able to recognize and discuss mental health symptoms with colleagues) and some aspects of stigma significantly improved, while there were non-significant improvements in common mental disorder and post-traumatic stress symptoms. The response rate for completing follow-up surveys was small (n = 8) but results from these subjects suggested mental health peer literacy scores remained significantly improved. This study provides a useful insight into attitudes of railway workers regarding stigma and their confidence in discussing trauma-related mental health. Significant improvements in cohesion and mental health peer literacy along with the general improvement in scores post-TRiM course provide some evidence of the potential benefits of TRiM training in railway workers. Follow-up results have limited reliability due to the small number of responders but suggest possible long-term benefits of attending a TRiM course. Further research is required to confirm this finding. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Maximising municipal solid waste--legume trimming residue mixture degradation in composting by control parameters optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, I O; López, R; Ruiz-Montoya, M; Díaz, M J

    2013-10-15

    Composting is one of the most successful biological processes for the treatment of the residues enriched in putrescible materials. The optimization of parameters which have an influence on the stability of the products is necessary in order to maximize recycling and recovery of waste components. The influence of the composting process parameters (aeration, moisture, C/N ratio, and time) on the stability parameters (organic matter, N-losses, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, biodegradability coefficient) of the compost was studied. The composting experiment was carried out using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Legume Trimming Residues (LTR) in 200 L isolated acrylic barrels following a Box-Behnken central composite experimental design. Second-order polynomial models were found for each of the studied compost stability parameter, which accurately described the relationship between the parameters. The differences among the experimental values and those estimated by using the equations never exceeded 10% of the former. Results of the modelling showed that excluding the time, the C/N ratio is the strongest variable influencing almost all the stability parameters studied in this case, with the exception of N-losses which is strongly dependent on moisture. Moreover, an optimized ratio MSW/LTR of 1/1 (w/w), moisture content in the range of 40-55% and moderate to low aeration rate (0.05-0.175 Lair kg(-)(1) min(-1)) is recommended to maximise degradation and to obtain a stable product during co-composting of MSW and LTR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A "Pedi" Cures All: Toenail Trimming and the Treatment of Ulcerative Dermatitis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C Adams

    Full Text Available Ulcerative Dermatitis (UD is the most common cause of unplanned euthanasia in mice used in research, with prevalence rates reported between 4 and 21%. UD is characterized by a deep, ulcerative lesion that appears most commonly over the dorsal neck and is attendant with an intense pruritus. The underlying cause of UD is currently unknown, and as a consequence, there are no directed therapies that resolve lesions reliably. However, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests a behavioral component to the onset, maintenance, and progression of UD lesions. Scratching behavior in response to the intense pruritus associated with UD lesions may be an effective target for interventional therapies. We hypothesized that interfering with scratching behavior by trimming the toenails of mice with UD, would resolve UD lesions. To test this hypothesis, we first evaluated the efficacy of toenail trims with a single application of Vetericyn at the time of treatment versus our previous standard of care, topical Tresaderm applied daily. We found that toenail trims were significantly more effective at resolving lesions (n = 39 toenail trims, n = 100 Tresaderm, p<0.0001 with 93.3% of animals healing by 14 days (median time to lesion resolution. Furthermore, dorsal neck lesions did not recur by 42 days after a single toenail trim (n = 54; however, flank lesions did not resolve and the outcome of the two lesion distributions following treatment were significantly different (p<0.0001. Finally, we implemented toenail trims at an institutional level and found similar efficacies (approximately 90% for toenail trims regardless of one-time topical supplement used (triple antibiotic ointment, Tresaderm, and Vetericyn, n = 55, 58, 18, p = 0.63. This is the first report of a highly effective treatment for one of the most serious welfare issues in laboratory mice.

  5. RING domain mutations uncouple TRIM5α restriction of HIV-1 from inhibition of reverse transcription and acceleration of uncoating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Amanda; Hayashi, Fumiaki; Yang, Yang; Lienlaf, Maritza; Zhou, Jing; Shi, Jiong; Watanabe, Satoru; Kigawa, Takanori; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Aiken, Christopher; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2012-02-01

    Rhesus TRIM5α (TRIM5α(rh)) is a cytosolic protein that potently restricts HIV-1 at an early postentry stage, prior to reverse transcription. The ability of TRIM5α(rh) to block HIV-1 infection has been correlated with a decrease of pelletable HIV-1 capsid during infection. To genetically dissect the ability of TRIM5α to block reverse transcription, we studied a set of TRIM5α(rh) RING domain mutants that potently restrict HIV-1 but allow the occurrence of reverse transcription. These TRIM5α(rh) RING variants blocked HIV-1 infection after reverse transcription but prior to integration, as suggested by the routing of nuclear viral DNA to circularization in the form of 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles. The folding of RING domain variants was similar to that of the wild type, as evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance. RING domain changes that allowed the occurrence of reverse transcription were impaired in their ability to decrease the amount of pelletable capsid compared with wild-type TRIM5α. Similar effects of this particular group of mutations were observed with human TRIM5α inhibition of N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV). Interestingly, TRIM5α(rh) RING domain variants also prevented the degradation of TRIM5α(rh) that occurs following cell entry of HIV-1. These data correlated the block of reverse transcription with the ability of TRIM5α to accelerate uncoating. Collectively, these results suggest that TRIM5α(rh) blocks HIV-1 reverse transcription by inducing premature viral uncoating in target cells.

  6. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  7. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  8. Molecular characterization of a CpTRIM35-like protein and its splice variants from whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinshang; Zhao, Heng; Chen, Yeyu; Luo, Huiying; Yao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A TRIM gene and three splice variants were firstly cloned from elasmobranch fish. • The genes were constitutively expressed with high levels in spleen and kidney. • The gene products were distributed in cytoplasm alone or cytoplasm and nucleus. • As E3 ubiquitin ligases, the proteins differed in immune responses to challenges. - Abstract: The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play important roles in a broad range of biological processes, including apoptosis, cell proliferation and innate immunity response. In this study, a TRIM gene and its three splice variants were cloned from an elasmobranch fish—whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum Bennett). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gene was closely related to TRIM35 homologs, thus termed CpTRIM35-like. Deduced CpTRIM35 has a RBCC-PRY/SPRY structure typical of TRIM proteins, and its splice variants (CpTRIM35-1–3) have different truncations at the C-terminus. The gene products were constitutively expressed in adult sharks with the highest levels in spleen and kidney. The different subcellular locations, upregulation upon LPS and poly I:C stimulation, and significant E3 ubiquitin ligase activities suggested their different roles in immune responses as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This is the first TRIM protein ever characterized in elasmobranch fish

  9. Molecular characterization of a CpTRIM35-like protein and its splice variants from whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinshang, E-mail: sanmaosound@163.com; Zhao, Heng, E-mail: hengzhao2000@gmail.com; Chen, Yeyu, E-mail: cyyleaf@126.com; Luo, Huiying, E-mail: luohuiying@caas.cn; Yao, Bin, E-mail: binyao@caas.cn

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • A TRIM gene and three splice variants were firstly cloned from elasmobranch fish. • The genes were constitutively expressed with high levels in spleen and kidney. • The gene products were distributed in cytoplasm alone or cytoplasm and nucleus. • As E3 ubiquitin ligases, the proteins differed in immune responses to challenges. - Abstract: The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play important roles in a broad range of biological processes, including apoptosis, cell proliferation and innate immunity response. In this study, a TRIM gene and its three splice variants were cloned from an elasmobranch fish—whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum Bennett). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gene was closely related to TRIM35 homologs, thus termed CpTRIM35-like. Deduced CpTRIM35 has a RBCC-PRY/SPRY structure typical of TRIM proteins, and its splice variants (CpTRIM35-1–3) have different truncations at the C-terminus. The gene products were constitutively expressed in adult sharks with the highest levels in spleen and kidney. The different subcellular locations, upregulation upon LPS and poly I:C stimulation, and significant E3 ubiquitin ligase activities suggested their different roles in immune responses as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This is the first TRIM protein ever characterized in elasmobranch fish.

  10. TRIM39 is a MOAP-1-binding protein that stabilizes MOAP-1 through inhibition of its poly-ubiquitination process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, San San; Fu, Nai Yang; Sukumaran, Sunil K; Wan, Kah Fei; Wan, Qian; Yu, Victor C

    2009-04-15

    Bax, a multi-domain pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, is a key regulator for the release of apoptogenic factors from mitochondria. MOAP-1, which was first isolated from a screen for Bax-associating proteins, interacts with Bax upon apoptotic induction. MOAP-1 is a short-lived protein that is constitutively degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Apoptotic stimuli upregulate MOAP-1 rapidly through inhibition of its poly-ubiquitination process. However, cellular factors that regulate the stability of MOAP-1 have not yet been identified. In this study, we report the identification of TRIM39 as a MOAP-1-binding protein. TRIM39 belongs to a family of proteins characterized by a Tripartite Motif (TRIM), consisting of RING domain, B-box and coiled-coil domain. Several TRIM family members are known to demonstrate E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Surprisingly, TRIM39 significantly extends the half-life of MOAP-1 by inhibiting its poly-ubiquitination process. In agreement with its effect on enhancing MOAP-1 stability, TRIM39 sensitizes cells to etoposide-induced apoptosis. Conversely, knockdown of TRIM39 reduces the sensitivity of cells to etoposide-stimulated apoptosis. Furthermore, TRIM39 elevates the level of MOAP-1 in mitochondria and promotes cytochrome c release from isolated mitochondria stimulated by recombinant Bax. Together, these data suggest that TRIM39 can promote apoptosis signalling through stabilization of MOAP-1.

  11. TRIM32 promotes retinoic acid receptor α-mediated differentiation in human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomonobu; Okumura, Fumihiko; Iguchi, Akihiro; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TRIM32 enhanced RARα-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA. ► TRIM32 stabilized RARα in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. ► Overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells induced granulocytic differentiation. ► TRIM32 may function as a coactivator for RARα-mediated transcription in APL cells. -- Abstract: Ubiquitination, one of the posttranslational modifications, appears to be involved in the transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors including retinoic acid receptor α (RARα). We previously reported that an E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM32, interacts with several important proteins including RARα and enhances transcriptional activity of RARα in mouse neuroblastoma cells and embryonal carcinoma cells. Retinoic acid (RA), which acts as a ligand to nuclear receptors including RARα, plays crucial roles in development, differentiation, cell cycles and apoptosis. In this study, we found that TRIM32 enhances RARα-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA and stabilizes RARα in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. Moreover, we found that overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells suppresses cellular proliferation and induces granulocytic differentiation even in the absence of RA. These findings suggest that TRIM32 functions as one of the coactivators for RARα-mediated transcription in acute promyelogenous leukemia (APL) cells, and thus TRIM32 may become a potentially therapeutic target for APL.

  12. TRIM5α SPRY/coiled-coil interactions optimize avid retroviral capsid recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin D Roganowicz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Restriction factors are important components of intrinsic cellular defense mechanisms against viral pathogens. TRIM5α is a restriction factor that intercepts the incoming capsid cores of retroviruses such as HIV and provides an effective species-specific barrier to retroviral infection. The TRIM5α SPRY domain directly binds the capsid with only very weak, millimolar-level affinity, and productive capsid recognition therefore requires both TRIM5α dimerization and assembly of the dimers into a multivalent hexagonal lattice to promote avid binding. Here, we explore the important unresolved question of whether the SPRY domains are flexibly linked to the TRIM lattice or more precisely positioned to maximize avidity. Biochemical and biophysical experiments indicate that the linker segment connecting the SPRY domain to the coiled-coil domain adopts an α-helical fold, and that this helical portion mediates interactions between the two domains. Targeted mutations were generated to disrupt the putative packing interface without affecting dimerization or higher-order assembly, and we identified mutant proteins that were nevertheless deficient in capsid binding in vitro and restriction activity in cells. Our studies therefore support a model wherein substantial avidity gains during assembly-mediated capsid recognition by TRIM5α come in part from tailored spacing of tethered recognition domains.

  13. Moving characteristics of single file passengers considering the effect of ship trim and heeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinlu; Lu, Shouxiang; Lo, Siuming; Ma, Jian; Xie, Qimiao

    2018-01-01

    Ship listing and motion affects the movement pattern of passengers on board, thus pedestrian traffic and evacuation dynamics would be significantly different from those on level ground. To quantify the influence of ship listing and motion on passenger evacuation, we designed a ship corridor simulator, with which we performed single-file pedestrian movement experiments considering the effect of trim and heeling. Results indicated that density is not the only factor that affects pedestrian speed under ship trim or heeling conditions, for that both individual walking speed and group walking speed would be greatly attenuated due to the influence of the trim angles. However, heeling angles show less impact on speed when compared with trim angles. In addition, the speed correlation coefficient between the adjacent experimental subjects would be higher with larger angles and lower speed. Moreover, both female and male experimental subjects need similar distance headway for walking in different trim or heeling conditions. Furthermore, experimental subjects with lower individual walking speed need longer time headway to keep enough distance headway. This work will provide fundamental guidance to the development of evacuation models and the design of evacuation facilities on board.

  14. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  15. The effect of routine hoof trimming on locomotion score, ruminating time, activity, and milk yield of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hertem, T; Parmet, Y; Steensels, M; Maltz, E; Antler, A; Schlageter-Tello, A A; Lokhorst, C; Romanini, C E B; Viazzi, S; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Halachmi, I

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of hoof trimming on cow behavior (ruminating time, activity, and locomotion score) and performance (milk yield) over time. Data were gathered from a commercial dairy farm in Israel where routine hoof trimming is done by a trained hoof trimmer twice per year on the entire herd. In total, 288 cows spread over 6 groups with varying production levels were used for the analysis. Cow behavior was measured continuously with a commercial neck activity logger and a ruminating time logger (HR-Tag, SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel). Milk yield was recorded during each milking session with a commercial milk flow sensor (Free Flow, SCR Engineers Ltd.). A trained observer assigned on the spot 5-point locomotion scores during 19 nighttime milking occasions between 22 October 2012 and 4 February 2013. Behavioral and performance data were gathered from 1wk before hoof trimming until 1wk after hoof trimming. A generalized linear mixed model was used to statistically test all main and interactive effects of hoof trimming, parity, lactation stage, and hoof lesion presence on ruminating time, neck activity, milk yield, and locomotion score. The results on locomotion scores show that the proportional distribution of cows in the different locomotion score classes changes significantly after trimming. The proportion of cows with a locomotion score ≥3 increases from 14% before to 34% directly after the hoof trimming. Two months after the trimming, the number of cows with a locomotion score ≥3 reduced to 20%, which was still higher than the baseline values 2wk before the trimming. The neck activity level was significantly reduced 1d after trimming (380±6 bits/d) compared with before trimming (389±6 bits/d). Each one-unit increase in locomotion score reduced cow activity level by 4.488 bits/d. The effect of hoof trimming on ruminating time was affected by an interaction effect with parity. The effect of hoof trimming on

  16. Trim cut machining and surface integrity analysis of Nimonic 80A alloy using wire cut EDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitesh Goswami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This present work deals with the features of trim cut wire EDM machining of Nimonic 80A in terms of machining parameters, to predict material removal rate (MRR, surface roughness (Ra, wire wear ratio (WWR and microstructure analysis. Trim cut is performed after rough cut to remove the rough layer deposited after machining due to melting and re-solidification of the eroded metal from workpiece as well as from wire electrode. Taguchi’s design of experiments methodology has been used for planning and designing the experiments. The relative significance of various factors has also been evaluated and analyzed using ANOVA. The results clearly indicate trim cut potential for high surface finish compared to rough cut machining.

  17. Targeting TRIM5α in HIV Cure Strategies for the CRISPR-Cas9 Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Anne Victoria Weatherley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, studies of innate immune activity against HIV-1 and other retroviruses have revealed a powerful array of host factors that can attack the virus at various stages of its life cycle in human and primate cells, raising the prospect that these antiviral factors could be manipulated in immunotherapeutic strategies for HIV infection. This has not proved straightforward: while HIV accessory genes encode proteins that subvert or destroy many of these restriction factors, others, such as human TRIM5α show limited potency against HIV-1. However, HIV-1 is much more susceptible to simian versions of TRIM5α: could this information be translated into the development of an effective gene therapy for HIV infection? Reigniting research into the restriction factor TRIM5α in the era of superior gene editing technology such as CRISPR-Cas9 presents an exciting opportunity to revisit this prospect.

  18. Effect of routine claw trimming on claw temperature in dairy cows measured by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaaod, M; Syring, C; Luternauer, M; Doherr, M G; Steiner, A

    2015-04-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was used to assess the effect of routine claw trimming on claw temperature. In total, 648 IRT observations each were collected from 81 cows housed in 6 tiestalls before and 3 wk after claw trimming. The feet were classified as either healthy (nonlesion group, n = 182) or affected with infectious foot disorders (group IFD, n = 142). The maximal surface temperatures of the coronary band and skin and the difference of the maximal temperatures (ΔT) between the lateral and medial claws of the respective foot were assessed. Linear mixed models, correcting for the hierarchical structure of the data, ambient temperature, and infectious status of the claws, were developed to evaluate the effect of time in relation to the trimming event (d 0 versus d 21) and claw (medial versus lateral). Front feet and hind feet were analyzed separately. Ambient temperature and infectious foot status were identified as external and internal factors, respectively, that significantly affected claw temperature. Before claw trimming, the lateral claws of the hind feet were significantly warmer compared with the medial claws, whereas such a difference was not evident for the claws of the front feet. At d 21, ΔT of the hind feet was reduced by ≥ 0.25 °C, whereas it was increased by ≤ 0.13 °C in the front feet compared with d 0. Therefore, trimming was associated with a remarkable decrease of ΔT of the hind claws. Equalizing the weight bearing of the hind feet by routine claw trimming is associated with a measurable reduction of ΔT between the paired hind claws. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence for restriction of ancient primate gammaretroviruses by APOBEC3 but not TRIM5alpha proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Perez-Caballero

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of evolutionary pressures imposed through episodic colonization by retroviruses, many mammals express factors, such as TRIM5alpha and APOBEC3 proteins, that directly restrict retroviral replication. TRIM5 and APOBEC restriction factors are most often studied in the context of modern primate lentiviruses, but it is likely that ancient retroviruses imposed the selective pressure that is evident in primate TRIM5 and APOBEC3 genes. Moreover, these antiretroviral factors have been shown to act against a variety of retroviruses, including gammaretroviruses. Endogenous retroviruses can provide a 'fossil record' of extinct retroviruses and perhaps evidence of ancient TRIM5 and APOBEC3 antiviral activity. Here, we investigate whether TRIM5 and APOBEC3 proteins restricted the replication of two groups of gammaretroviruses that were endogenized in the past few million years. These endogenous retroviruses appear quite widespread in the genomes of old world primates but failed to colonize the human germline. Our analyses suggest that TRIM5alpha proteins did not pose a major barrier to the cross-species transmission of these two families of gammaretroviruses, and did not contribute to their extinction. However, we uncovered extensive evidence for inactivation of ancient gammaretroviruses through the action of APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. Interestingly, the identities of the cytidine deaminases responsible for inactivation appear to have varied in both a virus and host species-dependent manner. Overall, sequence analyses and reconstitution of ancient retroviruses from remnants that have been preserved in the genomes of modern organisms offer the opportunity to probe and potentially explain the evolutionary history of host defenses against retroviruses.

  20. The ability of White Leghorn hens with trimmed comb and wattles to thermoregulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ramamneh, D S; Makagon, M M; Hester, P Y

    2016-08-01

    It is estimated that each year over 19 million pullets in the United States have their combs partially trimmed at a young age to improve egg production and feed efficiency. A possible disadvantage of trimming is that the comb and wattles may be essential for thermoregulation during hot weather allowing for conductive cooling of the blood through vasodilation of superficial vessels in these integumentary tissues. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial comb and wattle removal, performed at 21 d of age, on the ability of White Leghorns to thermoregulate before, during, and after an imposed heating episode that averaged 34.6°C for 50.5 h. An increase in mortality at 20 h and body temperature at 48 h post initiation of the heating episode demonstrated that hens with trimmed comb and wattles were not able to cope with heat stress as effectively as controls. The increase in wattle temperature in controls as compared to trimmed hens during the heating episode and following heat stress provides supportive evidence that blood pools to the peripheral surface for conductive heat loss. During high temperatures typical of summer, trimmed hens attempted to compensate for their lack of ability to transfer heat from their comb and wattles to the environment through increased proportion of panting and wing spreading. Under less extreme conditions with lowered ambient temperatures, the trimming of the comb and wattles did not impair the ability of hens to thermoregulate, as body temperatures and behavior were similar to controls with no mortality. Egg weight was the only production parameter adversely affected by the trimming of the comb and wattles as compared to controls. The implication is that hens need their combs and wattles to thermoregulate effectively during periods of high environmental temperature. Pullets should not be subjected to a comb and wattle trim if they are housed in laying facilities that are not appropriately cooled during the

  1. 77 FR 73415 - Authorization of Export Production Activity, Foreign-Trade Subzone 12A, TST NA Trim, LLC (Fabric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-62-2012] Authorization of Export Production Activity, Foreign-Trade Subzone 12A, TST NA Trim, LLC (Fabric/Leather Lamination and Cutting), Hidalgo, TX... of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of TST NA Trim, LLC...

  2. Expression of TRIM28 correlates with proliferation and Bortezomib-induced apoptosis in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-Pei; Ding, Da-Zhi; Shi, Bing; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Gu, Ling-Li; Wang, Yu-Chan; Cheng, Chun

    2018-03-23

    Tripartite motif containing 28 (TRIM28) as a transcriptional co-repressor has been reported playing a role in regulating DNA damage response (DDR), cell differentiation, immune response, and tumorigenesis. The present study was performed to explore the biological function and clinical significance of TRIM28 in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Results of the study displayed that high expression of TRIM28 was positively associated with the poorer survival of B-NHL patients as an independent prognostic factor. In addition, TRIM28 could promote the B-NHL cells proliferation through modulating cell cycle progression. The change of cyclinA, P21, and PCNA expression after TRIM28 expression modified further illustrated the mechanism in which TRIM28 participated in cell proliferation progression. Moreover, inhibition TRIM28 expression in B-NHL cells enhanced the sensibility to Bortezomib by regulating p53-mediated apoptosis pathway. Taken together, the present study showed that TRIM28 functions as a tumor promoter in B-NHL and may be a novel target for drug resistance to Bortezomib.

  3. TRIM29 Overexpression Promotes Proliferation and Survival of Bladder Cancer Cells through NF-κB Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu-Tao; Liu, Sheng-Ye; Wu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    TRIM29 overexpression has been reported in several human malignancies and showed correlation with cancer cell malignancy. The aim of the current study is to examine its clinical significance and biological roles in human bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. A total of 102 cases of bladder cancer tissues were examined for TRIM29 expression by immunohistochemistry. siRNA and plasmid transfection were performed in 5637 and BIU-87 cell lines. Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to examine its biological roles and mechanism in bladder cancer cells. We found that TRIM29 overexpression showed correlation with invading depth (p=0.0087). Knockdown of TRIM29 expression in bladder cancer cell line 5637 inhibited cell growth rate and cell cycle transition while its overexpression in BIU-87 cells accelerated cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. TRIM29 overexpression also inhibited cell apoptosis induced by cisplatin. In addition, we demonstrated that TRIM29 depletion decreased while its overexpression led to upregulated expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, and Bcl-2. We also showed that TRIM29 knockdown inhibited protein kinase C (PKC) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling while its overexpression stimulated the PKC and NF-κB pathways. BAY 11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor) partly attenuated the effect of TRIM29 on expression of cyclin and Bcl-2. Treatment with PKC inhibitor staurosporine resulted in ameliorated TRIM29 induced activation of NF-κB. The current study demonstrated that TRIM29 upregulates cyclin and Bcl family proteins level to facilitate malignant cell growth and inhibit drug-induced apoptosis in bladder cancer, possibly through PKC-NF-κB signaling pathways.

  4. Developmentally regulated expression of the transmembrane adaptor protein TRIM in fetal and adult T cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huynh, T.; Wurch, A.; Bruyns, E.; Kořínek, Vladimír; Schraven, B.; Eichmann, K.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 54, 1-2 (2001), s. 146-154 ISSN 0300-9475 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : TCR * TRIM * thymocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.739, year: 2001

  5. Influence of tumbling, tumbling time, trim and sodium tripolyphosphate on quality and yield of cured hams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, R.J.; Ockerman, H.W.; Krol, B.; Moerman, P.C.; et al.

    1978-01-01

    Forty‐four boneless, cured hams were assigned to treatment groups to study the effect of tumbling, tumbling time (18 hr intermittent, 9.5 hr intermittent, 3 hr continuous), tumbling temperature (5°C and 15°C), sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) pickle level (0 and 3.3%), and trim (lean, regular, and fat)

  6. Trimming algorithm of frequency modulation for CIAE-230 MeV proton superconducting synchrocyclotron model cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengzhan; Zhang, Tianjue; Ji, Bin; Hou, Shigang; Guo, Juanjuan; Yin, Meng; Xing, Jiansheng; Lv, Yinlong; Guan, Fengping; Lin, Jun

    2017-01-01

    A new project, the 230 MeV proton superconducting synchrocyclotron for cancer therapy, was proposed at CIAE in 2013. A model cavity is designed to verify the frequency modulation trimming algorithm featuring a half-wave structure and eight sets of rotating blades for 1 kHz frequency modulation. Based on the electromagnetic (EM) field distribution analysis of the model cavity, the variable capacitor works as a function of time and the frequency can be written in Maclaurin series. Curve fitting is applied for theoretical frequency and original simulation frequency. The second-order fitting excels at the approximation given its minimum variance. Constant equivalent inductance is considered as an important condition in the calculation. The equivalent parameters of theoretical frequency can be achieved through this conversion. Then the trimming formula for rotor blade outer radius is found by discretization in time domain. Simulation verification has been performed and the results show that the calculation radius with minus 0.012 m yields an acceptable result. The trimming amendment in the time range of 0.328-0.4 ms helps to reduce the frequency error to 0.69% in Simulation C with an increment of 0.075 mm/0.001 ms, which is half of the error in Simulation A (constant radius in 0.328-0.4 ms). The verification confirms the feasibility of the trimming algorithm for synchrocyclotron frequency modulation.

  7. Scoring of digital dermatitis during milking as an alternative to scoring in a hoof trimming chute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Bach, K.

    2008-01-01

    ). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using observations from the hoof trimming chute as the "gold standard" and observations during milking as the diagnostic test. Relatively large variation was found between herds with an overall sensitivity of 0.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.59 to 0...

  8. Performance of Focused Ion Beam Trimmed Yoke-Type Magnetoresistive Heads for Magnetic Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, G.N.; Eisenberg, M.; Eisenberg, Martin; Draaisma, Eddie A.; Abelmann, Leon; Lodder, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Thin-film yoke-type magnetoresistive (MR) tape heads with eight channels have been used for scanning mag-netoresistance microscopy. The NiFe read flux guides of the channels have been trimmed down from 12 um to widths varying between 5 um and 100 nm by focused ion-beam milling with Ga+ions. The

  9. Scanning magneto-resistance microscopy with FIB trimmed yoke-type magneto-resistive tape heads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, G.N.; Eisenberg, M.; Eisenberg, M.; Persat, N.; Draaisma, E.A.; Abelmann, Leon; Lodder, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Scanning magneto-resistance microscopy has been performed with thin film yoke-type magneto-resistive tape heads possessing eight channels. The read flux guides of these channels have been trimmed down from 24 μm to widths varying between 5.5 μm and 148 nm by focused ion beam milling with Ga+ ions.

  10. Introducing trimming and function ranking to Solid Works based on function analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chechurin, Leonid S.; Wits, Wessel Willems; Bakker, Hans M.; Cascini, G.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2011-01-01

    TRIZ based Function Analysis models existing products based on functional interactions between product parts. Such a function model description is the ideal starting point for product innovation. Design engineers can apply (TRIZ) methods such as trimming and function ranking to this function model

  11. Construction and assembling of the trim coils for the Milan superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccaglioni, G.; Cartegni, G.C.; Fusetti, M.; Gini, L.; Grilli, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the main characteristics of the trim coils realized for the heavy ions superconducting cyclotron under construction at the Milan University. The guidelines in the choice of the conductor size, of the insulation and cooling parameters are discussed in some details. The main operations in the coils construction, as winding, impregnation, electrical tests and assembling, are described

  12. TRIM65-catalized ubiquitination is essential for MDA5-mediated antiviral innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan

    2017-01-01

    MDA5 plays a critical role in antiviral innate immunity by functioning as a cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA sensor that can activate type I interferon signaling pathways, but the mechanism for the activation of MDA5 is poorly understood. Here, we show that TRIM65 specifically interacts with MDA5 and promotes K63-linked ubiquitination of MDA5 at lysine 743, which is critical for MDA5 oligomerization and activation. Trim65 deficiency abolishes MDA5 agonist or encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV)–induced interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation and type I interferon production but has no effect on retinoic acid–inducible I (RIG-I), Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), or cyclic GMP-AMP synthase signaling pathways. Importantly, Trim65−/− mice are more susceptible to EMCV infection than controls and cannot produce type I interferon in vivo. Collectively, our results identify TRIM65 as an essential component for the MDA5 signaling pathway and provide physiological evidence showing that ubiquitination is important for MDA5 oligomerization and activation. PMID:28031478

  13. Effect of partial comb and wattle trim on pullet behavior and thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wattles and comb of chickens are important for thermoregulation allowing for heat exchange during high temperatures. These integumentary tissues are sometimes trimmed to prevent tears if caught on cage equipment and to also improve feed efficiency; however, the procedure itself could be painful ...

  14. Glucosidase trimming inhibitors preferentially perturb T cell activation induced by CD2 mAb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kemenade, F. J.; Rotteveel, F. T.; van den Broek, L. A.; Baars, P. A.; van Lier, R. A.; Miedema, F.

    1994-01-01

    Glycosidase trimming inhibitors may be used to study contribution of N-linked glycan moieties in T cell function. We have studied the effects of castanospermine (Cas), swainsonine (Swain), 1-deoxynojirimycin (dNM), and 1-deoxymannojirimycin (dMM) on T cell activation and differentiation. Our

  15. The influence of fat score and fat trimming on primal cut composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the primal cut composition of South African lamb carcasses with different fat scores, and to identify cuts suitable for fat trimming. Sixty grain fed Dorper lambs (rams and ewes) were divided into three groups and slaughtered at 30, 36 and 42 kg. Chilled carcass sides were ...

  16. Limit law of the iterated logarithm for B-valued trimmed sums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 2. Limit law of the iterated logarithm for -valued trimmed sums. Ke-Ang Fu Yuyang Qiu Yeling ...

  17. Genetic parameters for claw disorders and the effect of preselecting cows for trimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, van der D.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Vallee, A.A.A.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Claw disorders are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding from an economical and welfare point of view. Selection for reduced claw disorders can be based on hoof trimmer records. Typically, not all cows in a herd are trimmed. Our objectives were to estimate heritabilities and

  18. [Tripartite motif-containing protein 34 (TRIM34) colocalized with micronuclei chromosome and hampers its movement to equatorial plate during the metaphase stage of mitosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dakang; An, Xinye; Ji, Bing; Cheng, Yanli; Gao, Honglian; Tian, Mingming

    2016-06-01

    Objective To examine whether tripartite motif-containing protein 34 (TRIM34) is colocalized with micronuclei and investigate the influence on the movement of micronuclei chromosome in mitosis. Methods The eukaryotic expression vector TRIM34-pEGFP-N3 was constructed, identified and then transfected into HEK293T cells. With 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole 2HCI (DAPI) staining, the colocalization between TRIM34 and micronuclei was observed under a fluorescence microscope. Moreover, MitoTracker(R)Deep Red was used to identify the colocalization between the complex of TRIM34-micronulei and mitochondria under a confocal microscope. Finally, the effect of TRIM34 on the movement of micronuclei chromosome in mitosis was examined. Results DNA sequencing confirmed that the vector TRIM34-pEGFP-N3 was constructed successfully. A fluorescence microscope revealed that TRIM34 could be colocalized with micronuclei in HEK293T cells transfected with TRIM34-pEGFP-N3. In the same manner, a confocal microscope distinctly showed that TRIM34 was colocalized with micronuclei similarly in appearance. However, there was no distinguished colocalization relationship between the complex of TRIM34-micronulei and mitochondria. Interestingly, the micronuclei chromosome conjugated with TRIM34 was hardly transferred to equatorial plate during the metaphase stage of mitosis. Conclusion TRIM34 is colocalized with micronuclei chromosome and hampers its movement to equatorial plate in mitosis.

  19. The neural stem cell fate determinant TRIM32 regulates complex behavioral traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena eHillje

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, new neurons are generated throughout the entire lifespan in two restricted areas of the brain, the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ – olfactory bulb (OB system. In both regions newborn neurons display unique properties that clearly distinguish them from mature neurons. Enhanced excitability and increased synaptic plasticity enables them to add specific properties to information processing by modulating the existing local circuitry of already established mature neurons. Hippocampal neurogenesis has been suggested to play a role in spatial-navigation learning, spatial memory and spatial pattern separation. Cumulative evidences implicate that adult-born OB neurons contribute to learning processes and odor memory. We recently demonstrated that the cell fate determinant TRIM32 is upregulated in differentiating neuroblasts of the SVZ-OB system in the adult mouse brain. The absence of TRIM32 leads to increased progenitor cell proliferation and less cell death. Both effects accumulate in an overproduction of adult-generated OB neurons. Here, we present novel data from behavioral studies showing that such an enhancement of OB neurogenesis not necessarily leads to increased olfactory performance but in contrast even results in impaired olfactory capabilities. In addition, we show at the cellular level that TRIM32 protein levels increase during differentiation of neural stem cells. At the molecular level, several metabolic intermediates that are connected to glycolysis, glycine or cysteine metabolism are deregulated in TRIM32 knockout mice brain tissue. These metabolomics pathways are directly or indirectly linked to anxiety or depression like behavior. In summary, our study provides comprehensive data on how the impairment of neurogenesis caused by the loss of the cell fate determinant TRIM32 causes a decrease of olfactory performance as well as a deregulation of metabolomic pathways that are linked to

  20. Lead intoxication in dogs: risk assessment of feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgåsen, Helga R; Ørnsrud, Robin; Knutsen, Helle K; Bernhoft, Aksel

    2016-07-25

    Expanding lead-based bullets, commonly used for hunting of big game, produce a scattering of lead particles in the carcass around the wound channel. Trimmings around this channel, which are sometimes fed to dogs, may contain lead particles. The aim of this study was to assess potential health effects of feeding dogs such trimmings. Lead ingestion most commonly causes gastrointestinal and neurological clinical signs, although renal, skeletal, haematological, cardiovascular and biochemical effects have also been reported. Experimental data indicate that a daily dose of around 1 mg lead as lead acetate/kg body weight for ten days may be considered as a Lowest Observed Effect Level in dogs. Acute toxicity documentation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicates 300 mg/kg body weight as the lowest dose of lead acetate causing death in dogs after oral ingestion. Our assessment suggests that dogs fed trimmings of lead-shot game may be affected by the amounts of lead present, and that even deadly exposure could occasionally occur. The intestinal absorption of lead from bullets was assumed to be 10-80 % of that of lead acetate, reflecting both the variability in particle size and uncertainty about the bioavailability of metallic lead in dogs. Despite data gaps, this study indicates that feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game may represent a risk of lead intoxication. More research is needed to assess the exact consequences, if lead-based bullets are still to be used. Meanwhile, we recommend that trimmings close to the wound channel should be made inaccessible to dogs, as well as to other domestic or wild animals.

  1. The neural stem cell fate determinant TRIM32 regulates complex behavioral traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillje, Anna-Lena; Beckmann, Elisabeth; Pavlou, Maria A S; Jaeger, Christian; Pacheco, Maria P; Sauter, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens C; Lewejohann, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, new neurons are generated throughout the entire lifespan in two restricted areas of the brain, the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ)-olfactory bulb (OB) system. In both regions newborn neurons display unique properties that clearly distinguish them from mature neurons. Enhanced excitability and increased synaptic plasticity enables them to add specific properties to information processing by modulating the existing local circuitry of already established mature neurons. Hippocampal neurogenesis has been suggested to play a role in spatial-navigation learning, spatial memory, and spatial pattern separation. Cumulative evidences implicate that adult-born OB neurons contribute to learning processes and odor memory. We recently demonstrated that the cell fate determinant TRIM32 is upregulated in differentiating neuroblasts of the SVZ-OB system in the adult mouse brain. The absence of TRIM32 leads to increased progenitor cell proliferation and less cell death. Both effects accumulate in an overproduction of adult-generated OB neurons. Here, we present novel data from behavioral studies showing that such an enhancement of OB neurogenesis not necessarily leads to increased olfactory performance but in contrast even results in impaired olfactory capabilities. In addition, we show at the cellular level that TRIM32 protein levels increase during differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). At the molecular level, several metabolic intermediates that are connected to glycolysis, glycine, or cysteine metabolism are deregulated in TRIM32 knockout mice brain tissue. These metabolomics pathways are directly or indirectly linked to anxiety or depression like behavior. In summary, our study provides comprehensive data on how the impairment of neurogenesis caused by the loss of the cell fate determinant TRIM32 causes a decrease of olfactory performance as well as a deregulation of metabolomic pathways that are linked to mood disorders.

  2. Fracture Profile and Crack Propagation of Ultra-High Strength Hot-Stamped Boron Steel During Mechanical Trimming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianhong; Yang, Kun; Chen, Sisi; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical trimming process for ultra-high strength boron steel after hot stamping was carried out in this study. Shear and tensile tests were designed to analyze the influences of stress state on the fracture mode; trimmed fracture surface and profile were observed and compared to other commonly used steels such as DP980 and Q235 etc.; the crack propagation during trimming process was studied through step-by-step tests. The observation and analysis reveal that the fracture mode of hot-stamped boron steel is highly related to the stress state, it belongs to cleavage fracture on low stress triaxiality but dimple fracture on high stress triaxiality. Such phenomenon is reflected in the trimming process, during which the stress state changes from shear-dominated state to tensile-dominated state. In addition, the burnish zone of trimmed boron steel is much smaller than other high strength steels, and the profile of cutting surface shows an `S'-like shape which is destructive to the trimming tool. Moreover, during the trimming process, most martensite laths near the cutting edge are stretched and rotated markedly to the direction of the shear band, and the main crack expands along those grain boundaries, which may penetrate through a few martensite laths and form small crack branches.

  3. Trim9 Deletion Alters the Morphogenesis of Developing and Adult-Born Hippocampal Neurons and Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkle, Cortney C; Olsen, Reid H J; Kim, Hyojin; Moy, Sheryl S; Song, Juan; Gupton, Stephanie L

    2016-05-04

    During hippocampal development, newly born neurons migrate to appropriate destinations, extend axons, and ramify dendritic arbors to establish functional circuitry. These developmental stages are recapitulated in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus, where neurons are continuously generated and subsequently incorporate into existing, local circuitry. Here we demonstrate that the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM9 regulates these developmental stages in embryonic and adult-born mouse hippocampal neurons in vitro and in vivo Embryonic hippocampal and adult-born dentate granule neurons lacking Trim9 exhibit several morphological defects, including excessive dendritic arborization. Although gross anatomy of the hippocampus was not detectably altered by Trim9 deletion, a significant number of Trim9(-/-) adult-born dentate neurons localized inappropriately. These morphological and localization defects of hippocampal neurons in Trim9(-/-) mice were associated with extreme deficits in spatial learning and memory, suggesting that TRIM9-directed neuronal morphogenesis may be involved in hippocampal-dependent behaviors. Appropriate generation and incorporation of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus are critical for spatial learning and memory and other hippocampal functions. Here we identify the brain-enriched E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM9 as a novel regulator of embryonic and adult hippocampal neuron shape acquisition and hippocampal-dependent behaviors. Genetic deletion of Trim9 elevated dendritic arborization of hippocampal neurons in vitro and in vivo Adult-born dentate granule cells lacking Trim9 similarly exhibited excessive dendritic arborization and mislocalization of cell bodies in vivo These cellular defects were associated with severe deficits in spatial learning and memory. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/364940-19$15.00/0.

  4. Genome-wide association study for claw disorders and trimming status in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Spek, D; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2015-02-01

    Performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) might add to a better understanding of the development of claw disorders and the need for trimming. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to perform a GWAS on claw disorders and trimming status and to validate the results for claw disorders based on an independent data set. Data consisted of 20,474 cows with phenotypes for claw disorders and 50,238 cows with phenotypes for trimming status. Recorded claw disorders used in the current study were double sole (DS), interdigital hyperplasia (IH), sole hemorrhage (SH), sole ulcer (SU), white line separation (WLS), a combination of infectious claw disorders consisting of (inter-)digital dermatitis and heel erosion, and a combination of laminitis-related claw disorders (DS, SH, SU, and WLS). Of the cows with phenotypes for claw disorders, 1,771 cows were genotyped and these cow data were used for the GWAS on claw disorders. A SNP was considered significant when the false discovery rate≤0.05 and suggestive when the false discovery rate≤0.20. An independent data set of 185 genotyped bulls having at least 5 daughters with phenotypes (6,824 daughters in total) for claw disorders was used to validate significant and suggestive SNP detected based on the cow data. To analyze the trait "trimming status" (i.e., the need for claw trimming), a data set with 327 genotyped bulls having at least 5 daughters with phenotypes (18,525 daughters in total) was used. Based on the cow data, in total 10 significant and 45 suggestive SNP were detected for claw disorders. The 10 significant SNP were associated with SU, and mainly located on BTA8. The suggestive SNP were associated with DS, IH, SU, and laminitis-related claw disorders. Three of the suggestive SNP were validated in the data set of 185 bulls, and were located on BTA13, BTA14, and BTA17. For infectious claw disorders, SH, and WLS, no significant or suggestive SNP associations were detected. For trimming status, 1 significant

  5. Comparison of some properties of four provisional restorations resin: Trim, Tempron, Acropars TRII & Duralay (Aria Dent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monzavi A.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Use of provisional restorations is one of the important phases in the treatment of patients who need fixed prosthesis. Some physical properties are required for these materials. The purpose of this study was the comparison of some physical properties of 4 kinds of resins: Trim, Tempron, Duralay (Aria Dent and Acropars TRII. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, transverse-strength (TS, setting time (ST, polymerization shrinkage (PS and temperature rise (TR during polymerization were tested. In transverse strength test, 5 samples of each resin were made. TS testing was done with an Instron testing machine. ST testing (5 samples in each group was done with Gilmore needle. In PS test, 11 cylindric samples were prepared from each resin and the shrinkage was examined with digital micrometer (up to 24 hours. In TR test, after mixing the powder and liquid of resins (8 samples in each group, the temperature rise was recorded with 10 seconds interval (up to 15 minutes. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: In TS test, all samples of Trim were bent and no fracture was observed, while Tempron and Duralay showed no significant difference. Both Tempron and Duralay revealed high significant difference with Acropars TRII (P <0.01. In ST test, the difference between groups was significant (P<0.01. The lowest ST was observed in Acropars TRII (7 min, and the highest in Tempron (9.53 min. In PS test, significant difference was observed between Trim and Acropars TRII (P<0.01. PS was completed after 120 min in Tempron and Trim groups. However, PS continued to increase in other groups. In TR test, the difference between groups was significant (P<0.05. Duralay showed the highest TR and the lowest was seen in Trim. Conclusion: In this study, Trim showed better properties than other studied groups. Acropars TRII had the lowest strength. The highest temperature rise

  6. Comprehensive analysis of bearingless rotors - Model development and experimental correlation of modes, response, trim and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambunathan, V.; Murthy, V. R.

    1993-01-01

    A generic mathematical model that is capable of accurately modeling the multiple load path bearingless rotor blade is developed. A comprehensive, finite element based solution for the natural vibration of the rotor blade is developed. An iterative scheme based on harmonic balance is used to evaluate the nonlinear response of the rotor to control inputs and a Newton-Raphson procedure is employed to evaluate the trim of rotorcraft. Linearized perturbation model of the nonlinear system are presented. The model is validated by comparing with existing whirl tower, wind tunnel and flight test results of BMR/BO-105 helicopter. Frequencies of two bearingless rotor blades compare well with results from experiments. Nonlinear response and trim results are presented for the bearingless BMR/BO-105 rotor. Aeroelastic stability in forward flight, evaluated using floquet theory agrees with test data in general.

  7. The Formulation of Binding Agent Concentration on Raw Restructured Goat Meat Trimming Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Mastuti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of raw materials and formulation method would affect the quality of the processed meat product. Therefore, a research on the processing method to produce a raw structured product should be conducted. The research was testing a single factor comprises of following parameters: control (without binding agent; 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% sodium alginat and 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% carragenan, respectively. The results showed that the goat meat trimming could be used as raw materials in the production of the best restructured meat using 0.5% carragenan. This raw restructured meat produced had a loss weight of 1.67%, pH value  7.89, WHC  48.345, and moisture content  75.20%.   Keywords : sodium alginat, carragenan, raw restructured goat meat trimming.

  8. Intracellular antibody-mediated immunity and the role of TRIM21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, William A; Mallery, Donna L; Rhodes, David A; Trowsdale, John; James, Leo C

    2011-11-01

    Protection against bacterial and viral pathogens by antibodies has always been thought to end at the cell surface. Once inside the cell, a pathogen was understood to be safe from humoral immunity. However, it has now been found that antibodies can routinely enter cells attached to viral particles and mediate an intracellular immune response. Antibody-coated virions are detected inside the cell by means of an intracellular antibody receptor, TRIM21, which directs their degradation by recruitment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In this article we assess how this discovery alters our view of the way in which antibodies neutralise viral infection. We also consider the antiviral function of TRIM21 in the context of its other reported roles in immune signalling and autoimmunity. Finally, we discuss the conceptual implications of intracellular antibody immunity and how it alters our view of the discrete separation of extracellular and intracellular environments. Copyright © 2011 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Trim39 ubiquitin ligase inhibits APC/CCdh1-mediated degradation of the Bax activator MOAP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nai-Jia; Zhang, Liguo; Tang, Wanli; Chen, Chen; Yang, Chih-Sheng; Kornbluth, Sally

    2012-04-30

    Proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, such as Bax, promote release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, leading to caspase activation and cell death. It was previously reported that modulator of apoptosis protein 1 (MOAP-1), an enhancer of Bax activation induced by DNA damage, is stabilized by Trim39, a protein of unknown function. In this paper, we show that MOAP-1 is a novel substrate of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C(Cdh1)) ubiquitin ligase. The influence of Trim39 on MOAP-1 levels stems from the ability of Trim39 (a RING domain E3 ligase) to directly inhibit APC/C(Cdh1)-mediated protein ubiquitylation. Accordingly, small interfering ribonucleic acid-mediated knockdown of Cdh1 stabilized MOAP-1, thereby enhancing etoposide-induced Bax activation and apoptosis. These data identify Trim39 as a novel APC/C regulator and provide an unexpected link between the APC/C and apoptotic regulation via MOAP-1.

  10. Space shuttle orbiter trimmed center-of-gravity extension study. Volume 6: System design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macconochie, I. O.

    1978-01-01

    System studies were made to determine the required changes in shuttle orbiter mass for various changes in aerodynamic shape. These changes are designed to extend the current shuttle orbiter trimmed c.g. envelope to accommodate a greater range of payloads. One of the apparently most viable changes for the amount of c.g. extension obtained involves the removal of the present wing/body fillet and the replacement of this structural element with a forward located fixed canard.

  11. Least Trimmed Squares Approach to Lucas-Kanade Algorithm in Object Tracking Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yih-Lon

    2013-01-01

    The object tracking problem is an important research topic in computer vision. For real applications such as vehicle tracking and face tracking, there are many efficient and real-time algorithms. In this study, we will focus on the Lucas-Kanade (LK) algorithm for object tracking. Although this method is time consuming, it is effective in tracking accuracy and environment adaptation. In the standard LK method, the sum of squared errors is used as the cost function, while least trimmed squares...

  12. FlameTrim: visual sensing for optimised control of burner bank performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bascones, I.; Sanchez-Biezma, A.; Sierra, I.; Nielssen, H.-J.; Palacio, J. [TECNATOM S.A. (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years on-line flame monitoring systems have been developed to allow fast combustion changes to be followed in pulverized coal boilers. This paper focusses on the FlameTrim advanced optical sensor developed under the European project VISCON by three companies - TECTATOM (Spain), CINAR (UK) and YORTECH (Denmark). It describes the system design and operation and mentions two prototypes being installed in fossil-fuel power plants - Teruel (ENDESA) and Nordjyllandsvaerket (ELSAM). 5 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Development and validation of the Treatment Related Impact Measure of Weight (TRIM-Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessard Suzanne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of prescription anti-obesity medication (AOM is becoming increasingly common as treatment options grow and become more accessible. However, AOM may not be without a wide range of potentially negative impacts on patient functioning and well being. The Treatment Related Impact Measure (TRIM-Weight is an obesity treatment-specific patient reported outcomes (PRO measure designed to assess the key impacts of prescription anti-obesity medication. This paper will present the validation findings for the TRIM-Weight. Methods The online validation battery survey was administered in four countries (the U.S., U.K., Australia, and Canada. Eligible subjects were over age eighteen, currently taking a prescription AOM and were currently or had been obese during their life. Validation analyses were conducted according to an a priori statistical analysis plan. Item level psychometric and conceptual criteria were used to refine and reduce the preliminary item pool and factor analysis to identify structural domains was performed. Reliability and validity testing was then performed and the minimally importance difference (MID explored. Results Two hundred and eight subjects completed the survey. Twenty-one of the 43 items were dropped and a five-factor structure was achieved: Daily Life, Weight Management, Treatment Burden, Experience of Side Effects, and Psychological Health. A-priori criteria for internal consistency and test-retest coefficients for the total score and all five subscales were met. All pre-specified hypotheses for convergent and known group validity were also met with the exception of the domain of Daily Life (proven in an ad hoc analysis as well as the 1/2 standard deviation threshold for the MID. Conclusion The development and validation of the TRIM-Weight has been conducted according to well-defined principles for the creation of a PRO measure. Based on the evidence to date, the TRIM-Weight can be considered a brief

  14. UrQt: an efficient software for the Unsupervised Quality trimming of NGS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, Laurent; Lerat, Emmanuelle

    2015-04-29

    Quality control is a necessary step of any Next Generation Sequencing analysis. Although customary, this step still requires manual interventions to empirically choose tuning parameters according to various quality statistics. Moreover, current quality control procedures that provide a "good quality" data set, are not optimal and discard many informative nucleotides. To address these drawbacks, we present a new quality control method, implemented in UrQt software, for Unsupervised Quality trimming of Next Generation Sequencing reads. Our trimming procedure relies on a well-defined probabilistic framework to detect the best segmentation between two segments of unreliable nucleotides, framing a segment of informative nucleotides. Our software only requires one user-friendly parameter to define the minimal quality threshold (phred score) to consider a nucleotide to be informative, which is independent of both the experiment and the quality of the data. This procedure is implemented in C++ in an efficient and parallelized software with a low memory footprint. We tested the performances of UrQt compared to the best-known trimming programs, on seven RNA and DNA sequencing experiments and demonstrated its optimality in the resulting tradeoff between the number of trimmed nucleotides and the quality objective. By finding the best segmentation to delimit a segment of good quality nucleotides, UrQt greatly increases the number of reads and of nucleotides that can be retained for a given quality objective. UrQt source files, binary executables for different operating systems and documentation are freely available (under the GPLv3) at the following address: https://lbbe.univ-lyon1.fr/-UrQt-.html .

  15. The Host E3-Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM6 Ubiquitinates the Ebola Virus VP35 Protein and Promotes Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharaj, Preeti; Atkins, Colm; Luthra, Priya; Giraldo, Maria Isabel; Dawes, Brian E; Miorin, Lisa; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Krogan, Nevan J; Basler, Christopher F; Freiberg, Alexander N; Rajsbaum, Ricardo

    2017-09-15

    Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the Filoviridae family, is a highly pathogenic virus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and is responsible for epidemics throughout sub-Saharan, central, and West Africa. The EBOV genome encodes VP35, an important viral protein involved in virus replication by acting as an essential cofactor of the viral polymerase as well as a potent antagonist of the host antiviral type I interferon (IFN-I) system. By using mass spectrometry analysis and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we show here that VP35 is ubiquitinated on lysine 309 (K309), a residue located on its IFN antagonist domain. We also found that VP35 interacts with TRIM6, a member of the E3-ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif (TRIM) family. We recently reported that TRIM6 promotes the synthesis of unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin chains, which are not covalently attached to any protein, to induce efficient antiviral IFN-I-mediated responses. Consistent with this notion, VP35 also associated noncovalently with polyubiquitin chains and inhibited TRIM6-mediated IFN-I induction. Intriguingly, we also found that TRIM6 enhances EBOV polymerase activity in a minigenome assay and TRIM6 knockout cells have reduced replication of infectious EBOV, suggesting that VP35 hijacks TRIM6 to promote EBOV replication through ubiquitination. Our work provides evidence that TRIM6 is an important host cellular factor that promotes EBOV replication, and future studies will focus on whether TRIM6 could be targeted for therapeutic intervention against EBOV infection. IMPORTANCE EBOV belongs to a family of highly pathogenic viruses that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and other mammals with high mortality rates (40 to 90%). Because of its high pathogenicity and lack of licensed antivirals and vaccines, EBOV is listed as a tier 1 select-agent risk group 4 pathogen. An important mechanism for the severity of EBOV infection is its suppression of innate immune responses. The EBOV VP35

  16. Testing of the Trim Tab Parametric Model in NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Watkins, Anthony N.; Korzun, Ashley M.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    In support of NASA's Entry, Descent, and Landing technology development efforts, testing of Langley's Trim Tab Parametric Models was conducted in Test Section 2 of NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The objectives of these tests were to generate quantitative aerodynamic data and qualitative surface pressure data for experimental and computational validation and aerodynamic database development. Six component force-and-moment data were measured on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations at Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5, angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg, and angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg. Configuration parameters investigated in this study were forebody shape, tab area, tab cant angle, and tab aspect ratio. Pressure Sensitive Paint was used to provide qualitative surface pressure mapping for a subset of these flow and configuration variables. Over the range of parameters tested, the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than varying tab aspect ratio relative to key aerodynamic performance requirements. Qualitative surface pressure data supported the integrated aerodynamic data and provided information to aid in future analyses of localized phenomena for trim tab configurations.

  17. TRIM28 is an Epigenetic Barrier to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Denise Catherine; de Vries, Nienke Alexandra; Gisler, Santiago; Lieftink, Cor; Akhtar, Waseem; Gogola, Ewa; Pawlitzky, Inka; Hulsman, Danielle; Tanger, Ellen; Koppens, Martijn; Beijersbergen, Roderick Leonardus; van Lohuizen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells there has been intense interest in understanding the mechanisms that allow a somatic cell to be reprogrammed back to a pluripotent state. Several groups have studied the alterations in gene expression that occur as somatic cells modify their genome to that of an embryonic stem cell. Underpinning many of the gene expression changes are modifications to the epigenetic profile of the associated chromatin. We have used a large-scale shRNA screen to identify epigenetic modifiers that act as barriers to reprogramming. We have uncovered an important role for TRIM28 in cells resisting transition between somatic and pluripotent states. TRIM28 achieves this by maintaining the H3K9me3 repressed state and keeping endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) silenced. We propose that knockdown of TRIM28 during reprogramming results in more plastic H3K9me3 domains, dysregulation of genes nearby H3K9me3 marks, and up regulation of ERVs, thus facilitating the transition through reprogramming. Stem Cells 2017;35:147-157. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Resampling nucleotide sequences with closest-neighbor trimming and its comparison to other methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Yonezawa

    Full Text Available A large number of nucleotide sequences of various pathogens are available in public databases. The growth of the datasets has resulted in an enormous increase in computational costs. Moreover, due to differences in surveillance activities, the number of sequences found in databases varies from one country to another and from year to year. Therefore, it is important to study resampling methods to reduce the sampling bias. A novel algorithm-called the closest-neighbor trimming method-that resamples a given number of sequences from a large nucleotide sequence dataset was proposed. The performance of the proposed algorithm was compared with other algorithms by using the nucleotide sequences of human H3N2 influenza viruses. We compared the closest-neighbor trimming method with the naive hierarchical clustering algorithm and [Formula: see text]-medoids clustering algorithm. Genetic information accumulated in public databases contains sampling bias. The closest-neighbor trimming method can thin out densely sampled sequences from a given dataset. Since nucleotide sequences are among the most widely used materials for life sciences, we anticipate that our algorithm to various datasets will result in reducing sampling bias.

  19. Dairy cows change locomotion score and sensitivity to pain with trimming and infectious or non-infectious lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, L T; Cruz, E A da; Fischer, V; Porciuncula, G C da; Werncke, D; Dalto, A G C; Stumpf, M T; Vizzotto, E F; da Silveira, I D B

    2017-04-01

    Lameness can negatively affect production, but there is still controversy about the perception of pain in dairy cows. This study aimed to verify the effects of hoof affections in dairy cows on locomotion score, physiological attributes, pressure nociceptive threshold, and thermographic variables, as well as assess improvement on these variables after corrective trimming and treatment. Thirty-four lame lactating cows were gait-scored, and all cows with locomotion score ≥4 were retained for this study 1 day before trimming. Lame cows were diagnosed, pressure nociceptive threshold at sound, and affected hooves were measured, thermographic images were recorded, and physiological attributes were evaluated. Hooves with lesions were trimmed and treated and cows were re-evaluated 1 week after such procedures. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Each cow was considered an experimental unit and traits were analyzed using paired t test, linear correlation, and linear regression. Digital and interdigital dermatitis were classified as infectious diseases while laminitis sequels, sole ulcers, and white line were classified as non-infectious diseases. After 1 week, the locomotion score was reduced on average in 1.5 points. Trimming increased the pressure nociceptive threshold for cows with non-infectious affections while tended to increase the pressure nociceptive threshold for cows with infectious affections. Physiological attributes and thermographic values did not change with trimming. Trimming and treatment have benefic effects on animal welfare as gait is improved and sensitivity to pain is reduced.

  20. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for use During the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale wind tunnel test to evaluate the effects of Individual Blade Control (IBC) on the performance, vibration, noise and loads of a UH-60A rotor was recently completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel [1]. A key component of this wind tunnel test was an automatic rotor trim control system that allowed the rotor trim state to be set more precisely, quickly and repeatably than was possible with the rotor operator setting the trim condition manually. The trim control system was also able to maintain the desired trim condition through changes in IBC actuation both in open- and closed-loop IBC modes, and through long-period transients in wind tunnel flow. This ability of the trim control system to automatically set and maintain a steady rotor trim enabled the effects of different IBC inputs to be compared at common trim conditions and to perform these tests quickly without requiring the rotor operator to re-trim the rotor. The trim control system described in this paper was developed specifically for use during the IBC wind tunnel test

  1. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  2. The C-Terminal Tail of TRIM56 Dictates Antiviral Restriction of Influenza A and B Viruses by Impeding Viral RNA Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoming; Li, Nan L; Shen, Yang; Bao, Xiaoyong; Fabrizio, Thomas; Elbahesh, Husni; Webby, Richard J; Li, Kui

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating data suggest that tripartite-motif-containing (TRIM) proteins participate in host responses to viral infections, either by acting as direct antiviral restriction factors or through regulating innate immune signaling of the host. Of >70 TRIMs, TRIM56 is a restriction factor of several positive-strand RNA viruses, including three members of the family Flaviviridae(yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus) and a human coronavirus (OC43), and this ability invariably depends upon the E3 ligase activity of TRIM56. However, the impact of TRIM56 on negative-strand RNA viruses remains unclear. Here, we show that TRIM56 puts a check on replication of influenza A and B viruses in cell culture but does not inhibit Sendai virus or human metapneumovirus, two paramyxoviruses. Interestingly, the anti-influenza virus activity was independent of the E3 ligase activity, B-box, or coiled-coil domain. Rather, deletion of a 63-residue-long C-terminal-tail portion of TRIM56 abrogated the antiviral function. Moreover, expression of this short C-terminal segment curtailed the replication of influenza viruses as effectively as that of full-length TRIM56. Mechanistically, TRIM56 was found to specifically impede intracellular influenza virus RNA synthesis. Together, these data reveal a novel antiviral activity of TRIM56 against influenza A and B viruses and provide insights into the mechanism by which TRIM56 restricts these medically important orthomyxoviruses. Options to treat influenza are limited, and drug-resistant influenza virus strains can emerge through minor genetic changes. Understanding novel virus-host interactions that alter influenza virus fitness may reveal new targets/approaches for therapeutic interventions. We show here that TRIM56, a tripartite-motif protein, is an intrinsic host restriction factor of influenza A and B viruses. Unlike its antiviral actions against positive-strand RNA viruses, the anti-influenza virus activity of TRIM56

  3. TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of TRIMCyp in rhesus macaque, negatively modulates TRIM5α activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Lei; Tang, Yan-Dong; Liu, Jian-Dong; Yu, Chang-Qing; Sun, Liu-Ke; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TRIMe7-CypA expresses in rhesus and pig-tailed, but not long-tailed macaques. • TRIMe7-CypA does not show the restriction to a HIV-GFP report virus in vitro. • It acts as a negative modulator to TRIM5α likely by competitive inhibition. - Abstract: The existence of innate, host-specific restriction factors is a major obstacle to the development of nonhuman primate models for AIDS studies, and TRIM5α is one of the most important of these restriction factors. In recent years, a TRIM5 chimeric gene that was retrotransposed by a cyclophilin A (CypA) cDNA was identified in certain macaque species. The TRIM5α-CypA fusion protein, TRIMCyp, which was expressed in these monkeys, had lost its restriction ability toward HIV-1. We previously found that TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of the TRIMCyp transcripts, was expressed in pig-tailed and rhesus macaques but absent in long-tailed macaques. In this study, the anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIMe7-CypA in the rhesus macaque (RhTRIMe7-CypA) was investigated. The over-expression of RhTRIMe7-CypA in CrFK, HeLa and HEK293T cells did not restrict the infection or replication of an HIV-1-GFP reporter virus in these cells. As a positive control, rhesus (rh)TRIM5α strongly inhibited the reporter virus. Intriguingly, the anti-HIV-1 activity of RhTRIM5α was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the co-repression of RhTRIMe7-CypA. Our data indicate that although the RhTRIMe7-CypA isoform does not appear to restrict HIV-1, it may act as a negative modulator of TRIM family proteins, presumably by competitive inhibition

  4. TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of TRIMCyp in rhesus macaque, negatively modulates TRIM5α activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Lei [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Yan-Dong [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Biotechnology Institute of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Liu, Jian-Dong; Yu, Chang-Qing; Sun, Liu-Ke; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Xiaojun, E-mail: xjw@hvri.ac.cn [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou, Jian-Hua, E-mail: jianhua_uc@126.com [Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150001 (China); Harbin Pharmaceutical Group Biovaccine Company, Harbin 150069 (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • TRIMe7-CypA expresses in rhesus and pig-tailed, but not long-tailed macaques. • TRIMe7-CypA does not show the restriction to a HIV-GFP report virus in vitro. • It acts as a negative modulator to TRIM5α likely by competitive inhibition. - Abstract: The existence of innate, host-specific restriction factors is a major obstacle to the development of nonhuman primate models for AIDS studies, and TRIM5α is one of the most important of these restriction factors. In recent years, a TRIM5 chimeric gene that was retrotransposed by a cyclophilin A (CypA) cDNA was identified in certain macaque species. The TRIM5α-CypA fusion protein, TRIMCyp, which was expressed in these monkeys, had lost its restriction ability toward HIV-1. We previously found that TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of the TRIMCyp transcripts, was expressed in pig-tailed and rhesus macaques but absent in long-tailed macaques. In this study, the anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIMe7-CypA in the rhesus macaque (RhTRIMe7-CypA) was investigated. The over-expression of RhTRIMe7-CypA in CrFK, HeLa and HEK293T cells did not restrict the infection or replication of an HIV-1-GFP reporter virus in these cells. As a positive control, rhesus (rh)TRIM5α strongly inhibited the reporter virus. Intriguingly, the anti-HIV-1 activity of RhTRIM5α was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the co-repression of RhTRIMe7-CypA. Our data indicate that although the RhTRIMe7-CypA isoform does not appear to restrict HIV-1, it may act as a negative modulator of TRIM family proteins, presumably by competitive inhibition.

  5. Over-expression of TRIM37 promotes cell migration and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jianxin; Yu, Chao; Chen, Meiyuan; Tian, She; Sun, Chengyi, E-mail: chenyisun11@163.com

    2015-09-04

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common cancer in the world especially in East Asia and Africa. Advanced stage, metastasis and frequent relapse are responsible for the poor prognosis of HCC. However, the precise mechanisms underlying HCC remained unclear. So it is urgent to identify the pathological processes and relevant molecules of HCC. TRIM37 is an E3 ligase and has been observed deregulated expression in various tumors. Recent studies of TRIM37 have implicated that TRIM37 played critical roles in cell proliferation and other processes. In the present study, we demonstrated that TRIM37 expression was notably up-regulated in HCC samples and was associated with advanced stage and tumor volume, which all indicating the poor outcomes. We also found that TRIM37 could serve as an independent prognostic factor of HCC. During the course of in vitro and in vivo work, we showed that TRIM37 promoted HCC cells migration and metastasis by inducing EMT. Furthermore, we revealed that the effect of TRIM37 mediated EMT in HCC cells was achieved by the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These finding may provide insight into the understanding of TRIM37 as a novel critical factor of HCC and a candidate target for HCC treatment. - Highlights: • Highly expression of TRIM37 is found in HCC samples compared with nontumorous samples. • TRIM37 expression is correlated with advanced HCC stages and could be an independent prognostic factor. • TRIM37 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis. • We report an E3 ligase TRIM37 affects Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  6. TRIM25 Identification in the Chinese Goose: Gene Structure, Tissue Expression Profiles, and Antiviral Immune Responses In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunan Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I and the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR protein play a critical role in the interferon (IFN response during RNA virus infection. The tripartite motif containing 25 proteins (TRIM25 was reported to modify caspase activation and RIG-I recruitment domains (CARDs via ubiquitin. These modifications allow TRIM25 to interact with mitochondrial antiviral signaling molecules (MAVs and form CARD-CARD tetramers. Goose TRIM25 was cloned from gosling lungs, which possess a 1662 bp open reading flame (ORF. This ORF encodes a predicted 554 amino acid protein consisting of a B-box domain, a coiled-coil domain, and a PRY/SPRY domain. The protein sequence has 89.25% sequence identity with Anas platyrhynchos TRIM25, 78.57% with Gallus gallus TRIM25, and 46.92% with Homo sapiens TRIM25. TRIM25 is expressed in all gosling and adult goose tissues examined. QRT-PCR revealed that goose TRIM25 transcription could be induced by goose IFN-α, goose IFN-γ, and goose IFN-λ, as well as a35 s polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C, oligodeoxynucleotides 2006 (ODN 2006, and resiquimod (R848 in vitro; however, it is inhibited in H9N2 infected goslings for unknown reasons. These data suggest that goose TRIM25 might play a positive role in the regulation of the antiviral immune response.

  7. TRIM25 Identification in the Chinese Goose: Gene Structure, Tissue Expression Profiles, and Antiviral Immune Responses In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunan; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Anqi; Sun, Lipei; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Sun, Kunfeng; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun; Chen, Shun

    2016-01-01

    The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) protein play a critical role in the interferon (IFN) response during RNA virus infection. The tripartite motif containing 25 proteins (TRIM25) was reported to modify caspase activation and RIG-I recruitment domains (CARDs) via ubiquitin. These modifications allow TRIM25 to interact with mitochondrial antiviral signaling molecules (MAVs) and form CARD-CARD tetramers. Goose TRIM25 was cloned from gosling lungs, which possess a 1662 bp open reading flame (ORF). This ORF encodes a predicted 554 amino acid protein consisting of a B-box domain, a coiled-coil domain, and a PRY/SPRY domain. The protein sequence has 89.25% sequence identity with Anas platyrhynchos TRIM25, 78.57% with Gallus gallus TRIM25, and 46.92% with Homo sapiens TRIM25. TRIM25 is expressed in all gosling and adult goose tissues examined. QRT-PCR revealed that goose TRIM25 transcription could be induced by goose IFN- α , goose IFN- γ , and goose IFN- λ , as well as a35 s polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), oligodeoxynucleotides 2006 (ODN 2006), and resiquimod (R848) in vitro; however, it is inhibited in H9N2 infected goslings for unknown reasons. These data suggest that goose TRIM25 might play a positive role in the regulation of the antiviral immune response.

  8. TRIM25 is associated with cisplatin resistance in non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cell line via downregulation of 14-3-3σ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xia; Qiu, Feng; Zou, Zhen

    2017-11-04

    Lung cancer, in particular, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin, CDDP) as first-line chemotherapy for NSCLC, but resistance occurs frequently. We previously reported that Tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25) was highly expressed in cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells (A549/CDDP) in comparison with its parental A549 cells. Herein, we take a further step to demonstrate the association of TRIM25 and cisplatin resistance and also the underlying mechanisms. Knockdown of TRIM25 by RNA interference in A549/CDDP cells decreased half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values and promoted apoptosis in response to cisplatin, whereas overexpression of TRIM25 had opposite effects. More importantly, we found that concomitant knockdown of 14-3-3σ and TRIM25 absolutely reversed the decreased MDM2, increased p53, increased cleaved-Capsese3 and decreased IC 50 value induced by knockdown of TRIM25 individually, suggesting that TRIM25 mediated cisplatin resistance primarily through downregulation of 14-3-3σ. Our results indicate that TRIM25 is associated with cisplatin resistance and 14-3-3σ-MDM2-p53 signaling pathway is involved in this process, suggesting targeting TRIM25 may be a potential strategy for the reversal of cisplatin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. PML/TRIM19-Dependent Inhibition of Retroviral Reverse-Transcription by Daxx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrieux, Jacques; Maarifi, Ghizlane; Portilho, Débora M; Arhel, Nathalie J; Chelbi-Alix, Mounira K; Nisole, Sébastien

    2015-11-01

    PML (Promyelocytic Leukemia protein), also known as TRIM19, belongs to the family of tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins. PML is mainly expressed in the nucleus, where it forms dynamic structures known as PML nuclear bodies that recruit many other proteins, such as Sp100 and Daxx. While the role of PML/TRIM19 in antiviral defense is well documented, its effect on HIV-1 infection remains unclear. Here we show that infection by HIV-1 and other retroviruses triggers the formation of PML cytoplasmic bodies, as early as 30 minutes post-infection. Quantification of the number and size of PML cytoplasmic bodies revealed that they last approximately 8 h, with a peak at 2 h post-infection. PML re-localization is blocked by reverse-transcription inhibitors and is not observed following infection with unrelated viruses, suggesting it is specifically triggered by retroviral reverse-transcription. Furthermore, we show that PML interferes with an early step of retroviral infection since PML knockdown dramatically increases reverse-transcription efficiency. We demonstrate that PML does not inhibit directly retroviral infection but acts through the stabilization of one of its well-characterized partners, Daxx. In the presence of PML, cytoplasmic Daxx is found in the vicinity of incoming HIV-1 capsids and inhibits reverse-transcription. Interestingly, Daxx not only interferes with exogenous retroviral infections but can also inhibit retrotransposition of endogenous retroviruses, thus identifying Daxx as a broad cellular inhibitor of reverse-transcription. Altogether, these findings unravel a novel antiviral function for PML and PML nuclear body-associated protein Daxx.

  10. Effect of tool wear on quality of carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminate during edge trimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedanianpour, Hossein

    Polymer matrix composites, especially carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) are vastly used in different high technology industries, including aerospace, automotive and wind energy. Normally, when CFRPs are cured to near net shape, finishing operations such as trimming, milling or drilling are used to remove excess materials. The quality of these finishing operations is highly essential at the level of final assembly. The present study aims to study the effect of cutting tool wear on the resulting quality for the trimming process of high performance CFRP laminates, in the aerospace field. In terms of quality parameters, the study focuses on surface roughness and material integrity damages (uncut fibers, fiber pullout, delamination or thermal damage of the matrix), which could jeopardize the mechanical performance of the components. In this study, a 3/8 inch diameter CVD diamond coated carbide tool with six flutes was used to trim 24-ply carbon fiber laminates. Cutting speeds ranging from 200 m/min to 400 m/min and feed rates ranging from 0.3048 mm/rev to 0.4064 mm/rev were used in the experiments. The results obtained using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed increasing defect rates with an increase in tool wear. The worst surface integrity, including matrix cracking, fiber pull-out and empty holes, was also observed for plies oriented at -45° degrees. For the surface finish, it was observed that an increase in tool wear resulted in a decrease in surface roughness. Regarding tool wear, a lower rate was observed at lower feed rates and higher cutting speeds, while a higher tool wear rate was observed at intermediate values of our feed rate and cutting speed ranges.

  11. Two impulse trajectory optimization for the RAE-B orbit trim problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, M. H.; Pines, S.; Horsewood, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The results are reported of work on an appropriate approach to the solution of the optimum two-impulse transfer problem between orbits of specified inclination. The task included a literature search to identify the current state of the art and a definition of the suggested approach for the specific application of a lunar orbit trim. The applications of the results to the problem are included. The formulation for a computer program developed under this task following a more conventional approach is also included.

  12. The Formulation of Binding Agent Concentration on Raw Restructured Goat Meat Trimming Product

    OpenAIRE

    Rini Mastuti

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of raw materials and formulation method would affect the quality of the processed meat product. Therefore, a research on the processing method to produce a raw structured product should be conducted. The research was testing a single factor comprises of following parameters: control (without) binding agent; 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% sodium alginat and 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% carragenan, respectively. The results showed that the goat meat trimming could be used as raw materials in the pr...

  13. Investigating the MACH-IV with item response theory and proposing the trimmed MACH*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauthmann, John F

    2013-01-01

    The MACH-IV was investigated (N = 528) with item response theory to elucidate its psychometric properties and suggest a trimmed version, the MACH*. The core content of the MACH-IV seemed to be cynicism/misanthropy and the MACH* was formed from the 5 most informative and precise MACH-IV items. The MACH* showed good internal consistency and construct and criterion validity comparable to the MACH-IV. The MACH-IV and MACH* measure most precisely at average to above average levels of Machiavellianism. Implications for theory and measurement of Machiavellianism are discussed.

  14. PENGARUH KARAKTERISTIK PEKERJAAN DAN IKLIM KOMUNIKASI TERHADAP KEPUASAN KERJA KARYAWAN OPERATOR BAGIAN TRIMMING I PT KRAMA YUDHA RATU MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung AWS Waspodo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research are: 1 To know the description of job characteristics, communication climate, and job satisfaction employees at trimming 1 PT Krama Yudha Ratu Motor. 2 To know about the influence of job characteristics toward job satisfaction trimming 1 employee’s at PT Krama Yudha Ratu Motor. 3 To know about the influence of communication climate toward job satisfaction trimming 1 employee’s at PT Krama Yudha Ratu Motor. 4 To know about the influence of job characteristics and communication climate toward job satisfaction trimming 1 employee’s at PT Krama Yudha Ratu Motor. The analysis implemented in this research are descriptive and explanatory analysis. This research is taken 71 trimming 1 employee’s at PT Krama Yudha Ratu Motor. While data collection by using questionnaire and cultivated processed using SPSS 16. The result showed that: 1 Job characteristics has a significant influence on job satisfaction. 2 communication climate has a significant influence on job satisfaction. 3 job characteristics and communication climate has a significant influence on job satisfaction.

  15. The Salmonella Effector Protein SopA Modulates Innate Immune Responses by Targeting TRIM E3 Ligase Family Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kamanova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium stimulates inflammatory responses in the intestinal epithelium, which are essential for its ability to replicate within the intestinal tract. Stimulation of these responses is strictly dependent on the activity of a type III secretion system encoded within its pathogenicity island 1, which through the delivery of effector proteins, triggers signaling pathways leading to inflammation. One of these effectors is SopA, a HECT-type E3 ligase, which is required for the efficient stimulation of inflammation in an animal model of Salmonella Typhimurium infection. We show here that SopA contributes to the stimulation of innate immune responses by targeting two host E3 ubiquitin ligases, TRIM56 and TRIM65. We also found that TRIM65 interacts with the innate immune receptor MDA5 enhancing its ability to stimulate interferon-β signaling. Therefore, by targeting TRIM56 and TRIM65, SopA can stimulate signaling through two innate immune receptors, RIG-I and MDA5. These findings describe a Salmonella mechanism to modulate inflammatory responses by directly targeting innate immune signaling mechanisms.

  16. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  17. Flexible Stock Allocation and Trim Loss Control for Cutting Problem in the Industrial-Use Paper Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Kwun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a one-dimensional cutting stock problem (CSP in which the stock widths are not used to fulfill the order but kept for use in the future for the industrial-use paper production. We present a new model based on the flexible stock allocation and trim loss control to determine the production quantity. We evaluate our approach using a real data and show that we are able to solve industrial-size problems, while also addressing common cutting considerations such as aggregation of orders, multiple stock widths, and cutting different patterns on the same machine. In addition, we compare our model with others, including trim loss minimization problem (TLMP and cutting stock problem (CSP. The results show that the proposed model outperforms the other two models regarding total flexibility and trim loss ratio.

  18. BCG Increased Membrane Expression of TRIM59 Through the TLR2/ TLR4/IRF5 Pathway in RAW264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zheng; Tian, Yuan; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Dong; Zhu, Xun

    2017-01-01

    In our previous study, we showed that Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)- activated macrophages have the ability to directly kill tumor cells. One of the main properties of these macrophages is the high expression of tripartite motif family protein 59 (TRIM59). This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of BCG-induced TRIM59 expression on macrophages and to identify the subcellular localization of TRIM59. TRIM59 expression and TNF-α secretion were compared in RAW264.7 macrophage cells that were stimulated using BCG with or without Toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4)-neutralizing antibodies. Next, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to down-regulated interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene expression in RAW264.7 cells. Transfected cells were stimulated with BCG, after which TRIM59 expression and TNF-α secretion were evaluated in cells pre-treated with siRNA or scramble control. After treatments, supernatants were co-cultured with MCA207, and cell viabilities were determined. Moreover, BCG-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were stained for TRIM59 and F4/80 expression. In this study, we showed that TRIM59 was expressed on the membrane of RAW264.7 cells. After blocking TLR2/4, treatment with BCG failed to induce the expression of TRIM59, IRF5, and TNF-α on RAW264.7 cells. In addition, down-regulation of IRF5 inhibited TRIM59 and TNF-α expression. Our study showed that TRIM59 is a membrane protein, and that BCG treatment upregulated TRIM59 expression on macrophages via TLR2/4 and IRF5 pathways. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Restriction of the felid lentiviruses by a synthetic feline TRIM5-CypA fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Isabelle; McEwan, William A; Hosie, Margaret J; Willett, Brian J

    2011-10-15

    Gene therapy approaches to the treatment of HIV infection have targeted both viral gene expression and the cellular factors that are essential for virus replication. However, significant concerns have been raised regarding the potential toxic effects of such therapies, the emergence of resistant viral variants and unforeseen biological consequences such as enhanced susceptibility to unrelated pathogens. Novel restriction factors formed by the fusion of the tripartite motif protein (TRIM5) and cyclophilin A (CypA), or "TRIMCyps", offer an effective antiviral defence strategy with a very low potential for toxicity. In order to investigate the potential therapeutic utility of TRIMCyps in gene therapy for AIDS, a synthetic fusion protein between feline TRIM5 and feline CypA was generated and transduced into cells susceptible to infection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The synthetic feline TRIMCyp was highly efficient at preventing infection with both HIV and FIV and the cells resisted productive infection with FIV from either the domestic cat or the puma. Feline TRIMCyp and FIV infection of the cat offers a unique opportunity to evaluate TRIMCyp-based approaches to genetic therapy for HIV infection and the treatment of AIDS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pemanfaatan trimming kulit pikel sebagai flokulan melalui hidrolisis kolagen menggunakan basa untuk penjernihan air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugihartono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wastes in the form of skin derivatives from leather tanning industries remain serious problems if not managed properly and quickly, since they can cause environmental pollution. This research aimed at studying the influence of base type and concentration for the hydrolysis of trimmed collagen from pickled sheepskin to the yield and properties of gelatin, as well as the gelatin’s potential as flocculant. The hydrolysis of trimmed collagen from pickled sheepskin was performed using KOH or NaOH solution, each with varied concentrations of 1, 2, 3, and 4% w/v, for 16 hours. The extraction of the resulting gelatin was performed using water (2.5 water part : 1 waste part, at 70-80 oC, for 3 hours. The results show that the yield of gelatin from hydrolysis using KOH (16.50-28.60% is lower than that using NaOH (23.68-34.42%. The water and fat contents of the resulting gelatin were relatively similar, while the protein content from KOH treatment was higher than that from NaOH treatment. Hydrolysis with KOH 1% and NaOH 1% and 2% resulted in gelatin that can be used as flocculant. Hydrolysis with NaOH 2% was the best treatment to produce gelatin as flocculant.

  1. Aperture correction with an asymmetrically trimmed gaussian weight in SPECT with a fan-beam collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Ryo; Ogawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to improve the spatial resolution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images acquired with a fan-beam collimator. The aperture angle of a hole in the fan-beam collimator depends on the position of the collimator. To correct the aperture effect in an iterative image reconstruction, an asymmetrically trimmed Gaussian weight was used for a model. To confirm the validity of our method, point source phantoms and brain phantom were used in the simulation, and we applied the method to the clinical data. The results of the simulation showed that the spatial resolution of point sources improved from about 6 to 2 pixels full width at half maximum, and the corrected point sources were isotropic. The results of the simulation with the brain phantom showed that our proposed method could improve the spatial resolution of the phantom, and our method was effective for different fan-beam collimators with different focal lengths. The results of clinical data showed that the quality of the reconstructed image was improved with our proposed method. Our proposed aperture correction method with the asymmetrically trimmed Gaussian weighting function was effective in improving the spatial resolution of SPECT images acquired with the fan-beam collimator. (author)

  2. Edge Trimming Analysis for Surface Quality of Hybrid Composite - CFRP/Al2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, J.; Mohamed, S. B.; Mohamad, M.; Mohamad, W. N. F.; Mohamed, A. S.; Mohd, A.

    2017-10-01

    The application of hybrid composite materials has increased due to their strength and light weight ratio. Edge trimming of these materials was extremely difficult due to the anisotropic and non-homogeneous structures of CFRP and ductile nature of aluminium. This research was focused on edge trimming process via down milling operation. Three cutting parameters were examined namely spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The extension of two level full factorial design, Centre Composite Design (CCD) was used to plan systematic experimental methodology. The analysis of the influence and the interaction factors associated to surface quality was studied. The objective was to obtain machined surface quality of CFRP/Al2024 between 0.4 µm to 0.6 µm. The depth of cut was the most significant factor for Al2014 and meanwhile the spindle speed and feed rate were significant factors of CFRP. The validation experiment was conducted at optimum level of recommendation control factors setting to compare the deviation of predicted value from actual/measured value. Surface roughness of CFRP was found to be at 0.594 micron at the setting of spindle speed, 11750 rpm, feed rate, 750 mm/min and depth of cut, 0.255 mm. For Al2024, the surface roughness was found to be at 0.32 micron.

  3. Development Of Passenger Vehicle Door Trim For Occupant Safety By Using CAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh P. Diwate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vehicle interiors are primary source of injuries when occupants interact with them in the event of an accident. The extent of injuries is depending on energy dissipating characteristics of interiors and severity of accidents. For side impact tests vehicle interiors energy dissipating characteristics are assessed by FMVSS214 and ECE R95. Side impact test assesses occupant protection by door panel as vehicle interior during side intrusion test on door. In this paper a certain type of cars side impact performance is discussed. The purpose is to express the relationship of the side impact response during door trim intrusion and safety. First A Finite Element Model FEM of door trim is established which is based on a logical method to solve the problem during the modeling process. Then the analysis the evaluates the indexes of side impact safety traces the designing got the side impact feature and point test data of this type of car and verified the practicability of simulation result in the door developing process. Finally expresses the connection between the side impact response for door intrusion and safety of door aiming at discussing the occupant safety during side impact. The FE model is produced using Hypermesh 11 softwares and LS-Dyna solver is used for the simulations. The simulation results shows side impact protection system is capable of absorbing and dissipating required energy for protection of Pelvis.

  4. The Trim39 ubiquitin ligase inhibits APC/CCdh1-mediated degradation of the Bax activator MOAP-1

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Nai-Jia; Zhang, Liguo; Tang, Wanli; Chen, Chen; Yang, Chih-Sheng; Kornbluth, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, such as Bax, promote release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, leading to caspase activation and cell death. It was previously reported that modulator of apoptosis protein 1 (MOAP-1), an enhancer of Bax activation induced by DNA damage, is stabilized by Trim39, a protein of unknown function. In this paper, we show that MOAP-1 is a novel substrate of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/CCdh1) ubiquitin ligase. The influence of Trim39 on MOAP-1 levels stems f...

  5. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  6. 77 FR 48960 - Foreign-Trade Zone 12-McAllen, TX Notification of Proposed Export Production Activity TST NA Trim...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Notification of Proposed Export Production Activity TST NA Trim, LLC (Fabric/Leather Lamination and Cutting... reduced on foreign status production equipment. Upholstery fabrics and material sourced from abroad... production activity on behalf of TST NA Trim, LLC (TST), located in Hidalgo, Texas. The notification...

  7. Reduced expression of TRIM21/Ro52 predicts poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with and without rheumatic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauner, S; Zhou, W; Backlin, C

    2015-01-01

    and correlated with (3) H-thymidine incorporation and propidium iodine staining. RESULTS: TRIM21 expression levels differed in the lymphomas compared to normal lymphoid tissue, with reduced expression correlating with shorter overall survival in all three cohorts. In the two larger cohorts, progression......OBJECTIVE: TRIM21 (also known as Ro52) is an autoantigen in rheumatic disease and is predominantly expressed in leucocytes. Overexpression is associated with decreased proliferation, and the TRIM21 gene maps to a tumour suppressor locus. We therefore investigated the expression of TRIM21......-free survival was assessed and was also found to correlate with TRIM21 expression. The association was independent of commonly used clinical prognostic scores, lymphoma subtype and several previously reported prognostic biomarkers. In agreement with this clinical observation, we noted an inverse correlation...

  8. The attitude towards people of other nations through the prism of the attitude to yourself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Konyukh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical analysis and empirical investigation of the relationship between self-attitude and attitude towards other people, including representatives of other nationalities. Self-attitude is viwed as a stable, emotionally charged of your own self. The interdependance of self-attitude indicators with the features of ethnic tolerance and the character of other individuals' attitude in complicated situations has been researched. Individuals with different self-image are shown to perceive their opponents just as they perceive their own personality. Perception and emotional attitude both to their own ethnic group and other ethnicities is closely related to the attitude of the individual to himself, and common factors in predisposition to criticism and condescension towards themselves and others.

  9. TRIM28 and β-actin identified via nanobody-based reverse proteomics approach as possible human glioblastoma biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Jovčevska

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are among the rarest brain tumours, and they have the worst prognosis. Grade IV astrocytoma, known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, is a highly lethal disease where the standard therapies of surgery, followed by radiation and chemotherapy, cannot significantly prolong the life expectancy of the patients. Tumour recurrence shows more aggressive form compared to the primary tumour, and results in patient survival from 12 to 15 months only. Although still controversial, the cancer stem cell hypothesis postulates that cancer stem cells are responsible for early relapse of the disease after surgical intervention due to their high resistance to therapy. Alternative strategies for GBM therapy are thus urgently needed. Nanobodies are single-domain antigen-binding fragments of heavy-chain antibodies, and together with classical antibodies, they are part of the camelid immune system. Nanobodies are small and stable, and they share a high degree of sequence identity to the human heavy chain variable domain, and these characteristics offer them advantages over classical antibodies or antibody fragments. We first immunised an alpaca with a human GBM stem-like cell line prepared from primary GBM cultures. Next, a nanobody library was constructed in a phage-display vector. Using nanobody phage-display technology, we selected specific GBM stem-like cell binders through a number of affinity selections, using whole cell protein extracts and membrane protein-enriched extracts from eight different GBM patients, and membrane protein-enriched extracts from two established GBM stem-like cell lines (NCH644 and NCH421K cells. After the enrichment, periplasmic extract ELISA was used to screen for specific clones. These nanobody clones were recloned into the pHEN6 vector, expressed in Escherichia coli WK6, and purified using immobilised metal affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. Specific nanobody:antigen pairs were obtained and mass

  10. TRIM28 and β-actin identified via nanobody-based reverse proteomics approach as possible human glioblastoma biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovčevska, Ivana; Zupanec, Neja; Kočevar, Nina; Cesselli, Daniela; Podergajs, Neža; Stokin, Clara Limbaeck; Myers, Michael P; Muyldermans, Serge; Ghassabeh, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh; Motaln, Helena; Ruaro, Maria Elisabetta; Bourkoula, Evgenia; Turnšek, Tamara Lah; Komel, Radovan

    2014-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are among the rarest brain tumours, and they have the worst prognosis. Grade IV astrocytoma, known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is a highly lethal disease where the standard therapies of surgery, followed by radiation and chemotherapy, cannot significantly prolong the life expectancy of the patients. Tumour recurrence shows more aggressive form compared to the primary tumour, and results in patient survival from 12 to 15 months only. Although still controversial, the cancer stem cell hypothesis postulates that cancer stem cells are responsible for early relapse of the disease after surgical intervention due to their high resistance to therapy. Alternative strategies for GBM therapy are thus urgently needed. Nanobodies are single-domain antigen-binding fragments of heavy-chain antibodies, and together with classical antibodies, they are part of the camelid immune system. Nanobodies are small and stable, and they share a high degree of sequence identity to the human heavy chain variable domain, and these characteristics offer them advantages over classical antibodies or antibody fragments. We first immunised an alpaca with a human GBM stem-like cell line prepared from primary GBM cultures. Next, a nanobody library was constructed in a phage-display vector. Using nanobody phage-display technology, we selected specific GBM stem-like cell binders through a number of affinity selections, using whole cell protein extracts and membrane protein-enriched extracts from eight different GBM patients, and membrane protein-enriched extracts from two established GBM stem-like cell lines (NCH644 and NCH421K cells). After the enrichment, periplasmic extract ELISA was used to screen for specific clones. These nanobody clones were recloned into the pHEN6 vector, expressed in Escherichia coli WK6, and purified using immobilised metal affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. Specific nanobody:antigen pairs were obtained and mass spectrometry

  11. Static Aeroelastic and Longitudinal Trim Model of Flexible Wing Aircraft Using Finite-Element Vortex-Lattice Coupled Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a static aeroelastic model and longitudinal trim model for the analysis of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The static aeroelastic model is built using a structural model based on finite-element modeling and coupled to an aerodynamic model that uses vortex-lattice solution. An automatic geometry generation tool is used to close the loop between the structural and aerodynamic models. The aeroelastic model is extended for the development of a three degree-of-freedom longitudinal trim model for an aircraft with flexible wings. The resulting flexible aircraft longitudinal trim model is used to simultaneously compute the static aeroelastic shape for the aircraft model and the longitudinal state inputs to maintain an aircraft trim state. The framework is applied to an aircraft model based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with wing structures allowed to flexibly deformed referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The ESAC wing mass and stiffness properties are based on a baseline "stiff" values representative of current generation transport aircraft.

  12. Analysis of the magnetic field data and computation of Trim coil currents for the variable energy cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, T.K.; Basu, S.K.; Bhattacharya, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic Field Data of the Calcutta 88'' Cyclotron has been analyzed with the Berkeley Code CYDE to compute trial Trim Coil Settings, ν r , ν Z and phase history Sin φ, in order to improve the beam quality of the cyclotron. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the threshold trimming method for micro inertial fluidic switch based on electrowetting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The switch based on electrowetting technology has the advantages of no moving part, low contact resistance, long life and adjustable acceleration threshold. The acceleration threshold of switch can be fine-tuned by adjusting the applied voltage. This paper is focused on the electrowetting properties of switch and the influence of microchannel structural parameters, applied voltage and droplet volume on acceleration threshold. In the presence of process errors of micro inertial fluidic switch and measuring errors of droplet volume, there is a deviation between test acceleration threshold and target acceleration threshold. Considering the process errors and measuring errors, worst-case analysis is used to analyze the influence of parameter tolerance on the acceleration threshold. Under worst-case condition the total acceleration threshold tolerance caused by various errors is 9.95%. The target acceleration threshold can be achieved by fine-tuning the applied voltage. The acceleration threshold trimming method of micro inertial fluidic switch is verified.

  14. Helicopter Non-Unique Trim Strategies for Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.

    2016-01-01

    An acoustics parametric analysis of the effect of fuselage drag and pitching moment on the Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise radiated by a medium lift helicopter (S-70UH-60) in a descending flight condition was conducted. The comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II was used for the calculation of vehicle trim, wake geometry and integrated air loads on the blade. The acoustics prediction code PSU-WOPWOP was used for calculating acoustic pressure signatures for a hemispherical grid centered at the hub. This paper revisits the concept of the X-force controller for BVI noise reduction, and investigates its effectiveness on an S-70 helicopter. The analysis showed that further BVI noise reductions were achievable by controlling the fuselage pitching moment. Reductions in excess of 6 dB of the peak BVI noise radiated towards the ground were demonstrated by compounding the effect of airframe drag and pitching moment simultaneously.

  15. Coordinateendonucleolytic 5' and 3' trimming of terminally blocked blunt DNA double-strand break ends by Artemis nuclease and DNA-dependent protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povirk, Lawrence; Yannone, Steven M.; Khan, Imran S.; Zhou, Rui-Zhe; Zhou, Tong; Valerie, Kristoffer; F., Lawrence

    2008-02-18

    Previous work showed that, in the presence of DNA-PK, Artemis slowly trims 3'-phosphoglycolate-terminated blunt ends. To examine the trimming reaction in more detail, long internally labeled DNA substrates were treated with Artemis. In the absence of DNA-PK, Artemis catalyzed extensive 5' {yields} 3' exonucleolytic resection of double-stranded DNA. This resection required a 5'-phosphate but did not require ATP, and was accompanied by endonucleolytic cleavage of the resulting 3' overhang. In the presence of DNA-PK, Artemis-mediated trimming was more limited, was ATP-dependent, and did not require a 5'-phosphate. For a blunt end with either a 3'-phosphoglycolate or 3'-hydroxyl terminus, endonucleolytic trimming of 2-4 nucleotides from the 3'-terminal strand was accompanied by trimming of 6 nucleotides from the 5'-terminal strand. The results suggest that autophosphorylated DNA-PK suppresses the exonuclease activity of Artemis toward blunt-ended DNA, and promotes slow and limited endonucleolytic trimming of the 5'-terminal strand, resulting in short 3' overhangs that are trimmed endonucleolytically. Thus, Artemis and DNA-PK can convert terminally blocked DNA ends of diverse geometry and chemical structure to a form suitable for polymerase mediated patching and ligation, with minimal loss of terminal sequence. Such processing could account for the very small deletions often found at DNA double-strand break repair sites.

  16. TRIM5 suppresses cross-species transmission of a primate immunodeficiency virus and selects for emergence of resistant variants in the new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmaier, Andrea; Wu, Fan; Newman, Ruchi M; Hall, Laura R; Morgan, Jennifer S; O'Connor, Shelby; Marx, Preston A; Meythaler, Mareike; Goldstein, Simoy; Buckler-White, Alicia; Kaur, Amitinder; Hirsch, Vanessa M; Johnson, Welkin E

    2010-08-24

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses of sooty mangabeys (SIVsm) are the source of multiple, successful cross-species transmissions, having given rise to HIV-2 in humans, SIVmac in rhesus macaques, and SIVstm in stump-tailed macaques. Cellular assays and phylogenetic comparisons indirectly support a role for TRIM5alpha, the product of the TRIM5 gene, in suppressing interspecies transmission and emergence of retroviruses in nature. Here, we investigate the in vivo role of TRIM5 directly, focusing on transmission of primate immunodeficiency viruses between outbred primate hosts. Specifically, we retrospectively analyzed experimental cross-species transmission of SIVsm in two cohorts of rhesus macaques and found a significant effect of TRIM5 genotype on viral replication levels. The effect was especially pronounced in a cohort of animals infected with SIVsmE543-3, where TRIM5 genotype correlated with approximately 100-fold to 1,000-fold differences in viral replication levels. Surprisingly, transmission occurred even in individuals bearing restrictive TRIM5 genotypes, resulting in attenuation of replication rather than an outright block to infection. In cell-culture assays, the same TRIM5 alleles associated with viral suppression in vivo blocked infectivity of two SIVsm strains, but not the macaque-adapted strain SIVmac239. Adaptations appeared in the viral capsid in animals with restrictive TRIM5 genotypes, and similar adaptations coincide with emergence of SIVmac in captive macaques in the 1970s. Thus, host TRIM5 can suppress viral replication in vivo, exerting selective pressure during the initial stages of cross-species transmission.

  17. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  18. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  19. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  20. Variants in TRIM22 That Affect NOD2 Signaling Are Associated With Very-Early-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Lee, Cheng Hiang; Peters, Lauren A; Mastropaolo, Lucas A; Thoeni, Cornelia; Elkadri, Abdul; Schwerd, Tobias; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Yongzhong; Hao, Ke; Dinarzo, Antonio; Hoffman, Gabriel; Kidd, Brian A; Murchie, Ryan; Al Adham, Ziad; Guo, Conghui; Kotlarz, Daniel; Cutz, Ernest; Walters, Thomas D; Shouval, Dror S; Curran, Mark; Dobrin, Radu; Brodmerkel, Carrie; Snapper, Scott B; Klein, Christoph; Brumell, John H; Hu, Mingjing; Nanan, Ralph; Snanter-Nanan, Brigitte; Wong, Melanie; Le Deist, Francoise; Haddad, Elie; Roifman, Chaim M; Deslandres, Colette; Griffiths, Anne M; Gaskin, Kevin J; Uhlig, Holm H; Schadt, Eric E; Muise, Aleixo M

    2016-05-01

    Severe forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that develop in very young children can be caused by variants in a single gene. We performed whole-exome sequence (WES) analysis to identify genetic factors that might cause granulomatous colitis and severe perianal disease, with recurrent bacterial and viral infections, in an infant of consanguineous parents. We performed targeted WES analysis of DNA collected from the patient and her parents. We validated our findings by a similar analysis of DNA from 150 patients with very-early-onset IBD not associated with known genetic factors analyzed in Toronto, Oxford, and Munich. We compared gene expression signatures in inflamed vs noninflamed intestinal and rectal tissues collected from patients with treatment-resistant Crohn's disease who participated in a trial of ustekinumab. We performed functional studies of identified variants in primary cells from patients and cell culture. We identified a homozygous variant in the tripartite motif containing 22 gene (TRIM22) of the patient, as well as in 2 patients with a disease similar phenotype. Functional studies showed that the variant disrupted the ability of TRIM22 to regulate nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2)-dependent activation of interferon-beta signaling and nuclear factor-κB. Computational studies demonstrated a correlation between the TRIM22-NOD2 network and signaling pathways and genetic factors associated very early onset and adult-onset IBD. TRIM22 is also associated with antiviral and mycobacterial effectors and markers of inflammation, such as fecal calprotectin, C-reactive protein, and Crohn's disease activity index scores. In WES and targeted exome sequence analyses of an infant with severe IBD characterized by granulomatous colitis and severe perianal disease, we identified a homozygous variant of TRIM22 that affects the ability of its product to regulate NOD2. Combined computational and functional studies showed that the TRIM22

  1. AfterQC: automatic filtering, trimming, error removing and quality control for fastq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shifu; Huang, Tanxiao; Zhou, Yanqing; Han, Yue; Xu, Mingyan; Gu, Jia

    2017-03-14

    Some applications, especially those clinical applications requiring high accuracy of sequencing data, usually have to face the troubles caused by unavoidable sequencing errors. Several tools have been proposed to profile the sequencing quality, but few of them can quantify or correct the sequencing errors. This unmet requirement motivated us to develop AfterQC, a tool with functions to profile sequencing errors and correct most of them, plus highly automated quality control and data filtering features. Different from most tools, AfterQC analyses the overlapping of paired sequences for pair-end sequencing data. Based on overlapping analysis, AfterQC can detect and cut adapters, and furthermore it gives a novel function to correct wrong bases in the overlapping regions. Another new feature is to detect and visualise sequencing bubbles, which can be commonly found on the flowcell lanes and may raise sequencing errors. Besides normal per cycle quality and base content plotting, AfterQC also provides features like polyX (a long sub-sequence of a same base X) filtering, automatic trimming and K-MER based strand bias profiling. For each single or pair of FastQ files, AfterQC filters out bad reads, detects and eliminates sequencer's bubble effects, trims reads at front and tail, detects the sequencing errors and corrects part of them, and finally outputs clean data and generates HTML reports with interactive figures. AfterQC can run in batch mode with multiprocess support, it can run with a single FastQ file, a single pair of FastQ files (for pair-end sequencing), or a folder for all included FastQ files to be processed automatically. Based on overlapping analysis, AfterQC can estimate the sequencing error rate and profile the error transform distribution. The results of our error profiling tests show that the error distribution is highly platform dependent. Much more than just another new quality control (QC) tool, AfterQC is able to perform quality control, data

  2. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  3. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  4. Characteristics of a continuous denitration by formic acid - electrolytic trimming of residual acid with accompanying the precipitation of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G. W.; Kim, S. H.; Lim, J. G.; Lee, I. H.

    2003-01-01

    This work has studied the characteristics of destruction of nitric acid and precipitation of several metal ions in a continuous denitration process combining a denitration by formic acid and a residual acid-electrolytic trimming system. The metal ions of Zr, Mo, Fe, and Nd did not affect the electrodes at the step of electrolytic trimming of the residual acid after denitration by formic acid. The Mo ion in electrolytic solution enhanced the generation of nitrite ion during the electrolytic reaction. The mole ratio of formic acid to nitric acid fed into the continuous denitration reactor using formic acid affected much the final acidity, the precipitation yields of metal ions, the precipitate morphology. At the ratio of 1.65, the process had the lowest final acidity of less than 0.1 M, and the precipitation yields of Zr and Mo reached 95% and 83%, respectively as the highest values

  5. Total aircraft flight-control system - Balanced open- and closed-loop control with dynamic trim maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of the airborne digital computer has made possible a Total Aircraft Flight Control System (TAFCOS) that uses virtually the complete nonlinear propulsive and aerodynamic data for the aircraft to construct dynamic trim maps that represent an inversion of the aircraft model. The trim maps, in series with the aircraft, provide essentially a linear feed-forward path. Basically, open-loop trajectory control is employed with only a small perturbation feedback signal required to compensate for inaccuracy in the aircraft model and for external disturbances. Simulation results for application to an automatic carrier-landing system are presented. Flight-test results for a STOL aircraft operating automatically over a major portion of its flight regime are presented. The concept promises a more rapid and straightforward design from aerodynamic principles, particularly for highly nonlinear configurations, and requires substantially less digital computer capacity than conventional automatic flight-control system designs.

  6. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  7. Hypermethylation of TRIM59 and KLF14 Influences Cell Death Signaling in Familial Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Wezyk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the development and progression of various neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormal methylation of numerous genes responsible for regulation of transcription, DNA replication, and apoptosis has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathology. We have recently performed whole transcriptome profiling of familial early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (fEOAD patient-derived fibroblasts. On this basis, we demonstrated a strong dysregulation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA damage response (DDR in both fibroblasts and reprogrammed neurons. Here, we show that the aging-correlated hypermethylation of KLF14 and TRIM59 genes associates with abnormalities in DNA repair and cell cycle control in fEOAD. Based on the resulting transcriptome networks, we found that the hypermethylation of KLF14 might be associated with epigenetic regulation of the chromatin organization and mRNA processing followed by hypermethylation of TRIM59 likely associated with the G2/M cell cycle phase and p53 role in DNA repair with BRCA1 protein as the key player. We propose that the hypermethylation of KLF14 could constitute a superior epigenetic mechanism for TRIM59 hypermethylation. The methylation status of both genes affects genome stability and might contribute to proapoptotic signaling in AD. Since this study combines data obtained from various tissues from AD patients, it reinforces the view that the genetic methylation status in the blood may be a valuable predictor of molecular processes occurring in affected tissues. Further research is necessary to define a detailed role of TRIM59 and KLF4 in neurodegeneration of neurons.

  8. Recovering probabilities for nucleotide trimming processes for T cell receptor TRA and TRG V-J junctions analyzed with IMGT tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Kevin; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Biau, Gérard

    2008-10-02

    Nucleotides are trimmed from the ends of variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) genes during immunoglobulin (IG) and T cell receptor (TR) rearrangements in B cells and T cells of the immune system. This trimming is followed by addition of nucleotides at random, forming the N regions (N for nucleotides) of the V-J and V-D-J junctions. These processes are crucial for creating diversity in the immune response since the number of trimmed nucleotides and the number of added nucleotides vary in each B or T cell. IMGT sequence analysis tools, IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis, are able to provide detailed and accurate analysis of the final observed junction nucleotide sequences (tool "output"). However, as trimmed nucleotides can potentially be replaced by identical N region nucleotides during the process, the observed "output" represents a biased estimate of the "true trimming process." A probabilistic approach based on an analysis of the standardized tool "output" is proposed to infer the probability distribution of the "true trimmming process" and to provide plausible biological hypotheses explaining this process. We collated a benchmark dataset of TR alpha (TRA) and TR gamma (TRG) V-J rearranged sequences and junctions analysed with IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/JunctionAnalysis, the nucleotide sequence analysis tools from IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system, http://imgt.cines.fr. The standardized description of the tool output is based on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts. We propose a simple first-order model that attempts to transform the observed "output" probability distribution into an estimate closer to the "true trimming process" probability distribution. We use this estimate to test the hypothesis that Poisson processes are involved in trimming. This hypothesis was not rejected at standard confidence levels for three of the four trimming processes: TRAV, TRAJ and TRGV. By using trimming of rearranged TR genes as a benchmark, we

  9. Shrinkage covariance matrix approach based on robust trimmed mean in gene sets detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjanto, Suryaefiza; Ramli, Norazan Mohamed; Ghani, Nor Azura Md; Aripin, Rasimah; Yusop, Noorezatty Mohd

    2015-02-01

    Microarray involves of placing an orderly arrangement of thousands of gene sequences in a grid on a suitable surface. The technology has made a novelty discovery since its development and obtained an increasing attention among researchers. The widespread of microarray technology is largely due to its ability to perform simultaneous analysis of thousands of genes in a massively parallel manner in one experiment. Hence, it provides valuable knowledge on gene interaction and function. The microarray data set typically consists of tens of thousands of genes (variables) from just dozens of samples due to various constraints. Therefore, the sample covariance matrix in Hotelling's T2 statistic is not positive definite and become singular, thus it cannot be inverted. In this research, the Hotelling's T2 statistic is combined with a shrinkage approach as an alternative estimation to estimate the covariance matrix to detect significant gene sets. The use of shrinkage covariance matrix overcomes the singularity problem by converting an unbiased to an improved biased estimator of covariance matrix. Robust trimmed mean is integrated into the shrinkage matrix to reduce the influence of outliers and consequently increases its efficiency. The performance of the proposed method is measured using several simulation designs. The results are expected to outperform existing techniques in many tested conditions.

  10. Highly Compact Design of Trimmed Patch with Modified Partial Ground Structure for Extreme-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alsaif

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel highly compact microstrip monopole antenna with adjusted ground plane for ultra-wideband (UWB applications is proposed. The patch antenna is composed of a trimmed radiator and rectangular ground plane with four slots providing relatively extreme wide operating frequency from 2.8 till 16.2 GHz based on -10 dB criteria. The high matching impedance in the design results in ultra-wide bandwidth that covers the entire BW allocated by FCC for UWB applications. At the same time, the presented antenna is distinguished by significantly miniaturized structure with total size of 13 mm x 10 mm printed on a substrate material of Rogers Duriod RT 5880 LZ with relative permittivity of εr=1.9 and loss tangent δ of 0.0009. The suggested antenna is appropriate for miniature wireless gadgets. The patch has been investigated, and optimized in terms of operating frequency, impedance matching, radiation characteristics, structure size, and fabrication cost.

  11. Arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming or repair under nerve blocks: Which nerves should be blocked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, AM; Abd-Elmaksoud, AM

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the role of the sciatic and obturator nerve blocks (in addition to femoral block) in providing painless arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming/repair. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with medial meniscus tear, who had been scheduled to knee arthroscopy, were planned to be included in this controlled prospective double-blind study. The patients were randomly allocated into three equal groups; FSO, FS, and FO. The femoral, sciatic, and obturator nerves were blocked in FSO groups. The femoral and sciatic nerves were blocked in FS group, while the femoral and obturator nerves were blocked in FO group. Intraoperative pain and its causative surgical maneuver were recorded. Results: All the patients (n = 7, 100%) in FO group had intraoperative pain. The research was terminated in this group but completed in FS and FSO groups (40 patients each). During valgus positioning of the knee for surgical management of the medial meniscus tear, the patients in FS group experienced pain more frequently than those in FSO group (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Adding a sciatic nerve block to the femoral nerve block is important for painless knee arthroscopy. Further adding of an obturator nerve block may be needed when a valgus knee position is required to manage the medial meniscus tear. PMID:27375382

  12. Soda-anthraquinone, kraft and organosolv pulping of holm oak trimmings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaejos, J; López, F; Eugenio, M E; Tapias, R

    2006-11-01

    The operating conditions for an organosolv (ethyleneglycol) and two alkaline (soda-anthraquinone and kraft) processes for obtaining cellulose pulp and paper from holm oak (Quercus ilex) wood trimmings were optimized. A range of variation for each process variable (viz. temperature, cooking time and soda or ethyleneglycol concentration) was established and a central composite experimental design involving three independent variables at three different variation levels was applied. The results obtained with the three cooking processes used were compared and those provided by the kraft process were found to be the best. Thus, the tensile index values it provided (5.9-16.3 N m/g) were 23.7% and 41.5% better than those obtained with the soda-AQ and ethyleneglycol processes, respectively. Also, the kraft process provided the best burst index, brightness and kappa number values. Based on the optimum working ranges, the temperature and cooking time were the variables resulting in the most and least marked changes, respectively, in pulp properties.

  13. Dynamics of trimming the content of face representations for categorization in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J van Rijsbergen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand visual cognition, it is imperative to determine when, how and with what information the human brain categorizes the visual input. Visual categorization consistently involves at least an early and a late stage: the occipito-temporal N170 event related potential related to stimulus encoding and the parietal P300 involved in perceptual decisions. Here we sought to understand how the brain globally transforms its representations of face categories from their early encoding to the later decision stage over the 400 ms time window encompassing the N170 and P300 brain events. We applied classification image techniques to the behavioral and electroencephalographic data of three observers who categorized seven facial expressions of emotion and report two main findings: (1 over the 400 ms time course, processing of facial features initially spreads bilaterally across the left and right occipito-temporal regions to dynamically converge onto the centro-parietal region; (2 concurrently, information processing gradually shifts from encoding common face features across all spatial scales (e.g., the eyes to representing only the finer scales of the diagnostic features that are richer in useful information for behavior (e.g., the wide opened eyes in 'fear'; the detailed mouth in 'happy'. Our findings suggest that the brain refines its diagnostic representations of visual categories over the first 400 ms of processing by trimming a thorough encoding of features over the N170, to leave only the detailed information important for perceptual decisions over the P300.

  14. Fabrication and performance of a new high-gradient trim quadrupole for the Fermilab luminosity upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantsch, P.M.; Carson, J.A.; Gourlay, S.A.; Lamm, M.J.; Riddiford, A.W.

    1991-05-01

    A series of 16 high-gradient trim quadrupole magnets has been designed and built for the Tevatron luminosity upgrade (Fermilab III). These quadrupoles form part of the new Low-Beta system for the two interaction regions in the Tevatron Collider. The magnets have been installed in the Tevatron lattice in anticipation of the 1991 collider run. The one-shell design uses a ''cable'' of individually insulated rectangular strands. The cable is overwrapped with Kapton and epoxy impregnated glass tape. The winding, curing and collaring of the magnet is accomplished in the same manner as Tevatron-like magnets using Rutherford style cable. Once the magnet is assembled, the five strands are connected in series to achieve high gradient at low current. The required gradient is 0.63 T/cm at 1086 A. The production magnets reached maximum currents of about 1.1 T/cm at 1990 A. The success of this design approach suggests other applications in beam transport where magnets of high performance and low operating cost are required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Antimicrobial activity of poultry bone and meat trimmings hydrolyzates in low-sodium turkey food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Pier Paolo; Sforza, Stefano; Dossena, Arnaldo; Lambertini, Francesca; Bottesini, Chiara; Nikolaev, Ilya V; Koroleva, Olga; Ciociola, Tecla; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Polonelli, Luciano

    2014-02-01

    This research was aimed at the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity exerted by poultry protein hydrolyzates derived from industrial leftovers added to minced turkey meat, intended for the production of burgers for human consumption. Hydrolyzates were obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis from poultry bone and meat trimmings, as by-products from the poultry industry. Colony forming unit assays, under both laboratory and industrial conditions, were performed to assess microbial growth. Poultry protein hydrolyzates inhibited microbial growth occurring in semi-finished turkey meat during the normal retention period because of their water holding capacity resulting in a decreased water activity. Overall, the findings demonstrated that poultry protein hydrolyzates could decrease mesophilic, psychrophilic, and thermophilic bacterial growth for the entire product shelf-life. Bacterial growth inhibition obtained in minced turkey meat by addition of poultry protein hydrolyzates (1.5%), hygroscopic amino acids mixture (1.5%) or sodium chloride (1%) was similar. It is suggested that the use of hydrolyzates could allow the reduction of salt content in poultry meat based products leading to the production of low-sodium turkey food still maintaining acceptable sensory characteristics.

  16. SseK3 Is a Salmonella Effector That Binds TRIM32 and Modulates the Host's NF-κB Signalling Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Yang

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium employs an array of type III secretion system effectors that facilitate intracellular survival and replication during infection. The Salmonella effector SseK3 was originally identified due to amino acid sequence similarity with NleB; an effector secreted by EPEC/EHEC that possesses N-acetylglucoasmine (GlcNAc transferase activity and modifies death domain containing proteins to block extrinsic apoptosis. In this study, immunoprecipitation of SseK3 defined a novel molecular interaction between SseK3 and the host protein, TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The conserved DxD motif within SseK3, which is essential for the GlcNAc transferase activity of NleB, was required for TRIM32 binding and for the capacity of SseK3 to suppress TNF-stimulated activation of NF-κB pathway. However, we did not detect GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 by SseK3, nor did the SseK3-TRIM32 interaction impact on TRIM32 ubiquitination that is associated with its activation. In addition, lack of sseK3 in Salmonella had no effect on production of the NF-κB dependent cytokine, IL-8, in HeLa cells even though TRIM32 knockdown suppressed TNF-induced NF-κB activity. Ectopically expressed SseK3 partially co-localises with TRIM32 at the trans-Golgi network, but SseK3 is not recruited to Salmonella induced vacuoles or Salmonella induced filaments during Salmonella infection. Our study has identified a novel effector-host protein interaction and suggests that SseK3 may influence NF-κB activity. However, the lack of GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 suggests that SseK3 has further, as yet unidentified, host targets.

  17. TRIM59 is a novel potential prognostic biomarker in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: A research based on bioinformatics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ling; Du, Boyu; Xi, Xueyan

    2017-08-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide and its prognosis is poor. Few effective biomarkers for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been translated into the clinical practice aiming to assist in the treatment plan design and prognosis evaluation. The aim of the present study was to identify novel potential prognostic biomarkers for NSCLC. Tripartite motif 59 (TRIM59) was identified from a microarray dataset of matched-samples and was verified as an aberrantly upregulated gene in NSCLC tissue. The expression level of TRIM59 in NSCLC subtypes was observed to be significantly increased in large cell lung carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma as compared with that in adenocarcinoma. Its expression correlated with several clinicopathological features, including gender, smoking habits, and unfavorable tumor node and pathological stages. Notably, TRIM59 demonstrated a negative correlation with survival time and its overexpression indicated a poor prognosis in NSCLC. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analyses indicated that TRIM59 was an independent prognostic factor in tumor tissue as compared with age, gender, tumor stage, node stage, and metastasis. Gene set enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction network construction revealed that TRIM59 was associated with oncogenic mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (EIF4E) signaling through ubiquitin C binding. In conclusion, it was revealed that TRIM59 is a novel prognostic biomarker modulating oncogenic MTOR and EIF4E signaling pathways in NSCLC. These findings provided a novel insight into the clinical application of TRIM59. Therefore, TRIM59 may serve as an independent predictor for prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC.

  18. Bisphosphonates and Risk of Subtrochanteric, Femoral Shaft, and Atypical Femur Fracture: Sensitivity and Trim and Fill Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hong-xin; Lu, Xiong-xiong; Hu, Jia-jia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study carried out sensitivity analysis and trim-fill analysis between bisphosphonates and subtrochanteric, femoral shaft, and atypical femur fracture. Methods: A random-effects model was used finally. Sensitivity, trim and fill, and publication bias analyses were done. Results: Under a random-effects model (I2=87.535), the Z-value=5.672, p-value of test of nullBisphosphonate exposure was associated with an increased risk of atypical femur fracture (3.243 [95% CI 2.160–4.870]). When any study is removed, the remaining sensitivity analysis results are still significant. Trim and fill results show that two studies were missed. After filling them, a funnel plot of precision by log risk ratio was more symmetrical. Conclusion: This study suggests that (1) there is an increased risk of subtrochanteric, femoral shaft, and atypical femur fracture in bisphosphonate users; (2) any single study does not influence the total sensitivity; (3) two studies have been lost, theoretically. PMID:24205872

  19. Effect of irradiation of frozen meat/fat trimmings on microbiological and physicochemical quality attributes of dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouliara, I; Samelis, J; Kakouri, A; Badeka, A; Savvaidis, I N; Riganakos, K; Kontominas, M G

    2006-10-01

    Changes in microbiological and physicochemical quality attributes resulting from the use of irradiation in the production of Greek dry fermented sausage were investigated as a function of fermentation/ripening time. Results showed that irradiating meat/fat trimmings at 2 or 4kGy prior to sausage production eliminated natural contamination with Listeria spp., and reduced pseudomonads, enterococci and pathogenic staphylococci, and enterobacteria, to less than 2 and 1logcfug(-1), respectively. Pseudomonads were very sensitive (>3.4 log reduction) to either radiation dose. Yeasts were the most resistant followed by inherent lactic acid bacteria; their reductions on the trimmings were radiation dose-dependent. Residual effects of irradiation were noted against enterococci, but not against gram-negatives which died off fast during fermentation even in non-irradiated samples. Growth of the starter bacteria, Lactobacillus pentosus and Staphylococcus carnosus, inoculated in the sausage batters post-irradiation was unaffected by the 2 or 4kGy pre-treatment of the trimmings. Irradiation had little or no effect at the end of ripening period (28 days) on pH, moisture content and color (parameters L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗)). Changes in TBA values were small but statistically significant with irradiated samples having higher TBA values than control samples.

  20. Tripartite Motif 8 (TRIM8) Positively Regulates Pro-inflammatory Responses in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Induced Keratitis Through Promoting K63-Linked Polyubiquitination of TAK1 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Litao; Dong, Weili; Fu, Xiaoxiao; Lin, Jing; Dong, Zhijun; Tan, Xiaobo; Zhang, Tiemin

    2017-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA)-induced keratitis is a rapidly progressive ocular infectious disease that often leads to inflammatory epithelial edema, stromal infiltration, tissue destruction, corneal ulceration, and vision loss. In this study, we investigate the role of tripartite motif 8 (TRIM8) in regulating the inflammatory process of PA-induced keratitis. The expression of TRIM8 was increased in mouse corneas and in vitro-cultured macrophages after PA infection. Knockdown of the expression of TRIM8 significantly inhibited the activation of NF-κB signaling and decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines both in vivo and in vitro after infected with PA. Furthermore, we investigated the potential mechanism and we found after PA infection that TRIM8 could promote K63-linked polyubiquitination of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), leading to the activation of TAK1 and enhanced inflammatory responses. Taken together, we demonstrated that TRIM8 has pro-inflammatory effect on PA-induced keratitis and suggest TRIM8 as a potential therapeutic target for keratitis.

  1. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM40 Attenuates Antiviral Immune Responses by Targeting MDA5 and RIG-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyuan Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs, including melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5 and RIG-I, are crucial for host recognition of non-self RNAs, especially viral RNA. Thus, the expression and activation of RLRs play fundamental roles in eliminating the invading RNA viruses and maintaining immune homeostasis. However, how RLR expression is tightly regulated remains to be further investigated. In this study, we identified a major histocompatibility complex (MHC-encoded gene, tripartite interaction motif 40 (TRIM40, as a suppressor of RLR signaling by directly targeting MDA5 and RIG-I. TRIM40 binds to MDA5 and RIG-I and promotes their K27- and K48-linked polyubiquitination via its E3 ligase activity, leading to their proteasomal degradation. TRIM40 deficiency enhances RLR-triggered signaling. Consequently, TRIM40 deficiency greatly enhances antiviral immune responses and decreases viral replication in vivo. Thus, we demonstrate that TRIM40 limits RLR-triggered innate activation, suggesting TRIM40 as a potential therapeutic target for the control of viral infection.

  2. TRIM32 protein modulates type I interferon induction and cellular antiviral response by targeting MITA/STING protein for K63-linked ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Hu, Ming-Ming; Wang, Yan-Yi; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2012-08-17

    Viral infection activates several transcription factors including NF-κB and IRF3, which collaborate to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and innate antiviral response. MITA (also called STING) is a critical adaptor protein that links virus-sensing receptors to IRF3 activation upon infection by both RNA and DNA pathogens. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32) ubiquitinated MITA and dramatically enhanced MITA-mediated induction of IFN-β. Overexpression of TRIM32 potentiated virus-triggered IFNB1 expression and cellular antiviral response. Consistently, knockdown of TRIM32 had opposite effects. TRIM32 interacted with MITA, and was located at the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. TRIM32 targeted MITA for K63-linked ubiquitination at K20/150/224/236 through its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, which promoted the interaction of MITA with TBK1. These findings suggest that TRIM32 is an important regulatory protein for innate immunity against both RNA and DNA viruses by targeting MITA for K63-linked ubiquitination and downstream activation.

  3. TRIM30α Is a Negative-Feedback Regulator of the Intracellular DNA and DNA Virus-Triggered Response by Targeting STING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanming Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled immune responses to intracellular DNA have been shown to induce autoimmune diseases. Homeostasis regulation of immune responses to cytosolic DNA is critical for limiting the risk of autoimmunity and survival of the host. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 30α (TRIM30α was induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection in dendritic cells (DCs. Knockdown or genetic ablation of TRIM30α augmented the type I IFNs and interleukin-6 response to intracellular DNA and DNA viruses. Trim30α-deficient mice were more resistant to infection by DNA viruses. Biochemical analyses showed that TRIM30α interacted with the stimulator of interferon genes (STING, which is a critical regulator of the DNA-sensing response. Overexpression of TRIM30α promoted the degradation of STING via K48-linked ubiquitination at Lys275 through a proteasome-dependent pathway. These findings indicate that E3 ligase TRIM30α is an important negative-feedback regulator of innate immune responses to DNA viruses by targeting STING.

  4. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  5. Audio segmentation using Flattened Local Trimmed Range for ecological acoustic space analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovany Vega

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic space in a given environment is filled with footprints arising from three processes: biophony, geophony and anthrophony. Bioacoustic research using passive acoustic sensors can result in thousands of recordings. An important component of processing these recordings is to automate signal detection. In this paper, we describe a new spectrogram-based approach for extracting individual audio events. Spectrogram-based audio event detection (AED relies on separating the spectrogram into background (i.e., noise and foreground (i.e., signal classes using a threshold such as a global threshold, a per-band threshold, or one given by a classifier. These methods are either too sensitive to noise, designed for an individual species, or require prior training data. Our goal is to develop an algorithm that is not sensitive to noise, does not need any prior training data and works with any type of audio event. To do this, we propose: (1 a spectrogram filtering method, the Flattened Local Trimmed Range (FLTR method, which models the spectrogram as a mixture of stationary and non-stationary energy processes and mitigates the effect of the stationary processes, and (2 an unsupervised algorithm that uses the filter to detect audio events. We measured the performance of the algorithm using a set of six thoroughly validated audio recordings and obtained a sensitivity of 94% and a positive predictive value of 89%. These sensitivity and positive predictive values are very high, given that the validated recordings are diverse and obtained from field conditions. The algorithm was then used to extract audio events in three datasets. Features of these audio events were plotted and showed the unique aspects of the three acoustic communities.

  6. Biofilm Formation, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Sanitizer Tolerance of Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Beef Trim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Schmidt, John W; Harhay, Dayna M; Bosilevac, Joseph M; King, David A; Arthur, Terrance M

    2017-12-01

    In the beef industry, product contamination by Salmonella enterica is a serious public health concern, which may result in human infection and cause significant financial loss due to product recalls. Currently, the precise mechanism and pathogen source responsible for Salmonella contamination in commercial establishments are not well understood. We characterized 89 S. enterica strains isolated from beef trim with respect to their biofilm-forming ability, antimicrobial resistance, and biofilm cell survival/recovery growth after sanitizer exposure. A total of 28 Salmonella serovars was identified within these strains. The most common serovars identified were Anatum, Dublin, Montevideo, and Typhimurium, with these accounting for nearly half of the total strains. The vast majority (86%) of the strains was able to develop strong biofilms, and the biofilm-forming ability was highly strain dependent and related to cell surface expression of extracellular polymeric structures. These strains also demonstrated strong tolerance to quaternary ammonium chloride (QAC) and chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ), but were more sensitive to chlorine treatment. Sanitizer tolerance and bacterial postsanitization recovery growth were closely associated with strains' biofilm-forming ability. Thirty percent of the examined strains were found resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents and the resistance phenotypes were serovar associated, but not related to strains' biofilm-forming ability. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis tended to group strains by serovar rather than by biofilm-forming ability. Collectively, these data indicate that the strong biofilm formers of certain S. enterica strains/serovars possess significant potential for causing meat product contamination in meat processing environment.

  7. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  8. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  9. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  11. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  12. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  13. Evolutionary and Functional Analysis of Old World Primate TRIM5 Reveals the Ancient Emergence of Primate Lentiviruses and Convergent Evolution Targeting a Conserved Capsid Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R McCarthy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The widespread distribution of lentiviruses among African primates, and the lack of severe pathogenesis in many of these natural reservoirs, are taken as evidence for long-term co-evolution between the simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs and their primate hosts. Evidence for positive selection acting on antiviral restriction factors is consistent with virus-host interactions spanning millions of years of primate evolution. However, many restriction mechanisms are not virus-specific, and selection cannot be unambiguously attributed to any one type of virus. We hypothesized that the restriction factor TRIM5, because of its unique specificity for retrovirus capsids, should accumulate adaptive changes in a virus-specific fashion, and therefore, that phylogenetic reconstruction of TRIM5 evolution in African primates should reveal selection by lentiviruses closely related to modern SIVs. We analyzed complete TRIM5 coding sequences of 22 Old World primates and identified a tightly-spaced cluster of branch-specific adaptions appearing in the Cercopithecinae lineage after divergence from the Colobinae around 16 million years ago. Functional assays of both extant TRIM5 orthologs and reconstructed ancestral TRIM5 proteins revealed that this cluster of adaptations in TRIM5 specifically resulted in the ability to restrict Cercopithecine lentiviruses, but had no effect (positive or negative on restriction of other retroviruses, including lentiviruses of non-Cercopithecine primates. The correlation between lineage-specific adaptations and ability to restrict viruses endemic to the same hosts supports the hypothesis that lentiviruses closely related to modern SIVs were present in Africa and infecting the ancestors of Cercopithecine primates as far back as 16 million years ago, and provides insight into the evolution of TRIM5 specificity.

  14. Genotyping of TRIM5 locus in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina, a primate species susceptible to Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xue-Long

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pig-tailed macaques are the only Old World monkeys known to be susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. We have previously reported that the TRIM5-Cyclophilin A (TRIMCyp fusion in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina is dysfunctional in restricting HIV-1, which may explain why pig-tailed macaques are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Similar results have also been reported by other groups. However, according to the current primate taxonomy, the previously reported M. nemestrina are further classified into three species, which all belong to the Macaca spp. This calls for the need to look into the previous studies in more details. Results The local species Northern pig-tailed macaque (M. leonina was analyzed for the correlation of TRIM5 structure and HIV-1 infection. Eleven M. leonina animals were analyzed, and all of them were found to possess TRIM5-CypA fusion at the TRIM5 locus. The transcripts encoding the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA should result from the G-to-T mutation in the 3'-splicing site of intron 6. Polymorphism in the putative TRIMCyp recognition domain was observed. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of M. leonina were susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Consistent with the previous results, expression of the M. leonina TRIMCyp in HeLa-T4 cells rendered the cells resistant to HIV-2ROD but not to SIVmac239 infection. Conclusion The susceptibility of M. leonina to HIV-1 infection is due to the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA fusion in the TRIM5 locus. This finding should broaden our perspective in developing better HIV/AIDS non-human primate animal models.

  15. Evaluation of agreement among digital dermatitis scoring methods in the milking parlor, pen, and hoof trimming chute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, G; Winders, T; Solano, L; Kleinschmit, D H

    2018-03-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is the most common infectious foot lesion affecting welfare and productivity of dairy cattle. The key to DD control programs is routine and frequent identification of DD lesions. The objective was to evaluate accuracy of detecting and scoring DD lesions in 3 milking parlor designs and in 3 alternative settings compared with scoring in the hoof trimming chute as reference. A total of 552 cows and 1,104 hind feet from 17 freestall farms were scored by 1 observer in the milking parlor and in 1 other setting: pen, headlocks, or management rail. After being scored in the milking parlor and at least 1 other setting, cows were examined in the hoof trimming chute, considered the gold standard. In every setting, all hind feet were inspected visually using a flashlight and without prior washing of feet. Agreement of the scoring settings was assessed using the 5 M-stage scoring system and a dichotomous absence (M0 or M0/M1) or presence (M1 to M4.1 or M2 to M4.1) system. At trimming chute inspection, 44% of feet had a DD lesion, with estimates of 11, 5, 2, 10, and 16% for M1, M2, M3, M4, and M4.1 lesions, respectively. Apparent DD foot-level prevalence at the milking parlor, pen, management rail, and headlocks was 28, 22, 16, and 22%, respectively. M-stages were less discernible in the pen, management rail, and headlocks (apparent prevalence of M1, M2, M3, and M4.1 was ≤1%) compared with the trimming chute and milking parlor. Agreement beyond chance between any scoring setting and trimming chute scoring ranged from 0.48 to 0.70 for the dichotomous scoring system (absence = M0/M1 vs. presence = M2 to M4.1). Diagnostic test performance varied greatly among DD scoring settings but, in general, it had low sensitivity (93%) for detecting any DD lesion. Agreement and test characteristics were not affected by the type of milking parlor. Although the milking parlor and headlocks were the most reliable settings in which to detect DD, none of the settings were

  16. Neonatal Whisker Trimming Impairs Fear/Anxiety-Related Emotional Systems of the Amygdala and Social Behaviors in Adult Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Soumiya

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in tactile perception, such as sensory defensiveness, are common features in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. While not a diagnostic criterion for ASD, deficits in tactile perception contribute to the observed lack of social communication skills. However, the influence of tactile perception deficits on the development of social behaviors remains uncertain, as do the effects on neuronal circuits related to the emotional regulation of social interactions. In neonatal rodents, whiskers are the most important tactile apparatus, so bilateral whisker trimming is used as a model of early tactile deprivation. To address the influence of tactile deprivation on adult behavior, we performed bilateral whisker trimming in mice for 10 days after birth (BWT10 mice and examined social behaviors, tactile discrimination, and c-Fos expression, a marker of neural activation, in adults after full whisker regrowth. Adult BWT10 mice exhibited significantly shorter crossable distances in the gap-crossing test than age-matched controls, indicating persistent deficits in whisker-dependent tactile perception. In contrast to controls, BWT10 mice exhibited no preference for the social compartment containing a conspecific in the three-chamber test. Furthermore, the development of amygdala circuitry was severely affected in BWT10 mice. Based on the c-Fos expression pattern, hyperactivity was found in BWT10 amygdala circuits for processing fear/anxiety-related responses to height stress but not in circuits for processing reward stimuli during whisker-dependent cued learning. These results demonstrate that neonatal whisker trimming and concomitant whisker-dependent tactile discrimination impairment severely disturbs the development of amygdala-dependent emotional regulation.

  17. Attitudes toward emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Amodio, David M; Gable, Philip A

    2011-12-01

    The present work outlines a theory of attitudes toward emotions, provides a measure of attitudes toward emotions, and then tests several predictions concerning relationships between attitudes toward specific emotions and emotional situation selection, emotional traits, emotional reactivity, and emotion regulation. The present conceptualization of individual differences in attitudes toward emotions focuses on specific emotions and presents data indicating that 5 emotions (anger, sadness, joy, fear, and disgust) load on 5 separate attitude factors (Study 1). Attitudes toward emotions predicted emotional situation selection (Study 2). Moreover, attitudes toward approach emotions (e.g., anger, joy) correlated directly with the associated trait emotions, whereas attitudes toward withdrawal emotions (fear, disgust) correlated inversely with associated trait emotions (Study 3). Similar results occurred when attitudes toward emotions were used to predict state emotional reactivity (Study 4). Finally, attitudes toward emotions predicted specific forms of emotion regulation (Study 5).

  18. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  19. Flexible Stock Allocation and Trim Loss Control for Cutting Problem in the Industrial-Use Paper Production

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fu-Kwun; Liu, Feng-Tai

    2014-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional cutting stock problem (CSP) in which the stock widths are not used to fulfill the order but kept for use in the future for the industrial-use paper production. We present a new model based on the flexible stock allocation and trim loss control to determine the production quantity. We evaluate our approach using a real data and show that we are able to solve industrial-size problems, while also addressing common cutting considerations such as aggregation of orders...

  20. Photo-induced trimming of coupled ring-resonator filters and delay lines in As2S3 chalcogenide glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canciamilla, Antonio; Grillanda, Stefano; Morichetti, Francesco; Ferrari, Carlo; Hu, Juejun; Musgraves, J David; Richardson, Kathleen; Agarwal, Anu; Kimerling, Lionel C; Melloni, Andrea

    2011-10-15

    Selective exposure to visible light is used to permanently trim the resonant wavelengths of coupled ring-resonator filters and delay-lines realized on a chalcogenide As2S3 platform. Post-fabrication manipulation of the circuit parameters has proved an effective tool to compensate for technological tolerances, targeting demanding specifications in photonic integrated circuits with no need for always-on power-hungry actuators. The same approach opens a way to realize photonic integrated circuits that can be reconfigured after fabrication to fulfill specific applications.

  1. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  2. Effect of laceration and trimming of a tendon on the coefficient of friction along the A2 pulley: an in vitro study on turkey tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajipour, L; Gulihar, A; Dias, J

    2010-08-01

    We carried out lacerations of 50%, followed by trimming, in ten turkey flexor tendons in vitro and measured the coefficient of friction at the tendon-pulley interface with loads of 200 g and 400 g and in 10 degrees , 30 degrees, 50 degrees and 70 degrees of flexion. Laceration increased the coefficient of friction from 0.12 for the intact tendon to 0.3 at both the test loads. Trimming the laceration reduced the coefficient of friction to 0.2. An exponential increase in the gliding resistance was found at 50 degrees and 70 degrees of flexion (p = 0.02 and p = 0.003, respectively) following trimming compared to that of the intact tendon. We concluded that trimming partially lacerated flexor tendons will reduce the gliding resistance at the tendon-pulley interface, but will lead to fragmentation and triggering of the tendon at higher degrees of flexion and loading. We recommend that higher degrees of flexion be avoided during early post-operative rehabilitation following trimming of a flexor tendon.

  3. Use of Vine-Trimming Wastes as Carrier for Amycolatopsis sp. to Produce Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Vanillic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Raw vine-trimming wastes or the solid residues obtained after different fractionation treatments were evaluated for their suitability as Amycolatopsis sp. immobilization carriers during the bioconversion of ferulic acid into valuable phenolic compounds such as vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid, the main flavor components of vanilla pods. Previously, physical-chemical characteristics of the materials were determined by quantitative acid hydrolysis and water absorption index (WAI), and microbiological characteristics by calculating the cell retention in the carrier (λ). Additionally, micrographics of carrier surface were obtained by field emission-scanning electron microscopy to study the influence of morphological changes during pretreatments in the adhesion of cells immobilized. The results point out that in spite of showing the lowest WAI and intermediate λ, raw material was the most appropriated substrate to conduct the bioconversion, achieving up to 262.9 mg/L phenolic compounds after 24 h, corresponding to 42.9 mg/L vanillin, 115.6 mg/L vanillyl alcohol, and 104.4 mg/L vanillic acid. The results showed the potential of this process to be applied for biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid solutions; however, further studies must be carried out to increase vanillin yield. Additionally, the liquors obtained after treatment of vine-trimming wastes could be assayed to replace synthetic ferulic acid.

  4. Concerted in vitro trimming of viral HLA-B27-restricted ligands by human ERAP1 and ERAP2 aminopeptidases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lorente

    Full Text Available In the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I antigen processing and presentation pathway, the antigenic peptides are generated from viral proteins by multiple proteolytic cleavages of the proteasome (and in some cases other cytosolic proteases and transported to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER lumen where they are exposed to aminopeptidase activity. In human cells, two different ER-resident enzymes, ERAP1 and ERAP2, can trim the N-terminally extended residues of peptide precursors. In this study, the possible cooperative effect of generating five naturally processed HLA-B27 ligands by both proteases was analyzed. We identified differences in the products obtained with increased detection of natural HLA-B27 ligands by comparing double versus single enzyme digestions by mass spectrometry analysis. These in vitro data suggest that each enzyme can use the degradation products of the other as a substrate for new N-terminal trimming, indicating concerted aminoproteolytic activity of ERAP 1 and ERAP2.

  5. Use of the temporal median and trimmed mean mitigates effects of respiratory motion in multiple-acquisition abdominal diffusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, N P; Orton, M R; D’Arcy, J A; Leach, M O; Collins, D J; Feiweier, T; Tunariu, N; Koh, D-M

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory motion commonly confounds abdominal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, where averaging of successive samples at different parts of the respiratory cycle, performed in the scanner, manifests the motion as blurring of tissue boundaries and structural features and can introduce bias into calculated diffusion metrics. Storing multiple averages separately allows processing using metrics other than the mean; in this prospective volunteer study, median and trimmed mean values of signal intensity for each voxel over repeated averages and diffusion-weighting directions are shown to give images with sharper tissue boundaries and structural features for moving tissues, while not compromising non-moving structures. Expert visual scoring of derived diffusion maps is significantly higher for the median than for the mean, with modest improvement from the trimmed mean. Diffusion metrics derived from mono- and bi-exponential diffusion models are comparable for non-moving structures, demonstrating a lack of introduced bias from using the median. The use of the median is a simple and computationally inexpensive alternative to complex and expensive registration algorithms, requiring only additional data storage (and no additional scanning time) while returning visually superior images that will facilitate the appropriate placement of regions-of-interest when analysing abdominal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, for assessment of disease characteristics and treatment response. (note)

  6. GPER promotes tamoxifen-resistance in ER+ breast cancer cells by reduced Bim proteins through MAPK/Erk-TRIM2 signaling axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Heng; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Manran; Tu, Gang; Li, Qing; Yuan, Jie; Wen, Siyang; Yang, Guanglun

    2017-10-01

    Tamoxifen resistance is a major clinical challenge in breast cancer treatment. Our previous studies find that GPER and its down-stream signaling play a pivotal role in the development of tamoxifen (TAM) resistance. cDNA array analysis indicated a set of genes associated with cell apoptosis are aberrant in GPER activated and TAM-resistant MCF-7R cells compared with TAM-sensitive MCF-7 cells. Among these genes, Bim (also named BCL2-L11), a member of the BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein family is significantly decreased, and TRIM RING finger protein TRIM2 (a ubiquitin ligase) is highly expressed in MCF-7R. To understand the mechanism of TAM-resistance in GPER activated ER+ breast cancer, the function of TRIM2 and Bim inducing cell apoptosis was studied. By using immunohistochemical and western blot analysis, there is an adverse correlation between TRIM2 and Bim in TAM-resistant breast tumor tissues and MCF-7R cells. Knockdown Bim in TAM-sensitive MCF-7 cells or overexpression of Bim in TAM-resistant MCF-7 cells significantly changed its sensibility to TAM through altering the levels of cleaved PARP and caspase-3. Activation of GPER and its downstream signaling MAPK/ERK, not PI3K/AKT, led to enhanced TRIM2 protein levels and affected the binding between TRIM2 and Bim which resulted in a reduced Bim in TAM-resistant breast cancer cells. Thus, the present study provides a novel insight to TAM-resistance in ER-positive breast cancer cells.

  7. Stability of Attitudes toward Abortion and Sex Roles: A Two-Factor Measurement Model at Two Points in Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsup, Ruth; Gillespie, David F.

    1997-01-01

    Data from the General Social Survey for 1977 (n=1,303) and 1991 (n=430) are used to examine the stability of attitudes toward abortion and women's roles. Findings support the hypothesis that public attitudes toward discretionary abortion and nontraditional sex roles are discrete but correlated sets of attitudes that remained stable from 1977 to…

  8. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  9. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  10. A canopy trimming experiment in Puerto Rico: the response of litter invertebrate communities to canopy loss and debris deposition in a tropical forest subject to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara A. Richardson; Michael J. Richardson; Grizelle Gonzalez; Aaron B. Shiels; Diane S. Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    Hurricanes cause canopy removal and deposition of pulses of litter to the forest floor. A Canopy Trimming Experiment (CTE) was designed to decouple these two factors, and to investigate the separate abiotic and biotic consequences of hurricane-type damage and monitor recovery processes. As part of this experiment, effects on forest floor invertebrate communities were...

  11. 77 FR 58091 - Risk-Based Sampling of Beef Manufacturing Trimmings for Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... meat, beef from advanced meat recovery systems, low temperature rendered lean finely textured beef... chance of being scheduled for sampling, regardless of production volume or previous history. FSIS... ``grab sample'' of smaller pieces of trim from the same production lot. FSIS laboratories use the 60...

  12. Use of mild irradiation doses to control pathogenic bacteria on meat trimmings for production of patties aiming at provoking minimal changes in quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Ma de la Paz; Dauber, Cecilia; Mussio, Paula; Delgado, Enrique; Maquieira, Ana; Soria, Alejandra; Curuchet, Ana; Márquez, Rosa; Méndez, Carlos; López, Tomás

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the present work were to assess the use of moderate doses of gamma irradiation (2 to 5 kGy) and to reduce the risk of pathogen presence without altering the quality attributes of bovine trimmings and of patties made of irradiated trimmings. Microbiological indicators (coliforms, Pseudomonas spp and mesophilic aerobic counts), physicochemical indicators (pH, color and tiobarbituric acid) and sensory changes were evaluated during storage. 5 kGy irradiation doses slightly increased off flavors in patties. Two pathogenic markers (Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7) were inoculated at high or low loads to trimming samples which were subsequently irradiated and lethality curves were obtained. Provided that using irradiation doses ≤2.5 kGy are used, reductions of 2 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes and 5 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 are expected. It seems reasonable to suppose that irradiation can be successfully employed to improve the safety of frozen trimmings when initial pathogenic bacteria burdens are not extremely high. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Snavelbehandeling in de kalkoenhouderij : alternatieven via fokkerij en bedrijfsmanagemrnt = Beak trimming in turkey production : alternatives by means of breeding and farm management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.

    2010-01-01

    A literature review on effects of breeding and management on injurious pecking behaviour and cannibalism has been conducted. The combination of factors to avoid injurious behaviour is not clear and thus no good alternative to beak trimming of the upper beak in day-old turkey poults is available. If

  14. A Noise Trimming and Positional Significance of Transposon Insertion System to Identify Essential Genes in Yersinia pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng Rong; Bullifent, Helen L.; Moore, Karen; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Saint, Richard J.; Southern, Stephanie J.; Champion, Olivia L.; Senior, Nicola J.; Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Oyston, Petra C. F.; Atkins, Timothy P.; Titball, Richard W.

    2017-02-01

    Massively parallel sequencing technology coupled with saturation mutagenesis has provided new and global insights into gene functions and roles. At a simplistic level, the frequency of mutations within genes can indicate the degree of essentiality. However, this approach neglects to take account of the positional significance of mutations - the function of a gene is less likely to be disrupted by a mutation close to the distal ends. Therefore, a systematic bioinformatics approach to improve the reliability of essential gene identification is desirable. We report here a parametric model which introduces a novel mutation feature together with a noise trimming approach to predict the biological significance of Tn5 mutations. We show improved performance of essential gene prediction in the bacterium Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. This method would have broad applicability to other organisms and to the identification of genes which are essential for competitiveness or survival under a broad range of stresses.

  15. A novel envelope mediated post entry restriction of murine leukaemia virus in human cells is Ref1/TRIM5α independent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKnight Áine

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Intrinsic' resistance to retroviral infection was first recognised with the Friend virus susceptibility gene (Fv1, which determines susceptibility to murine leukaemia virus (MLV infection in different murine species. Similarly, the tripartite motif (TRIM family of proteins determine lentiviral restriction in a primate host-species specific manner. For example rhesus TRIM5α (rhTRIM5α can potently restrict HIV-1 infection while human TRIM5α (huTRIM5α only has a mild effect on SIVmac and HIV-1 infectivity (Lv1. Human TRIM5α is able to restrict MLV-N virus replication, but is ineffective against MLV-B or MLV-NB virus infection. Lv2 restriction of some HIV-2 viruses is seen in human cells. Like Lv1, Lv2 is a post-entry restriction factor, whose viral determinants have been mapped to the viral capsid (CA. Unlike Lv1, however, Lv2 is determined by envelope (Env in addition to CA. Here we present evidence of a novel Env determined post entry restriction to infection in human cells of pseudotyped MLV-B and MLV-NB cores. Results We generated retroviral vectors pseudotyped with various gamma and lentiviral Envs on MLV-B and -NB CAs containing a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter. Flow cytometry was used to determine transduction efficiencies in NP2/CD4/CXCR4 (glioma cell line stably transduced with the HIV receptors and HeLa/CD4 cell lines. The HeLa/CD4 cell line restricted both MLV CAs in an Env dependent manner, compared to NP2/CD4/CXCR4 cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QT-PCR analysis of reverse transcription (RT transcripts demonstrates that this restriction occurs at a post entry and RT level. siRNA knockdown of huTRIM5α ruled out a direct role for this cellular component in mediating this restriction. We describe a previously unobserved Env determined restriction of MLV-B and MLV-NB CAs in HeLa/CD4 cells when pseudotyped with HIV-2 and RD114 Envs, but not gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GALV, HIV-1 or

  16. Reductions of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium on beef trim by lactic acid, levulinic acid, and sodium dodecyl sulfate treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; Chen, Dong; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh; Hung, Yen-Con; Doyle, Michael P

    2014-04-01

    Studies were done at 21 °C to determine the bactericidal activity of lactic acid, levulinic acid, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) applied individually and in combination on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in pure culture and to compare the efficacy of lactic acid and levulinic acid plus SDS treatments applied by spray or immersion to inactivate STEC and Salmonella (10(7) CFU/cm2) on beef trim pieces (10 by 10 by 7.5 cm). Application of 3% lactic acid for 2 min to pure cultures was shown to reduce E. coli O26:H11, O45:H2, O111:H8, O103:H2, O121:H2, O145:NM, and O157:H7 populations by 2.1, 0.4, 0.3, 1.4, 0.3, 2.1, and 1.7 log CFU/ml, respectively. Treatment with 0.5% levulinic acid plus 0.05% SDS for 6 log/ml reduction). Beef surface temperature was found to affect the bactericidal activity of treatment with 3 % levulinic acid plus 2% SDS (LV-SDS). Treating cold (4 °C) beef trim with LV-SDS at 21, 62, or 81 °C for 30 s reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 1.0, 1.1, or 1.4 log CFU/cm2, respectively, whereas treating beef trim at 8 °C with LV-SDS at 12 °C for 0.1, 1, 3, or 5 min reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 1.4, 2.4, 2.5, or 3.3 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Spray treatment of beef trim at 4 °C with 5 % lactic acid only reduced the E. coli O157:H7 population by 1.3 log CFU/cm2. Treating beef trim at 8 °C with LV-SDS for 1, 2, or 3 min reduced Salmonella Typhimurium by 2.1, 2.6, and >5.0 log CFU/cm2, respectively. Hand massaging the treated beef trim substantially reduced contamination of both pathogens, with no detectable E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Typhimurium (<5 CFU/cm2) on beef trim pieces treated with LV-SDS. Reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium populations was enhanced, but bactericidal activity was affected by the meat temperature.

  17. Adaptive TrimTree: Green Data Center Networks through Resource Consolidation, Selective Connectedness and Energy Proportional Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Zafar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A data center is a facility with a group of networked servers used by an organization for storage, management and dissemination of its data. The increase in data center energy consumption over the past several years is staggering, therefore efforts are being initiated to achieve energy efficiency of various components of data centers. One of the main reasons data centers have high energy inefficiency is largely due to the fact that most organizations run their data centers at full capacity 24/7. This results into a number of servers and switches being underutilized or even unutilized, yet working and consuming electricity around the clock. In this paper, we present Adaptive TrimTree; a mechanism that employs a combination of resource consolidation, selective connectedness and energy proportional computing for optimizing energy consumption in a Data Center Network (DCN. Adaptive TrimTree adopts a simple traffic-and-topology-based heuristic to find a minimum power network subset called ‘active network subset’ that satisfies the existing network traffic conditions while switching off the residual unused network components. A ‘passive network subset’ is also identified for redundancy which consists of links and switches that can be required in future and this subset is toggled to sleep state. An energy proportional computing technique is applied to the active network subset for adapting link data rates to workload thus maximizing energy optimization. We have compared our proposed mechanism with fat-tree topology and ElasticTree; a scheme based on resource consolidation. Our simulation results show that our mechanism saves 50%–70% more energy as compared to fat-tree and 19.6% as compared to ElasticTree, with minimal impact on packet loss percentage and delay. Additionally, our mechanism copes better with traffic anomalies and surges due to passive network provision.

  18. Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development: the role of adolescents' gender and nativity and parents' gender role attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A

    2014-12-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican-American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers' and fathers' gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents' nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males' attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers', fathers', and adolescents' gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers' and adolescents' gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers' more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters', but not sons', more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective.

  19. Mexican American Adolescents’ Gender Role Attitude Development: The Role of Adolescents’ Gender and Nativity and Parents’ Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A.

    2014-01-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican American adolescents (N = 246; 51% female), using four phases of longitudinal data across eight years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers’ and fathers’ gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents’ nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males’ attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers’, fathers’, and adolescents’ gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers’ and adolescents’ gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers’ more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters’, but not sons’, more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican American adolescents’ gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective. PMID:24777649

  20. The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, David Charles

    A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude

  1. Dynamical attraction to stable processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Albert M.; Talet, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We apply dynamical ideas within probability theory, proving an almost-sure invariance principle in log density for stable processes. The familiar scaling property (self-similarity) of the stable process has a stronger expression, that the scaling flow on Skorokhod path space is a Bernoulli flow. We prove that typical paths of a random walk with i.i.d. increments in the domain of attraction of a stable law can be paired with paths of a stable process so that, after applying a non-random regula...

  2. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  3. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.

  4. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  5. Attitude and position tracking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Candy, LP

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several applications require the tracking of attitude and position of a body based on velocity data. It is tempting to use direction cosine matrices (DCM), for example, to track attitude based on angular velocity data, and to integrate the linear...

  6. TRIM22 inhibits HIV-1 transcription independently of its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, Tat, and NF-kappaB-responsive long terminal repeat elements.

    OpenAIRE

    Kajaste-Rudnitski Anna; Marelli Sara S; Pultrone Cinzia; Pertel Thomas; Uchil Pradeep D; Mechti Nadir; Mothes Walther; Poli Guido; Luban Jeremy; Vicenzi Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies identified clones of the U937 promonocytic cell line that were either permissive or nonpermissive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV 1) replication. These clones were investigated further in the search for host restriction factors that could explain their differential capacity to support HIV 1 replication. Among known HIV 1 restriction factors screened tripartite motif containing protein 22 (TRIM22) was the only factor constitutively expressed in nonpermissive and a...

  7. TRIM22 Inhibits HIV-1 Transcription Independently of Its E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity, Tat, and NF-κB-Responsive Long Terminal Repeat Elements▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kajaste-Rudnitski, Anna; Marelli, Sara S.; Pultrone, Cinzia; Pertel, Thomas; Uchil, Pradeep D.; Mechti, Nadir; Mothes, Walther; Poli, Guido; Luban, Jeremy; Vicenzi, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies identified clones of the U937 promonocytic cell line that were either permissive or nonpermissive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. These clones were investigated further in the search for host restriction factors that could explain their differential capacity to support HIV-1 replication. Among known HIV-1 restriction factors screened, tripartite motif-containing protein 22 (TRIM22) was the only factor constitutively expressed in nonpermissive and ...

  8. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  9. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an MRE? Is an MRE shelf stable? What foods are packaged in retort packages? What is aseptic ... type of package is used for aseptic processing? What foods are packaged in aseptic packages? Can I microwave ...

  10. Randomized controlled trial comparing a powered toothbrush with distinct multi-directional cleaning action to a manual flat trim toothbrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallob, John; Mateo, Luis R; Chaknis, Patricia; Morrison, Boyce M; Panagakos, Fotinos

    2015-12-01

    To compare the plaque and gingivitis efficacy of a power toothbrush with distinct multi-directional cleaning action (Colgate® ProClinical® A1500 Power Toothbrush) against a manual flat-trim toothbrush (Oral-B Indicator). This randomized control trial was a single-center, examiner-blind, parallel-group, design and assessed plaque removal after a single brushing, as well as plaque removal and gingivitis reduction after 4 weeks and 12 weeks of brushing. Qualifying subjects used their assigned toothbrush to brush their teeth under supervision after which they were evaluated for plaque (post-brushing). Over the next 12 weeks, subjects brushed unsupervised at home with their assigned toothbrush. After 4 weeks and 12 weeks, subjects returned to the center for plaque and gingivitis examinations. 80 subjects were screened for eligibility and randomized into the study. 79 subjects completed the study. Both toothbrushes provided statistically significant reductions in all plaque index scores at all time points in comparison to the pre-brushing scores. After 4 weeks and 12 weeks, statistically significant reductions in gingivitis and gingivitis severity scores were observed for subjects using the power toothbrush, whereas statistically significant increases in gingivitis and gingivitis severity were observed for subjects using the manual toothbrush. In conclusion, relative to the manual toothbrush, the power toothbrush provided statistically significantly (P toothbrush, the power toothbrush with distinct multi-directional cleaning action demonstrates statistically and clinically significantly greater levels of plaque removal and gingivitis reduction at all time points.

  11. Multi-response optimization and modeling of trim cut WEDM operation of commercially pure titanium (CPTi considering multiple user's preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Chalisgaonkar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, development of a multi response optimization technique has been undertaken, using traditional utility method in conjunction with the weight assignment concept (for multiple customer's priorities in trim cut wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM. Pure titanium has been selected as work material for experimentation. The effect of key process parameters such a wire type (zinc coated and uncoated brass wire, pulse on time (TON, pulse off time (TOFF, peak current (IP, wire feed (WF, servo voltage (SV and wire offset (WOFF were investigated on material removal rate (MRR, surface roughness and wire weight consumption (eroded weight of wire after machining in finish cut WEDM operation. Two different types of wire electrodes were taken for experimental research (uncoated, zinc coated. Further, the variation of the MRR was modeled semi-empirically through dimensional analysis. The developed model is mechanistic, as it can be used by the machinists to predict the MRR over a wide range of input parameters. The optimization of multiple responses has been done for satisfying the priorities of multiple users, in contrast to the traditional multi-response techniques where the optimized process setting is realized without giving any attention to the priorities of different users.

  12. Mount Sinai leverages smartphone technology, aiming to boost care, coordination of ED patients while also trimming costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, NY, is using smartphone technology to enhance follow-up calls to senior patients who have visited the ED, and to help provide acute-level care to select patients in their own homes. Investigators are hoping to show that these approaches can improve care and coordination while trimming costs, and they expect that patients will approve of these new approaches as well. While senior patients are still in the ED, nurse coordinators will work with them to load a HIPAA-compliant application to their smartphones so they can conduct face-to-face follow-up calls that meet HIPAA standards. Nurses say the face-to-face communications enhance their ability to assess how patients are doing following their ED visit. The hospital is also testing a program that enables some ED patients who meet inpatient criteria to receive this care in the home setting through the use of a mobile acute care team (MACT). In the case of emergencies, the MACT team relies on community paramedics who will visit the patients' homes and provide care under the direction of MACT physicians who are linked in to these visits via smartphone technology.

  13. Silicon nanowire formed via shallow anisotropic etching Si-ash-trimming for specific DNA and electrochemical detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tijjani, Adam; Hashim, U.; Dhahi, Th S.

    2015-01-01

    A functionalized silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) was fabricated to detect single molecules in the pM range to detect disease at the early stage with a sensitive, robust, and inexpensive method with the ability to provide specific and reliable data. The device was designed and fabricated by indented ash trimming via shallow anisotropic etching. The approach is a simple and low-cost technique that is compatible with the current commercial semiconductor standard CMOS process without an expensive deep reactive ion etcher. Specific electric changes were observed for DNA sensing when the nanowire surface was modified with a complementary captured DNA probe and target DNA through an organic linker (–OCH2CH3) using organofunctional alkoxysilanes (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES). With this surface modification, a single specific target molecule can be detected. The simplicity of the sensing domain makes it feasible to miniaturize it for the development of a cancer detection kit, facilitating its use in both clinical and non-clinical environments to allow non-expert interpretation. With its novel electric response and potential for mass commercial fabrication, this biosensor can be developed to become a portable/point of care biosensor for both field and diagnostic applications. (paper)

  14. Positional cloning reveals strain-dependent expression of Trim16 to alter susceptibility to bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anguel N Stefanov

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a disease of significant morbidity, with no effective therapeutics and an as yet incompletely defined genetic basis. The chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin induces pulmonary fibrosis in susceptible C57BL/6J mice but not in mice of the C3H/HeJ strain, and this differential strain response has been used in prior studies to map bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis susceptibility loci named Blmpf1 and Blmpf2. In this study we isolated the quantitative trait gene underlying Blmpf2 initially by histologically phenotyping the bleomycin-induced lung disease of sublines of congenic mice to reduce the linkage region to 13 genes. Of these genes, Trim16 was identified to have strain-dependent expression in the lung, which we determined was due to sequence variation in the promoter. Over-expression of Trim16 by plasmid injection increased pulmonary fibrosis, and bronchoalveolar lavage levels of both interleukin 12/23-p40 and neutrophils, in bleomycin treated B6.C3H-Blmpf2 subcongenic mice compared to subcongenic mice treated with bleomycin only, which follows the C57BL/6J versus C3H/HeJ strain difference in these traits. In summary we demonstrate that genetic variation in Trim16 leads to its strain-dependent expression, which alters susceptibility to bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

  15. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  16. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  17. Multimedia Instruction & Language Learning Attitudes: A Study with University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Izquierdo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of two types of Multimedia Instruction (MI and learners’ second language (L2 proficiency on language learning attitudes. During four weeks, university learners of French received MI on the distinctive use of the perfective and the imperfective past in one of the four following conditions: learners with low L2 proficiency level exposed to MI with (n=17 or without language awareness tasks (n=17, and learners with intermediate L2 proficiency level exposed to MI with (n=14 or without language awareness tasks (n=28. Before and after the experiment, participants completed the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB. Non-parametric analyses revealed a positive enhancement of classroom-related attitudes only among intermediate learners exposed to MI without Language Awareness Tasks. Nevertheless, the results showed similar as well as stable attitudes towards language learning in all the experimental conditions.

  18. Toll-like receptor 3 stimulation promotes Ro52/TRIM21 synthesis and nuclear redistribution in salivary gland epithelial cells, partially via type I interferon pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakidis, N C; Kapsogeorgou, E K; Gourzi, V C; Konsta, O D; Baltatzis, G E; Tzioufas, A G

    2014-01-01

    Up-regulated expression of Ro52/tripartite motif-containing protein 21 (TRIM21), Ro60/TROVE domain family, member 2 (TROVE2) and lupus LA protein/Sjögren's syndrome antigen B (La/SSB) autoantigens has been described in the salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC) of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). SGECs, the key regulators of autoimmune SS responses, express high levels of surface functional Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, whereas Ro52/TRIM21 negatively regulates TLR-3-mediated inflammation. Herein, we investigated the effect of TLR-3-signalling on the expression of Ro52/TRIM21, as well as Ro60/TROVE2 and La/SSB autoantigens, by SGECs. The effect of TLR-3 or TLR-4 stimulation on autoantigen expression was evaluated by polyI:C or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, respectively, of SGEC lines (10 from SS patients, 12 from non-SS controls) or HeLa cells, followed by analysis of mRNA and protein expression. PolyI:C, but not LPS, resulted in a two-step induction of Ro52/TRIM21 mRNA expression by SGECs, a 12-fold increment at 6 h followed by a 2·5-fold increment at 24–48 h, whereas it induced a late two-fold up-regulation of Ro60/TROVE2 and La/SSB mRNAs at 48 h. Although protein expression levels were not affected significantly, the late up-regulation of Ro52/TRIM21 mRNA was accompanied by protein redistribution, from nucleolar-like pattern to multiple coarse dots spanning throughout the nucleus. These late phenomena were mediated significantly by interferon (IFN)-β production, as attested by cognate secretion and specific inhibition experiments and associated with IFN regulatory factor (IRF)3 degradation. TLR-3-signalling had similar effects on SGECs obtained from SS patients and controls, whereas it did not affect the expression of these autoantigens in HeLa cells. TLR-3 signalling regulates the expression of autoantigens by SGECs, implicating innate immunity pathways in their over-expression in inflamed tissues and possibly in their exposure to the immune

  19. The Matrix Protein of Nipah Virus Targets the E3-Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM6 to Inhibit the IKKε Kinase-Mediated Type-I IFN Antiviral Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bharaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For efficient replication, viruses have developed mechanisms to evade innate immune responses, including the antiviral type-I interferon (IFN-I system. Nipah virus (NiV, a highly pathogenic member of the Paramyxoviridae family (genus Henipavirus, is known to encode for four P gene-derived viral proteins (P/C/W/V with IFN-I antagonist functions. Here we report that NiV matrix protein (NiV-M, which is important for virus assembly and budding, can also inhibit IFN-I responses. IFN-I production requires activation of multiple signaling components including the IκB kinase epsilon (IKKε. We previously showed that the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM6 catalyzes the synthesis of unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin chains, which are not covalently attached to any protein, and activate IKKε for induction of IFN-I mediated antiviral responses. Using co-immunoprecipitation assays and confocal microscopy we show here that the NiV-M protein interacts with TRIM6 and promotes TRIM6 degradation. Consequently, NiV-M expression results in reduced levels of unanchored K48-linked polyubiquitin chains associated with IKKε leading to impaired IKKε oligomerization, IKKε autophosphorylation and reduced IFN-mediated responses. This IFN antagonist function of NiV-M requires a conserved lysine residue (K258 in the bipartite nuclear localization signal that is found in divergent henipaviruses. Consistent with this, the matrix proteins of Ghana, Hendra and Cedar viruses were also able to inhibit IFNβ induction. Live NiV infection, but not a recombinant NiV lacking the M protein, reduced the levels of endogenous TRIM6 protein expression. To our knowledge, matrix proteins of paramyxoviruses have never been reported to be involved in innate immune antagonism. We report here a novel mechanism of viral innate immune evasion by targeting TRIM6, IKKε and unanchored polyubiquitin chains. These findings expand the universe of viral IFN antagonism strategies and provide a new

  20. The Role of Affect in Attitude Formation toward New Technologies: The Case of Stratospheric Aerosol Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Christine; Pönitzsch, Gert

    2017-12-01

    This article analyzes determinants of technology acceptance and their interdependence. It highlights the role of affect in attitude formation toward new technologies and examines how it mediates the influence of stable psychological variables on the technology's acceptability. Based on theory and previous empirical evidence, we develop an analytical framework of attitude formation. We test this framework using survey data on attitudes toward stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI), a technology that could be used to counteract global warming. We show that affect is more important than risk and benefit perception in forming judgment about SAI. Negative and positive affect directly alter the perception of risks and benefits of SAI and its acceptability. Furthermore, affect is an important mediator between stable psychological variables-such as trust in governmental institutions, values, and attitudes-and acceptability. A person's affective response is thus guided by her general attitudes and values. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for people’s attitudes towards immigration. We find that while...

  2. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test...... of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direct test of whether economic self-interest mattersfor people's attitudes towards immigration. We find that whilethe...

  3. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

  4. Year 1 medical undergraduates' knowledge of and attitudes to medical error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flin, Rhona; Patey, Rona; Jackson, Jeanette; Mearns, Kathryn; Dissanayaka, Upul

    2009-12-01

    To improve patient safety, medical students should be taught about human error and the factors influencing adverse events. The optimal evaluation of new curricula for patient safety requires tools for baseline measurement of medical students' attitudes and knowledge. The aim of the study was to design and evaluate a questionnaire for measuring the attitudes of Year 1 medical students to patient safety and medical error. A questionnaire entitled 'Medical Students' Patient Safety Questionnaire (Year 1)' was designed to assess Year 1 medical students' attitudes and anticipated behaviours relating to medical error and patient safety. This was administered to two cohorts of Year 1 medical students in a UK medical school during 2008 (n = 296) and the data subjected to psychometric analyses. Medical students' attitudes to good patient safety practices were generally positive, but the students had little knowledge of how to report errors and were unsure about what to do if a colleague made an error or if a patient indicated that an error had been made. On the five scales of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha values ranged from 0.59 (Attitudes to patient safety scale) to 0.88 (Knowledge of error and patient safety scale) and three scales showed internal consistencies below the recommended value of 0.70. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the five factors explain 51.7% of variance. With some minor item trimming and re-allocation, the Medical Students' Patient Safety Questionnaire (Year 1) can function as an instrument with which to assess the attitudes of new medical students to patient safety and medical error. To assess the suitability of the instrument beyond the UK would require additional work.

  5. Measuring Teacher Attitudes toward Mainstreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation, Princeton, NJ.

    This brief overview discusses the rationale for measuring teachers' attitudes toward the mainstreaming of handicapped students into regular classrooms, as well as research findings on teacher attitudes. Two attitude tests, Berryman and Berryman's Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale and Hall's Stages of Concern Questionnaire, are also briefly…

  6. Attitudes toward immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Klemmensen, Robert; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    2016-01-01

    This article examines if deep-seated psychological differences add to the explanation of attitudes toward immigration. We explore whether the Big Five personality traits matter for immigration attitudes beyond the traditional situational factors of economic and cultural threat and analyze how...... individuals with different personalities react when confronted with the same situational triggers. Using a Danish survey experiment, we show that different personality traits have different effects on opposition toward immigration. We find that Openness has an unconditional effect on attitudes toward...... high on Conscientiousness are more sensitive to the skill level of immigrants. The results imply that personality is important for attitudes toward immigration, and in the conclusion, we further discuss how the observed conditional and unconditional effects of personality make sense theoretically....

  7. Spacecraft Attitude Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    This thesis describes the development of an attitude determination system for spacecraft based only on magnetic field measurements. The need for such system is motivated by the increased demands for inexpensive, lightweight solutions for small spacecraft. These spacecraft demands full attitude...... determination based on simple, reliable sensors. Meeting these objectives with a single vector magnetometer is difficult and requires temporal fusion of data in order to avoid local observability problems. In order to guaranteed globally nonsingular solutions, quaternions are generally the preferred attitude...... is a detailed study of the influence of approximations in the modeling of the system. The quantitative effects of errors in the process and noise statistics are discussed in detail. The third contribution is the introduction of these methods to the attitude determination on-board the Ørsted satellite...

  8. Attitudes towards recreational hunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    a negative attitude to recreational hunting. Older respondents and rural residents had more positive attitudes towards hunting than younger and urban residents. Some of the conditions under which hunting occurs affected attitudes negatively, especially the hunting of farm-reared and released game birds...... to the commercial aspect of hunting and this could result in tighter regulation with further effects on management practices. Management Implications The public opinions and public preferences concerning recreational hunting are complex. However, this study revealed some factors relevant for regulatory...... and managerial development in relation to outdoor recreation: age (younger respondents were least supportive of hunting), urbanisation (living in an urban environment enhanced negative attitudes), compatibility of recreational hunting with other outdoor leisure activities....

  9. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  10. Attitudes towards immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2008-01-01

    Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration......Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration...

  11. AES, EELS and TRIM simulation method study of InP(100 subjected to Ar+, He+ and H+ ions bombardment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidri B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS have been performed in order to investigate the InP(100 surface subjected to ions bombardment. The InP(100 surface is always contaminated by carbon and oxygen revealed by C-KLL and O-KLL AES spectra recorded just after introduction of the sample in the UHV spectrometer chamber. The usually cleaning process of the surface is the bombardment by argon ions. However, even at low energy of ions beam (300 eV indium clusters and phosphorus vacancies are usually formed on the surface. The aim of our study is to compare the behaviour of the surface when submitted to He+ or H+ ions bombardment. The helium ions accelerated at 500V voltage and for 45 mn allow removing contaminants but induces damaged and no stoichiometric surface. The proton ions were accelerated at low energy of 500 eV to bombard the InP surface at room temperature. The proton ions broke the In-P chemical bonds to induce the formation of In metal islands. Such a chemical reactivity between hydrogen and phosphorus led to form chemical species such as PH and PH3, which desorbed from the surface. The chemical susceptibly and the small size of H+ advantaged their diffusion into bulk. Since the experimental methods alone were not able to give us with accuracy the disturbed depth of the target by these ions. We associate to the AES and EELS spectroscopies, the TRIM (Transport and Range of Ions in Matter simulation method in order to show the mechanism of interaction between Ar+, He+ or H+ ions and InP and determine the disturbed depth of the target by argon, helium or proton ions.

  12. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  13. Monitoring of stable glaucoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Holtzer-Goor (Kim); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T. Plochg; E. van Sprundel (Esther)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA high workload for ophthalmologists and long waiting lists for patients challenge the organization of ophthalmic care. Tasks that require less specialized skills, like the monitoring of stable (well controlled) glaucoma patients could be substituted from ophthalmologists to other

  14. Hypnosis Attitudes: Treatment Effects and Associations With Symptoms in Individuals With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Maria Elena; Capafons, Antonio; Jensen, Mark P

    2017-07-01

    Attitudes about hypnosis are associated with hypnotic responsiveness. However, little is known about how hypnosis attitudes change with treatment and if those changes are associated with better outcomes. This study examined whether an intervention based on the Valencia Model of Waking Hypnosis combined with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy changed attitudes about hypnosis in a sample of patients with a history of cancer. The results indicated that the intervention improved attitudes toward hypnosis, relative to a control intervention, and the improvements remained stable at 3-month follow-up. Analyses also showed that changes in some attitudes were associated with treatment-related improvements. The findings are consistent with the idea that attitudes about hypnosis play a role in hypnosis treatment outcome, supporting the importance of addressing such beliefs at the onset of and throughout treatment.

  15. A putative SUMO interacting motif in the B30.2/SPRY domain of rhesus macaque TRIM5α important for NF-κB/AP-1 signaling and HIV-1 restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Édith Nepveu-Traversy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TRIM5α from the rhesus macaque (TRIM5αRh is a restriction factor that shows strong activity against HIV-1. TRIM5αRh binds specifically to HIV-1 capsid (CA through its B30.2/PRYSPRY domain shortly after entry of the virus into the cytoplasm. Recently, three putative SUMO interacting motifs (SIMs have been identified in the PRYSPRY domain of human and macaque TRIM5α. However, structural modeling of this domain suggested that two of them were buried in the hydrophobic core of the protein, implying that interaction with SUMO was implausible, while the third one was not relevant to restriction. In light of these results, we re-analyzed the TRIM5αRh PRYSPRY sequence and identified an additional putative SIM (435VIIC438 which we named SIM4. This motif is exposed at the surface of the PRYSPRY domain, allowing potential interactions with SUMO or SUMOylated proteins. Introducing a double mutation in SIM4 (V435K, I436K did not alter stability, unlike mutations in SIM1. SIM4-mutated TRIM5αRh failed to bind HIV-1CA and lost the ability to restrict this virus. Accordingly, SIM4 undergoes significant variation among primates and substituting this motif with naturally occurring SIM4 variants affected HIV-1 restriction by TRIM5αRh, suggesting a direct role in capsid recognition. Interestingly, SIM4-mutated TRIM5αRh also failed to activate NF-κB and AP-1-mediated transcription. Although there is no direct evidence that SIM4 is involved in direct interaction with SUMO or a SUMOylated protein, mutating this motif strongly reduced co-localization of TRIM5αRh with SUMO-1 and with PML, a SUMOylated nuclear protein. In conclusion, this new putative SIM is crucial for both direct interaction with incoming capsids and for NF-κB/AP-1 signaling. We speculate that the latter function is mediated by interactions of SIM4 with a SUMOylated protein involved in the NF-κB/AP-1 signaling pathways.

  16. Isolation and characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from beef carcasses, cuts and trimmings of abattoirs in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusa, Victoria; Restovich, Viviana; Galli, Lucía; Teitelbaum, David; Signorini, Marcelo; Brasesco, Hebe; Londero, Alejandra; García, Diego; Padola, Nora Lía; Superno, Valeria; Sanz, Marcelo; Petroli, Sandra; Costa, Magdalena; Bruzzone, Mariana; Sucari, Adriana; Ferreghini, Marcela; Linares, Luciano; Suberbie, Germán; Rodríguez, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Several foods contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are associated with human diseases. Some countries have established microbiological criteria for non-O157 STEC, thus, the absence of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 in sprouts from the European Union or ground beef and beef trimmings from the United States is mandatory. While in Argentina screening for O26, O103, O111, O145 and O121 in ground beef, ready-to-eat food, sausages and vegetables is mandatory, other countries have zero-tolerance for all STEC in chilled beef. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of non-O157 STEC isolated from beef processed in eight Argentinean cattle slaughterhouses producing beef for export and local markets, and to know the non-O157 STEC profiles through strain characterization and genotypic analysis. Samples (n = 15,965) from 3,205 beef carcasses, 9,570 cuts and 3,190 trimmings collected between March and September 2014 were processed in pools of five samples each. Pools of samples (n = 3,193) from 641 carcasses, 1,914 cuts and 638 trimming were analyzed for non-O157 STEC isolation according to ISO/CEN 13136:2012. Of these, 37 pools of carcasses (5.8%), 111 pools of cuts (5.8%) and 45 pools of trimmings (7.0%) were positive for non-O157 STEC. STEC strains (n = 200) were isolated from 193 pools of samples. The most prevalent serotypes were O174:H21, O185:H7, O8:H19, O178:H19 and O130:H11, and the most prevalent genotypes were stx2c(vh-b) and stx2a/saa/ehxA. O103:H21 strain was eae-positive and one O178:H19 strain was aggR/aaiC-positive. The prevalence of non-O157 STEC in beef carcasses reported here was low. None of the non-O157 STEC strains isolated corresponded to the non-O157 STEC serotypes and virulence profiles isolated from human cases in Argentina in the same study period. The application of microbiological criteria for each foodstuff should be determined by risk analysis in order to have a stringent

  17. Isolation and characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from beef carcasses, cuts and trimmings of abattoirs in Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Brusa

    Full Text Available Several foods contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are associated with human diseases. Some countries have established microbiological criteria for non-O157 STEC, thus, the absence of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, and O145 in sprouts from the European Union or ground beef and beef trimmings from the United States is mandatory. While in Argentina screening for O26, O103, O111, O145 and O121 in ground beef, ready-to-eat food, sausages and vegetables is mandatory, other countries have zero-tolerance for all STEC in chilled beef. The aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence of non-O157 STEC isolated from beef processed in eight Argentinean cattle slaughterhouses producing beef for export and local markets, and to know the non-O157 STEC profiles through strain characterization and genotypic analysis. Samples (n = 15,965 from 3,205 beef carcasses, 9,570 cuts and 3,190 trimmings collected between March and September 2014 were processed in pools of five samples each. Pools of samples (n = 3,193 from 641 carcasses, 1,914 cuts and 638 trimming were analyzed for non-O157 STEC isolation according to ISO/CEN 13136:2012. Of these, 37 pools of carcasses (5.8%, 111 pools of cuts (5.8% and 45 pools of trimmings (7.0% were positive for non-O157 STEC. STEC strains (n = 200 were isolated from 193 pools of samples. The most prevalent serotypes were O174:H21, O185:H7, O8:H19, O178:H19 and O130:H11, and the most prevalent genotypes were stx2c(vh-b and stx2a/saa/ehxA. O103:H21 strain was eae-positive and one O178:H19 strain was aggR/aaiC-positive. The prevalence of non-O157 STEC in beef carcasses reported here was low. None of the non-O157 STEC strains isolated corresponded to the non-O157 STEC serotypes and virulence profiles isolated from human cases in Argentina in the same study period. The application of microbiological criteria for each foodstuff should be determined by risk analysis in order to have a

  18. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  19. Attitudes towards poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Derdziuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, perceived as a lack of basic consumer goods, gives rise to a whole range of outcomes which affect not only the material dimension of human existence, but also influence social relations and references to spiritual values. Attitudes which could be associated with involuntary and unacceptable poverty include: doubt in the Divine Providence, bitterness, jealousy and envy, blaming others, lack of gratitude and in perceiving good, laziness, lack of initiative, escalating demands, gluttony and greed as well as meanness. However, joy, peace, freedom and solidarity with the poor, as well as work and enterprise, are symptoms of evangelical attitudes of the poor in spirit. Attitudes to poverty point to a wide range of human behaviours towards possessions and in effect, reveal an individual’s sense of value.

  20. Sharing Rare Attitudes Attracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Hans

    2018-04-01

    People like others who share their attitudes. Online dating platforms as well as other social media platforms regularly rely on the social bonding power of their users' shared attitudes. However, little is known about moderating variables. In the present work, I argue that sharing rare compared with sharing common attitudes should evoke stronger interpersonal attraction among people. In five studies, I tested this prediction for the case of shared interests from different domains. I found converging evidence that people's rare compared with their common interests are especially potent to elicit interpersonal attraction. I discuss the current framework's theoretical implications for impression formation and impression management as well as its practical implications for improving online dating services.

  1. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  2. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  3. Trimming proline dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, Mieke M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Proline is one of the proteinogenic amino acids and one of the most abundant amino acids in the cell. Next to serving as one of the non-essential amino acids, proline also has a central role in metabolism. In Chapter 1, the different functions of this imino acid are described, as

  4. Boundary-Object Trimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Groth Jensen, Lotte; Udsen, Flemming Witt

    2014-01-01

    prominent professions, physicians and nurses, but most likely other non-clinical occupations will become relevant for the design and implementation of health care IT. In this paper, we describe the cooperative work of medical secretaries at two hospital departments, based on a study evaluating......As health care IT gradually develops from being stand-alone systems towards integrated infrastructures, the work of various groups, occupations and units is likely to become more tightly integrated and dependent upon each other. Hitherto, the focus within health care has been upon the two most...... a comprehensive electronic health record (EHR) shortly after implementation. The subset of data on medical secretaries includes observation (eleven hours), interviews (three individual and one group) and survey data (thirty one of two hundred and fifty respondents were medical secretaries). We depict medical...

  5. Trimming the Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowden-Racette, Kellie

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the efforts made by various schools in the U.S. to fight off the obesity problems of students. The intensive media coverage of the country's childhood-obesity problem sparked by the release of alarming statistics, created a junk food backlash. The Montgomery County school system and the many districts nationwide has…

  6. Warping for trim statics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang

    2014-08-05

    The quality of migration images depends on the accuracy of the velocity model. For large velocity errors, the migration image is strongly distorted, which unflattens events in the common image gathers and consequently leads to a blurring in the stacked migration image. To mitigate this problem, we propose dynamic image warping to flatten the common image gathers before stacking and to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the migration image. Numerical tests on the Marmousi model and GOM data show that image warping of the prestack images followed by stacking leads to much better resolved reflectors than the original migration image. The problem, however, is that the reflector locations have increased uncertainty because the wrong velocity model is still used.

  7. [Beauticians' eating attitudes and body attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács-Márton, Réka; Szabó, Pál

    2013-01-01

    Some professional groups (models, actresses, ballet dancers, jockeys and athletes) are considered as risk populations for eating disorders and body image disorders. Beauticians may be a possible risk group, as their work is closely related to beauty and fashion. Eating disorders were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Behaviour Severity Scale, body image measures included the Human Figure Drawings Test, the Body Dissatisfaction Subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Body Attitudes Test, and the Body Investment Scale. Questionnaire data of 276 subjects were analysed. The study sample comprised 128 beauticians from Transylvania (5 males, 123 females). This group was compared with a control group consisting of 148 subjects (25 males, 123 females). Such weight reducing methods as dieting, exercise, the use of appetite suppressants and diuretics were significantly more prevalent in the beautician group. Mean total score and the scores of the Dieting subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory were significantly (p beauty industry may represent an increased risk of developing eating disorders.

  8. Attitudes towards documentary soundstracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben

    2010-01-01

    Musical experience is often related to an emotional and imaginative engagement of the listener. Discourses of journalistic documentaries relate primarily to inferential knowledge systems in which the uses of background music as a communicative device become an object of epistemological critique....... By listening to different voices - primarily from four focus group interviews - the article will discuss attitudes towards musical soundtracks in documentaries, attitudes being negotiated between emotional immersion and critical reflection, with the concept of manipulation as an underlying theme. In the end......, the article will argue for the need for an acoustemological approach (Feld, 1996) to study the epistemological potential of sound in audiovisual media....

  9. Countering antivaccination attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek; Hummel, John E; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-08-18

    Three times as many cases of measles were reported in the United States in 2014 as in 2013. The reemergence of measles has been linked to a dangerous trend: parents refusing vaccinations for their children. Efforts have been made to counter people's antivaccination attitudes by providing scientific evidence refuting vaccination myths, but these interventions have proven ineffective. This study shows that highlighting factual information about the dangers of communicable diseases can positively impact people's attitudes to vaccination. This method outperformed alternative interventions aimed at undercutting vaccination myths.

  10. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  11. Assessing Regional Attitudes about Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Loveridge, Scott; Miller, Steven R.; Komarek, Timothy M.; Satimanon, Thasanee

    2012-01-01

    Much of the current discussion on factors that influence entrepreneurial activity focuses on availability of human, social, and financial capitals, regional economic conditions, and dynamics of population. We discuss social attitudes toward entrepreneurship and how attitudes may influence entrepreneurial activity. We analyze telephone survey questions designed to gauge attitudes towards community entrepreneurship. High school entrepreneurship career exploration and positive spin-offs from loc...

  12. Predictors of Attitudes toward Childlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreadbury, Connie

    The study assessed young adults' attitudes toward childlessness and identified certain factors which predict positive or negative attitudes toward childlessness. The author anticipated finding changes in attitudes because of recent social developments such as awareness of world overpopulation, availability of birth control methods, pressure for…

  13. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees...

  14. Public attitudes to sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2001-01-01

    There is a lot of information around on public attitudes to sustainable development, with varying degrees of reliability and relevance. Most of the work referred to here is UK based and comes from DETR, the British Social Attitudes survey and MORI surveys carried out for various groups. This report provides an enlightening overview of current attitudes. Publisher PDF

  15. Generation of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 chronically infected monkey B cell line expressing low levels of endogenous TRIM5alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Barbara; Catone, Stefania; Sgarbanti, Marco; Sernicola, Leonardo; Battistini, Angela; Parolin, Cristina; Titti, Fausto; Borsetti, Alessandra

    2009-12-01

    Several innate cellular antiviral factors exist in mammalian cells that prevent the replication of retroviruses. Among them, the tripartite motif protein (TRIM)5alpha has been shown to block human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in several types of Old World monkey cells. Here we report a novel HIV-1 chronically infected monkey B cell line, F6/HIV-1, characterized by very low levels of TRIM5alpha expression that allows HIV-1 to overcome the restriction. Virus produced by F6/HIV-1 cells fails to infect monkey cells but retains the ability to infect human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and T cell lines, although with a reduced infectivity compared to the input virus. Ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of budding virions at the F6/HIV-1 cells plasma membrane characterized by a typical conical core shell. To our knowledge F6/HIV-1 is the first monkey cell line chronically infected by HIV-1 and able to release infectious particles thus representing a useful tool to gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 pathogenesis.

  16. Transcriptional activator TAp63 is upregulated in muscular atrophy during ALS and induces the pro-atrophic ubiquitin ligase Trim63

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Grabowiecki, Yannick; Abreu, Paula; Blanchard, Orphee; Palamiuc, Lavinia; Benosman, Samir; Mériaux, Sophie; Devignot, Véronique; Gross, Isabelle; Mellitzer, Georg; Gonzalez de Aguilar, José L; Gaiddon, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of muscle atrophy are complex and their understanding might help finding therapeutic solutions for pathologies such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We meta-analyzed transcriptomic experiments of muscles of ALS patients and mouse models, uncovering a p53 deregulation as common denominator. We then characterized the induction of several p53 family members (p53, p63, p73) and a correlation between the levels of p53 family target genes and the severity of muscle atrophy in ALS patients and mice. In particular, we observed increased p63 protein levels in the fibers of atrophic muscles via denervation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. At a functional level, we demonstrated that TAp63 and p53 transactivate the promoter and increased the expression of Trim63 (MuRF1), an effector of muscle atrophy. Altogether, these results suggest a novel function for p63 as a contributor to muscular atrophic processes via the regulation of multiple genes, including the muscle atrophy gene Trim63. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10528.001 PMID:26919175

  17. Attitudes of Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendarvis, Faye

    This document investigates the attitudes of successful individuals, citing the achievement of established goals as the criteria for success. After offering various definitions of success, the paper focuses on the importance of self-esteem to success and considers ways by which the self-esteem of students can be improved. Theories of human behavior…

  18. Attitudes of the selfless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on political orientations, which can be understood as one's left- versus right-wing attitude, has shown that some personality factors yield explanatory power. In the current work, we consider the role of altruism - a personality construct which does not exclusively map onto one...

  19. Educational Attitude Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Consortia for Bilingual Education, Fort Worth, TX.

    This instrument was developed for use with parents of children participating in bilingual education programs. It seeks to determine parental attitudes toward education in general and toward using both Spanish and English to teach courses in public schools. Statements requiring parental agreement or disagreement appear in both Spanish and English.…

  20. Attitudes to nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.

    1993-08-01

    This is a study of risk perception and attitudes with regard to nuclear waste. Two data sets are reported. In the first set, data were obtained from a survey of the general population, using an extensive questionnaire. The second set constituted a follow-up 7 years later, with a limited number of questions. The data showed that people considered the topic of nuclear waste risks to be very important and that they were not convinced that the technological problems had been solved. Experts associated with government agencies were moderately trusted, while those employed by the nuclear industry were much distrusted by some respondents, and very much trusted by others. Moral obligations to future generations were stressed. A large portion (more than 50 per cent) of the variances in risk perception could be explained by attitude to nuclear power, general risk sensitivity and trust in expertise. Most background variables, except gender, had little influence on risk perception and attitudes. The follow-up study showed that the attitude to nuclear power had become more positive over time, but that people still doubted that the problems of nuclear waste disposal had been solved. 49 refs

  1. Eating attitudes among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maor, Noga Roguin; Sayag, Shlomit; Dahan, Rachel; Hermoni, Doron

    2006-09-01

    Israeli youth lead 27 western countries in dieting. The prevalence of eating disorders has been rising in the last 30 years, causing social problems and medical complications. To examine the prevalence of eating disorders among high school students in a region in northern Israel (Misgav) and to examine the relationship between the parents' employment status and the subject's eating disorder. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data. The short version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to evaluate the subject's attitudes toward and preoccupation with food, dieting, eating, physical appearance, and personal control over eating. Of 360 students approached, 283 (78%) completed the self-report EAT-26. One of every 5 females and one in every 20 males had an abnormal eating attitude. The rate of pathologic EAT-26 results, 20.8%, falls within the high range of similar community-based samples of female adolescents. There were no differences in EAT-26 score between students with an employed or unemployed mother; however, there was a trend for higher EAT-26 scores among those whose father was unemployed (21.4% vs. 12.7%, chi2 = 0.14). The findings support our hypothesis of a relatively high rate of abnormal eating attitudes (as reflected by high EAT-26 score) in this population. Another possible risk factor is having an unemployed father, which warrants further research and attention. Our next step is to introduce an intervention program in the school and to study its effect.

  2. Production, Perception and Attitude.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J.; Grondelaers, S.; Speelman, D.; Perea, M.-P.

    2011-01-01

    We briefly introduce the papers in this special issue of Dialectologia on production, perception and attitude. They are the result of a call for papers issued at an interdisciplinary workshop Leuven in 2009 organized by Dirk Geeraerts, Stef Grondelaers, Leen Impe and Dirk Speelman. The

  3. attitudes of teachers towards

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Lecturer, Research and Consultancy Coordination Office, Ethiopia Civil Service. College. Review Article. Attitudes of Teachers towards Inclusive Education in. Ethiopia ... teachers' role and training in an inclusive setting and challenges of inclusive education. Teachers' ..... that may be necessary for student's success.

  4. Attitudes and Motivation in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on young foreign language learners’ attitudes andmotivations. An overview is given of the main issues in this researcharea, based on key European studies. Approaches to studying these affective learner characteristics are described. Some attention is devoted to data elicitation techniques and the importance of triangulation. Research findings are presented through overviews of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies carried out in different European settings. The latter are presented in more detail, because their findings seem to be more revealing of the early foreign language learning process. The overall conclusion of this review paper is that young foreign language learners’ attitudes and motivations are not stable learner characteristics but change over time, creating layers of complexity that warrant further research.Suggestions about possible future directions in researching young foreign language learner attitudes and motivations, and the application of its findings are also made.

  5. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  6. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  7. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  8. Built on Rock or Sand? The Stability of Religiosity and Attitudes Towards Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Sides, John M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines two questions. First, how stable is religiosity over time? Second, how does religiosity affect the stability of attitudes over time? I begin by discussing several reasons why religiosity might help to stabilize attitudes. Then, drawing on the 1992-94-96 National Election Study panel, I examine the stability of religious tradition, religious movement identification, church attendance, view of scripture, and the overall importance of religion. For the most part, these indica...

  9. The role of affect in attitude formation toward new technologies: The case of stratospheric aerosol injection

    OpenAIRE

    Merk, Christine; Pönitzsch, Gert

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes determinants of technology acceptance and their interdependence. It highlights the role of affect in attitude formation toward new technologies and examines how it mediates the influence of stable psychological variables on technology acceptance. Based on theory and previous empirical evidence, we develop an analytical framework of attitude formation. We test this framework using survey data on the acceptance of stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI), a technology that coul...

  10. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  11. Attitude and behavior are correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrigley, Robert L.

    Science attitude scales can be expected to predict science-related behavior. But A-B correspondence can seldom be expected to approach the r value of 1.00. Attitude and behavior covary to the degree that valid measurement and mediating variables are considered: Individual differences of subjects (e.g., high versus low self-monitoring); the social situation (e.g., direct experience); cognitive factors (e.g., attitude accessibility in memory). Attitude and behavior are reciprocal; that is, attitude can follow behavior. Variables other than attitude, e.g., behavioral intention, previous behavior, and habit, may under some conditions better predict behavior. Also, a viable alternative to attitude testing may be direct appraisal of some science classroom behaviors through ethnomethodology.

  12. Do attitudes predict consumer's behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đelošević Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many themes in marketing to analyze the psychological and marketing aspect of research. The survey of consumer attitudes is one of them. The consumer attitudes have long been discussed and written about. For this purpose, numerous theories, models and researches have emerged. The research of powerful feelings of consumers towards products is something that marketers are constantly trying to achieve. Therefore it is very important for them to understand the factors affecting the attitudes of consumers. Issues related to consumers' attitudes have always been subject matter of the marketers who are trying to keep and maintain the positive and minimize negative attitudes towards the products and services of company. Bearing in the mind that attitudes play a central role in purchase decision, marketers are trying to explore the relation between attitudes and behavior of consumers.

  13. Demonstration of Energy Savings in Commercial Buildings for Tiered Trim and Respond Method in Resetting Static Pressure for VAV Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    in public review. This method still requires careful tuning in the field and may experience control stability issues. In the 2011 ASHRAE Handbook on... handbook and other papers might be too high for stable control . Figure 4 shows a typical VAV box curve for damper position vs. air flow rate volume. At...is worth mentioning that VFD power measurements are for fan motor power only, excluding power consumption of the internal electronics of the VFD

  14. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  15. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  16. Is There a Stable Value Basis for Organic Food Consumption in China?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng

    The objective this paper is to investigate whether a solid and stable value base exists in China for buying organic food, a western invention, and which values that might be. We study the stability of the value foundation for buying organic food in China by means of two surveys with ordinary...... Chinese consumers collected in 2009 (n = 529) and 2012 (n = 478) outside supermarkets in Guangzhou, China, selling organic food. Consistent with previous studies in Western countries, we find that the attitude towards buying organic vegetables is related to the value type Schwarz terms “Universalism......” and when Universalism is controlled, no other values increases explained variance. The value-attitude and the attitude-behavior relationships for organic vegetables are significant at both times and are not significantly different between the two time points. However, contrary to what we expected...

  17. How Stable is the Value Basis for Organic Food Consumption in China?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng; Huang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    The objective this paper is to investigate whether a solid and stable value base exists in China for buying organic food, and which values that might be. We study the stability of the value basis for buying organic food in China by means of two surveys with ordinary Chinese consumers collected...... in 2009 (n = 529) and 2012 (n = 478) outside supermarkets selling organic food in Guangzhou, China. Consistent with previous studies in Western countries, we find that the attitude towards buying organic vegetables is related to the value type Schwarz terms "Universalism" and when Universalism...... is controlled, no other values increase explained variance. The value-attitude and the attitude-behavior relationships for organic vegetables are significant at both times and are not significantly different between the two time points. However, contrary to what we expected, the studied behavior (purchase...

  18. Uses of stable isotopes in fish ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of fish tissues (other than otoliths) for stable isotope ratios can provide substantial information on fish ecology, including physiological ecology. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon frequently are used to determine the mix of diet sources for consumers. Stable i...

  19. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  20. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  1. Theory of stable allocations II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Shapley provided the fundamental theoretical contribution to this field of research, whereas Roth, a professor at the Harvard University in Boston, developed and upgraded these theoretical investigations by applying them to the American market of medical doctors. Namely, their research helps explain the market processes at work, for instance, when doctors are assigned to hospitals, students to schools and human organs for transplant to recipients.

  2. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  3. France: High and stable fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The current total fertility rate in France is around 1.9 children per woman. This is a relatively high level by current European standards and makes France an outlier, despite the fact that its other demographic trends, especially conjugal behaviour, and social and economic trends are not very different from other Western European countries. France can serve as a counterfactual test case for some of the hypotheses advanced to explain the current low level of fertility in most European countries (delay in fertility, decline in marriage, increased birth control, greater economic uncertainty. France's fertility level can be partly explained by its active family policy introduced after the Second World War, and adapted in the 1980s to accommodate women's entry into the labour force. This policy is the result of a battle, fuelled by pro-natalism, between the conservative supporters of family values and the promoters of state-supported individual equality. French family policy thus encompasses a wide range of measures based on varying ideological backgrounds, and it is difficult to classify in comparison to the more precisely focused family policies of other European welfare states. The active family policy seems to have created especially positive attitudes towards two- or three child families in France.

  4. Students' Attitude toward Correction

    OpenAIRE

    Rinda Fitriana

    2017-01-01

    Students’ attitudes influence their decision to whether or not accept the teachers’ feedback. Therefore, questionnaire was administered to one hundred and ninety-six twelfth grade of vocational high school students, wherein, ten of them were involved in interview, to figure out their perspective concerning to the teachers’ correction on their oral production. From both instruments, it is found that the students preferred the teachers as the correctors, although, they did not mind for peer cor...

  5. Attitudes towards wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.

    1993-01-01

    Planning permission for the construction of a small 'farm' of wind turbines at Delabole (Deli windfarm) had been obtained and it was intended to use this source of renewable energy by generating electricity and selling it to the electrical power companies for distribution through the National Grid. It was important, therefore, to establish just what the attitudes of local residents were to the proposed development. A programme of research was discussed with the developer and it was agreed that an attitude survey would be conducted in the local area in the summer of 1990, before the turbines were erected, and before the tourist season was completely spent in order to obtain the views of visitors as well. A similar survey would then be done one year later, when the Deli windfarm was established and running. In addition, control samples would be taken at these two times in Exeter to give baseline information on attitudes toward this topic. This proposal was put to the developer and agreement was reached with him and the UK Department of Energy who were providing financial support for the research. The results of the research are reported. (author)

  6. Titanium elastic stable intramedullary nailing of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures: A review of 38 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakia, Anish P; Rambani, Rohit; Qamar, Faisal; McCoy, Steven; Koch, Lutz; Venkateswaran, Balachandran

    2012-07-01

    Clavicle fractures accounting for 3 to 5% of all adult fractures are usually treated non-operatively. There is an increasing trend toward their surgical fixation. The aim of our study was to investigate the outcome following titanium elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) for midshaft non-comminuted clavicle fractures with >20 mm shortening/displacement. A total of 38 patients, which met inclusion criteria, were reviewed retrospectively. There were 32 males and six females. The mean age was 27.6 years. The patients were assessed for clinical/radiological union and by Oxford Shoulder and QuickDASH scores. 71% patients required open reduction. 100% union was achieved at average of 11.3 weeks. The average follow-up was 12 months. The average Oxford Shoulder and QuickDASH scores were 45.6 and 6.7, respectively. 47% patients had nail removal. One patient had lateral nail protrusion while other required its medial trimming. In our hands, ESIN is safe and minimally invasive with good patient satisfaction, cosmetic appearance, and overall outcome.

  7. Food attitudes, eating behavior, and the information underlying food attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, Shelley N; Min, Kate E; Graham, Dan

    2006-07-01

    This research examined healthiness perceptions and how the information underlying food attitudes more generally relate to attitudes and behaviors. Participants completed attitudinal measures and various card-sorting tasks in which they rank ordered foods (pictures and/or nutrition labels) in terms of healthiness. Taste was found to be a stronger predictor of attitudes and past eating behavior than other information underlying attitudes (health, guilt, comfort). Furthermore, participants' healthiness rankings of pictures were not correlated to rankings of the corresponding nutrition labels, suggesting that when determining a food's healthiness, participants do not rely on (or are not aware of) the actual nutritional makeup.

  8. Depth of origin of atoms sputtered from WyC1-y compounds and the pure elements. A TRIM.SP and TRIDYN simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckstein, W.; Shulga, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    The depth of origin of sputtered atoms is investigated for tungsten carbide as an example of a compound with two species of large difference in mass. The results are compared with those for the elemental species C and W. This work is an extension of our previous work on elemental targets. The Monte Carlo program TRIM.SP is applied to calculate the distribution of depth of origin and the dependencies of the mean depth of origin on the projectile energy, E, the angle of incidence, α, and target atomic species, for the bombardment with Ar in the energy range 0.1-100 keV. In addition, the change of the depth of origin distributions with bombarding fluence is studied with the dynamic Monte Carlo program TRIDYN

  9. Embodiment, agency, and attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cheryl A; Lord, Charles G; Bond, Charles F

    2009-12-01

    Attitude embodiment effects occur when the position or movement of a person's physical body changes the way the person evaluates an object. The present research investigated whether attitude embodiment effects depend more on biomechanical factors or on inferential cues to causal agency. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that actual movements of the physical body are not necessary to create attitude embodiment effects when inferential cues imply agency for another person's physical movements. Experiment 3 showed that actual movements of the physical body are not sufficient to create attitude embodiment effects when inferential cues imply nonagency for those movements. In all 3 experiments, inferential cues to agency played a more important role in attitude embodiment effects than did actual agency, suggesting that theories of embodiment and attitude embodiment need to consider inferential cues to agency alongside biomechanical mechanisms.

  10. Mutations in Four Glycosyl Hydrolases Reveal a Highly Coordinated Pathway for Rhodopsin Biosynthesis and N-Glycan Trimming in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Erica E.; Vasiljevic, Eva; Brehm, Kimberley S.; Colley, Nansi Jo

    2014-01-01

    As newly synthesized glycoproteins move through the secretory pathway, the asparagine-linked glycan (N-glycan) undergoes extensive modifications involving the sequential removal and addition of sugar residues. These modifications are critical for the proper assembly, quality control and transport of glycoproteins during biosynthesis. The importance of N-glycosylation is illustrated by a growing list of diseases that result from defects in the biosynthesis and processing of N-linked glycans. The major rhodopsin in Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors, Rh1, is highly unique among glycoproteins, as the N-glycan appears to be completely removed during Rh1 biosynthesis and maturation. However, much of the deglycosylation pathway for Rh1 remains unknown. To elucidate the key steps in Rh1 deglycosylation in vivo, we characterized mutant alleles of four Drosophila glycosyl hydrolases, namely α-mannosidase-II (α-Man-II), α-mannosidase-IIb (α-Man-IIb), a β-N-acetylglucosaminidase called fused lobes (Fdl), and hexosaminidase 1 (Hexo1). We have demonstrated that these four enzymes play essential and unique roles in a highly coordinated pathway for oligosaccharide trimming during Rh1 biosynthesis. Our results reveal that α-Man-II and α-Man-IIb are not isozymes like their mammalian counterparts, but rather function at distinct stages in Rh1 maturation. Also of significance, our results indicate that Hexo1 has a biosynthetic role in N-glycan processing during Rh1 maturation. This is unexpected given that in humans, the hexosaminidases are typically lysosomal enzymes involved in N-glycan catabolism with no known roles in protein biosynthesis. Here, we present a genetic dissection of glycoprotein processing in Drosophila and unveil key steps in N-glycan trimming during Rh1 biosynthesis. Taken together, our results provide fundamental advances towards understanding the complex and highly regulated pathway of N-glycosylation in vivo and reveal novel insights into the

  11. Mutations in four glycosyl hydrolases reveal a highly coordinated pathway for rhodopsin biosynthesis and N-glycan trimming in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E Rosenbaum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As newly synthesized glycoproteins move through the secretory pathway, the asparagine-linked glycan (N-glycan undergoes extensive modifications involving the sequential removal and addition of sugar residues. These modifications are critical for the proper assembly, quality control and transport of glycoproteins during biosynthesis. The importance of N-glycosylation is illustrated by a growing list of diseases that result from defects in the biosynthesis and processing of N-linked glycans. The major rhodopsin in Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors, Rh1, is highly unique among glycoproteins, as the N-glycan appears to be completely removed during Rh1 biosynthesis and maturation. However, much of the deglycosylation pathway for Rh1 remains unknown. To elucidate the key steps in Rh1 deglycosylation in vivo, we characterized mutant alleles of four Drosophila glycosyl hydrolases, namely α-mannosidase-II (α-Man-II, α-mannosidase-IIb (α-Man-IIb, a β-N-acetylglucosaminidase called fused lobes (Fdl, and hexosaminidase 1 (Hexo1. We have demonstrated that these four enzymes play essential and unique roles in a highly coordinated pathway for oligosaccharide trimming during Rh1 biosynthesis. Our results reveal that α-Man-II and α-Man-IIb are not isozymes like their mammalian counterparts, but rather function at distinct stages in Rh1 maturation. Also of significance, our results indicate that Hexo1 has a biosynthetic role in N-glycan processing during Rh1 maturation. This is unexpected given that in humans, the hexosaminidases are typically lysosomal enzymes involved in N-glycan catabolism with no known roles in protein biosynthesis. Here, we present a genetic dissection of glycoprotein processing in Drosophila and unveil key steps in N-glycan trimming during Rh1 biosynthesis. Taken together, our results provide fundamental advances towards understanding the complex and highly regulated pathway of N-glycosylation in vivo and reveal novel insights

  12. What Do I Think about Inclusive Education? It Depends on Who Is Asking. Experimental Evidence for a Social Desirability Bias in Attitudes towards Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüke, Timo; Grosche, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Recently, research has focused on attitudes towards inclusive education, and the majority of studies use questionnaires to measure this vital variable. In two consecutive experiments, we showed that attitudes towards inclusive education are not stable but instead are significantly influenced by social context. We manipulated information on the…

  13. Design and Integration of an All-Magnetic Attitude Control System for FASTSAT-HSV01's Multiple Pointing Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKock, Brandon; Sanders, Devon; Vanzwieten, Tannen; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The FASTSAT-HSV01 spacecraft is a microsatellite with magnetic torque rods as it sole attitude control actuator. FASTSAT s multiple payloads and mission functions require the Attitude Control System (ACS) to maintain Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH)-referenced attitudes without spin-stabilization, while the pointing errors for some attitudes be significantly smaller than the previous best-demonstrated for this type of control system. The mission requires the ACS to hold multiple stable, unstable, and non-equilibrium attitudes, as well as eject a 3U CubeSat from an onboard P-POD and recover from the ensuing tumble. This paper describes the Attitude Control System, the reasons for design choices, how the ACS integrates with the rest of the spacecraft, and gives recommendations for potential future applications of the work.

  14. Stable Treemaps via Local Moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, Max; Speckmann, Bettina; Verbeek, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Treemaps are a popular tool to visualize hierarchical data: items are represented by nested rectangles and the area of each rectangle corresponds to the data being visualized for this item. The visual quality of a treemap is commonly measured via the aspect ratio of the rectangles. If the data changes, then a second important quality criterion is the stability of the treemap: how much does the treemap change as the data changes. We present a novel stable treemapping algorithm that has very high visual quality. Whereas existing treemapping algorithms generally recompute the treemap every time the input changes, our algorithm changes the layout of the treemap using only local modifications. This approach not only gives us direct control over stability, but it also allows us to use a larger set of possible layouts, thus provably resulting in treemaps of higher visual quality compared to existing algorithms. We further prove that we can reach all possible treemap layouts using only our local modifications. Furthermore, we introduce a new measure for stability that better captures the relative positions of rectangles. We finally show via experiments on real-world data that our algorithm outperforms existing treemapping algorithms also in practice on either visual quality and/or stability. Our algorithm scores high on stability regardless of whether we use an existing stability measure or our new measure.

  15. Domain effects and financial risk attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaev, Ivo; Kusev, Petko; Stewart, Neil; Aldrovandi, Silvio; Chater, Nick

    2010-09-01

    We investigated whether financial risk preferences are dependent on the financial domain (i.e., the context) in which the risky choice options are presented. Previous studies have demonstrated that risk attitudes change when gambles are framed as gains, losses, or as insurance. Our study explores this directly by offering choices between identical gambles, framed in terms of seven financial domains. Three factors were extracted, explaining 68.6% of the variance: Factor 1 (Positive)-opportunity to win, pension provision, and job salary change; Factor 2 (Positive-Complex)-investments and mortgage buying; Factor 3 (Negative)-possibility of loss and insurance. Inspection of the solution revealed context effects on risk perceptions across the seven scenarios. We also found that the commonly accepted assumption that women are more risk averse cannot be confirmed with the context structure suggested in this research; however, it is acknowledged that in the students' population the variance across genders might be considerably less. These results suggest that our financial risk attitude measures may be tapping into a stable aspect of "context dependence" of relevance to real-world decision making. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. The conservation attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1960-01-01

    Forsaking his inheritance and its assurance of a comfortable existence, Guatama Buddha adopted the life of a pauper to seek the intellectual joys of pure contemplation. Under a mulberry tree, it is said, he propounded a 12-point program of ethical conduct stressing the development of a disinterested outlook in each individual. Temples, ritual, and idols he considered distractions from the basic need. He felt that there was a basic need for the development of an attitude.The Brahmins as well as the lower castes recognized the merits of the system suggested by Buddha, but they molded his teachings into an accessory to existing rituals and dogma. They soon forgot that Guatama wanted no idols and no temples. They forgot his admonition that an attitude was the thing that really counted. Despite his expressed wish, today Buddha in stone, in bronze, and in gold ponders these things in thousands of temples and hears the prayers of millions who still seek the truths of an ethical life.Today, conservation has its temples. The temples of conservation include hundreds of irrigation reservoirs; it has prayer-sticks in miles of contour plow furrows, and the Buddha of a drop-inlet structure looks down on a conservation pool in myriad detention dams.Conservation is well established today in the minds of the American public. It seems appropriate to analyze at this time just what it is that is established in the public mind. In what ways have we, too, substituted the temples, the ritual, and the idols for an attitude?

  17. Optimal magnetic attitude control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Markley, F.L.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic torquing is attractive as means of control for small satellites. The actuation principle is to use the interaction between the earth's magnetic field and a magnetic field generated by a coil set in the satellite. This control principle is inherently time-varying, and difficult to use...... because control torques can only be generated perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field vector. This has been a serious obstacle for using magnetorquer based control for three-axis stabilization of a low earth orbit satellite. The problem of controlling the spacecraft attitude using only magnetic...

  18. Combinators for Paraconsistent Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    of the lambda calculus possibly containing lexical and/or logical constants. Such combinators seem promising from both a cognitive and computational point of view. There is approximately one lexical combinator for each word, but just eleven logical combinators for the present fragment. The partiality is only...... used for embedded sentences expressing propositional attitudes, thereby allowing for inconsistency without explosion (also called paraconsistency), and is based on a few key equalities for the connectives giving four truth values (truth, falsehood, and undefinedness with negative and positive polarity...

  19. Stereotypes and Welfare Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    What is the impact of a predominantly negative debate about social assistance on public and individual support for the social benefit? Over the course of a year the public debate about social assistance flared up twice in Denmark. The debates drew on classic stereotypes of the social assistance...... recipients lacking both the financial incentives and the will to work. According to theories of the impact of media on welfare attitudes, this had the potential to undermine public support. A two-wave panel survey, however, showed only a small drop in public support for spending on social assistance...

  20. An attitude scale for measuring language attitudes at South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents findings based on an exploratory factor analysis of the results of a mini-survey conducted at the University of South Africa (UNISA). The factor-analytic results are subjected to an item analysis, which allows for the construction of an attitude scale that can be usefully employed to measure the attitudes of ...

  1. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  2. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  3. Christian attitude in business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J M Vorster

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the twenty-first century faces new challenges in the field of business ethics.� Totally new macro-ethical challenges have arisen and they have already inspired constant ethical reflection. Two major developments in the field of economics paved the way for this new interest in business ethics: the total dominance of the market driven economy and economic globalization. This article investigates the ethical challenges posed by this new environment from a Christian ethical perspective. Firstly norms are formulated flowing from the paradigm of Christian attitude as a manifestation of the attitude of Christ. These are love, stewardship, self-denial and obedience to God. These norms are then applied to the following modern-day issues in the field of business ethics: the challenge of globalization, respect for basic human rights, remuneration, the corporation as a moral model, the need for self-evaluation, political responsibility and environmental concern. In conclusion I attempt to define the role of Christians and Christian churches in transforming corporations into moral agents.

  4. Consumer attitudes to injurious pecking in free range egg production

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Richard M..; Jones, Philip J.; Nicol, Christine J.; Tranter, Richard B.; Weeks, Claire A.

    2016-01-01

    Free range egg producers face continuing problems from injurious pecking (IP) which has financial consequences for farmers and poor welfare implications for birds. Beak trimming has been practised for many years to limit the damage caused by IP, but with the UK Government giving notification that they intend to ban beak trimming in 2016, considerable efforts have been made to devise feasible housing, range and management strategies to reduce IP.A recent research project investigated the effic...

  5. Optimal estimation of ship's attitudes for beampattern corrections in a coaxial circular array

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Dev, K.K.

    , and the multiplicative array technique is also used for beamsteering for higher steering angles to observe its control on the sidelobes as well as for the main beamwidths. In order to introduce an adaptive filter to estimate the accurate attitude for stable sonar...

  6. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  7. Creativity, Religiosity, and Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu; Schenk, Tal

    2013-01-01

    Although theoretically proposed in the literature, the direct associations between political attitudes, religion, and creativity have been scarcely explored. A convenience sample of 123 adults working in Israel filled out questionnaires assessing political-social attitudes, religiosity, and background factors (e.g., age, gender, education, and…

  8. Measurement of Attitude to Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Gilah C.

    1985-01-01

    Provides definitions of "attitudes" and discusses these attitude measures: (1) Thurstone (equal-appearing) scales; (2) Likert scales; (3) (Osgood's) semantic differential scale; (4) inventories and checklists; (5) preference rankings; (6) projective techniques; (7) enrollments; (8) clinical and anthropological observations; and (9)…

  9. College Students' Attitudes Toward Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Joseph W.

    1970-01-01

    Attitudes toward the desirability of abortion were significaantly related to sex, college, classification, level of church activity, residence background, family size, exposure to abortion, and attitude toward premarital sex. The data suggest an increasing acceptance of abortion in the future. (Author)

  10. Environmental Attitude and Ecological Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Florian G.; And Others

    This paper establishes environmental attitude, a construct in environmental psychology, as a powerful predictor of ecological behavior. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, this study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss…

  11. Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

  12. Parent Attitudes Toward Education Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinnus, Gene R.; And Others

    This document provides a questionnaire to be used to determine the attitudes and influence of parents who have children in bilingual education programs. Fifty three statements to be classified by varying degrees of agreement and disagreement are listed concerning parental attitudes toward schools and teachers, the value of education, the value of…

  13. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives......We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...... that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead...

  14. Star trackers for attitude determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebe, Carl Christian

    1995-01-01

    One problem comes to all spacecrafts using vector information. That is the problem of determining the attitude. This paper describes how the area of attitude determination instruments has evolved from simple pointing devices into the latest technology, which determines the attitude by utilizing...... a CCD camera and a powerful microcomputer. The instruments are called star trackers and they are capable of determining the attitude with an accuracy better than 1 arcsecond. The concept of the star tracker is explained. The obtainable accuracy is calculated, the numbers of stars to be included...... in the star catalogue are discussed and the acquisition of the initial attitude is explained. Finally the commercial market for star trackers is discussed...

  15. Seasat. Volume 4: Attitude determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasat project was a feasibility demonstration of the use of orbital remote sensing for global ocean observation. The satellite was launched in June 1978 and was operated successfully until October 1978. A massive electrical failure occurred in the power system, terminating the mission prematurely. The actual implementation of the Seasat Attitude Determination system and the contents of the attitude data files generated by that system are documented. The deviations from plan caused by the anomalous Sun interference with horizon sensors, inflight calibration of Sun sensor head 2 alignment and horizon sensor biomass, estimation of yaw interpolation parameters, Sun and horizon sensor error sources, and yaw interpolation accuracy are included. Examples are given of flight attitude data from all modes of the Orbital Attitude Control System, of the ground processing effects on attitude data, and of cold cloud effects on pitch, and roll data.

  16. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  17. physico-chemical and stable isotopes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper details the mineralogical, chemical and stable isotope abundances of calcrete in the Letlhakeng fossil valley. The stable isotope abundances (O and C) of calcretes yielded some values which were tested against the nature of the calcretes – pedogenic or groundwater type. The Kgalagadi (Kalahari) is a vast ...

  18. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015

    Summary

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  19. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar

  20. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope

  1. Stable Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of the halophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the halophytic Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Yan-Lin Sun, Soon-Kwan Hong. Abstract. In this study, an efficient procedure for stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Leymus chinensis (Trin.) was established. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105, harboring a ...

  2. Students' Attitude toward Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinda Fitriana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Students’ attitudes influence their decision to whether or not accept the teachers’ feedback. Therefore, questionnaire was administered to one hundred and ninety-six twelfth grade of vocational high school students, wherein, ten of them were involved in interview, to figure out their perspective concerning to the teachers’ correction on their oral production. From both instruments, it is found that the students preferred the teachers as the correctors, although, they did not mind for peer correction. They also expected the teachers to give correction at every time they did error and for all types of errors. Additionally, students agreed that teachers’ personality and their way of teaching influenced their willingness to accept the corrective feedback.

  3. The geological attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.G.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses geological activity which takes place mainly in response to industrial and social pressures. Past geological reaction to these pressures profoundly altered popular conceptions of time, the Church, man, and the balance of nature. The present-day circumstances of geology are not essentially different from those of the past. Petroleum geology in North American illustrates the role of technology in determining the style and scope of geological work. Peaks of activity cluster obviously on the introduction from time to time of new instrumental capabilities (geophysical apparatus, for example), although not infrequently such activity is testing concepts or relationships perceived long before. Organic metamorphism and continental drift provide two examples. The petroleum industry now faces the dilemma of satisfying predicted demands for fuel, without doing irreparable injury to its environment of operation. Awareness of man's place in nature, which is a fundamental perception of geology, governs the geological attitude

  4. Attitude Accessibility as a Function of Emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklage, Matthew D; Fazio, Russell H

    2018-04-01

    Despite the centrality of both attitude accessibility and attitude basis to the last 30 years of theoretical and empirical work concerning attitudes, little work has systematically investigated their relation. The research that does exist provides conflicting results and is not at all conclusive given the methodology that has been used. The current research uses recent advances in statistical modeling and attitude measurement to provide the most systematic examination of the relation between attitude accessibility and basis to date. Specifically, we use mixed-effects modeling which accounts for variation across individuals and attitude objects in conjunction with the Evaluative Lexicon (EL)-a linguistic approach that allows for the simultaneous measurement of an attitude's valence, extremity, and emotionality. We demonstrate across four studies, over 10,000 attitudes, and nearly 50 attitude objects that attitudes based on emotion tend to be more accessible in memory, particularly if the attitude is positive.

  5. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-02-01

    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  6. Stable Fly, (L., Dispersal and Governing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L., has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (13 km is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one “lineage”, the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  7. Attitudes toward expanding nurses' authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzman, Hana; Van Dijk, Dina; Eizenberg, Limor; Khaikin, Rut; Phridman, Shoshi; Siman-Tov, Maya; Goldberg, Shoshi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of care procedures previously under the physician's authority have been placed in the hands of registered nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of nurses towards expanding nurses' authority and the relationships between these attitudes and job satisfaction facets, professional characteristics, and demographics. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 in three major medical centers in Israel. Participants included 833 nurses working in 89 departments. Attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority were assessed by self-report questionnaire, as well as job satisfaction facets including perception of professional autonomy, nurse-physician working relations, workload and burnout, perceptions of quality of care, and nursing staff satisfaction at work. Nurses reported positive attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority and moderate attitudes for interpretation of diagnostic tests in selected situations. The results of multivariate regression analyses demonstrate that the nurses' satisfaction from professional autonomy and work relations were the most influential factors in explaining their attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority. In addition, professionally young nurses tend to be more positive regarding changes in nurses' authority. In the Israeli reality of a nurse's shortage, we are witnessing professional transitions toward expansion of the scope of nurses' accountability and decision-making authority. The current research contributes to our understanding of attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority among the nursing staffs. The findings indicate the necessity of redefining the scope of nursing practice within the current professional context.

  8. Formal semantics for propositional attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vanderveken

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psychological modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka, human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

  9. Attitude Stabilization Control of a Quadrotor UAV by Using Backstepping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Huo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling and attitude stabilization control problems of a four-rotor vertical takeoff and landing unmanned air vehicle (UAV known as the quadrotor are investigated. The quadrotor’s attitude is represented by the unit quaternion rather than Euler angles to avoid singularity problem. Taking dynamical behavior of motors into consideration and ignoring aerodynamic effect, a nonlinear controller is developed to stabilize the attitude. The control design is accomplished by using backstepping control technique. The proposed control law is based on the compensation for the Coriolis and gyroscope torques. Applying Lyapunov stability analysis proves that the closed-loop attitude system is asymptotic stable. Moreover, the controller can guarantee that all the states of the system are uniformly ultimately bounded in the presence of external disturbance torque. The effectiveness of the proposed control approach is analytically authenticated and also validated via simulation study.

  10. Sliding Mode Attitude Control for Magnetic Actuated Satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic torquing is attractive as a control principle on small satellites. The actuation principle is to use the interaction between the earth's magnetic field and magnetic field generated by a coil set in the satellite. This control principle is inherently nonlinear, and difficult to use because...... control torques can only be generated perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field vector. This has been a serious obstacle for using magnetorquer based control for three-axis attitude control. This paper deals with three-axis stabilization of a low earth orbit satellite. The problem of controlling...... the spacecraft attitude using only magnetic torquing is realized in the form of the sliding mode control. A three dimensional sliding manifold is proposed, and it is shown that the satellite motion on the sliding manifold is asymptotically stable...

  11. British women's attitudes to surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poote, A E; van den Akker, O B A

    2009-01-01

    There has been little interest in the research literature on public opinions regarding assisted conception and surrogacy, particularly in European countries, despite the growing evidence showing that problems in adaptation and coping may be related to perceived normative values. This study investigated British women's attitudes to surrogacy using components of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Questionnaires on attitudes to surrogacy and reasons for parenthood were completed by 187 women from the general public. Significant socio-demographic differences were found between women who were possibly willing (n = 76) and those who were unwilling (n = 111) to become surrogate mothers. General attitudes to surrogacy also differed between groups (P = 0.000). This study supported the predictive utility of components of the TPB, and differentiated adequately between groups on attitudes to recruitment for surrogacy (P = 0.000), the consequences of surrogacy (P = 0.000), factors that induce people to become surrogates (P = 0.000), social support (P = 0.000), having personal control (P = 0.002) and reasons for parenthood (P = 0.000). Age (P = 0.000), attitudes to advertising (P = 0.02) and the consequences of surrogacy (P = 0.05) predicted (un)willingness to become a potential surrogate mother. Further research is needed with larger sample sizes of potential surrogates to determine whether the predictive attitudes reported here translate to actual behaviours. The larger group which was not interested in considering becoming a surrogate scored significantly more negatively on all attitudes towards surrogacy. The negative attitudes reported by the 'unwilling to consider being a surrogate' group may reflect attitudes held by the majority of the population and are likely to be influenced by reports of stigma associated with surrogacy.

  12. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Managerial attitude toward quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschenmann, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper will present what relationships exist between the attitude toward quality assurance and the variables of training and experience on the part of managers within the nuclear power industry. Managerial attitude toward quality assurance was measured via questionnaires submitted to managers within architect-engineering, nuclear steam supplier, and constructor firms throughout the United States. The data from the completed questionnaires were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test and conclusions were drawn. Additional study results related to major factors for positive and negative attitudes toward quality assurance will be presented

  14. Love attitudes and relationship experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammock, Georgina; Richardson, Deborah South

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the association of love attitudes with the initiation, maintenance, and dissolution of relationships. Respondents completed the Love Attitudes Scale and a questionnaire designed to measure experiences at each stage of relationship development. Ludus was relevant to all stages of relationship development; ludic attitudes were associated with absence of concern for partner loyalty, short and uncommitted relationships, and positive feelings about relationship dissolution. Pragma was associated primarily with relationship initiation (i.e., selection of an appropriate partner). Agape and Mania were most apparent during maintenance, as evidenced by relationships with indicators of involvement and loyalty. Agape, Mania, and Eros related to negative emotions at the point of relationship dissolution.

  15. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically......, the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  16. Metacognitive Reflection as a Moderator of Attitude Strength Versus Attitude Bolstering: Implications for Attitude Similarity and Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Vanessa; Wegener, Duane T

    2018-05-01

    "Strong" attitudes often have greater impact than "weak" attitudes. However, emerging research suggests that weak (uncertain) attitudes can substantially influence thinking or behavior. We propose metacognitive reflection as a moderator between traditional strength patterns and these emerging attitude bolstering patterns. Across six studies, research participants encountered a target person who agreed or disagreed with participants' attitudes. When focused on evaluating the target, attitudes predicted target evaluations better when the attitude was held with certainty (Study 1A), or after certainty had been primed (Studies 2A and 3; strength effects). However, when engaged in attitudinal social comparison (metacognitive reflection), attitudes better predicted target evaluation when the attitudes were held with doubt (Study 1B), or after doubt had been primed (Studies 2B and 3; bolstering effects). Expected change in certainty served as a mediator of attitude effects in metacognitive reflection but not target-focus conditions when doubt had been primed (Study 4).

  17. Catholic attitudes toward abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T W

    1984-01-01

    In the US attitudes toward abortion in the 1980s seem to have reached a more liberal plateau, much more favored than in the 1960s or earlier, but not longer moving in a liberal direction. Catholic attitudes basically have followed the same trend. Traditionally Catholic support has been slightly lower than Protestant, and both are less inclined to support abortion than Jews or the nonreligious. During the 1970s support among non-black Catholics averaged about 10 percentage points below non-black Protestants. Blacks tend to be anti-abortion and thereby lower support among Protestants as a whole. A comparison of Protestants and Catholics of both races shows fewer religious differences -- about 7 percentage points. There are some indications that this gap may be closing. In 1982, for the 1st time, support for abortions for social reasons, such as poverty, not wanting to marry, or not wanting more children, was as high among Catholics as among Protestants. 1 of the factors contributing to this narrowing gap has been the higher level of support for abortion among younger Catholics. Protestants show little variation on abortion attitudes, with those over age 65 being slightly less supportive. Among Catholics, support drops rapidly with age. This moderate and possibly vanishing difference between Catholics and Protestants contrasts sharply with the official positions of their respective churches. The Catholic Church takes an absolute moral position against abortion, while most Protestant churches take no doctrinaire position on abortion. Several, such as the Unitarians and Episcopalians, lean toward a pro-choice position as a matter of social policy, though fundamentalist sects take strong anti-abortion stances. Few Catholics agree with their church's absolutist anti-abortion position. The big split on abortion comes between what are sometimes termed the "hard" abortion reasons -- mother's health endangered, serious defect in fetus, rape, or incest. Support among Catholics

  18. Stable Organic Neutral Diradical via Reversible Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenpin; Quanz, Henrik; Burghaus, Olaf; Hofmann, Jonas; Logemann, Christian; Beeck, Sebastian; Schreiner, Peter R; Wegner, Hermann A

    2017-12-27

    We report the formation of a stable neutral diboron diradical simply by coordination of an aromatic dinitrogen compound to an ortho-phenyldiborane. This process is reversible upon addition of pyridine. The diradical species is stable above 200 °C. Computations are consistent with an open-shell triplet diradical with a very small open-shell singlet-triplet energy gap that is indicative of the electronic disjointness of the two radical sites. This opens a new way of generating stable radicals with fascinating electronic properties useful for a large variety of applications.

  19. Parents' Attitudes toward Mathematics and the Influence on Their Students' Attitudes toward Mathematics: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr-Schroeder, Margaret J.; Jackson, Christa; Cavalcanti, Maureen; Jong, Cindy; Schroeder, D. Craig; Speler, Lydia G.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate parents' attitudes toward mathematics, their students' attitude toward mathematics, and the influence of the parents' attitude on the students' attitude toward mathematics. Data analyses revealed statistically significant positive correlations between parents' and students' attitudes toward mathematics.…

  20. Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

  1. Social psychology and energy attitude consumer change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, Y.; Saffarinia, M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most issues in social Psychology is study of attitude. Attitudes are causes of human behavior. If we regard energy consumption as a behavior for changing behavior in field of energy we must to study attitude and attitude change.In social psychology attitude define as positive and negative affective state to a matter of object. In this paper try it describe approaches and theories about attitudes and attitude change such as classical conditioning operant conditioning, social learning and cognitive. We hope this paper will be useful for planners and expert that work in this field

  2. Entrepreneurial Attitudes among Potential Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali (Corresponding author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores entrepreneurial attitudes among potential entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Multi-stage sampling maximized representation. Four hundred and eighty masters of business administration (MBA students (potential entrepreneurs from six public sector Pakistani universities returned completed questionnaires. Three factors emerged: entrepreneurial acceptability, entrepreneurial intentions and personal factors. Moreover, the perceptions of the potential entrepreneurs on locus of control, self efficacy, subjective norms and instrumental readiness were also analyzed. The majority of students showed generally positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship at all six universities. Overall there was a significant difference between negative and positive attitudes (negative mean 184, positive mean 284. There was also some impact of demographic variables, such as university, parental income and profession. Both genders exhibited similar attitudes at most of the sample institutions. The implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  3. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  4. Consumer sensory evaluation, fatty acid composition, and shelf-life of ground beef with subcutaneous fat trimmings from different carcass locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerth, Chris R; Harbison, Amanda L; Smith, Stephen B; Miller, Rhonda K

    2015-06-01

    Brisket, chuck, plate, flank, and round subcutaneous fat trim were used to produce ground beef patties then evaluated for color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, volatile chemical compounds and consumer sensory evaluation. Color, TBARS, consumer sensory evaluation, and cook/freezer loss did not differ (P>0.05) among carcass fat locations. Percentage stearic acid was lower (P=0.044) in the ground beef using brisket fat than using the chuck and flank fat. Patties made with brisket fat were higher in cis-vaccenic acid (P=0.016) and the saturated to monounsaturated fatty acid ratio (P=0.018) than all other sources of subcutaneous fat. Butanedione was highest (P=0.013) in patties using flank and plate fat. Ground beef with brisket fat was higher (P=0.003) than all other sources for beefy aroma. Altering the profile of non-polar, triglyceride fatty acids has no effect on sensory flavor or major volatile chemical compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Observer Based Sliding Mode Attitude Control: Theoretical and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Jørgensen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the design of a sliding mode controller for attitude control of spacecraft actuated by three orthogonal reaction wheels. The equilibrium of the closed loop system is proved to be asymptotically stable in the sense of Lyapunov. Due to cases where spacecraft do not have angular velocity measurements, an estimator for the generalized velocity is derived and asymptotic stability is proven for the observer. The approach is tested on an experimental platform with a sphere shaped Autonomous Underwater Vehicle SATellite: AUVSAT, developed at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

  6. Risk Attitudes and Birth Order

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G.

    2013-01-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradict...

  7. Undergraduates’ attitudes toward mobile advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Usta, Resul

    2009-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of mobile devices such as cellular phones has created a new communication channel for marketing. Currently, cellular phones are mostly used for Short Messaging Service (SMS) advertising. The aim of this study is to explore the factors that underline undergraduates’ attitudes toward SMS advertising. The results obtained indicated factors such as entertainment, informativeness, irritation, reliability, general attitude and permission and incentive-based advertising. The ...

  8. Standard English and Language Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    ソランキ, ネイディン

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the attitudes and opinions surrounding Standard English (SE) within the United Kingdom. The definition of SE, for the purposes of this study, is standard grammar and standard pronunciation of southern English, commonly referred to as 'BBC English'. The subject of SE and attitudes towards different accents and dialects of British English is emotive and attracts strong opinions. The main issues discussed here are the place of language in society, the social implications ...

  9. Do attitudes predict consumer's behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Đelošević Ivana; Dević Željko; Spasojević Branka

    2017-01-01

    There are many themes in marketing to analyze the psychological and marketing aspect of research. The survey of consumer attitudes is one of them. The consumer attitudes have long been discussed and written about. For this purpose, numerous theories, models and researches have emerged. The research of powerful feelings of consumers towards products is something that marketers are constantly trying to achieve. Therefore it is very important for them to understand the factors affecting the atti...

  10. [Attitudes towards immunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinska, M-A; Léon, C

    2007-01-01

    Ever since vaccination was introduced, a minority has been opposed to this practice. Recently however, fear of adverse events and a general questioning of the usefulness of certain vaccines have led to wariness on the part of the broader public. In France, this phenomenon is particularly striking since the hepatitis B vaccination campaign. We wished to analyse the situation by drawing on the results of surveys conducted by the French Institute of Prevention and Health Education (Institut national de prévention et d'éducation pour la santé, INPES) which sought to gain a better understanding of health care professionals' and the general public's attitudes towards immunization. Although the majority of French men and women are convinced of the overall benefit of vaccination in the past, they increasingly question vaccine safety and usefulness today. In order to prevent further deterioration of the situation, efforts must be made to enhance public and professional awareness as to the stakes involved in the control of vaccine preventable diseases.

  11. Models of complex attitude systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo

    Existing research on public attitudes towards agricultural production systems is largely descriptive, abstracting from the processes through which members of the general public generate their evaluations of such systems. The present paper adopts a systems perspective on such evaluations, understa......Existing research on public attitudes towards agricultural production systems is largely descriptive, abstracting from the processes through which members of the general public generate their evaluations of such systems. The present paper adopts a systems perspective on such evaluations......, understanding them as embedded into a wider attitude system that consists of attitudes towards objects of different abstraction levels, ranging from personal value orientations over general socio-political attitudes to evaluations of specific characteristics of agricultural production systems. It is assumed...... that evaluative affect propagates through the system in such a way that the system becomes evaluatively consistent and operates as a schema for the generation of evaluative judgments. In the empirical part of the paper, the causal structure of an attitude system from which people derive their evaluations of pork...

  12. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  13. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  14. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  15. Allan Hills Stable Water Isotopes, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes stable water isotope values at 10 m resolution along an approximately 5 km transect through the main icefield of the Allan Hills Blue Ice...

  16. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the pharmacokinetic profile or mode of action of a drug substance. Secondly, stable isotopes may be used for the assessment of drug products or drug delivery systems by determination of parameters such as the bioavailability or the release profile. Thirdly, patients may be assessed in relation to patient-specific drug treatment; this concept is often called personalized medicine. In this article, the application of stable isotope technology in the aforementioned three areas is reviewed, with emphasis on developments over the past 25 years. The applications are illustrated with examples from clinical studies in humans. PMID:21801197

  17. Tannaka duality and stable infinity-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanari, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of fine tannakian infinity-categories and prove Tannaka duality results for symmetric monoidal stable infinity-categories over a field of characteristic zero. We also discuss several examples.

  18. On Stable Marriages and Greedy Matchings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manne, Fredrik; Naim, Md; Lerring, Hakon; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2016-12-11

    Research on stable marriage problems has a long and mathematically rigorous history, while that of exploiting greedy matchings in combinatorial scientific computing is a younger and less developed research field. In this paper we consider the relationships between these two areas. In particular we show that several problems related to computing greedy matchings can be formulated as stable marriage problems and as a consequence several recently proposed algorithms for computing greedy matchings are in fact special cases of well known algorithms for the stable marriage problem. However, in terms of implementations and practical scalable solutions on modern hardware, the greedy matching community has made considerable progress. We show that due to the strong relationship between these two fields many of these results are also applicable for solving stable marriage problems.

  19. The Reactivity of Stable Metallacyclobutenes and Vinylcarbenes

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Ryan Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1. Historical Development of Stable Metallacyclobutenes Fred Tebbe and co-workers synthesized the first stable metallacyclobutene complexes in the late 1970’s by treatment of an intermediate titanium methylene species – later popularized as the “Tebbe reagent” – with acetylenes. Robert Grubbs at Caltech further studied this system, using it to detail a degenerate metathesis reaction and to isolate a metallacyclobutane complex – which was implicated in the emerging field of alkene meta...

  20. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Toward a formalized account of attitudes: The Causal Attitude Network (CAN) Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalege, J.; Borsboom, D.; Harreveld, F. van; Berg, H. van den; Conner, M.; Maas, H.L.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Causal Attitude Network (CAN) model, which conceptualizes attitudes as networks consisting of evaluative reactions and interactions between these reactions. Relevant evaluative reactions include beliefs, feelings, and behaviors toward the attitude object. Interactions

  2. Local Search Approaches in Stable Matching Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the

  3. Is There a Stable Value Basis for Organic Food Consumption in China?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng

    Chinese consumers collected in 2009 (n = 529) and 2012 (n = 478) outside supermarkets in Guangzhou, China, selling organic food. Consistent with previous studies in Western countries, we find that the attitude towards buying organic vegetables is related to the value type Schwarz terms “Universalism......The objective this paper is to investigate whether a solid and stable value base exists in China for buying organic food, a western invention, and which values that might be. We study the stability of the value foundation for buying organic food in China by means of two surveys with ordinary...

  4. The postmodern crisis and the loss of stable identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim A. Emelin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proves the assumption that being a worldview of the information society postmodernism simultaneously reverberates its problems, among which is blurring personal identity. The most vulnerable part of the postmodern ideology is the implicit inability to construct steady architecture of identification. This is hampered by specific ideas related to the fundamental principle of postmodernism, i.e. pluralism leading to relativism and the loss of sustainable landmarks. Applying the pluralism principle to the full may result in unlimited choice production, which should not be considered the achievement of the information society and postmodern culture, but its main problem. The social political consequences of tolerance issues and the equivalence of opinions, attitudes and values are discussed. Lack of preferred self-identification vectors reduces the motivation for the individual to develop a stable personal identity. If no paradigm in terms of the truth can claim a given status disputes over claims of significance turn into controversies over power, thereby generating social Darwinism. The principle of pluralism actually legitimizes radical ideologies, whose extreme form is terrorism put in the mosaic and multicultural postmodern world occurs to be one of many sociocultural paradigms. Exactly the identity crisis in the conditions of mass distribution of both military and information technologies is considered the main cause of radicalism as the result of finding pathological forms of cognitive personal identity. Social cultural and worldview crises of the information society are becoming the main cause for producing endurable and irregular forms of personal identity architecture.

  5. The dynamics of CRM attitude change: Attitude stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorich, Steven E.

    1993-01-01

    Special training seminars in cockpit resource management (CRM) are designed to enhance crew effectiveness in multicrew air-transport cockpits. In terms of CRM, crew effectiveness is defined by teamwork rather than technical proficiency. These seminars are designed to promote factual learning, alter aviator attitudes, and motivate aviators to make use of what they have learned. However, measures of attitude change resulting from CRM seminars have been the most common seminar evaluation technique. The current investigation explores a broader range of attitude change parameters with specific emphasis on the stability of change between recurrent visits to the training center. This allows for a comparison of training program strengths in terms of seminar ability to effect lasting change.

  6. Stable chaos in fluctuation driven neural circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo-Garcia, David; Torcini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nonlinear instabilities in fluctuation driven (balanced) neural circuits are studied. • Balanced networks display chaos and stable phases at different post-synaptic widths. • Linear instabilities coexists with nonlinear ones in the chaotic regime. • Erratic motion appears also in linearly stable phase due to stable chaos. - Abstract: We study the dynamical stability of pulse coupled networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons against infinitesimal and finite perturbations. In particular, we compare mean versus fluctuations driven networks, the former (latter) is realized by considering purely excitatory (inhibitory) sparse neural circuits. In the excitatory case the instabilities of the system can be completely captured by an usual linear stability (Lyapunov) analysis, whereas the inhibitory networks can display the coexistence of linear and nonlinear instabilities. The nonlinear effects are associated to finite amplitude instabilities, which have been characterized in terms of suitable indicators. For inhibitory coupling one observes a transition from chaotic to non chaotic dynamics by decreasing the pulse-width. For sufficiently fast synapses the system, despite showing an erratic evolution, is linearly stable, thus representing a prototypical example of stable chaos

  7. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  8. Social attitudes and regional inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Muštra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As the budgets of the European Union (EU become tighter, the questions about the effectiveness of EU’s expenditure, especially the most important parts such as Cohesion policy, are hotly debated. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the presence of social attitudes may influence the effectiveness of EU budget expenditure, measured by the level of regional inequalities. The analysis starts by focusing on individuals’ attitudes towards income from their own effort and income which is derived from other people’s effort, having in mind that individual actions depend on their attitudes. The next step establishes the link between the income from other people’s effort with the re-distributive dimension of the EU budget, considering that different attitudes among individuals in the EU could lead to significant differences in effectiveness of this redistributive policy among European regions and, consequently, diverse regional inequalities. Empirical research uses data for 27 EU countries observed over two waves of European Value Surveys: 1999-2000 (Wave 1 and 2008–2009 (Wave 2. The results indicate a significant role of social attitudes for regional inequalities, which raises the question of the appropriateness of simplification and uniform regional policy instruments in solving EU regional problems.

  9. Solar Sail Attitude Control System for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid Scout Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphee, Juan; Diedrich, Ben; Stiltner, Brandon; Becker, Chris; Heaton, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    An Attitude Control System (ACS) has been developed for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission. The NEA Scout spacecraft is a 6U cubesat with an eighty-six square meter solar sail for primary propulsion that will launch as a secondary payload on the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) and rendezvous with a target asteroid after a two year journey, and will conduct science imagery. The spacecraft ACS consists of three major actuating subsystems: a Reaction Wheel (RW) control system, a Reaction Control System (RCS), and an Active Mass Translator (AMT) system. The reaction wheels allow fine pointing and higher rates with low mass actuators to meet the science, communication, and trajectory guidance requirements. The Momentum Management System (MMS) keeps the speed of the wheels within their operating margins using a combination of solar torque and the RCS. The AMT is used to adjust the sign and magnitude of the solar torque to manage pitch and yaw momentum. The RCS is used for initial de-tumble, performing a Trajectory Correction Maneuver (TCM), and performing momentum management about the roll axis. The NEA Scout ACS is able to meet all mission requirements including attitude hold, slews, pointing for optical navigation and pointing for science with margin and including flexible body effects. Here we discuss the challenges and solutions of meeting NEA Scout mission requirements for the ACS design, and present a novel implementation of managing the spacecraft Center of Mass (CM) to trim the solar sail disturbance torque. The ACS we have developed has an applicability to a range of potential missions and does so in a much smaller volume than is traditional for deep space missions beyond Earth.

  10. Turkish high school students' attitudes toward addictive substances: association with perceived parental attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustüner, Mehmet; Aksoy, Kasim; Ozer, Niyazi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold: 1) to determine attitudes of high school students toward addictive substances; and 2) to determine students' attitudes toward addictive substances in terms of some variables including gender, grade, and perceived parental attitudes. To this end, Addictive Substances Attitudes Scale and Parental Attitudes Scale were given to a sample of 745 high school students (F = 330, M = 415) chosen by purposive sampling method. Results showed that compared to the males, females had more negative attitudes toward addictive substances. And compared to students from the upper grades, students from lower grades had more negative attitudes toward addictive substances. It is also found that students' attitudes toward addictive substances correlate with perceived parental attitudes. The correlation is low and positive for perceived democratic parental attitudes (r = .29), negative and low for perceived authoritarian parental attitudes (r = -.27).

  11. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...... is controlled using wall mounted ventilation flaps. In the paper an algorithm for air flow control is presented meeting the needs for temperature and humidity while taking the air flow pattern in consideration. To obtain simple and realisable controllers a model based control design method is applied....... In the design dynamic models for temperature and humidity are very important elements and effort is put into deriving and testing the models. It turns out that non-linearities are dominating in both models making feedback linearization the natural design method. The air controller as well as the temperature...

  12. On some topological properties of stable measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Krabbe

    1996-01-01

    Summary The paper shows that the set of stable probability measures and the set of Rational Beliefs relative to a given stationary measure are closed in the strong topology, but not closed in the topology of weak convergence. However, subsets of the set of stable probability measures which...... are characterized by uniformity of convergence of the empirical distribution are closed in the topology of weak convergence. It is demonstrated that such subsets exist. In particular, there is an increasing sequence of sets of SIDS measures who's union is the set of all SIDS measures generated by a particular...... system and such that each subset consists of stable measures. The uniformity requirement has a natural interpretation in terms of plausibility of Rational Beliefs...

  13. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed.

  14. Platinum thin film resistors as accurate and stable temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, W.

    1984-01-01

    The measurement characteristics of thin-Pt-film temperature sensors fabricated using advanced methods are discussed. The limitations of wound-wire Pt temperature sensors and the history of Pt-film development are outlined, and the commonly used film-deposition, structuring, and trimming methods are presented in a table. The development of a family of sputtered film resistors is described in detail and illustrated with photographs of the different types. The most commonly used tolerances are reported as + or - 0.3 C + 0.5 percent of the temperature measured.

  15. Attitude Fusion Techniques for Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    of the instrument, and affecting operations during agile and complex spacecraft attitude maneuvers. As such, there exists a theoretical foundation for augmenting the high frequency performance of the μASC instrument, by harnessing the complementary nature of optical stellar reference and inertial sensor technology...... over the entire span of frequencies applicable to spacecraft attitude control systems. Completing the first steps from theoretical possibility towards a proven concept constitutes the primary focus of the project, having necessitated extensive research and development within several diverse technical......Spacecraft platform instability constitutes one of the most significant limiting factors in hyperacuity pointing and tracking applications, yet the demand for accurate, timely and reliable attitude information is ever increasing. The PhD research project described within this dissertation has...

  16. PARENTS ATTITUDE ABOUT OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Martinović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on a sample of 238 parents whose children attend the third and fourth grades in two Belgrade elementary schools: “Oslobodioci Beograda” and “Borislav Pekic”. The aim of this study was to deter¬mi¬ne the incidence of outdoor activities and the attitude of the third and fourth graders’ parents towards it. Statistical data processing was based on the use of the –R, and every question represented a random variable. The analysis of the collected data has proved the presence of outdoor activities among these pupils and their positive attitude towards camping out, as well as a positive attitude of their parents.

  17. Computers in medicine: patients' attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Data are presented from two surveys where a 26-item questionnaire was used to measure patients' attitudes to diagnostic computers and to medical computers in general. The first group of respondents were 229 patients who had been given outpatient appointments at a hospital general medical clinic specializing in gastrointestinal problems, where some had experienced a diagnostic computer in use. The second group of respondents were 416 patients attending a group general practice where there was no computer. Patients who had experience of the diagnostic computer or a personal computer had more favourable attitudes to computers in medicine as did younger people and males. The two samples of patients showed broadly similar attitudes, and a notable finding was that over half of each group believed that, with a computer around, the personal touch of the doctor would be lost. PMID:6471021

  18. Fuzzy control of attitude of four - rotor UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zexiang; Hu, Shengbin

    2017-08-01

    The four - rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is the object of study, in this paper. In order to solve the problem of poor robustness and low control precision of the four-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) control system, and realized the stability control problem of the four-rotor UAV attitude. First, the dynamic model of the four-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle is established. And on this basis, a fuzzy controller is designed, and used to control the channel. Then, the simulation platform is built by Matlab / Simulink simulation software, and the performance of the designed fuzzy controller is analyzed comprehensively. It is also determined whether the algorithm can control the attitude of the four rotor unmanned aerial vehicle. The simulation results fully verify the accuracy of the model, and proved fuzzy controller has better dynamic performance and robustness under appropriate parameters so that UAVs can fly stable. The algorithm can improve the anti-jamming performance and control accuracy of the system, it has a certain significance for the actual four-rotor aircraft attitude control.

  19. Faster and Simpler Approximation of Stable Matchings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Paluch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We give a 3 2 -approximation algorithm for finding stable matchings that runs in O(m time. The previous most well-known algorithm, by McDermid, has the same approximation ratio but runs in O(n3/2m time, where n denotes the number of people andm is the total length of the preference lists in a given instance. In addition, the algorithm and the analysis are much simpler. We also give the extension of the algorithm for computing stable many-to-many matchings.

  20. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  1. Bordism, stable homotopy and adams spectral sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kochman, Stanley O

    1996-01-01

    This book is a compilation of lecture notes that were prepared for the graduate course "Adams Spectral Sequences and Stable Homotopy Theory" given at The Fields Institute during the fall of 1995. The aim of this volume is to prepare students with a knowledge of elementary algebraic topology to study recent developments in stable homotopy theory, such as the nilpotence and periodicity theorems. Suitable as a text for an intermediate course in algebraic topology, this book provides a direct exposition of the basic concepts of bordism, characteristic classes, Adams spectral sequences, Brown-Peter

  2. Modelling stable water isotopes: Status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of stable water isotopes H2 18O and HDO within various parts of the Earth’s hydrological cycle has clearly improved our understanding of the interplay between climatic variations and related isotope fractionation processes. In this article key principles and major research results of stable water isotope modelling studies are described. Emphasis is put on research work using explicit isotope diagnostics within general circulation models as this highly complex model setup bears many resemblances with studies using simpler isotope modelling approaches.

  3. Faculty attitudes about interprofessional education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Beck Dallaghan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interprofessional education (IPE is an important component to training health care professionals. Research is limited in exploring the attitudes that faculty hold regarding IPE and what barriers they perceive to participating in IPE. The purpose of this study was to identify faculty attitudes about IPE and to identify barriers to participating in campus-wide IPE activities. Methods: A locally used questionnaire called the Nebraska Interprofessional Education Attitudes Scale (NIPEAS was used to assess attitudes related to interprofessional collaboration. Questions regarding perceived barriers were included at the end of the questionnaire. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to analyze the results in aggregate as well as by college. In addition, open-ended questions were analyzed using an immersion/crystallization framework to identify themes. Results: The results showed that faculty had positive attitudes of IPE, indicating that is not a barrier to participating in IPE activities. Most common barriers to participation were scheduling conflicts (x24,285=19.17, p=0.001, lack of department support (4,285=10.09, p=0.039, and lack of awareness of events (x24,285=26.38, p=0.000. Narrative comments corroborated that scheduling conflicts are an issue because of other priorities. Those who commented also added to the list of barriers, including relevance of the activities, location, and prior negative experiences. Discussion: With faculty attitudes being positive, the exploration of faculty's perceived barriers to IPE was considered even more important. Identifying these barriers will allow us to modify our IPE activities from large, campus-wide events to smaller activities that are longitudinal in nature, embedded within current curriculum and involving more authentic experiences.

  4. Japanese attitudes toward assisted procreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Yasuko

    1993-01-01

    Based on the present results, the following points are suggested: First, there are significant attitudinal differences [in Japan] on new reproductive technologies between infertile couples and married laypersons; laypersons' attitudes were not so affirmative as those of infertile couples. Second, among the group of infertile couples, male respondents showed more affirmative attitudes toward assisted procreation than female respondents. Third, the main reason for approving of new reproductive technologies was that "it is a treatment for infertility," while the main reasoning of those who disapproved of them was that "it conflicts with the way of nature."

  5. Women's attitudes toward forcible rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolor, A

    1978-01-01

    This study assessed the attitudes of women with diverse backgrounds toward possible responses to an attempted sexual assault and also ascertained their beliefs about how society should handle a convicted rapist. Additionally, the role which the personality dimensions of assertiveness and internal-external expectamcy play in shaping attitudes toward rape was investigated. Seventy-seven women and 25 men were administered the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, the Rotter I-E Scale, and a Rape Inventory. Women relied on a narrow range of options to deal with a rapist's attack, depending mostly on less active modes. They advocated humane approaches be taken with convicted rapists. Personality played only a minor role.

  6. Negative Attitudes, Networks and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper theoretically and empirically assesses the potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking. The paper considers that two these parameters may influence high and uneducated...... workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper finds suggestive evidence rejecting the theoretical case where negative attitudes decrease 1st generation immigrant education...... and indications that quality of networks seems to matter more for immigrants than the quantity of individuals in a potential network....

  7. Attitudes towards English in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Dako

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers official and individual attitudes towards bilingualism in English and a Ghanaian language. We ask whether bilingualism in English and Ghanaian languages is a social handicap, without merit, or an important indicator of ethnic identity. Ghana has about 50 non-mutually intelligible languages, yet there are no statistics on who speaks what language(s where in the country. We consider attitudes to English against the current Ghanaian language policy in education as practised in the school system. Our data reveal that parents believe early exposure to English enhances academic performance; English is therefore becoming the language of the home.

  8. Attitude sensing of APPLE spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, T. K.; Jain, Y. K.; Philip, M. P.; Kalakrishnan, B.; Kanakaraju, K.; Kamalakar, J. A.

    1983-11-01

    A variety of attitude sensors have been used in the Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) geosynchronous satellite's control system. Sensor tasks encompass satellite attitude determination after separation from launch vehicle, spin axis orientation for apogee boost motor firing and satellite spin-up, satellite despin and sunward pointing on reaching geosynchronous orbit, three-axis stabilization, and yaw axis control during stationkeeping. Attention is given to problems encountered during APPLE deployment, of which the most serious was the failure of one of the solar panels to deploy. Pitch rotation was used to keep earth sensor temperature below operating maximum range.

  9. The value of what others value : How personal and group values relate to pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Thijs; Steg, Emmalina; Johnson, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Personal values are considered stable predictors of environmental attitudes and behaviours (e.g., Steg et al., 2014). In addition, group values are often used to characterize groups and compare them with each other (e.g., Schwartz & Bardi, 2001). However, only little is known about the influence of

  10. Impact of employment contract changes on workers' quality of working life, job insecurity, health and work-related attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, A.F.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bossche, S.N.J.van den; Taris, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Changes in employment contracts may impact the quality of working life, job insecurity, health and work-related attitudes. We examined the validity of two partly competing theoretical approaches. Based upon a segmentation approach, we expected no change in scores among stable

  11. Attitude toward Abortion and Attitude-Relevant Overt Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Edward H.; Farina, Amerigo

    1978-01-01

    This investigation looked at the relationship between questionnaire-assessed attitude toward abortion, and later behaviors when subjects were requested to make a tape-recording of an emphatically pro- or anti-abortion script. A correlational study allowed the subject to select the script. In the experimental study, a script was assigned randomly.…

  12. Implicit and explicit interethnic attitudes and ethnic discrimination in hiring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommaert, E.C.C.A.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Coenders, M.T.A.

    2012-01-01

    We study effects of explicit and implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in hiring. Unlike explicit attitudes, implicit attitudes are characterised by reduced controllability, awareness or intention. Effects of implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in the labour

  13. Attitudes Toward Parenthood Among Canadian Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobart, Charles W.

    1973-01-01

    A study of student attitudes toward family size, use of contraceptives, authoritarian, permissive approaches to childrearing, parental responsibilities of the husband and wife and divorce. Hypotheses concerning determinants of these attitudes are also tested. (JC)

  14. Student Attitudes: A Study of Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Clifford A.

    1976-01-01

    Student attitudes toward current controversial problems (bussing for racial integration, legalization of abortion, and legalization of marijuana) were studied with regard to social class. The 1960 revision of the Purdue Master Attitude Scale was used. (LBH)

  15. Stable isotope analysis of dynamic lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Joost; Bailey, Andrew P; Koster, Grielof; Gould, Alex P; Postle, Anthony D

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic pathway flux is a fundamental element of biological activity, which can be quantified using a variety of mass spectrometric techniques to monitor incorporation of stable isotope-labelled substrates into metabolic products. This article contrasts developments in electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for the measurement of lipid metabolism with more established gas chromatography mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry methodologies. ESI-MS combined with diagnostic tandem MS/MS scans permits the sensitive and specific analysis of stable isotope-labelled substrates into intact lipid molecular species without the requirement for lipid hydrolysis and derivatisation. Such dynamic lipidomic methodologies using non-toxic stable isotopes can be readily applied to quantify lipid metabolic fluxes in clinical and metabolic studies in vivo. However, a significant current limitation is the absence of appropriate software to generate kinetic models of substrate incorporation into multiple products in the time domain. Finally, we discuss the future potential of stable isotope-mass spectrometry imaging to quantify the location as well as the extent of lipid synthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: BBALIP_Lipidomics Opinion Articles edited by Sepp Kohlwein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope geochemistry of the Ewekoro formation from Ibese Corehole, eastern Dahomey basin, southwestern Nigeria. ME Nton, MO ... Preserved pore types such as; intercrystaline, moldic and vuggy pores were observed as predominant conduits for fluids. The major ...

  17. petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Subsurface samples of the predominantly carbonate Ewekoro Formation, obtained from Ibese core hole within the Dahomey basin were used in this study. Investigations entail petrographic, elemental composition as well as stable isotopes (carbon and oxygen) geochemistry in order to deduce the different microfacies and ...

  18. Substitution of stable isotopes in Chlorella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaumenhaft, E.; Katz, J. J.; Uphaus, R. A.

    1969-01-01

    Replacement of biologically important isotopes in the alga Chlorella by corresponding heavier stable isotopes produces increasingly greater deviations from the normal cell size and changes the quality and distribution of certain cellular components. The usefulness of isotopically altered organisms increases interest in the study of such permuted organisms.

  19. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  20. Stable propagation of 'selfish'genetic elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    viruses such as the Epstein-Barr virus (Harris et al 1985;. Kanda et al 2001) and bovine papilloma virus (Lehman and Botchan 1998; Ilves et al 1999), which exist pre- dominantly as extrachromosomal episomes, have been shown to utilize chromosome tethering as a means for stable segregation. The tethering mechanism ...

  1. Unconditionally stable perfectly matched layer boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.

    2007-01-01

    A brief review is given of a systematic, product-formula based approach to construct unconditionally stable algorithms for solving the time-dependent Maxwell equations. The fundamental difficulties that arise when we want to incorporate uniaxial perfectly matched layer boundary conditions into this

  2. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that 13C and 18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution ...

  3. Connected domination stable graphs upon edge addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set S of vertices in a graph G is a connected dominating set of G if S dominates G and the subgraph induced by S is connected. We study the graphs for which adding any edge does not change the connected domination number. Keywords: Connected domination, connected domination stable, edge addition ...

  4. Stable magnetic remanence in antiferromagnetic goethite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangway, D W; McMahon, B E; Honea, R M

    1967-11-10

    Goethite, known to be antiferromagnetic, acquires thermoremanent magnetization at its Neel temperature of 120 degrees C. This remanence, extremely stable, is due to the presence of unbalanced spins in the antiferromagnetic structure; the spins may result from grain size, imperfections, or impurities.

  5. Language attitudes in the second language situation

    OpenAIRE

    Riana Roos

    2013-01-01

    A distinction is made between attitudes and specifically language attitudes. The process of acculturation is dealt with and its influence upon the motivation of ESL learners. Integrational and instmmental motivation are defined. Teachers' language attitudes, the dangers of prejudice and stereotyping are discussed. ,Attitude changes are analysed as well as the teacher's role in effecting them. 'n Onderskeid word getref tussen algemene houdings en houdings ten opsigte van taal. Die proses van a...

  6. Training Changes Professionals’ Attitudes Towards Dual Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinderup, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that mental health professionals in many cases have counterproductive attitudes towards patients with mental illnesses and comorbid substance use disorders (dual diagnosis). This is problematic because professionals’ attitudes are important for both the therapeutic alliance...... and treatment outcome. This study tested whether providing training in dual diagnosis treatment to mental health professionals will affect their attitudes positively. Twenty-one professionals completed a questionnaire on attitudes towards working with dual diagnosis (Comorbidity Problems Perceptions...

  7. Attitude analysis in Flatland: The plane truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1993-01-01

    Many results in attitude analysis are still meaningful when the attitude is restricted to rotations about a single axis. Such a picture corresponds to attitude analysis in the Euclidean plane. The present report formalizes the representation of attitude in the plane and applies it to some well-known problems. In particular, we study the connection of the 'additive' and 'multiplicative' formulations of the differential corrector for the quaternion in its two-dimensional setting.

  8. Valuing Teams: What Influences Student Attitudes?

    OpenAIRE

    Espey, Molly

    2008-01-01

    The ability to work with others is a skill highly valued by employers. Students often work in groups for class projects, but extensive teamwork is usually limited. This research explores student attitudes toward working with peers through a "Value of Teams" survey. The relationship of demographic characteristics and initial attitudes, changes in attitudes after a semester in an intensive team-based learning environment, and the enduring effect of attitudes as measured through responses of stu...

  9. Generalization of positive and negative attitudes towards individuals to outgroup attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, Tobias; Flache, Andreas; Veenstra, René

    The generalization of attitudes toward individual outgroup members into attitudes toward the outgroup as a whole can affect intergroup relations. However, little is known about the relative strengths of the generalization of negative and positive interpersonal attitudes into attitudes about the

  10. Parental Attitudes and the Effects of Ethnicity: How They Influence Children's Attitudes toward Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrehaly, Essa D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the manner in which parents' attitudes toward science learning influences their children's attitudes and the effect of ethnicity on attitudes toward science learning. The results of this study show that parental attitudes toward science learning were influenced by both parents' early life experiences and…

  11. Knowledge about and attitude toward electroconvulsive therapy of elderly patients with severe mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is quite often used in elderly patients with severe mental disorders. One of the important factors which determine the acceptance of ECT among patients is the knowledge and attitude toward ECT. Aim: The present study attempted to assess the knowledge about and attitude toward ECT among elderly patients with severe mental disorders who had never received ECT. Materials and Methods: Knowledge and attitudes regarding ECT were assessed using ECT knowledge and attitude questionnaires, among 102 clinically stable elderly patients with severe mental disorders. Results: Majority (n = 62; 60.8% of the patients obtained information mostly from "general word of mouth" or media (n = 23; 22.6%. None of the patients had full knowledge about ECT. Majority of the patients were not aware of the basic facts about ECT. Except for the fact that ECT involves use of electric current and can be given by a doctor, more than two-third of the patients were unaware of the basic facts about the procedure of ECT. Less than half of the patients were aware of the need for informed consent. Knowledge about indications, efficacy, and side effects of ECT was also very poor. In terms of attitude toward ECT, on most (15 out of 16 of the items, positive attitudes toward ECT were found in less than half of the patients (8.8-44.1%. In addition, significant proportions of patients were uncertain about their attitudes to ECT (35.3-66.7% or had a negative attitude toward ECT (4.9-32.4%. There was significant positive correlation between the total knowledge and attitude score, suggesting that higher knowledge was associated with more positive attitude and vice versa. There was no relationship of total knowledge and total attitude score with demographic and clinical variables. Conclusions: Elderly patients with severe mental disorders have poor knowledge, and a significant proportion of them have a negative attitude toward ECT. Accordingly, it is

  12. Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying basalt weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly basaltic, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from basaltic Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.

  13. Student Teachers' Attitudes about Basic Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    In this study an attitude questionnaire was developed and applied to identify student teachers' interests and attitudes for basic physics laboratory. In physics laboratory practices run by a higher education institution a new attitude questionnaire was developed and applied twice in two terms by researchers to increase student teachers' success…

  14. Investigating Student Attitudes toward Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirakaya, Mustafa; Kiliç Çakmak, Ebru

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the attitudes of secondary school students toward AR applications and to investigate the change in these attitudes according to different variables. The study also aspired to determine the relationship between attitudes toward AR and achievement. The general survey model was used in the study. The study group was…

  15. Attitudes and Language. Multilingual Matters: 83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Colin

    This book examines language attitudes, focusing on individual attitudes toward majority and minority languages and bilingualism. Special emphasis is placed on research conducted on language attitudes in Wales toward the Welsh and English languages. Six chapters address the following: (1) the nature, definition, and measurement of language…

  16. Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

    Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…

  17. The Attitudes of Teachers in Further Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Reports a survey of educational attitudes among teachers and tutors in English colleges of education. Three domains were studied: naturalism-formalism in attitude toward pedagogic role and student-teacher interaction; egalitarianism-conservatism in attitude toward access to educational systems and resources; and liberalism-utilitarianism in…

  18. Teachers' Attitudes to Self-Access Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Elaine; Voller, Peter

    1993-01-01

    This paper details the results of two surveys of teacher attitudes to self-access that took place at the English Centre at the University of Hong Kong during the 1992-93 year, and relate these back to an earlier survey of teacher attitudes from the previous year. The Survey of Teacher Attitudes to Self-Access Learning is appended. (JL)

  19. Teacher Educators' Attitude towards Computer: Perspective Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Ataur

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how teacher educators perceive the attitude towards use of computer technology in Teachers' Training Colleges in Bangladesh. This study investigated teacher educators' computer attitudes by using the valid and reliable instruments of Loyd and Gressard's (1984) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). The data was collected through …

  20. Consumers’ attitudes towards green food in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology...

  1. Teachers' Attitude towards English in Batu Anam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Mah Zhi; Lin, Lee Poh

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the attitude of 60 primary and secondary school teachers towards English in Batu Anam. A questionnaire was administered to find out whether they have a positive or a negative attitude towards the English language. Results indicate that teachers in Batu Anam generally have a positive attitude towards English. Comparison…

  2. Recent public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.O.

    This paper reviews recent public attitudes to nuclear power in Canada and the state of empirical knowledge about these attitudes referring specifically to studies carried out in Ontario. It discusses interest groups as a factor in public attitudes and suggests some lines of investigation for social research. (author)

  3. Adventure Learning: Competitive (Kiasu) Attitudes and Teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Alvin

    2003-01-01

    The impact of adventure learning (n=345) was measured on teamwork attitudes that are moderated by two attitudes, using the Singaporean concept of kiasu. Higher Kiasu-negative attitudes (preventing others from getting ahead of oneself) were associated with more improved team task participation and social support. (Contains 34 references.) (JOW)

  4. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  5. Youth Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    the youth population, unemployment rates, world events and attitudes on continuing education. Like the recruitment environment, advertising approaches... Youth Attitudes Toward the Military Poll Two DMDC Report No. 2002-028 April 2002 For additional copies of this report, contact: Defense Technical...for Report by ADA- DMDC Report No. 2002-028 April 2002 YOUTH ATTITUDES TOWARD THE MILITARY: POLL TWO

  6. Attitude of Student Teachers towards Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Anupama; Pathy, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching being a dynamic activity requires a favourable attitude and certain specific competencies from its practitioners. Teachers' proficiency depends on the attitude she possesses for the profession. The positive attitude helps teacher to develop a conductive learner friendly environment in the classroom. This also casts a fruitful effect on…

  7. Changing Adolescent Attitudes toward Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Timothy W.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Live oral or recorded video presentations on stuttering were delivered to high school students in order to determine the extent to which their attitudes toward stuttering could be improved. Methods: A classroom teacher administered the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") to two health classes before and…

  8. Understanding and managing risk attitude

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillson, David; Murray-Webster, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    ... This book highlights how risk attitude factors influence the human psyche, and carefully explains the impacts. Organisations seeking to dramatically improve the effectiveness of their risk management process will want to use this book's insights. Craig Peterson, President, PMI Risk Management SIG This book has prompted me to think more deeply as a change d...

  9. Attitudes on the Population Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronck, David R.

    1971-01-01

    Attitudes of biology teachers, prospective teachers, high school students, and adults were compared in regard to the basic principles of Zero Population Growth, the teaching of controversial topics, future state of the world, and Garret Hardin's Graduated Checklist of (28) Heresies." (CP)

  10. Undergraduate Students' Attitudes toward Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ju; Lin, Yu-Teh Kirk

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated American and Taiwan undergraduate students' attitudes toward biodiversity. The survey questionnaire consisted of statements prompted by the question "To what extent do you agree with the following statements about problems with the biodiversity issues." Students indicated strongly disagree, disagree, agree,…

  11. Does College Influence Sociopolitical Attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin; Horowitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Past research shows a statistically significant relationship between college completion and sociopolitical attitudes. However, recent scholarship suggests the effects of college on social outcomes may be confounded with unobserved family background. In this study, we leverage the shared family and social background of siblings to better identify…

  12. Visualizing attitudes towards service levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.Y. Lam (Kar Yin); M. van de Velden (Michel); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTo assess the attitudes with respect to the quality of banks’ service levels, we use survey data amongst more than 250 Chief Financial Officers (CFOs) of a range of Netherlands-based companies. These companies range from small to very large (including multinationals as Philips and Shell)

  13. Attitudes Toward English in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crismore, Avon; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A 16-item Likert Scale questionnaire was used to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of Malaysian teachers and students at the university level toward Malaysian English. The functionality of Malaysian English was accepted, but respondents were determined to learn Standard English because they viewed Malaysian English as "wrong…

  14. Japanese Attitudes toward English Accents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Reiko; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the attitudes of 169 Japanese university students toward varieties of spoken English. Results found that the students with more instrumental motivation were more positive toward nonnative English accents than those with less instrumental motivation, and that the students' familiarity with accents had an influence on their acceptance of…

  15. Culture, Ideology, and Antifat Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Christian S.; Martinez, Rebecca

    1996-01-01

    Tests the role of blame and ideology in antifat prejudice by comparing attitudes among college students (N=406) in the United States and Mexico. Mexican students were significantly less concerned about their own weight and more accepting of fat people than United States students. Prejudice toward fat people in the United States appears to have a…

  16. PARENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    81. PARENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS VOCATIONAL. EDUCATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELLING. OKOCHA, Maria Mrs. School Counsellor,. D. S. C. Technical High ... children find satisfaction and joy in learning. A lot more ... semi-skilled labour, while 'at the same time it is becoming apparent that the majority of ...

  17. Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Conti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Future space missions will involve satellites with great autonomy and stringent pointing precision, requiring of the Attitude Control Systems (ACS with better performance than before, which is function of the control algorithms implemented on board computers. The difficulties for developing experimental ACS test is to obtain zero gravity and torque free conditions similar to the SCA operate in space. However, prototypes for control algorithms experimental verification are fundamental for space mission success. This paper presents the parameters estimation such as inertia matrix and position of mass centre of a Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator (SACSS, using algorithms based on least square regression and least square recursive methods. Simulations have shown that both methods have estimated the system parameters with small error. However, the least square recursive methods have performance more adequate for the SACSS objectives. The SACSS platform model will be used to do experimental verification of fundamental aspects of the satellite attitude dynamics and design of different attitude control algorithm.

  18. Parental Attitudes Toward Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael J.; Green, Sonia R.

    1987-01-01

    Five hundred and five parents of elementary through secondary school students were surveyed to determine attitudes towards physical education. The questionnaire included positive and negative statements about physical education. Responses indicated that parents were positively disposed toward physical education, favoring focus on fitness, skill,…

  19. Consumer attitude toward food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

  20. Freshman Sexual Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Roberta L.; Sedlacek, William E.

    At the University of Maryland, 758 randomly selected incoming freshman students were administered an anonymous poll regarding their sexual attitudes and behavior. Results showed that the Maryland freshman generally resembled other U.S. college students in their sexual experience. Approximately half (52% of males, 46% of females) reported that they…