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Sample records for stable temperate population

  1. Tempered stable laws as random walk limits

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarty, Arijit; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2010-01-01

    Stable laws can be tempered by modifying the L\\'evy measure to cool the probability of large jumps. Tempered stable laws retain their signature power law behavior at infinity, and infinite divisibility. This paper develops random walk models that converge to a tempered stable law under a triangular array scheme. Since tempered stable laws and processes are useful in statistical physics, these random walk models can provide a basic physical model for the underlying physical phenomena.

  2. Tempered stable distributions stochastic models for multiscale processes

    CERN Document Server

    Grabchak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This brief is concerned with tempered stable distributions and their associated Levy processes. It is a good text for researchers interested in learning about tempered stable distributions.  A tempered stable distribution is one which takes a stable distribution and modifies its tails to make them lighter. The motivation for this class comes from the fact that infinite variance stable distributions appear to provide a good fit to data in a variety of situations, but the extremely heavy tails of these models are not realistic for most real world applications. The idea of using distributions that modify the tails of stable models to make them lighter seems to have originated in the influential paper of Mantegna and Stanley (1994). Since then, these distributions have been extended and generalized in a variety of ways. They have been applied to a wide variety of areas including mathematical finance, biostatistics,computer science, and physics.

  3. The tempered stable process with infinitely divisible inverse subordinators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyłomańska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade processes driven by inverse subordinators have become extremely popular. They have been used in many different applications, especially for data with observable constant time periods. However, the classical model, i.e. the subordinated Brownian motion, can be inappropriate for the description of observed phenomena that exhibit behavior not adequate for Gaussian systems. Therefore, in this paper we extend the classical approach and replace the Brownian motion by the tempered stable process. Moreover, on the other hand, as an extension of the classical model, we analyze the general class of inverse subordinators. We examine the main properties of the tempered stable process driven by inverse subordinators from the infinitely divisible class of distributions. We show the fractional Fokker–Planck equation of the examined process and the asymptotic behavior of the mean square displacement for two cases of subordinators. Additionally, we examine how an external force can influence the examined characteristics. (paper)

  4. The tempered one-sided stable density: a universal model for hydrological transport?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    A generalized distribution for the water residence time in hydrological transport is proposed in the form of the tempered one-sided stable (TOSS) density. It is shown that limiting cases of the TOSS distribution recover virtually all distributions that have been considered in the literature for hydrological transport, from plug flow to flow reactor, the advection-dispersion model, and the gamma and Levy densities. The stable property of TOSS is particularly important, enabling a seamless transition between a time-domain random walk, and the Lagrangian (trajectory) approach along hydrological transport pathways.

  5. Plasmodium vivax populations revisited: mitochondrial genomes of temperate strains in Asia suggest ancient population expansion

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    Miao Miao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria parasite outside of Africa, and its range extends well into the temperate zones. Previous studies provided evidence for vivax population differentiation, but temperate vivax parasites were not well represented in these analyses. Here we address this deficit by using complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequences to elucidate the broad genetic diversity and population structure of P. vivax from temperate regions in East and Southeast Asia. Results From the complete mtDNA sequences of 99 clinical samples collected in China, Myanmar and Korea, a total of 30 different haplotypes were identified from 26 polymorphic sites. Significant differentiation between different East and Southeast Asian parasite populations was observed except for the comparison between populations from Korea and southern China. Haplotype patterns and structure diversity analysis showed coexistence of two different groups in East Asia, which were genetically related to the Southeast Asian population and Myanmar population, respectively. The demographic history of P. vivax, examined using neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analyses, revealed population expansion events across the entire P. vivax range and the Myanmar population. Bayesian skyline analysis further supported the occurrence of ancient P. vivax population expansion. Conclusions This study provided further resolution of the population structure and evolution of P. vivax, especially in temperate/warm-temperate endemic areas of Asia. The results revealed divergence of the P. vivax populations in temperate regions of China and Korea from other populations. Multiple analyses confirmed ancient population expansion of this parasite. The extensive genetic diversity of the P. vivax populations is consistent with phenotypic plasticity of the parasites, which has implications for malaria control.

  6. First Passage Time for Tempered Stable Process and Its Application to Perpetual American Option and Barrier Option Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Shin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we will discuss an approximation of the characteristic function of the first passage time for a Levy process using the martingale approach. The characteristic function of the first passage time of the tempered stable process is provided explicitly or by an indirect numerical method. This will be applied to the perpetual American option pricing and the barrier option pricing. Numerical illustrations are provided for the calibrated parameters using the market call and put prices.

  7. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

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    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  8. Tempered fractional calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzikar, Farzad, E-mail: sabzika2@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Meerschaert, Mark M., E-mail: mcubed@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Jinghua, E-mail: cjhdzdz@163.com [School of Sciences, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361021 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  9. Tempered fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  10. Tempered fractional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series

  11. Heterogeneous responses of temperate-zone amphibian populations to climate change complicates conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin L.; Chambert, Thierry A.; Schmidt, B. R.; Miller, D. A. W.; Hossack, Blake R.; Joly, P.; Grolet, O.; Green, D. M.; Pilliod, David S.; Cheylan, M.; Fisher, Robert N.; McCaffery, R. M.; Adams, M. J.; Palen, W. J.; Arntzen, J. W.; Garwood, J.; Fellers, Gary M.; Thirion, J. M.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Besnard, A.

    2017-01-01

    The pervasive and unabated nature of global amphibian declines suggests common demographic responses to a given driver, and quantification of major drivers and responses could inform broad-scale conservation actions. We explored the influence of climate on demographic parameters (i.e., changes in the probabilities of survival and recruitment) using 31 datasets from temperate zone amphibian populations (North America and Europe) with more than a decade of observations each. There was evidence for an influence of climate on population demographic rates, but the direction and magnitude of responses to climate drivers was highly variable among taxa and among populations within taxa. These results reveal that climate drivers interact with variation in life-history traits and population-specific attributes resulting in a diversity of responses. This heterogeneity complicates the identification of conservation ‘rules of thumb’ for these taxa, and supports the notion of local focus as the most effective approach to overcome global-scale conservation challenges.

  12. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    drivers of bacterioplankton community functions, taking into account the variability in community composition and environmental conditions over seasons, in two contrasting coastal systems. A Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) analysis of the biological and chemical data obtained from...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...... of common drivers of bacterioplankton community functions in two different systems indicates that the drivers may be of broader relevance in coastal temperate waters....

  13. Trophic linkage of a temperate intertidal macrobenthic food web under opportunistic macroalgal blooms: A stable isotope approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Je; Han, Eunah; Lee, Young-Jae; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2016-01-01

    The effects of blooms of opportunistic green macroalgae, Ulva prolifera, on the trophic structure of the macrobenthic food web in a temperate intertidal zone on the western coast of Korea were evaluated using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Biomasses of Ulva and microphytobenthos (MPB) increased significantly at the macroalgae-bloom and the non-bloom sites, respectively, from March to September 2011. The δ 13 C values of most the consumers were arrayed between those of MPB and Ulva at both sites, and differed according to feeding strategies at the macroalgae-bloom site. Seasonally increasing magnitudes in δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of consumers were much steeper at the macroalgae-bloom site than at the non-bloom site. Our findings provide evidence that blooming green macroalgae play a significant role as a basal resource supporting the intertidal macrobenthic food web and their significance varies with feeding strategies of consumers as well as the resource availability. - Highlights: • Trophic effects of Ulva blooms on intertidal macrobenthic food web were evaluated. • Biomasses of Ulva increased at the macroalgae-bloom from March to September. • δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of consumers differed with feeding strategy and season. • Trophic significance of blooming macroalgae varies with feeding strategies of consumers. • Ulva blooms play a significant role as a basal resource supporting the intertidal food web.

  14. Application of stable isotope measurements and microbiological analysis for detecting methanogenic activity in a temperate forest wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, M.; Katsuyama, C.; Kondo, N.; Ohte, N.; Kato, K.

    2009-12-01

    Generally, forest soils act as a sink for methane (CH4). However, wetlands in riparian zones are recently reported to be “hot spots” of CH4 emissions, especially in forests under a humid climate. To understand how environmental conditions (i.e. hydrological and/or geomorphic condition) control on CH4 production, we investigated both methanogenic pathways (CO2/H2 reduction and acetate fermentation) and metahanogenic microbial communities in a wetland in a temperate forest catchment, central Japan. We used stable carbon isotopic analysis for detecting change in methanogenic pathways, and applied microbiological analysis for understanding the structure of methanogenic community. CH4 emission rates in wetland were strongly dependent on soil temperatures, and were highest in summer and lowest in winter. δ13CO2 increased with CH4 production in every summer, suggesting preferential use of 12CO2 as substrate for CO2/H2 reduction methanogenesis during high CH4 production period. δ13CH4 also increased in summer with δ13CO2. δ13CH4 changed more wildly than δ13CO2 did in summer with normal precipitation when CH4 production was strongly activated under high temperature and high groundwater table condition. This indicates increase in acetoclastic methanogenesis under hot and wet condition, considering that acetclastic methnogens produce heavier CH4 than that from CO2/H2 reducing pathway. Methanogen community composition estimated by cloning and sequence analyses implied that both acetoclastic and CO2/H2 reducing methanogens prevailed in wetland soil sampled in summer. This was consistent with the results of isotope measuremaents. Our results contribute to understand fully how the CH4 production changes with environmental conditions, with considering the activities of both main methanogenic pathway (from CO2 and acetate).

  15. WITHIN-POPULATION GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CLIMBING PLANTS AND TREES IN A TEMPERATE FOREST IN CENTRAL CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Ruiz, Eduardo; Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The climbing habit is a key innovation in angiosperm evolution: climbing plant taxa have greater species richness than their non-climbing sister groups. It is considered that highly diversified clades should show increased among-population genetic differentiation. Less clear is the expected pattern regarding within-population genetic diversity in speciose lineages. We tested the hypothesis of greater within-population genetic diversity in climbing plants compared to trees in a temperate fores...

  16. Global population structure of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias, a temperate shark with an antitropical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, A; McDowell, J R; Graves, J E

    2010-04-01

    The spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is a temperate, coastal squaloid shark with an antitropical distribution in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The global population structure of this species is poorly understood, although individuals are known to undergo extensive migrations within coastal waters and across ocean basins. In this study, an analysis of the global population structure of the spiny dogfish was conducted using eight polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers and a 566-bp fragment of the mitochondrial ND2 gene region. A low level of genetic divergence was found among collections from the Atlantic and South Pacific basins, whereas a high level of genetic divergence was found among Pacific Ocean collections. Two genetically distinct groups were recovered by both marker classes: one exclusive to North Pacific collections, and one including collections from the South Pacific and Atlantic locations. The strong genetic break across the equatorial Pacific coincides with major regional differences in the life-history characters of spiny dogfish, suggesting that spiny dogfish in areas on either side of the Pacific equator have been evolving independently for a considerable time. Phylogeographic analyses indicate that spiny dogfish populations had a Pacific origin, and that the North Atlantic was colonized as a result of a recent range expansion from the South American coast. Finally, the available data strongly argue for the taxonomic separation of the North Pacific spiny dogfish from S. acanthias and a re-evaluation of the specific status of S. acanthias is warranted.

  17. The population structure of Escherichia coli isolated from subtropical and temperate soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Yan, Tao; Hamilton, Matthew J.; Ishii, Satoshi; Fujioka, Roger S.; Whitman, Richard L.; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    While genotypically-distinct naturalized Escherichia coli strains have been shown to occur in riparian soils of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior watersheds, comparative analyses of E. coli populations in diverse soils across a range of geographic and climatic conditions have not been investigated. The main objectives of this study were to: (a) examine the population structure and genetic relatedness of E. coli isolates collected from different soil types on a tropical island (Hawaii), and (b) determine if E. coli populations from Hawaii and temperate soils (Indiana, Minnesota) shared similar genotypes that may be reflective of biome-related soil conditions. DNA fingerprint and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine the population structure and genotypic characteristics of the E. coli isolates. About 33% (98 of 293) of the E. coli from different soil types and locations on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, had unique DNA fingerprints, indicating that these bacteria were relatively diverse; the Shannon diversity index for the population was 4.03. Nearly 60% (171 of 293) of the E. coli isolates from Hawaii clustered into two major groups and the rest, with two or more isolates, fell into one of 22 smaller groups, or individual lineages. Multivariate analysis of variance of 89, 21, and 106 unique E. coli DNA fingerprints for Hawaii, Indiana, and Minnesota soils, respectively, showed that isolates formed tight cohesive groups, clustering mainly by location. However, there were several instances of clonal isolates being shared between geographically different locations. Thus, while nearly identical E. coli strains were shared between disparate climatologically- and geographically-distinct locations, a vast majority of the soil E. coli strains were genotypically diverse and were likely derived from separate lineages. This supports the hypothesis that these bacteria are not unique and multiple genotypes can readily adapt to become part of the soil autochthonous

  18. Large-Scale Modelling of the Environmentally-Driven Population Dynamics of Temperate Aedes albopictus (Skuse.

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    Kamil Erguler

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive vector species. It is a proven vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses, with the potential to host a further 24 arboviruses. It has recently expanded its geographical range, threatening many countries in the Middle East, Mediterranean, Europe and North America. Here, we investigate the theoretical limitations of its range expansion by developing an environmentally-driven mathematical model of its population dynamics. We focus on the temperate strain of Ae. albopictus and compile a comprehensive literature-based database of physiological parameters. As a novel approach, we link its population dynamics to globally-available environmental datasets by performing inference on all parameters. We adopt a Bayesian approach using experimental data as prior knowledge and the surveillance dataset of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, as evidence. The model accounts for temperature, precipitation, human population density and photoperiod as the main environmental drivers, and, in addition, incorporates the mechanism of diapause and a simple breeding site model. The model demonstrates high predictive skill over the reference region and beyond, confirming most of the current reports of vector presence in Europe. One of the main hypotheses derived from the model is the survival of Ae. albopictus populations through harsh winter conditions. The model, constrained by the environmental datasets, requires that either diapausing eggs or adult vectors have increased cold resistance. The model also suggests that temperature and photoperiod control diapause initiation and termination differentially. We demonstrate that it is possible to account for unobserved properties and constraints, such as differences between laboratory and field conditions, to derive reliable inferences on the environmental dependence of Ae. albopictus populations.

  19. Disease risk in temperate amphibian populations is higher at closed-canopy sites.

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    C Guilherme Becker

    habitat modification and the resulting declines in temperate and tropical frogs, understanding how vegetation cover and disease interact is critical for predicting Bd spread and developing appropriate management tools for wild populations.

  20. Radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope compositions of chemically fractionated soil organic matter in a temperate-zone forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koarashi, Jun; Iida, Takao; Asano, Tomohiro

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the role of soil organic matter in terrestrial carbon cycle, carbon isotope compositions in soil samples from a temperate-zone forest were measured for bulk, acid-insoluble and base-insoluble organic matter fractions separated by a chemical fractionation method. The measurements also made it possible to estimate indirectly radiocarbon ( 14 C) abundances of acid- and base-soluble organic matter fractions, through a mass balance of carbon among the fractions. The depth profiles of 14 C abundances showed that (1) bomb-derived 14 C has penetrated the first 16 cm mineral soil at least; (2) Δ 14 C values of acid-soluble organic matter fraction are considerably higher than those of other fractions; and (3) a significant amount of the bomb-derived 14 C has been preserved as the base-soluble organic matter around litter-mineral soil boundary. In contrast, no or little bomb-derived 14 C was observed for the base-insoluble fraction in all sampling depths, indicating that this recalcitrant fraction, accounting for approximately 15% of total carbon in this temperate-zone forest soil, plays a role as a long-term sink in the carbon cycle. These results suggest that bulk soil organic matter cannot provide a representative indicator as a source or a sink of carbon in soil, particularly on annual to decadal timescales

  1. RECONSTRUCTING THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF THE FOREST FUNGAL PATHOGEN, ARMILLARIA MELLEA, IN A TEMPERATE WORLDWIDE POPULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The forest pathogen Armillaria mellea s.s. (Basidiomycota, Physalacriaceae) is among the most significant forest pathogens causing root rot in northern temperate forest trees worldwide. Phylogenetic reconstructions for A. mellea show distinct European, Asian and North American lineages. The North Am...

  2. Connecting long term species changes and their water competitions in temperate forest Mt. Baegun, Rep. of Korea using hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, J.; Lee, H.; Lee, M.; Song, W.; Byeon, S.; Lee, B.; Cho, S.; Park, J.; Kim, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Many dynamic vegetation model simulations have predicted dramatic changes in species composition of temperate forests due to climate changes and successional reasons. Especially, conifer species are expected to lose their habitats and to be replaced by broadleaf species. Similarly, our more than 15-years-long 880 permenant plots tree survey data in Mt. Baegun, Rep. of Korea, showed substantial decrease of conifer species and their productivities and increase of broadleaved species. One of main reasons for these changes in species could be attributed to the water competition among tree species in the same stand. Therefore, we investigated the differences in water uptake scheme between conifer and broadleaf species from the temperate forests of Korea using stable isotopes. Six study plots showing high competition (conifers vs. broadleaf species) based on previous vegetation survey were chosen and the species-specific water uptake depth was estimated by measuring hydrogen(δ2H) and oxygen(δ18O) ratio from the xylem sap and leaves of individual species and by comparing them with those of soil water from 5 depths, (10, 30, 50, 100 and 120 cm), which extracted by lysimeter. The collection was conducted from April 2016 to Nov 2017. The conifer species included Pinus densiflora and Chamaecyparis obtusa vs. broadleaved species included Carpinus laxiflora, Prunus sargentii, Styrax obassia, Lindera erythrocarpa and Quercus species such as Q. mongolica, Q. serrata, Q. accuticima. Preliminary results showed the stable isotope signatures of soil water was increased from 10 cm to 30 cm, and then decreased gradually until 120 cm. In addition, current dominant canopy species, Chamaecyparis obtusa absorbed majority of their water from 10 to 30 cm depth. In comparison, current mid canopy but one of upcoming dominant species, Styrax obassia's major water source was 30 cm and deeper of soil. Our results could be essential for the prediction of species composition under climate change

  3. Assessing the potential risk of Zika virus epidemics in temperate areas with established Aedes albopictus populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetta, Giorgio; Poletti, Piero; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Baldacchino, Frederic; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Rosà, Roberto; Merler, Stefano

    2016-04-14

    Based on 2015 abundance of Aedes albopictus in nine northern Italian municipalities with temperate continental/oceanic climate, we estimated the basic reproductive number R0 for Zika virus (ZIKV) to be systematically below the epidemic threshold in most scenarios. Results were sensitive to the value of the probability of mosquito infection after biting a viraemic host. Therefore, further studies are required to improve models and predictions, namely evaluating vector competence and potential non-vector transmissions.

  4. Application of Tempered-Stable Time Fractional-Derivative Model to Upscale Subdiffusion for Pollutant Transport in Field-Scale Discrete Fracture Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingqing Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus provides efficient physical models to quantify non-Fickian dynamics broadly observed within the Earth system. The potential advantages of using fractional partial differential equations (fPDEs for real-world problems are often limited by the current lack of understanding of how earth system properties influence observed non-Fickian dynamics. This study explores non-Fickian dynamics for pollutant transport in field-scale discrete fracture networks (DFNs, by investigating how fracture and rock matrix properties influence the leading and tailing edges of pollutant breakthrough curves (BTCs. Fractured reservoirs exhibit erratic internal structures and multi-scale heterogeneity, resulting in complex non-Fickian dynamics. A Monte Carlo approach is used to simulate pollutant transport through DFNs with a systematic variation of system properties, and the resultant non-Fickian transport is upscaled using a tempered-stable fractional in time advection–dispersion equation. Numerical results serve as a basis for determining both qualitative and quantitative relationships between BTC characteristics and model parameters, in addition to the impacts of fracture density, orientation, and rock matrix permeability on non-Fickian dynamics. The observed impacts of medium heterogeneity on tracer transport at late times tend to enhance the applicability of fPDEs that may be parameterized using measurable fracture–matrix characteristics.

  5. Effects of constant immigration on the dynamics and persistence of stable and unstable Drosophila populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Snigdhadip; Joshi, Amitabh

    2013-01-01

    Constant immigration can stabilize population size fluctuations but its effects on extinction remain unexplored. We show that constant immigration significantly reduced extinction in fruitfly populations with relatively stable or unstable dynamics. In unstable populations with oscillations of amplitude around 1.5 times the mean population size, persistence and constancy were unrelated. Low immigration enhanced persistence without affecting constancy whereas high immigration increased constancy without enhancing persistence. In relatively stable populations with erratic fluctuations of amplitude close to the mean population size, both low and high immigration enhanced persistence. In these populations, the amplitude of fluctuations relative to mean population size went down due to immigration, and their dynamics were altered to low-period cycles. The effects of immigration on the population size distribution and intrinsic dynamics of stable versus unstable populations differed considerably, suggesting that the mechanisms by which immigration reduced extinction risk depended on underlying dynamics in complex ways. PMID:23470546

  6. Does white clover (Trifolium repens abundance in temperate pastures determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae larval populations?

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    Mark Richard McNeill

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over four years in plots sown in ryegrass (Lolium perenne (cv. Nui sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover (Trifolium repens sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand with % clover measured in autumn (April and spring (September of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 were 310, 38, 59 and 31 larvae m-2, respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3 and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012-2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted

  7. Does White Clover (Trifolium repens) Abundance in Temperate Pastures Determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Mark R; van Koten, Chikako; Cave, Vanessa M; Chapman, David; Hodgson, Hamish

    2016-01-01

    To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW) Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over 4 years in plots sown in ryegrass ( Lolium perenne ) (cv. Nui) sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover ( Trifolium repens ) sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October) when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand) with % clover measured in autumn (April) and spring (September) of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012-2015 were 310, 38, 59, and 31 larvae m -2 , respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3, and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October) larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April) found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012-2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted, but the numbers

  8. Validation of insulin resistance indexes in a stable renal transplant population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oterdoom, Leendert H.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; van Son, Willem J.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of established insulin resistance indexes, based on fasting blood parameters, in a stable renal transplant population. Fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and

  9. Validation of insulin resistance indexes in a stable renal transplant population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oterdoom, LH; De Vries, APJ; Van Son, WJ; Van Der Heide, JJH; Ploeg, RJ; Gansevoort, RT; De Jong, PE; Gans, ROB; Bakker, SJL

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of established insulin resistance indexes, based on fasting blood parameters, in a stable renal transplant population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), the quantitative insulin

  10. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterioplankton play a key role in marine waters facilitating processes important for carbon cycling. However, the influence of specific bacterial populations and environmental conditions on bacterioplankton community performance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify...... drivers of bacterioplankton community functions, taking into account the variability in community composition and environmental conditions over seasons, in two contrasting coastal systems. A Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) analysis of the biological and chemical data obtained from...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...

  11. Population ecology and habitat preferences of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (Actinopterygii: Pleuronectidae) in a temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Allan T.; Dias, Ester; Nogueira, Ana; Campos, Joana; Marques, João C.; Martins, Irene

    2013-05-01

    The European flounder Platichthys flesus is a widely distributed epibenthic species and an important component of demersal fish assemblages in the European Atlantic coastal waters. In Portuguese estuaries, this species reaches high densities, especially in Minho estuary (NW Iberian Peninsula, Europe), potentially playing an important role in the system's ecology. In this context, the population structure, production and the habitat use of juvenile P. flesus were investigated. Sampling took place monthly, from February 2009 until July 2010 along the entire estuarine gradient (5 sampling stations distributed in the first 29 km from the river mouth, with S1 located near the river mouth, S2 inside a salt marsh, S3 in a salinity transition zone, while S4 and S5 were located in the upper estuary). Flounder's density varied significantly among sampling stations and seasons (two-way PERMANOVA: p PERMANOVA: p < 0.001), with larger fishes being found in S1 during the autumn (168.50 ± 59.50 mm) and the smallest in S4 during the spring (33.80 ± 3.12 mm). Size classes associated differently with environmental variables, with larger juveniles being more abundant in the downstream areas of the estuary, whereas smaller juveniles were related to higher water temperatures, suggesting a habitat segregation of P. flesus of different sizes. The fish condition of P. flesus in Minho estuary was higher than in other systems, probably due to the dominance of juveniles on the population. Also, the densities found in this estuary were up to 32 times higher than in other locations, suggesting that Minho estuary is an important nursery area for the species. The estimated secondary production of P. flesus was lower than previous studies acknowledged in the system (0.037 g.WWm- 2.year- 1), indicating that the production estimates of this species in estuaries can vary considerably depending on of several factors such as the sampling year and strategy, population and fish size.

  12. Using variation in the chemical and stable isotopic composition of Zostera noltii to assess nutrient dynamics in a temperate seagrass meadow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, S.; Kennedy, H.; Rodrigues, R.M.N.V.; Kennedy, D.P. [University of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Ocean Sciences; Heaton, T.H.E. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom). NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory

    2006-10-15

    The influence of seasonality in growth and benthic organic matter remineralization on the chemical and isotopic composition of the seagrass Zostera noltii was investigated from March to November over the course of two years in a temperate meadow in North Wales, UK. The carbon (C{sub org}) and nitrogen (N{sub org}) concentrations in new {sub leaf} tissue ranged from 25 to 35 mmol C g{sup -1} and 2 to 5 mmol N g{sup -1}. Their stable isotopic composition ranged from -11.0 per thousand to -6.9 per thousand ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub leaf}) and +3.3 per thousand to +7.5 per thousand ({delta}{sup 15}N{sub leaf}), while the stable isotopic composition of sulphur in the new {sub leaf} ({delta}{sup 34}S{sub leaf}) ranged from -3.0 per thousand to +6.4 per thousand. The young seagrass tissues had lowest Norg, highest C:N, most depleted {delta}{sup 13}C{sub leaf}, and most enriched {delta}{sup 15}N{sub leaf} at the standing biomass maximum (approximately 150-200 g dry weight m{sup -2}) in the summer, reflecting the temporal imbalance between inorganic nutrient supply and plant demand imposed by seasonality in the growth rate. The most depleted {delta}{sup 34}S{sub leaf} was recorded in the same season. The isotopic composition of the seagrass tissues reflected that of the external inorganic source. The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub leaf} correlated (r{sup 2} {approx} 0.4) with the {delta}{sup 13}C of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the surface waters ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC} range: -0.4 per thousand to +1.2 per thousand).The apparent carbon isotope enrichment factor of new leaf relative to the bulk seawater DIC ({epsilon} {sub seagrass-DIC} range: -11.2 to -8.1 per thousand) indicated reliance on direct HCO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake, especially early in the growing season (spring). The {delta}{sup 15}N{sub leaf} reflected the {delta}{sup 15}N of pore water ammonium ({delta}{sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} range: +6 per thousand to +10 per thousand; average: +7.4 {+-} 0.8 per thousand) as

  13. New Insights into Different Reproductive Effort and Sexual Recruitment Contribution between Two Geographic Zostera marina L. Populations in Temperate China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaochun; Wang, Pengmei; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiaomei; Gu, Ruiting; Liu, Xujia; Liu, Bingjian; Song, Xiaoyue; Xu, Shuai; Yue, Shidong

    2018-01-01

    Seagrasses are important components of global coastal ecosystems, and the eelgrass Zostera marina L. is widely distributed along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts in the temperate northern hemisphere, but limited datum related to the contribution of sexual reproduction to population recruitment have been reported. This study aimed to understand eelgrass sexual reproduction and population recruitment in Swan Lake (SLL), and Huiquan Bay (HQB) was included for comparison. Random sampling, permanent quadrats or cores and laboratory seed germination-based experimental methods were employed. The flowering, seed production, seed banks, seed germination, seedling survival, and seedling growth of eelgrass were investigated from July 2014 to December 2015 to evaluate the contribution of sexual reproduction to population recruitment. Results indicated a dominant role of asexual reproduction in HQB, while sexual reproduction played a relatively important role in SLL. The highest flowering shoot density in SLL was 517.27 ± 504.29 shoots m -2 (June) and represented 53.34% of the total shoots at the center site. The potential seed output per reproductive shoot and per unit area in SLL were 103.67 ± 37.95 seeds shoot -1 and 53,623.66 ± 19,628.11 seeds m -2 , respectively. The maximum seed bank density in SLL was 552.21 ± 204.94 seeds m -2 (October). Seed germination mainly occurred from the middle of March to the end of May, and the highest seedling density was 296.88 ± 274.27 seedlings m -2 in April. The recruitment from seedlings accounted for 41.36% of the Z. marina population recruitment at the center site, while the sexual recruitment contribution at the patch site (50.52%) was greater than that at the center site. Seeds in SLL were acclimated to spring germination, while in HQB, they were acclimated to autumn germination (early October-late November). Seed bank density in HQB was very low, with a value of 254.35 ± 613.34 seeds m -2 (early October). However, seeds in HQB

  14. Temper Tantrums

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nine Steps to More Effective Parenting How Can Parents Discipline Without Spanking? Delayed Speech or Language Development Talking to Your Child's Preschool Teacher Your Child's Habits Separation Anxiety Breath-Holding Spells Train Your Temper View ...

  15. New Insights into Different Reproductive Effort and Sexual Recruitment Contribution between Two Geographic Zostera marina L. Populations in Temperate China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaochun Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Seagrasses are important components of global coastal ecosystems, and the eelgrass Zostera marina L. is widely distributed along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts in the temperate northern hemisphere, but limited datum related to the contribution of sexual reproduction to population recruitment have been reported. This study aimed to understand eelgrass sexual reproduction and population recruitment in Swan Lake (SLL, and Huiquan Bay (HQB was included for comparison. Random sampling, permanent quadrats or cores and laboratory seed germination-based experimental methods were employed. The flowering, seed production, seed banks, seed germination, seedling survival, and seedling growth of eelgrass were investigated from July 2014 to December 2015 to evaluate the contribution of sexual reproduction to population recruitment. Results indicated a dominant role of asexual reproduction in HQB, while sexual reproduction played a relatively important role in SLL. The highest flowering shoot density in SLL was 517.27 ± 504.29 shoots m−2 (June and represented 53.34% of the total shoots at the center site. The potential seed output per reproductive shoot and per unit area in SLL were 103.67 ± 37.95 seeds shoot−1 and 53,623.66 ± 19,628.11 seeds m−2, respectively. The maximum seed bank density in SLL was 552.21 ± 204.94 seeds m−2 (October. Seed germination mainly occurred from the middle of March to the end of May, and the highest seedling density was 296.88 ± 274.27 seedlings m−2 in April. The recruitment from seedlings accounted for 41.36% of the Z. marina population recruitment at the center site, while the sexual recruitment contribution at the patch site (50.52% was greater than that at the center site. Seeds in SLL were acclimated to spring germination, while in HQB, they were acclimated to autumn germination (early October–late November. Seed bank density in HQB was very low, with a value of 254.35 ± 613.34 seeds m−2 (early October

  16. A semigroup approach to the strong ergodic theorem of the multistate stable population process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, H

    1988-01-01

    "In this paper we first formulate the dynamics of multistate stable population processes as a partial differential equation. Next, we rewrite this equation as an abstract differential equation in a Banach space, and solve it by using the theory of strongly continuous semigroups of bounded linear operators. Subsequently, we investigate the asymptotic behavior of this semigroup to show the strong ergodic theorem which states that there exists a stable distribution independent of the initial distribution. Finally, we introduce the dual problem in order to obtain a logical definition for the reproductive value and we discuss its applications." (SUMMARY IN FRE) excerpt

  17. International funding for malaria control in relation to populations at risk of stable Plasmodium falciparum transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Snow

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The international financing of malaria control has increased significantly in the last ten years in parallel with calls to halve the malaria burden by the year 2015. The allocation of funds to countries should reflect the size of the populations at risk of infection, disease, and death. To examine this relationship, we compare an audit of international commitments with an objective assessment of national need: the population at risk of stable Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in 2007.The national distributions of populations at risk of stable P. falciparum transmission were projected to the year 2007 for each of 87 P. falciparum-endemic countries. Systematic online- and literature-based searches were conducted to audit the international funding commitments made for malaria control by major donors between 2002 and 2007. These figures were used to generate annual malaria funding allocation (in US dollars per capita population at risk of stable P. falciparum in 2007. Almost US$1 billion are distributed each year to the 1.4 billion people exposed to stable P. falciparum malaria risk. This is less than US$1 per person at risk per year. Forty percent of this total comes from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Substantial regional and national variations in disbursements exist. While the distribution of funds is found to be broadly appropriate, specific high population density countries receive disproportionately less support to scale up malaria control. Additionally, an inadequacy of current financial commitments by the international community was found: under-funding could be from 50% to 450%, depending on which global assessment of the cost required to scale up malaria control is adopted.Without further increases in funding and appropriate targeting of global malaria control investment it is unlikely that international goals to halve disease burdens by 2015 will be achieved. Moreover, the additional financing

  18. Stable isotopes indicate population structuring in the southwest Atlantic population of right whales (Eubalaena australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Vighi

    Full Text Available From the early 17th century to the 1970s southern right whales, Eubalaena australis, were subject to intense exploitation along the Atlantic coast of South America. Catches along this coast recorded by whalers originally formed a continuum from Brazil to Tierra del Fuego. Nevertheless, the recovery of the population has apparently occurred fragmentarily, and with two main areas of concentration, one off southern Brazil (Santa Catarina and another off central Argentina (Peninsula Valdés. This pattern suggests some level of heterogeneity amongst the population, which is apparently contradicted by records that traced individuals moving throughout the whole geographical extension covered by the species in the Southwest Atlantic. To test the hypothesis of the potential occurrence of discrete subpopulations exploiting specific habitats, we investigated N, C and O isotopic values in 125 bone samples obtained from whaling factories operating in the early 1970s in southern Brazil (n=72 and from contemporary and more recent strandings occurring in central Argentina (n=53. Results indicated significant differences between the two sampling areas, being δ13C and δ18O values significantly higher in samples from southern Brazil than in those from central Argentina. This variation was consistent with isotopic baselines from the two areas, indicating the occurrence of some level of structure in the Southwest Atlantic right whale population and equally that whales more likely feed in areas commonly thought to exclusively serve as nursing grounds. Results aim at reconsidering of the units currently used in the management of the southern right whale in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. In the context of the current die-off affecting the species in Peninsula Valdés, these results also highlight the necessity to better understand movements of individuals and precisely identify their feeding areas.

  19. Generation and monitoring of discrete stable random processes using multiple immigration population models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, J O; Hopcraft, K I; Jakeman, E [Applied Mathematics Division, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2003-11-21

    Some properties of classical population processes that comprise births, deaths and multiple immigrations are investigated. The rates at which the immigrants arrive can be tailored to produce a population whose steady state fluctuations are described by a pre-selected distribution. Attention is focused on the class of distributions with a discrete stable law, which have power-law tails and whose moments and autocorrelation function do not exist. The separate problem of monitoring and characterizing the fluctuations is studied, analysing the statistics of individuals that leave the population. The fluctuations in the size of the population are transferred to the times between emigrants that form an intermittent time series of events. The emigrants are counted with a detector of finite dynamic range and response time. This is modelled through clipping the time series or saturating it at an arbitrary but finite level, whereupon its moments and correlation properties become finite. Distributions for the time to the first counted event and for the time between events exhibit power-law regimes that are characteristic of the fluctuations in population size. The processes provide analytical models with which properties of complex discrete random phenomena can be explored, and in addition provide generic means by which random time series encompassing a wide range of intermittent and other discrete random behaviour may be generated.

  20. Generation and monitoring of discrete stable random processes using multiple immigration population models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J O; Hopcraft, K I; Jakeman, E

    2003-01-01

    Some properties of classical population processes that comprise births, deaths and multiple immigrations are investigated. The rates at which the immigrants arrive can be tailored to produce a population whose steady state fluctuations are described by a pre-selected distribution. Attention is focused on the class of distributions with a discrete stable law, which have power-law tails and whose moments and autocorrelation function do not exist. The separate problem of monitoring and characterizing the fluctuations is studied, analysing the statistics of individuals that leave the population. The fluctuations in the size of the population are transferred to the times between emigrants that form an intermittent time series of events. The emigrants are counted with a detector of finite dynamic range and response time. This is modelled through clipping the time series or saturating it at an arbitrary but finite level, whereupon its moments and correlation properties become finite. Distributions for the time to the first counted event and for the time between events exhibit power-law regimes that are characteristic of the fluctuations in population size. The processes provide analytical models with which properties of complex discrete random phenomena can be explored, and in addition provide generic means by which random time series encompassing a wide range of intermittent and other discrete random behaviour may be generated

  1. Detection of stable community structures within gut microbiota co-occurrence networks from different human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew A; Bonder, Marc Jan; Kuncheva, Zhana; Zierer, Jonas; Fu, Jingyuan; Kurilshikov, Alexander; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Tim D; Steves, Claire J

    2018-01-01

    Microbes in the gut microbiome form sub-communities based on shared niche specialisations and specific interactions between individual taxa. The inter-microbial relationships that define these communities can be inferred from the co-occurrence of taxa across multiple samples. Here, we present an approach to identify comparable communities within different gut microbiota co-occurrence networks, and demonstrate its use by comparing the gut microbiota community structures of three geographically diverse populations. We combine gut microbiota profiles from 2,764 British, 1,023 Dutch, and 639 Israeli individuals, derive co-occurrence networks between their operational taxonomic units, and detect comparable communities within them. Comparing populations we find that community structure is significantly more similar between datasets than expected by chance. Mapping communities across the datasets, we also show that communities can have similar associations to host phenotypes in different populations. This study shows that the community structure within the gut microbiota is stable across populations, and describes a novel approach that facilitates comparative community-centric microbiome analyses.

  2. Mercury Stable Isotopes Discriminate Different Populations of European Seabass and Trace Potential Hg Sources around Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cransveld, Alice; Amouroux, David; Tessier, Emmanuel; Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Ozturk, Ayaka A; Bettoso, Nicola; Mieiro, Cláudia L; Bérail, Sylvain; Barre, Julien P G; Sturaro, Nicolas; Schnitzler, Joseph; Das, Krishna

    2017-11-07

    Our study reports the first data on mercury (Hg) isotope composition in marine European fish, for seven distinct populations of the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. The use of δ 202 Hg and Δ 199 Hg values in SIBER enabled us to estimate Hg isotopic niches, successfully discriminating several populations. Recursive-partitioning analyses demonstrated the relevance of Hg stable isotopes as discriminating tools. Hg isotopic values also provided insight on Hg contamination sources for biota in coastal environment. The overall narrow range of δ 202 Hg around Europe was suggested to be related to a global atmospheric contamination while δ 202 Hg at some sites was linked either to background contamination, or with local contamination sources. Δ 199 Hg was related to Hg levels of fish but we also suggest a relation with ecological conditions. Throughout this study, results from the Black Sea population stood out, displaying a Hg cycling similar to fresh water lakes. Our findings bring out the possibility to use Hg isotopes in order to discriminate distinct populations, to explore the Hg cycle on a large scale (Europe) and to distinguish sites contaminated by global versus local Hg source. The interest of using Hg sable isotopes to investigate the whole European Hg cycle is clearly highlighted.

  3. Insights into Ancient Human Populations and their Environment through Stable Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Fundamental to the understanding of human history is the ability to make interpretations based on artifacts and other remains which are used to gather information about an ancient population. Sequestered in the organic matrices of these remains can be information concerning incidence of disease, population interactions, genetic defects and diet. Stable isotopes have long been used to interpret diet and trophic interactions in modern ecosystems. We suggest that the isotope compositions of a commonly overlooked material, human hair, is an ideal tool to be used in gleaning information, especially on human diets, about ancient civilizations. Hair can be well-preserved and is amenable to routine measurements of 13C, 15N and 34S isotope analyses and distinguishing sources of nutrition. We have isotopically characterized hair from both modern and ancient individuals. There is a wide diversity in isotope values owing, at least partially, to the levels of seafood, corn-fed animals and other grains in diet. Using these isotope tracers, new information regarding historical figures (George Washington, 1799 AD) to perhaps the most ancient of mummies, the Chinchorro of Chile (more than 7000 BP) as well as the Moche of Peru (1500 BP) and the best preserved mummy, the Neolithic Ice Man of the Oetztaler Alps (5200 BP), have been deciphered. It appears that the often-overlooked hair in archaeological sites represents a significant approach for understanding ancient human communities and their environments, as well as new perspectives on our use of our own modern nutritional sources.

  4. Stable Regulation of Cell Cycle Events in Mycobacteria: Insights From Inherently Heterogeneous Bacterial Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, Michelle M; Aldridge, Bree B

    2018-01-01

    Model bacteria, such as E. coli and B. subtilis , tightly regulate cell cycle progression to achieve consistent cell size distributions and replication dynamics. Many of the hallmark features of these model bacteria, including lateral cell wall elongation and symmetric growth and division, do not occur in mycobacteria. Instead, mycobacterial growth is characterized by asymmetric polar growth and division. This innate asymmetry creates unequal birth sizes and growth rates for daughter cells with each division, generating a phenotypically heterogeneous population. Although the asymmetric growth patterns of mycobacteria lead to a larger variation in birth size than typically seen in model bacterial populations, the cell size distribution is stable over time. Here, we review the cellular mechanisms of growth, division, and cell cycle progression in mycobacteria in the face of asymmetry and inherent heterogeneity. These processes coalesce to control cell size. Although Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) utilize a novel model of cell size control, they are similar to previously studied bacteria in that initiation of DNA replication is a key checkpoint for cell division. We compare the regulation of DNA replication initiation and strategies used for cell size homeostasis in mycobacteria and model bacteria. Finally, we review the importance of cellular organization and chromosome segregation relating to the physiology of mycobacteria and consider how new frameworks could be applied across the wide spectrum of bacterial diversity.

  5. Stable Regulation of Cell Cycle Events in Mycobacteria: Insights From Inherently Heterogeneous Bacterial Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Logsdon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Model bacteria, such as E. coli and B. subtilis, tightly regulate cell cycle progression to achieve consistent cell size distributions and replication dynamics. Many of the hallmark features of these model bacteria, including lateral cell wall elongation and symmetric growth and division, do not occur in mycobacteria. Instead, mycobacterial growth is characterized by asymmetric polar growth and division. This innate asymmetry creates unequal birth sizes and growth rates for daughter cells with each division, generating a phenotypically heterogeneous population. Although the asymmetric growth patterns of mycobacteria lead to a larger variation in birth size than typically seen in model bacterial populations, the cell size distribution is stable over time. Here, we review the cellular mechanisms of growth, division, and cell cycle progression in mycobacteria in the face of asymmetry and inherent heterogeneity. These processes coalesce to control cell size. Although Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG utilize a novel model of cell size control, they are similar to previously studied bacteria in that initiation of DNA replication is a key checkpoint for cell division. We compare the regulation of DNA replication initiation and strategies used for cell size homeostasis in mycobacteria and model bacteria. Finally, we review the importance of cellular organization and chromosome segregation relating to the physiology of mycobacteria and consider how new frameworks could be applied across the wide spectrum of bacterial diversity.

  6. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E McCluney

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web". Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  7. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E; Sabo, John L

    2010-12-31

    Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web"). Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  8. Return to work after thoracic organ transplantation in a clinically-stable population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Lucia; Ricotti, Susanna; Michelini, Ilaria; Vitulo, Patrizio; Oggionni, Tiberio; Cascina, Alessandro; D'Armini, Andrea M; Goggi, Claudio; Campana, Carlo; Viganò, Mario; Dalla-Toffola, Elena; Tinelli, Carmine; Klersy, Catherine

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the rate of return to work after transplantation and its determinants in a clinically-stable population of patients transplanted and followed-up at a single institution in Italy. 151 thoracic organ transplant recipients (72 lung, 79 heart) were examined. Patients were asked about daily activities, level of education, employment and clinical condition. A six-minute walking test was performed with measurement of dyspnoea using the Borg scale. Quality of Life was evaluated with the SF-36 and GHQ questionnaires. Before transplantation 131 patients (87%), (70 heart and 61 lung) worked. After transplantation, 51 patients (39%) went back to work and 3 more started working. We found that younger age, a better quality of life (mainly in the mental domain), having had an occupation previously (particularly as an entrepreneur/freelancer), and having been off work for less than 24 months, were independent predictors of return to work. Considering their good, objective and subjective, functional status, some patients who could have returned to work, chose not to. Identifying factors which affect return to work might help health professionals to adopt the best course of treatment and psychological support in order to fulfil this goal; however, return to work should not be considered as the only expression of a patient's real psychophysical condition.

  9. General population exposure of stable lead and 210Pb to residents of New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, D.C.; Welford, G.A.; Morse, R.

    1975-12-01

    Stable lead and 210 Pb intake, ingestion, and inhalation by residents of New York City were determined. Measurement of excreta samples provided data to establish a mass balance of stable lead and 210 Pb. These results indicate that no more than 5 μg of stable lead and 0.1 pCi of 210 Pb are retained daily by residents of New York City. Analyses of bone samples have provided estimates of the skeletal burden of stable lead and 210 Pb. Using the ICRP model, intake data, and assuming 100 percent skeletal deposition, the calculated stable lead and 210 Pb values are in good agreement with the experimental results. The data indicate that inhalation is the principle source of stable lead to residents in New York City

  10. Identification of active methylotroph populations in an acidic forest soil by stable-isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radajewski, Stefan; Webster, Gordon; Reay, David S; Morris, Samantha A; Ineson, Philip; Nedwell, David B; Prosser, James I; Murrell, J Colin

    2002-08-01

    Stable-isotope probing (SIP) is a culture-independent technique that enables the isolation of DNA from micro-organisms that are actively involved in a specific metabolic process. In this study, SIP was used to characterize the active methylotroph populations in forest soil (pH 3.5) microcosms that were exposed to (13)CH(3)OH or (13)CH(4). Distinct (13)C-labelled DNA ((13)C-DNA) fractions were resolved from total community DNA by CsCl density-gradient centrifugation. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences amplified from the (13)C-DNA revealed that bacteria related to the genera Methylocella, Methylocapsa, Methylocystis and Rhodoblastus had assimilated the (13)C-labelled substrates, which suggested that moderately acidophilic methylotroph populations were active in the microcosms. Enrichments targeted towards the active proteobacterial CH(3)OH utilizers were successful, although none of these bacteria were isolated into pure culture. A parallel analysis of genes encoding the key enzymes methanol dehydrogenase and particulate methane monooxygenase reflected the 16S rDNA analysis, but unexpectedly revealed sequences related to the ammonia monooxygenase of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) from the beta-subclass of the PROTEOBACTERIA: Analysis of AOB-selective 16S rDNA amplification products identified Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira sequences in the (13)C-DNA fractions, suggesting certain AOB assimilated a significant proportion of (13)CO(2), possibly through a close physical and/or nutritional association with the active methylotrophs. Other sequences retrieved from the (13)C-DNA were related to the 16S rDNA sequences of members of the Acidobacterium division, the beta-Proteobacteria and the order Cytophagales, which implicated these bacteria in the assimilation of reduced one-carbon compounds or in the assimilation of the by-products of methylotrophic carbon metabolism. Results from the (13)CH(3)OH and (13)CH(4) SIP experiments thus provide a rational basis for further

  11. Cost-effectiveness of oral cholera vaccine in a stable refugee population at risk for epidemic cholera and in a population with endemic cholera.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, J.; McFarland, D. A.; Waldman, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent large epidemics of cholera with high incidence and associated mortality among refugees have raised the question of whether oral cholera vaccines should be considered as an additional preventive measure in high-risk populations. The potential impact of oral cholera vaccines on populations prone to seasonal endemic cholera has also been questioned. This article reviews the potential cost-effectiveness of B-subunit, killed whole-cell (BS-WC) oral cholera vaccine in a stable refugee popula...

  12. The Need for Temperance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Inge Tangen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how temperance as a virtue relates to organizational leadership. The study begins with a short survey of classical Greek and Christian notions of temperance before proceeding to ex-plore temperance in relation to self-leadership, visionary and strategic leadership, and relational lead-ership. The final part of the article offers reflections on how temperance might be cultivated from a theological perspective. Temperance is understood not only as sound thinking but also as embodied self-control and active patience. On the level of self-leadership, it is argued that temperance enables the leader to establish forms of integrity that protect the leader’s self from chaos and destruction. Moreover, temperance may also nurture focused visionary leadership that accepts ethical limits and has an eye to the common good. The study also suggests that organizations should cultivate a culture of strategic discipline that is capable of realizing such visions. On the interpersonal level, temperance is viewed as critical in terms of enabling leaders to treat co-workers with respect and wisdom and han-dle conflict with consideration. Finally, is argued that that the cultivation of temperance is not a one-way street from the inside to the outside or a subordination of feelings to reason but rather a very complex process that includes interpersonal humility, finds vision in an encounter with the good, and yet remains a personal responsibility.

  13. Profiling B-type natriuretic peptide in a stable heart failure population: a valuable adjunct to care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jan, A

    2012-02-01

    AIM: To examine the prognostic importance of absolute values and change in values of BNP in patients with stable heart failure (HF). METHODS: Five-hundred and fifty-nine patients attending a disease management programme were categorized into tertiles of BNP (group 1; <\\/= 95 pg\\/ml, group 2; 96-249 pg\\/ml and group 3; >\\/= 250 pg\\/ml). A change in BNP between two stable visits was recorded. Patients were followed up for 1 year for death and a composite morbidity measure of HF hospitalization, all-cause hospitalization, unscheduled visits for clinical deterioration(UC) of HF using survival analysis. RESULTS: The risk of the combined morbidity outcome increased with increasing tertiles of BNP (Log rank = 17.8 (2), p < 0.001). Furthermore, a 50 and 25% increase in BNP predicted morbidity in stable HF patients with an initial BNP > 200 pg\\/ml (p = 0.02) and > 450 pg\\/ml (p = 0.03), respectively. CONCLUSION: In a stable community HF population, an elevated BNP or an increase in BNP predicts an adverse prognosis thereby potentially identifying a population in need of closer clinical follow-up.

  14. Linking specific heterotrophic bacterial populations to bioreduction of uranium and nitrate using stable isotope probing in contaminated subsurface sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akob, Denise M.; Kerkhof, Lee; Kusel, Kirsten; Watson, David B.; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Kostka, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Shifts in terminal electron-accepting processes during biostimulation of uranium-contaminated sediments were linked to the composition of stimulated microbial populations using DNA-based stable isotope probing. Nitrate reduction preceded U(VI) and Fe(III) reduction in [ 13 C]ethanol-amended microcosms. The predominant, active denitrifying microbial groups were identified as members of the Betaproteobacteria, whereas Actinobacteria dominated under metal-reducing conditions.

  15. Stable isotopes provide insight into population structure and segregation in eastern North Atlantic sperm whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrell, Asunción; Velásquez Vacca, Adriana; Pinela, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    In pelagic species inhabiting large oceans, genetic differentiation tends to be mild and populations devoid of structure. However, large cetaceans have provided many examples of structuring. Here we investigate whether the sperm whale, a pelagic species with large population sizes and reputedly......, use of habitat and/or migratory destinations are dissimilar between whales from the two regions and suggest that the North Atlantic population of sperm whales is more structured than traditionally accepted....

  16. New temperable solar coatings: Tempsol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya

    2001-11-01

    This paper deals with the large area deposition and coating properties of the thermo-stable (temperable/bendable) solar coating material, CuO, and some new optical coating systems comprising CuO films for architectural and automotive/transportation applications. The CuO solar coating is combined with other coating layers, for example, an anti-reflection film, a reflection film, a coloration coating layer, etc., which are also thermo-stable. The film systems are developed at the research laboratory by D.C. Magnetron reactive sputtering process. The new developed technologies then transferred to the production line. Product performances are compared before and after heat treatment of the coating systems. Performance tables and other physical properties, including optical parameters, mechanical and environmental stability, storage properties, etc., are also presented for this new product series.

  17. Pre-whaling genetic diversity and population ecology in eastern Pacific gray whales: insights from ancient DNA and stable isotopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Elizabeth Alter

    Full Text Available Commercial whaling decimated many whale populations, including the eastern Pacific gray whale, but little is known about how population dynamics or ecology differed prior to these removals. Of particular interest is the possibility of a large population decline prior to whaling, as such a decline could explain the ~5-fold difference between genetic estimates of prior abundance and estimates based on historical records. We analyzed genetic (mitochondrial control region and isotopic information from modern and prehistoric gray whales using serial coalescent simulations and Bayesian skyline analyses to test for a pre-whaling decline and to examine prehistoric genetic diversity, population dynamics and ecology. Simulations demonstrate that significant genetic differences observed between ancient and modern samples could be caused by a large, recent population bottleneck, roughly concurrent with commercial whaling. Stable isotopes show minimal differences between modern and ancient gray whale foraging ecology. Using rejection-based Approximate Bayesian Computation, we estimate the size of the population bottleneck at its minimum abundance and the pre-bottleneck abundance. Our results agree with previous genetic studies suggesting the historical size of the eastern gray whale population was roughly three to five times its current size.

  18. Population dynamics and factors controlling somatic degrowth of the common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in a temperate semi-enclosed cove (Kertinge Nor, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Josephine; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy of the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita seems closely linked to seasonal shrinkage, or somatic degrowth, which occurs synchronously with sexual reproduction in temperate regions. In the present study, the mechanisms controlling body mass losses and subsequent disappearance of medusae w...... reproduction. Seasonal variability in food supply, rather than energy allocation to reproduction, appears to shorten life spans of A. aurita medusae in temperate Danish waters.......Life expectancy of the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita seems closely linked to seasonal shrinkage, or somatic degrowth, which occurs synchronously with sexual reproduction in temperate regions. In the present study, the mechanisms controlling body mass losses and subsequent disappearance of medusae......, mm), following the exponential relationship NL = 160.8 × e0.029d. The percentage of body mass made up by planulae ranged from 6 to 11 % in Kertinge Nor and 10 to 33 % in Great Belt. ≤15 % of total size-specific body mass losses were due to the release of planulae in Kertinge Nor, suggesting shortage...

  19. Vigorous dynamics underlie a stable population of the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia in Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koustubh Sharma

    Full Text Available Population monitoring programmes and estimation of vital rates are key to understanding the mechanisms of population growth, decline or stability, and are important for effective conservation action. We report, for the first time, the population trends and vital rates of the endangered snow leopard based on camera trapping over four years in the Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia. We used robust design multi-season mark-recapture analysis to estimate the trends in abundance, sex ratio, survival probability and the probability of temporary emigration and immigration for adult and young snow leopards. The snow leopard population remained constant over most of the study period, with no apparent growth (λ = 1.08+-0.25. Comparison of model results with the "known population" of radio-collared snow leopards suggested high accuracy in our estimates. Although seemingly stable, vigorous underlying dynamics were evident in this population, with the adult sex ratio shifting from being male-biased to female-biased (1.67 to 0.38 males per female during the study. Adult survival probability was 0.82 (SE+-0.08 and that of young was 0.83 (SE+-0.15 and 0.77 (SE +-0.2 respectively, before and after the age of 2 years. Young snow leopards showed a high probability of temporary emigration and immigration (0.6, SE +-0.19 and 0.68, SE +-0.32 before and after the age of 2 years though not the adults (0.02 SE+-0.07. While the current female-bias in the population and the number of cubs born each year seemingly render the study population safe, the vigorous dynamics suggests that the situation can change quickly. The reduction in the proportion of male snow leopards may be indicative of continuing anthropogenic pressures. Our work reiterates the importance of monitoring both the abundance and population dynamics of species for effective conservation.

  20. Malaria epidemiology in an area of stable transmission in tribal population of Jharkhand, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Manoj K; Prajapati, Brijesh K; Tiendrebeogo, Régis W

    2017-01-01

    and density levels in the study population showed a gradual decrease with increasing age. This finding is consistent with the phenomenon of naturally acquired immunity against malaria. Three vector species were detected: Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles annularis, and Anopheles culicifacies. The incoherence...

  1. The ideal free distribution as an evolutionarily stable state in density-dependent population games

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cressman, R.; Křivan, Vlastimil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 8 (2010), s. 1231-1242 ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100070601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : density-dependent population games Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2010

  2. Bacterioplankton communities of Crater Lake, OR: Dynamic changes with euphotic zone food web structure and stable deep water populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, E.; Vergin, K.L.; Larson, G.L.; Giovannoni, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of bacterial and archaeal species in Crater Lake plankton varies dramatically over depth and with time, as assessed by hybridization of group-specific oligonucleotides to RNA extracted from lakewater. Nonmetric, multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of relative bacterial phylotype densities revealed complex relationships among assemblages sampled from depth profiles in July, August and September of 1997 through 1999. CL500-11 green nonsulfur bacteria (Phylum Chloroflexi) and marine Group I crenarchaeota are consistently dominant groups in the oxygenated deep waters at 300 and 500 m. Other phylotypes found in the deep waters are similar to surface and mid-depth populations and vary with time. Euphotic zone assemblages are dominated either by ??-proteobacteria or CL120-10 verrucomicrobia, and ACK4 actinomycetes. MDS analyses of euphotic zone populations in relation to environmental variables and phytoplankton and zooplankton population structures reveal apparent links between Daphnia pulicaria zooplankton population densities and microbial community structure. These patterns may reflect food web interactions that link kokanee salmon population densities to community structure of the bacterioplankton, via fish predation on Daphnia with cascading consequences to Daphnia bacterivory and predation on bacterivorous protists. These results demonstrate a stable bottom-water microbial community. They also extend previous observations of food web-driven changes in euphotic zone bacterioplankton community structure to an oligotrophic setting. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. Population of Metastable States in Stable Hafnium and Ytterbium Nuclei via Beam Break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malwela, T.; Ntshangase, S.S.; Shirinda, O.; Bark, R.A.; Gueorguieva, E.; Lawrie, J.J.; Mullins, S.M.; Murray, S.H.T.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Gal, J.; Kalinka, G.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Molnar, J.; Nyako, B.M.; Timar, J.; Zolnai, L.; Hlatshwayo, T.; Juhasz, K.; Komati, F.S.; Scheurer, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    The ''Chessboard'' section of the DIAMANT charged-particle array has been coupled with the AFRODITE γ-ray spectrometer at the iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences. Charged-particle-γ-ray coincidence data were recorded during the bombardment of a 176Yb target with a 13C beam at an energy of 90 MeV. The purpose of the investigation was to study the population of metastable states in hafium nuclei via incomplete fusion reactions in which the beam breaks up due to its α-cluster character. Of note was the observation of the band based on the Kπ = 16+, T1/2 = 31 year isomer in 178Hf to its 19+ member. Also, decays from the high-K isomeric states in 174Yb and 176Yb. which were populated via 3αxn channels, indicative of complete break-up of the 13C beam

  4. Malaria epidemiology in an area of stable transmission in tribal population of Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manoj K; Prajapati, Brijesh K; Tiendrebeogo, Régis W; Ranjan, Kumud; Adu, Bright; Srivastava, Amit; Khera, Harvinder K; Chauhan, Narendra; Tevatiya, Sanjay; Kana, Ikhlaq H; Sharma, Surya Kant; Singh, Subhash; Theisen, Michael

    2017-05-02

    Malaria remains an important health problem in India with approximately 1 million cases in 2014. Of these, 7% occurred in the Jharkhand state mainly in the tribal population. This study was conducted in Dumargarhi, a tribal village about 42 km east of Ranchi city, Jharkhand, from May 2014 to September 2016. Four point prevalence surveys were carried out during consecutive high (October-December) and low (June-August) transmission seasons. Malaria cases were recorded from April 2015 to April 2016 through fortnightly visits to the village. Adult mosquito densities were monitored fortnightly by manual catching using suction tube method. The study area consists of five hamlets inhabited by 945 individuals living in 164 households as recorded through a house-to-house census survey performed at enrollment. The study population consisted predominantly of the Munda (n = 425, 45%) and Oraon (n = 217, 23%) ethnic groups. Study participants were categorized as per their age 0-5, 6-10, 11-15 and >15 years. There were 99 cases of clinical malaria from April 2015 to April 2016 and all malaria cases confirmed by microscopy were attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (94 cases) and Plasmodium vivax (5 cases), respectively. During the high transmission season the mean density of P. falciparum parasitaemia per age group increased to a peak level of 23,601 parasites/μl in the 6-10 years age group and gradually declined in the adult population. Malaria attack rates, parasite prevalence and density levels in the study population showed a gradual decrease with increasing age. This finding is consistent with the phenomenon of naturally acquired immunity against malaria. Three vector species were detected: Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles annularis, and Anopheles culicifacies. The incoherence or complete out of phase pattern of the vector density peaks together with a high prevalence of parasite positive individuals in the study population explains the year-round malaria

  5. Zinc Absorption from Representative Diet in a Chinese Elderly Population Using Stable Isotope Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya Jie; Li, Min; Liu, Xiao Bing; Ren, Tong Xiang; Li, Wei Dong; Yang, Chun; Wu, Meng; Yang, Lin Li; Ma, Yu Xia; Wang, Jun; Piao, Jian Hua; Yang, Li Chen; Yang, Xiao Guang

    2017-06-01

    To determine the dietary zinc absorption in a Chinese elderly population and provide the basic data for the setting of zinc (Zn) recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) for Chinese elderly people. A total of 24 elderly people were recruited for this study and were administered oral doses of 3 mg 67Zn and 1.2 mg dysprosium on the fourth day. The primary macronutrients, energy, and phytic acid in the representative diet were examined based on the Chinese National Standard Methods. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for zinc content, 67Zn isotope ratio, and dysprosium content. The mean (± SD) zinc intake from the representative Chinese diet was 10.6 ± 1.5 mg/d. The phytic acid-to-zinc molar ratio in the diet was 6.4. The absorption rate of 67Zn was 27.9% ± 9.2%. The RNI of zinc, which were calculated by the absorption rate in elderly men and women, were 10.4 and 9.2 mg/d, respectively. This study got the dietary Zn absorption in a Chinese elderly population. We found that Zn absorption was higher in elderly men than in elderly women. The current RNI in elderly female is lower than our finding, which indicates that more attention is needed regarding elderly females' zinc status and health. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  6. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  7. Stable genetic structure and connectivity in pollution-adapted and nearby pollution-sensitive populations of Fundulus heteroclitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancani, Leann M.; Flight, Patrick A.; Nacci, Diane E.; Rand, David M.; Crawford, Douglas L.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2018-01-01

    Populations of the non-migratory estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus inhabiting the heavily polluted New Bedford Harbour (NBH) estuary have shown inherited tolerance to local pollutants introduced to their habitats in the past 100 years. Here we examine two questions: (i) Is there pollution-driven selection on the mitochondrial genome across a fine geographical scale? and (ii) What is the pattern of migration among sites spanning a strong pollution gradient? Whole mitochondrial genomes were analysed for 133 F. heteroclitus from seven nearby collection sites: four sites along the NBH pollution cline (approx. 5 km distance), which had pollution-adapted fish, as well as one site adjacent to the pollution cline and two relatively unpolluted sites about 30 km away, which had pollution-sensitive fish. Additionally, we used microsatellite analyses to quantify genetic variation over three F. heteroclitus generations in both pollution-adapted and sensitive individuals collected from two sites at two different time points (1999/2000 and 2007/2008). Our results show no evidence for a selective sweep of mtDNA in the polluted sites. Moreover, mtDNA analyses revealed that both pollution-adapted and sensitive populations harbour similar levels of genetic diversity. We observed a high level of non-synonymous mutations in the most polluted site. This is probably associated with a reduction in Ne and concomitant weakening of purifying selection, a demographic expansion following a pollution-related bottleneck or increased mutation rates. Our demographic analyses suggest that isolation by distance influences the distribution of mtDNA genetic variation between the pollution cline and the clean populations at broad spatial scales. At finer scales, population structure is patchy, and neither spatial distance, pollution concentration or pollution tolerance is a good predictor of mtDNA variation. Lastly, microsatellite analyses revealed stable population structure over the last

  8. Large indoor cage study of the suppression of stable Aedes aegypti populations by the release of thiotepa-sterilised males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Gato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is a promising pest control method in terms of efficacy and environmental compatibility. In this study, we determined the efficacy of thiotepa-sterilised males in reducing the target Aedes aegypti populations. Treated male pupae were released weekly into large laboratory cages at a constant ratio of either 5:1 or 2:1 sterile-to-fertile males. A two-to-one release ratio reduced the hatch rate of eggs laid in the cage by approximately a third and reduced the adult catch rate by approximately a quarter, but a 5:1 release drove the population to elimination after 15 weeks of release. These results indicate that thiotepa exposure is an effective means of sterilising Ae. aegypti and males thus treated are able to reduce the reproductive capacity of a stable population under laboratory conditions. Further testing of the method in semi-field enclosures is required to evaluate the mating competitiveness of sterile males when exposed to natural environmental conditions. If proven effective, SIT using thiotepa-sterilised males may be incorporated into an integrated programme of vector control to combat dengue in Cuba.

  9. Population dynamics of stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) at an organic dairy farm in Denmark based on mark-recapture with destructive sub-sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Skovgård; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2012-01-01

    A population of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), was studied on a Danish cattle farm in two successive years. Flies were captured monthly by sweep nettings and marked with fluorescent dust. Absolute population size, dilution rate, loss rate, and adult longevity were estimated by means...

  10. Blood pressure and antihypertensive medication profile in a multiethnic Asian population of stable chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon Wee; Chua, Horng Ruey; Wong, Weng Kin; Haroon, Sabrina; Subramanian, Srinivas; Loh, Ping Tyug; Sethi, Sunil; Lau, Titus

    2016-05-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend different blood pressure (BP) goals for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Usage of antihypertensive medication and attainment of BP targets in Asian CKD patients remain unclear. This study describes the profile of antihypertensive agents used and BP components in a multiethnic Asian population with stable CKD. Stable CKD outpatients with variability of serum creatinine levels 3 months apart, were recruited. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using automated manometers, according to practice guidelines. Serum creatinine was assayed and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation. BP and antihypertensive medication profile was examined using univariate analyses. 613 patients (55.1% male; 74.7% Chinese, 6.4% Indian, 11.4% Malay; 35.7% diabetes mellitus) with a mean age of 57.8 ± 14.5 years were recruited. Mean SBP was 139 ± 20 mmHg, DBP was 74 ± 11 mmHg, serum creatinine was 166 ± 115 µmol/L and GFR was 53 ± 32 mL/min/1.73 m(2). At a lower GFR, SBP increased (p < 0.001), whereas DBP decreased (p = 0.0052). Mean SBP increased in tandem with the number of antihypertensive agents used (p < 0.001), while mean DBP decreased when ≥ 3 antihypertensive agents were used (p = 0.0020). Different targets are recommended for each BP component in CKD patients. A majority of patients cannot attain SBP targets and/or exceed DBP targets. Research into monitoring and treatment methods is required to better define BP targets in CKD patients. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  11. Identification of active dehalorespiring microbial populations in anoxic river sediment by RNA-based stable isotope probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, S.; Friedrich, M. W.

    2005-12-01

    Tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylene, PCE), a persistent contaminant in aquifers, soils and sediments, can be reductively dechlorinated by anaerobic microorganisms in a process referred to as dehalorespiration. However, the biodiversity of dehalorespiring microorganisms and their distribution especially in pristine environments is largely unexplored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect potentially novel PCE-dehalorespiring microorganisms by using stable isotope probing (SIP), a technique that allows to directly identify the function of uncultivated microbial populations. We simulated a PCE contamination by incubating pristine river sediment in the presence of PCE at a steady, low aqueous concentration (20 μM). Dehalogenation activity in microcosms (20 nmol cis-dichloroethene per ml slurry per day formed) was detected already after 4 weeks at 20°C with sediment indigenous electron donors. The microbial community in sediment incubations was probed with 13C-labelled acetate (0.5 mM) as electron donor and carbon source at 15°C for 3 days. After RNA extraction, "heavy" 13C-rRNA and light 12C-rRNA were separated by isopycnic centrifugation, and Bacteria-related populations in gradient fractions were characterised by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and cloning. In heavy gradient fractions from the microcosm with PCE, we detected a prominent 506-bp terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) and a few minor T-RFs only. In contrast, in the control without PCE, Bacteria-specific rRNA was restricted to light gradient fractions, and the prominent T-RFs found in the PCE-dechlorinating microcosm were of minor importance. Apparently, 13C-acetate was incorporated into bacterial rRNA more effectively in PCE-respiring microcosms. Thus, rRNA-SIP provides strong evidence for the presence of PCE-dehalorespiring, 13C-acetate-utilising populations in river sediment microcosms. Cloning/sequencing analysis identified the prominent members of the heavy

  12. Seasonal and inter-annual dynamics in the stable oxygen isotope compositions of water pools in a temperate humid grassland ecosystem: results from MIBA sampling and MuSICA modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirl, Regina; Schnyder, Hans; Auerswald, Karl; Vetter, Sylvia; Ostler, Ulrike; Schleip, Inga; Wingate, Lisa; Ogée, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    The oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of water in terrestrial ecosystems usually shows strong and dynamic variations within and between the various compartments. These variations originate from changes in the δ18O of water inputs (e.g. rain or water vapour) and from 18O fractionation phenomena in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Investigations of δ18O in ecosystem water pools and of their main drivers can help us understand water relations at plant, canopy or ecosystem scale and interpret δ18O signals in plant and animal tissues as paleo-climate proxies. During the vegetation periods of 2006 to 2012, soil, leaf and stem water as well as atmospheric humidity, rain water and groundwater were sampled at bi-weekly intervals in a temperate humid pasture of the Grünschwaige Grassland Research Station near Munich (Germany). The sampling was performed following standardised MIBA (Moisture Isotopes in the Biosphere and Atmosphere) protocols. Leaf water samples were prepared from a mixture of co-dominant species in the plant community in order to obtain a canopy-scale leaf water δ18O signal. All samples were then analysed for their δ18O compositions. The measured δ18O of leaf, stem and soil water were then compared with the δ18O signatures simulated by the process-based isotope-enabled ecosystem model MuSICA (Multi-layer Simulator of the Interactions between a vegetation Canopy and the Atmosphere). MuSICA integrates current mechanistic understanding of processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Hence, the comparison of modelled and measured data allows the identification of gaps in current knowledge and of questions to be tackled in the future. Soil and plant characteristics for model parameterisation were derived from investigations at the experimental site and supplemented by values from the literature. Eddy-covariance measurements of ecosystem CO2 (GPP, NEE) and energy (H, LE) fluxes and soil temperature data were used for model evaluation. The

  13. Toxicological and ultrastructural analysis of the impact of pesticides used in temperate fruit crops on two populations of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pinho de Moura

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of (g a.i. L-1 abamectin (0.02, carbaryl (1.73, sulphur (4.8, fenitrothion (0.75, methidathion (0.4, and trichlorfon (1.5 on the survival of larvae and pupae, on the oviposition of adults and hatching of eggs from treated Chrysoperla externa third-instar larvae from two different populations (Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Morphological changes caused by abamectin to eggs laid by C. externa from Vacaria population were evaluated by mean of ultrastructural analysis. The pesticides were applied on glass plates. Distilled water was used as control. For the evaluation of larvae mortality, a fully randomized experimental design in a 2 x 7 (two populations x seven treatments factorial scheme was used, whereas for the effects of the compounds on oviposition capacity and egg viability, a 2 x 4 factorial scheme was used. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% mortality of larvae. Abamectin reduced the hatching of eggs from treated third-instar larvae of both populations; however, this pesticide presented highest toxicity on insects from Vacaria. The ultrastructural analysis showed that abamectin caused malformations in micropyle and in chorion external surface of C. externa eggs. Based in the total effect (E, carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion are harmful to C. externa; trichlorfon is harmless to third-instar larvae, while abamectin and sulphur are harmless and slightly harmful to third-instar larvae from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, respectively.

  14. Population dynamics and damage caused by the leaf miner Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae), on seven potato processing varieties grown in temperate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.; Carmona, D.; Vincini, A.M.; Monterubbianesi, G.; Caldiz, D.

    2010-01-01

    The leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard is considered a key pest for potatoes in Argentina. Population dynamics and leaf damage caused by the leafminer on seven selected potato processing varieties were assessed at Balcarce during the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons. Adult population dynamic was monitored using yellow sticky traps, while leaf damage (punctures and mines) was assessed using a damage index scale from low to severe. Liriomyza huidobrensis adults were present throughout the growing season and the population increased along crop development. The same was true for all varieties regarding larval damage, being low on early crop stages and severe late in the season. Varieties were grouped in two different categories according to damage scale index. Shepody, Kennebec, Frital and Innovator showed a higher damage index when compared with Santana, Ranger Russet and Russet Burbank, which exhibited a lower damage. Moreover, it could be assumed that damage was related to the foliage greenness, with light green colored varieties (Shepody, Kennebec, Frital and Innovator) being more attractive and affected by L. huidobrensis. (author)

  15. World temperate fruit production: characteristics and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years world population has increased 70% but per capita global fruit consumption is only 20% higher. Even though tropical and temperate fruit have similar contributions to the 50 kg/person/year of US consumption of fresh fruit, in the last 30 years this has been slightly greater for temperate fruit. Within fruit consumption, the largest expansion has been for organic fruit which increased more than 50% in the 2002-2006 period. The largest expansion of area planted in the 1996-2006 has been for kiwi (29% and blueberries (20%, while apples (-24% and sour cherries (-13% have had the largest reductions. Nearly 50% of the total global volume of fruit is produced by 5 countries: China, USA, Brazil, Italy and Spain. The main producer (China accounts for 23% of the total. While the main exporters are Spain, USA and Italy, the main importers are Germany, Russia and UK. Demands for the industry have evolved towards quality, food safety and traceability. The industry faces higher productions costs (labor, energy, agrichemicals. The retailers are moving towards consolidation while the customers are changing preferences (food for health. In this context there is greater pressure on growers, processors and retailers. Emerging issues are labor supply, climate change, water availability and sustainability. Recent developments in precision agriculture, molecular biology, phenomics, crop modelling and post harvest physiology should increase yields and quality, and reduce costs for temperate fruit production around the world.

  16. Can small wildlife conservancies maintain genetically stable populations of large mammals? Evidence for increased genetic drift in geographically restricted populations of Cape buffalo in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, R; Okello, J B A; Siegismund, H

    2010-01-01

    populations, the level of genetic differentiation found here is comparable to that among pan-African populations. Overall, correlations between conservancy area and indices of genetic diversity suggest buffalo populations inhabiting small parks are showing signs of genetic erosion, stressing the need for more......The Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) is one of the dominant and most widespread herbivores in sub-Saharan Africa. High levels of genetic diversity and exceptionally low levels of population differentiation have been found in the Cape buffalo compared to other African savannah ungulates...... active management of such populations. Our findings raise concerns about the future of other African savannah ungulates with lower population sizes and inferior dispersal capabilities compared with the buffalo....

  17. RNA–Stable-Isotope Probing Shows Utilization of Carbon from Inulin by Specific Bacterial Populations in the Rat Large Bowel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Sims, Ian M.; Lee, Julian; Butts, Christine A.; Roy, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the trophisms that underpin bowel microbiota composition is required in order to understand its complex phylogeny and function. Stable-isotope (13C)-labeled inulin was added to the diet of rats on a single occasion in order to detect utilization of inulin-derived substrates by particular members of the cecal microbiota. Cecal digesta from Fibruline-inulin-fed rats was collected prior to (0 h) and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 h following provision of the [13C]inulin diet. RNA was extracted from these cecal specimens and fractionated in isopycnic buoyant density gradients in order to detect 13C-labeled nucleic acid originating in bacterial cells that had metabolized the labeled dietary constituent. RNA extracted from specimens collected after provision of the labeled diet was more dense than 0-h RNA. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from cDNA obtained from these fractions showed that Bacteroides uniformis, Blautia glucerasea, Clostridium indolis, and Bifidobacterium animalis were the main users of the 13C-labeled substrate. Culture-based studies of strains of these bacterial species enabled trophisms associated with inulin and its hydrolysis products to be identified. B. uniformis utilized Fibruline-inulin for growth, whereas the other species used fructo-oligosaccharide and monosaccharides. Thus, RNA–stable-isotope probing (RNA-SIP) provided new information about the use of carbon from inulin in microbiota metabolism. PMID:24487527

  18. Gamete types, sex determination and stable equilibria of all-hybrid populations of diploid and triploid edible frogs (Pelophylax esculentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen Ditte G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triploid individuals often play a key role in speciation by hybridization. An understanding of the gamete types (ploidy and genomic content and stability of hybrid populations with triploid individuals is therefore of importance for exploring the role of hybridization in evolution. The all-hybrid populations of the edible frog, Pelophylax esculentus, are unique in their composition and genetic dynamics: Diploid (genotype LR and triploid (LLR and LRR hybrids depend on each other's different gamete contributions for successful reproduction and maintenance of the populations, as the parental genotypes P. lessonae (LL and P. ridibundus (RR are absent among adults. This study provides data and interpretations on gamete types and sex determination that are essential for understanding the function, evolutionary potential and threats of this intriguing system. Results Dissection of metamorphs from a crossing experiment confirmed that sex determination is an XX-XY system with the Y confined to the L genome. From microsatellite analysis of parents and offspring from the crossings, gamete frequencies could be deduced: Triploids of both sexes mostly made haploid gametes with the genome they had in double dose, however LLR females also made approximately 10% LL gametes by automixis. LR frogs showed much variation in their gamete production. In LRR-rich populations, their LR sperm production was sufficiently high (22% to explain the observed proportion of LRR males, the formation of which has not previously been understood. A model was constructed to calculate equilibrium genotype proportions for different population types on the basis of the gamete proportions found. These equilibria agreed well with empirical literature data. Conclusion If population differentiation with respect to genotype proportions is really driven by gamete patterns, as strongly suggested by the present study, all-hybrid populations constitute not one, but several

  19. Time-temperature equivalence in Martensite tempering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Robert E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thomas, Grant A. [CSM; Speer, John G. [CSM; Matlock, David K. [CSM; Krauss, George [CSM

    2008-06-16

    The relationship between time and temperature is of great consequence in many materials-related processes including the tempering of martensite. In 1945, Hollomon and Jaffe quantified the 'degree of tempering' as a function of both tempering time, t, and tempering temperature, T, using the expression, T(log t + c). Here, c is thought to be a material constant and appears to decrease linearly with increasing carbon content. The Hollomon-Jaffe tempering parameter is frequently cited in the literature. This work reviews the original derivation of the tempering parameter concept, and presents the use of the characteristics diffusion distance as an alternative time-temperature relationship during martensite tempering. During the tempering of martensite, interstitial carbon atoms diffuse to form carbides. In addition, austenite decomposes, dislocations and grain boundaries rearrange, associated with iron self diffusion. Since these are all diffusional processes, it is reasonable to expect the degree of tempering to relate to the extent of diffusion.

  20. A method for investigating population declines of migratory birds using stable isotopes: origins of harvested lesser scaup in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Hobson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Elucidating geographic locations from where migratory birds are recruited into adult breeding populations is a fundamental but largely elusive goal in conservation biology. This is especially true for species that breed in remote northern areas where field-based demographic assessments are logistically challenging.Here we used hydrogen isotopes (deltaD to determine natal origins of migrating hatch-year lesser scaup (Aythya affinis harvested by hunters in the United States from all North American flyways during the hunting seasons of 1999-2000 (n = 412 and 2000-2001 (n = 455. We combined geospatial, observational, and analytical data sources, including known scaup breeding range, deltaD values of feathers from juveniles at natal sites, models of deltaD for growing-season precipitation, and scaup band-recovery data to generate probabilistic natal origin landscapes for individual scaup. We then used Monte Carlo integration to model assignment uncertainty from among individual deltaD variance estimates from birds of known molt origin and also from band-return data summarized at the flyway level. We compared the distribution of scaup natal origin with the distribution of breeding population counts obtained from systematic long-term surveys.Our analysis revealed that the proportion of young scaup produced in the northern (above 60 degrees N versus the southern boreal and Prairie-Parkland region was inversely related to the proportions of breeding adults using these regions, suggesting that despite having a higher relative abundance of breeding adults, the northern boreal region was less productive for scaup recruitment into the harvest than more southern biomes. Our approach for evaluating population declines of migratory birds (particularly game birds synthesizes all available distributional data and exploits the advantages of intrinsic isotopic markers that link individuals to geography.

  1. New insights about the population structure of the blue jack mackerel (Trachurus picturatus in the NE Atlantic using otolith stable isotope ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus is a pelagic fish widely distributed in the NE Atlantic and also found in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. It is an economically important resource in the Macaronesian islands of Azores, Madeira and Canaries, but despite its fishery value and ecological importance, fluctuations in the landings are difficult to explain since studies regarding the population dynamics, stocks structure, fish movements and habitat connectivity are inexistent. The populations of marine pelagic fishes, in particular the migratory ones, such as T. picturatus,, may be erroneously considered an homogenous population unit because they show broad geographic distributions, large population sizes and high migratory movements. Stable isotope ratios, namely δ18O and δ13C, measured by standard mass spectrometric techniques in whole otolith samples of T. picturatus adults sampled in the fishery grounds of the Islands of Azores, Madeira and Canaries, and at the Portuguese mainland (Matosinhos, Peniche and Portimão during the spring-summer of 2013 were analysed. The 18O signatures followed the general tendency taking into account the seawater temperatures of the sampling regions. 13C signatures showed however differences between the oceanic or continental origin of the fish. Both variables provided location-specific signatures. Further studies including mitochondrial and nuclear DNA studies are also been conducted to acquire new knowledge for fisheries conservation purposes.

  2. Generation and characterization of a stable cell population releasing fluorescent HIV-1-based Virus Like Particles in an inducible way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Valerie

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of cell lines releasing fluorescent viral particles can significantly support a variety of investigations, including the study of virus-cell interaction and the screening of antiviral compounds. Regarding HIV-1, the recovery of such biologic reagents represents a very hard challenge due to the intrinsic cytotoxicity of many HIV-1 products. We sought to overcome such a limitation by using a cell line releasing HIV-1 particles in an inducible way, and by exploiting the ability of a HIV-1 Nef mutant to be incorporated in virions at quite high levels. Results Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a HIV-1 packaging cell line, termed 18-4s, able to release valuable amounts of fluorescent HIV-1 based Virus-Like Particles (VLPs in an inducible way. 18-4s cells were recovered by constitutively expressing the HIV-1 NefG3C mutant fused with the enhanced-green fluorescent protein (NefG3C-GFP in a previously isolated inducible HIV-1 packaging cell line. The G3C mutation creates a palmitoylation site which results in NefG3C-GFP incorporation into virions greatly exceeding that of the wild type counterpart. Upon induction of 18-4s cells with ponasterone A and sodium butyrate, up to 4 μg/ml of VLPs, which had incorporated about 150 molecules of NefG3C-GFP per viral particle, were released into the culture supernatant. Due to their intrinsic strong fluorescence, the 18-4s VLPs were easily detectable by a novel cytofluorometric-based assay developed here. The treatment of target cells with fluorescent 18-4 VLPs pseudotyped with different glycoprotein receptors resulted in these becoming fluorescent as early as two hours post-challenge. Conclusion We created a stable cell line releasing fluorescent HIV-1 based VLPs upon induction useful for several applications including the study of virus-cell interactions and the screening of antiviral compounds.

  3. Stable association of a Drosophila-derived microbiota with its animal partner and the nutritional environment throughout a fly population's life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téfit, Mélisandre A; Gillet, Benjamin; Joncour, Pauline; Hughes, Sandrine; Leulier, François

    2018-04-01

    In the past years, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been extensively used to study the relationship between animals and their associated microbes. Compared to the one of wild populations, the microbiota of laboratory-reared flies is less diverse, and comprises fewer bacterial taxa; nevertheless, the main commensal bacteria found in fly microbiota always belong to the Acetobacteraceae and Lactobacillaceae families. The bacterial communities associated with the fly are environmentally acquired, and the partners engage in a perpetual re-association process. Adult flies constantly ingest and excrete microbes from and onto their feeding substrate, which are then transmitted to the next generation developing within this shared habitat. We wanted to analyze the potential changes in the bacterial community during its reciprocal transfer between the two compartments of the niche (i.e. the fly and the diet). To address this question, we used a diverse, wild-derived microbial community and analyzed its relationship with the fly population and the nutritive substrate in a given habitat. Here we show that the community was overall well maintained upon transmission to a new niche, to a new fly population and to their progeny, illustrating the stable association of a Drosophila-derived microbiota with its fly partner and the nutritional environment. These results highlight the preponderant role of the nutritional substrate in the dynamics of Drosophila/microbiota interactions, and the need to fully integrate this variable when performing such studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  5. Stable or improved health status in the population 65 years and older in Stockholm, Sweden - an 8-year follow-up of self-reported health items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modig, Karin; Virtanen, Suvi; Ahlbom, Anders; Agahi, Neda

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have reached different conclusions about whether health is improving in the ageing population. More studies with narrow age groups analyzed separately for men and women will contribute to the literature. To describe trends in self-reported indicators of health and health-related quality of life between 2002 and 2010, focusing on differences between gender and age groups. A population-based survey of individuals 65+ in the Stockholm County was used. Prevalence of health problems increased with age both among men and women. Men generally reported having no health problems to a larger extent than women, but the proportions reporting severe problems were similar. The larger picture is one of stability in health-related quality of life, even if several items developed for the better, especially among women. While the proportions reporting no health/functional problems increased for many items, the proportions reporting severe problems remained unchanged among men and improved only for two items among women. CONCLUSIONS OVERALL, IMPROVEMENTS WERE SEEN IN MANY OF THE HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE ITEMS AS WELL AS FOR SELF-RATED HEALTH AMONG WOMEN THE PROPORTIONS REPORTING LONG-TERM ILLNESS OR PERSISTENT HEALTH PROBLEMS INCREASED, BUT FEWER SEEM TO BE LIMITED IN THEIR DAILY ACTIVITIES BY THESE PROBLEMS THE STABLE PROPORTIONS OF POOR SELF-RATED HEALTH INDICATES THAT WHILE HEALTH AND FUNCTIONING SEEM TO BE IMPROVING FOR THE MAJORITY OF THE OLDER POPULATION, SOME GROUPS MAY BE LAGGING BEHIND FUTURE STUDIES SHOULD PAY ATTENTION TO CHANGES BOTH IN THE UPPER AND LOWER ENDS OF THE HEALTH SPECTRUM. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  6. Stable overall referral rates of primary radiotherapy for newly diagnosed cancer patients in the ageing population of South-Eastern Netherlands, 1975-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lybeert, Marnix L.M.; Louwman, Marieke; Coebergh, Jan-Willem W.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine the primary radiotherapy (RT) consumption in a population of almost one million inhabitants, served by one RT centre. Primary RT was defined as being planned, started or finished within 4-6 months of diagnosis. Application was evaluated according to tumour category, stage and year of diagnosis during three 8-year periods: 1975-1982, 1983 -1990 and 1991-1998. Results: Most patients were between 60 and 75 years. The number of patients receiving primary RT increased with 3% annually over the whole studied period, but remained proportionally stable for males at 30% and decreased for females from 36.2 to 34.6%. A decrease of referral rates for patients with gynaecological cancer was observed. The introduction of breast-conserving therapy in 1981 and of population screening for women aged 50-69 years in 1992 led to a considerable increase of primary RT. The eightfold increase in number of irradiated patients with localised prostate cancer rather reflected a higher detection rate than an increased referral rate. Except for an important increase of irradiated patients with rectal cancer, largely due to the shift to preoperative RT since 1994, and of patients with brain cancer, only slight alterations in referral rates were observed for the other cancers. Conclusions: Use of primary RT remained proportionally steady and modest. The marked increase in workload was mainly due to more and earlier detection of breast and prostate cancer and treatment changes in rectal cancer. Decreases were observed for each of the gynecological cancers

  7. Stable carbon isotope variability of bone collagen and hair within a modern population of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) in south western Queensland: some implications for palaeoecological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Before any palaeo-reconstruction work can be attempted using stable isotope analysis of macropod remains it will be necessary to determine the nature of natural variability within contemporary populations. This research indicates that δ 13 C of bone collagen is strongly related to age. Furthermore, bone collagen δ 13 C not at equilibrium with dietary δ 13 C, as indicated by analysis of hair, until animals are several years old. These preliminary data suggest that in younger macropods most carbon in bone collagen has been derived via the mother's milk which may have undergone fractionation. These findings have significant implications for any palaeoecological research using bone or tooth. Teeth of macropods erupt from the rear of the jaw and move forward in molar progression. Since the rate of eruption is variable, and many of the forward molars are well formed while the joey is still at the pouch, teeth formed early in the life of a macropod may be isotopically distinct from those that develop later. This hypothesis is currently under investigation

  8. On choice of tempered steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorov, A.A.; Pan'shin, I.F.; Rakhmanov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    For the purpose of developing a graphical method for choosing structural steels, a change in the propagation work of a crack and in the critical temperature of brittleness of 40, 40Kh, 40KhN, and 40KhNM steels, was examined depending on the hardness after hardening and tempering. A diagram enabling to choose the grade of steel for making an article of known dimensions according to the preset values of its mechanical properties has been plotted. The developed selection scheme takes into account the hardenability of steels and the influence of the hardness after thermal treatment on the cold-shortness of steel

  9. Mechanism of Secondary Hardening in Rapid Tempering of Dual-Phase Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dulal Chandra; Nayak, Sashank S.; Biro, Elliot; Gerlich, Adrian P.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Dual-phase steel with ferrite-martensite-bainite microstructure exhibited secondary hardening in the subcritical heat affected zone during fiber laser welding. Rapid isothermal tempering conducted in a Gleeble simulator also indicated occurrence of secondary hardening at 773 K (500 °C), as confirmed by plotting the tempered hardness against the Holloman-Jaffe parameter. Isothermally tempered specimens were characterized by analytic transmission electron microscopy and high-angle annular dark-field imaging. The cementite (Fe3C) and TiC located in the bainite phase of DP steel decomposed upon rapid tempering to form needle-shaped Mo2C (aspect ratio ranging from 10 to 25) and plate-shaped M4C3 carbides giving rise to secondary hardening. Precipitation of these thermodynamically stable and coherent carbides promoted the hardening phenomenon. However, complex carbides were only seen in the tempered bainite and were not detected in the tempered martensite. The martensite phase decomposed into ferrite and spherical Fe3C, and interlath-retained austenite decomposed into ferrite and elongated carbide.

  10. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  11. Use of the integration elements encoded by the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Lone; Hammer, Karin

    1999-01-01

    Previously we showed that only one phage-expressed protein (Orf1), a 425-bp region upstream of the orf1 gene (presumably encoding a promoter), and the attP region are necessary and also sufficient for integration of the bacteriophage TP901-1 genome into the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis subsp......P region seem to be necessary for site-specific integration of the temperate bacteriophage TP901-1. By use of the integrative elements (attP and orf1) expressed by the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1, a system for obtaining stable chromosomal single-copy transcriptional fusions in L. lactis...

  12. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  13. Genomic Analyses Reveal Demographic History and Temperate Adaptation of the Newly Discovered Honey Bee Subspecies Apis mellifera sinisxinyuan n. ssp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Liu, Zhiguang; Pan, Qi; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Huihua; Guo, Haikun; Liu, Shidong; Lu, Hongfeng; Tian, Shilin; Li, Ruiqiang; Shi, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Studying the genetic signatures of climate-driven selection can produce insights into local adaptation and the potential impacts of climate change on populations. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is an interesting species to study local adaptation because it originated in tropical/subtropical climatic regions and subsequently spread into temperate regions. However, little is known about the genetic basis of its adaptation to temperate climates. Here, we resequenced the whole genomes of ten individual bees from a newly discovered population in temperate China and downloaded resequenced data from 35 individuals from other populations. We found that the new population is an undescribed subspecies in the M-lineage of A. mellifera (Apis mellifera sinisxinyuan). Analyses of population history show that long-term global temperature has strongly influenced the demographic history of A. m. sinisxinyuan and its divergence from other subspecies. Further analyses comparing temperate and tropical populations identified several candidate genes related to fat body and the Hippo signaling pathway that are potentially involved in adaptation to temperate climates. Our results provide insights into the demographic history of the newly discovered A. m. sinisxinyuan, as well as the genetic basis of adaptation of A. mellifera to temperate climates at the genomic level. These findings will facilitate the selective breeding of A. mellifera to improve the survival of overwintering colonies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  15. Stable Tetraquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris [Fermilab

    2018-04-13

    For very heavy quarks, relations derived from heavy-quark symmetry imply novel narrow doubly heavy tetraquark states containing two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks. We predict that double-beauty states will be stable against strong decays, whereas the double-charm states and mixed beauty+charm states will dissociate into pairs of heavy-light mesons. Observing a new double-beauty state through its weak decays would establish the existence of tetraquarks and illuminate the role of heavy color-antitriplet diquarks as hadron constituents.

  16. The Effect of Tempering on Strength Properties and Seed Coat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of tempering on seed coat adhesion strength and mechanical strength of sorghum and millet grain kernels was investigated at different tempering durations. Tempering reduced the kernel breaking strength and had significant effect on seed coat adhesion strength. Tempering the grain for 60 minutes at ambient ...

  17. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  18. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  19. Seasonal sediment dynamics shape temperate bedrock reef communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figurski, Jared D.; Freiwald, Jan; Lonhart, Steve I.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2016-01-01

    Mobilized seafloor sediment can impact benthic reef communities through burial, scour, and turbidity. These processes are ubiquitous in coastal oceans and, through their influence on the survival, fitness, and interactions of species, can alter the structure and function of benthic communities. In northern Monterey Bay, California, USA, as much as 30% of the seafloor is buried or exposed seasonally, making this an ideal location to test how subtidal temperate rocky reef communities vary in the presence and absence of chronic sediment-based disturbances. Designated dynamic plots were naturally inundated by sediment in summer (50 to 100% cover) and swept clean in winter, whereas designated stable plots remained free of sediment during our study. Multivariate analyses indicated significant differences in the structure of sessile and mobile communities between dynamic and stable reef habitats. For sessile species, community structure in disturbed plots was less variable in space and time than in stable plots due to the maintenance of an early successional state. In contrast, community structure of mobile species varied more in disturbed plots than in stable plots, reflecting how mobile species distribute in response to sediment dynamics. Some species were found only in these disturbed areas, suggesting that the spatial mosaic of disturbance could increase regional diversity. We discuss how the relative ability of species to tolerate disturbance at different life history stages and their ability to colonize habitat translate into community-level differences among habitats, and how this response varies between mobile and sessile communities.

  20. Diet of invasive lionfish on hard bottom reefs of the Southeast USA: insights from stomach contents and stable isotopes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stomach contents and stable isotope analyses were used to determine the diet of lionfish in the warm-temperate hard bottom reef community in theSoutheast US Atlantic...

  1. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing’s cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  2. Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

    2014-08-01

    Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut ( Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube ( Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing's cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

  3. Weaning age in an expanding population: stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of infant feeding practices in the Okhotsk culture (5th-13th centuries AD) in Northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutaya, Takumi; Ishida, Hajime; Yoneda, Minoru

    2015-08-01

    The Okhotsk people were sedentary hunter-gatherer-fishers who lived and prospered in Sakhalin, Hokkaido, and the Kurile Islands during the 5th to 13th centuries AD. They expanded rapidly along the northeastern coast of Hokkaido. We reconstructed infant feeding practices of the Moyoro population of the Okhotsk culture in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Stable isotope ratios in 58 subadult human skeletons were measured. The results suggest that complementary foods with a relatively low carbon isotope ratio were consumed during and after weaning, as observed in ethnographic descriptions of northern human populations such as the Ainu and isotopically suggested in ancient northern hunter-gatherer-fisher populations. Nitrogen isotope ratios of subadults showed that the age at the end of weaning in the Moyoro population was 1.8 (1.4-2.2 in 95% credible interval) years, which is earlier than that in other northern hunter-gatherer-fisher populations. Because weaning age is one of the most important determinants of fertility, a shorter breastfeeding period suggests increased fertility. Furthermore, better nutrition would further promote the population increase, and thus populations of the Okhotsk culture could expand into new regions. These findings are consistent with recent emerging evidence of great contributions of the Okhotsk to the formation of later Ainu populations and culture. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Geographical differences in clinical characteristics and management of stable outpatients with coronary artery disease: comparison between the Italian and international population included in the Worldwide CLARIFY registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Massimo; Tavazzi, Luigi

    2014-04-01

    Limited data are available regarding specific differences among countries in demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment of patients with stable coronary artery disease. CLARIFY is an international, prospective and longitudinal registry including more than 33 000 patients with stable coronary artery disease enrolled in 45 countries worldwide. Data were used to compare the characteristics of patients enrolled in Italy with those enrolled in Europe and in the rest of the world. Baseline data were available for 33 283 patients, 2112 of whom from Italy and 12 614 from the remaining western European countries. Italian patients were found to be older, more frequently smoker, hypertensive and with sedentary habits. In addition, they presented more frequently a history of myocardial infarction, carotid arterial disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition, when compared with patients of both European and international cohorts, more Italian patients had undergone coronary angiography and angioplasty. As far as treatment was concerned, a greater number of Italian patients were taking ivabradine, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, nitrates, thienopyridines, while those taking beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and other antianginal medications were fewer. Among ambulatory patients with stable coronary artery disease, there are important geographic differences in terms of risk factors, clinical characteristics, surgical and pharmacological treatment.

  5. First Temperate Exoplanet Sized Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Combining observations from the CoRoT satellite and the ESO HARPS instrument, astronomers have discovered the first "normal" exoplanet that can be studied in great detail. Designated Corot-9b, the planet regularly passes in front of a star similar to the Sun located 1500 light-years away from Earth towards the constellation of Serpens (the Snake). "This is a normal, temperate exoplanet just like dozens we already know, but this is the first whose properties we can study in depth," says Claire Moutou, who is part of the international team of 60 astronomers that made the discovery. "It is bound to become a Rosetta stone in exoplanet research." "Corot-9b is the first exoplanet that really does resemble planets in our solar system," adds lead author Hans Deeg. "It has the size of Jupiter and an orbit similar to that of Mercury." "Like our own giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, the planet is mostly made of hydrogen and helium," says team member Tristan Guillot, "and it may contain up to 20 Earth masses of other elements, including water and rock at high temperatures and pressures." Corot-9b passes in front of its host star every 95 days, as seen from Earth [1]. This "transit" lasts for about 8 hours, and provides astronomers with much additional information on the planet. This is fortunate as the gas giant shares many features with the majority of exoplanets discovered so far [2]. "Our analysis has provided more information on Corot-9b than for other exoplanets of the same type," says co-author Didier Queloz. "It may open up a new field of research to understand the atmospheres of moderate- and low-temperature planets, and in particular a completely new window in our understanding of low-temperature chemistry." More than 400 exoplanets have been discovered so far, 70 of them through the transit method. Corot-9b is special in that its distance from its host star is about ten times larger than that of any planet previously discovered by this method. And unlike all such

  6. Ecological correlates of flying squirrel microhabitat use and density in temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston P. Smith; Scott M. Gende; Jeffrey V. Nichols

    2004-01-01

    We studied habitat relations of the Prince of Wales flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus griseifrons), an endemic of the temperate, coniferous rainforest of southeastern Alaska, because of concerns over population viability from extensive clear-cut logging in the region. We used stepwise logistic regression to examine relationships between...

  7. Approach to the human diet of the punic population of Can Marines (Ibiza. C an N stable isotope analysis on bone collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Carlos Salazar García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report here on the results of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis on bone collagen of humans from the Punic site of Can Marines (V-IVth BC from the island of Ibiza (Spain. To date, there are few isotopic studies for this period from the Mediterranean. This article reports new isotopic data from a Western Mediterranean Punic rural settlement. The results show a terrestrial based diet with no isotopic evidence of marine or freshwater protein input, and suggest the presence of C4 resources in it.

  8. Tempering of Low-Temperature Bainite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, Mathew J.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Miller, Mike K.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2017-07-01

    Electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and atom probe tomography have been used to identify the changes which occur during the tempering of a carbide-free bainitic steel transformed at 473 K (200 °C). Partitioning of solute between ferrite and thin-films of retained austenite was observed on tempering at 673 K (400 °C) for 30 minutes. After tempering at 673 K (400 °C) and 773 K (500 °C) for 30 minutes, cementite was observed in the form of nanometre scale precipitates. Proximity histograms showed that the partitioning of solutes other than silicon from the cementite was slight at 673 K (400 °C) and more obvious at 773 K (500 °C). In both cases, the nanometre scale carbides are greatly depleted in silicon.

  9. Well-Tempered Metadynamics Converges Asymptotically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dama, James F.; Parrinello, Michele; Voth, Gregory A.

    2014-06-01

    Metadynamics is a versatile and capable enhanced sampling method for the computational study of soft matter materials and biomolecular systems. However, over a decade of application and several attempts to give this adaptive umbrella sampling method a firm theoretical grounding prove that a rigorous convergence analysis is elusive. This Letter describes such an analysis, demonstrating that well-tempered metadynamics converges to the final state it was designed to reach and, therefore, that the simple formulas currently used to interpret the final converged state of tempered metadynamics are correct and exact. The results do not rely on any assumption that the collective variable dynamics are effectively Brownian or any idealizations of the hill deposition function; instead, they suggest new, more permissive criteria for the method to be well behaved. The results apply to tempered metadynamics with or without adaptive Gaussians or boundary corrections and whether the bias is stored approximately on a grid or exactly.

  10. Using Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen to Mark Wild Populations of Anopheles and Aedes Mosquitoes in South-Eastern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy A Opiyo

    Full Text Available Marking wild mosquitoes is important for understanding their ecology, behaviours and role in disease transmission. Traditional insect marking techniques include using fluorescent dyes, protein labels, radioactive labels and tags, but such techniques have various limitations; notably low marker retention and inability to mark wild mosquitoes at source. Stable isotopes are gaining wide spread use for non-invasive marking of arthropods, permitting greater understanding of mosquito dispersal and responses to interventions. We describe here a simple technique for marking naturally-breeding malaria and dengue vectors using stable isotopes of nitrogen (15N and carbon (13C, and describe potential field applications.We created man-made aquatic mosquito habitats and added either 15N-labelled potassium nitrate or 13C-labelled glucose, leaving non-adulterated habitats as controls. We then allowed wild mosquitoes to lay eggs in these habitats and monitored their development in situ. Pupae were collected promptly as they appeared and kept in netting cages. Emergent adults (in pools of ~4 mosquitoes/pool and individually stored pupae were desiccated and analysed using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS.Anopheles gambiae s.l and Aedes spp. from enriched 13C and enriched 15N larval habitats had significantly higher isotopic levels than controls (P = 0.005, and both isotopes produced sufficient distinction between marked and unmarked mosquitoes. Mean δ15N for enriched females and males were 275.6±65.1 and 248.0±54.6, while mean δ15N in controls were 2.1±0.1 and 3.9±1.7 respectively. Similarly, mean δ13C for enriched females and males were 36.08±5.28 and 38.5±6.86, compared to -4.3±0.2 and -7.9±3.6 in controls respectively. Mean δ15N and δ13C was significantly higher in any pool containing at least one enriched mosquito compared to pools with all unenriched mosquitoes, P<0.001. In all cases, there were variations in standardized isotopic ratios

  11. A Facies Model for Temperate Continental Glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Gail Mowry

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the presence and dynamics of continental glaciers in the domination of the physical processes of erosion and deposition in the mid-latitudes during the Pleistocene period. Describes the use of a sedimentary facies model as a guide to recognizing ancient temperate continental glacial deposits. (TW)

  12. The Temperance Movement and Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdach, Allison D.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines a forgotten episode in social work history: the involvement of the profession in the temperance movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Though some notable social workers such as Jane Addams, Robert A. Woods, and Representative Jeannette Rankin (the first woman elected to the U.S. Congress), championed the…

  13. Temperate marine protected area provides recruitment subsidies to local fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Port, A; Montgomery, J C; Smith, A N H; Croucher, A E; McLeod, I M; Lavery, S D

    2017-10-25

    The utility of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a means of protecting exploited species and conserving biodiversity within MPA boundaries is supported by strong empirical evidence. However, the potential contribution of MPAs to fished populations beyond their boundaries is still highly controversial; empirical measures are scarce and modelling studies have produced a range of predictions, including both positive and negative effects. Using a combination of genetic parentage and relatedness analysis, we measured larval subsidies to local fisheries replenishment for Australasian snapper ( Chrysophrys auratus : Sparidae) from a small (5.2 km 2 ), well-established, temperate, coastal MPA in northern New Zealand. Adult snapper within the MPA contributed an estimated 10.6% (95% CI: 5.5-18.1%) of newly settled juveniles to surrounding areas (approx. 400 km 2 ), with no decreasing trend in contributions up to 40 km away. Biophysical modelling of larval dispersal matched experimental data, showing larvae produced inside the MPA dispersed over a comparable distance. These results demonstrate that temperate MPAs have the potential to provide recruitment subsidies at magnitudes and spatial scales relevant to fisheries management. The validated biophysical model provides a cost-efficient opportunity to generalize these findings to other locations and climate conditions, and potentially informs the design of MPA networks for enhancing fisheries management. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Intensity of Urban Heat Islands in Tropical and Temperate Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Cristiane de Costa Trindade Amorim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, most of the Earth’s population lives in urban areas. The replacement of vegetation by buildings and the general soil sealing, associated with human activity, lead to a rise in cities temperature, resulting in the formation of urban heat islands. This article aims to evaluate the intensity and the hourly maintenance of the atmospheric heat islands in two climates: one tropical (Presidente Prudente, Brazil and one temperate (Rennes, France throughout 2016. For this, air temperature and hourly averages were measured and calculated using both a HOBO datalogger (U23-002—protected under the same RS3 brand and weather stations Davis Vantage PRO 2. The daily evolution of the heat islands presented characteristics that varied according to the hours and seasons of the year. For both Rennes and Presidente Prudente, the largest magnitudes occurred overnight, being more greatly expressed in the tropical environment and during the driest months (winter in the tropical city and summer in the temperate one. The variability of synoptic conditions from one month to another also leads to a great heterogeneity of UHI intensity throughout the year.

  15. Stable Forest Cover under Increasing Populations of Swidden Cultivators in Central Laos: the Roles of Intrinsic Culture and Extrinsic Wildlife Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Robichaud

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Swidden agriculture, or shifting cultivation, is variously viewed as a great environmental threat or a sustainable system of land use. In Laos, swidden has long been considered the primary driver of forest loss nationwide, but the assessment is based exclusively on studies from the north of country, where deforestation is most severe. National policies to control swidden have percolated down to management of one of the largest nature reserves in the region, Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area (NNT NPA in the Annamite Mountains of central Laos. In NNT NPA, swidden's presumed unsustainability and deleterious impact on forest cover is an untested assumption. We tested it by methods of historical ecology, tracing the patterns of NNT's forest cover and human settlement over the past several decades. Principal sources of data were topographical maps dating to 1943, and Landsat images from 1976, 1989, and 2001. The analysis shows that, although NNT has been inhabited by swidden cultivators for hundreds of years, it retained more than 95% forest cover until the 1960s-early 1970s. Subsequently, a post-Vietnam War release of human population, possibly coupled with government encouragement of agricultural expansion, precipitated a decline in forest of 0.5%/year until the 1980s. Curiously, this was followed by stability or an increase (ca. 0.3%/year in forest cover into the current century, even as NNT's human population continued to grow and as forest declined in Laos overall at 1.7%/year, and in two protected areas near NNT at more than 3%/year. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors probably account for the stability of NNT's forest cover despite recent population growth. First are cultural propensities for sedentariness and livelihoods with relatively low environmental impact among the ethnic groups inhabiting NNT. Since at least the 1940s, there have been remarkably few changes in the number or location of villages in NNT (and despite

  16. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  17. Trichinella in arctic, subarctic and temperate regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O

    1997-01-01

    The transmission and occurrence of Trichinella spp according to the zoogeography of different climatic conditions, socioeconomy and human activity are discussed. Comparing arctic, subarctic and temperate regions, it appears that the species of Trichinella present, the composition of the fauna...... and the human activity are all very important interacting factors affecting epidemiology. In Greenland, where only sylvatic trichinellosis is present, the high prevalence in wildlife appears closely connected with polar bear hunting. In the Scandinavian countries, the prevalence of both sylvatic and domestic...

  18. Are all temperate lakes eutrophying in a warmer world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltsev, A.; Creed, I. F.

    2017-12-01

    Freshwater lakes are at risk of eutrophication due to climate change and intensification of human activities on the planet. In relatively undisturbed areas of the temperate forest biome, lakes are "sentinels" of the effects of rising temperatures. We hypothesise that rising temperatures are driving a shift from nutrient-poor oligotrophic states to nutrient-rich eutrophic states. To test this hypothesis, we examined a time series of satellite based chlorophyll-a (a proxy of algal biomass) of 12,000+ lakes over 30 years in the Canadian portion of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin. From the time series, non-stationary trends (detected by Mann-Kendall analysis) and stationary cycles (revealed through Morlet wavelet analysis) were removed, and the standard deviation (SD) of the remaining residuals was used as an indicator of lake stability. Four classes of lake stability were identified: (1) stable (SD is consistently low); (2) destabilizing (SD increases over time); (3) unstable (SD is consistently high); and (4) stabilizing lakes (SD decreases over time). Stable lakes were either oligotrophic or eutrophic indicating the presence of two stable states in the region. Destabilizing lakes were shifting from oligotrophic to lakes with a higher trophic status (indicating eutrophication), unstable lakes were mostly mesotrophic, and stabilizing lakes were shifting from eutrophic to the lakes with lower trophic status (indicating oligotrophication). In contrast to common expectations, while many lakes (2142) were shifting from oligotrophic to eutrophic states, more lakes (3199) were showing the opposite trend and shifting from eutrophic to oligotrophic states. This finding reveals a complexity of lake responses to rising temperatures and the need to improve understanding of why some lakes shift while others do not. Future work is focused on exploring the interactive effects of global, regional, and local drivers of lake trophic states.

  19. Application of stable isotope tracer methods to studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in malnourished populations of developing countries. Report of an IAEA consultants' meeting held in Vienna, Austria, 14-16 December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting convened by the IAEA in December 1992, made recommendations on the organization of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) using stable isotopic techniques for international comparative studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in chronically undernourished people. The CRP will use recent developments in stable isotope tracer techniques ( 13 C and 15 N) to assess the impact of infection in undernourished people on the kinetics of protein breakdown, protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and on the synthetic rates of selected plasma proteins. Studies will be conducted in developing countries, particularly in young children. The programme goals are to (i) elaborate methods and model protocols which can be implemented in developing countries to investigate the impact on protein metabolism of infection superimposed on chronic undernutrition; (ii) test they hypothesis that dietary requirements for protein and amino acids are related to the place of nutrition and are altered substantially when infection is superimposed on chronic undernutrition. When feasible, the primary focus on protein/amino acid metabolism will be extended to assessments of protein/energy interactions when H 2 18 O becomes more readily available and/or at research sites with indirect calorimetry equipment. The data generated should be appropriate as a basis for reevaluating amino acid/protein requirements in these populations. Refs

  20. PENGARUH VARIASI SUHU PADA PROSES SELF TEMPERING DAN VARIASI WAKTU TAHAN PADA PROSES TEMPERING TERHADAP SIFAT MEKANIS BAJA AISI 4140

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi Sunardi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui sifat mekanis pada baja AISI 4140 dengan proses tempering dengan variasi waktu tahan dan variasi suhu pada proses self tempering. Material terlebih dahulu dipanaskan pada suhu 850°C, di tahan dengan waktu 14 dan 28 menit, media pendinginan adalah Oli SAE 20. Pada proses tempering baja dipanaskan kembali dengan suhu 200°C di tahan dengan waktu 30 dan 120 menit. Sedangkan untuk proses self tempering, baja di panaskan pada suhu 850°C di tahan dengan waktu 14 dan 28 menit kemudian didinginkan, suhu yang harus dicapai pada pendinginan adalah 200°C, 400°C dan 600°C. Proses tempering dengan variasi waktu tahan mempunyai nilai kekerasan terbesar 50,1 HRC dengan waktu tahan 120 menit, sedangkan nilai kekerasan terbesar pada proses self tempering dengan variasi suhu adalah 29,68 HRC pada suhu 200°C. Nilai ketangguhan terbesar pada saat proses tempering adalah 0,341 (J/mm2 dengan waktu tahan 120 menit, sedangkan pada saat proses self tempering ketangguhan terbesar pada suhu 600°C dengan nilai 0,375 (J/mm2. Laju korosi terbesar pada saat tempering adalah 0,055 (mpy dengan waktu tahan 30 menit, sedangkan pada saat proses self tempering laju korosi terbesar pada suhu 400°C dengan nilai 0,0388 (mpy. 

  1. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  2. Bird feeders may sustain feral Rose-ringed parakeets Psittacula krameri in temperate Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Clergeau , Philippe; Vergnes , Alan

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The Rose-ringed parakeet Psittacula krameri, a bird species of subtropical origin, has established feral populations in temperate Europe. We analysed the feeding habits of Rose-ringed parakeets near Paris, France, in order to assess if food provided by humans might contribute to the success of this invasive bird species. We considered 87 feeding events performed during 2002 -2007 and 247 feeding events performed during March -November 2008. We recorded the consumption ...

  3. How do en route events around the Gulf of Mexico influence landbird populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emily B.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Buler, Jeffrey J.; Deppe, Jill L.; Farnsworth, Andrew; Marra, Peter P.; McWilliams, Scott R.; Mehlman, David W; Wilson, R. Randy; Woodrey, Mark S; Moore, Frank R.

    2017-01-01

    Habitats around the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide critical resources for Nearctic–Neotropical migratory landbirds, the majority of which travel across or around the GOM every spring and fall as they migrate between temperate breeding grounds in North America and tropical wintering grounds in the Caribbean and Central and South America. At the same time, ecosystems in the GOM are changing rapidly, with unknown consequences for migratory landbird populations, many of which are experiencing population declines. In general, the extent to which events encountered en route limit migratory bird populations is not well understood. At the same time, information from weather surveillance radar, stable isotopes, tracking, eBird, and genetic datasets is increasingly available to address many of the unanswered questions about bird populations that migrate through stopover and airspace habitats in the GOM. We review the state of the science and identify key research needs to understand the impacts of en route events around the GOM region on populations of intercontinental landbird migrants that breed in North America, including: (1) distribution, timing, and habitat associations; (2) habitat characteristics and quality; (3) migratory connectivity; and (4) threats to and current conservation status of airspace and stopover habitats. Finally, we also call for the development of unified and comprehensive long-term monitoring guidelines and international partnerships to advance our understanding of the role of habitats around the GOM in supporting migratory landbird populations moving between temperate breeding grounds and wintering grounds in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean.

  4. Parallel tempering in full QCD with Wilson fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Kerler, W.; Mueller-Preussker, M.; Stueben, H.

    2002-01-01

    We study the performance of QCD simulations with dynamical Wilson fermions by combining the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm with parallel tempering on 10 4 and 12 4 lattices. In order to compare tempered with standard simulations, covariance matrices between subensembles have to be formulated and evaluated using the general properties of autocorrelations of the parallel tempering algorithm. We find that rendering the hopping parameter κ dynamical does not lead to an essential improvement. We point out possible reasons for this observation and discuss more suitable ways of applying parallel tempering to QCD

  5. Litter input controls on soil carbon in a temperate deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Richard D.; Deem, Lauren; Plante, Alain F.

    2014-01-01

    Above- and belowground litter inputs in a temperate deciduous forest were altered for 20 yr to determine the importance of leaves and roots on soil C and soil organic matter (SOM) quantity and quality. Carbon and SOM quantity and quality were measured in the O horizon and mineral soil to 50 cm...... soil C, but decreases in litter inputs resulted in rapid soil C declines. Root litter may ultimately provide more stable sources of soil C. Management activities or environmental alterations that decrease litter inputs in mature forests can lower soil C content; however, increases in forest...

  6. Oceanic temperate forest versus warm temperate rainforest: a reply to Grubb et al. (2017)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGlone, Matt S.; Buitenwerf, Robert; Richardson, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    Grubb et al. (2017) point out that we (McGlone et al. 2016) erroneously stated that the definition of warm temperate rain forest (WTRF; Grubb et al. 2013) was based in part on climatic criteria. We apologise: their text made clear that this was not the case. However, they go on to say that they ‘...

  7. Incidence of invasive macrophytes on methylmercury budget in temperate lakes: Central role of bacterial periphytic communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentès, Sophie; Monperrus, Mathilde; Legeay, Alexia; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Davail, Stephane; André, Jean-Marc; Guyoneaud, Rémy

    2013-01-01

    Several studies demonstrated high mercury (Hg) methylation and demethylation in the periphyton associated with floating roots in tropical ecosystems. The importance of aquatic plants on methylmercury production in three temperate ecosystems from south-western France was evaluated through Hg species concentrations, and Hg methylation/demethylation activities by using stable isotopic tracers ( 199 Hg(II), Me 201 Hg). Hg accumulation and high methylation and demethylation yields were detected in plant roots and periphyton, whereas results for sediment and water were low to insignificant. The presence of sulfate reducing prokaryotes was detected in all compartments (T-RFLP based on dsrAB amplified through nested PCR) and their main role in Hg methylation could be demonstrated. In turn, sulfate reduction inhibition did not affect demethylation activities. The estimation of net MeHg budgets in these ecosystems suggested that aquatic rhizosphere is the principal location for methylmercury production and may represent an important source for the contamination of the aquatic food chain. - Highlights: ► Both Hg methylation and demethylation occur in the periphyton of temperate ecosystems. ► Aquatic rhizosphere is the main compartment for net methylmercury production. ► Sulfate reducers are detected in all ecosystem compartments (water, sediment, periphyton). ► Sulfate reducers are responsible for methylmercury production in aquatic roots. - The incidence of periphytic microbial communities on net methylmercury production is highlighted in temperate aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Temperate bacterial viruses as double-edged swords in bacterial warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, João Alves; Reis, Ana Maria; Domingues, Iolanda; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Matos, Ana Margarida; Dionisio, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that bacterial cells may use their temperate viruses as biological weapons. For instance, a few bacterial cells among a population of lysogenic cells could release the virus and kill susceptible non-lysogenic competitors, while their clone mates would be immune. Because viruses replicate inside their victims upon infection, this process would amplify their number in the arena. Sometimes, however, temperate viruses spare recipient cells from death by establishing themselves in a dormant state inside cells. This phenomenon is called lysogenization and, for some viruses such as the λ virus, the probability of lysogenization increases with the multiplicity of infection. Therefore, the amplification of viruses leads to conflicting predictions about the efficacy of temperate viruses as biological weapons: amplification can increase the relative advantage of clone mates of lysogens but also the likelihood of saving susceptible cells from death, because the probability of lysogenization is higher. To test the usefulness of viruses as biological weapons, we performed competition experiments between lysogenic Escherichia coli cells carrying the λ virus and susceptible λ-free E. coli cells, either in a structured or unstructured habitat. In structured and sometimes in unstructured habitats, the λ virus qualitatively behaved as a "replicating toxin". However, such toxic effect of λ viruses ceased after a few days of competition. This was due to the fact that many of initially susceptible cells became lysogenic. Massive lysogenization of susceptible cells occurred precisely under the conditions where the amplification of the virus was substantial. From then on, these cells and their descendants became immune to the λ virus. In conclusion, if at short term bacterial cells may use temperate viruses as biological weapons, after a few days only the classical view of temperate bacterial viruses as parasitic agents prevails.

  9. Temperate bacterial viruses as double-edged swords in bacterial warfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alves Gama

    Full Text Available It has been argued that bacterial cells may use their temperate viruses as biological weapons. For instance, a few bacterial cells among a population of lysogenic cells could release the virus and kill susceptible non-lysogenic competitors, while their clone mates would be immune. Because viruses replicate inside their victims upon infection, this process would amplify their number in the arena. Sometimes, however, temperate viruses spare recipient cells from death by establishing themselves in a dormant state inside cells. This phenomenon is called lysogenization and, for some viruses such as the λ virus, the probability of lysogenization increases with the multiplicity of infection. Therefore, the amplification of viruses leads to conflicting predictions about the efficacy of temperate viruses as biological weapons: amplification can increase the relative advantage of clone mates of lysogens but also the likelihood of saving susceptible cells from death, because the probability of lysogenization is higher. To test the usefulness of viruses as biological weapons, we performed competition experiments between lysogenic Escherichia coli cells carrying the λ virus and susceptible λ-free E. coli cells, either in a structured or unstructured habitat. In structured and sometimes in unstructured habitats, the λ virus qualitatively behaved as a "replicating toxin". However, such toxic effect of λ viruses ceased after a few days of competition. This was due to the fact that many of initially susceptible cells became lysogenic. Massive lysogenization of susceptible cells occurred precisely under the conditions where the amplification of the virus was substantial. From then on, these cells and their descendants became immune to the λ virus. In conclusion, if at short term bacterial cells may use temperate viruses as biological weapons, after a few days only the classical view of temperate bacterial viruses as parasitic agents prevails.

  10. Maternal antioxidant provisioning mitigates pollutant-induced oxidative damage in embryos of the temperate sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus

    OpenAIRE

    Lister, Kathryn N.; Lamare, Miles D.; Burritt, David J.

    2017-01-01

    One mechanism of pollution resistance in marine populations is through transgenerational plasticity, whereby offspring capacity to resist pollution reflects parental exposure history. Our study aimed to establish correlations between oxidative stress biomarkers and key reproductive fitness parameters in the temperate sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus following exposure to dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH-exposed adults exhibited total gonad tissue concentrations of PAHs in ...

  11. Adhesion and wear properties of boro-tempered ductile iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayali, Yusuf; Yalcin, Yilmaz; Taktak, Suekrue

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this study, the wear and adhesion properties of BDI were investigated. → Boro-tempering process under several heat treatment conditions was examined. → Optical microscope, SEM and XRD analysis were carried out to investigate the microstructure. → It was observed that boro-tempering process improves micro-hardness and wear properties of ductile irons. -- Abstract: In this study, adhesion and wear properties of boro-tempered ductile iron (BDI) were investigated. Boro-tempering was carried out on two stage processes i.e. boronizing and tempering. At the first stage, ductile iron samples were boronized by using pack process at 900 o C for 1, 3, and 5 h and then, secondly tempered at 250, 300, 350, and 400 o C for 1 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of boro-tempered samples showed that FeB and Fe 2 B phases were found on the surface of the samples. The Daimler-Benz Rockwell-C adhesion test was used to assess the adhesion of boride layer. Test result showed that adhesion decreased with increasing boriding time and increased with increasing tempering temperature. Dry sliding wear tests of these samples were performed against Al 2 O 3 ball at a constant sliding speed and loads of 5 and 10 N. Wear tests indicated that boro-tempering heat treatment increased wear resistance of ductile iron. In addition, it was found that while wear rate of boro-tempered samples decreased with increasing boriding time, there is no significant affect of tempering temperature on wear rate.

  12. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  13. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina) Updated:Aug 21,2017 You may have heard the term “angina pectoris” or “stable angina” in your doctor’s office, ...

  14. Hardness of H13 Tool Steel After Non-isothermal Tempering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E.; Kohli, A.; Poirier, D. R.

    2018-04-01

    A direct method to calculate the tempering response of a tool steel (H13) that exhibits secondary hardening is presented. Based on the traditional method of presenting tempering response in terms of isothermal tempering, we show that the tempering response for a steel undergoing a non-isothermal tempering schedule can be predicted. Experiments comprised (1) isothermal tempering, (2) non-isothermal tempering pertaining to a relatively slow heating to process-temperature and (3) fast-heating cycles that are relevant to tempering by induction heating. After establishing the tempering response of the steel under simple isothermal conditions, the tempering response can be applied to non-isothermal tempering by using a numerical method to calculate the tempering parameter. Calculated results are verified by the experiments.

  15. Dry matter intake and digestibility of temperate pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on total and forage dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility of wethers and heifers consuming temperate pasture. Twenty four Corriedale x Milchschaf wethers and 24 crossbred heifers fed temperate pasture were non-supplemented or ...

  16. Simulation of Residual Stresses at Holes in Tempered Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a full 3D numerical study of the residual stresses in tempered (toughened) glass near holes using Narayanaswamy’s model for the tempering process. It is the objective of the paper to elucidate the influence on the minimal residual compressive stresses at holes from variations in...

  17. Winter habitat occurrence patterns of temperate migrant birds in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.

  18. Baseline identification in stable -isotope studies of temperate lotic systems and implications for calculated trophic positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Brinkmann; Riis, Tenna; Dylmer, Hans Erik

    2016-01-01

    of two common fish species (three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, and brown trout Salmo trutta) differed markedly depending on the baseline chosen. The estimated trophic position was lowest when based on Baetidae and highest when using Simuliidae. The trophic position of Gasterosteus...... aculeatus was independent of land use (proxy used=%nature) when based on Gammarus pulex and Simuliidae, and the trophic position of Salmo trutta was independent of land use when based on Simuliidae only. The trophic position estimates based on Baetidae and mean primary consumers correlated with %nature...

  19. Autecology of a symbiont-containing temperate soft coral Capnella gaboensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrant, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Capnella gaboensis Verseveldt is the most abundant and widely distributed octocoral growing in temperate Australian waters. This study of the autecology of C. gaboensis pays specific attention to its reproduction growth, population dynamics nutrition. Several populations of Capnella gaboensis were studied in the Sydney area. Colonies in the field populations were mapped and measured at regular intervals for growth and population data. The species is relatively long-lived, and large colonies are likely to be about 20 years of age. Following damage by predation or other causes, the larger colonies are able to heal rapidly. Reproduction and development of Capnella gaboensis was studied by microscopic examination of colony branches collected at regular intervals from colonies in the mapped populations. C. gaboensis is dioecious. Recruitment into Capnella gaboensis populations is mainly by larval production, rather than by asexual means. Only a very low percentage of larvae survive and settle. The survival of recruits is also low, and mortality declines as the colonies grow larger. Nutrition of Capnella gaboensis was investigated by /sup 14/C fixation and oxygen exchange methods in the laboratory. Although the numbers of zooxanthellae and chlorophyll content of C. gaboensis do not vary seasonally, photosynthesis by the zooxanthellae does. Photosynthesis of C. gaboensis appears to be adapted to the temperate habitat in which the species lives. Photosynthetic products, translocated form the zooxanthellae to the animal tissues, provided an important source of nutrition for C. gaboensis.

  20. Investigation of the Microstructural Changes and Hardness Variations of Sub-Zero Treated Cr-V Ledeburitic Tool Steel Due to the Tempering Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurči, Peter; Dománková, Mária; Ptačinová, Jana; Pašák, Matej; Kusý, Martin; Priknerová, Petra

    2018-03-01

    The microstructure and tempering response of Cr-V ledeburitic steel Vanadis 6 subjected to sub-zero treatment at - 196 °C for 4 h have been examined with reference to the same steel after conventional heat treatment. The obtained experimental results infer that sub-zero treatment significantly reduces the retained austenite amount, makes an overall refinement of microstructure, and induces a significant increase in the number and population density of small globular carbides with a size 100-500 nm. At low tempering temperatures, the transient M3C-carbides precipitated, whereas their number was enhanced by sub-zero treatment. The presence of chromium-based M7C3 precipitates was evidenced after tempering at the temperature of normal secondary hardening; this phase was detected along with the M3C. Tempering above 470 °C converts almost all the retained austenite in conventionally quenched specimens while the transformation of retained austenite is rather accelerated in sub-zero treated material. As a result of tempering, a decrease in the population density of small globular carbides was recorded; however, the number of these particles retained much higher in sub-zero treated steel. Elevated hardness of sub-zero treated steel can be referred to more completed martensitic transformation and enhanced number of small globular carbides; this state is retained up to a tempering temperature of around 500 °C in certain extent. Correspondingly, lower as-tempered hardness of sub-zero treated steel tempered above 500 °C is referred to much lower contribution of the transformation of retained austenite, and to an expectedly lower amount of precipitated alloy carbides.

  1. No evidence of complementary water use along a plant species richness gradient in temperate experimental grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörte Bachmann

    Full Text Available Niche complementarity in resource use has been proposed as a key mechanism to explain the positive effects of increasing plant species richness on ecosystem processes, in particular on primary productivity. Since hardly any information is available for niche complementarity in water use, we tested the effects of plant diversity on spatial and temporal complementarity in water uptake in experimental grasslands by using stable water isotopes. We hypothesized that water uptake from deeper soil depths increases in more diverse compared to low diverse plant species mixtures. We labeled soil water in 8 cm (with 18O and 28 cm depth (with ²H three times during the 2011 growing season in 40 temperate grassland communities of varying species richness (2, 4, 8 and 16 species and functional group number and composition (legumes, grasses, tall herbs, small herbs. Stable isotope analyses of xylem and soil water allowed identifying the preferential depth of water uptake. Higher enrichment in 18O of xylem water than in ²H suggested that the main water uptake was in the upper soil layer. Furthermore, our results revealed no differences in root water uptake among communities with different species richness, different number of functional groups or with time. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of increased complementarity in water use in more diverse than in less diverse communities of temperate grassland species.

  2. Dams release methane even in temperate zoned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarchand, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Wohlen lake (near Bern) is a retaining dam built 90 years ago that has undergone a campaign to measure the quantity of methane released. The campaign lasted 1 year and the result was unexpected: 0.15 g/m 2 *day which one of the highest release rates in temperate zones. This result is all the more stunning since water stays only 2 days in average in the reservoir and that the drowned area is not important. In fact the river Aar that feeds the lake is loaded with organic matter coming from humane activities: agriculture and 3 sewage plants. This organic matter decays in the lake releasing methane. (A.C.)

  3. Moist temperate forest butterflies of western Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Random surveys were carried out in moist temperate forests (1,860–3,116 m around Bunakha Village and Dochula Pass, near Thimphu in western Bhutan, recording 65 species of butterflies.  Of these, 11 species, viz., Straightwing Blue Orthomiella pontis pontis Elwes, Slate Royal Maneca bhotea bhotea Moore, Dull Green Hairstreak Esakiozephyrus icana Moore, Yellow Woodbrown Lethe nicetas Hewitson, Small Silverfork Zophoessa jalaurida elwesi Moore, Scarce Labyrinth, Neope pulahina (Evans, Chumbi Wall Chonala masoni Elwes, Pale Hockeystick Sailer Neptis manasa manasa Moore and White Commodore Parasarpa dudu dudu Westwood, are restricted to the eastern Himalaya, northeastern India and Myanmar.  Two other species, Tawny Mime Chiasa agestor agestor (Gray and Himalayan Spotted Flat Celaenorrhinus munda Moore have been only rarely recorded from Bhutan and a few individuals of the rare Bhutan Glory Bhutanitis lidderdalei Atkinson were also recorded near Bunakha.  

  4. Study on tempering behaviour of AISI 410 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Gopa; Das, C.R.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Thomas Paul, V.; Panneerselvam, G.; Dasgupta, Arup

    2015-01-01

    Martensitic stainless steels find extensive applications due to their optimum combination of strength, hardness and wear-resistance in tempered condition. However, this class of steels is susceptible to embrittlement during tempering if it is carried out in a specific temperature range resulting in significant reduction in toughness. Embrittlement of as-normalised AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel, subjected to tempering treatment in the temperature range of 673–923 K was studied using Charpy impact tests followed by metallurgical investigations using field emission scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes. Carbides precipitated during tempering were extracted by electrochemical dissolution of the matrix and identified by X-ray diffraction. Studies indicated that temper embrittlement is highest when the steel is tempered at 823 K. Mostly iron rich carbides are present in the steel subjected to tempering at low temperatures of around 723 K, whereas chromium rich carbides (M 23 C 6 ) dominate precipitation at high temperature tempering. The range 773–823 K is the transition temperature range for the precipitates, with both Fe 2 C and M 23 C 6 types of carbides coexisting in the material. The nucleation of Fe 2 C within the martensite lath, during low temperature tempering, has a definite role in the embrittlement of this steel. Embrittlement is not observed at high temperature tempering because of precipitation of M 23 C 6 carbides, instead of Fe 2 C, preferentially along the lath and prior austenite boundaries. Segregation of S and P, which is widely reported as one of the causes for temper embrittlement, could not be detected in the material even through Auger electron spectroscopy studies. - Highlights: • Tempering behaviour of AISI 410 steel is studied within 673–923 K temperature range. • Temperature regime of maximum embrittlement is identified as 773–848 K. • Results show that type of carbide precipitation varies with

  5. Study on tempering behaviour of AISI 410 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Gopa, E-mail: gopa_mjs@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Das, C.R.; Albert, S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Thomas Paul, V. [Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Panneerselvam, G. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Dasgupta, Arup [Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Martensitic stainless steels find extensive applications due to their optimum combination of strength, hardness and wear-resistance in tempered condition. However, this class of steels is susceptible to embrittlement during tempering if it is carried out in a specific temperature range resulting in significant reduction in toughness. Embrittlement of as-normalised AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel, subjected to tempering treatment in the temperature range of 673–923 K was studied using Charpy impact tests followed by metallurgical investigations using field emission scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes. Carbides precipitated during tempering were extracted by electrochemical dissolution of the matrix and identified by X-ray diffraction. Studies indicated that temper embrittlement is highest when the steel is tempered at 823 K. Mostly iron rich carbides are present in the steel subjected to tempering at low temperatures of around 723 K, whereas chromium rich carbides (M{sub 23}C{sub 6}) dominate precipitation at high temperature tempering. The range 773–823 K is the transition temperature range for the precipitates, with both Fe{sub 2}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} types of carbides coexisting in the material. The nucleation of Fe{sub 2}C within the martensite lath, during low temperature tempering, has a definite role in the embrittlement of this steel. Embrittlement is not observed at high temperature tempering because of precipitation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, instead of Fe{sub 2}C, preferentially along the lath and prior austenite boundaries. Segregation of S and P, which is widely reported as one of the causes for temper embrittlement, could not be detected in the material even through Auger electron spectroscopy studies. - Highlights: • Tempering behaviour of AISI 410 steel is studied within 673–923 K temperature range. • Temperature regime of maximum embrittlement is identified as 773–848 K. • Results show that type of

  6. Forecasting cyanobacteria dominance in Canadian temperate lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Anurani D; Paterson, Andrew M; Dillon, Peter J; Winter, Jennifer G; Palmer, Michelle; Somers, Keith M

    2015-03-15

    Predictive models based on broad scale, spatial surveys typically identify nutrients and climate as the most important predictors of cyanobacteria abundance; however these models generally have low predictive power because at smaller geographic scales numerous other factors may be equally or more important. At the lake level, for example, the ability to forecast cyanobacteria dominance is of tremendous value to lake managers as they can use such models to communicate exposure risks associated with recreational and drinking water use, and possible exposure to algal toxins, in advance of bloom occurrence. We used detailed algal, limnological and meteorological data from two temperate lakes in south-central Ontario, Canada to determine the factors that are closely linked to cyanobacteria dominance, and to develop easy to use models to forecast cyanobacteria biovolume. For Brandy Lake (BL), the strongest and most parsimonious model for forecasting % cyanobacteria biovolume (% CB) included water column stability, hypolimnetic TP, and % cyanobacteria biovolume two weeks prior. For Three Mile Lake (TML), the best model for forecasting % CB included water column stability, hypolimnetic TP concentration, and 7-d mean wind speed. The models for forecasting % CB in BL and TML are fundamentally different in their lag periods (BL = lag 1 model and TML = lag 2 model) and in some predictor variables despite the close proximity of the study lakes. We speculate that three main factors (nutrient concentrations, water transparency and lake morphometry) may have contributed to differences in the models developed, and may account for variation observed in models derived from large spatial surveys. Our results illustrate that while forecast models can be developed to determine when cyanobacteria will dominate within two temperate lakes, the models require detailed, lake-specific calibration to be effective as risk-management tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  8. Stress relaxation in tempered glass caused by heat soak testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jens; Hilcken, Jonas; Aronen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Heat soak testing of tempered glass is a thermal process required after the tempering process itself to bring glasses of commercial soda-lime-silica-glass to failure that are contaminated with nickel sulphide inclusions, diameter 50 mm to 500 mm typically. Thus, the tests avoid a so-called "spont...... of commercial soda-lime-silica glass, it causes stress relaxation in tempered glass and the fracture pattern of the glass changes accordingly, especially thin glasses are affected. Based on the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Model, this paper comprises the theoretical background of the stress...

  9. Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepoint, Gilles [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)]. E-mail: g.lepoint@ulg.ac.be; Dauby, Patrick [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, rue Vautier, B1000 Brussels (Belgium); Gobert, Sylvie [Centre MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Institut de Chimie, B6, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2004-12-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure of trophic webs in temperate, Mediterranean and tropical seagrass ecosystems. As environmental tracers, stable isotopes have proven their utility in sewage impact measuring and mapping. However, to make such environmental studies more comprehensible, future works on understanding of basic reasons for variations of N and C stable isotopes in seagrasses should be encouraged. At least, as experimental tracers, stable isotopes allow the study of many aspects of N and C cycles at the scale of a plant or at the scale of the seagrass ecosystem.

  10. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  11. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.

  12. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  13. Microstructural evolution of a 2.25Cr - 1 Mo steel during austenitization and temper: austenite grain growth, carbide precipitation sequence and effects on mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depinoy, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    This work aims at optimizing tensile and toughness properties of a 2.25Cr - 1Mo steel by controlling its microstructure through heat treatments. To this aim, phase transformations during austenitization, quenching and tempering have to be understood. Quantitative microstructural analyses were performed by means of SEM, TEM and XRD to characterize and model metallurgical evolution of the steel at each step of the heat treatment. The evolution of austenite during the austenitization stage, and its influence on the resulting as-quenched microstructure were thoroughly investigated. Austenite grain growth was modelled in order to understand its mechanisms, including the limited growth phenomenon observed at lower temperatures. The effect of austenitization conditions on further decomposition of austenite and on mechanical properties after quenching + tempering was experimentally determined. An optimal austenitization condition was selected and applied to study the tempering stage. Carbide precipitation was studied for various tempering temperatures and amounts of time. M3C carbides precipitate first, followed by M2C and M7C3; M23C6 are the equilibrium carbides. The influence of carbide precipitation on mechanical properties was studied. Tensile properties are closely linked to the tempering conditions in the range investigated, while impact toughness remains stable. (author) [fr

  14. Drilling in tempered glass – modelling and experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    The present paper reports experimentally and numerically obtained results for the process of drilling in tempered glass. The experimental results are drilling depths on the edge in 19mm tempered glass with a known residual stress state measured by a scattered light polariscope. The experiments have...... been modelled using a state-of-the-art model and compared with satisfying result to the performed experiments. The numerical model has been used for a parametric study, investigating the redistribution of residual stresses during the process of drilling. This is done for investigating the possibility...... of applying forces in such holes and thereby being able to mechanically assemble tempered glass without the need of drilling holes before the tempering process. The paper is the result of currently ongoing research and the results should be treated as so....

  15. Disparate patterns of thermal adaptation between life stages in temperate vs. tropical Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, B L; Gupta, T; Scavotto, R

    2018-02-01

    Many terrestrial ectothermic species exhibit limited variation in upper thermal tolerance across latitude. However, these trends may not signify limited adaptive capacity to increase thermal tolerance in the face of climate change. Instead, thermal tolerance may be similar among populations because behavioural thermoregulation by mobile organisms or life stages may buffer natural selection for thermal tolerance. We compared thermal tolerance of adults and embryos among natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster from a broad range of thermal habitats around the globe to assess natural variation of thermal tolerance in mobile vs. immobile life stages. We found no variation among populations in adult thermal tolerance, but embryonic thermal tolerance was higher in tropical strains than in temperate strains. We further report that embryos live closer to their upper thermal limits than adults - that is, thermal safety margins are smaller for embryos than adults. F1 hybrid embryos from crosses between temperate and tropical populations had thermal tolerance that matched that of tropical embryos, suggesting the dominance of heat-tolerant alleles. Together, our findings suggest that thermal selection has led to divergence in embryonic thermal tolerance but that selection for divergent thermal tolerance may be limited in adults. Further, our results suggest that thermal traits should be measured across life stages to better predict adaptive limits. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Hot wire TIG temper bead welding for nuclear repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.A.; Gilston, P.F.

    1989-08-01

    A preliminary assessment has been carried out to determine the suitability of the hot wire tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process for the repair of thick section, ferritic steel nuclear pressure vessels. The objective has been to identify a hot wire TIG temper bead procedure, suitable for repairs without post weld heat treatment. This procedure involves depositing two weld layers with carefully selected welding parameters such that overlapping thermal cycles produce a refined and tempered heat affected zone, HAZ, microstructure. (author)

  17. The tempered polymerization of human neuroserpin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosina Noto

    Full Text Available Neuroserpin, a member of the serpin protein superfamily, is an inhibitor of proteolytic activity that is involved in pathologies such as ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB. The latter belongs to a class of conformational diseases, known as serpinopathies, which are related to the aberrant polymerization of serpin mutants. Neuroserpin is known to polymerize, even in its wild type form, under thermal stress. Here, we study the mechanism of neuroserpin polymerization over a wide range of temperatures by different techniques. Our experiments show how the onset of polymerization is dependent on the formation of an intermediate monomeric conformer, which then associates with a native monomer to yield a dimeric species. After the formation of small polymers, the aggregation proceeds via monomer addition as well as polymer-polymer association. No further secondary mechanism takes place up to very high temperatures, thus resulting in the formation of neuroserpin linear polymeric chains. Most interesting, the overall aggregation is tuned by the co-occurrence of monomer inactivation (i.e. the formation of latent neuroserpin and by a mechanism of fragmentation. The polymerization kinetics exhibit a unique modulation of the average mass and size of polymers, which might suggest synchronization among the different processes involved. Thus, fragmentation would control and temper the aggregation process, instead of enhancing it, as typically observed (e.g. for amyloid fibrillation.

  18. Influence of tempering temperature on mechanical properties of cast steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golański

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the influence of tempering temperature on structure and mechanical properties of bainite hardened cast steel: G21CrMoV4 – 6 (L21HMF and G17CrMoV5 – 10 (L17HMF. Investigated cast steels were taken out from internal frames of steam turbines serviced for long time at elevated temperatures. Tempering of the investigated cast steel was carried out within the temperature range of 690 ÷ 730 C (G21CrMoV4 – 6 and 700 ÷ 740 C (G17CrMoV5 – 10. After tempering the cast steels were characterized by a structure of tempered lower bainite with numerous precipitations of carbides. Performed research of mechanical properties has shown that high temperatures of tempering of bainitic structure do not cause decrease of mechanical properties beneath the required minimum.oo It has also been proved that high-temperature tempering (>720 oC ensures high impact energy at the 20% decrease of mechanical properties.

  19. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  20. Litter type control on soil C and N stabilization dynamics in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Pierre-Joseph; Castanha, Cristina; Torn, Margaret S; Bird, Jeffrey A

    2015-03-01

    While plant litters are the main source of soil organic matter (SOM) in forests, the controllers and pathways to stable SOM formation remain unclear. Here, we address how litter type ((13) C/(15) N-labeled needles vs. fine roots) and placement-depth (O vs. A horizon) affect in situ C and N dynamics in a temperate forest soil after 5 years. Litter type rather than placement-depth controlled soil C and N retention after 5 years in situ, with belowground fine root inputs greatly enhancing soil C (x1.4) and N (x1.2) retention compared with aboveground needles. While the proportions of added needle and fine root-derived C and N recovered into stable SOM fractions were similar, they followed different transformation pathways into stable SOM fractions: fine root transfer was slower than for needles, but proportionally more of the remaining needle-derived C and N was transferred into stable SOM fractions. The stoichiometry of litter-derived C vs. N within individual SOM fractions revealed the presence at least two pools of different turnover times (per SOM fraction) and emphasized the role of N-rich compounds for long-term persistence. Finally, a regression approach suggested that models may underestimate soil C retention from litter with fast decomposition rates. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  2. Does probability of occurrence relate to population dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Münkemüller, Tamara; Schiffers, Katja H; Georges, Damien; Dullinger, Stefan; Eckhart, Vincent M; Edwards, Thomas C; Gravel, Dominique; Kunstler, Georges; Merow, Cory; Moore, Kara; Piedallu, Christian; Vissault, Steve; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Zurell, Damaris; Schurr, Frank M

    2014-12-01

    Hutchinson defined species' realized niche as the set of environmental conditions in which populations can persist in the presence of competitors. In terms of demography, the realized niche corresponds to the environments where the intrinsic growth rate ( r ) of populations is positive. Observed species occurrences should reflect the realized niche when additional processes like dispersal and local extinction lags do not have overwhelming effects. Despite the foundational nature of these ideas, quantitative assessments of the relationship between range-wide demographic performance and occurrence probability have not been made. This assessment is needed both to improve our conceptual understanding of species' niches and ranges and to develop reliable mechanistic models of species geographic distributions that incorporate demography and species interactions. The objective of this study is to analyse how demographic parameters (intrinsic growth rate r and carrying capacity K ) and population density ( N ) relate to occurrence probability ( P occ ). We hypothesized that these relationships vary with species' competitive ability. Demographic parameters, density, and occurrence probability were estimated for 108 tree species from four temperate forest inventory surveys (Québec, Western US, France and Switzerland). We used published information of shade tolerance as indicators of light competition strategy, assuming that high tolerance denotes high competitive capacity in stable forest environments. Interestingly, relationships between demographic parameters and occurrence probability did not vary substantially across degrees of shade tolerance and regions. Although they were influenced by the uncertainty in the estimation of the demographic parameters, we found that r was generally negatively correlated with P occ , while N, and for most regions K, was generally positively correlated with P occ . Thus, in temperate forest trees the regions of highest occurrence

  3. Does probability of occurrence relate to population dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Münkemüller, Tamara; Schiffers, Katja H.; Georges, Damien; Dullinger, Stefan; Eckhart, Vincent M.; Edwards, Thomas C.; Gravel, Dominique; Kunstler, Georges; Merow, Cory; Moore, Kara; Piedallu, Christian; Vissault, Steve; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Zurell, Damaris; Schurr, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Hutchinson defined species' realized niche as the set of environmental conditions in which populations can persist in the presence of competitors. In terms of demography, the realized niche corresponds to the environments where the intrinsic growth rate (r) of populations is positive. Observed species occurrences should reflect the realized niche when additional processes like dispersal and local extinction lags do not have overwhelming effects. Despite the foundational nature of these ideas, quantitative assessments of the relationship between range-wide demographic performance and occurrence probability have not been made. This assessment is needed both to improve our conceptual understanding of species' niches and ranges and to develop reliable mechanistic models of species geographic distributions that incorporate demography and species interactions.The objective of this study is to analyse how demographic parameters (intrinsic growth rate r and carrying capacity K ) and population density (N ) relate to occurrence probability (Pocc ). We hypothesized that these relationships vary with species' competitive ability. Demographic parameters, density, and occurrence probability were estimated for 108 tree species from four temperate forest inventory surveys (Québec, western USA, France and Switzerland). We used published information of shade tolerance as indicators of light competition strategy, assuming that high tolerance denotes high competitive capacity in stable forest environments.Interestingly, relationships between demographic parameters and occurrence probability did not vary substantially across degrees of shade tolerance and regions. Although they were influenced by the uncertainty in the estimation of the demographic parameters, we found that r was generally negatively correlated with Pocc, while N, and for most regions K, was generally positively correlated with Pocc. Thus, in temperate forest trees the regions of highest occurrence

  4. Induction of temperate cyanophage AS-1 by heavy metal – copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Tin-Chun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that some marine cyanophage are temperate and can be induced from a lysogenic phase to a lytic phase by different agents such as heavy metals. However, to date no significant reports have focused on the temperate nature of freshwater cyanophage/cyanobacteria. Previous experiments with cyanophage AS-1 and cyanobacteria Anacystis nidulans have provided some evidence that AS-1 may have a lysogenic life cycle in addition to the characterized lytic cycle. Results In this study, the possible temperate A. nidulans was treated with different concentrations of heavy metal-copper. CuSO4 with concentrations of 3.1 × 10-3 M, 3.1 × 10-4 M, 3.1 × 10-5 M and 3.1 × 10-6 M were used to detect the induction of AS-1 from A. nidulans. The population of the host, unicellular cyanobacteria Anacystis nidulans, was monitored by direct count and turbidity while the amount of virus produced was derived from plaque forming units (PFU by a direct plating method. The ratio of AS-1 release from A. nidulans was also determined. From these results it appears that AS-1 lysogenic phage can be induced by copper at concentrations from 3.1 × 10-6 M to 3.1 × 10-4 M. Maximal phage induction occurred at 6 hours after addition of copper, with an optimal concentration of 3.1 × 10-6 M. Conclusion Cu2+ is a significant inducer for lysogenic cyanobacterial cells and consequently would be a potential control agent in the cyanobacteria population in fresh water ecosystems.

  5. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  6. Baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone in male and female Afrotropical and European temperate stonechats during breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbeck, Beate; Helm, Barbara; Illera, Juan Carlos; Mortega, Kim G; Smiddy, Patrick; Evans, Neil P

    2017-05-22

    demanding activities in males and females and reflects investment into reproduction. Low parental workload was associated with lower post-capture (baseline) CORT as expected for a slow pace of life in tropical species. On a finer resolution, however, this tropical-temperate contrast did not generally hold. Post-capture (baseline) CORT was higher during mating stages in particular in tropical males, possibly to support the energetic needs of mate-guarding. Counter to predictions based on life history theory, our data do not confirm the hypothesis that long-lived tropical populations have higher stress-induced CORT concentrations than short-lived temperate populations. Instead, in the predator-rich tropical environments of African stonechats, a dampened stress response during parental stages may increase survival probabilities of young. Overall our data further support an association between life history and baseline CORT, but challenge the role of stress-induced CORT as a mediator of tropical-temperate variation in life history.

  7. Evolution of Microsatellite Loci of Tropical and Temperate Anguilla Eels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chen Tseng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Anguilla eels are divided into temperate and tropical eels, based on their major distributions. The present study collected two temperate eels, Anguilla japonica and Anguilla anguilla, and two tropical eels, Anguilla marmorata and Anguilla bicolor pacifica, to examine two questions: do temperate and tropical Anguilla eels have different genetic polymorphic patterns?; and do temperate Anguilla japonica and Anguilla anguilla have a closer relationship to each other than to tropical eels? In total, 274 sequences were cloned and sequenced from six conserved microsatellite loci to examine polymorphic patterns of these four catadromous eels. Different mutational events, including substitutions, and repeat-unit deletions and insertions, appeared in major regions, while different point mutations were observed in flanking regions. The results implied that parallel patterns of microsatellite sequences occurred within both tropical and temperate freshwater eels. Consensus flanking sequences of six homologous loci from each of the four species were constructed. Genetic distances ranged from 0.044 (Anguilla bicolor pacifica vs. Anguilla marmorata to 0.061 (Anguilla marmorata vs. Anguilla anguilla. The tree topology suggests the hypothesis of Anguilla japonica and Anguilla anguilla being a sister group must be rejected.

  8. Effects of tempering on internal friction of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyos, J.J.; Ghilarducci, A.A.; Salva, H.R.; Chaves, C.A.; Velez, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Time tempering dependent microstructure of two steels is studied by internal friction. → Internal friction indicates the interactions of dislocations with carbon and carbides. → Internal friction detects the first stage of tempering. → Precipitation hardening is detected by the decrease in the background. - Abstract: Two steels containing 0.626 and 0.71 wt.% carbon have been studied to determine the effects of tempering on the microstructure and the internal friction. The steels were annealed at 1093 K, quenched into water and tempered for 60 min at 423 K, 573 K and 723 K. The increase of the tempering time diminishes the martensite tetragonality due to the redistribution of carbon atoms from octahedrical interstitial sites to dislocations. Internal friction spectrum is decomposed into five peaks and an exponential background, which are attributed to the carbide precipitation and the dislocation relaxation process. Simultaneous presence of peaks P1 and P2 indicates the interaction of dislocations with the segregated carbon and carbide precipitate.

  9. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  10. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  11. Radiation processing of temperate fruits of Kashmir valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.; Wani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Kashmir valley is famous for its temperate horticulture. Main temperate fruits grown commercially in the valley include apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, strawberry and apricot. These fruits being perishable and susceptible to microbial spoilage, have a short shelf-life. The short shelf-life in an impediment in their transportation and marketing and results in huge losses. Study was carried out at NRL, Srinagar to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the keeping quality of most of these fruits. The effect of gamma irradiation alone and in combination with other techniques like controlled low temperature storage, edible polysaccharide coating and calcium chloride treatment was studied in detail. The results revealed that there is a great potential for the use of radiation in extending the storage life of most of the temperate fruits produced in the valley of Kashmir. (author)

  12. Resistance to small plastic strains during martensite tempering under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabil' skij, V.V.; Sarrak, V.I. (AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Fiziki Metallov)

    1982-11-01

    The mechanism of plastic deformation of martensite of a series of hardened steels (N18, 20KhG, 50KhFA and others) during tempering under tension and the role of residual internal microstresses and phase transformations are studied. It is shown that martensite low resistance to small plastic deformations during tempering under tension which is usually associated with phase transformations depends as well on the level of residual internal microstresses in the martensite structure. The decrease of resistance to deformation in the course of the decomposition of a solid solution is due to weakening of martensitic matrix because of carbon departure from the solid solution and carbide coarsening. An assumption is made that martensite plastic deformation during tempering under tension is realized at the expense of the directed microplastic deformation in the regions of higher concentration of internal stresses.

  13. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  14. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  15. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  16. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  17. Some stable hydromagnetic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J L; Oberman, C R; Kulsrud, R M; Frieman, E A [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    We have been able to find and investigate the properties of equilibria which are hydromagnetically stable. These equilibria can be obtained, for example, by wrapping conductors helically around the stellarator tube. Systems with I = 3 or 4 are indicated to be optimum for stability purposes. In some cases an admixture of I = 2 fields can be advantageous for achieving equilibrium. (author)

  18. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brümmer Franz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide

  19. Ultra low carbon bainitic (ULCB) steels after quenching and tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, A.K.; Lis, J.; Kolan, C.; Jeziorski, L.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanical and Charpy V impact strength properties of new advanced ultra low carbon bainitic (ULBC) steels after water quenching and tempering (WQT) have been investigated. Their chemical compositions are given. The nine continuous cooling transformation diagrams (CCT) of the new ULCB steel grades have been established. The CCT diagrams for ULCB N i steels containing 9% Ni - grade 10N9 and 5% Ni - grade HN5MVNb are given. The comparison between CCT diagrams of 3.5%Ni + 1.5%Cu containing steels grade HSLA 100 and HN3MCu is shown. The effect of the increase in carbon and titanium contents in the chemical composition of ULCB M n steels 04G3Ti, 06G3Ti and 09G3Ti on the kinetics of phase transformations during continuous cooling is presented by the shifting CCT diagrams. The Charpy V impact strength and brittle fracture occurence curves are shown. The effect of tempering temperature on tensile properties of WQT HN3MCu steel is shown and Charpy V impact strength curves after different tempering conditions are shown. The optimum tempering temperatures region of HN3MCu steel for high Charpy V impact toughness at law temperatures - 80 o C(193 K) and -120 o C(153 K) is estimated. The effect of tempering temperature on mechanical properties of HN5MVNb steel is given. The low temperature impact Charpy V toughness of HN5MVNb steel is shown. The optimum range of tempering temperature during 1 hour for high toughness of WQT HN5MVNb steel is given. HN3MCu and HN5MVNb steels after WQT have high yield strength YS≥690 MPa and high Charpy V impact toughness KV≥80 J at -100 o C (173K) and KCV≥50 J/cm 2 at - 120 o C (153K) so they may be used for cryogenic applications

  20. Global analysis of threat status reveals higher extinction risk in tropical than in temperate bird sister species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reif Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing pressures upon biodiversity, identification of species’ traits related to elevated extinction risk is useful for more efficient allocation of limited resources for nature conservation. Despite its need, such a global analysis was lacking in the case of birds. Therefore, we performed this exercise for avian sister species using information about their global extinction risk from IUCN Red List. We focused on 113 pairs of sister species, each containing a threatened and an unthreatened species to factor out the effects of common evolutionary history on the revealed relationship. We collected data on five traits with expected relationships to species’ extinction risk based on previous studies performed at regional or national levels: breeding habitat (recognizing forest, grassland, wetland and oceanic species, latitudinal range position (temperate and tropics species, migration strategy (migratory and resident species, diet (carnivorous, insectivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous species and body mass. We related the extinction risk using IUCN threat level categories to species’ traits using generalised linear mixed effects models expecting lower risk for forest, temperate, omnivorous and smaller-bodied species. Our expectation was confirmed only in the case of latitudinal range position, as we revealed higher threat level for tropical than for temperate species. This relationship was robust to different methods of threat level expression and cannot be explained by a simple association of high bird species richness with the tropical zone. Instead, it seems that tropical species are more threatened because of their intrinsic characteristics such as slow life histories, adaptations to stable environments and small geographic ranges. These characteristics are obviously disadvantageous in conditions of current human-induced environmental perturbations. Moreover, given the absence of habitat effects, our study indicates that such

  1. SWFSC/MMTD/CCE: Leatherback Use of Temperate Habitat (LUTH) 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Leatherback Use of Temperate Habitat (LUTH) survey is an ecosystem assessment of temperate foraging habitats of endangered leatherback turtles off the coast of...

  2. Direct dating and identity of fiber temper in pre-contact Bushman (Masarwa) pottery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bollong, CA

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available , ashed grass, or absorbed blood. Visual characteristics rule out the possibility of animal dung temper. Blood and fat residues absorbed by grass temper could be the combined cause of anomalous Q (13) C and high P values....

  3. Prevalence, Host Range, and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Temperate Ochrobactrum Phages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Jäckel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ochrobactrum and Brucella are closely related bacteria that populate different habitats and differ in their pathogenic properties. Only little is known about mobile genetic elements in these genera which might be important for survival and virulence. Previous studies on Brucella lysogeny indicated that active phages are rare in this genus. To gain insight into the presence and nature of prophages in Ochrobactrum, temperate phages were isolated from various species and characterized in detail. In silico analyses disclosed numerous prophages in published Ochrobactrum genomes. Induction experiments showed that Ochrobactrum prophages can be induced by various stress factors and that some strains released phage particles even under non-induced conditions. Sixty percent of lysates prepared from 125 strains revealed lytic activity. The host range and DNA similarities of 19 phages belonging to the families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, or Podoviridae were determined suggesting that they are highly diverse. Some phages showed relationship to the temperate Brucella inopinata phage BiPB01. The genomic sequences of the myovirus POA1180 (41,655 bp and podovirus POI1126 (60,065 bp were analyzed. Phage POA1180 is very similar to a prophage recently identified in a Brucella strain isolated from an exotic frog. The POA1180 genome contains genes which may confer resistance to chromate and the ability to take up sulfate. Phage POI1126 is related to podoviruses of Sinorhizobium meliloti (PCB5, Erwinia pyrifoliae (Pep14, and Burkholderia cenocepacia (BcepIL02 and almost identical to an unnamed plasmid of the Ochrobactrum intermedium strain LMG 3301. Further experiments revealed that the POI1126 prophage indeed replicates as an extrachromosomal element. The data demonstrate for the first time that active prophages are common in Ochrobactrum and suggest that atypical brucellae also may be a reservoir for temperate phages.

  4. Uptake and Persistence of Homologous and Heterologous Zooxanthellae in the Temperate Sea Anemone Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, S K; Lucas, I A N; Turner, J R

    1997-04-01

    The uptake and persistence of symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) were measured in the temperate sea anemone Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant). Aposymbiotic specimens of C. pedunculatus were inoculated with zooxanthellae freshly isolated from a range of temperate and subtropical Anthozoa. Each inoculate consisted of zooxanthellae from a single host species and was either homologous (zooxanthellae from a host of the same species as the one being inoculated) or heterologous (from a host of a different species than the one being inoculated). The densities of zooxanthellae in host tissues were determined at regular intervals. C. pedunculatus took up homologous and heterologous zooxanthellae to similar degrees, except for zooxanthellae from the temperate Anthopleura ballii, which were taken up to a lesser extent. The densities of all zooxanthellae declined between 4 hours and 4 days after uptake, indicating that zooxanthellae were expelled, digested, or both during this period. The densities of all zooxanthellae increased between 2 and 8 weeks after inoculation, indicating zooxanthella growth. Over the entire 8-week period after uptake, densities of homologous zooxanthellae were always greater than those of heterologous zooxanthellae. Between 8 and 36 weeks after infection, densities of homologous zooxanthellae declined markedly and densities of some heterologous zooxanthellae increased further, resulting in homologous and heterologous zooxanthella densities being the same at 36 weeks. These densities were the same as those in naturally infected C. pedunculatus of similar size. The results suggest that zooxanthellae from a range of host species and environments can establish symbioses with C. pedunculatus and that, over long periods under laboratory conditions, heterologous zooxanthellae may populate C. pedunculatus to the same extent as homologous zooxanthellae.

  5. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  6. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  7. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  8. Plant Traits Demonstrate That Temperate and Tropical Giant Eucalypt Forests Are Ecologically Convergent with Rainforest Not Savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, David Y. P.; Jordan, Greg J.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory differentiates rainforest and open vegetation in many regions as functionally divergent alternative stable states with transitional (ecotonal) vegetation between the two forming transient unstable states. This transitional vegetation is of considerable significance, not only as a test case for theories of vegetation dynamics, but also because this type of vegetation is of major economic importance, and is home to a suite of species of conservation significance, including the world’s tallest flowering plants. We therefore created predictions of patterns in plant functional traits that would test the alternative stable states model of these systems. We measured functional traits of 128 trees and shrubs across tropical and temperate rainforest – open vegetation transitions in Australia, with giant eucalypt forests situated between these vegetation types. We analysed a set of functional traits: leaf carbon isotopes, leaf area, leaf mass per area, leaf slenderness, wood density, maximum height and bark thickness, using univariate and multivariate methods. For most traits, giant eucalypt forest was similar to rainforest, while rainforest, particularly tropical rainforest, was significantly different from the open vegetation. In multivariate analyses, tropical and temperate rainforest diverged functionally, and both segregated from open vegetation. Furthermore, the giant eucalypt forests overlapped in function with their respective rainforests. The two types of giant eucalypt forests also exhibited greater overall functional similarity to each other than to any of the open vegetation types. We conclude that tropical and temperate giant eucalypt forests are ecologically and functionally convergent. The lack of clear functional differentiation from rainforest suggests that giant eucalypt forests are unstable states within the basin of attraction of rainforest. Our results have important implications for giant eucalypt forest management. PMID:24358359

  9. Tempered fractional time series model for turbulence in geophysical flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Sabzikar, Farzad; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2014-09-01

    We propose a new time series model for velocity data in turbulent flows. The new model employs tempered fractional calculus to extend the classical 5/3 spectral model of Kolmogorov. Application to wind speed and water velocity in a large lake are presented, to demonstrate the practical utility of the model.

  10. Tempered fractional time series model for turbulence in geophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerschaert, Mark M; Sabzikar, Farzad; Phanikumar, Mantha S; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new time series model for velocity data in turbulent flows. The new model employs tempered fractional calculus to extend the classical 5/3 spectral model of Kolmogorov. Application to wind speed and water velocity in a large lake are presented, to demonstrate the practical utility of the model. (paper)

  11. Joint measurement of risk aversion, prudence, and temperance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, S.; Wiesen, D.

    Risk aversion—but also the higher-order risk preferences of prudence and temperance—are fundamental concepts in the study of economic decision making. We propose a method to jointly measure the intensity of risk aversion, prudence, and temperance. Our theoretical approach is to define risk

  12. The Fracture Process of Tempered Soda-Lime-Silica Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes; Stang, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This work presents experimental observations of the characteristic fracture process of tempered glass. Square specimens with a side length of 300 mm, various thicknesses and a residual stress state characterized by photoelastic measurements were used. Fracture was initiated using a 2.5 mm diamond...

  13. Tempered orbital energies and the potential curve within a molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, T.; Sakai, Y.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the sum of the tempered orbital energies behaves much the same way as does the some of the Hartree--Fock orbital energies. The H 2 moluecule in its minimum basis set description is chosen as an example and comparison of orbital energies is carried out

  14. Significance of rate of work hardening in tempered martensite embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietikainen, J.

    1995-01-01

    The main explanations for tempered martensite embrittlement are based on the effects of impurities and cementite precipitation on the prior austenite grain boundaries. There are some studies where the rate of work hardening is proposed as a potential reason for the brittleness. One steel was studied by means of a specially developed precision torsional testing device. The test steel had a high Si and Ni content so ε carbide and Fe 3 C appear in quite different tempering temperature ranges. The M S temperature is low enough so that self tempering does not occur. With the testing device it was possible to obtain the true stress - true strain curves to very high deformations. The minimum toughness was always associated with the minimum of rate of work hardening. The change of deformed steel volume before the loss of mechanical stability is proposed as at least one reason for tempered martensite embrittlement. The reasons for the minimum of the rate of work hardening are considered. (orig.)

  15. Tempered Water Lower Port Connector Structural Analysis Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CREA, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Structural analysis of the lower port connection of the Tempered Water System of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility was performed. Subsequent detailed design changes to enhance operability resulted in the need to re-evaluate the bases of the original analysis to verify its continued validity. This evaluation is contained in Appendix A of this report. The original evaluation is contained in Appendix B

  16. Effects of temperate agriculture on neotropical migrant landbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas L. Rodenhouse; Louis B. Best; Raymond J. O' Connor; Eric K. Bollinger

    1993-01-01

    The ecology of Neotropical migrant landbirds in temperate farmland is reviewed to develop management recommendations for the conservation of migrants. Migrants constitute about 71% of bird species using farmland and 86% of bird species nesting there. The number and abundances of Neotropical migrants using farmland are greatest in uncultivated edges with trees and...

  17. Effect of climate change on temperate forest ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brolsma, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    In temperate climates groundwater can have a strong effect on vegetation, because it can influence the spatio-temporal distribution of soil moisture and therefore water and oxygen stress of vegetation. Current IPCC climate projections based on CO2 emission scenarios show a global temperature rise

  18. Solid-wood production from temperate eucalypt plantations: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1988, there has been a major focus in Tasmania on research for the management of temperate eucalypt plantations for solid wood. This coincided with the formal transfer of large areas of native forest that had previously been part of the production forest estate into reserves, a decision that triggered the establishment ...

  19. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with temperate climate conditions - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Steven; Simpson, Trevor; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter; Swan, David (Serco Technical Consulting Services (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report concerns the modelling of a repository at the Forsmark site during temperate conditions; i.e. from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the receding shoreline leaves the modelling domain at around 12,000 AD. The collation and implementation of onsite hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data from previous reports are used in the construction of a hydrogeological base case (reference case conceptualisation) and then in an examination of various areas of uncertainty within the current understanding by a series of model variants. The hydrogeological base case models at three different scales, 'repository', 'site' and 'regional', make use of continuous porous medium (CPM), equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) and discrete fracture network (DFN) models. The use of hydrogeological models allow for the investigation of the groundwater flow from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere and for the calculation of performance measures that will provide an input to the site performance assessment. The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the hydrogeological system from post-closure and throughout the temperate period. Besides providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events

  20. Distinct responses of bacterial communities to agricultural and urban impacts in temperate southern African estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcher, G. F.; Froneman, P. W.; Meiklejohn, I.; Dorrington, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, estuaries are regarded as amongst the most ecologically threatened ecosystems and are increasingly being impacted by urban development, agricultural activities and reduced freshwater inflow. In this study, we examined the influence of different human activities on the diversity and structure of bacterial communities in the water column and sediment in three distinct, temperate permanently open estuarine systems within the same geographic region of southern Africa. The Kariega system is freshwater-deprived and is considered to be relatively pristine; the Kowie estuary is marine-dominated and impacted by urban development, while the Sundays system is fresh-water dominated and impacted by agricultural activity in its catchment. The bacterial communities in all three systems comprise predominantly heterotrophic species belonging to the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla with little overlap between bacterioplankton and benthic bacterial communities at the species level. There was overlap between the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the Kowie and Kariega, both marine-influenced estuaries. However, lower species richness in the Kowie, likely reflects the impact of human settlements along the estuary. The dominant OTUs in the Sundays River system were distinct from those of the Kariega and Kowie estuaries with an overall decrease in species richness and evenness. This study provides an important snapshot into the microbial population structures of permanently open temperate estuarine systems and the influence of anthropogenic impacts on bacterial diversity and community structure.

  1. A step-by-step framework to assess benefits of established temperate marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Götz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs have been advocated as a solution to the challenges of both conservation and modern fishery management, but their application remains controversial, partly because there are only general guidelines for evaluating their effectiveness. We propose a framework to specifically evaluate established MPAs in six steps. We tested the approach by reviewing published research and unpublished information on the Goukamma MPA in the centre of the South African temperate south coast. Information reviewed included effects on the structure of fish populations, catch and abundance indices of fish species, and ecosystem effects. We investigated factors that determine the usefulness of a MPA in fisheries management, including the movement behaviour of adult fishes, larval dispersal and fisher-displacement patterns. We found that differences in the rates of exploitation across the MPA border resulted in differences in abundance, size and condition of the main target species, roman (Chrysoblephus laticeps. The diversity and abundance of non-target fish species, and the composition of the benthic invertebrate community, were affected by the cessation of fishing. The potential for "spillover" of adult roman might be limited to the vicinity of the MPA by their small home range, but there is potential for self-seeding and dispersal of roman eggs and larvae over wider areas. These theoretical considerations were confirmed by an analysis of catch data from before and after MPA implementation. The framework presented here may help to identify and fill gaps in the knowledge of established MPAs along South Africa's temperate south coast.

  2. Using Ecophysiology to Improve Farm Efficiency: Application in Temperate Dairy Grazing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Chapman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Information on the physiological ecology of grass-dominant pastures has made a substantial contribution to the development of practices that optimise the amount of feed harvested by grazing animals in temperate livestock systems. However, the contribution of ecophysiology is often under-stated, and the need for further research in this field is sometimes questioned. The challenge for ecophysiolgists, therefore, is to demonstrate how ecophysiological knowledge can help solve significant problems looming for grassland farming in temperate regions while also removing constraints to improved productivity from grazed pastures. To do this, ecophysiological research needs to align more closely with related disciplines, particularly genetics/genomics, agronomy, and farming systems, including systems modelling. This review considers how ecophysiological information has contributed to the development of grazing management practices in the New Zealand dairy industry, an industry that is generally regarded as a world leader in the efficiency with which pasture is grown and utilised for animal production. Even so, there are clear opportunities for further gains in pasture utilisation through the refinement of grazing management practices and the harnessing of those practices to improved pasture plant cultivars with phenotypes that facilitate greater grazing efficiency. Meanwhile, sub-optimal persistence of new pastures continues to constrain productivity in some environments. The underlying plant and population processes associated with this have not been clearly defined. Ecophysiological information, placed in the context of trait identification, grounded in well-designed agronomic studies and linked to plant improvements programmes, is required to address this.

  3. Disturbance, complexity, and succession of net ecosystem production in North America’s temperate deciduous forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, Christopher; Curtis, Peter; Hardiman, Brady; Scheuermann, Cynthia; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2016-06-29

    Century-old forests in the U.S. upper Midwest and Northeast power much of North Amer- ica’s terrestrial carbon (C) sink, but these forests’ production and C sequestration capacity are expected to soon decline as fast-growing early successional species die and are replaced by slower growing late successional species. But will this really happen? Here we marshal empirical data and ecological theory to argue that substantial declines in net ecosystem production (NEP) owing to reduced forest growth, or net primary production (NPP), are not imminent in regrown temperate deciduous forests over the next several decades. Forest age and production data for temperate deciduous forests, synthesized from published literature, suggest slight declines in NEP and increasing or stable NPP during middle successional stages. We revisit long-held hypotheses by EP Odum and others that suggest low-severity, high-frequency disturbances occurring in the region’s aging forests will, against intuition, maintain NEP at higher-than- expected rates by increasing ecosystem complexity, sustaining or enhancing NPP to a level that largely o sets rising C losses as heterotrophic respiration increases. This theoretical model is also supported by biological evidence and observations from the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in Michigan, USA. Ecosystems that experience high-severity disturbances that simplify ecosystem complexity can exhibit substantial declines in production during middle stages of succession. However, observations from these ecosystems have exerted a disproportionate in uence on assumptions regarding the trajectory and magnitude of age-related declines in forest production. We conclude that there is a wide ecological space for forests to maintain NPP and, in doing so, lessens the declines in NEP, with signi cant implications for the future of the North American carbon sink. Our intellectual frameworks for understanding forest C cycle dynamics and resilience need to

  4. Theory of stable allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Born in 1923 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Shapley defended his doctoral thesis at Princeton University in 1953. For many years he worked at RAND, and for more than thirty years he was a professor at UCLA University. He published numerous scientific papers, either by himself or in cooperation with other economists.

  5. Incorporation of diet information derived from Bayesian stable isotope mixing models into mass-balanced marine ecosystem models: A case study from the Marennes-Oleron Estuary, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the use of output from Bayesian stable isotope mixing models as constraints for a linear inverse food web model of a temperate intertidal seagrass system in the Marennes-Oléron Bay, France. Linear inverse modeling (LIM) is a technique that estimates a complete net...

  6. Bi-stable optical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  7. Bifurcation dynamics of the tempered fractional Langevin equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Caibin, E-mail: macbzeng@scut.edu.cn; Yang, Qigui, E-mail: qgyang@scut.edu.cn [School of Mathematics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, YangQuan, E-mail: ychen53@ucmerced.edu [MESA LAB, School of Engineering, University of California, Merced, 5200 N. Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Tempered fractional processes offer a useful extension for turbulence to include low frequencies. In this paper, we investigate the stochastic phenomenological bifurcation, or stochastic P-bifurcation, of the Langevin equation perturbed by tempered fractional Brownian motion. However, most standard tools from the well-studied framework of random dynamical systems cannot be applied to systems driven by non-Markovian noise, so it is desirable to construct possible approaches in a non-Markovian framework. We first derive the spectral density function of the considered system based on the generalized Parseval's formula and the Wiener-Khinchin theorem. Then we show that it enjoys interesting and diverse bifurcation phenomena exchanging between or among explosive-like, unimodal, and bimodal kurtosis. Therefore, our procedures in this paper are not merely comparable in scope to the existing theory of Markovian systems but also provide a possible approach to discern P-bifurcation dynamics in the non-Markovian settings.

  8. Linking Well-Tempered Metadynamics Simulations with Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barducci, Alessandro; Bonomi, Massimiliano; Parrinello, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Linking experiments with the atomistic resolution provided by molecular dynamics simulations can shed light on the structure and dynamics of protein-disordered states. The sampling limitations of classical molecular dynamics can be overcome using metadynamics, which is based on the introduction of a history-dependent bias on a small number of suitably chosen collective variables. Even if such bias distorts the probability distribution of the other degrees of freedom, the equilibrium Boltzmann distribution can be reconstructed using a recently developed reweighting algorithm. Quantitative comparison with experimental data is thus possible. Here we show the potential of this combined approach by characterizing the conformational ensemble explored by a 13-residue helix-forming peptide by means of a well-tempered metadynamics/parallel tempering approach and comparing the reconstructed nuclear magnetic resonance scalar couplings with experimental data. PMID:20441734

  9. Reversible temper brittleness on tensile tests at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadros, N.F. de; Cabral, U.Q.

    1976-01-01

    Tensile tests were carried out on unnotched test pieces at room temperature and three strain rates: 2,5x10 -4 , 2,5x10 -3 and 1,0x10 -2 s -1 in a low alloy No-Cr-Mo steel to observe the variation in its mechanical properties with the occurrence of reversible temper brittleness. The brittle samples showed a sensitivity of 50 0 C in a 48 hour heat treatment at 500 0 C. The tests showed that at the strain rate of 2,5x10 -4 s -1 there are statistically significant differences between the elongations of the material in the brittle and the nonbrittle and regenerated states. A short review of reversible temper brittleness is given and a theory suggested for the mechanism [pt

  10. Effect of tempering on corrosion resistance of cast aluminium bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.; Klemetti, K.; Haenninen, H.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of this study is corrosion resistance of aluminium bronzes, which are copper base alloys containing aluminium up to 12% with additions of nickel, iron and manganese. The main conclutions that can be drawn are: (1) The dealloying corrosion resistance of nickel-aluminium bronze is much better than that of aluminium bronze with iron and manganese additions, but it is not immune; (2) The dealloying corrosion resistance of aluminium bronzes can be improved by appropiate heat treatments. The best properties were obtained by temperering between 600 and 800 deg C, depending on the initial microstructure; (3) In crevice conditions, where local acidification can occur, dealloying of aluminium bronzes is a consequence of the preferential attack of aluminium-rich phases. By appropriate tempering, a uniform distribution of aluminium-rich phases is obtained and the continous path for selective corrosion is not formed

  11. Interspecific variation in total phenolic content in temperate brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mannino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that function as defense and protection mechanisms. Among brown algae, Fucales and Dictyotales (Phaeophyceae contain the highest levels of phenolic compounds, mainly phlorotannins, that play multiple roles. Four temperate brown algae (Cystoseira amentacea, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyopteris polypodioides and Padina pavonica were studied for total phenolic contents. Total phenolic content was determined colorimetrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Significant differences in total phenolic content were observed between leathery and sheetlike algae and also within each morphological group. Among the four species, the sheet-like alga D. polypodioides, living in the upper infralittoral zone, showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that total phenolic content in temperate brown algae is influenced by a combination of several factors, such as growth form, depth, and exposition to solar radiation.

  12. Stable Associations Masked by Temporal Variability in the Marine Copepod Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisander, Pia H; Sexton, Andrew D; Daley, Meaghan C

    2015-01-01

    Copepod-bacteria interactions include permanent and transient epi- and endobiotic associations that may play roles in copepod health, transfer of elements in the food web, and biogeochemical cycling. Microbiomes of three temperate copepod species (Acartia longiremis, Centropages hamatus, and Calanus finmarchicus) from the Gulf of Maine were investigated during the early summer season using high throughput amplicon sequencing. The most prominent stable component of the microbiome included several taxa within Gammaproteobacteria, with Pseudoalteromonas spp. especially abundant across copepod species. These Gammaproteobacteria appear to be promoted by the copepod association, likely benefitting from nutrient enriched microenvironments on copepods, and forming a more important part of the copepod-associated community than Vibrio spp. during the cold-water season in this temperate system. Taxon-specific associations included an elevated relative abundance of Piscirickettsiaceae and Colwelliaceae on Calanus, and Marinomonas sp. in Centropages. The communities in full and voided gut copepods had distinct characteristics, thus the presence of a food-associated microbiome was evident, including higher abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and chloroplast sequences in the transient communities. The observed variability was partially explained by collection date that may be linked to factors such as variable time since molting, gender differences, and changes in food availability and type over the study period. While some taxon-specific and stable associations were identified, temporal changes in environmental conditions, including food type, appear to be key in controlling the composition of bacterial communities associated with copepods in this temperate coastal system during the early summer.

  13. Hurricane Impacts to Tropical and Temperate Forest Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Boose, Emery Robert; Foster, David Russell; Fluet, Marcheterre

    1994-01-01

    Hurricanes represent an important natural disturbance process to tropical and temperate forests in many coastal areas of the world. The complex patterns of damage created in forests by hurricane winds result from the interaction of meteorological, physiographic, and biotic factors on a range of spatial scales. To improve our understanding of these factors and of the role of catastrophic hurricane wind as a disturbance process, we take an integrative approach. A simple meteorological model (HU...

  14. First description of underwater acoustic diversity in three temperate ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Desjonquères

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has produced an increased ecological interest in sonic environments, or soundscapes. However, despite this rise in interest and technological improvements that allow for long-term acoustic surveys in various environments, some habitats’ soundscapes remain to be explored. Ponds, and more generally freshwater habitats, are one of these acoustically unexplored environments. Here we undertook the first long term acoustic monitoring of three temperate ponds in France. By aural and visual inspection of a selection of recordings, we identified 48 different sound types, and according to the rarefaction curves we calculated, more sound types are likely present in one of the three ponds. The richness of sound types varied significantly across ponds. Surprisingly, there was no pond-to-pond daily consistency of sound type richness variation; each pond had its own daily patterns of activity. We also explored the possibility of using six acoustic diversity indices to conduct rapid biodiversity assessments in temperate ponds. We found that all indices were sensitive to the background noise as estimated through correlations with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. However, we determined that the AR index could be a good candidate to measure acoustic diversities using partial correlations with the SNR as a control variable. Yet, research is still required to automatically compute the SNR in order to apply this index on a large data set of recordings. The results showed that these three temperate ponds host a high level of acoustic diversity in which the soundscapes were variable not only between but also within the ponds. The sources producing this diversity of sounds and the drivers of difference in daily song type richness variation both require further investigation. Such research would yield insights into the biodiversity and ecology of temperate ponds.

  15. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with temperate climate conditions - Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, Steven; Simpson, Trevor; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter; Roberts, David; Swan, David; Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko; Rhen, Ingvar

    2010-12-01

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report concerns the modelling of a repository at the Laxemar-Simpevarp site during temperate climate conditions as a comparison to corresponding modelling carried out for Forsmark /Joyce et al. 2010/. The collation and implementation of onsite hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data from previous reports are used in the construction of a Hydrogeological base case (reference case conceptualisation) and then an examination of various areas of uncertainty within the current understanding by a series of model variants. The Hydrogeological base case models at three different scales, 'repository', 'site' and 'regional' make use of a discrete fracture network (DFN) and equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) models. The use of hydrogeological models allow for the investigation of the groundwater flow from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere and for the calculation of performance measures that will provide an input to the site performance assessment. The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the hydrogeological system from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the receding shoreline leaves the modelling domain at around 15,000 AD. Besides providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events

  16. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with temperate climate conditions - Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Steven; Simpson, Trevor; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter; Roberts, David; Swan, David (Serco Technical Consulting Services (United Kingdom)); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO Environment AB, Falun (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report concerns the modelling of a repository at the Laxemar-Simpevarp site during temperate climate conditions as a comparison to corresponding modelling carried out for Forsmark /Joyce et al. 2010/. The collation and implementation of onsite hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data from previous reports are used in the construction of a Hydrogeological base case (reference case conceptualisation) and then an examination of various areas of uncertainty within the current understanding by a series of model variants. The Hydrogeological base case models at three different scales, 'repository', 'site' and 'regional' make use of a discrete fracture network (DFN) and equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) models. The use of hydrogeological models allow for the investigation of the groundwater flow from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere and for the calculation of performance measures that will provide an input to the site performance assessment. The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the hydrogeological system from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the receding shoreline leaves the modelling domain at around 15,000 AD. Besides providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events

  17. Efficient assignment of the temperature set for Parallel Tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidetti, M.; Rolando, V.; Tripiccione, R.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a simple algorithm able to identify a set of temperatures for a Parallel Tempering Monte Carlo simulation, that maximizes the probability that the configurations drift across all temperature values, from the coldest to the hottest ones, and vice versa. The proposed algorithm starts from data gathered from relatively short Monte Carlo simulations and is straightforward to implement. We assess its effectiveness on a test case simulation of an Edwards–Anderson spin glass on a lattice of 12 3 sites.

  18. Playing by the rules? Phenotypic adaptation to temperate environments in an American marsupial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Ryan J.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2018-01-01

    Phenotypic variation along environmental gradients can provide evidence suggesting local adaptation has shaped observed morphological disparities. These differences, in traits such as body and extremity size, as well as skin and coat pigmentation, may affect the overall fitness of individuals in their environments. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is a marsupial that shows phenotypic variation across its range, one that has recently expanded into temperate environments. It is unknown, however, whether the variation observed in the species fits adaptive ecogeographic patterns, or if phenotypic change is associated with any environmental factors. Using phenotypic measurements of over 300 museum specimens of Virginia opossum, collected throughout its distribution range, we applied regression analysis to determine if phenotypes change along a latitudinal gradient. Then, using predictors from remote-sensing databases and a random forest algorithm, we tested environmental models to find the most important variables driving the phenotypic variation. We found that despite the recent expansion into temperate environments, the phenotypic variation in the Virginia opossum follows a latitudinal gradient fitting three adaptive ecogeographic patterns codified under Bergmann’s, Allen’s and Gloger’s rules. Temperature seasonality was an important predictor of body size variation, with larger opossums occurring at high latitudes with more seasonal environments. Annual mean temperature predicted important variation in extremity size, with smaller extremities found in northern populations. Finally, we found that precipitation and temperature seasonality as well as low temperatures were strong environmental predictors of skin and coat pigmentation variation; darker opossums are distributed at low latitudes in warmer environments with higher precipitation seasonality. These results indicate that the adaptive mechanisms underlying the variation in body size, extremity

  19. Playing by the rules? Phenotypic adaptation to temperate environments in an American marsupial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio F. Nigenda-Morales

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic variation along environmental gradients can provide evidence suggesting local adaptation has shaped observed morphological disparities. These differences, in traits such as body and extremity size, as well as skin and coat pigmentation, may affect the overall fitness of individuals in their environments. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana is a marsupial that shows phenotypic variation across its range, one that has recently expanded into temperate environments. It is unknown, however, whether the variation observed in the species fits adaptive ecogeographic patterns, or if phenotypic change is associated with any environmental factors. Using phenotypic measurements of over 300 museum specimens of Virginia opossum, collected throughout its distribution range, we applied regression analysis to determine if phenotypes change along a latitudinal gradient. Then, using predictors from remote-sensing databases and a random forest algorithm, we tested environmental models to find the most important variables driving the phenotypic variation. We found that despite the recent expansion into temperate environments, the phenotypic variation in the Virginia opossum follows a latitudinal gradient fitting three adaptive ecogeographic patterns codified under Bergmann’s, Allen’s and Gloger’s rules. Temperature seasonality was an important predictor of body size variation, with larger opossums occurring at high latitudes with more seasonal environments. Annual mean temperature predicted important variation in extremity size, with smaller extremities found in northern populations. Finally, we found that precipitation and temperature seasonality as well as low temperatures were strong environmental predictors of skin and coat pigmentation variation; darker opossums are distributed at low latitudes in warmer environments with higher precipitation seasonality. These results indicate that the adaptive mechanisms underlying the variation in

  20. Grain boundary diffusion in terms of the tempered fractional calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibatov, R.T., E-mail: ren_sib@bk.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, 432017, 42 Leo Tolstoy str., Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Svetukhin, V.V. [Ulyanovsk State University, 432017, 42 Leo Tolstoy str., Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Nanotechnology and Microelectronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 115487, 18 Nagatinskaya str., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-28

    Mathematical treatment of grain-boundary diffusion based on the model first proposed by Fisher is usually formulated in terms of normal diffusion equations in a two-component nonhomogeneous medium. On the other hand, fractional equations of anomalous diffusion proved themselves to be useful in description of grain-boundary diffusion phenomena. Moreover, the most important propagation regime predicted by Fisher's model demonstrates subdiffusive behavior. However, the direct link between fractional approach and the Fisher model and its modifications has not found yet. Here, we fill this gap and show that solution of fractional subdiffusion equation offers general properties of classical solutions obtained by Whipple and Suzuoka. The tempered fractional approach is a convenient tool for studying precipitation in granular materials as the tempered subdiffusion limited process. - Highlights: • The link connected fractional diffusion approach and Fisher's model of grain-boundary diffusion is derived. • The subdiffusion exponent of grain-boundary diffusion can differ from 1/2. • Nucleation in granular materials is modeled by the process limited by tempered subdiffusion.

  1. Biochar boosts tropical but not temperate crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Simon; Abalos, Diego; Prodana, Marija; Catarina Bastos, Ana; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Hungate, Bruce A.; Verheijen, Frank

    2017-05-01

    Applying biochar to soil is thought to have multiple benefits, from helping mitigate climate change [1, 2], to managing waste [3] to conserving soil [4]. Biochar is also widely assumed to boost crop yield [5, 6], but there is controversy regarding the extent and cause of any yield benefit [7]. Here we use a global-scale meta-analysis to show that biochar has, on average, no effect on crop yield in temperate latitudes, yet elicits a 25% average increase in yield in the tropics. In the tropics, biochar increased yield through liming and fertilization, consistent with the low soil pH, low fertility, and low fertilizer inputs typical of arable tropical soils. We also found that, in tropical soils, high-nutrient biochar inputs stimulated yield substantially more than low-nutrient biochar, further supporting the role of nutrient fertilization in the observed yield stimulation. In contrast, arable soils in temperate regions are moderate in pH, higher in fertility, and generally receive higher fertilizer inputs, leaving little room for additional benefits from biochar. Our findings demonstrate that the yield-stimulating effects of biochar are not universal, but may especially benefit agriculture in low-nutrient, acidic soils in the tropics. Biochar management in temperate zones should focus on potential non-yield benefits such as lime and fertilizer cost savings, greenhouse gas emissions control, and other ecosystem services.

  2. Grain boundary diffusion in terms of the tempered fractional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibatov, R.T.; Svetukhin, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical treatment of grain-boundary diffusion based on the model first proposed by Fisher is usually formulated in terms of normal diffusion equations in a two-component nonhomogeneous medium. On the other hand, fractional equations of anomalous diffusion proved themselves to be useful in description of grain-boundary diffusion phenomena. Moreover, the most important propagation regime predicted by Fisher's model demonstrates subdiffusive behavior. However, the direct link between fractional approach and the Fisher model and its modifications has not found yet. Here, we fill this gap and show that solution of fractional subdiffusion equation offers general properties of classical solutions obtained by Whipple and Suzuoka. The tempered fractional approach is a convenient tool for studying precipitation in granular materials as the tempered subdiffusion limited process. - Highlights: • The link connected fractional diffusion approach and Fisher's model of grain-boundary diffusion is derived. • The subdiffusion exponent of grain-boundary diffusion can differ from 1/2. • Nucleation in granular materials is modeled by the process limited by tempered subdiffusion.

  3. Comparative visual ecophysiology of mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrij Z. Horodysky

    2013-11-01

    The absolute light sensitivities, temporal properties, and spectral sensitivities of the visual systems of three mid-Atlantic temperate reef fishes (Atlantic spadefish [Ephippidae: Chaetodipterus faber], tautog [Labridae: Tautoga onitis], and black sea bass [Serranidae: Centropristis striata] were studied via electroretinography (ERG. Pelagic Atlantic spadefish exhibited higher temporal resolution but a narrower dynamic range than the two more demersal foragers. The higher luminous sensitivities of tautog and black sea bass were similar to other benthic and demersal coastal mid-Atlantic fishes. Flicker fusion frequency experiments revealed significant interspecific differences at maximum intensities that correlated with lifestyle and habitat. Spectral responses of the three species spanned 400–610 nm, with high likelihood of cone dichromacy providing the basis for color and contrast discrimination. Significant day-night differences in spectral responses were evident in spadefish and black sea bass but not tautog, a labrid with characteristic structure-associated nocturnal torpor. Atlantic spadefish responded to a wider range of wavelengths than did deeper-dwelling tautog or black sea bass. Collectively, these results suggest that temperate reef-associated fishes are well-adapted to their gradient of brighter to dimmer photoclimates, representative of their unique ecologies and life histories. Continuing anthropogenic degradation of water quality in coastal environments, at a pace faster than the evolution of visual systems, may however impede visual foraging and reproductive signaling in temperate reef fishes.

  4. Carbon sequestration in managed temperate coniferous forests under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Caren C.; Beukema, Sarah; Nitschke, Craig R.; Coates, K. David; Scheller, Robert M.

    2016-03-01

    Management of temperate forests has the potential to increase carbon sinks and mitigate climate change. However, those opportunities may be confounded by negative climate change impacts. We therefore need a better understanding of climate change alterations to temperate forest carbon dynamics before developing mitigation strategies. The purpose of this project was to investigate the interactions of species composition, fire, management, and climate change in the Copper-Pine Creek valley, a temperate coniferous forest with a wide range of growing conditions. To do so, we used the LANDIS-II modelling framework including the new Forest Carbon Succession extension to simulate forest ecosystems under four different productivity scenarios, with and without climate change effects, until 2050. Significantly, the new extension allowed us to calculate the net sector productivity, a carbon accounting metric that integrates aboveground and belowground carbon dynamics, disturbances, and the eventual fate of forest products. The model output was validated against literature values. The results implied that the species optimum growing conditions relative to current and future conditions strongly influenced future carbon dynamics. Warmer growing conditions led to increased carbon sinks and storage in the colder and wetter ecoregions but not necessarily in the others. Climate change impacts varied among species and site conditions, and this indicates that both of these components need to be taken into account when considering climate change mitigation activities and adaptive management. The introduction of a new carbon indicator, net sector productivity, promises to be useful in assessing management effectiveness and mitigation activities.

  5. The possibility of tribopair lifetime extending by welding of quenched and tempered stainless steel with quenched and tempered carbon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marušić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of tribocorrosion wear, extending of parts lifetime could be achieved by using stainless steel,which is hardened to sufficiently high hardness. In the tribosystem bolt/ bushing shell/link plate of the bucket elevator transporter conveyor machine, the previously quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steel for bolts is hardened at ≈47 HRC and welded with the quenched and tempered high yield carbon steel for bolts. Additional material, based on Cr-Ni-Mo (18/8/6 is used. The microstructure and hardness of welded samples are tested. On the tensile tester, resistance of the welded joint is tested with a simulated experiment. Dimensional control of worn tribosystem elements was performed after six months of service.

  6. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Tempered Water (TW) and Tempered Water Cooling (TWC) System . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the TW and TWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SOD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved

  7. Genetic structure of Leptopilina boulardi populations from different climatic zones of Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyahooei, M.A.; van Alphen, J.J.M.; Kraaijeveld, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetic structure of populations can be influenced by geographic isolation (including physical distance) and ecology. We examined these effects in Leptopilina boulardi, a parasitoid of Drosophila of African origin and widely distributed over temperate and (sub) tropical climates.

  8. Prediction of hardness in pieces of quenched and tempered steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanzon, Rodolfo Carlos; Rodriguez, Augusto; Sanchez, Arlington Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    This presentation describes the first stage of a work plan to obtain a simple software, for predicting properties at certain points of a quenched and tempered piece. In this first stage, this prediction is limited to cylindrical pieces made with steels whose chemical composition is within a certain range. The methodology basically consists of obtaining , from experimental data, a mathematical tool able to predict the hardness value, for Jominy test piece ends made with this type of steel. This meant beginning with the analysis of the usual forms of theoretical calculation of Jominy curves of quenched samples, which resulted in a proposal to modify the Just equation. Two different mathematical methods were then developed, that could predict hardness values in tempered Jominy test pieces. One, based on the determination of polynomic equations, that reproduces the loss of hardness at points along the test piece, base on the quenching value and as a function of the tempering temperature. The other one, which uses the lineal multidimensional interpolation method, because of its ease of application, has been selected as the mathematical tool to use in the software under development. At this stage of the work, the relationship between the points on the piece and those on the Jominy test pieces is carried out by the Lamont method and the representative variable of the temperature/time combination for the tempering process itself, is obtained with software based on the Hollomon and Jaffe expression. Data is needed to define: a) chemical composition and grain size of the steel used, b) diameter of the piece, c) 'H G ' severity of the quenching medium d) temperature and time of the tempering. The work's second stage continued with the addition of hardness values measured in Jominy test pieces made with other steels. The chemical composition and grain size data of each steel introduced are converted by the software into one more variable, using the concept of ideal critical

  9. Response of Submerged Macrophyte Communities to External and Internal Restoration Measures in North Temperate Shallow Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Sabine; Alirangues Nuñez, Marta M.; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Blindow, Irmgard; Davidson, Thomas A.; Gillefalk, Mikael; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Janse, Jan H.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; Jeppesen, Erik; Kabus, Timm; Kelly, Andrea; Köhler, Jan; Lauridsen, Torben L.; Mooij, Wolf M.; Noordhuis, Ruurd; Phillips, Geoff; Rücker, Jacqueline; Schuster, Hans-Heinrich; Søndergaard, Martin; Teurlincx, Sven; van de Weyer, Klaus; van Donk, Ellen; Waterstraat, Arno; Willby, Nigel; Sayer, Carl D.

    2018-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes play a key role in north temperate shallow lakes by stabilizing clear-water conditions. Eutrophication has resulted in macrophyte loss and shifts to turbid conditions in many lakes. Considerable efforts have been devoted to shallow lake restoration in many countries, but long-term success depends on a stable recovery of submerged macrophytes. However, recovery patterns vary widely and remain to be fully understood. We hypothesize that reduced external nutrient loading leads to an intermediate recovery state with clear spring and turbid summer conditions similar to the pattern described for eutrophication. In contrast, lake internal restoration measures can result in transient clear-water conditions both in spring and summer and reversals to turbid conditions. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these contrasting restoration measures result in different macrophyte species composition, with added implications for seasonal dynamics due to differences in plant traits. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed data on water quality and submerged macrophytes from 49 north temperate shallow lakes that were in a turbid state and subjected to restoration measures. To study the dynamics of macrophytes during nutrient load reduction, we adapted the ecosystem model PCLake. Our survey and model simulations revealed the existence of an intermediate recovery state upon reduced external nutrient loading, characterized by spring clear-water phases and turbid summers, whereas internal lake restoration measures often resulted in clear-water conditions in spring and summer with returns to turbid conditions after some years. External and internal lake restoration measures resulted in different macrophyte communities. The intermediate recovery state following reduced nutrient loading is characterized by a few macrophyte species (mainly pondweeds) that can resist wave action allowing survival in shallow areas, germinate early in spring, have energy-rich vegetative

  10. Response of Submerged Macrophyte Communities to External and Internal Restoration Measures in North Temperate Shallow Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Sabine; Alirangues Nuñez, Marta M; Bakker, Elisabeth S; Blindow, Irmgard; Davidson, Thomas A; Gillefalk, Mikael; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Janse, Jan H; Janssen, Annette B G; Jeppesen, Erik; Kabus, Timm; Kelly, Andrea; Köhler, Jan; Lauridsen, Torben L; Mooij, Wolf M; Noordhuis, Ruurd; Phillips, Geoff; Rücker, Jacqueline; Schuster, Hans-Heinrich; Søndergaard, Martin; Teurlincx, Sven; van de Weyer, Klaus; van Donk, Ellen; Waterstraat, Arno; Willby, Nigel; Sayer, Carl D

    2018-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes play a key role in north temperate shallow lakes by stabilizing clear-water conditions. Eutrophication has resulted in macrophyte loss and shifts to turbid conditions in many lakes. Considerable efforts have been devoted to shallow lake restoration in many countries, but long-term success depends on a stable recovery of submerged macrophytes. However, recovery patterns vary widely and remain to be fully understood. We hypothesize that reduced external nutrient loading leads to an intermediate recovery state with clear spring and turbid summer conditions similar to the pattern described for eutrophication. In contrast, lake internal restoration measures can result in transient clear-water conditions both in spring and summer and reversals to turbid conditions. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these contrasting restoration measures result in different macrophyte species composition, with added implications for seasonal dynamics due to differences in plant traits. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed data on water quality and submerged macrophytes from 49 north temperate shallow lakes that were in a turbid state and subjected to restoration measures. To study the dynamics of macrophytes during nutrient load reduction, we adapted the ecosystem model PCLake. Our survey and model simulations revealed the existence of an intermediate recovery state upon reduced external nutrient loading, characterized by spring clear-water phases and turbid summers, whereas internal lake restoration measures often resulted in clear-water conditions in spring and summer with returns to turbid conditions after some years. External and internal lake restoration measures resulted in different macrophyte communities. The intermediate recovery state following reduced nutrient loading is characterized by a few macrophyte species (mainly pondweeds) that can resist wave action allowing survival in shallow areas, germinate early in spring, have energy-rich vegetative

  11. Plant molecular phylogeography in China and adjacent regions: Tracing the genetic imprints of Quaternary climate and environmental change in the world's most diverse temperate flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Fu, Cheng-Xing; Comes, Hans Peter

    2011-04-01

    The Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) of East Asia harbors the most diverse of the world's temperate flora, and was the most important glacial refuge for its Tertiary representatives ('relics') throughout Quaternary ice-age cycles. A steadily increasing number of phylogeographic studies in the SJFR of mainland China and adjacent areas, including the Qinghai-Tibetan-Plateau (QTP) and Sino-Himalayan region, have documented the population histories of temperate plant species in these regions. Here we review this current literature that challenges the oft-stated view of the SJFR as a glacial sanctuary for temperate plants, instead revealing profound effects of Quaternary changes in climate, topography, and/or sea level on the current genetic structure of such organisms. There are three recurrent phylogeographic scenarios identified by different case studies that broadly agree with longstanding biogeographic or palaeo-ecological hypotheses: (i) postglacial re-colonization of the QTP from (south-)eastern glacial refugia; (ii) population isolation and endemic species formation in Southwest China due to tectonic shifts and river course dynamics; and (iii) long-term isolation and species survival in multiple localized refugia of (warm-)temperate deciduous forest habitats in subtropical (Central/East/South) China. However, in four additional instances, phylogeographic findings seem to conflict with a priori predictions raised by palaeo-data, suggesting instead: (iv) glacial in situ survival of some hardy alpine herbs and forest trees on the QTP platform itself; (v) long-term refugial isolation of (warm-)temperate evergreen taxa in subtropical China; (vi) 'cryptic' glacial survival of (cool-)temperate deciduous forest trees in North China; and (vii) unexpectedly deep (Late Tertiary/early-to-mid Pleistocene) allopatric-vicariant differentiation of disjunct lineages in the East China-Japan-Korea region due to past sea transgressions. We discuss these and other consequences

  12. Thermal sensitivity of the crab Neosarmatium africanum in tropical and temperate mangroves on the east coast of Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Fusi, Marco

    2017-03-09

    Mangrove forests are amongst the tropical marine ecosystems most severely affected by rapid environmental change, and the activities of key associated macrobenthic species contribute to their ecological resilience. Along the east coast of Africa, the amphibious sesarmid crab Neosarmatium africanum (=meinerti) plays a pivotal role in mangrove ecosystem functioning through carbon cycling and sediment bioturbation. In the face of rapid climate change, identifying the sensitivity and vulnerability to global warming of this species is of increasing importance. Based on a latitudinal comparison, we measured the thermal sensitivity of a tropical and a temperate population of N. africanum, testing specimens at the centre and southern limit of its distribution, respectively. We measured metabolic oxygen consumption and haemolymph dissolved oxygen content during air and water breathing within a temperature range that matched the natural environmental conditions. The results indicate different thermal sensitivities in the physiological responses of N. africanum from tropical and temperate populations, especially during air breathing. The differences observed in the thermal physiology between the two populations suggest that the effect of global warming on this important mangrove species may be different under different climate regimes.

  13. The tropicalization of temperate marine ecosystems: climate-mediated changes in herbivory and community phase shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergés, Adriana; Steinberg, Peter D.; Hay, Mark E.; Poore, Alistair G. B.; Campbell, Alexandra H.; Ballesteros, Enric; Heck, Kenneth L.; Booth, David J.; Coleman, Melinda A.; Feary, David A.; Figueira, Will; Langlois, Tim; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.; Mizerek, Toni; Mumby, Peter J.; Nakamura, Yohei; Roughan, Moninya; van Sebille, Erik; Gupta, Alex Sen; Smale, Dan A.; Tomas, Fiona; Wernberg, Thomas; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2014-01-01

    Climate-driven changes in biotic interactions can profoundly alter ecological communities, particularly when they impact foundation species. In marine systems, changes in herbivory and the consequent loss of dominant habitat forming species can result in dramatic community phase shifts, such as from coral to macroalgal dominance when tropical fish herbivory decreases, and from algal forests to ‘barrens’ when temperate urchin grazing increases. Here, we propose a novel phase-shift away from macroalgal dominance caused by tropical herbivores extending their range into temperate regions. We argue that this phase shift is facilitated by poleward-flowing boundary currents that are creating ocean warming hotspots around the globe, enabling the range expansion of tropical species and increasing their grazing rates in temperate areas. Overgrazing of temperate macroalgae by tropical herbivorous fishes has already occurred in Japan and the Mediterranean. Emerging evidence suggests similar phenomena are occurring in other temperate regions, with increasing occurrence of tropical fishes on temperate reefs. PMID:25009065

  14. An investigation on high temperature fatigue properties of tempered nuclear-grade deposited weld metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X. Y.; Zhu, P.; Yong, Q.; Liu, T. G.; Lu, Y. H.; Zhao, J. C.; Jiang, Y.; Shoji, T.

    2018-02-01

    Effect of tempering on low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviors of nuclear-grade deposited weld metal was investigated, and The LCF tests were performed at 350 °C with strain amplitudes ranging from 0.2% to 0.6%. The results showed that at a low strain amplitude, deposited weld metal tempered for 1 h had a high fatigue resistance due to high yield strength, while at a high strain amplitude, the one tempered for 24 h had a superior fatigue resistance due to high ductility. Deposited weld metal tempered for 1 h exhibited cyclic hardening at the tested strain amplitudes. Deposited weld metal tempered for 24 h exhibited cyclic hardening at a low strain amplitude but cyclic softening at a high strain amplitude. Existence and decomposition of martensite-austenite (M-A) islands as well as dislocations activities contributed to fatigue property discrepancy among the two tempered deposited weld metal.

  15. Diversity patterns of ground beetles and understory vegetation in mature, secondary, and plantation forest regions of temperate northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Wang, Shunzhong; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Wang, Changliu; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Plantation and secondary forests form increasingly important components of the global forest cover, but our current knowledge about their potential contribution to biodiversity conservation is limited. We surveyed understory plant and carabid species assemblages at three distinct regions in temperate northeastern China, dominated by mature forest (Changbaishan Nature Reserve, sampled in 2011 and 2012), secondary forest (Dongling Mountain, sampled in 2011 and 2012), and forest plantation habitats (Bashang Plateau, sampled in 2006 and 2007), respectively. The α-diversity of both taxonomic groups was highest in plantation forests of the Bashang Plateau. Beetle α-diversity was lowest, but plant and beetle species turnover peaked in the secondary forests of Dongling Mountain, while habitats in the Changbaishan Nature Reserve showed the lowest turnover rates for both taxa. Changbaishan Nature Reserve harbored the highest proportion of forest specialists. Our results suggest that in temperate regions of northern China, the protected larch plantation forest established over extensive areas might play a considerable role in maintaining a high biodiversity in relation to understory herbaceous plant species and carabid assemblages, which can be seen as indicators of forest disturbance. The high proportion of phytophagous carabids and the rarity of forest specialists reflect the relatively homogenous, immature status of the forest ecosystems on the Bashang Plateau. China's last remaining large old-growth forests like the ones on Changbaishan represent stable, mature ecosystems which require particular conservation attention.

  16. Effect of Tempering and Baking on the Charpy Impact Energy of Hydrogen-Charged 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, K.; Lee, E. W.; Frazier, W. E.; Niji, K.; Battel, G.; Tran, A.; Iriarte, E.; Perez, O.; Ruiz, H.; Choi, T.; Stoyanov, P.; Ogren, J.; Alrashaid, J.; Es-Said, O. S.

    2015-01-01

    Tempered AISI 4340 steel was hydrogen charged and tested for impact energy. It was found that samples tempered above 468 °C (875 °F) and subjected to hydrogen charging exhibited lower impact energy values when compared to uncharged samples. No significant difference between charged and uncharged samples tempered below 468 °C (875 °F) was observed. Neither exposure nor bake time had any significant effect on impact energy within the tested ranges.

  17. On the evolution of Cu-Ni-rich bridges of Alnico alloys with tempering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7907, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Liu, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7907, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Analytical Instrumentation Facility, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Jha, Rajesh; Dulikravich, George S. [Departments of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, MAIDROC, Florida International University, EC3462, 10555 West Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Schwartz, J.; Koch, C.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7907, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Tempering is a critical step in Alnico alloy processing, yet the effects of tempering on microstructure have not been well studied. Here we report these effects, and in particular the effects on the Cu-Ni bridges. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) maps and line scans show that tempering changes the elemental distribution in the Cu-Ni bridges, but not the morphology and distribution of Cu-bridges. The Cu concentration in the Cu-Ni bridges increases after tempering while other element concentrations decrease, especially Ni and Al. Furthermore, tempering sharpens the Cu bridge boundaries. These effects are primarily related to the large 2C{sub 44}/(C{sub 11}−C{sub 12}) ratio for Cu, largest of all elements in Alnico. In addition, the Ni-Cu loops around the α{sub 1} phases become inconspicuous with tempering. The diffusion of Fe and Co to the α{sub 1} phase during tempering, which increases the difference of saturation magnetization between the α{sub 1} and α{sub 2} phases, is observed by EDS. In summary, α{sub 1}, α{sub 2} and Cu-bridges are concentrated with their major elements during tempering which improves the magnetic properties. The formation of these features formed through elemental diffusion is discussed via energy theories. - Highlights: • Tempering changes the elemental distribution in the Cu-Ni bridges, but not morphology. • Cu concentration in the Cu-Ni bridges increases after tempering while others decrease. • These effects are related to the large 2C{sub 44}/(C{sub 11}−C{sub 12}) ratio for Cu. • The Ni-Cu loops around the α{sub 1} phases become inconspicuous with tempering. • The diffusion of Fe and Co to the α{sub 1} phase during tempering is observed by EDS.

  18. Method to Predict Tempering of Steels Under Non-isothermal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.; Kohli, A.

    2017-05-01

    A common way of representing the tempering responses of steels is with a "tempering parameter" that includes the effect of temperature and time on hardness after hardening. Such functions, usually in graphical form, are available for many steels and have been applied for isothermal tempering. In this article, we demonstrate that the method can be extended to non-isothermal conditions. Controlled heating experiments were done on three grades in order to verify the method.

  19. One-dimensional stable distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zolotarev, V M

    1986-01-01

    This is the first book specifically devoted to a systematic exposition of the essential facts known about the properties of stable distributions. In addition to its main focus on the analytic properties of stable laws, the book also includes examples of the occurrence of stable distributions in applied problems and a chapter on the problem of statistical estimation of the parameters determining stable laws. A valuable feature of the book is the author's use of several formally different ways of expressing characteristic functions corresponding to these laws.

  20. Time-dependent temper embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steel: Correlation between microstructural evolution and mechanical properties during tempering at 650 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuanwei; Han, Lizhan; Yan, Guanghua; Liu, Qingdong; Luo, Xiaomeng; Gu, Jianfeng, E-mail: gujf@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    The microstructural evolution of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel and its effect on the mechanical properties during tempering at 650 °C were studied to reveal the time-dependent toughness and temper embrittlement. The results show that the toughening of the material should be attributed to the decomposition of the martensite/austenite constituents and uniform distribution of carbides. When the tempering duration was 5 h, the strength of the investigated steel decreased to strike a balance with the material impact toughness that reached a plateau. As the tempering duration was further increased, the material strength was slightly reduced but the material impact toughness deteriorated drastically. This time-dependent temper embrittlement is different from traditional temper embrittlement, and it can be partly attributed to the softening of the matrix and the broadening of the ferrite laths. Moreover, the dimensions and distribution of the grain carbides are the most important factors of the impact toughness. - Highlights: • The fracture mechanism of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under impact load was investigated. • The Charpy V-notch impact test and the hinge model were employed for the study. • Grain boundary carbides play a key role in the impact toughness and fracture toughness. • The dependence of the deterioration of impact toughness on tempering time was analyzed for the first time.

  1. Chaos and stability of age-0 fish assemblages in a temperate deep reservoir: unpredictable success and stable habitat use

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jůza, Tomáš; Vašek, Mojmír; Kratochvíl, Michal; Blabolil, Petr; Čech, Martin; Draštík, Vladislav; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Muška, Milan; Peterka, Jiří; Prchalová, Marie; Říha, Milan; Tušer, Michal; Kubečka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 724, č. 1 (2014), s. 217-234 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : horizontal migration * Římov reservoir * trawling * seining * fry distribution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2014

  2. Effects of drainage-basin geomorphology on insectivorous bird abundance in temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Tomoya; Urabe, Jotaro; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2010-10-01

    Interfaces between terrestrial and stream ecosystems often enhance species diversity and population abundance of ecological communities beyond levels that would be expected separately from both the ecosystems. Nevertheless, no study has examined how stream configuration within a watershed influences the population of terrestrial predators at the drainage-basin scale. We examined the habitat and abundance relationships of forest insectivorous birds in eight drainage basins in a cool temperate forest of Japan during spring and summer. Each basin has different drainage-basin geomorphology, such as the density and frequency of stream channels. In spring, when terrestrial arthropod prey biomass is limited, insectivorous birds aggregated in habitats closer to streams, where emerging aquatic prey was abundant. Nevertheless, birds ceased to aggregate around streams in summer because terrestrial prey became plentiful. Watershed-scale analyses showed that drainage basins with longer stream channels per unit area sustained higher densities of insectivorous birds. Moreover, such effects of streams on birds continued from spring through summer, even though birds dispersed out of riparian areas in the summer. Although our data are from only a single year, our findings imply that physical modifications of stream channels may reduce populations of forest birds; thus, they emphasize the importance of landscape-based management approaches that consider both stream and forest ecosystems for watershed biodiversity conservation. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Nursery function of coastal temperate benthic habitats: New insight from the bivalve recruitment perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Pierrick; Meziane, Tarik; Forêt, Martin; Tremblay, Réjean; Robert, René; Olivier, Frédéric

    2017-03-01

    Marine habitat function has been typically investigated in terms of biogeochemical regulation but rarely in terms of population renewal, which is mainly controlled by recruitment dynamics. The recruitment phase is crucial for organisms with a bentho-pelagic life cycle, such as bivalves, and it regulates the population renewal success. This study provides new insight on the role of temperate benthic habitats on bivalve recruitment, as a function of nursery areas. Six dominant benthic habitats of the Chausey archipelago (Normandy, France) were studied. In each habitat, bivalve recruit assemblages were described at the end of two reproductive seasons. Furthermore, Ostrea edulis juveniles were immerged on each habitat during two months to compare growth performances and feeding status, estimated by fatty acid composition. Recruit assemblages differ from each habitat according to sediment grain-size composition and bathymetrical levels. Subtidal habitats, and especially Crepidula fornicata banks and Glycymeris glycymeris coarse sands, supported the highest species abundance and richness of recruits. All O. edulis juveniles fed on the same trophic resources but digestive glands of juveniles from C. fornicata banks were more concentrated in total fatty acids than those from subtidal G. glycymeris coarse sands and maerl banks. Our results depict the key role of subtidal and structured habitats, composed of ecosystem engineers, in enhancing bivalve recruitment and extending the bivalve population renewal. This study suggests that the crucial role of these habitats as bivalve nurseries must be integrated in management perspectives. 2-column fitting image. 1-column fitting image.

  4. Nematode spatial and ecological patterns from tropical and temperate rainforests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota L Porazinska

    Full Text Available Large scale diversity patterns are well established for terrestrial macrobiota (e.g. plants and vertebrates, but not for microscopic organisms (e.g. nematodes. Due to small size, high abundance, and extensive dispersal, microbiota are assumed to exhibit cosmopolitan distributions with no biogeographical patterns. This assumption has been extrapolated from local spatial scale studies of a few taxonomic groups utilizing morphological approaches. Recent molecularly-based studies, however, suggest something quite opposite. Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans on earth, but their diversity patterns are largely unknown. We conducted a survey of nematode diversity within three vertical strata (soil, litter, and canopy of rainforests at two contrasting latitudes in the North American meridian (temperate: the Olympic National Forest, WA, U.S.A and tropical: La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica using standardized sampling designs and sample processing protocols. To describe nematode diversity, we applied an ecometagenetic approach using 454 pyrosequencing. We observed that: 1 nematode communities were unique without even a single common species between the two rainforests, 2 nematode communities were unique among habitats in both rainforests, 3 total species richness was 300% more in the tropical than in the temperate rainforest, 4 80% of the species in the temperate rainforest resided in the soil, whereas only 20% in the tropics, 5 more than 90% of identified species were novel. Overall, our data provided no support for cosmopolitanism at both local (habitats and large (rainforests spatial scales. In addition, our data indicated that biogeographical patterns typical of macrobiota also exist for microbiota.

  5. Nematode Spatial and Ecological Patterns from Tropical and Temperate Rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porazinska, Dorota L.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Powers, Thomas O.; Thomas, W. Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Large scale diversity patterns are well established for terrestrial macrobiota (e.g. plants and vertebrates), but not for microscopic organisms (e.g. nematodes). Due to small size, high abundance, and extensive dispersal, microbiota are assumed to exhibit cosmopolitan distributions with no biogeographical patterns. This assumption has been extrapolated from local spatial scale studies of a few taxonomic groups utilizing morphological approaches. Recent molecularly-based studies, however, suggest something quite opposite. Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans on earth, but their diversity patterns are largely unknown. We conducted a survey of nematode diversity within three vertical strata (soil, litter, and canopy) of rainforests at two contrasting latitudes in the North American meridian (temperate: the Olympic National Forest, WA, U.S.A and tropical: La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) using standardized sampling designs and sample processing protocols. To describe nematode diversity, we applied an ecometagenetic approach using 454 pyrosequencing. We observed that: 1) nematode communities were unique without even a single common species between the two rainforests, 2) nematode communities were unique among habitats in both rainforests, 3) total species richness was 300% more in the tropical than in the temperate rainforest, 4) 80% of the species in the temperate rainforest resided in the soil, whereas only 20% in the tropics, 5) more than 90% of identified species were novel. Overall, our data provided no support for cosmopolitanism at both local (habitats) and large (rainforests) spatial scales. In addition, our data indicated that biogeographical patterns typical of macrobiota also exist for microbiota. PMID:22984536

  6. Sessile and mobile components of a benthic ecosystem display mixed trends within a temperate marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Leigh M; Pickup, Sarah E; Evans, Lowri E; Cross, Tim J; Hawkins, Julie P; Roberts, Callum M; Stewart, Bryce D

    2015-06-01

    Despite recent efforts to increase the global coverage of marine protected areas (MPAs), studies investigating the effectiveness of marine protected areas within temperate waters remain scarce. Furthermore, out of the few studies published on MPAs in temperate waters, the majority focus on specific ecological or fishery components rather than investigating the ecosystem as a whole. This study therefore investigated the dynamics of both benthic communities and fish populations within a recently established, fully protected marine reserve in Lamlash Bay, Isle of Arran, United Kingdom, over a four year period. A combination of photo and diver surveys revealed live maerl (Phymatolithon calcareum), macroalgae, sponges, hydroids, feather stars and eyelash worms (Myxicola infundibulum) to be significantly more abundant within the marine reserve than on surrounding fishing grounds. Likewise, the overall composition of epifaunal communities in and outside the reserve was significantly different. Both results are consistent with the hypothesis that protecting areas from fishing can encourage seafloor habitats to recover. In addition, the greater abundance of complex habitats within the reserve appeared to providing nursery habitat for juvenile cod (Gadus morhua) and scallops (Pecten maximus and Aequipecten opercularis). In contrast, there was little difference in the abundance of mobile benthic fauna, such as crabs and starfish, between the reserve and outside. Similarly, the use of baited underwater video cameras revealed no difference in the abundance and size of fish between the reserve and outside. Limited recovery of these ecosystem components may be due to the relatively small size (2.67 km(2)) and young age of the reserve (<5 years), both of which might have limited the extent of any benefits afforded to mobile fauna and fish communities. Overall, this study provides evidence that fully protected marine reserves can encourage seafloor habitats to recover, which in

  7. Prevalence and genetic variability of Plesiomonas shigelloides in temperate climate surface waters of the Pannonian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Milivoje

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plesiomonas shigelloides, a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of intestinal diseases and extraintestinal infections in humans and animals, is most frequently found in aquatic environments in tropical or subtropical areas. The present study was designed to establish the prevalence and genetic variability of P. shigelloides in surface waters (lakes, rivers, ponds, inlets and canals located in a temperate climate zone, namely the Pannonian Plain of the northern part of Serbia and southern part of Hungary. The strains were isolated directly by plating samples on inositol-brilliant green-bile agar with neutral red or phenol red as indicators. Our results indicate that phenol red effectively facilitates differentiation of P. shigelloides from other bacteria. A number of samples were enriched using alkaline peptone water broth, peptone inositolbile broth and tetrathionate broth. The recovery of the isolates was more successful with the first medium. Out of a total of 51 water samples collected from 28 different locations, 22 samples (43.1% were found positive for P. shigelloides. Among the 37 isolated strains, 34 were from lakes (Šatrinci, Ludaš, Panonija, Krivaja, Pecs, Kapetanski rit, Pavlovci, Kovacsszenaja, Dobrodol, Vranjaš, Borkovac, Hermann Otto, Sot, Šelevrenac, Zobnatica, Palić, Orfui, Jarkovci, Čonoplja and 3 were from rivers (Danube, Sava. The strains were identified by phenotypic characteristic or by the VITEK2 system and confirmed by PCR using 23S rRNA species-specific oligos. The strains showed a high genetic variability, displaying a variety of RAPD profiles. Our results reveal for the first time a high prevalence of genetically diverse P. shigelloides populations in surface waters located in the temperate climate of central and southeastern Europe. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI 172058

  8. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangay Dorji

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl, with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas.

  9. Variability in abundance of temperate reef fishes estimated by visual census.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo J Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Identifying sources of sampling variation and quantifying their magnitude is critical to the interpretation of ecological field data. Yet, most monitoring programs of reef fish populations based on underwater visual censuses (UVC consider only a few of the factors that may influence fish counts, such as the diver or census methodology. Recent studies, however, have drawn attention to a broader range of processes that introduce variability at different temporal scales. This study analyzes the magnitude of different sources of variation in UVCs of temperate reef fishes off Patagonia (Argentina. The variability associated with time-of-day, tidal state, and time elapsed between censuses (minutes, days, weeks and months was quantified for censuses conducted on the five most conspicuous and common species: Pinguipes brasilianus, Pseudopercis semifasciata, Sebastes oculatus, Acanthistius patachonicus and Nemadactylus bergi. Variance components corresponding to spatial heterogeneity and to the different temporal scales were estimated using nested random models. The levels of variability estimated for the different species were related to their life history attributes and behavior. Neither time-of-day nor tidal state had a significant effect on counts, except for the influence of tide on P. brasilianus. Spatial heterogeneity was the dominant source of variance in all but one species. Among the temporal scales, the intra-annual variation was the highest component for most species due to marked seasonal fluctuations in abundance, followed by the weekly and the instantaneous variation; the daily component was not significant. The variability between censuses conducted at different tidal levels and time-of-day was similar in magnitude to the instantaneous variation, reinforcing the conclusion that stochastic variation at very short time scales is non-negligible and should be taken into account in the design of monitoring programs and experiments. The present

  10. Co-ordinated research programme on application of stable isotope tracer methods to studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in malnourished populations of developing countries. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The use of isotopes has revolutionized the field of human nutrition research, but has been of greatest benefit to industrialized countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring programmes using isotopic and related technologies in human nutrition research to address issues that are of priority to developing countries. Scientists participating in the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Malnourished Populations of Developing Countries'' are conducting research on the interaction between infection and amino acid metabolism, particularly the potential diversion of substrates from anabolic pathways to fight infection in marginally nourished children during periods of infections. This topic is of great importance to the nutritional status of children in developing countries, who frequently or chronically have infections and who, as a consequence, may have alterations in nutrient requirements. The CRP has developed and implemented a standardized protocol for measuring leucine oxidation during infection in 8 different countries. The CRP is expected to contribute important new knowledge about interactions between protein utilization, the stresses of unhygienic environments, and infections in marginally nourished people. This information is expected to be applicable to efforts to increase efficient utilization of limited food resources in developing countries. Another highlight of the CRP is that it represents an international team of nutrition scientists who together are building nutritional biology research capabilities in developing countries. Refs, figs, tabs

  11. Co-ordinated research programme on application of stable isotope tracer methods to studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in malnourished populations of developing countries. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The use of isotopes has revolutionized the field of human nutrition research, but has been of greatest benefit to industrialized countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring programmes using isotopic and related technologies in human nutrition research to address issues that are of priority to developing countries. Scientists participating in the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ``Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Malnourished Populations of Developing Countries`` are conducting research on the interaction between infection and amino acid metabolism, particularly the potential diversion of substrates from anabolic pathways to fight infection in marginally nourished children during periods of infections. This topic is of great importance to the nutritional status of children in developing countries, who frequently or chronically have infections and who, as a consequence, may have alterations in nutrient requirements. The CRP has developed and implemented a standardized protocol for measuring leucine oxidation during infection in 8 different countries. The CRP is expected to contribute important new knowledge about interactions between protein utilization, the stresses of unhygienic environments, and infections in marginally nourished people. This information is expected to be applicable to efforts to increase efficient utilization of limited food resources in developing countries. Another highlight of the CRP is that it represents an international team of nutrition scientists who together are building nutritional biology research capabilities in developing countries. Refs, figs, tabs.

  12. A resolvase-like protein is requered for the site-specific integration of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bettina; Brøndsted, Lone; Vogensen, Finn K.

    1996-01-01

    upstream of attP. The N-terminal 150 to 1180 amino acids of Orf1 showed 38 to 44% similarity to the resolvase group of site-specific integrases, while no similarity to know proteins was found in the C-terminal end. Bacteriophage 'TP901-1 therefore contains a unique integration system that does not resemble...... the Int class of site-specific integrases usually found in temperate bacteriophages. The constructed integration vector, pBC170, integrates into the chromosomal attachment site very efficiently and forms stable transformants with a frequency corresponding to 20% of the transformation efficiency....

  13. Joints in Tempered Glass Using Glass Dowel Discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    One of the major reasons for using glass in structures is its transparency; however, traditional mechanical joints such as friction joints and steel dowel pinned connections are compromising the transparency. The present paper describes a novel joint which is practically maintaining the complete...... transparency of the glass. This is achieved by using a dowel disc made entirely of tempered glass. The concept of the joint is proved by pilot tests and numerical models. From the work it is seen that the load-carrying capacity of such a connection is similar to what is found for traditionally in-plane loaded...

  14. Biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in a deep-sea, temperate food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romero, Sonia; Herrero, Laura; Fernández, Mario; Gómara, Belén; Acuña, José Luis

    2017-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in a temperate, deep-sea ecosystem, the Avilés submarine Canyon (AC; Cantabrian Sea, Southern Bay of Biscay). There was an increase of contaminant concentration with the trophic level of the organisms, as calculated from stable nitrogen isotope data (δ 15 N). Such biomagnification was only significant for the pelagic food web and its magnitude was highly dependent on the type of top predators included in the analysis. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) for PCB-153 in the pelagic food web (spanning four trophic levels) was 6.2 or 2.2, depending on whether homeotherm top predators (cetaceans and seabirds) were included or not in the analysis, respectively. Since body size is significantly correlated with δ 15 N, it can be used as a proxy to estimate trophic magnification, what can potentially lead to a simple and convenient method to calculate the TMF. In spite of their lower biomagnification, deep-sea fishes showed higher concentrations than their shallower counterparts, although those differences were not significant. In summary, the AC fauna exhibits contaminant levels comparable or lower than those reported in other systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Centennial-scale reductions in nitrogen availability in temperate forests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlan, Kendra K.; Gerhart, Laci M.; Battles, John J.; Craine, Joseph M.; Elmore, Andrew J.; Higuera, Phil E.; Mack, Michelle M; McNeil, Brendan E.; Nelson, David M.; Pederson, Neil; Perakis, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Forests cover 30% of the terrestrial Earth surface and are a major component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Humans have doubled the amount of global reactive nitrogen (N), increasing deposition of N onto forests worldwide. However, other global changes—especially climate change and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations—are increasing demand for N, the element limiting primary productivity in temperate forests, which could be reducing N availability. To determine the long-term, integrated effects of global changes on forest N cycling, we measured stable N isotopes in wood, a proxy for N supply relative to demand, on large spatial and temporal scales across the continental U.S.A. Here, we show that forest N availability has generally declined across much of the U.S. since at least 1850 C.E. with cool, wet forests demonstrating the greatest declines. Across sites, recent trajectories of N availability were independent of recent atmospheric N deposition rates, implying a minor role for modern N deposition on the trajectory of N status of North American forests. Our results demonstrate that current trends of global changes are likely to be consistent with forest oligotrophication into the foreseeable future, further constraining forest C fixation and potentially storage.

  16. Family values in the age of genomics: comparative analyses of temperate bacteriophage HK022.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, R A; Gottesmann, M E; Hendrix, R W; Little, J W

    1999-01-01

    HK022 is a temperate coliphage related to phage lambda. Its chromosome has been completely sequenced, and several aspects of its life cycle have been intensively studied. In the overall arrangement, expression, and function of most of its genes, HK022 broadly resembles lambda and other members of the lambda family. Upon closer view, significant differences emerge. The differences reveal alternative strategies used by related phages to cope with similar problems and illuminate previously unknown regulatory and structural motifs. HK022 prophages protect lysogens from superinfection by producing a sequence-specific RNA binding protein that prematurely terminates nascent transcripts of infecting phage. It uses a novel RNA-based mechanism to antiterminate its own early transcription. The HK022 protein shell is strengthened by a complex pattern of covalent subunit interlinking to form a unitary structure that resembles chain-mail armour. Its integrase and repressor proteins are similar to those of lambda, but the differences provide insights into the evolution of biological specificity and the elements needed for construction of a stable genetic switch.

  17. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for non-destructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Materials Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing

  18. Spatial and temporal soil moisture resource partitioning by trees and grasses in a temperate savanna, Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, Jake F; McPherson, Guy R

    1997-10-01

    Stable isotope analysis was used to determine sources of water used by coexisting trees and grasses in a temperate savanna dominated by Quercus emoryi Torr. We predicted that (1) tree seedlings and bunchgrasses utilize shallow sources of soil water, (2) mature savanna trees use deeper sources of water, and (3) trees switch from shallow to deep water sources within 1 year of germination. We found that Q. emoryi trees, saplings, and seedlings (about 2 months, 1 year, and 2 years old), and the dominant bunchgrass [Trachypogon montufari (H.B.K.) Nees.] utilized seasonally available moisture from different depths within the soil profile depending on size/age relationships. Sapling and mature Q. emoryi acquired water from >50 cm deep, 2-month-old seedlings utilized water from emoryi within extant stands of native grasses. The potential for subsequent interaction between Q. emoryi and native grasses was evidenced by similar patterns of soil water use by 1- and 2-year-old seedlings and grasses. Q. emoryi seedlings did not switch from shallow to deep sources of soil water within 2 years of germination: water use by these seedlings apparently becomes independent of water use by grasses after 2 years of age. Finally, older trees (saplings, mature trees) use water from deeper soil layers than grasses, which may facilitate the stable coexistence of mature trees and grasses. Potential shifts in the seasonality of precipitation may alter interactions between woody plants and grasses within temperate savannas characterized by bimodal precipitation regimes: reductions in summer precipitation or soil moisture may be particularly detrimental to warm-season grasses and seedlings of Q. emoryi.

  19. Comparative life history of the south temperate Cape Penduline Tit (Anthoscopus minutus) and north temperate Remizidae species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Penn; Frauenknecht, Bernhard D.; du Plessis, Morné A.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the breeding biology of the south temperate Cape Penduline Tit (Anthoscopus minutus) in order to compare its life history traits with those of related north temperate members of the family Remizidae, namely the Eurasian Penduline Tit (Remiz pendulinus) and the Verdin (Auriparus flaviceps). We used this comparison to test key predictions of three hypotheses thought to explain latitudinal variation in life histories among bird species—the seasonality and food limitation hypothesis, nest predation hypothesis and adult mortality hypothesis. Contrary to the general pattern of smaller clutch size and lower adult mortality among south-temperate birds living in less seasonal environments, the Cape Penduline Tit has a clutch size larger than that of the Verdin and similar to that of the Eurasian Penduline Tit, and higher adult mortality than both of the other two species. The most notable difference between the Cape Penduline Tit and the two other species is in parental behavioural strategy, with the former exhibiting bi-parental care at all stages of nesting together with facultative cooperative breeding, whereas the Eurasian Penduline Tit has uni-parental care and the Verdin has a combination of female-only incubation but bi-parental nestling care. Consequently, in comparison to the other two species, the Cape Penduline Tit exhibits greater nest attentiveness during incubation, a similar per-nestling feeding rate and greater post-fledging survival. Its relatively large clutch size, high parental investment and associated high adult mortality in a less seasonal environment are consistent with key predictions of the adult mortality hypothesis but not with key predictions of the seasonality and food limitation hypothesis in explaining life history variation among Remizidae species. These results add to a growing body of evidence of the importance of age-specific mortality in shaping life history evolution.

  20. Reproductive output of a non-zooxanthellate temperate coral is unaffected by temperature along an extended latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Airi

    Full Text Available Global environmental change, in marine ecosystems, is associated with concurrent shifts in water temperature, circulation, stratification, and nutrient input, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Variations in seawater temperature might alter physiological functioning, reproductive efficiency, and demographic traits of marine organisms, leading to shifts in population size and abundance. Differences in temperature tolerances between organisms can identify individual and ecological characteristics, which make corals able to persist and adapt in a climate change context. Here we investigated the possible effect of temperature on the reproductive output of the solitary non-zooxanthellate temperate coral Leptopsammia pruvoti, along an 8° latitudinal gradient. Samples have been collected in six populations along the gradient and each polyp was examined using histological and cyto-histometric analyses. We coupled our results with previous studies on the growth, demography, and calcification of L. pruvoti along the same temperature gradient, and compared them with those of another sympatric zooxanthellate coral Balanophyllia europaea to understand which trophic strategy makes the coral more tolerant to increasing temperature. The non-zooxanthellate species seemed to be quite tolerant to temperature increases, probably due to the lack of the symbiosis with zooxanthellae. To our knowledge, this is the first field investigation of the relationship between reproductive output and temperature increase of a temperate asymbiotic coral, providing novel insights into the poorly studied non-zooxanthellate scleractinians.

  1. Reproductive output of a non-zooxanthellate temperate coral is unaffected by temperature along an extended latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airi, Valentina; Prantoni, Selena; Calegari, Marco; Lisini Baldi, Veronica; Gizzi, Francesca; Marchini, Chiara; Levy, Oren; Falini, Giuseppe; Dubinsky, Zvy; Goffredo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Global environmental change, in marine ecosystems, is associated with concurrent shifts in water temperature, circulation, stratification, and nutrient input, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Variations in seawater temperature might alter physiological functioning, reproductive efficiency, and demographic traits of marine organisms, leading to shifts in population size and abundance. Differences in temperature tolerances between organisms can identify individual and ecological characteristics, which make corals able to persist and adapt in a climate change context. Here we investigated the possible effect of temperature on the reproductive output of the solitary non-zooxanthellate temperate coral Leptopsammia pruvoti, along an 8° latitudinal gradient. Samples have been collected in six populations along the gradient and each polyp was examined using histological and cyto-histometric analyses. We coupled our results with previous studies on the growth, demography, and calcification of L. pruvoti along the same temperature gradient, and compared them with those of another sympatric zooxanthellate coral Balanophyllia europaea to understand which trophic strategy makes the coral more tolerant to increasing temperature. The non-zooxanthellate species seemed to be quite tolerant to temperature increases, probably due to the lack of the symbiosis with zooxanthellae. To our knowledge, this is the first field investigation of the relationship between reproductive output and temperature increase of a temperate asymbiotic coral, providing novel insights into the poorly studied non-zooxanthellate scleractinians.

  2. Genetic structure and breeding system of a rare understory herb, Dysosma versipellis (Berberidaceae), from temperate deciduous forests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bi-Cai; Fu, Cheng-Xing; Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Zhou, Shi-Liang; Comes, Hans Peter

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the role of Quaternary refugial isolation in allopatric (incipient) speciation of East Asian temperate forest biotas, we analyzed amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and the breeding system in Dysosma versipellis. The study revealed that D. versipellis is mostly self-incompatible, genetically highly subdivided and depauperate at the population level (e.g., Φ(ST) = 0.572/H(E) = 0.083), and characterized by a low pollen-to-seed migration ratio (r ≈ 4.0). The latter outcome likely reflects limited pollen flow in a low-seed disperser whose hypothesized "sapromyophilous" flowers undergo scarce, inefficient, and likely specialized cross-pollination by small Anoplodera beetles, rather than carrion flies as assumed previously. In consequence, fruit set in D. versipellis was strongly pollen-limited. Our AFLP data support the hypothesis of a long-standing cessation of gene flow between western and central eastern populations, consistent with previous chloroplast DNA data. This phylogeographic pattern supports the role of the Sichuan Basin as a floristic boundary separating the Sino-Himalayan vs. Sino-Japanese Forest subkingdoms. Our genetic data of D. versipellis also imply that temperate deciduous forest elements to the west and the east of this basin responded differently to Quaternary climate change, which may have triggered or is leading to allopatric (incipient) speciation.

  3. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  4. Nitrous oxide emission reduction in temperate biochar-amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, R.; Hüppi, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In highly weathered tropical soils laboratory incubations of soil-biochar mixtures revealed substantial reductions for nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In contrast, evidence is scarce for temperate soils. In a three-factorial laboratory incubation experiment two different temperate agricultural soils were amended with green waste and coffee grounds biochar. N2O and CO2 emissions were measured at the beginning and end of a three month incubation. The experiments were conducted under three different conditions (no additional nutrients, glucose addition, and nitrate and glucose addition) representing different field conditions. We found mean N2O emission reductions of 60 % compared to soils without addition of biochar. The reduction depended on biochar type and soil type as well as on the age of the samples. CO2 emissions were slightly reduced, too. NO3- but not NH4+ concentrations were significantly reduced shortly after biochar incorporation. Despite the highly significant suppression of N2O emissions biochar effects should not be transferred one-to-one to field conditions but need to be tested accordingly.

  5. Stable configurations in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronski, Jared C.; DeVille, Lee; Ferguson, Timothy; Livesay, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present and analyze a model of opinion formation on an arbitrary network whose dynamics comes from a global energy function. We study the global and local minimizers of this energy, which we call stable opinion configurations, and describe the global minimizers under certain assumptions on the friendship graph. We show a surprising result that the number of stable configurations is not necessarily monotone in the strength of connection in the social network, i.e. the model sometimes supports more stable configurations when the interpersonal connections are made stronger.

  6. Development of Stable Isotope Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Han, Jae Min

    2009-03-01

    KAERI has obtained an advanced technology with singular originality for laser stable isotope separation. Objectives for this project are to get production technology of Tl-203 stable isotope used for medical application and are to establish the foundation of the pilot system, while we are taking aim at 'Laser Isotope Separation Technology to make resistance to the nuclear proliferation'. And we will contribute to ensuring a nuclear transparency in the world society by taking part in a practical group of NSG and being collaboration with various international groups related to stable isotope separation technology

  7. 46 CFR 54.25-25 - Welding of quenched and tempered steels (modifies UHT-82).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding of quenched and tempered steels (modifies UHT-82... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-25 Welding of quenched and tempered steels (modifies UHT-82). (a) The qualification of welding procedures, welders, and...

  8. Rumen pH and NH3-N concentration of sheep fed temperate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on ruminal pH and NH. 3-N concentration of wethers consuming a fresh temperate pasture (Lotus corniculatus) in metabolism cages. Sixteen Corriedale x Milchschaf wethers were fed temperate pastures ad libitum and were ...

  9. Effects of contrasting omnivorous fish on submerged macrophyte biomass in temperate lakes: a mesocosm experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbosch, M.; Bakker, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    1.Freshwater fish can affect aquatic vegetation directly by consuming macrophytes or indirectly by changing water quality. However, most fish in the temperate climate zone have an omnivorous diet. The impact of fish as aquatic herbivores in temperate climates therefore remains unclear and depends on

  10. The effects of boro-tempering heat treatment on microstructural properties of ductile iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayali, Yusuf; Yalcin, Yilmaz

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effects of boro-tempering heat treatment on microstructural properties of ductile iron were investigated. Test samples with dimensions of 10 x 10 x 55 mm were boronized at 900 o C for 1, 3 and 5 h and then tempered at four different temperatures (250, 300, 350 and 450 o C) for 1 h. Both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to reveal the microstructural details of coating and matrix of boro-tempered ductile iron. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the constituents of the coating layer. The boride layer formed on the surface of boro-tempered ductile cast iron is tooth shape form and consisted of FeB and Fe 2 B phases. The thickness of boride layer increases as the boronizing time increases and tempering temperature decreases. Tempering temperature is more effective than boronizing time on the matrix structure. Boro-tempering heat treatment reduces the formation of lower and upper ausferritic matrix temperature according to classical austempering. This causes formation of upper ausferritic matrix in the sample when tempered at 300 o C. This is in contrast to general case which is the formation of lower ausferritic matrix via austempering at this temperature.

  11. Fine-root mortality rates in a temperate forest: Estimates using radiocarbon data and numerical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, W.J.; Gaudinski, J.B.; Torn, M.S.; Joslin, J.D.; Hanson, P.J.

    2009-09-01

    We used an inadvertent whole-ecosystem {sup 14}C label at a temperate forest in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA to develop a model (Radix1.0) of fine-root dynamics. Radix simulates two live-root pools, two dead-root pools, non-normally distributed root mortality turnover times, a stored carbon (C) pool, and seasonal growth and respiration patterns. We applied Radix to analyze measurements from two root size classes (< 0.5 and 0.5-2.0 mm diameter) and three soil-depth increments (O horizon, 0-15 cm and 30-60 cm). Predicted live-root turnover times were < 1 yr and 10 yr for short- and long-lived pools, respectively. Dead-root pools had decomposition turnover times of 2 yr and 10 yr. Realistic characterization of C flows through fine roots requires a model with two live fine-root populations, two dead fine-root pools, and root respiration. These are the first fine-root turnover time estimates that take into account respiration, storage, seasonal growth patterns, and non-normal turnover time distributions. The presence of a root population with decadal turnover times implies a lower amount of belowground net primary production used to grow fine-root tissue than is currently predicted by models with a single annual turnover pool.

  12. Investigation on tempering of granular bainite in an offshore platform steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yanlei; Jia, Tao; Zhang, Xiangjun [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, No. 11, Lane 3, Wenhua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Zhenyu, E-mail: zyliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, No. 11, Lane 3, Wenhua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968-0521 (United States)

    2015-02-25

    Granular bainite, where M-A constituents dispersed in bainitic ferrite matrix usually presents at the half thickness region in thermo-mechanically processed heavy gauge offshore platform steel. In the present work, the decomposition of M-A constituents during tempering at 600 °C was firstly revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, which primarily involves the precipitation of cementite, recovery and recrystallization of highly dislocated ferrite matrix. Then, the effect of tempering on mechanical properties was investigated by tempering at different temperature for 60 min. Results indicated that, at tempering temperature of 500–600 °C, large quantity of micro-alloying carbides precipitated and partially compensated the loss of strength mainly due to the decomposition of M-A constituents. Compared with the as-rolled state, the decomposition of M-A constituents and softening of bainitic ferrite matrix after tempering have resulted in higher density of microvoids and substantial plastic deformation before impact failure.

  13. Wear behavior of tempered and borided tool steels under various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Haidary, T. J.; Faleh, M. N.

    2000-01-01

    . Tool steel 61CrV5, 50 NiCr13 and X1000Cr MoV51 were used in the first stage of this investigation. They have been treated as follows: boriding, boriding and tempering and hardening and tempering. The wear tests were conducted under fixed conditions (150 N/mm 2 , 0.48m/sec) with and without lubricant. The wear rate and coefficient of friction of 61Cr Si V5 steel have been studied in the second stage hoping to find the influence of working conditions on these parameters and then to compare these results with the case of hardening and tempering which is the usual case in the actual working field. The study gives a good indication about the improvement achieved in boriding and tempering cases (∼ 30%) as compared with hardening tempering cases in dry sliding conditions -∼5% with lubricating ones. (authors). 13 refs., 19 figs., 1 table

  14. Use of stable isotopes in human nutrition in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, the Laboratory of Nutrition of the Department of Animal Biology of the Faculty of Science and Technology of UCAD has been using stable isotopic techniques for nearly twenty years. Stable isotopes were applied to different target populations to measure milk production, exclusive breastfeeding, body composition, micronutrient bioavailability and total energy expenditure.The application of stable isotopic techniques in nutrition has contributed to advocacy for exclusive breastfeeding for up to 6 months in Senegal. It enabled government decision-makers to obtain essential information on the quality of foods needed for optimal effect during pregnancy and for infant growth and the results were reflected in the national policy on micronutrient supplementation.

  15. Application of stable isotopes in ecological research : it's all elemental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Stable isotopes have been used traditionally in the physical sciences, primarily in geochemistry, sedimentology, and oceanography. Increasingly, however, stable isotopes are also being used in the biological sciences. Application of stable isotopes in ecological studies can provide new and innovative ways of examining a host of topics of fundamental importance to biologists. These topics include, among others, feeding ecology and food webs, nutrient flow and assimilation, habitat use, migration patterns, and distribution and discrimination of species subpopulations. Furthermore, ecological research with isotopes can be applied at many levels (i.e. tissue and organ, whole animal, population, community, and ecosystem). (author). 38 refs., 2 figs

  16. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  17. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  18. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for nondestructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Material Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  19. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  20. Quantitative consideration for the tempering effect during multi-pass thermal cycle in HAZ of low-alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lina; Nakabayashi, Yuma; Saida, Kazuyoshi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi; Kameyama, Masashi; Hirano, Shinro; Chigusa, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    A new Thermal Cycle Tempering Parameter (TCTP) to deal with the tempering effect during multi-pass thermal cycles has been proposed by extending Larson-Miller parameter (LMP). Experimental result revealed that the hardness in synthetic HAZ of the low alloy steel subjected to multi tempering thermal cycles has a good linear relationship with TCTP. By using this relationship, the hardness of the low-alloy steel reheated with tempering thermal cycles can be predicted when the original hardness is known. (author)

  1. Corrosion fatigue in nitrocarburized quenched and tempered steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, M. Karim; Dengel, D.

    1996-05-01

    In order to investigate the fatigue strength and fracture mechanism of salt bath nitrocarburized steels, specimens of the steels SAE 4135 and SAE 4140, in a quenched and tempered state, and additionally in a salt bath nitrocarburized and oxidizing cooled state as well as in a polished (after the oxidizing cooling) and renewed oxidized state, were subjected to comparative rotating bending fatigue tests in inert oil and 5 pct NaCl solution. In addition, some of the quenched and tempered specimens of SAE 4135 material were provided with an approximately 50-μm-thick electroless Ni-P layer, in order to compare corrosion fatigue behavior between the Ni-P layer and the nitride layers. Long-life corrosion fatigue tests of SAE 4135 material were carried out under small stresses in the long-life range up to 108 cycles with a test frequency of 100 Hz. Fatigue tests of SAE 4140 material were carried out in the range of finite life (low-cycle range) with a test frequency of 13 Hz. The results show that the 5 pct NaCl environment drastically reduced fatigue life, but nitrocarburizing plus oxidation treatment was found to improve the corrosion fatigue life over that of untreated and Ni-P coated specimens. The beneficial effect of nitrocarburizing followed by oxidation treatment on cor-rosion fatigue life results from the protection rendered by the compound layer by means of a well-sealed oxide layer, whereby the pores present in the compound layer fill up with oxides. The role of inclusions in initiating fatigue cracks was investigated. It was found that under corrosion fatigue conditions, the fatigue cracks started at cavities along the interfaces of MnS inclusions and matrix in the case of quenched and tempered specimens. The nitrocarburized specimens, however, showed a superposition of pitting corrosion and corrosion fatigue in which pores and nonmetallic inclusions in the compound layer play a predominant role concerning the formation of pits in the substrate.

  2. Microevolution of European temperate oaks in response to environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This review reconstructs microevolutionary processes that allowed long-lived species as temperate oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) to cope with climate change since the last glacial maximum, by assembling insights from complementary synchronic and allochronic approaches. Paleobotanical and genetic investigations show that oaks migrated at larger velocities than expected, thanks to long-distance rare events and most likely human interferences. Hybridization was a key mechanism accelerating migration and enhancing species succession. Common garden experiments and genome wide association studies demonstrated that diversifying selection across large environmental gradients contributed to rapid local adaptation. Finally the review explores how lessons taken from past evolutionary scenarios may help to predict future responses of oaks to ongoing climate change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Soil Carbon Dynamics in Temperate Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ginzburg Ozeri, Shimon

    Soils contain the largest fraction of terrestrial carbon (C). Understanding the factors regulating the decomposition and storage of soil organic matter (SOM) is essential for predictions of the C sink strength of the terrestrial environment in the light of global change. Elevated long-term nitrog...... implications for modelling the carbon sink-strength of temperate forests under global change.......Soils contain the largest fraction of terrestrial carbon (C). Understanding the factors regulating the decomposition and storage of soil organic matter (SOM) is essential for predictions of the C sink strength of the terrestrial environment in the light of global change. Elevated long-term nitrogen...... (N) deposition into forest ecosystems has been increasing globally and was hypothesized to raise soil organic C (SOC) stocks by increasing forest productivity and by reducing SOM decomposition. Yet, these effects of N deposition on forest SOC stocks are uncertain and largely based on observations...

  4. Temperance internationalism: Guy Hayler and the World Prohibition Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, David M

    2006-01-01

    The World Prohibition Federation, organized in 1909, and the International Record, published from 1917 to 1968, sought to internationalize the temperance movement by collecting and disseminating anti-drink news from around the globe. The Federation was based in London, and most of its activities were English-speakers. A British reformer named Guy Hayler served as its honorary president for thirty years and edited the "International Record" until his death in 1943. The Federation emphasized that prohibitionists comprised a moral community, united regardless of race, religion, nationality, or politics. Poorly funded, the Federation had difficulty competing with the World League against Alcoholism after the Anti-Saloon League of America organized this rival propaganda society in 1919.

  5. Influence of titanium on the tempering structure of austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghuezaiel, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    The microstructure of titanium-stabilized and initially deformed (approximately 20%) austenitic stainless steels used in structures of fast neutrons reactors has been studied after one hour duration annealings (500 0 C) by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, microhardness and transmission electron microscopy. The studied alloys were either of industrial type CND 17-13 (0.23 to 0.45 wt% Ti) or pure steels (18% Cr, 14% Ni, 0 or 0.3 wt% Ti). During tempering, the pure steels presented some restauration before recristallization. In the industrial steels, only recristallization occurred, and this only in the most deformed steel. Precipitation does not occur in the titanium-free pure steel. In industrial steels, many intermetallic phases are formed when recristallization starts [fr

  6. Temporal flexibility of reproduction in temperate-breeding dabbling ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.

    2000-01-01

    I compared nesting intervals during three consecutive years in five species of temperate-nesting dabbling ducks (Mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], Northern Pintail [Anas acuta], Northern Shoveler [Anas clypeata], Blue-winged Teal [Anas discors], Gadwall [Anas strepera]) and assessed whether differences existed in timing of refractoriness. Most nesting by females of all five species ended by the summer solstice. Nesting ended earliest for Northern Shovelers and Northern Pintails and latest for Gadwalls. Some Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls continued to nest into mid- and late summer, whereas Northern Shovelers and Northern pintails did not. Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls accounted for 99% (81 of 82) of flightless broods resulting from nests initiated during mid- or late summer in North Dakota and 98% (58 of 59) of flightless juveniles shot on or after 1 October by a random sample of duck hunters from across the United States. Early cessation of breeding by Northern Shovelers may have evolved in response to the species' limited flexibility in diet. Photorefractory mechanisms that limit most breeding to spring presumably evolved in response to severe constraints on reproductive success when nesting continued through summer(e.g. mortality of late-hatched young and molting females due to low temperatures). Interspecific differences in photosensitivity may account for variation in timing of cessation of nesting in late spring, but controlled experiments are needed to assess the possible role of non-photic influences. My results suggest that the refractory mechanisms controlling length of the breeding in temperate-nesting dabbling ducks are more varied and complex than previously thought, with non-photic influences (e.g. water conditions, food availability, food quality) having a larger role than indicated by earlier research.

  7. Influence of tempering on mechanical properties of ferritic martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Y. B.; Han, C. H.; Choi, B. K.; Lee, D. W.; Kim, T. K.; Jeong, Y. H.; Cho, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the mid-1980s research programs for development of low activation materials began. This is based on the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Guidelines (10CFR part 61) that were developed to reduce long-lived radioactive isotopes, which allows nuclear reactor waste to be disposed of by shallow land burial when removed from service. Development of low activation materials is also key issue in nuclear fusion systems, as the structural components can became radioactive due to nuclear transmutation caused by exposure to high dose neutron irradiation. Reduced-activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steels have been developed in the leading countries in nuclear fusion technology, and are now being considered as primary candidate material for the test blanket module (TBM) in the international thermonuclear experiment reactor (ITER). RAFM steels developed so far (e.g., EUROFER 97 and F82H) meet the requirement for structural application in the ITER. However, if such alloys are used in the DEMO or commercial fusion reactor is still unclear, as the reactors are designed to operate under much severe conditions (i.e., higher outlet coolant temperature and neutron fluences). Such harsh operating conditions lead to development of RAFM steels with better creep and irradiation resistances. Mechanical properties of RAFM steels are strongly affected by microstructural features including the distribution, size and type of precipitates, dislocation density and grain size. For a given composition, such microstructural characteristics are determined mainly by thermo-mechanical process employed to fabricate the final product, and accordingly a final heat treatment, i.e., tempering is the key step to control the microstructure and mechanical properties. In the present work, we investigated mechanical properties of the RAFM steels with a particular attention being paid to effects of tempering on impact and creep properties

  8. Seasonality of temperate forest photosynthesis and daytime respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, R; Munger, J W; McManus, J B; Nelson, D D; Zahniser, M S; Davidson, E A; Wofsy, S C; Saleska, S R

    2016-06-30

    Terrestrial ecosystems currently offset one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions because of a slight imbalance between global terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration. Understanding what controls these two biological fluxes is therefore crucial to predicting climate change. Yet there is no way of directly measuring the photosynthesis or daytime respiration of a whole ecosystem of interacting organisms; instead, these fluxes are generally inferred from measurements of net ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE), in a way that is based on assumed ecosystem-scale responses to the environment. The consequent view of temperate deciduous forests (an important CO2 sink) is that, first, ecosystem respiration is greater during the day than at night; and second, ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency peaks after leaf expansion in spring and then declines, presumably because of leaf ageing or water stress. This view has underlain the development of terrestrial biosphere models used in climate prediction and of remote sensing indices of global biosphere productivity. Here, we use new isotopic instrumentation to determine ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in a temperate deciduous forest over a three-year period. We find that ecosystem respiration is lower during the day than at night-the first robust evidence of the inhibition of leaf respiration by light at the ecosystem scale. Because they do not capture this effect, standard approaches overestimate ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in the first half of the growing season at our site, and inaccurately portray ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency. These findings revise our understanding of forest-atmosphere carbon exchange, and provide a basis for investigating how leaf-level physiological dynamics manifest at the canopy scale in other ecosystems.

  9. Social implications of residential demand response in cool temperate climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, Sarah J.; McKenna, Eoghan

    2012-01-01

    Residential electrical demand response (DR) offers the prospect of reducing the environmental impact of electricity use, and also the supply costs. However, the relatively small loads and numerous actors imply a large effort: response ratio. Residential DR may be an essential part of future smart grids, but how viable is it in the short to medium term? This paper reviews some DR concepts, then evaluates the propositions that households in cool temperate climates will be in a position to contribute to grid flexibility within the next decade, and that that they will allow some automated load control. Examples of demand response from around the world are discussed in order to assess the main considerations for cool climates. Different tariff types and forms of control are assessed in terms of what is being asked of electricity users, with a focus on real-time pricing and direct load control in energy systems with increasingly distributed resources. The literature points to the significance of thermal loads, supply mix, demand-side infrastructure, market regulation, and the framing of risks and opportunities associated with DR. In concentrating on social aspects of residential demand response, the paper complements the body of work on technical and economic potential. - Highlights: ► Demand response implies major change in governance of electricity systems. ► Households in cool temperate climates can be flexible, mainly with thermal loads. ► DR requires simple tariffs, appropriate enabling technology, education, and feedback. ► Need to test consumer acceptance of DR in specific conditions. ► Introduce tariffs with technologies e.g., TOU tariff plus DLC with electric vehicles.

  10. Modelling breast cancer tumour growth for a stable disease population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isheden, Gabriel; Humphreys, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Statistical models of breast cancer tumour progression have been used to further our knowledge of the natural history of breast cancer, to evaluate mammography screening in terms of mortality, to estimate overdiagnosis, and to estimate the impact of lead-time bias when comparing survival times between screen detected cancers and cancers found outside of screening programs. Multi-state Markov models have been widely used, but several research groups have proposed other modelling frameworks based on specifying an underlying biological continuous tumour growth process. These continuous models offer some advantages over multi-state models and have been used, for example, to quantify screening sensitivity in terms of mammographic density, and to quantify the effect of body size covariates on tumour growth and time to symptomatic detection. As of yet, however, the continuous tumour growth models are not sufficiently developed and require extensive computing to obtain parameter estimates. In this article, we provide a detailed description of the underlying assumptions of the continuous tumour growth model, derive new theoretical results for the model, and show how these results may help the development of this modelling framework. In illustrating the approach, we develop a model for mammography screening sensitivity, using a sample of 1901 post-menopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer.

  11. Reduced germination success of temperate grassland seeds sown in dung: consequences for post-dispersal seed fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotić, T; Hoffmann, M

    2016-11-01

    Endozoochory is one of the main drivers shaping temperate grassland communities by maintaining plant populations of its constituents and enabling plants to colonize new habitats. Successful endozoochorous dispersal implies that seeds not only get consumed and survive the digestive tract but are also able to develop into viable seedlings in a dung environment. We experimentally assessed the germination probability and timing of 15 annual and perennial temperate European grassland species in cattle and horse dung and in different climatic conditions (greenhouse and outdoor conditions). Interspecific variation in germinability and germination timing are found, while life strategy had only an effect on germination timing. We found adverse effects of both cattle and horse dung on the germination characteristics of all tested grassland species, but the effects of cattle dung were more pronounced. In comparison with the control treatment, fewer seeds emerged in dung and more time was needed to germinate. Also, germination metrics clearly differed between the artificial greenhouse and outdoor conditions, with generally a lower germinability in outdoor conditions. According to our results, a large cost seems to be associated with endozoochorous dispersal in this stage of the life cycle, as seed dispersal effectiveness strongly depends on the quality of the deposition site with a lowered survival and germination probability when seeds are deposited in dung. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Effect of tempering upon the tensile properties of a nanostructured bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, H.S. [University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Peet, M.J., E-mail: mjp54@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Avettand-Fènoël, M-N. [Unité Matériaux Et Transformations (UMET) UMR CNRS 8207, Université, Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve D' ASCQ (France); Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-06

    The tensile properties of a nanostructured carbide-free bainitic steel formed at 200–250 °C are compared against those after tempering sufficiently to remove the retained austenite. Although significant ductility is observed following tempering, a comparison of tempered and untempered samples shows that it is in fact reduced when a comparison is made at identical strength. The shape of the stress–strain curves shows clear evidence that the capacity for work hardening is reduced with the loss of austenite. The nanostructure of the steel transformed at 250 °C is examined by transmission electron microscopy, to compare the as-transformed to the tempered structure. In this case after tempering at 500 °C the energy absorbed during the tensile test is lower, due to the lower strength. Reduction of strength is caused by the slight coarsening of the bainite plates, and lower dislocation density after tempering. Considering the formation of carbide particles in high strength steel, impressive ductility is exhibited even in the tempered condition.

  13. Effect of tempering upon the tensile properties of a nanostructured bainitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, H.S.; Peet, M.J.; Avettand-Fènoël, M-N.; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H.

    2014-01-01

    The tensile properties of a nanostructured carbide-free bainitic steel formed at 200–250 °C are compared against those after tempering sufficiently to remove the retained austenite. Although significant ductility is observed following tempering, a comparison of tempered and untempered samples shows that it is in fact reduced when a comparison is made at identical strength. The shape of the stress–strain curves shows clear evidence that the capacity for work hardening is reduced with the loss of austenite. The nanostructure of the steel transformed at 250 °C is examined by transmission electron microscopy, to compare the as-transformed to the tempered structure. In this case after tempering at 500 °C the energy absorbed during the tensile test is lower, due to the lower strength. Reduction of strength is caused by the slight coarsening of the bainite plates, and lower dislocation density after tempering. Considering the formation of carbide particles in high strength steel, impressive ductility is exhibited even in the tempered condition

  14. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL TEMPERING TEMPERATURE IN HARD FACING OF THE FORGING DIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mutavdžić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Here is analyzed selection of the optimal technology for heat treatment during the reparation of the damaged forging dies. Those tools are manufactured from alloyed tool steels for operation at elevated temperatures. Those steels are prone to self-hardening, so in reparatory hard-facing they must be preheated, additionally heated and tempered. During the tempering, in temperature interval 500-600°C, a secondary increase of hardness and decrease of impact toughness occurs, the so-called reversible tempering brittleness. Here is shown that it can be avoided by application of metallurgical and technological measures. Metallurgical measures assume adequate selection of steels. Since the considered steels are per se prone to tempering brittleness, we conducted experimental investigations to define the technological measures to avoid it. Tests on models were conducted: tempering from different temperatures, slow heating and cooling in still air. Hardness measurements showed that at 520°C, the secondary increase of hardness occurs, with drop of the impact toughness. Additional hard-facing tests included samples tempered at various regimes. Samples were prepared for mechanical and metallographic investigations. Results presented illustrate influence of additional heat treatment on structure, hardness and mechanical properties of the hard-faced layers. This enabled establishing the possibility of avoiding the tempering brittleness through technological measures.

  15. Determination of the optimal tempering temperature in hard facing of the forging dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mutavdžić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Here is analyzed selection of the optimal technology for heat treatment during the reparation of the damaged forging dies. Those tools are manufactured from alloyed tool steels for operation at elevated temperatures. Those steels are prone to self-hardening, so in reparatory hard-facing they must be preheated, additionally heated and tempered. During the tempering, in temperature interval 500-600°C, a secondary increase of hardness and decrease of impact toughness occurs, the so-called reversible tempering brittleness. Here is shown that it can be avoided by application of metallurgical and technological measures. Metallurgical measures assume adequate selection of steels. Since the considered steels are per se prone to tempering brittleness, we conducted experimental investigations to define the technological measures to avoid it. Tests on models were conducted: tempering from different temperatures, slow heating and cooling in still air. Hardness measurements showed that at 520°C, the secondary increase of hardness occurs, with drop of the impact toughness. Additional hard-facing tests included samples tempered at various regimes. Samples were prepared for mechanical and metallographic investigations. Results presented illustrate influence of additional heat treatment on structure, hardness and mechanical properties of the hard-faced layers. This enabled establishing the possibility of avoiding the tempering brittleness through technological measures. 

  16. Effect of tempering on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a medium carbon bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, J. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, F.C., E-mail: zfc@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yang, X.W. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Lv, B. [College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wu, K.M. [International Research Institute for Steel Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-16

    The effect of tempering on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a medium carbon bainitic steel has been investigated through optical microscopy, electron back-scattered diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. A nano-level microstructure containing plate-like bainitic ferrite and film-like retained austenite is obtained by isothermal transformation at Ms+10 °C followed by tempering within 240–450 °C. Results show that the sample tempered at 340 °C occupies the optimal balance of strength and toughness by maintaining a certain level of plasticity; samples tempered at 320 °C and 360 °C with low and high yield ratio come second. The microstructure of the steel is not sensitive to tempering temperatures before 360 °C. When the temperature is increased to 450 °C, the significantly coarsened bainitic ferrite plate and the occurrence of a small quantity of carbide precipitation account for its low toughness. The amount of retained austenite increases with the tempering temperature before 400 °C, followed by decreasing with further increase in the temperature. This behavior is related to the competition between retained austenite further transforming into bainite and decomposing into carbide during tempering.

  17. Feeding ecology of Rhabdosargus holubi (family Sparidae) in multiple vegetated refugia of selected warm temperate estuaries in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, L.; Strydom, N. A.; Perissinotto, R.; Adams, J. B.; Lemley, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Estuarine marine-dependent species, such as Rhabdosargus holubi, depend greatly on structured sheltered environments and important feeding areas provided by estuaries. In this study, we investigate the ecological feeding niches of the estuarine marine-dependent sparid, R. holubi, by using conventional stomach contents and stable isotope methods (δ13C and δ15N signatures). The study has been carried out in five temperate estuaries in order to understand how fish feed in multiple intertidal vegetated habitats. These habitats included the submerged seagrass, Zostera capensis, and both previously unexplored small intertidal cord grass, Spartina maritima, and the common reed, Phragmites australis. The diet varied amongst habitats, estuaries and fish sizes and data consistently confirmed their omnivorous diet relating to ontogenetic niche shifts. Stomach contents revealed the importance of benthic prey within both the S. maritima and P. australis habitats in the absence of large intertidal vegetation, available during low tides. Similarly, isotopic mixing models showed that R. holubi from these habitats have a greater isotopic niche compared to the Z. capensis habitat, due to their limited availability during the falling tide, suggesting migration between available habitats. Stable isotopes confirmed that R. holubi actively feeds on the epiphytic algae (especially diatoms) covering the leaves and stalks of plant matter, as supported by Bayesian mixing models. These findings add to the current knowledge regarding habitat partitioning in multiple aquatic vegetation types critical to fish ecology and the effective management and conservation of estuaries.

  18. [Current Treatment of Stable Angina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, Stefan; Jamshidi, Peiman; Cuculi, Florim

    2015-06-17

    Current therapy for stable angina includes surgical and percutaneous revascularization, which has been improved tremendously over the last decades. Smoking cessation and regular exercise are the cornerstone for prevention of further cerebrovascular events. Medical treatment includes treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and antithrombotic management, which can be a challenge in some patients. Owing to the fact the coronary revascularization is readily accessible these days in many industrialized countries, the importance of antianginal therapy has decreased over the past years. This article presents a contemporary overview of the management of patients with stable angina in the year 2015.

  19. Effect of microalloying elements on microstructure and properties of quenched and tempered constructional steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingshen; Huang, Leqing; Di, Guobiao; Wang, Yanfeng; Yang, Yongda; Ma, Changwen

    2017-09-01

    The effects of microalloying elements Nb, V and Ti on microstructure and properties of quenched and tempered steel were studied. Results showed that the addition of microalloying elements led to the formation of bainite and increased strength, while the austenization and ferrite transformation temperature was barely affected, i.e. 10°C. Microalloying elements shortened the incubation time for bainite transformation by refinement of austenite grain, and decreased the hardenability by forming carbides and therefore reducing the carbon content of super-cooled austenite. Either of them promoted the bainite transformation. The better tempering stability was ascribed to the as hot-rolled bainite microstructure and secondary carbide precipitation during tempering.

  20. Internal strains after recovery of hardness in tempered martensitic steels for fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, L.; Gondi, P.; Montanari, R.; Coppola, R.

    1991-03-01

    After tempering, with recovery of hardness, MANET steels present internal strains; these residual strains increase with quenching rate prior to tempering, and they remain after prolonged tempering times. On account of their persistence, after thermal treatments which lead to low dislocation and sub-boundary densities, the possibility has been considered that the high swelling resistance of MANET is connected with these centres of strain, probably connected with the formation, in ferrite, of Cr-enriched and contiguous Cr-depleted zones which may act as sinks for interstitials. Comparative observations on the internal strain behaviour of cold worked 316L stainless steel appear consistent with this possibility.

  1. On the tempered martensite embrittlement in AISI 4140 low alloy steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, F.A. (Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catholic Univ., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)); Pereira, L.C.; Gatts, C. (Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Federal Univ., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)); Graca, M.L. (Materials Div., Technical Aerospace Center, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil))

    1991-02-01

    In the present investigation the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) technique was used to determine local carbon and phosphorus concentrations on the fracture surfaces of as-quenched and quenched-and-tempered (at 350deg C) AISI 4140 steel specimens austenitized at low and high temperatures. The AES results were rationalized to conclude that, although carbide growth as well as phosphorus segregation are expected to contribute to tempered martensite embrittlement, carbide precipitation on prior austenite grain boundaries during tempering is seen to be the microstructural change directly responsible for the occurrence of the referred embrittlement phenomenon. (orig.).

  2. Effect of tempering time on the ballistic performance of a high strength armour steel

    OpenAIRE

    Jena, Pradipta Kumar; Senthil P., Ponguru; K., Siva Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The investigation describes and analyses the effect of tempering time on the mechanical and ballistic performance of a high strength armour steel. The steel is subjected to tempering at 300 °C for 2, 24 and 48 h. A marginal variation in strength and hardness is observed with increase in tempering time, whereas ductility and Charpy impact values are found to be decreasing. Ballistic performance of the samples are evaluated by impacting 7.62 mm and 12.7 mm armour piercing projectiles at 0° angl...

  3. Modeling anomalous diffusion by a subordinated fractional Lévy-stable process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuerle, Marek; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Sikora, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Two phenomena that can be discovered in systems with anomalous diffusion are long-range dependence and trapping events. The first effect concerns events that are arbitrarily distant but still influence each other exceptionally strongly, which is characteristic for anomalous regimes. The second corresponds to the presence of constant values of the underlying process. Motivated by the relatively poor class of models that can cover these two phenomena, we introduce subordinated fractional Lévy-stable motion with tempered stable waiting times. We present in detail its main properties, propose a simulation scheme and give an estimation procedure for its parameters. The last part of the paper is a presentation, via the Monte Carlo approach, of the effectiveness of the estimation of the parameters. (paper)

  4. Synchrotron micro-diffraction analysis of the microstructure of cryogenically treated high performance tool steels prior to and after tempering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, N.; Cavallaro, G.P. [Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies, Mawson Lakes Blvd, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Gerson, A.R., E-mail: Andrea.Gerson@unisa.edu.au [Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies, Mawson Lakes Blvd, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    The phase transformation and strain changes within cryogenically (-196 deg. C) treated high performance tool steels (AISI H13) before and after tempering have been examined using both laboratory XRD and synchrotron micro-diffraction. The martensitic unit cell was found to have very low tetragonality as expected for low carbon steel. Tempering resulted in the diffusion of excess carbon out of the martensite phase and consequent unit cell shrinkage. In addition on tempering the martensite became more homogeneous as compared to the same samples prior to tempering. For cryogenically treated samples, the effect was most pronounced for the rapidly cooled sample which was the least homogenous sample prior to tempering but was the most homogenous sample after tempering. This suggests that the considerable degree of disorder resulting from rapid cryogenic cooling results in the beneficial release of micro-stresses on tempering thus possibly resulting in the improved wear resistance and durability observed for cryogenically treated tool steels.

  5. Synchrotron micro-diffraction analysis of the microstructure of cryogenically treated high performance tool steels prior to and after tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, N.; Cavallaro, G.P.; Gerson, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The phase transformation and strain changes within cryogenically (-196 deg. C) treated high performance tool steels (AISI H13) before and after tempering have been examined using both laboratory XRD and synchrotron micro-diffraction. The martensitic unit cell was found to have very low tetragonality as expected for low carbon steel. Tempering resulted in the diffusion of excess carbon out of the martensite phase and consequent unit cell shrinkage. In addition on tempering the martensite became more homogeneous as compared to the same samples prior to tempering. For cryogenically treated samples, the effect was most pronounced for the rapidly cooled sample which was the least homogenous sample prior to tempering but was the most homogenous sample after tempering. This suggests that the considerable degree of disorder resulting from rapid cryogenic cooling results in the beneficial release of micro-stresses on tempering thus possibly resulting in the improved wear resistance and durability observed for cryogenically treated tool steels.

  6. Reaction of the Lithuanian alfalfa breeding populations to Phoma medicaginis under cool temperate climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liatukiene, A.; Liatukas, Z.; Ruzgas, V.

    2015-01-01

    The alfalfa Phoma medicaginis resistance was evaluated on 100 accessions with different development date. Weather conditions favoured high disease pressure and differentiation of tested accessions was not clear in 2011. Accessions were compared by maximal disease severity (DS) and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC). DS ranged from 10 to 60% and AUDPC value ranged 119-727 in 2009. DS and AUDPC values were higher in 2010 and 2011, DS ranged 40-65 and 66-68% and AUDPC ranged 2263-2928 and 2853-3006. Development date of accessions showed low impact on resistance. The correlations between DS and AUDPC results of accessions across years highly varied (r=0.189 - 0.828) due to low differentiation of accessions resistance. Selection of alfalfa material promising by Phoma medicaginis resistance should be done under conditions moderately favourable for development of this disease. (author)

  7. Main determinants of rodent population fluctuations in managed Central European temperate lowland forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šipoš, J.; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2017), s. 283-295 ISSN 2199-2401 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Intraspecific competition * Mast year * Acorns * Phenotypic characteristics * Small mammals * NAO index Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.068, year: 2016

  8. Temporal-spatial segregation among hummingbirds foraging on honeydew in a temperate forest in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos LARA, Vanessa MARTÍNEZ-GARCÍA, Raúl ORTIZ-PULIDO, Jessica BRAVO-CADENA, Salvador LORANCA, Alex CÓRDOBA-AGUILAR

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variation in interactions between hummingbirds and plants have often been examined, and hummingbirds and insects are known to indirectly interact in networks of nectar plants. In a highland temperate forest in Hidalgo, Mexico some oak trees were heavily infested by honeydew-producing insects (family Margarodidae, tribe Xylococcini, genus Strigmacoccus and the honeydew was consumed by hummingbirds. Here using survival analysis we investigate how the honeydew produced by dense populations of these margarodids is temporally and spatially partitioned by hummingbirds. We also measured the availability and quality of honeydew exudates, and then we recorded the time until a bird visited and used such resources. Four hummingbird species consumed this resource (Atthis eloisa, Hylocharis leucotis, Colibri thalassinus and Eugenes fulgens. Data from 294 hours of observation on seven focal trees suggested temporal and spatial segregation among visiting birds according to body size and territorial behavior during the most honeydew-limited time. Hummingbird species differed in the daily times they foraged, as well as in the location where honeydew-producing insects were visited on the trees. Temporal and spatial segregation among hummingbird species is interpreted as an adaptation to reduce the risk of aggressive encounters. This may facilitate multispecies coexistence and allow these birds to exploit honeydew more effectively [Current Zoology 57 (1: 56–62, 2011].

  9. Searching for globally optimal functional forms for interatomic potentials using genetic programming with parallel tempering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepoy, A; Peters, M D; Thompson, A P

    2007-11-30

    Molecular dynamics and other molecular simulation methods rely on a potential energy function, based only on the relative coordinates of the atomic nuclei. Such a function, called a force field, approximately represents the electronic structure interactions of a condensed matter system. Developing such approximate functions and fitting their parameters remains an arduous, time-consuming process, relying on expert physical intuition. To address this problem, a functional programming methodology was developed that may enable automated discovery of entirely new force-field functional forms, while simultaneously fitting parameter values. The method uses a combination of genetic programming, Metropolis Monte Carlo importance sampling and parallel tempering, to efficiently search a large space of candidate functional forms and parameters. The methodology was tested using a nontrivial problem with a well-defined globally optimal solution: a small set of atomic configurations was generated and the energy of each configuration was calculated using the Lennard-Jones pair potential. Starting with a population of random functions, our fully automated, massively parallel implementation of the method reproducibly discovered the original Lennard-Jones pair potential by searching for several hours on 100 processors, sampling only a minuscule portion of the total search space. This result indicates that, with further improvement, the method may be suitable for unsupervised development of more accurate force fields with completely new functional forms. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Possibility of stable quark stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.

    1976-08-01

    A recent zero temperature equation of state which contains quark-partons separated from conventional baryons by a phase transition is used to investigate the stability of quark stars. The sensitivity to the input physics is also considered. The conclusions, which are found to be relatively model independent, indicate that a separately identifiable class of stable objects called quark stars does not exist

  11. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  12. Bird biodiversity assessments in temperate forest: the value of point count versus acoustic monitoring protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Klingbeil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective monitoring programs for biodiversity are needed to assess trends in biodiversity and evaluate the consequences of management. This is particularly true for birds and faunas that occupy interior forest and other areas of low human population density, as these are frequently under-sampled compared to other habitats. For birds, Autonomous Recording Units (ARUs have been proposed as a supplement or alternative to point counts made by human observers to enhance monitoring efforts. We employed two strategies (i.e., simultaneous-collection and same-season to compare point count and ARU methods for quantifying species richness and composition of birds in temperate interior forests. The simultaneous-collection strategy compares surveys by ARUs and point counts, with methods matched in time, location, and survey duration such that the person and machine simultaneously collect data. The same-season strategy compares surveys from ARUs and point counts conducted at the same locations throughout the breeding season, but methods differ in the number, duration, and frequency of surveys. This second strategy more closely follows the ways in which monitoring programs are likely to be implemented. Site-specific estimates of richness (but not species composition differed between methods; however, the nature of the relationship was dependent on the assessment strategy. Estimates of richness from point counts were greater than estimates from ARUs in the simultaneous-collection strategy. Woodpeckers in particular, were less frequently identified from ARUs than point counts with this strategy. Conversely, estimates of richness were lower from point counts than ARUs in the same-season strategy. Moreover, in the same-season strategy, ARUs detected the occurrence of passerines at a higher frequency than did point counts. Differences between ARU and point count methods were only detected in site-level comparisons. Importantly, both methods provide similar

  13. Seasonal pattern of anthropogenic salinization in temperate forested headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpano, Anthony J; Zipper, Carl E; Soucek, David J; Schoenholtz, Stephen H

    2018-04-15

    Salinization of freshwaters by human activities is of growing concern globally. Consequences of salt pollution include adverse effects to aquatic biodiversity, ecosystem function, human health, and ecosystem services. In headwater streams of the temperate forests of eastern USA, elevated specific conductance (SC), a surrogate measurement for the major dissolved ions composing salinity, has been linked to decreased diversity of aquatic insects. However, such linkages have typically been based on limited numbers of SC measurements that do not quantify intra-annual variation. Effective management of salinization requires tools to accurately monitor and predict salinity while accounting for temporal variability. Toward that end, high-frequency SC data were collected within the central Appalachian coalfield over 4 years at 25 forested headwater streams spanning a gradient of salinity. A sinusoidal periodic function was used to model the annual cycle of SC, averaged across years and streams. The resultant model revealed that, on average, salinity deviated approximately ±20% from annual mean levels across all years and streams, with minimum SC occurring in late winter and peak SC occurring in late summer. The pattern was evident in headwater streams influenced by surface coal mining, unmined headwater reference streams with low salinity, and larger-order salinized rivers draining the study area. The pattern was strongly responsive to varying seasonal dilution as driven by catchment evapotranspiration, an effect that was amplified slightly in unmined catchments with greater relative forest cover. Evaluation of alternative sampling intervals indicated that discrete sampling can approximate the model performance afforded by high-frequency data but model error increases rapidly as discrete sampling intervals exceed 30 days. This study demonstrates that intra-annual variation of salinity in temperate forested headwater streams of Appalachia USA follows a natural seasonal

  14. Crown-To-Rhizosphere Carbon Transfer In A Temperate Mixed Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwolf, R. T.; Steinmann, K.; Saurer, M.; Koerner, C.

    2005-12-01

    Flux measurements across a range of (managed) European forests showed that ecosystem respiration amounts up to 80 percent of gross primary production (Janssens et al. 2001), the rest is in large sequestered into biomass. According to Malhi et al. (1999) soil respiration accounts for 60-70 percent of total forest ecosystem respiration. A considerable part is released as CO2 via belowground plant component (autotrophic) and soil micro-organism (heterotrophic) respiration. Recent studies on the autotrophic and heterotrophic respiratory fluxes indicate that the proportion of the autotrophic respiration was most likely underestimated (Hoegberg et al, 2001). Furthermore, highly diverging lengths of time have been estimated between the synthesis of carbohydrates and their availability in the rhizosphere. The goal of the presented study was to i) estimate the transport time for new photosynthates from the leaves to the rhizosphere, ii) determine the spatial distribution of these products, and iii) detect a seasonal course in the autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration of freshly formed assimilates. This study was carried out in a temperate mixed forest (The Swiss Canopy Crane Project in Hofstetten near Basel, Switzerland, cf. Pepin and Koerner 2002, Koerner et al, 2005), exposed to an elevated mean CO2 concentration of 530 ppm. The added CO2 originated from fossil fuel combustion and was depleted in 13C, thus serving as an ideal tracer. Based on the isotopic signature of the soil CO2 it was shown that freshly assimilated carbohydrates were transferred to the rhizosphere within ca. 5 days. The spatial variability was considerable and could mostly be explained with the varying tree population, whereas, the broad-leafed area revealed a more negative d13C value than the conifers. A distinct seasonal course in soil ?13C of the CO2 concentration indicated a seasonal variation in the crown-to-rhizosphere carbon transfer Steinmann et al (2004). Hoegberg P, et al. (2001) Large

  15. In Situ Study of Phase Transformations during Non-Isothermal Tempering of Bainitic and Martensitic Microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hesamodin Talebi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phase transformations during non-isothermal tempering of bainitic or martensitic microstructures obtained after quenching of a medium-carbon low-alloy steel was studied. The microstructures correspond to different locations of an as-quenched large-sized forged ingot used as a die material in the automotive industry. High-resolution dilatometry experiments were conducted to simulate the heat treatment process, as well as to investigate different phenomena occurring during non-isothermal tempering. The microstructures were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Dilatometry analyses demonstrated that tempering behavior varied significantly from bainitic to martensitic microstructures. Retained austenite, which exists between bainitic ferrite sheaves, decomposes to lower bainite causing a remarkable volume increase. It was found that this decomposition finishes below 386 °C. By contrast, martensite tempering was accompanied with a volume decrease due to the decomposition of medium-carbon martensite to low carbon martensite and carbides.

  16. A common framework for greenhouse gas assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: Connecting via GRACEnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems offer many ecosystem benefits, but such systems have previously been marginalized in temperate environments due to overriding economic goals and perceived management complexity. In view of adaptation to a changing climate, agroforestry systems offer advantages that require quan...

  17. Understanding seagrass resilience in temperate systems: the importance of timing of the disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soissons, L.M.; Li, B.; Han, Q.; van Katwijk, M.M.; Ysebaert, T.; Herman, P.M.J.; Bouma, T.J.

    2016-01-01

    Temperate seagrass meadows form valuable ecosystems in coastal environments and present a distinctseasonal growth. They are threatened by an increasing amount of stressors, potentially affecting theircapacity to recover from disturbances. We hypothesized that their resilience to disturbances is

  18. Understanding seagrass resilience in temperate systems: the importance of timing of the disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soissons, L.M.; Li, B.Q.; Han, Q.Y.; Katwijk, M.M. van; Ysebaert, T.; Herman, P.M.J.; Bouma, T.J.

    2016-01-01

    Temperate seagrass meadows form valuable ecosystems in coastal environments and present a distinct seasonal growth. They are threatened by an increasing amount of stressors, potentially affecting their capacity to recover from disturbances. We hypothesized that their resilience to disturbances is

  19. Studies on growth and age of bivalves from temperate and tropical estuarine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    Comparison of growth progression and age composition of Abra alba and Nuculana minuta from temperate estuarine ecosystem with Meretrix casta and Paphia malabarica from tropical estuarine environment, revealed that the annual growth rate in tropical...

  20. Analysis of mechanical properties of steel 1045 plasma nitriding: with and without tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, N.T.B.; Passos, M.L.M. dos; Riani, J.C.; Recco, A.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of tempering during the nitriding of AISI 1045 steel. The objective was to evaluate the possibility of eliminating this phase, with the nitriding properties remaining unaltered. For this, three parameter samples were compared: quenched, tempered and nitrided for 2h; quenching and nitrided for 2h and quenching and nitrided for 4h. The analysis techniques used for characterizing the samples before and after nitriding were optical microscopy, hardness Rockwell C (HRC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that phase γ is the most favorable of all parameters tested. The hardness assays showed that samples with different initial hardness (with and without tempering) and even nitriding time showed similar mechanical properties. This fact suggests that the tempering process occurred parallel to the nitriding process. (author)

  1. Evolutionary and ecological differentiation in the pantropical to warm-temperate seaweed Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakker, H; Klerk, H; vanCampen, JH; Olsen, JL; Breeman, AM

    Genetic differentiation among geographic isolates of the pantropical to warm-temperate red alga Digenea simplex (Wulfen) C. Agardh was investigated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, crossing studies, and temperature tolerances experiments. Eleven isolates representing

  2. Can Detectability Analysis Improve the Utility of Point Counts for Temperate Forest Raptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperate forest breeding raptors are poorly represented in typical point count surveys because these birds are cryptic and typically breed at low densities. In recent years, many new methods for estimating detectability during point counts have been developed, including distanc...

  3. Review: Genetic diversity and population structure of cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the world's leading natural fiber crop and is cultivated in diverse temperate and tropical areas. In this sense, molecular markers are important tools for polymorphism identification in genetic diversity analyses. The objective of this study was to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure in ...

  4. Comparison of the segregation behavior between tempered martensite and tempered bainite in Ni-Cr-Mo high strength low alloy RPV steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Gyu; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Hyung Jun; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel has an superior fracture toughness and strength, compared to commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy RPV steel SA508 Gr.3. Higher strength and fracture toughness of low alloy steels could be obtained by adding Ni and Cr. So several were performed on researches on SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a RPV application. The operation temperature and term of a reactor pressure vessel is more than 300 .deg. C and over 40 years. Therefore, in order to apply the SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel for a reactor pressure vessel, the resistance of thermal embrittlement in the high temperature range including temper embrittlement is required. S. Raoul reported that the susceptibility to temper embrittlement was increasing a function of the cooling rate in SA533 steel, which suggests the martensitic microstructures resulting from increased cooling rates are more susceptible to temper embrittlement. However, this result has not been proved yet. So the comparison of temper embrittlement behavior was made between martensitic microstructure and bainitic microstructure with a viewpoint of boundary features in SA508 Gr.4N, which have mixture of tempered bainite/martensite. We have compared temper embrittlement behaviors of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel with changing volume fraction of martensite. The mechanical properties of these low alloy steels were evaluated after a long-term heat treatment. Then, the the segregated boundaries were observed and segregation behavior was analyzed by AES. In order to compare the misorientation distributions of model alloys, grain boundary structures were measured with EBSD

  5. Sorption of pesticides in tropical and temperate soils from Australia and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Danielle P; Kookana, Rai S; Quintana, Belen

    2005-08-10

    The sorption behavior of diuron, imidacloprid, and thiacloprid was investigated using 22 soils collected in triplicate from temperate environments in Australia and tropical environments in Australia and the Philippines. Within the temperate environment in Australia, the soils were selected from a range of land uses. The average KOC values (L/kg) for imidacloprid were 326, 322, and 336; for thiacloprid, the values were 915, 743, and 842; and for diuron, the values were 579, 536, and 618 for the Ord (tropical), Mt. Lofty (temperate), and Philippines (tropical) soils, respectively. For all soils, the sorption coefficients decreased in the following order: thiacloprid > diuron > imidacloprid. There were no significant differences in sorption behavior between the tropical soils from the Philippines and the temperate soils from Australia. Sorption was also not significantly related with soil characteristics, namely, organic carbon (OC) content, clay content, and pH, for any of the three chemicals studied. When the data were sorted into separate land uses, the sorption of all three chemicals was highly correlated (P soils from the Philippines. Sorption coefficients for all three chemicals were highly correlated with OC in temperate, native soils only when one extreme value was removed. The relationships between sorption of all three chemicals and OC in temperate, pasture soils were best described by a polynomial. Sorption coefficients for imidacloprid and thiacloprid determined in the temperate pasture soils remained fairly consistent as the OC content increased from 3.3 to 5.3%, indicating that, although the total OC in the pasture soils was increasing, the component of OC involved with sorption of these two compounds may have been remaining constant. This study demonstrated that the origin of the soils (i.e., temperate vs tropical) had no significant effect on the sorption behavior, but in some cases, land use significantly affected the sorption behavior of the three

  6. The geology of selected peat-forming environments in temperate and tropical latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C.C.; Palmer, C.A.; Esterle, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    We studied peat in several geologic and climatic settings: (1) a glaciated terrain in cold-temperate Maine and Minnesota, U.S.A.; (2) an island in a temperate maritime climate in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Maine, U.S.A., where sea level is rising rapidly and changing the environment of peat accumulation; (3) swamps along the warm-temperate U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, where sea level has changed often, thus creating sites for accumulation; and (4) in a tropical climate along the coast of Sarawak, Malaysia, and the delta of the Batang Hari River, Sumatra, Indonesia (Figs. 1 and 2). With the exception of the deposits on the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, most of the deposits described are domed bogs in which peat accumulation continued above the surface of the surrounding soil. The bogs of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have almost level surfaces. All domed bogs are not entirely ombrotrophic (watered only from precipitation); multidomed bogs that rise from irregular or hilly surfaces may be crossed by streams that supply water to the bogs. The geologic processes or organic sedimentation, namely terrestrialization and paludification, are similar in all peat deposits considered here. Differences in geomorphology affecting the quantity and that quality of peat that has ash contents of less than 25%, which are desirable for commercial purposes, depend chiefly on: (1) high humidity, which is favorable to luxuriant growth of peat-forming vegetation; (2) a depositional setting that permits extensive accumulation relatively free from inorganic contamination from sea water and streams and from dust and volcanic ash; and (3) a stable regional water table that controls the rate of decomposition under aerobic conditions and protects the deposit against the ravages of fire. Differences in peat textures are due to the type of vegetation and to the degree of decomposition. The rate of decomposition is largely the result of the amount of oxidation

  7. Nitrogen acquisition by plants and microorganisms in a temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianyuan; Qiao, Na; Xu, Xingliang; Xin, Xiaoping; Han, Jessie Yc; Tian, Yuqiang; Ouyang, Hua; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-03-10

    Nitrogen (N) limitation is common in most terrestrial ecosystems, often leading to strong competition between microorganisms and plants. The mechanisms of niche differentiation to reduce this competition remain unclear. Short-term (15)N experiments with NH4(+), NO3(-), and glycine were conducted in July, August and September in a temperate grassland to evaluate the chemical, spatial and temporal niche differentiation by competition between plants and microorganisms for N. Microorganisms preferred NH4(+) and NO3(-), while plants preferred NO3(-). Both plants and microorganisms acquired more N in August and September than in July. The soil depth had no significant effects on microbial uptake, but significantly affected plant N uptake. Plants acquired 67% of their N from the 0-5 cm soil layer and 33% from the 5-15 cm layer. The amount of N taken up by microorganisms was at least seven times than plants. Although microorganisms efficiently compete for N with plants, the competition is alleviated through chemical partitioning mainly in deeper soil layer. In the upper soil layer, neither chemical nor temporal niche separation is realized leading to strong competition between plants and microorganisms that modifies N dynamics in grasslands.

  8. Synchronous dynamics of zooplankton competitors prevail in temperate lake ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, David A; Fox, Jeremy W; Gonzalez, Andrew; Adrian, Rita; Beisner, Beatrix E; Helmus, Matthew R; Johnson, Catherine; Kratina, Pavel; Kremer, Colin; de Mazancourt, Claire; Miller, Elizabeth; Nelson, William A; Paterson, Michael; Rusak, James A; Shurin, Jonathan B; Steiner, Christopher F

    2014-08-07

    Although competing species are expected to exhibit compensatory dynamics (negative temporal covariation), empirical work has demonstrated that competitive communities often exhibit synchronous dynamics (positive temporal covariation). This has led to the suggestion that environmental forcing dominates species dynamics; however, synchronous and compensatory dynamics may appear at different length scales and/or at different times, making it challenging to identify their relative importance. We compiled 58 long-term datasets of zooplankton abundance in north-temperate and sub-tropical lakes and used wavelet analysis to quantify general patterns in the times and scales at which synchronous/compensatory dynamics dominated zooplankton communities in different regions and across the entire dataset. Synchronous dynamics were far more prevalent at all scales and times and were ubiquitous at the annual scale. Although we found compensatory dynamics in approximately 14% of all combinations of time period/scale/lake, there were no consistent scales or time periods during which compensatory dynamics were apparent across different regions. Our results suggest that the processes driving compensatory dynamics may be local in their extent, while those generating synchronous dynamics operate at much larger scales. This highlights an important gap in our understanding of the interaction between environmental and biotic forces that structure communities. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil Respiration in Semiarid Temperate Grasslands under Various Land Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available Soil respiration, a major component of the global carbon cycle, is significantly influenced by land management practices. Grasslands are potentially a major sink for carbon, but can also be a source. Here, we investigated the potential effect of land management (grazing, clipping, and ungrazed enclosures on soil respiration in the semiarid grassland of northern China. Our results showed the mean soil respiration was significantly higher under enclosures (2.17 μmol.m(-2.s(-1 and clipping (2.06 μmol.m(-2.s(-1 than under grazing (1.65 μmol.m-(2.s(-1 over the three growing seasons. The high rates of soil respiration under enclosure and clipping were associated with the higher belowground net primary productivity (BNPP. Our analyses indicated that soil respiration was primarily related to BNPP under grazing, to soil water content under clipping. Using structural equation models, we found that soil water content, aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP and BNPP regulated soil respiration, with soil water content as the predominant factor. Our findings highlight that management-induced changes in abiotic (soil temperature and soil water content and biotic (ANPP and BNPP factors regulate soil respiration in the semiarid temperate grassland of northern China.

  10. Ecosystem respiration depends strongly on photosynthesis in a temperate heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, Andreas; Beier, Claus

    2007-01-01

    We measured net ecosystem CO2 flux (F-n) and ecosystem respiration (R-E), and estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis (P-g) by difference, for two years in a temperate heath ecosystem using a chamber method. The exchange rates of carbon were high and of similar magnitude as for productive forest...... ecosystems with a net ecosystem carbon gain during the second year of 293 +/- 11 g C m(-2) year(-1) showing that the carbon sink strength of heather-dominated ecosystems may be considerable when C. vulgaris is in the building phase of its life cycle. The estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis and ecosystem.......65) was improved when the P-g rate was incorporated into the model (second year; R-2 = 0.79), suggesting that daytime R-E increased with increasing photosynthesis. Furthermore, the temperature sensitivity of R-E decreased from apparent Q(10) values of 3.3 to 3.9 by the classic equation to a more realistic Q(10...

  11. Reasons to temper enthusiasm about open access nursing journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Gideon

    2017-04-01

    Open access is a relatively new phenomenon within nursing science. Several papers from various nursing journals have been published recently on the disadvantages of the traditional model of purchasing proprietary fee-based databases to access scholarly information. Just few nursing scholars are less optimistic about the possible benefits of open access nursing journals. A critical reflection on the merits and pitfalls of open access journals along insights from the literature and personal opinion. Two arguments are discussed, providing justification for tempering enthusiasm about open access journals. First, only research groups with sufficient financial resources can publish in open access journals. Second, open access has conflicting incentives, where the aim is to expand production at the expense of publishing quality articles; a business model that fits well into a neoliberal discourse. There are valid reasons to criticise the traditional publishers for the excessive costs of a single article, therefore preventing the dissemination of scholarly nursing information. On the contrary, the business model of open access publishers is no less imbued with the neoliberal tendency of lining the pockets.

  12. Soil Respiration in Semiarid Temperate Grasslands under Various Land Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Ji, Lei; Hou, Xiangyang; Schellenberg, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Soil respiration, a major component of the global carbon cycle, is significantly influenced by land management practices. Grasslands are potentially a major sink for carbon, but can also be a source. Here, we investigated the potential effect of land management (grazing, clipping, and ungrazed enclosures) on soil respiration in the semiarid grassland of northern China. Our results showed the mean soil respiration was significantly higher under enclosures (2.17 μmol.m(-2).s(-1)) and clipping (2.06 μmol.m(-2).s(-1)) than under grazing (1.65 μmol.m-(2).s(-1)) over the three growing seasons. The high rates of soil respiration under enclosure and clipping were associated with the higher belowground net primary productivity (BNPP). Our analyses indicated that soil respiration was primarily related to BNPP under grazing, to soil water content under clipping. Using structural equation models, we found that soil water content, aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and BNPP regulated soil respiration, with soil water content as the predominant factor. Our findings highlight that management-induced changes in abiotic (soil temperature and soil water content) and biotic (ANPP and BNPP) factors regulate soil respiration in the semiarid temperate grassland of northern China.

  13. Mercury emission from a temperate lake during autumn turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, Jennifer L.; Peters, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Lakes in temperate regions stratify during summer and winter months, creating distinct layers of water differentiated by their physical and chemical characteristics. When lakes mix in autumn and spring, mercury cycling may be affected by the chemical changes that occur during mixing. Sampling was conducted in Lake Lacawac, Eastern Pennsylvania, USA, throughout the autumn of 2007 to characterize changes in emission of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) from the lake surface and dissolved mercury profiles in the water column during mixing. Water chemistry and weather parameters were also measured, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), iron, and solar radiation which have been shown to interact with mercury species. Results indicate that emission of Hg 0 from the lake to the atmosphere during turnover was controlled both by solar radiation and by surface water mercury concentration. As autumn turnover progressed through the months of October and November, higher mercury concentration water from the hypolimnion mixed with epilimnetic water, increasing mercury concentration in epilimnetic waters. Dissolved absorbance was significantly correlated with mercury concentrations and with iron, but DOC concentrations were essentially constant throughout the study period and did not exhibit a relationship with either dissolved mercury concentrations or emission rates. Positive correlations between dissolved mercury and iron and manganese also suggest a role for these elements in mercury transport within the lake, but iron and manganese did not demonstrate a relationship with emission rates. This research indicates that consideration of seasonal processes in lakes is important when evaluating mercury cycling in aquatic systems

  14. Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Susana; Paunesku, David; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-08-02

    Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students' beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students' mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level.

  15. Elevation alters ecosystem properties across temperate treelines globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Jordan R.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Classen, Aimée T.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Clément, Jean-Christophe; Fajardo, Alex; Lavorel, Sandra; Sundqvist, Maja K.; Bahn, Michael; Chisholm, Chelsea; Cieraad, Ellen; Gedalof, Ze'Ev; Grigulis, Karl; Kudo, Gaku; Oberski, Daniel L.; Wardle, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Temperature is a primary driver of the distribution of biodiversity as well as of ecosystem boundaries. Declining temperature with increasing elevation in montane systems has long been recognized as a major factor shaping plant community biodiversity, metabolic processes, and ecosystem dynamics. Elevational gradients, as thermoclines, also enable prediction of long-term ecological responses to climate warming. One of the most striking manifestations of increasing elevation is the abrupt transitions from forest to treeless alpine tundra. However, whether there are globally consistent above- and belowground responses to these transitions remains an open question. To disentangle the direct and indirect effects of temperature on ecosystem properties, here we evaluate replicate treeline ecotones in seven temperate regions of the world. We find that declining temperatures with increasing elevation did not affect tree leaf nutrient concentrations, but did reduce ground-layer community-weighted plant nitrogen, leading to the strong stoichiometric convergence of ground-layer plant community nitrogen to phosphorus ratios across all regions. Further, elevation-driven changes in plant nutrients were associated with changes in soil organic matter content and quality (carbon to nitrogen ratios) and microbial properties. Combined, our identification of direct and indirect temperature controls over plant communities and soil properties in seven contrasting regions suggests that future warming may disrupt the functional properties of montane ecosystems, particularly where plant community reorganization outpaces treeline advance.

  16. Quantifying the effects of tempering on individual phase properties of DP980 steel with nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, G.; Zhang, F.; Ruimi, A.; Field, D. P.; Sun, X.

    2016-06-01

    We conduct a series of thermal and mechanical testing on a commercial dual phase (DP) 980 steel in order to quantify the effects of tempering on its individual phase properties. Tempering treatment is conducted at 250 °C and 400 °C for 60 minutes each. Ferrite and martensite grains are distinguished using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), and the martensite volume fractions (MVF) are determined based on the image quality (IQ) map. Multi-scale indentation tests combined with a newly developed inverse method are used to obtain the individual phase flow properties in each tempered DP980 sample. The results show that, i) tempering significantly reduces martensite yield strength, while it only slightly reduces the ferrite yield strength; ii) tempering temperature has a more significant influence on the work hardening exponent of ferrite than that of martensite; iii) the elastic modulus of martensite is consistently higher than that of ferrite. As a validation, a simple rule of mixtures is used to verify the above-predicted individual phase flow stresses with the experimentally obtained overall true stress vs. true strain curves. The methodology and the corresponding results shown in this study can help guide the selection of tempering parameters in optimizing the mechanical properties of DP steels for their intended applications.

  17. Influence of Mo addition on the tempered properties of 13Cr martensitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Byong Ho; Ahn, Yong Sik

    1998-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of Mo addition on the mechanical properties of 13Cr-0.2C martensitic stainless steel, tensile test and Charpy V-notch test were performed after tempering at the temperature range of 200∼700 .deg. C following austenitizing at 1100 .deg. C. The yield strength and hardness of the steel were increased with the increase of Mo content at all tempering conditions, because Mo causes retardation of precipitation and coarsening of carbides and solid solution strengthening of matrix. Except 500 .deg. C of tempering temperature, the Charpy impact energy was significantly increased with Mo content and showed the highest value at 1.5 wt% addition. The increase of impact energy of the steel containing Mo is thought to be caused by δ-ferrite formed in the tempered martensitic matrix. At 500 .deg. C tempering, Charpy impact energy was decreased drastically due to temper embrittlement and it was not possible to prevent it even though Mo was added up to 1.5 wt%

  18. A Novel Methods for Fracture Toughness Evaluation of Tool Steels with Post-Tempering Cryogenic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Sola

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryogenic treatments are usually carried out immediately after quenching, but their use can be extended to post tempering in order to improve their fracture toughness. This research paper focuses on the influence of post-tempering cryogenic treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of tempered AISI M2, AISI D2, and X105CrCoMo18 steels. The aforementioned steels have been analysed after tempering and tempering + cryogenic treatment with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction for residual stress measurements, and micro- and nano-indentation to determine Young’s modulus and plasticity factor measurement. Besides the improvement of toughness, a further aim of the present work is the investigation of the pertinence of a novel technique for characterizing the fracture toughness via scratch experiments on cryogenically-treated steels. Results show that the application of post-tempering cryogenic treatment on AISI M2, AISI D2, and X105CrCoMo18 steels induce precipitation of fine and homogeneously dispersed sub-micrometric carbides which do not alter hardness and Young’s modulus values, but reduce residual stresses and increase fracture toughness. Finally, scratch test proved to be an alternative simple technique to determine the fracture toughness of cryogenically treated steels.

  19. Tempering of Mn and Mn-Si-V dual-phase steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speich, G. R.; Schwoeble, A. J.; Huffman, G. P.

    1983-06-01

    Changes in the yield behavior, strength, and ductility of a Mn and a Mn-Si-V d11Al-phase (ferrite-martensite) steel were investigated after tempering one hour at 200 to 600 °C. The change in yield behavior was complex in both steels with the yield strength first increasing and then decreasing as the tempering temperature was increased. This complex behavior is attributed to a combination of factors including carbon segregation to dislocations, a return of discontinuous yielding, and the relief of resid11Al stresses. In contrast, the tensile strength decreased continuously as the tempering temperature was increased in a manner that could be predicted from the change in hardness of the martensite phase using a simple composite strengthening model. The initial tensile ductility (total elongation) of the Mn-Si-V steel was much greater than that of the Mn steel. However, upon tempering up to 400 °C, the ductility of the Mn-Si-V decreased whereas that of the Mn steel increased. As a result, both steels had similar ductilities after tempering at 400 °C or higher temperatures. These results are attributed to the larger amounts of retained austenite in the Mn-Si-V steel (9 pct) compared to the Mn steel (3 pct) and its contribution to tensile ductility by transforming to martensite during plastic straining. Upon tempering at 400 °C, the retained austenite decomposes to bainite and its contribution to tensile ductility is eliminated.

  20. Fledgling survival increases with development time and adult survival across north and south temperate zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Penn; Martin, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Slow life histories are characterized by high adult survival and few offspring, which are thought to allow increased investment per offspring to increase juvenile survival. Consistent with this pattern, south temperate zone birds are commonly longer-lived and have fewer young than north temperate zone species. However, comparative analyses of juvenile survival, including during the first few weeks of the post-fledging period when most juvenile mortality occurs, are largely lacking. We combined our measurements of fledgling survival for eight passerines in South Africa with estimates from published studies of 57 north and south temperate zone songbird species to test three predictions: (1) fledgling survival increases with length of development time in the nest; (2) fledgling survival increases with adult survival and reduced brood size controlled for development time; and (3) south temperate zone species, with their higher adult survival and smaller brood sizes, exhibit higher fledgling survival than north temperate zone species controlled for development time. We found that fledgling survival was higher among south temperate zone species and generally increased with development time and adult survival within and between latitudinal regions. Clutch size did not explain additional variation, but was confounded with adult survival. Given the importance of age-specific mortality to life history evolution, understanding the causes of these geographical patterns of mortality is important.

  1. Temporal assemblage turnovers of intertidal foraminiferal communities from tropical (SE Caribbean) and temperate (NE England and SW Spain) regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Ashleigh; Wilson, Brent; Horton, Benjamin P.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.

    2018-05-01

    This is the first quantitative study of temporal assemblage turnovers of the relationships between intertidal foraminifera. Time series datasets collected from tropical Caroni Swamp and Claxton Bay (Trinidad, SE Caribbean) and temperate Cowpen Marsh (NE England, U.K.) and Bay of Cadiz (SW Spain) were used. The assemblage turnover index (ATI) examined species interrelationships through comparisons of monthly or biweekly species proportional abundances over one or two years. Species contributing to major assemblage turnovers (ATI > x + σ) were identified using the conditioned on-boundary index (CoBI). Foraminiferal species are heterogeneously distributed within the sediment; multiple sample stations at a study location cumulatively represent the foraminiferal metacommunity and clusters represent foraminiferal assemblages. The ATI and CoBI were applied to the proportional abundances of live specimens recorded for the metacommunity and assemblages at each location. At Caroni Swamp and Claxton Bay, major assemblage turnovers were driven by the most abundant species and the majority coincided with seasonal change or the arrival of the seasonal Orinoco plume in the Gulf of Paria. Seasonal turnovers of the foraminiferal metacommunities at temperate Cowpen Marsh and Bay of Cádiz occurred during the summer and winter. Major assemblage turnovers in the upper Cowpen Marsh occurred in the summer, and the lower marsh in the winter. Foraminiferans are useful bioindicators for monitoring the health of coastal environments. Understanding foraminiferal population dynamics will allow cyclical changes to be differentiated from abrupt and persistent changes, which are related to anthropogenic disturbances or long-term climate change. The ATI and CoBI are useful indices for quantitatively exploring relationships of foraminiferal populations over time.

  2. Effectiveness and economic assessment of routine larviciding for prevention of chikungunya and dengue in temperate urban settings in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetta, Giorgio; Trentini, Filippo; Poletti, Piero; Baldacchino, Frederic Alexandre; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Rosà, Roberto; Merler, Stefano; Melegaro, Alessia

    2017-09-01

    In the last decades, several European countries where arboviral infections are not endemic have faced outbreaks of diseases such as chikungunya and dengue, initially introduced by infectious travellers from tropical endemic areas and then spread locally via mosquito bites. To keep in check the epidemiological risk, interventions targeted to control vector abundance can be implemented by local authorities. We assessed the epidemiological effectiveness and economic costs and benefits of routine larviciding in European towns with temperate climate, using a mathematical model of Aedes albopictus populations and viral transmission, calibrated on entomological surveillance data collected from ten municipalities in Northern Italy during 2014 and 2015.We found that routine larviciding of public catch basins can limit both the risk of autochthonous transmission and the size of potential epidemics. Ideal larvicide interventions should be timed in such a way to cover the month of July. Optimally timed larviciding can reduce locally transmitted cases of chikungunya by 20% - 33% for a single application (dengue: 18-22%) and up to 43% - 65% if treatment is repeated four times throughout the season (dengue: 31-51%). In larger municipalities (>35,000 inhabitants), the cost of comprehensive larviciding over the whole urban area overcomes potential health benefits related to preventing cases of disease, suggesting the adoption of more localized interventions. Small/medium sized towns with high mosquito abundance will likely have a positive cost-benefit balance. Involvement of private citizens in routine larviciding activities further reduces transmission risks but with disproportionate costs of intervention. International travels and the incidence of mosquito-borne diseases are increasing worldwide, exposing a growing number of European citizens to higher risks of potential outbreaks. Results from this study may support the planning and timing of interventions aimed to reduce the

  3. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  4. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high-abundance, naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56. All requests for the loan of samples should be submitted with a summary of the purpose of the loan to: Iotope Distribution Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box X, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Requests from non-DOE contractors and from foreign institutions require DOE approval

  5. Stable isotopes and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krouse, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Whereas traditionally, stable isotope research has been directed towards resource exploration and development, it is finding more frequent applications in helping to assess the impacts of resource utilization upon ecosystems. Among the many pursuits, two themes are evident: tracing the transport and conversions of pollutants in the environment and better understanding of the interplay among environmental receptors, e.g. food web studies. Stable isotope data are used primarily to identify the presence of pollutants in the environment and with a few exceptions, the consequence of their presence must be assessed by other techniques. Increasing attention has been given to the isotopic composition of humans with many potential applications in areas such as paleodiets, medicine, and criminology. In this brief overview examples are used from the Pacific Rim to illustrate the above concepts. 26 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  6. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  7. Stable Structures for Distributed Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen DUMITRASCU; Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    For distributed applications, we define the linear, tree and graph structure types with different variants and modalities to aggregate them. The distributed applications have assigned structures that through their characteristics influence the costs of stages for developing cycle and the costs for exploitation, transferred to each user. We also present the quality characteristics of a structure for a stable application, which is focused on stability characteristic. For that characteristic we ...

  8. A stable isotope-based approach to tropical dendroclimatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael N.; Schrag, Daniel P.

    2004-08-01

    We describe a strategy for development of chronological control in tropical trees lacking demonstrably annual ring formation, using high resolution δ 18O measurements in tropical wood. The approach applies existing models of the oxygen isotopic composition of alpha-cellulose (Roden et al., 2000), a rapid method for cellulose extraction from raw wood (Brendel et al., 2000), and continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (Brenna et al., 1998) to develop proxy chronological, rainfall and growth rate estimates from tropical trees lacking visible annual ring structure. Consistent with model predictions, pilot datasets from the temperate US and Costa Rica having independent chronological control suggest that observed cyclic isotopic signatures of several permil (SMOW) represent the annual cycle of local rainfall and relative humidity. Additional data from a plantation tree of known age from ENSO-sensitive northwestern coastal Peru suggests that the 1997-8 ENSO warm phase event was recorded as an 8‰ anomaly in the δ 18O of α-cellulose. The results demonstrate reproducibility of the stable isotopic chronometer over decades, two different climatic zones, and three tropical tree genera, and point to future applications in paleoclimatology.

  9. Anthropogenic impact on amorphous silica pools in temperate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Clymans

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Human land use changes perturb biogeochemical silica (Si cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. This directly affects Si mobilisation and Si storage and influences Si export from the continents, although the magnitude of the impact is unknown. A major reason for our lack of understanding is that very little information exists on how land use affects amorphous silica (ASi storage in soils. We have quantified and compared total alkali-extracted (PSia and easily soluble (PSie Si pools at four sites along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance in southern Sweden. Land use clearly affects ASi pools and their distribution. Total PSia and PSie for a continuous forested site at Siggaboda Nature Reserve (66 900 ± 22 800 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 952 ± 16 kg SiO2 ha−1 are significantly higher than disturbed land use types from the Råshult Culture Reserve including arable land (28 800 ± 7200 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 239 ± 91 kg SiO2 ha−1, pasture sites (27 300 ± 5980 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 370 ± 129 kg SiO2 ha−1 and grazed forest (23 600 ± 6370 kg SiO2 ha−1 and 346 ± 123 kg SiO2 ha−1. Vertical PSia and PSie profiles show significant (p < 0.05 variation among the sites. These differences in size and distribution are interpreted as the long-term effect of reduced ASi replenishment, as well as changes in ecosystem specific pedogenic processes and increased mobilisation of the PSia in disturbed soils. We have also made a first, though rough, estimate of the magnitude of change in temperate continental ASi pools due to human disturbance. Assuming that our data are representative, we estimate that total ASi storage in soils has declined by ca. 10 % since the onset of agricultural development (3000 BCE

  10. Carbon density and distribution of six Chinese temperate forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying forest carbon(C) storage and distribution is important for forest C cycling studies and terrestrial ecosystem modeling.Forest inventory and allometric approaches were used to measure C density and allocation in six representative temperate forests of similar stand age(42-59 years old) and growing under the same climate in northeastern China.The forests were an aspen-birch forest,a hardwood forest,a Korean pine plantation,a Dahurian larch plantation,a mixed deciduous forest,and a Mongolian oak forest.There were no significant differences in the C densities of ecosystem components(except for detritus) although the six forests had varying vegetation compositions and site conditions.However,the differences were significant when the C pools were normalized against stand basal area.The total ecosystem C density varied from 186.9 tC hm-2 to 349.2 tC hm-2 across the forests.The C densities of vegetation,detritus,and soil ranged from 86.3-122.7 tC hm-2,6.5-10.5 tC hm-2,and 93.7-220.1 tC hm-2,respectively,which accounted for 39.7% ± 7.1%(mean ± SD),3.3% ± 1.1%,and 57.0% ± 7.9% of the total C densities,respectively.The overstory C pool accounted for > 99% of the total vegetation C pool.The foliage biomass,small root(diameter < 5mm) biomass,root-shoot ratio,and small root to foliage biomass ratio varied from 2.08-4.72 tC hm-2,0.95-3.24 tC hm-2,22.0%-28.3%,and 34.5%-122.2%,respectively.The Korean pine plantation had the lowest foliage production efficiency(total biomass/foliage biomass:22.6 g g-1) among the six forests,while the Dahurian larch plantation had the highest small root production efficiency(total biomass/small root biomass:124.7 g g-1).The small root C density decreased with soil depth for all forests except for the Mongolian oak forest,in which the small roots tended to be vertically distributed downwards.The C density of coarse woody debris was significantly less in the two plantations than in the four naturally regenerated forests.The variability

  11. Transfer parameter values in temperate forest ecosystems: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmon, Philippe; Thiry, Yves; Zibold, Gregor; Rantavaara, Aino; Fesenko, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    activity reduction, quantified as an ecological half-life, reflect the soil and pasture conditions at individual locations. Forests in temperate and boreal regions differ with respect to soil type and vegetation, and a faster decline of muscle activity concentrations in deer occurs in the temperate zone. However, in wild boar the caesium activity concentration shows no decline because of its special feeding habits. In the late phase, i.e. at least a few months since the external radionuclide contamination on feed plants has been removed, a T ag value of 0.01 m 2 kg -1 (fresh weight) is common for 137 Cs in the muscles of adult moose and terrestrial birds living in boreal forests, and 0.03 m 2 kg -1 (fresh weight) for arctic hare. Radiocaesium concentrations in reindeer muscle in winter may exceed the summer content by a factor of more than two, the mean T ag values for winter ranging from 0.02 to 0.8 m 2 kg -1 (fresh weight), and in summer from 0.04 to 0.4 m 2 kg -1 . The highest values are found in the year of initial contamination, followed by a gradual reduction. In waterfowl a relatively fast decline in uptake of 137 Cs has been found, with T ag values changing from 0.01 to 0.002 m 2 kg -1 (fresh weight) in the three years after the contaminating event, the rate being determined by the dynamics of 137 Cs in aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Transfer parameter values in temperate forest ecosystems: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmon, Philippe [Department of Radioecology, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, CE Cadarache, BP 3, 13115 Saint Paul-les-Durance Cedex (France)], E-mail: philippe.calmon@irsn.fr; Thiry, Yves [Biosphere Impact Studies, Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK.CEN, Foundation of Public Utility), 2400 Mol (Belgium); Zibold, Gregor [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, 88250 Weingarten (Germany); Rantavaara, Aino [Research and Environmental Surveillance, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), BP 14, FIN-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Fesenko, Sergei [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-09-15

    of radioactive caesium to game animals and reindeer and the rate of activity reduction, quantified as an ecological half-life, reflect the soil and pasture conditions at individual locations. Forests in temperate and boreal regions differ with respect to soil type and vegetation, and a faster decline of muscle activity concentrations in deer occurs in the temperate zone. However, in wild boar the caesium activity concentration shows no decline because of its special feeding habits. In the late phase, i.e. at least a few months since the external radionuclide contamination on feed plants has been removed, a T{sub ag} value of 0.01 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} (fresh weight) is common for {sup 137}Cs in the muscles of adult moose and terrestrial birds living in boreal forests, and 0.03 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} (fresh weight) for arctic hare. Radiocaesium concentrations in reindeer muscle in winter may exceed the summer content by a factor of more than two, the mean T{sub ag} values for winter ranging from 0.02 to 0.8 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} (fresh weight), and in summer from 0.04 to 0.4 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. The highest values are found in the year of initial contamination, followed by a gradual reduction. In waterfowl a relatively fast decline in uptake of {sup 137}Cs has been found, with T{sub ag} values changing from 0.01 to 0.002 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} (fresh weight) in the three years after the contaminating event, the rate being determined by the dynamics of {sup 137}Cs in aquatic ecosystems.

  13. Production of fermentables and biomass by six temperate fuelcrops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, D.J.; Gammon, T.C.; Graves, B.

    1985-12-01

    Several potential fuelcrops have been studied individually, but relatively little work has been done to compare the various temperate species in side-by-side trials. The production has been examined of readily fermentable carbohydrates and biomass by six fuelcrop candidates: grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Jerusalem articoke (Helianthus tuberosus), maize (Zea Mays), sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A randomized complete block design with four replicates was employed at each of three locations that were somewhat diverse in soil type, elevation, growing season length, and 1980 rainfall distribution. Fermentables in the harvestable dry matter were determined colorimetrically following dilute acid plus enzymatic hydrolysis. Overall, sugarbeet was the most prolific producer of fermentables (7.4 Mg/ha); Jerusalem artichoke (5.8 Mg/ha), maize (4.8 Mg/ha) and sweet sorghum stems (5.8 Mg/ha) were statistically equivalent, while sweet potato (4.0 Mg/ha) and grain sorghum (3.8 Mg/ha) were less productive than the other candidates. The crops performed somewhat differently at each location, but the most striking site-specific differences were seen at the site with the coarsest textured soil and driest season. At that location, maize produced the least fermentables (0.6 Mg/ha). Biomass production generally reflected either the amount of time each species was actively growing or limiations to growth associated with drought. No general recommendations are made concerning a preferred temperature fuelcrop. Based on the studies, however, maize may not always be the fuelcrop of choice; others, especially sugarbeet and sweet sorghum (when harvested for grain also), may be superior to maize in productivity of fermentable substrates. 6 tabs., 13 refs.

  14. Analysis of ecological thresholds in a temperate forest undergoing dieback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Martin

    Full Text Available Positive feedbacks in drivers of degradation can cause threshold responses in natural ecosystems. Though threshold responses have received much attention in studies of aquatic ecosystems, they have been neglected in terrestrial systems, such as forests, where the long time-scales required for monitoring have impeded research. In this study we explored the role of positive feedbacks in a temperate forest that has been monitored for 50 years and is undergoing dieback, largely as a result of death of the canopy dominant species (Fagus sylvatica, beech. Statistical analyses showed strong non-linear losses in basal area for some plots, while others showed relatively gradual change. Beech seedling density was positively related to canopy openness, but a similar relationship was not observed for saplings, suggesting a feedback whereby mortality in areas with high canopy openness was elevated. We combined this observation with empirical data on size- and growth-mediated mortality of trees to produce an individual-based model of forest dynamics. We used this model to simulate changes in the structure of the forest over 100 years under scenarios with different juvenile and mature mortality probabilities, as well as a positive feedback between seedling and mature tree mortality. This model produced declines in forest basal area when critical juvenile and mature mortality probabilities were exceeded. Feedbacks in juvenile mortality caused a greater reduction in basal area relative to scenarios with no feedback. Non-linear, concave declines of basal area occurred only when mature tree mortality was 3-5 times higher than rates observed in the field. Our results indicate that the longevity of trees may help to buffer forests against environmental change and that the maintenance of old, large trees may aid the resilience of forest stands. In addition, our work suggests that dieback of forests may be avoidable providing pressures on mature and juvenile trees do

  15. Radiation budget changes with dry forest clearing in temperate Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houspanossian, Javier; Nosetto, Marcelo; Jobbágy, Esteban G

    2013-04-01

    Land cover changes may affect climate and the energy balance of the Earth through their influence on the greenhouse gas composition of the atmosphere (biogeochemical effects) but also through shifts in the physical properties of the land surface (biophysical effects). We explored how the radiation budget changes following the replacement of temperate dry forests by crops in central semiarid Argentina and quantified the biophysical radiative forcing of this transformation. For this purpose, we computed the albedo and surface temperature for a 7-year period (2003-2009) from MODIS imagery at 70 paired sites occupied by native forests and crops and calculated the radiation budget at the tropopause and surface levels using a columnar radiation model parameterized with satellite data. Mean annual black-sky albedo and diurnal surface temperature were 50% and 2.5 °C higher in croplands than in dry forests. These contrasts increased the outgoing shortwave energy flux at the top of the atmosphere in croplands by a quarter (58.4 vs. 45.9 W m(-2) ) which, together with a slight increase in the outgoing longwave flux, yielded a net cooling of -14 W m(-2) . This biophysical cooling effect would be equivalent to a reduction in atmospheric CO2 of 22 Mg C ha(-1) , which involves approximately a quarter to a half of the typical carbon emissions that accompany deforestation in these ecosystems. We showed that the replacement of dry forests by crops in central Argentina has strong biophysical effects on the energy budget which could counterbalance the biogeochemical effects of deforestation. Underestimating or ignoring these biophysical consequences of land-use changes on climate will certainly curtail the effectiveness of many warming mitigation actions, particularly in semiarid regions where high radiation load and smaller active carbon pools would increase the relative importance of biophysical forcing. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Project ZEUS: a field irradiator for small-mammal population studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, B.N.; Iverson, S.L.

    1976-08-01

    The ZEUS (Zoological Environment Under Stress) Project will assess the effects of long-term low-level radiation on meadow vole populations in a northern temperate area through a series of replicated experimental irradiations. These rodent populations will live in grassland areas surrounded by forest, and will be exposed to a dose designed to be a maximum 6 R/day. (author)

  17. A novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage, Ab31, a chimera formed from temperate phage PAJU2 and P. putida lytic phage AF: characteristics and mechanism of bacterial resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libera Latino

    Full Text Available A novel temperate bacteriophage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, phage vB_PaeP_Tr60_Ab31 (alias Ab31 is described. Its genome is composed of structural genes related to those of lytic P. putida phage AF, and regulatory genes similar to those of temperate phage PAJU2. The virion structure resembles that of phage AF and other lytic Podoviridae (S. enterica Epsilon 15 and E. coli phiv10 with similar tail spikes. Ab31 was able to infect P. aeruginosa strain PA14 and two genetically related strains called Tr60 and Tr162, out of 35 diverse strains from cystic fibrosis patients. Analysis of resistant host variants revealed different phenotypes, including induction of pigment and alginate overproduction. Whole genome sequencing of resistant variants highlighted the existence of a large deletion of 234 kbp in two strains, encompassing a cluster of genes required for the production of CupA fimbriae. Stable lysogens formed by Ab31 in strain Tr60, permitted the identification of the insertion site. During colonization of the lung in cystic fibrosis patients, P. aeruginosa adapts by modifying its genome. We suggest that bacteriophages such as Ab31 may play an important role in this adaptation by selecting for bacterial characteristics that favor persistence of bacteria in the lung.

  18. Microstructural, mechanical and electrochemical behaviour of a 7017 Al–Zn–Mg alloy of different tempers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, Prasanta Kumar, E-mail: prasantonnet55@yahoo.com; Ghosh, M.M.; Ghosh, K.S., E-mail: ksghosh2001@yahoo.co.uk

    2015-06-15

    The aim of the investigation is to assess the microstructural features and associated physical, mechanical and electrochemical properties of a 7017 Al–Zn–Mg alloy of various tempers. A 7017 Al–Zn–Mg alloy was subjected to different ageing schedules to produce under-(T4), peak-(T6), over-(T7) and highly over-aged tempers. Optical microscopy, hardness measurement, electrical conductivity measurement, tensile testing and SEM fractographs, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrochemical polarization studies have been used to characterize the alloy tempers. Hardness measurement and tensile testing showed the characteristic age hardening phenomenon of aluminium alloys. Optical and TEM micrographs have revealed the variation in size of matrix strengthening η′ (MgZn{sub 2}) and also the size and distribution of grain boundary η (MgZn{sub 2}) precipitate with ageing time. DSC thermograms exhibiting exothermic and endothermic peaks indicated the characteristic solid state reaction sequence of the 7017 alloy. Potentiodynamic polarization study of the 7017 alloy of various tempers in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution at near neutral pH showed typical active metal dissolution behaviour, but at pH 12 an active–passive–transpassive transition behaviour has been observed. - Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of the 7017 aluminium alloy of various tempers (a, b) under aged (T4), (c, d) peak aged (T6), (e, f) over aged (T7) and (g, h) highly over-aged. Display Omitted - Highlights: • 7017 Al-Zn-Mg alloy was subjected to different artificial ageing treatments. • Characterization of 7017 alloy tempers by hardness, tensile, DSC, TEM and electrochemical behaviour. • Structure-properties relationship of the 7017 Al-Zn-Mg alloy of various tempers.

  19. Cellular metabolic rate is influenced by life-history traits in tropical and temperate birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Van Brocklyn, James; Wortman, Matthew; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    In general, tropical birds have a "slow pace of life," lower rates of whole-animal metabolism and higher survival rates, than temperate species. A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is the understanding of how variation in life-history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Because tropical birds have lower rates of whole-animal metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would also have lower rates of cellular metabolism than cells from temperate species of similar body size and common phylogenetic history. We cultured primary dermal fibroblasts from 17 tropical and 17 temperate phylogenetically-paired species of birds in a common nutritive and thermal environment and then examined basal, uncoupled, and non-mitochondrial cellular O2 consumption (OCR), proton leak, and anaerobic glycolysis (extracellular acidification rates [ECAR]), using an XF24 Seahorse Analyzer. We found that multiple measures of metabolism in cells from tropical birds were significantly lower than their temperate counterparts. Basal and uncoupled cellular metabolism were 29% and 35% lower in cells from tropical birds, respectively, a decrease closely aligned with differences in whole-animal metabolism between tropical and temperate birds. Proton leak was significantly lower in cells from tropical birds compared with cells from temperate birds. Our results offer compelling evidence that whole-animal metabolism is linked to cellular respiration as a function of an animal's life-history evolution. These findings are consistent with the idea that natural selection has uniquely fashioned cells of long-lived tropical bird species to have lower rates of metabolism than cells from shorter-lived temperate species.

  20. Cellular metabolic rate is influenced by life-history traits in tropical and temperate birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Jimenez

    Full Text Available In general, tropical birds have a "slow pace of life," lower rates of whole-animal metabolism and higher survival rates, than temperate species. A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is the understanding of how variation in life-history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Because tropical birds have lower rates of whole-animal metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would also have lower rates of cellular metabolism than cells from temperate species of similar body size and common phylogenetic history. We cultured primary dermal fibroblasts from 17 tropical and 17 temperate phylogenetically-paired species of birds in a common nutritive and thermal environment and then examined basal, uncoupled, and non-mitochondrial cellular O2 consumption (OCR, proton leak, and anaerobic glycolysis (extracellular acidification rates [ECAR], using an XF24 Seahorse Analyzer. We found that multiple measures of metabolism in cells from tropical birds were significantly lower than their temperate counterparts. Basal and uncoupled cellular metabolism were 29% and 35% lower in cells from tropical birds, respectively, a decrease closely aligned with differences in whole-animal metabolism between tropical and temperate birds. Proton leak was significantly lower in cells from tropical birds compared with cells from temperate birds. Our results offer compelling evidence that whole-animal metabolism is linked to cellular respiration as a function of an animal's life-history evolution. These findings are consistent with the idea that natural selection has uniquely fashioned cells of long-lived tropical bird species to have lower rates of metabolism than cells from shorter-lived temperate species.

  1. Cellular Metabolic Rate Is Influenced by Life-History Traits in Tropical and Temperate Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Van Brocklyn, James; Wortman, Matthew; Williams, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    In general, tropical birds have a “slow pace of life,” lower rates of whole-animal metabolism and higher survival rates, than temperate species. A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is the understanding of how variation in life-history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Because tropical birds have lower rates of whole-animal metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would also have lower rates of cellular metabolism than cells from temperate species of similar body size and common phylogenetic history. We cultured primary dermal fibroblasts from 17 tropical and 17 temperate phylogenetically-paired species of birds in a common nutritive and thermal environment and then examined basal, uncoupled, and non-mitochondrial cellular O2 consumption (OCR), proton leak, and anaerobic glycolysis (extracellular acidification rates [ECAR]), using an XF24 Seahorse Analyzer. We found that multiple measures of metabolism in cells from tropical birds were significantly lower than their temperate counterparts. Basal and uncoupled cellular metabolism were 29% and 35% lower in cells from tropical birds, respectively, a decrease closely aligned with differences in whole-animal metabolism between tropical and temperate birds. Proton leak was significantly lower in cells from tropical birds compared with cells from temperate birds. Our results offer compelling evidence that whole-animal metabolism is linked to cellular respiration as a function of an animal’s life-history evolution. These findings are consistent with the idea that natural selection has uniquely fashioned cells of long-lived tropical bird species to have lower rates of metabolism than cells from shorter-lived temperate species. PMID:24498080

  2. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  3. Stable isotopes - separation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockhart, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this review, methods used for the separation of stable isotopes ( 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, 18 O, 34 S) will be described. The synthesis of labelled compounds, techniques for detection and assay, and areas of application will also be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen; to date, sulphur isotopes have only assumed a minor role. The field of deuterium chemistry is too extensive for adequate treatment; it will therefore be essentially excluded. (author)

  4. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  5. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  6. Stable Heavy Hadrons in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mackeprang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Several extensions to the SM feature heavy long-lived particles with masses of O(10^2-10^3 GeV) and mean lifetimes fulfilling $CT \\geq 10m$. Among such theories are supersymmetric scenarios as well as extra-dimensional models in which the heavy new particles are seen as Kaluza-Klein excitations of the well-known SM particles. Such particles will, from the point of view of a collider experiment be seen as stable. This thesis is concerned with the case where the exotic heavy particles emph{can} be considered stable while traversing the detector. Specifically the case is considered where the particles in question carry the charge of the strong nuclear force, commonly referred to as emph{colour charge}. A simulation kit has been developed using GEANT4. This framework is the current standard in experimental particle physics for the simulation of interactions of particles with matter, and it is used extensively for detector simulation. The simulation describes the interactions of these particles with matter which i...

  7. Population annealing: Theory and application in spin glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenlong; Machta, Jonathan; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2015-01-01

    Population annealing is an efficient sequential Monte Carlo algorithm for simulating equilibrium states of systems with rough free energy landscapes. The theory of population annealing is presented, and systematic and statistical errors are discussed. The behavior of the algorithm is studied in the context of large-scale simulations of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass and the performance of the algorithm is compared to parallel tempering. It is found that the two algorithms are similar ...

  8. Experimental evidence of the synergistic effects of warming and invasive algae on a temperate reef-builder coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Diego K; Cebrian, Emma; Casado, Clara; Teixidó, Núria; Garrabou, Joaquim; Linares, Cristina

    2015-12-22

    In the current global climate change scenario, stressors overlap in space and time, and knowledge on the effects of their interaction is highly needed to understand and predict the response and resilience of organisms. Corals, among many other benthic organisms, are affected by an increasing number of global change-related stressors including warming and invasive species. In this study, the cumulative effects between warming and invasive algae were experimentally assessed on the temperate reef-builder coral Cladocora caespitosa. We first investigated the potential local adaptation to thermal stress in two distant populations subjected to contrasting thermal and necrosis histories. No significant differences were found between populations. Colonies from both populations suffered no necrosis after long-term exposure to temperatures up to 29 °C. Second, we tested the effects of the interaction of both warming and the presence of invasive algae. The combined exposure triggered critical synergistic effects on photosynthetic efficiency and tissue necrosis. At the end of the experiment, over 90% of the colonies subjected to warming and invasive algae showed signs of necrosis. The results are of particular concern when considering the predicted increase of extreme climatic events and the spread of invasive species in the Mediterranean and other seas in the future.

  9. Pre-hibernation energy reserves in a temperate anuran, Rana chensinensis, along a relatively fine elevational gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; Li, B.; Li, Y.; Ma, X.; Fellers, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Temperate anurans have energy substrates in the liver, fat bodies, carcass and gonads; these stores provide support for metabolism and egg production during hibernation, and for breeding activities in spring. This paper compares the energy budget shortly before hibernation among Rana chensinensis populations at elevations of 1400, 1700 and 2000 m along a river in northern China. The larger frogs, regardless of elevation, had relatively heavy storage organs and the masses of nearly all these organs were positively correlated with each other. After controlling for the effect of body size, we found no significant difference in energetic organ mass among different age classes for each of the three populations. There were sexual differences in energy strategy. Males in all populations accumulated greater reserves in liver, fat bodies and carcass than did females. In contrast, females put more energy into their ovaries and oviducts. Frogs from higher elevations tended to have heavier organs than those from lower elevations; however, the pattern did not vary systematically along fine environmental gradients. Mid-elevation R. chensinensis built up significantly more reserves than low-elevation individuals, but were similar to their highland conspecifics. Males from higher elevations tended to have heavier liver and fat bodies; females were similar in liver and ovary mass across all elevations, but formed heavier fat bodies, oviducts and somatic tissue at higher elevation sites.

  10. Tree fern trunks facilitate seedling regeneration in a productive lowland temperate rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola, Aurora; Burrows, Larry E; Coomes, David A

    2008-03-01

    Seedling regeneration on forest floors is often impaired by competition with established plants. In some lowland temperate rain forests, tree fern trunks provide safe sites on which tree species establish, and grow large enough to take root in the ground and persist. Here we explore the competitive and facilitative effects of two tree fern species, Cyathea smithii and Dicksonia squarrosa, on the epiphytic regeneration of tree species in nutrient-rich alluvial forests in New Zealand. The difficulties that seedlings have in establishing on vertical tree fern trunks were indicated by the following observations. First, seedling abundance was greatest on the oldest sections of tree fern trunks, near the base, suggesting that trunks gradually recruited more and more seedlings over time, but many sections of trunk were devoid of seedlings, indicating the difficulty of establishment on a vertical surface. Second, most seedlings were from small-seeded species, presumably because smaller seeds can easily lodge on tree fern trunks. Deer browsing damage was observed on 73% of epiphytic seedlings growing within 2 m of the ground, whereas few seedlings above that height were browsed. This suggests that tree ferns provide refugia from introduced deer, and may slow the decline in population size of deer-preferred species. We reasoned that tree ferns would compete with epiphytic seedlings for light, because below the tree fern canopy photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was about 1% of above-canopy PAR. Frond removal almost tripled %PAR on the forest floor, leading to a significant increase in the height growth rate (HGR) of seedlings planted on the forest floor, but having no effects on the HGRs of epiphytic seedlings. Our study shows evidence of direct facilitative interactions by tree ferns during seedling establishment in plant communities associated with nutrient-rich soils.

  11. [Effect of forest management on the herpetofauna of a temperate forest of western Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldape-López, César Tonatiuh; Santos-Moreno, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    The development of silvicultural techniques has as main objective to maximize the production of timber, whereas at the same time minimize the impact generated during and after forest intervention in the local diversity. However, these activities change local climate, and this, in turn, alter the composition of natural communities. The effect of these changes may be greater in those taxonomic groups with high sensitivity to habitat disturbance, such as amphibians and reptiles, which are the unique terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates. The present study aims to know the differences in diversity of amphibians and reptiles in a temperate forest under two silvicultural treatments, one of low and the other of high intensity, as well as from one, five and ten years of regeneration since the last logging event, Sierra Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico. Records of 21 species of herpetofauna (six amphibians and 15 reptiles) were obtained. The total species richness was similar in both treatments; however, the composition varied between sites with different recovery times. Higher abundance of amphibian was presented on sites with the low-intensity treatment, while reptiles were more abundant at sites with intensive treatment. Compared to a mature forest without management, sites with intensive treatment have more rare species, although the values of true diversity of amphibians were similar between treatments with different intensities, while for reptiles sites under treatment showed less diversity that unmanaged site: 33 % for intensive treatment and 28 % at sites with low intensity with respect to one control site. Complementary Analysis showed a difference of 86 % between the compositions of species in sites with intensive treatment. The treatment intensity was associated with an increase in the number of species, but the way they respond to changes in habitat depends largely on the population characteristics of each species and its ability to adapt to new conditions.

  12. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Prommer

    Full Text Available Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  13. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  14. Bioerosion by pit-forming, temperate-reef sea urchins: History, rates and broader implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Russell

    Full Text Available Sea urchins are dominant members of rocky temperate reefs around the world. They often occur in cavities within the rock, and fit so tightly, it is natural to assume they sculpted these "pits." However, there are no experimental data demonstrating they bore pits. If they do, what are the rates and consequences of bioerosion to nearshore systems? We sampled purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, from sites with four rock types, three sedimentary (two sandstones and one mudstone and one metamorphic (granite. A year-long experiment showed urchins excavated depressions on sedimentary rocks in just months. The rate of pit formation varied with rock type and ranged from 100 yr for granite. In the field, there were differences in pit size and shapes of the urchins (height:diameter ratio. The pits were shallow and urchins flatter at the granite site, and the pits were deeper and urchins taller at the sedimentary sites. Although overall pit sizes were larger on mudstone than on sandstone, urchin size accounted for this difference. A second, short-term experiment, showed the primary mechanism for bioerosion was ingestion of the substratum. This experiment eliminated potential confounding factors of the year-long experiment and yielded higher bioerosion rates. Given the high densities of urchins, large amounts of rock can be converted to sediment over short time periods. Urchins on sandstone can excavate as much as 11.4 kg m-2 yr-1. On a broader geographic scale, sediment production can exceed 100 t ha-1 yr-1, and across their range, their combined bioerosion is comparable to the sediment load of many rivers. The phase shift between urchin barrens and kelp bed habitats in the North Pacific is controlled by the trophic cascade of sea otters. By limiting urchin populations, these apex predators also may indirectly control a substantial component of coastal rates of bioerosion.

  15. Biochar Decelerates Soil Organic Nitrogen Cycling but Stimulates Soil Nitrification in a Temperate Arable Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50–80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies. PMID:24497947

  16. Mowing exacerbates the loss of ecosystem stability under nitrogen enrichment in a temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhai; Loreau, Michel; He, Nianpeng; Zhang, Guangming; Han, Xingguo

    2017-08-04

    1. Global reactive nitrogen (N) is projected to further increase in the coming years. Previous studies have demonstrated that N enrichment weakens the temporal stability of the ecosystem and the primary productivity through decreased biodiversity and species asynchrony. Mowing is a globally common practise in grasslands; and infrequent mowing can maintain or increase plant diversity under N enrichment conditions. However, it is unclear how infrequent mowing affects ecosystem stability in the face of N enrichment. 2. By independently manipulating the frequency (twice vs. monthly additions per year) and rate (i.e. 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 50 g N m -2 year -1 ) of NH 4 NO 3 inputs and mowing (unmown vs. mown) over 3 years (2011-2013) in a temperate grassland of northern China, we aimed to examine the interactive effects of N enrichment and mowing on ecosystem stability. 3. The results show that mowing maintained a positive relationship between species richness and ecosystem stability despite N addition, but that it exacerbated the negative effects of N addition on ecosystem stability. Mowing increased mean primary productivity and plant species richness, but it also increased the synchrony of population fluctuations and the variability of primary productivity under N enrichment, thereby contributing to a decline in the ecosystem stability. 4. Thus, our study reveals that infrequent mowing can buffer the negative effects of N enrichment on biodiversity to some extent and further increase the primary productivity, but it exacerbates the loss of ecosystem stability with N enrichment, thereby threatening local and/or semiarid regional food security.

  17. Bioerosion by pit-forming, temperate-reef sea urchins: History, rates and broader implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Victoria K.; Duwan, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Sea urchins are dominant members of rocky temperate reefs around the world. They often occur in cavities within the rock, and fit so tightly, it is natural to assume they sculpted these “pits.” However, there are no experimental data demonstrating they bore pits. If they do, what are the rates and consequences of bioerosion to nearshore systems? We sampled purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, from sites with four rock types, three sedimentary (two sandstones and one mudstone) and one metamorphic (granite). A year-long experiment showed urchins excavated depressions on sedimentary rocks in just months. The rate of pit formation varied with rock type and ranged from 100 yr for granite. In the field, there were differences in pit size and shapes of the urchins (height:diameter ratio). The pits were shallow and urchins flatter at the granite site, and the pits were deeper and urchins taller at the sedimentary sites. Although overall pit sizes were larger on mudstone than on sandstone, urchin size accounted for this difference. A second, short-term experiment, showed the primary mechanism for bioerosion was ingestion of the substratum. This experiment eliminated potential confounding factors of the year-long experiment and yielded higher bioerosion rates. Given the high densities of urchins, large amounts of rock can be converted to sediment over short time periods. Urchins on sandstone can excavate as much as 11.4 kg m-2 yr-1. On a broader geographic scale, sediment production can exceed 100 t ha-1 yr-1, and across their range, their combined bioerosion is comparable to the sediment load of many rivers. The phase shift between urchin barrens and kelp bed habitats in the North Pacific is controlled by the trophic cascade of sea otters. By limiting urchin populations, these apex predators also may indirectly control a substantial component of coastal rates of bioerosion. PMID:29466357

  18. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina-S Kelch

    Full Text Available Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg., we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58% identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46% on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control.

  19. Spring molybdenum enrichment in scallop shells: a potential tracer of diatom productivity in coastal temperate environments (Brittany, NW France)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barats, A.; Amouroux, D.; Pécheyran, C.; Chauvaud, L.; Thébault, J.; Donard, O. F. X.

    2009-08-01

    Skeletal molybdenum/calcium ([Mo]/[Ca])shell ratios were recently examined in bivalves. These ratios were determined by quantitative LA-ICP-MS analyses every third daily striae (i.e. a temporal resolution of 3 days) in 36 flat valves of the Great Scallop shells Pecten maximus (2-year old; 3 shells/year) collected in temperate coastal environments of Western Europe (42 to 49° N). Variations of ([Mo]/[Ca])shell ratio were significant and reproducible for scallops from a same population, from different years (1998-2004) and from different coastal temperate locations. ([Mo]/[Ca])shell exhibits typical profiles characterized by a background content, below the method detection limit (<0.003 μmol/mol) for most of the shell growth period, which is punctuated by a significant transient enrichment (0.031-2.1 μmol/mol) mainly occurring from May to June. The Bay of Brest (France) was especially investigated because of long term observations on scallop communities, environmental variables, and high resolution analyses of dissolved Mo in bottom seawater in 2000. In 2000, dissolved Mo exhibited significant increasing concentration just preceding a maximum of ([Mo]/[Ca])shell ratio. The environmental conditions preceding ([Mo]/[Ca])shell maximum events, both in 2000 and over the 7-year survey indicates a direct influence of the scallop environmental conditions at the sediment water interface subsequent to the intense and periodic spring bloom event. Spring maxima of ([Mo]/[Ca])shell ratio were found to be specifically related to the dynamic of spring diatom blooms and to the extent of the subsequent silicate depletion. ([Mo]/[Ca])shell records reveal thus unexpected biogeochemical routes of Mo, potentially related to coastal spring productivity.

  20. Reference of Temperature and Time during tempering process for non-stoichiometric FTO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. K.; Liang, B.; Zhao, M. J.; Gao, Y.; Zhang, F. C.; Zhao, H. L.

    2015-10-01

    In order to enhance the mechanical strength of Low-E glass, Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films have to be tempered at high temperatures together with glass substrates. The effects of tempering temperature (600 °C ~ 720 °C) and time (150 s ~ 300 s) on the structural and electrical properties of FTO films were investigated. The results show all the films consist of non-stoichiometric, polycrystalline SnO2 without detectable amounts of fluoride. 700 °C and 260 s may be the critical tempering temperature and time, respectively. FTO films tempered at 700 °C for 260 s possesses the resistivity of 7.54 × 10-4 Ω•cm, the average transmittance in 400 ~ 800 nm of ~80%, and the calculated emissivity of 0.38. Hall mobility of FTO films tempered in this proper condition is mainly limited by the ionized impurity scattering. The value of [O]/[Sn] at the film surface is much higher than the stoichiometric value of 2.0 of pure crystalline SnO2.

  1. Effect of land use change on methane oxidation in temperate forest and grassland soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, D.S.; Valentine, D.W.; Mosier, A.R.; Parton, W.J.; Schimel, D.S. (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (USA). Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

    Evidence is accumulating that land use changes and other human activity during the past 100 to 200 years have contributed to decreased CH[sub 4] oxidation in the soil. Increased N additions to temperate forest soils in the northeastern United States decreased CH[sub 4] uptake by 30 to 60%, and increased N fertilization and conversion to cropland in temperate grasslands decreased CH[sub 4] uptake by 30 to 75%. Using these data, a series of calculations were made to estimate the impact of land use and management changes which have altered soil, the CH[sub 4] sink in temperate forest and grassland ecosystems. As the atmospheric mixing ratio of CH[sub 4] has increased during the past 150 y, the temperate CH[sub 4] sink has risen from approximately 8 Tg y[sup -1] to 27 Tg y[sup -1], assuming no loss of land cover to cropland conversion. The net effect of intensive land cover changes and extensive chronic disturbance (i.e., increased atmospheric N deposition) to these ecosystems have resulted in about 30% reduction in the CH[sub 4] budget even more as atmospheric CH[sub 4] concentrations increase and as a result of further disturbance to other biomes. Without accounting for this approximately 20 Tg y[sup -1] temperate soil sink, the atmospheric CH[sub 4] concentration would be increasing about 1.5 times the current rate. 39 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Methane Ebullition in Temperate Hydropower Reservoirs and Implications for US Policy on Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin L; Arntzen, Evan V; Goldman, Amy E; Richmond, Marshall C

    2017-10-01

    The United States is home to 2198 dams actively used for hydropower production. With the December 2015 consensus adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Paris Agreement, it is important to accurately quantify anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Methane ebullition, or methane bubbles originating from river or lake sediments, has been shown to account for nearly all methane emissions from tropical hydropower reservoirs to the atmosphere. However, distinct ebullitive methane fluxes have been studied in comparatively few temperate hydropower reservoirs globally. This study measures ebullitive and diffusive methane fluxes from two eastern Washington reservoirs, and synthesizes existing studies of methane ebullition in temperate, boreal, and tropical hydropower reservoirs. Ebullition comprises nearly all methane emissions (>97%) from this study's two eastern Washington hydropower reservoirs to the atmosphere. Summer methane ebullition from these reservoirs was higher than ebullition in six southeastern U.S. hydropower reservoirs, however it was similar to temperate reservoirs in other parts of the world. Our literature synthesis suggests that methane ebullition from temperate hydropower reservoirs can be seasonally elevated compared to tropical climates, however annual emissions are likely to be higher within tropical climates, emphasizing the possible range of methane ebullition fluxes and the need for the further study of temperate reservoirs. Possible future changes to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and UNFCCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories highlights the need for accurate assessment of reservoir emissions.

  3. Methane Ebullition in Temperate Hydropower Reservoirs and Implications for US Policy on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin L.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Goldman, Amy E.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2017-10-01

    The United States is home to 2198 dams actively used for hydropower production. With the December 2015 consensus adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Paris Agreement, it is important to accurately quantify anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Methane ebullition, or methane bubbles originating from river or lake sediments, has been shown to account for nearly all methane emissions from tropical hydropower reservoirs to the atmosphere. However, distinct ebullitive methane fluxes have been studied in comparatively few temperate hydropower reservoirs globally. This study measures ebullitive and diffusive methane fluxes from two eastern Washington reservoirs, and synthesizes existing studies of methane ebullition in temperate, boreal, and tropical hydropower reservoirs. Ebullition comprises nearly all methane emissions (>97%) from this study's two eastern Washington hydropower reservoirs to the atmosphere. Summer methane ebullition from these reservoirs was higher than ebullition in six southeastern U.S. hydropower reservoirs, however it was similar to temperate reservoirs in other parts of the world. Our literature synthesis suggests that methane ebullition from temperate hydropower reservoirs can be seasonally elevated compared to tropical climates, however annual emissions are likely to be higher within tropical climates, emphasizing the possible range of methane ebullition fluxes and the need for the further study of temperate reservoirs. Possible future changes to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and UNFCCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories highlights the need for accurate assessment of reservoir emissions.

  4. Appropriate welding conditions of temper bead weld repair for SQV2A pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, R.; Matsuda, F.; Brziak, P.; Lomozik, M.

    2004-01-01

    Temper bead welding technique is one of the most important repair welding methods for large structures for which it is difficult to perform the specified post weld heat treatment. In this study, appropriate temper bead welding conditions to improve the characteristics of heat affected zone (HAZ) are studied using pressure vessel steel SQV2A corresponding to ASTM A533 Type B Class 1. Thermal/mechanical simulator is employed to give specimens welding thermal cycles from single to quadruple cycle. Charpy absorbed energy and hardness of simulated CGHAZ by first cycle were degraded as compared with base metal. Improvability of these degradations by subsequent cycles is discussed and appropriate temper bead thermal cycles are clarified. When the peak temperature lower than Ac1 and near Ac1 in the second thermal cycle is applied to CGAHZ by first thermal cycle, the characteristics of CGHAZ improve enough. When the other peak temperatures (that is, higher than Ac1) in the second thermal cycle are applied to the CGHAZ, third or more thermal cycle temper bead process should be applied to improve the properties. Appropriate weld condition ranges are selected based on the above results. The validity of the selected ranges is verified by the temper bead welding test. (orig.)

  5. The Kinetics of Phase Transformations During Tempering in Laser Melted High Chromium Cast Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. Y.; Wang, Y.; Han, B.

    2012-06-01

    The precipitation of secondary carbides in the laser melted high chromium cast steels during tempering at 300-650 °C for 2 h in air furnace was characterized and the present phases was identified, by using transmission electron microscopy. Laser melted high chromium cast steel consists of austenitic dendrites and interdendritic M23C6 carbides. The austenite has such a strong tempering stability that it remains unchanged at temperature below 400 °C and the secondary hardening phenomenon starts from 450 °C to the maximum value of 672 HV at 560 °C. After tempering at 450 °C fine M23C6 carbides precipitate from the supersaturated austenite preferentially. In addition, the dislocation lines and slip bands still exist inside the austenite. While tempering at temperature below 560 °C, the secondary hardening simultaneously results from the martensite phase transformation and the precipitation of carbides as well as dislocation strengthening within a refined microstructure. Moreover, the formation of the ferrite matrix and large quality of coarse lamellar M3C carbides when the samples were tempered at 650 °C contributes to the decrease of hardness.

  6. Thermotolerance and responses to short duration heat stress in tropical and temperate species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marias, D.; Meinzer, F. C.; Still, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Temperature and heat waves are predicted to increase throughout the 21st century in both tropical and temperate regions. Tropical species are vulnerable to heat stress because of the higher radiation load and the narrower distribution of temperatures typically experienced compared to extratropical species. Germinant seedlings are also vulnerable to heat stress because they inhabit the boundary layer close to the soil surface where intense heating occurs. We quantified the effect of leaf age and heat stress duration (45 min, 90 min) on leaf thermotolerance and whole plant physiological responses to heat stress in Coffea arabica (COAR) saplings. We also evaluated leaf thermotolerance and whole plant responses to heat stress of seedlings in two populations each of Pinus ponderosa (PIPO) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (PSME) from contrasting climates. Thermotolerance of detached leaves/needles was evaluated using chlorophyll fluorescence (FV/FM, FO) and electrolyte leakage. After exposure of whole plants to a simulated heat wave in a growth chamber, we monitored FV/FM, photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs), and carbon isotope ratios (δ13C). In COAR, thermotolerance and rate of recovery increased with leaf age. Following heat treatment, reductions in A and gs led to reduced intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) and increased leaf temperatures. NSC results suggested that starch was converted to sugars for recovery from heat stress and phloem transport was inhibited. Plants failed to flower in both heat stress duration treatments. In PIPO and PSME, heat treatment induced significant reductions in FV/FM and A. NSC results suggested that starch was converted to glucose + fructose to aid recovery from heat-induced damage. Populations from drier sites had greater δ13C values than those from wetter sites, consistent with higher iWUE of populations from drier climates. Thermotolerance and heat stress responses appeared to be

  7. Additive and Synergistic Impacts of Fishing and Warming on the Growth of a Temperate Marine Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, J.

    2016-02-01

    Fishing and climate change are having profound impacts on the trajectory and variability of marine populations. However, despite the wealth of work undertaken in marine environments on the causes of longer-term biological change, the effects of these two drivers have traditionally been considered in isolation or just additively. Such an approach obviously overlooks the potential for significant synergistic or antagonistic interactions between fishing and climate to occur. Indeed, it is increasingly becoming acknowledged that the direction and magnitude of biological responses to natural environmental variation and climate change can be mediated by other anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing, and vice versa. Somatic growth is an ideal candidate with which to explore the impacts of fishing and environmental variability due to its strong biological relevance and its heightened sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic drivers. I developed 19-year growth biochronologies (1980-1999) for three south-east Australian populations of a site-attached temperate reef fish, purple wrasse (Notolabrus fucicola) using individual-based growth information naturally archived in otoliths. A commercial wrasse fishery began in the early 1990s; before this there was negligible recreational or commercial fishing. The growth of older fish was proportionally higher and that of the youngest fish proportionally lower after the onset of commercial fishing; 2-year olds grew 7.4% slower, but 5-year-olds grew 10.3% and 10-year-olds 26% faster in the latter period. These results are consistent with a density dependent response to harvesting. Average growth rates across all ages increased by 6.6%.oC-1, reflecting either a direct or indirect temperature effect in this global marine 'hotspot'. Finally, the distribution of individual thermal reaction norms significantly changed post fishing, showing that fishing and temperature can have a synergetic impact on marine populations via within

  8. IsoBank – Stable isotope ecology in the age of ‘Big Data’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes ratios provide valuable information to fish biologists working in a diverse range of fields: e.g. ecologists, population biologists and fishery managers. Ecologists take advantage of stable isotope ratios to provide information on the diet and migration history of consumers or when a...

  9. Importance of the autumn overturn and anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion for the annual methane emissions from a temperate lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas Fernández, Jorge; Peeters, Frank; Hofmann, Hilmar

    2014-07-01

    Changes in the budget of dissolved methane measured in a small temperate lake over 1 year indicate that anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion and the autumn overturn period represent key factors for the overall annual methane emissions from lakes. During periods of stable stratification, large amounts of methane accumulate in anoxic deep waters. Approximately 46% of the stored methane was emitted during the autumn overturn, contributing ∼80% of the annual diffusive methane emissions to the atmosphere. After the overturn period, the entire water column was oxic, and only 1% of the original quantity of methane remained in the water column. Current estimates of global methane emissions assume that all of the stored methane is released, whereas several studies of individual lakes have suggested that a major fraction of the stored methane is oxidized during overturns. Our results provide evidence that not all of the stored methane is released to the atmosphere during the overturn period. However, the fraction of stored methane emitted to the atmosphere during overturn may be substantially larger and the fraction of stored methane oxidized may be smaller than in the previous studies suggesting high oxidation losses of methane. The development or change in the vertical extent and duration of the anoxic hypolimnion, which can represent the main source of annual methane emissions from small lakes, may be an important aspect to consider for impact assessments of climate warming on the methane emissions from lakes.

  10. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  11. Experimental study and simulation of cyclic softening of tempered martensite ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, P.-F.

    2011-01-01

    The present work focuses on the high temperature mechanical behaviour of 9% Cr tempered martensite steels, considered as potential candidates for structural components in the next Generation IV nuclear power plants. Already used for energy production in fossil power plants, they are sensitive to softening during high-temperature cycling and creep-fatigue. This phenomenon is coupled to a pronounced microstructural degradation: mainly vanishing of subgrain boundaries and decrease in dislocation density. This study aims at (i) linking the macroscopic cyclic softening of 9% Cr steels and their microstructural evolution during cycling and (ii) proposing a physically-based modelling of deformation mechanisms in order to predict the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of these steels during cycling. Mechanical study includes uniaxial tensile and cyclic test at 550 C performed on a Grade 92 steel (9Cr-0,5Mo-1,8W-V-Nb). The effect of both strain amplitude and rate on mechanical behaviour is studied. Examination of tensile specimens suggests that the physical mechanism responsible for slight measured softening is mainly the necking phenomenon and the evolution of mean subgrain size, which increases by more than 15 % compared to the as-received state. The evolution of the macroscopic stress during cycling shows that cyclic softening is due to the decrease in kinematic stress. TEM observations highlights that the mean subgrain size increases by 60 to 100 % while the dislocation density decreases by more than 50 % during cycling, compared to the as-received state. A self-consistent homogenization model based on crystalline elasto-visco-plasticity and dislocation densities, predicting the mechanical behaviour of the material and its microstructural evolution during deformation is proposed. This model takes some of the main physical deformation mechanisms into account and only the two parameters of crystalline visco-plasticity should be adjusted (the effective activation energy and

  12. Multiyear greenhouse gas balances at a rewetted temperate peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Farrell, Catherine A; Fallon, David; Moser, Gerald; Müller, Christoph; Renou-Wilson, Florence

    2016-12-01

    Drained peat soils are a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere. Rewetting these soils is considered an important climate change mitigation tool to reduce emissions and create suitable conditions for carbon sequestration. Long-term monitoring is essential to capture interannual variations in GHG emissions and associated environmental variables and to reduce the uncertainty linked with GHG emission factor calculations. In this study, we present GHG balances: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) calculated for a 5-year period at a rewetted industrial cutaway peatland in Ireland (rewetted 7 years prior to the start of the study); and compare the results with an adjacent drained area (2-year data set), and with ten long-term data sets from intact (i.e. undrained) peatlands in temperate and boreal regions. In the rewetted site, CO 2 exchange (or net ecosystem exchange (NEE)) was strongly influenced by ecosystem respiration (R eco ) rather than gross primary production (GPP). CH 4 emissions were related to soil temperature and either water table level or plant biomass. N 2 O emissions were not detected in either drained or rewetted sites. Rewetting reduced CO 2 emissions in unvegetated areas by approximately 50%. When upscaled to the ecosystem level, the emission factors (calculated as 5-year mean of annual balances) for the rewetted site were (±SD) -104 ± 80 g CO 2 -C m -2  yr -1 (i.e. CO 2 sink) and 9 ± 2 g CH 4 -C m -2  yr -1 (i.e. CH 4 source). Nearly a decade after rewetting, the GHG balance (100-year global warming potential) had reduced noticeably (i.e. less warming) in comparison with the drained site but was still higher than comparative intact sites. Our results indicate that rewetted sites may be more sensitive to interannual changes in weather conditions than their more resilient intact counterparts and may switch from an annual CO 2 sink to a source if triggered by slightly drier

  13. Bed-Deformation Experiments Beneath a Temperate Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Fischer, U. H.; Cohen, D.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P. L.; Lappegard, G.; Kohler, J.

    2002-12-01

    Fast flow of glaciers and genesis of glacial landforms are commonly attributed to shear deformation of subglacial sediment. Although models of this process abound, data gathered subglacially on the kinematics and mechanics of such deformation are difficult to interpret. Major difficulties stem from the necessity of either measuring deformation near glacier margins, where conditions may be abnormal, or at the bottoms of boreholes, where the scope of instrumentation is limited, drilling disturbs sediment, and local boundary conditions are poorly known. A different approach is possible at the Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory, where tunnels melted in the ice provide temporary human access to the bed of Engabreen, a temperate outlet glacier of the Svartisen Ice Cap in Norway. A trough (2 m x 1.5 m x 0.5 m deep) was blasted in the rock bed, where the glacier is 220 m thick and sliding at 0.1-0.2 m/d. During two spring field seasons, this trough was filled with 2.5 tons of simulated till. Instruments in the till recorded shear (tiltmeters), volume change, total normal stress, and pore-water pressure as ice moved across the till surface. Pore pressure was brought to near the total normal stress by feeding water to the base of the till with a high-pressure pump, operated in a rock tunnel 4 m below the bed surface. Results illustrate some fundamental aspects of bed deformation. Permanent shear deformation requires low effective normal stress and hence high pore-water pressure, owing to the frictional nature of till. Shear strain generally increases upward in the bed toward the glacier sole, consistent with previous measurements beneath thinner ice at glacier margins. At low effective normal stresses, ice sometimes decouples from underlying till. Overall, bed deformation accounts for 10-35 % of basal motion, although this range excludes shear in the uppermost 0.05 m of till where shear was not measured. Pump tests with durations ranging from seconds to hours highlight the need

  14. Stable isotopes as tracers for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giussani, A.; Bartolo, D. de; Cantone, M.C.; Zilker, T.; Greim, H.; Roth, P.; Werner, E.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of internal dose after incorporation of radionuclides requires as input data the knowledge of the uptake into the systemic circulation, the distribution and retention in selected organs, the excretion pathways. Realistic biokinetic models are needed for reliable estimates, correct interpretation of bioassay measurements, appropriate decision-making in radiological emergencies. For many radionuclides, however, the biokinetic models currently recommended are often generic, with very few specific parameters, due to the lack of experimental human data. The use of stable isotopes as tracers enables to determine important biokinetic parameters such as the fractional uptake, the clearance from the transfer compartment, the excretion patterns under experimentally controlled conditions. The subjects investigated are not exposed to any radiation risk, so this technique enables to obtain biokinetic information also for sensitive groups of the population, such as children or pregnant women, and to determine age- and gender-specific model parameters. Sophisticated analytical method, able to discriminate and quantitate different isotopes of the same element in complex matrices such as biological fluids, have to be purposely developed and optimized. Activation analysis and mass spectrometry are the most proper techniques of choice. Experiments were conducted with molybdenum, tellurium, ruthenium and zirconium. Activation analysis with protons, thermal ionization mass spectrometry and inductively coupled mass spectrometry were employed for the determination of stable isotopes of these elements in blood plasma and urine samples. Several deviations from the predictions of the ICRP models were observed. For example, modifications to the current model for molybdenum have been suggested on the basis of these results. The dose coefficients to the target regions calculated with this proposed model are even of one order of magnitude different than the ICRP estimates

  15. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  16. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  17. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics. (paper)

  18. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  19. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  20. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  1. The Myopic Stable Set for Social Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, Thomas; Herings, P. Jean-Jacques; Saulle, Riccardo; Seel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new solution concept for models of coalition formation, called the myopic stable set. The myopic stable set is defined for a very general class of social environments and allows for an infinite state space. We show that the myopic stable set exists and is non-empty. Under minor

  2. Effectiveness and risks of stable iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waight, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The factors upon which the efficacy of stable iodine prophylaxis depends are reviewed, with particular reference to the dose of stable iodine, the timing of the dose, the influence of dietary iodine and the impact of the other prospective actions. The risks of stable iodine ingestion are estimated, and their application to the principle of Justification in outlined. (Author)

  3. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...

  4. Molecular Investigation of the Short-term Sequestration of Natural Abundance 13C -labelled Cow Dung in the Surface Horizons of a Temperate Grassland Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungait, J.; Bol, R.; Evershed, R. P.

    2004-12-01

    An adequate understanding of the carbon (C) sequestration potential of grasslands requires that the quantity and residence times of C inputs be measured. Herbivore dung is largely comprised of plant cell wall material, a significant source of stable C in intensively grazed temperate grassland ecosystems that contributes to the soil carbon budget. Our work uses compound-specific isotope analysis to identify the pattern of input of dung-derived compounds from natural abundance 13C/-labelled cow dung into the surface horizons of a temperate grassland soil over one year. C4 dung (δ 13C \\-12.6 ‰ ) from maize fed cows was applied to a temperate grassland surface (δ 13C \\-29.95 ‰ ) at IGER-North Wyke (Devon, UK), and dung remains and soil cores beneath the treatments collected at ŧ = 7, 14, 28, 56, 112, 224 and 372 days. Bulk dung carbon present in the 0\\-1 cm and 1\\-5 cm surface horizons of a grassland soil over one year was estimated using Δ 13C between C4 dung and C3 dung, after Bol {\\et al.} (2000). The major biochemical components of dung were quantified using proximate forage fibre analyses, after Goering and Van Soest (1970) and identified using `wet' chemical and GC-MS methods. Plant cell wall polysaccharides and lignin were found to account for up to 67 {%} of dung dry matter. Hydrolysed polysaccharides were prepared as alditol acetates for analyses (after Docherty {\\et al.}, 2001), and a novel application of an off-line pyrolysis method applied to measure lignin-derived phenolic compounds (after Poole & van Bergen, 2002). This paper focuses on major events in the incorporation of dung carbon, estimated using natural abundance 13C&-slash;labelling technique. This revealed a major bulk input of dung carbon after a period of significant rainfall with a consequent decline in bulk soil δ 13C values until the end of the experiment (Dungait {\\et al.}, submitted). Findings will be presented revealing contribution of plant cell wall polysaccharides and

  5. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  6. Microstructural characteristics of steel rebar submitted to the process of self - tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, M.F.O.

    2014-01-01

    Every day the construction industry seeks new alternatives to maximize use of the materials provided new tools for structural design of the new techniques in welding rods. In this sense, this work proposes to study the mechanical properties of steel rebar self-tempering for civil construction, choosing the bars from 6.3 to 25.4 mm in diameter for the study. The cooling process of rebar, after rolling, known as self-tempering produces a rebar with excellent mechanical properties and low cost to the plant, they put the rebar shall be composed of concentric layers with different mechanical properties among themselves. To study the influence of these layers on the mechanical behavior of rebar microstructural characterization was made by means of electron microscopy analysis of transmitted light and scanning of all samples. From the results it was found that only the bars 20 and 25mm diameter had a heat treatment for self-tempering relevant. (author)

  7. Evaluation of temper embrittlement of martensitic and ferritic-martensitic steels by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yusho; Takahashi, Hideaki; Shoji, Tetsuo

    1987-01-01

    Martensitic (HT-9) and ferritic-martensitic steels (9Cr-2Mo) are considered as fusion first wall materials. In this investigation in order to understand the sensitivity of temper embrittlement in these steels under actual service condition, fracture toughness testing was made by use of acoustic emission technique. The temper embrittlement was characterized in terms of fracture toughness. The fracture toughness of these steels under 500 deg C, 100 hrs, and 1000 hrs heat treatment was decreased and their changes in micro-fracture process have been observed. The fracture toughness changes by temper embrittlement was discussed by the characteristic of AE, AE spectrum analysis and fractographic investigation. The relation between micro-fracture processes and AE has been clarified. (author)

  8. Quantifying the effects of tempering on individual phase properties of DP980 steel with nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, G. [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, F. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States); Ruimi, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, Doha (Qatar); Field, D.P. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States); Sun, X., E-mail: xin.sun@pnnl.gov [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Tempering treatment is conducted on a commercial dual phase (DP) 980 steel at 250 °C and 400 °C for 60 min each. Ferrite and martensite grains are distinguished using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), and the martensite volume fractions (MVF) are determined based on the image quality (IQ) map. Indentation tests combined with a newly developed inverse method are used to obtain the individual phase flow properties in each sample. The results show that, i) tempering significantly reduces martensite yield strength, while it slightly reduces the ferrite yield strength; ii) tempering temperature has a more significant influence on the work hardening exponent of ferrite than that of martensite. As a validation, a simple rule-of-mixtures is used to verify the above-predicted individual phase flow stresses with the experimentally obtained overall true stress vs. true strain curves.

  9. Testing the correlation of fragmented pollen records of the middle and late Pleistocene temperate stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuneš, Petr; Odgaard, Bent Vad

    Quaternary temperate stages have long been described based on changing pollen abundances of various tree taxa in lacustrine sediments. Later, attempts have been made to assign such biostratigraphic units to distinct marine isotope stages (MIS). Existing continuous chronosequences from Southern...... records depends on site-to-site correlations. This comparison has often been performed on a visual basis, lacking clearly defined protocols and statements of underlying assumptions. Here I test the correlation of well and poorly known pollen records of the middle- and late-Pleistocene temperate stages...... from Northern-Central Europe and evaluate the usefulness of several numerical techniques. TWINSPAN analysis identifies groups of temperate stages based on presence/absence of their indicative taxa and may be useful for distinguishing between older and younger interglacials. Site-to-site sequence...

  10. Electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation of tempering process in AISI D2 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrobaee, Saeed; Kashefi, Mehrdad

    2015-05-01

    The present paper investigates the potential of using eddy current technique as a reliable nondestructive tool to detect microstructural changes during the different stages of tempering treatment in AISI D2 tool steel. Five stages occur in tempering of the steel: precipitation of ɛ carbides, formation of cementite, retained austenite decomposition, secondary hardening effect and spheroidization of carbides. These stages were characterized by destructive methods, including dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopic observations, and hardness measurements. The microstructural changes alter the electrical resistivity/magnetic saturation, which, in turn, influence the eddy current signals. Two EC parameters, induced voltage sensed by pickup coil and impedance point detected by excitation coil, were evaluated as a function of tempering temperature to characterize the microstructural features, nondestructively. The study revealed that a good correlation exists between the EC parameters and the microstructural changes.

  11. Investigation of the self tempering effect of martensite by means of atom probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackl, Stephanie; Clemens, Helmut; Primig, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Self-tempering effects can be observed in steels with relatively high martensite start temperatures. After the formation of the first martensitic laths, carbon is able to diffuse in these laths during cooling, which can be attributed to sufficiently high temperatures. This effect cannot be observed in laths formed at lower temperatures. In steels containing up to 0.2 m.-% carbon, up to 90 % of the carbon atoms in the martensite segregate to dislocations during quenching. Due to its atomic resolution and sensitivity with respect to light elements, atom probe tomography is very well suited for the investigation of this phenomenon. In this study, the self-tempering effect in a quenched and tempered steel 42CrMo4 with a martensite start temperature of 310 C is investigated by means of atom probe tomography.

  12. Resonant behavior of the generalized Langevin system with tempered Mittag–Leffler memory kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Wang, Xudong; Deng, Weihua

    2018-05-01

    The generalized Langevin equation describes anomalous dynamics. Noise is not only the origin of uncertainty but also plays a positive role in helping to detect signals with information, termed stochastic resonance (SR). This paper analyzes the anomalous resonant behaviors of the generalized Langevin system with a multiplicative dichotomous noise and an internal tempered Mittag–Leffler noise. For a system with a fluctuating harmonic potential, we obtain the exact expressions of several types of SR such as the first moment, the amplitude and autocorrelation function for the output signal as well as the signal–noise ratio. We analyze the influence of the tempering parameter and memory exponent on the bona fide SR and the general SR. Moreover, it is detected that the critical memory exponent changes regularly with the increase of the tempering parameter. Almost all the theoretical results are validated by numerical simulations.

  13. Remaining stress-state and strain-energy in tempered glass fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2016-01-01

    to the fragmentation process and some authors e.g. Barsom (J Am Ceram Soc 51(2):75, 1968), Gulati (Glass processing days, Tamglass Engineering Oy, Tampere, 1997), Warren (Fractography of glasses and ceramics IV, Alfred University, Alfred, 2001) and Tandon and Glass (Fracture mechanics of ceramics—active materials......When tempered glass breaks, it shatters into relatively small pieces depending on the residual stress state in the glass. This has been known for centuries and is currently used in standards for classifying whether a piece of glass is tempered or not. However, the process of fragmentation...... is complex and only a few, relatively simple, models have been suggested for predicting the fragment size. The full theoretical explanation is still to be found and this work aims at providing another brick to the puzzle. The strain-energy present in tempered glass is obviously contributing...

  14. Tempering response to different morphologies of martensite in tensile deformation of dual-phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, E.; Manzoor, T.; Sarwar, M.; Arif, M.; Hussain, N.

    2011-01-01

    A low alloy steel containing 0.2% C was heat treated with three cycles of heat treatments with the aim to acquire different morphologies of martensite in dual phase microstructure. Microscopic examination revealed that the morphologies consisting of grain boundary growth, scattered laths and bulk form of martensite were obtained. These morphologies have their distinct patterns of distribution in the matrix (ferrite). In tensile properties observations the dual phase steel with bulk morphology of martensite showed minimum of ductility but high tensile strength as compared to other two morphologies. This may be due to poor alignments of bulk martensite particles along tensile axes during deformation. Tempering was employed with various holding times at 550 deg. C to induce ductility in the heat treated material. The tempering progressively increased the ductility by increasing holding time. However, tempering response to strengths and ductilities was different to all three morphologies of martensite. (author)

  15. Localization and Ballistic Diffusion for the Tempered Fractional Brownian-Langevin Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Wang, Xudong; Deng, Weihua

    2017-10-01

    This paper discusses the tempered fractional Brownian motion (tfBm), its ergodicity, and the derivation of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation. Then we introduce the generalized Langevin equation with the tempered fractional Gaussian noise for a free particle, called tempered fractional Langevin equation (tfLe). While the tfBm displays localization diffusion for the long time limit and for the short time its mean squared displacement (MSD) has the asymptotic form t^{2H}, we show that the asymptotic form of the MSD of the tfLe transits from t^2 (ballistic diffusion for short time) to t^{2-2H}, and then to t^2 (again ballistic diffusion for long time). On the other hand, the overdamped tfLe has the transition of the diffusion type from t^{2-2H} to t^2 (ballistic diffusion). The tfLe with harmonic potential is also considered.

  16. T6 and T78 tempers of AA6065 alloy: a quantitative TEM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.; Warner, T. [Compagnie de Produits Chimiques et Electrometallurgiques Pechiney, Centre de Recherches de Voreppe, 38 (France)

    2000-07-01

    Quantitative transmission electron microscopy is used to characterize the microstructure of an industrial Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy (AA6056) in a state (T78 temper) desensitized to intergranular corrosion in comparison with the peak aged state (T6 temper). Analysis of dark-field images and of zero-loss filtered selected-area-diffraction patterns, along with EDX spectroscopy, indicates an advanced precipitation of the quaternary phase containing Si and Cu in the T78-tempered alloy compared to the T6 one. This supports the current theory of the desensitization of AA6056 alloy. However, the application of EDX analysis to provide direct evidence of the chemical composition variation in the solid solution across the grain boundary appears less satisfactory. (orig.)

  17. Phylogeography of a Tertiary relict plant, Meconopsis cambrica (Papaveraceae), implies the existence of northern refugia for a temperate herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtueña, Francisco J; Preston, Chris D; Kadereit, Joachim W

    2012-03-01

    The perennial herb Meconopsis cambrica, a western European endemic, is the only European species of the otherwise Himalayan genus Meconopsis and has been interpreted as a Tertiary relict species. Using rbcL and ITS sequence variation, we date the split between M. cambrica and its sister clade Papaver s.str. to the Middle to Upper Miocene (12.8 Myr, 6.4-19.2 Myr HPD). Within M. cambrica, cpDNA sequence variation reveals the existence of two groups of populations with a comparable level of genetic variation: a northern group from Great Britain, the Massif Central, the western Pyrenees and the Iberian System, and a southern group from the central and eastern Pyrenees. Populations from the Cantabrian Mountains were placed in both groups. Based on ITS sequence variation, the divergence between these two groups can be dated to 1.5 Myr (0.4-2.8 Myr HPD), and the age of the British populations is estimated as 0.37 Myr (0.0-0.9 Myr HPD). Amplified fragment length polymorphism results confirm the distinctive nature of the populations from Britain, the Massif Central and the central and eastern Pyrenees. These patterns of latitudinal variation of M. cambrica differ from patterns of longitudinal differentiation found in many other temperate species and imply glacial survival of the northern populations in northerly refugia. The primary differentiation into northern and southern cpDNA groups dates to near the onset of the Quaternary and suggests that an ancient phylogeographic pattern has survived through several glacial periods. Our data provide evidence that the species has persisted for a long period with a highly fragmented and probably very localized distribution. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Tempering Behavior of TiC-Reinforced SKD11 Steel Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-In; Kim, Seong Hoon; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Kim, Dae Ha; Hwang, Keum-Cheol; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2018-03-01

    TiC-reinforced SKD11 steel matrix composite, fabricated by a pressure infiltration casting, undergoes monotonic decrease in hardness as tempering temperature increases. Element mappings by TEM-EDS and thermodynamic calculation indicate that remarkable redistribution of V between the reinforcement and the steel matrix occurs by partial dissolution and re-precipitation of MC carbides upon casting process. The absence of secondary hardening is led by the enrichment of V in the reinforcement that reduces the V content in the steel matrix; this reduction in V content makes the precipitation of fine VC sluggish during the tempering.

  19. X-ray residual stress analysis on machined and tempered HPSN-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immelmann, S.; Welle, E.; Reimers, W. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    1997-11-15

    The residual stress state induced by grinding and tempering of hot pressed silicon nitride (HPSN) samples is studied by X-ray diffraction. The results reveal that the residual stress values at the surface of the samples as well as their gradient within the penetration depth of the X-rays depend on the sintering aid and thus, on the glassy phase content of the HPSN. Tempering of the ground HPSN reduces the residual stress values due to microplastic deformation, whereas an oxidation of the glassy phase leads to the formation of compressive residual stresses. (orig.) 35 refs.

  20. The testicular cycle of captive Tupinambis merianae lizards in a temperate environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriega, Teresa

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones de Tupinambis merianae, que habitan las regiones templadas y subtropicales, muestran un comportamiento marcadamente estacional con períodos equivalentes de actividad e hibernación. Correspondientemente, la reproducción en estos lagartos es un fenómeno cíclico caracterizado por una corta actividad sexual primaveral. Este trabajo examina los cambios testiculares que ocurren durante el ciclo reproductivo de especímenes de Tupinambis merianae criados en un ambiente templado. Evalúa la participación de la porción renal sexual como glándula sexual secundaria. En otoño e invierno, el testículo exhibe una gametogénesis discontinua. La espermatocitogénesis ocurre en otoño dando lugar a una espermiogénesis precoz abortiva, que concluye en los meses fríos. En la primavera temprana, la gónada reinicia su actividad espermiogénica alcanzando prontamente un pico de máximo crecimiento y abundante producción de esperma. El clímax testicular ocurre brevemente después de la hibernación y coincide con un período de cópulas de alrededor de un mes (octubre. En ese período, el epidídimo considerablemente dilatado se encuentra revestido por un epitelio cilíndrico y contiene grandes masas de esperma. Simultáneamente, la porción sexual de los túbulos renales exhibe células columnares hipertróficas cargadas de grandes gránulos citoplasmáticos PAS (+. Pronto la actividad reproductiva cesa y da lugar a una fase de involución gonadal, que se extiende a través del resto de la primavera y verano (noviembre-febrero, indicando la existencia de un único evento reproductivo al ario. Las observaciones se discuten en relación con los factores climáticos y las características biológicas del grupo. Tupinambis merianae populations living in temperate and subtropical regions show a distinctly seasonal behaviour, with equivalent periods of activity and hibernation. Correspondingly, reproduction in these lizards is a cyclic

  1. Effect of tempering on microstructure and tensile properties of niobium modified martensitic 9Cr heat resistant steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, A., E-mail: anupmetal@gmail.com; Bandyopadhay, T.K.

    2015-01-03

    The effect of tempering on the microstructure of niobium modified 8.8 wt% chromium steel has been evaluated. Steel has been prepared using the conventional melting and casting route. Homogenization and forging is done at 1100 °C. Dilatometric study shows that the Ac{sub 1}, Ac{sub 3} and M{sub s} temperatures are 800, 855, and 131 °C, respectively. Initial cast and forged microstructures consist of martensite/ferrite. The samples are subsequently tempered at 500–800 °C for various intervals of time (1–5 h). The microstructure of the tempered sample is analyzed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) is used to identify the precipitate. Nanometer-sized precipitates (50–200 nm) are observed after tempering at 700 °C for 1 h. Niobium rich MC type carbide precipitates and chromium rich M{sub 23}C{sub 6} type precipitates are observed after tempering at 700 °C. Tensile strength decreases with increasing tempering temperature. Maximum tensile strength of 920 MPa is observed after tempering at 700 °C and maximum elongation of ∼11% is observed after tempering at 750 °C.

  2. Effect of tempering temperature on microstructure and sliding wear property of laser quenched 4Cr13 steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, J.H.; Pei, Y.T.; Li, X.D.; Lei, T.C.

    1994-01-01

    4Cr13 martensite stainless steel was quenched by a CO2 laser and tempered for 2 h at different temperatures in the range 200 °C to 550 °C. The microstructure of treated layer was observed by SEM, XRD and TEM. Tempering leads to the decomposition of a large number of retained austenites in laser

  3. Climate change and recent genetic flux in populations of Drosophila robusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etges William J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studied since the early 1940's, chromosomal polymorphisms in the deciduous woods species Drosophila robusta have been characterized by well-defined latitudinal, longitudinal, and elevational clines, but – until at least ten years ago – stable, local population frequencies. Recent biogeographical analyses indicate that D. robusta invaded North America from southeast Asia and has persisted in eastern temperate forests for at least 20–25 my without speciating. The abundant chromosome polymorphisms found across the range of D. robusta are thus likely to be relatively ancient, having accumulated over many well known climatic cycles in North America. Sufficient long-term data are now available such that we can now gauge the rate of these evolutionary changes in natural populations due to environmental change. Results Recent local collections have revealed significant changes in the frequencies of several chromosomal forms. New data presented here extend the range of these changes to six states, three in the northeastern United States and three west of the Mississippi River. These data reinforce recent directional changes in which the frequencies of three gene arrangements have reached percentage levels typical of distant southern populations consistent with regional climatic changes. Another gene arrangement has been steadily decreasing in frequency at a number of the sites studied. Meteorological records from 1945 to 2003 indicate temperature increases at all study sites, particularly average minimum air temperatures. Conclusions Observation of parallel genetic flux suggests that these long-term temporal frequency shifts in widely disparate populations of D. robusta are evolutionary responses to environmental change. Since these chromosomes are known to be sensitive to ambient temperature, regional climatic shifts associated with global warming are likely to be responsible.

  4. Moltex Energy's stable salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.; Laurie, J.

    2016-01-01

    A stable salt reactor is a molten salt reactor in which the molten fuel salt is contained in fuel rods. This concept was invented in 1951 and re-discovered and improved recently by Moltex Energy Company. The main advantage of using molten salt fuel is that the 2 problematic fission products cesium and iodine do not exist in gaseous form but rather in a form of a salt that present no danger in case of accident. Another advantage is the strongly negative temperature coefficient for reactivity which means the reactor self-regulates. The feasibility studies have been performed on a molten salt fuel composed of sodium chloride and plutonium/uranium/lanthanide/actinide trichloride. The coolant fluid is a mix of sodium and zirconium fluoride salts that will need low flow rates. The addition of 1 mol% of metal zirconium to the coolant fluid reduces the risk of corrosion with standard steels and the addition of 2% of hafnium reduces the neutron dose. The temperature of the coolant is expected to reach 650 Celsius degrees at the exit of the core. This reactor is designed to be modular and it will be able to burn actinides. (A.C.)

  5. Rare stable isotopes in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) using accelerators has been applied with success to cosmic ray exposure ages and terrestrial residence times of meteorites by measuring cosmogenic nuclides of Be, Cl, and I. It is proposed to complement this work with experiments on rare stable isotopes, in the hope of setting constraints on the processes of solar nebula/meteoritic formation. The relevant species can be classified as: a) daughter products of extinct nuclides (halflife less than or equal to 2 x 10 8 y) -chronology of the early solar system; b) products of high temperature astrophysical processes - different components incorporated into the solar nebula; and c) products of relatively low temperature processes, stellar winds and cosmic ray reactions - early solar system radiation history. The use of micron-scale primary ion beams will allow detailed sampling of phases within meteorites. Strategies of charge-state selection, molecular disintegration and detection should bring a new set of targets within analytical range. The developing accelerator field is compared to existing (keV energy) ion microprobes

  6. Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pessoa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Let $N={y>0}$ and $S={y<0}$ be the semi-planes of $mathbb{R}^2$ having as common boundary the line $D={y=0}$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be polynomial vector fields defined in $N$ and $S$, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field $Z=(X,Y$. This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of $Z$ between $N$ and $S$, started by Filippov (1988 and Kozlova (1984 and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995 in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields $Z_{epsilon}$, defined by averaging $X$ and $Y$. This family approaches $Z$ when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002 providing conditions on $(X,Y$ for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on $mathbb{R}^2$. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also extended to the present case. A procedure for the study of discontinuous piecewise vector fields at infinity through a compactification is proposed here.

  7. Stable Structures for Distributed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen DUMITRASCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For distributed applications, we define the linear, tree and graph structure types with different variants and modalities to aggregate them. The distributed applications have assigned structures that through their characteristics influence the costs of stages for developing cycle and the costs for exploitation, transferred to each user. We also present the quality characteristics of a structure for a stable application, which is focused on stability characteristic. For that characteristic we define the estimated measure indicators for a level. The influence of the factors of stability and the ways for increasing it are thus identified, and at the same time the costs of development stages, the costs of usage and the costs of maintenance to be keep on between limits that assure the global efficiency of application. It is presented the base aspects for distributed applications: definition, peculiarities and importance. The aspects for the development cycle of distributed application are detailed. In this article, we alongside give the mechanisms for building the defined structures and analyze the complexity of the defined structures for a distributed application of a virtual store.

  8. Effect of quenching and tempering process on sulfide stress cracking susceptibility in API-5CT-C110 casing steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.; Wang, C.H.; Dai, Y.C.; Li, X.; Cao, G.H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Russell, A.M. [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Ames Laboratory of the U.S.D.O.E., and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2300 (United States); Liu, Y.H.; Dong, X.M. [Tube & Pipe Department, Baosteel Research Institute, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China); Zhang, Z.H., E-mail: zhzhang@baosteel.com [Tube & Pipe Department, Baosteel Research Institute, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China)

    2017-03-14

    Three quenching and tempering processes performed on API-5CT-C110 casing steel produced tempered martensite structures and similar mechanical properties but distinct sulfide stress cracking (SSC) behavior as evaluated by Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) testing. An as-quenched specimen tempered at 690 °C for two hours showed superior SSC behavior compared to another specimen tempered at 715 °C for one hour. The latter contained a larger fraction of low-angle boundaries (LABs) and higher values of kernel average misorientation (KAM) than those in the former. Moreover, one more quenching and tempering on the former specimen would produce better SSC resistance with a decrease in the fraction of LABs and the values of KAM. Since dislocations trap hydrogen more strongly than grain boundaries, the specimen with higher KAM values, as well as higher dislocation density, would trap more hydrogen atoms and lead to greater SSC.

  9. Minimization of gully erosion on reclaimed surface mines using the stable slope and sediment transport computer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, R.A.; Gardner, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    Disequilibrium between slope form and hydrologic and erosion processes on reclaimed surface coal mines in the humid temperate northeastern US, can result in gully erosion and sediment loads which are elevated above natural, background values. Initial sheetwash erosion is surpassed by gully erosion on reclamation sites which are not in equilibrium with post-mining hydrology. Long-term stability can be attained by designing a channel profile which is in equilibrium with the increased peak discharges found on reclaimed surface mines. The Stable Slope and Sediment transport model (SSAST) was developed to design stable longitudinal channel profiles for post-mining hydrologic and erosional processes. SSAST is an event based computer model that calculates the stable slope for a channel segment based on the post-mine hydrology and median grain size of a reclaimed surface mine. Peak discharge, which drives post-mine erosion, is calculated from a 10-year, 24-hour storm using the Soil Conservation Service curve number method. Curve number calibrated for Pennsylvania surface mines are used. Reclamation sites are represented by the rectangle of triangle which most closely fits the shape of the site while having the same drainage area and length. Sediment transport and slope stability are calculated using a modified Bagnold's equation with a correction factor for the irregular particle shapes formed during the mining process. Data from three reclaimed Pennsylvania surface mines were used to calibrate and verify SSAST. Analysis indicates that SSAST can predict longitudinal channel profiles for stable reclamation of surface mines in the humid, temperate northeastern US

  10. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  11. The northern flying squirrel as an indicator species of temperate rain forest: test of an hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston P. Smith; Scott M. Gende; Jeffrey V. Nichols

    2005-01-01

    Management indicator species (MIS) often are selected because their life history and demographics are thought to reflect a suite of ecosystem conditions that are too difficult or costly to measure directly. The northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) has been proposed as an MIS of temperate rain forest of southeastern Alaska based on previous...

  12. Restoration of a boulder reef in temperate waters: Strategy, methodology and lessons learnt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Dahl, Karsten; Niemann, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts on marine habitats are a global problem, particularly in coastal areas. While boulder reefs in temperate waters hold high biomass and biodiversity, and may be unable to recover from anthropogenic stressors without restoration efforts, little is known about how to restore and...

  13. Characterization of Nanometric-Sized Carbides Formed During Tempering of Carbide-Steel Cermets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matus K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article of this paper is to present issues related to characterization of nanometric-sized carbides, nitrides and/or carbonitrides formed during tempering of carbide-steel cermets. Closer examination of those materials is important because of hardness growth of carbide-steel cermet after tempering. The results obtained during research show that the upswing of hardness is significantly higher than for high-speed steels. Another interesting fact is the displacement of secondary hardness effect observed for this material to a higher tempering temperature range. Determined influence of the atmosphere in the sintering process on precipitations formed during tempering of carbide-steel cermets. So far examination of carbidesteel cermet produced by powder injection moulding was carried out mainly in the scanning electron microscope. A proper description of nanosized particles is both important and difficult as achievements of nanoscience and nanotechnology confirm the significant influence of nanocrystalline particles on material properties even if its mass fraction is undetectable by standard methods. The following research studies have been carried out using transmission electron microscopy, mainly selected area electron diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The obtained results and computer simulations comparison were made.

  14. Modification of Low-Alloy Steel Surface by High-Temperature Gas Nitriding Plus Tempering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Dongling; Li, Minsong; Ding, Hongzhen; Qiu, Wanqi; Luo, Chengping

    2018-02-01

    The low-alloy steel was nitrided in a pure NH3 gas atmosphere at 640 660 °C for 2 h, i.e., high-temperature gas nitriding (HTGN), followed by tempering at 225 °C, which can produce a high property surface coating without brittle compound (white) layer. The steel was also plasma nitriding for comparison. The composition, microstructure and microhardness of the nitrided and tempered specimens were examined, and their tribological behavior investigated. The results showed that the as-gas-nitrided layer consisted of a white layer composed of FeN0.095 phase (nitrided austenite) and a diffusional zone underneath the white layer. After tempering, the white layer was decomposed to a nano-sized (α-Fe + γ'-Fe4N + retained austenite) bainitic microstructure with a high hardness of 1150HV/25 g. Wear test results showed that the wear resistance and wear coefficient yielded by the complex HTGN plus tempering were considerably higher and lower, respectively, than those produced by the conventional plasma nitriding.

  15. Effect of microstructure on the susceptibility of a 533 steel to temper embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoul, S.; Marini, B.; Pineau, A.

    1998-01-01

    In ferritic steels, brittle fracture usually occurs at low temperature by cleavage. However the segregation of impurities (P, As, Sn etc..) along prior γ grain boundaries can change the brittle fracture mode from transgranular to intergranular. In quenched and tempered steels, this segregation is associated with what is called the temper-embrittlement phenomenon. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of the as-quenched microstructure (lower bainite or martensite) on the susceptibility of a low alloy steel (A533 cl.1) to temper-embrittlement. Dilatometric tests were performed to determine the continous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram of the material and to measure the critical cooling rate (V c ) for a martensitic quench. Then subsized Charpy V-notched specimens were given various cooling rates from the austenitization temperature to obtain a wide range of as-quenched microstructures, including martensite and bainite. These specimens were subsequently given a heat treatment to develop temper embrittlement and tested to measure the V-notch fracture toughness at -50 C. The fracture surfaces were examined by SEM. It is shown that martensitic microstructures are more susceptible to intergranular embrittlement than bainitic microstructures. These observed microstructural influences are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  16. Finite Element Implementation of a Glass Tempering Model in Three Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2010-01-01

    The present paper develops and validates a 3D model for the simulation of glass tempering. It is assembled from well-known models of temperature dependent viscoelasticity and structural relaxation and predicts both transient and steady-state stresses in complex 3D glass geometries. The theory and...

  17. Effect of microstructure on the susceptibility of a 533 steel to temper embrittlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoul, S.; Marini, B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Recherches Metallurgiques Appliquees; Pineau, A. [CNRS, Evry (France). Centre de Materiaux

    1998-11-01

    In ferritic steels, brittle fracture usually occurs at low temperature by cleavage. However the segregation of impurities (P, As, Sn etc..) along prior {gamma} grain boundaries can change the brittle fracture mode from transgranular to intergranular. In quenched and tempered steels, this segregation is associated with what is called the temper-embrittlement phenomenon. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of the as-quenched microstructure (lower bainite or martensite) on the susceptibility of a low alloy steel (A533 cl.1) to temper-embrittlement. Dilatometric tests were performed to determine the continous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram of the material and to measure the critical cooling rate (V{sub c}) for a martensitic quench. Then subsized Charpy V-notched specimens were given various cooling rates from the austenitization temperature to obtain a wide range of as-quenched microstructures, including martensite and bainite. These specimens were subsequently given a heat treatment to develop temper embrittlement and tested to measure the V-notch fracture toughness at -50 C. The fracture surfaces were examined by SEM. It is shown that martensitic microstructures are more susceptible to intergranular embrittlement than bainitic microstructures. These observed microstructural influences are briefly discussed. (orig.) 11 refs.

  18. Forest dynamics in the temperate rainforests of Alaska: from individual tree to regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara M. Barrett

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of remeasurement data from 1079 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots revealed multi-scale change occurring in the temperate rainforests of southeast Alaska. In the western half of the region, including Prince William Sound, aboveground live tree biomass and carbon are increasing at a rate of 8 ( ± 2 ) percent per decade, driven by an increase in Sitka...

  19. Preparation and characterization of tempered tungsten layers on single crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitzsche, K.; Knedlik, C.; Tippmann, H.; Spiess, L.; Harman, R.; Vanek, O.; Tvarozek, V.

    1984-01-01

    Tungsten layers have been deposited on single crystalline silicon by sputtering and characterized by measurements of the sheet resistance by a linear four point method and the van der Pauw method. The influence of tempering under argon on the resistance has been studied. By means of the RBS spectroscopy it was found that the increase in the specific resistance is caused by interdiffusion

  20. The effect of prior tempering on cryogenic treatment to reduce retained austenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The consensus view is that a high carbon case gives gears the best overall properties provided that there is no carbide network and that the retained austenite has been reduced below 20% by cryogenic treatment. This view is effectively enshrined in the SAE AMS 2759/7 standard. The cryogenic treatment usually takes place immediately after the quench to avoid austenite stabilisation. However, for some parts with complex geometries that might crack during the treatment, a short low temperature temper is carried out first. Little is known on how this temper affects the subsequent cryogenic treatment. Three carburizing steels used extensively in the aerospace industry were carburized to produce high retained austenite levels in the case using two different, but typical carburizing cycles. The retained austenite was determined by XRD before and after cryogenic treatment carried out in accordance with the standard and compared with that obtained when an intermediate temper was used. This study shows that for three typical carburizing steels, carburized using typical cycles, the efficacy of the cryogenic treatment is reduced only slightly after the temper, and not enough to be industrially significant. (author)

  1. Testing for functional convergence of temperate rainforest tree assemblages in Chile and New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lusk, C.H.; Jimenez-Castillo, M.; Aragón, R.; Easdale, T.A.; Poorter, L.; Hinojosa, L.F.; Mason, N.W.H.W.H.

    2016-01-01

    An important tenet of biogeography and comparative ecology is that disjunct assemblages in similar physical environments are functionally more similar to each other than to assemblages from other environments. Temperate rainforests in South America, New Zealand and Australia share certain

  2. Griswold Tempered Water Flow Regulator Valves Used as Anti-Siphon Valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MISKA, C.

    2000-01-01

    FCV-1*22 and 1*23 are Griswold constant flow regulators used as anti-siphon valves in the tempered water system, they fail closed but valve cartridge orifice allows minimum flow to prevent loss of water from the MCO/CASK annulus

  3. Feed efficiency of tropically adapted cattle when fed in winter or spring in a temperate location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier work has shown that young, tropically adapted cattle do not gain as rapidly as temperately adapted cattle during the winter in OK. The objective for this study was to determine if efficiency of gains was also impacted in tropically adapted cattle and if efficiency is consistent in different...

  4. Reinforced glass beams composed of annealed, heat-strengthened and fully tempered glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, P.C.; Belis, J.L.I.F.; Bos, F.P.; Veer, F.A.

    Annealed, heat-strengthened and fully tempered SG-laminated reinforced glass beam specimens were subjected to four-point bending tests to investigate the effects of glass type on their structural response. During the test the beams showed linear elastic response until initial glass failure, followed

  5. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan F. Talhelm; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Mark E. Kubiske; Donald R. Zak; Courtney E. Campany; Andrew J. Burton; Richard E. Dickson; George R. Hendrey; J. G. Isebrands; Keith F. Lewin; John Nagy; David F. Karnosky

    2014-01-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment...

  6. Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stock of Temperate Coniferous Forests in Northern Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood A. Dar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  Soil organic carbon (SOC estimation in temperate forests of the Himalaya is important to estimate their contribution to regional, national and global carbon stocks. Physico chemical properties of soil were quantified to assess soil organic carbon density (SOC and SOC CO2 mitigation density at two soil depths (0-10 and 10-20 cms under temperate forest in the Northern region of Kashmir Himalayas India. The results indicate that conductance, moisture content, organic carbon and organic matter were significantly higher while as pH and bulk density were lower at Gulmarg forest site. SOC % was ranging from 2.31± 0.96 at Gulmarg meadow site to 2.31 ± 0.26 in Gulmarg forest site. SOC stocks in these temperate forests were from 36.39 ±15.40 to 50.09 ± 15.51 Mg C ha-1. The present study reveals that natural vegetation is the main contributor of soil quality as it maintained the soil organic carbon stock. In addition, organic matter is an important indicator of soil quality and environmental parameters such as soil moisture and soil biological activity change soil carbon sequestration potential in temperate forest ecosystems.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12186International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15; page: 161-178

  7. Thermal biology of the sub-polar-temperate estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumillaf, Juan P; Blanc, Johnny; Paschke, Kurt; Gebauer, Paulina; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Chimal, María E; Vásquez, Jorge; Rosas, Carlos

    2016-02-15

    Optimum temperatures can be measured through aerobic scope, preferred temperatures or growth. A complete thermal window, including optimum, transition (Pejus) and critical temperatures (CT), can be described if preferred temperatures and CT are defined. The crustacean Hemigrapsus crenulatus was used as a model species to evaluate the effect of acclimation temperature on: (i) thermal preference and width of thermal window, (ii) respiratory metabolism, and (iii) haemolymph proteins. Dependant on acclimation temperature, preferred temperature was between 11.8°C and 25.2°C while CT was found between a minimum of 2.7°C (CTmin) and a maximum of 35.9°C (CTmax). These data and data from tropical and temperate crustaceans were compared to examine the association between environmental temperature and thermal tolerance. Temperate species have a CTmax limit around 35°C that corresponded with the low CTmax limit of tropical species (34-36°C). Tropical species showed a CTmin limit around 9°C similar to the maximum CTmin of temperate species (5-6°C). The maximum CTmin of deep sea species that occur in cold environments (2.5°C) matched the low CTmin values (3.2°C) of temperate species. Results also indicate that the energy required to activate the enzyme complex (Ei) involved in respiratory metabolism of ectotherms changes along the latitudinal gradient of temperature. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Thermal biology of the sub-polar–temperate estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumillaf, Juan P.; Blanc, Johnny; Paschke, Kurt; Gebauer, Paulina; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Chimal, María E.; Vásquez, Jorge; Rosas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Optimum temperatures can be measured through aerobic scope, preferred temperatures or growth. A complete thermal window, including optimum, transition (Pejus) and critical temperatures (CT), can be described if preferred temperatures and CT are defined. The crustacean Hemigrapsus crenulatus was used as a model species to evaluate the effect of acclimation temperature on: (i) thermal preference and width of thermal window, (ii) respiratory metabolism, and (iii) haemolymph proteins. Dependant on acclimation temperature, preferred temperature was between 11.8°C and 25.2°C while CT was found between a minimum of 2.7°C (CTmin) and a maximum of 35.9°C (CTmax). These data and data from tropical and temperate crustaceans were compared to examine the association between environmental temperature and thermal tolerance. Temperate species have a CTmax limit around 35°C that corresponded with the low CTmax limit of tropical species (34–36°C). Tropical species showed a CTmin limit around 9°C similar to the maximum CTmin of temperate species (5–6°C). The maximum CTmin of deep sea species that occur in cold environments (2.5°C) matched the low CTmin values (3.2°C) of temperate species. Results also indicate that the energy required to activate the enzyme complex (Ei) involved in respiratory metabolism of ectotherms changes along the latitudinal gradient of temperature. PMID:26879464

  9. Human impact on open temperate woodlands during the middle Holocene in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jamrichová, Eva; Hédl, Radim; Kolář, Jan; Tóth, P.; Bobek, Přemysl; Hajnalová, M.; Procházka, J.; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Szabó, Péter

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 245, OCT 2017 (2017), s. 55-68 ISSN 0034-6667 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : temperate oakwoods * Quercus * human impact Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (GFU-E) OBOR OECD: Ecology; Physical geography (GFU-E) Impact factor: 1.817, year: 2016

  10. Detrital carbon pools in temperate forests: magnitude and potential for landscape-scale assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Bradford; Peter Weishampel; Marie-Louise Smith; Randall Kolka; Richard A. Birdsey; Scott V. Ollinger; Michael G. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Reliably estimating carbon storage and cycling in detrital biomass is an obstacle to carbon accounting. We examined carbon pools and fluxes in three small temperate forest landscapes to assess the magnitude of carbon stored in detrital biomass and determine whether detrital carbon storage is related to stand structural properties (leaf area, aboveground biomass,...

  11. Soil quality indicators of a mature alley-cropping agroforestry system in temperate North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although agroforestry practices are believed to improve soil quality, reports on long-term effects of alley cropping on soils within agroforestry in the temperate zone are limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth of an established agrofores...

  12. Soil quality differences in a mature alley cropping system in temperate North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley cropping in agroforestry practices has been shown to improve soil quality, however information on long-term effects (>10 years) of alley cropping on soils in the temperate zone is very limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth on soil...

  13. Detrimental Influence of Invasive Earthworms on North American Cold-Temperate Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enerson, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The topic of invasive earthworms is a timely concern that goes against many preconceived notions regarding the positive benefits of all worms. In the cold-temperate forests of North America invasive worms are threatening forest ecosystems, due to the changes they create in the soil, including decreases in C:N ratios and leaf litter, disruption of…

  14. Interannual, seasonal, and retrospective analysis of the methane and carbon dioxide budgets of a temperate peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Olson; T.J. Griffis; A. Noormets; R. Kolka; J. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Three years (2009-2011) of near-continuous methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured with the eddy covariance (EC) technique at a temperate peatland located within the Marcell Experimental Forest, in northern Minnesota, USA. The peatland was a net source of CH4 and a net sink of CO...

  15. Hardness prediction of HAZ in temper bead welding by non-consistent layer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lina; Saida, Kazuyoshi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Kameyama, Masashi; Chigusa, Naoki; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Based on the experimentally obtained hardness database, the neural network-based hardness prediction system of heat affect zone (HAZ) in temper bead welding by Consistent Layer (CSL) technique has been constructed by the authors. However in practical operation, CSL technique is sometimes difficult to perform because of difficulty of the precise heat input controlling, and in such case non-CSL techniques are mainly used in the actual repair process. Therefore in the present study, the neural network-based hardness prediction system of HAZ in temper bead welding by non-CSL techniques has been constructed through thermal cycle simplification, from the view of engineering. The hardness distribution in HAZ with non-CSL techniques was calculated based on the thermal cycles numerically obtained by finite element method. The experimental result has shown that the predicted hardness is in good accordance with the measured ones. It follows that the currently proposed method is effective for estimating the tempering effect during temper bead welding by non-CSL techniques. (author)

  16. Electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation of tempering process in AISI D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrobaee, Saeed; Kashefi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    The present paper investigates the potential of using eddy current technique as a reliable nondestructive tool to detect microstructural changes during the different stages of tempering treatment in AISI D2 tool steel. Five stages occur in tempering of the steel: precipitation of ε carbides, formation of cementite, retained austenite decomposition, secondary hardening effect and spheroidization of carbides. These stages were characterized by destructive methods, including dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopic observations, and hardness measurements. The microstructural changes alter the electrical resistivity/magnetic saturation, which, in turn, influence the eddy current signals. Two EC parameters, induced voltage sensed by pickup coil and impedance point detected by excitation coil, were evaluated as a function of tempering temperature to characterize the microstructural features, nondestructively. The study revealed that a good correlation exists between the EC parameters and the microstructural changes. - Highlights: • D2 steel parts were tempered at 200-650 °C to produce various microstructures. • Precipitation of ε and Fe 3 C carbides and spheroidization of carbides were detected. • Retained austenite decomposition and secondary hardening effect were determined. • Variations of electrical resistivity (ρ) and magnetic saturation (Bs) were studied. • Combined effects of ρ and Bs on the EC outputs were evaluated

  17. Electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation of tempering process in AISI D2 tool steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahrobaee, Saeed, E-mail: saeed.kahrobaee@yahoo.com; Kashefi, Mehrdad, E-mail: m-kashefi@um.ac.ir

    2015-05-15

    The present paper investigates the potential of using eddy current technique as a reliable nondestructive tool to detect microstructural changes during the different stages of tempering treatment in AISI D2 tool steel. Five stages occur in tempering of the steel: precipitation of ε carbides, formation of cementite, retained austenite decomposition, secondary hardening effect and spheroidization of carbides. These stages were characterized by destructive methods, including dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopic observations, and hardness measurements. The microstructural changes alter the electrical resistivity/magnetic saturation, which, in turn, influence the eddy current signals. Two EC parameters, induced voltage sensed by pickup coil and impedance point detected by excitation coil, were evaluated as a function of tempering temperature to characterize the microstructural features, nondestructively. The study revealed that a good correlation exists between the EC parameters and the microstructural changes. - Highlights: • D2 steel parts were tempered at 200-650 °C to produce various microstructures. • Precipitation of ε and Fe{sub 3}C carbides and spheroidization of carbides were detected. • Retained austenite decomposition and secondary hardening effect were determined. • Variations of electrical resistivity (ρ) and magnetic saturation (Bs) were studied. • Combined effects of ρ and Bs on the EC outputs were evaluated.

  18. Evapotranspiration and soil moisture dynamics in a temperate grassland ecosystem in Inner Mongolia China

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Hao; Ge Sun; Yongqiang Liu; G. S. Zhou; J. H.   Wan;  L. B. Zhang; J. L. Niu; Y. H. Sang;  J. J He

    2015-01-01

    Precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture are the key controls for the productivity and functioning of temperate grassland ecosystems in Inner Mongolia, northern China. Quantifying the soil moisture dynamics and water balances in the grasslands is essential to sustainable grassland management under global climate change. We...

  19. Cold in the common garden: comparative low-temperature tolerance of boreal and temperate conifer foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Richard Strimbeck; Trygve D. Kjellsen; Paul G. Schaberg; Paula F. Murakami

    2007-01-01

    Because they maintain green foliage throughout the winter season, evergreen conifers may face special physiological challenges in a warming world. We assessed the midwinter low-temperature (LT) tolerance of foliage from eight temperate and boreal species in each of the genera Abies, Picea, and Pinus growing in an arboretum in...

  20. Effects of seasonal variation of photosynthetic capacity on the carbon fluxes of a temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Medvigy; Su-Jong Jeong; Kenneth L. Clark; Nicholas S. Skowronski; Karina V. R. Schäfer

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variation in photosynthetic capacity is an important part of the overall seasonal variability of temperate deciduous forests. However, it has only recently been introduced in a few terrestrial biosphere models, and many models still do not include it. The biases that result from this omission are not well understood. In this study, we use the Ecosystem...

  1. Thermal biology of the sub-polar–temperate estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Cumillaf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimum temperatures can be measured through aerobic scope, preferred temperatures or growth. A complete thermal window, including optimum, transition (Pejus and critical temperatures (CT, can be described if preferred temperatures and CT are defined. The crustacean Hemigrapsus crenulatus was used as a model species to evaluate the effect of acclimation temperature on: (i thermal preference and width of thermal window, (ii respiratory metabolism, and (iii haemolymph proteins. Dependant on acclimation temperature, preferred temperature was between 11.8°C and 25.2°C while CT was found between a minimum of 2.7°C (CTmin and a maximum of 35.9°C (CTmax. These data and data from tropical and temperate crustaceans were compared to examine the association between environmental temperature and thermal tolerance. Temperate species have a CTmax limit around 35°C that corresponded with the low CTmax limit of tropical species (34–36°C. Tropical species showed a CTmin limit around 9°C similar to the maximum CTmin of temperate species (5–6°C. The maximum CTmin of deep sea species that occur in cold environments (2.5°C matched the low CTmin values (3.2°C of temperate species. Results also indicate that the energy required to activate the enzyme complex (Ei involved in respiratory metabolism of ectotherms changes along the latitudinal gradient of temperature.

  2. Temperature dependence of UV radiation effects in Arctic and temperate isolates of three red macrophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W.H.; Eggert, A.; Buma, A.G.J.; Breeman, Arno

    The temperature dependence of UV effects was studied for Arctic and temperate isolates of the red macrophytes Palmaria palmata, Coccotylus truncatus and Phycodrys rubens. The effects of daily repeated artificial ultraviolet B and A radiation (UVBR: 280-320 nm, UVAR: 320-400 nm) treatments were

  3. Ecological anachronisms in the recruitment of temperate light-demanding tree species in wooded pastures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, ES; Olff, H; Vandenberghe, C; De Maeyer, K; Smit, R; Gleichman, JM; Vera, FWM

    1. Light-demanding trees and thorny shrubs in temperate plant communities may reflect adaptations to now-extinct large grazers, such as aurochs and tarpans, rendering these adaptations ecological anachronisms. 2. We explored the ecological functions of plant traits of Quercus robur and Prunus

  4. Strain-tempering of low carbon martensite steel wire by rapid heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisaka, Yasunori; Kihara, Junji

    1978-01-01

    In the production of prestressed concrete steel wires, a series of the cold drawing-patenting process are performed to improve the strength. In order to reduce cyclic process, the low carbon martensite steel wire which can be produced only by the process of hot rolling and direct quench has been investigated as strain-tempering material. When strain-tempering is performed on the low carbon martensite steel wire, stress relaxation (Re%) increases and mechanical properties such as total elongation, reduction of area, ultimate tensile strength and proof stress decrease remarkably by annealing. In order to shorten the heating time, the authors performed on the steel wire the strain-tempering with a heating time of 1.0 s using direct electrical resistance heating and examined the effects of rapid heating on the stress relaxation and the mechanical properties. Stress relaxation decreases without impairment of the mechanical properties up to a strain-tempering temperature of 573 K. Re(%) after 10.8 ks is 0% at the testing temperature 301 K, 0.49% at 363 K and 1.39% at 433 K. (auth.)

  5. On the Nature of Internal Interfaces in Tempered Martensite Ferritic Steels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dronhofer, A.; Pešička, J.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Eggeler, G.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 5 (2003), s. 511-520 ISSN 0044-3093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/1172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : Tempered martensite ferritic steels * martensite variants * orientation imaging Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.637, year: 2003

  6. Parallel continuous simulated tempering and its applications in large-scale molecular simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, Tianwu; Yu, Linglin; Zhang, Chong [Applied Physics Program and Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Ma, Jianpeng, E-mail: jpma@bcm.tmc.edu [Applied Physics Program and Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, BCM-125, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    In this paper, we introduce a parallel continuous simulated tempering (PCST) method for enhanced sampling in studying large complex systems. It mainly inherits the continuous simulated tempering (CST) method in our previous studies [C. Zhang and J. Ma, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 194112 (2009); C. Zhang and J. Ma, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 244101 (2010)], while adopts the spirit of parallel tempering (PT), or replica exchange method, by employing multiple copies with different temperature distributions. Differing from conventional PT methods, despite the large stride of total temperature range, the PCST method requires very few copies of simulations, typically 2–3 copies, yet it is still capable of maintaining a high rate of exchange between neighboring copies. Furthermore, in PCST method, the size of the system does not dramatically affect the number of copy needed because the exchange rate is independent of total potential energy, thus providing an enormous advantage over conventional PT methods in studying very large systems. The sampling efficiency of PCST was tested in two-dimensional Ising model, Lennard-Jones liquid and all-atom folding simulation of a small globular protein trp-cage in explicit solvent. The results demonstrate that the PCST method significantly improves sampling efficiency compared with other methods and it is particularly effective in simulating systems with long relaxation time or correlation time. We expect the PCST method to be a good alternative to parallel tempering methods in simulating large systems such as phase transition and dynamics of macromolecules in explicit solvent.

  7. Solar Radiation Disinfection of Drinking Water at Temperate Latitudes: Inactivation rates for an optimized reactor configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar radiation-driven inactivation of bacteria, virus and protozoan pathogen models was quantified in simulated drinking water at a temperate latitude (34°S). The water was seeded with Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium sporogenes spores, and P22 bacteriophage, each at ca 1 x 10...

  8. Numerical simulation of tropical-temperate troughs over Southern Africa using the CSU RAMS model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Heever, SC

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available ) and the wet (1981) late summer case studies has been examined. Model simulations reveal that the tropical-temperate troughs form when an upper westerly wave coincides with an easterly, wave or depression in lower levels. These systems occur preferentially over...

  9. Mechanisms of nitrogen deposition effects on temperate forest lichens and trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese S. Carter; Christopher M. Clark; Mark E. Fenn; Sarah Jovan; Steven S. Perakis; Jennifer Riddell; Paul G. Schaberg; Tara L. Greaver; Meredith G. Hastings

    2017-01-01

    We review the mechanisms of deleterious nitrogen (N) deposition impacts on temperate forests, with a particular focus on trees and lichens. Elevated anthropogenic N deposition to forests has varied effects on individual organisms depending on characteristics both of the N inputs (form, timing, amount) and of the organisms (ecology, physiology) involved. Improved...

  10. A conceptual framework for predicting temperate ecosystem sensitivity to human impacts on fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. B. McWethy; P. E. Higuera; C. Whitlock; T. T. Veblen; D. M. J. S. Bowman; G. J. Cary; S. G. Haberle; R. E. Keane; B. D. Maxwell; M. S. McGlone; G. L. W. Perry; J. M. Wilmshurst

    2013-01-01

    The increased incidence of large fires around much of the world in recent decades raises questions about human and non-human drivers of fire and the likelihood of increased fire activity in the future. The purpose of this paper is to outline a conceptual framework for examining where human-set fires and feedbacks are likely to be most pronounced in temperate forests...

  11. Influence of tempering on mechanical strains in Mo2Si films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zscheile, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Amorphous or crystalline MoSi 2 films on (111) silicon wafers, deposited by DC triode sputtering, showed compressive stress. Tensile stress was found in the same films formed by dual electron beam evaporation. By isochronous tempering in the temperature range of 300 to 1270 K the compressive stress of the sputtered films was converted into tensile stress

  12. Estimating Janka hardness from specific gravity for tropical and temperate species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wiemann; David W. Green

    2007-01-01

    Using mean values for basic (green) specific gravity and Janka side hardness for individual species obtained from the world literature, regression equations were developed to predict side hardness from specific gravity. Statistical and graphical methods showed that the hardness–specific gravity relationship is the same for tropical and temperate hardwoods, but that the...

  13. Drivers of temporal changes in temperate forest plant diversity vary across spatial scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernhardt-Römermann, M.; Baeten, L.; Craven, D.; De Frenne, P.; Hédl, Radim; Lenoir, J.; Bert, D.; Brunet, J.; Chudomelová, Markéta; Decocq, G.; Dierschke, H.; Dirnböck, T.; Dörfler, I.; Heinken, T.; Hermy, M.; Hommel, P.; Jaroszewicz, B.; Keczynski, A.; Kelly, D. L.; Kirkby, K.J.; Kopecký, Martin; Macek, Martin; Máliš, F.; Mirtl, M.; Mitchell, F. J. G.; Naaf, T.; Newman, M.; Peterken, G.; Petřík, Petr; Schmidt, W.; Standovár, T.; Tóth, Z.; Van Calster, H.; Verstraeten, G.; Vladovič, J.; Vild, Ondřej; Wulf, M.; Verheyen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 10 (2015), s. 3726-3737 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : temperate forest * long-term change * herbaceous layer Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 8.444, year: 2015

  14. Arthropod vertical stratification in temperate deciduous forests: Implications for conservation oriented management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen Michael

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the vertical distribution patterns of arthropods in temperate deciduous forests reveal highly stratified (i.e., unevenly vertically distributed) communities. These patterns are determined by multiple factors acting simultaneously, including: (1) time (forest age, season, time of day); (2) forest structure (height, vertical foliage complexity, plant surface...

  15. Suitability of close-to-nature silviculture for adapting temperate European forests to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brang, P.; Spathelf, P.; Larsen, J.B.; Bauhus, J.; Boncina, A.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    In many parts of Europe, close-to-nature silviculture (CNS) has been widely advocated as being the best approach for managing forests to cope with future climate change. In this review, we identify and evaluate six principles for enhancing the adaptive capacity of European temperate forests in a

  16. Seed dispersal by fishes in tropical and temperate fresh waters: The growing evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, M.H.; Correa, S.B.; Parolin, P.; Pollux, B.J.A.; Anderson, J.T.; Lucas, C.; Widmann, P.; Tjiu, A.; Galetti, M.; Goulding, M.

    2011-01-01

    Fruit-eating by fishes represents an ancient (perhaps Paleozoic) interaction increasingly regarded as important for seed dispersal (ichthyochory) in tropical and temperate ecosystems. Most of the more than 275 known frugivorous species belong to the mainly Neotropical Characiformes (pacus, piranhas)

  17. Substrate and nutrient limitation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in temperate forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. Norman; J.E. Barrett

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing microbes control the rate-limiting step of nitrification, a critical ecosystem process, which affects retention and mobility of nitrogen in soil ecosystems. This study investigated substrate (NH4þ) and nutrient (K and P) limitation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in temperate forest soils at Coweeta Hydrologic...

  18. Planetesimal Formation in the Warm, Inner Disk: Experiments with Tempered Dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Beule, Caroline; Landers, Joachim; Salamon, Soma; Wende, Heiko; Wurm, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.wurm@uni-due.de [Faculty of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, D-47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    It is an open question how elevated temperatures in the inner parts of protoplanetary disks influence the formation of planetesimals. We approach this problem here by studying the tensile strength of granular beds with dust samples tempered at different temperatures. We find via laboratory experiments that tempering at increasing temperatures is correlated with an increase in cohesive forces. We studied dust samples of palagonite (JSC Mars-1a) which were tempered for up to 200 hr at temperatures between 600 and 1200 K, and measured the relative tensile strengths of highly porous dust layers once the samples cooled to room temperature. Tempering increases the tensile strength from 800 K upwards. This change is accompanied by mineral transformations, the formation of iron oxide crystallites as analyzed by Mössbauer spectroscopy, changes in the number size distribution, and the morphology of the surface visible as cracks in larger grains. These results suggest a difference in the collisional evolution toward larger bodies with increasing temperature as collisional growth is fundamentally based on cohesion. While high temperatures might also increase sticking (not studied here), compositional evolution will already enhance the cohesion and the possibility of growing larger aggregates on the way toward planetesimals. This might lead to a preferred in situ formation of inner planets and explain the observed presence of dense inner planetary systems.

  19. Drought enhances symbiotic dinitrogen fixation and competitive ability of a temperate forest tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina Wurzburger; Chelcy Ford Miniat

    2013-01-01

    General circulation models project more intense and frequent droughts over the next century, but many questions remain about how terrestrial ecosystems will respond. Of particular importance, is to understand how drought will alter the species composition of regenerating temperate forests wherein symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)- fixing plants play a...

  20. Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H.; Tulp, I.Y.M.; Piersma, T.; Visser, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    We compared prefledging growth, energy expenditure, and time budgets in the arctic-breeding red knot (Calidris canutus) to those in temperate shorebirds, to investigate how arctic chicks achieve a high growth rate despite energetic difficulties associated with precocial development in a cold

  1. Simple model for daily evaporation from fallow tilled soil under spring conditions in a temperate climate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Stroosnijder, L.

    1986-01-01

    A simple parametric model is presented to estimate daily evaporation from fallow tilled soil under spring conditions in a temperate climate. In this model, cumulative actual evaporation during a drying cycle is directly proportional to the square root of cumulative potential evaporation. The model

  2. Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H; Tulp, Ingrid; Piersma, T.; Visser, G.H.

    We compared prefledging growth, energy expenditure, and time budgets in the arctic-breeding red knot (Calidris canutus) to those in temperate shorebirds, to investigate how arctic chicks achieve a high growth rate despite energetic difficulties associated with precocial development in a cold

  3. Heat stress in cows at pasture and benefit of shade in a temperate climate region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veissier, Isabelle; Van laer, Eva; Palme, Rupert; Moons, Christel P. H.; Ampe, Bart; Sonck, Bart; Andanson, Stéphane; Tuyttens, Frank A. M.

    2017-11-01

    Under temperate climates, cattle are often at pasture in summer and are not necessarily provided with shade. We aimed at evaluating in a temperate region (Belgium) to what extent cattle may suffer from heat stress (measured through body temperature, respiration rate and panting score, cortisol or its metabolites in milk, and feces on hot days) and at assessing the potential benefits of shade. During the summer of 2012, 20 cows were kept on pasture without access to shade. During the summer of 2011, ten cows had access to shade (young trees with shade cloth hung between them), whereas ten cows had no access. Climatic conditions were quantified by the Heat Load Index (HLI). In animals without access to shade respiration rates, panting scores, rectal temperatures, and milk cortisol concentrations increased as HLI increased in both 2011 and 2012. Fecal cortisol metabolites varied with HLI in 2011 only. When cattle had access to shade, their use of shade increased as the HLI increased. This effect was more pronounced during the last part of the summer, possibly due to better acquaintance with the shade construction. In this case, shade use increased to 65% at the highest HLI (79). Shade tempered the effects on respiration, rectal temperature, and fecal cortisol metabolites. Milk cortisol was not influenced by HLI for cows using shade for > 10% of the day. Therefore, even in temperate areas, cattle may suffer from heat when they are at pasture in summer and providing shade can reduce such stress.

  4. The marine radiocarbon bomb pulse across the temperate North Atlantic: a compilation of Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scourse, J.D.; Wanamaker jr., A.D.; Weidman, C.; Heinemeier, J.; Reimer, P.J.; Butler, P.G.; Witbaard, R.; Richardson, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Marine radiocarbon bomb-pulse time histories of annually resolved archives from temperate regions have been underexploited. We present here series of Delta C-14 excess from known-age annual increments of the long-lived bivalve mollusk Arctica islandica from 4 sites across the coastal North Atlantic

  5. Modeling complex effects of multiple environmental stresses on carbon dynamics of Mid-Atlantic temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude Pan; Richard Birdsey; John Hom; Kevin McCullough

    2007-01-01

    We used our GIS variant of the PnET-CN model to investigate changes of forest carbon stocks and fluxes in Mid-Atlantic temperate forests over the last century (1900-2000). Forests in this region are affected by multiple environmental changes including climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, N deposition and tropospheric ozone, and extensive land disturbances. Our...

  6. Temperate and virulent Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacteriophages: comparison of their thermal and chemical resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrecht, Ana C; Guglielmotti, Daniela M; Tremmel, Gustavo; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Suárez, Viviana B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the efficiency of diverse chemical and thermal treatments usually used in dairy industries to control the number of virulent and temperate Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacteriophages. Two temperate (Cb1/204 and Cb1/342) and three virulent (BYM, YAB and Ib3) phages were studied. The thermal treatments applied were: 63 degrees C for 30 min (low temperature--long time, LTLT), 72 degrees C for 15 s (high temperature--short time, HTST), 82 degrees C for 5 min (milk destined to yogurt elaboration) and 90 degrees C for 15 min (FIL-IDF). The chemical agents studied were: sodium hypochlorite, ethanol, isopropanol, peracetic acid, biocides A (quaternary ammonium chloride), B (hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid and peroctanoic acid), C (alkaline chloride foam), D (p-toluensulfonchloroamide, sodium salt) and E (ethoxylated nonylphenol and phosphoric acid). The kinetics of inactivation were drew and T(99) (time necessary to eliminate the 99% of phage particles) calculated. Results obtained showed that temperate phages revealed lower resistance than the virulent ones to the treatment temperatures. Biocides A, C, E and peracetic acid showed a notable efficiency to inactivate high concentrations of temperate and virulent L. delbrueckii phages. Biocide B evidenced, in general, a good capacity to eliminate the phage particles. Particularly for this biocide virulent phage Ib3 showed the highest resistance in comparison to the rest of temperate and virulent ones. On the contrary, biocide D and isopropanol presented a very low capacity to inactivate all phages studied. The efficiency of ethanol and hypochlorite was variable depending to the phages considered. These results allow a better knowledge and give useful information to outline more effective treatments to reduce the phage infections in dairy plants. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of tempering temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a reactor pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.W.; Han, L.Z.; Luo, X.M.; Liu, Q.D.; Gu, J.F., E-mail: gujf@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-08-15

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel were investigated after tempering at different temperatures ranging from 580 to 700 °C for 5 h. With increasing tempering temperature, the impact toughness, which is qualified by Charpy V-notch total absorbed energy, initially increases from 142 to 252 J, and then decreases to 47 J, with a maximum value at 650 °C, while the ultimate tensile strength varies in exactly the opposite direction. Comparing the microstructure and fracture surfaces of different specimens, the variations in toughness and strength with the tempering temperature were generally attributed to the softening of the bainitic ferrite, the agminated Fe{sub 3}C carbides that resulted from decomposition of martensite/austenite (M/A) constituents, the precipitation of Mo{sub 2}C carbides, and the newly formed M/A constituents at the grain boundaries. Finally, the correlation between the impact toughness and the volume fraction of the M/A constituents was established, and the fracture mechanisms for the different tempering conditions are explained. - Highlights: • The dependence of the deterioration of impact toughness on tempering temperature has been analysed. • The instrumented Charpy V-notch impact test has been employed to study the fracture mechanism. • The influence of M/A constituents on different fracture mechanisms based on the hinge model has been demonstrated. • A correlation between the mechanical properties and the amount of M/A constituents has been established.

  8. A comparison of PCB bioaccumulation factors between an arctic and a temperate marine food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Anna; McLachlan, Michael S; Borgå, Katrine; Asplund, Lillemor; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Polder, Anuschka; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2010-06-01

    To test how environmental conditions in the Arctic and the resulting ecological adaptations affect accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine food web, bioaccumulation of four polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an arctic (Barents Sea 77 degrees N-82 degrees N) and a temperate marine (Baltic Sea 54 degrees N-62 degrees N) food web were compared. Three different trophic levels were studied (zooplankton, fish, and seal), representing the span from first-level consumer to top predator. Previously published high-quality data on PCB water concentrations in the two areas were used for calculation of bioaccumulation factors (BAF). BAF was calculated as the ratio of the PCB concentration in the organism ([PCB](org); pg/kg lipid) to the dissolved water concentration (C(w); pg/L). The BAF(Arctic):BAF(Temperate) ratios were above 1 for all four PCB congeners in zooplankton (6.4-13.8) and planktivorous fish (2.9-5.0)), whereas the ratios were below 1 in seal. The mean ratio between arctic and temperate BAFs for all trophic levels and congeners (BAF(Arcti):BAF(Temperate)) was 4.8. When the data were corrected for the seawater temperature difference between the two ecosystems, the ratio was 2.0. We conclude that bioaccumulation differences caused by ecological or physiological adaptations of organisms between the two ecosystems were well within a water concentration variability of 50%. Further, our data support the hypothesis that lower seawater temperature lead to a thermodynamically favoured passive partitioning to organic matrices and thus elevated ambient BAFs in the Arctic compared to the Baltic Sea. This would imply that bioaccumulation in the Arctic may be described in the same way as bioaccumulation in temperate regions, e.g. by the use of mechanistic models parameterised for the Arctic. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Differences in muscle fiber size and associated energetic costs in phylogenetically paired tropical and temperate birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    Tropical and temperate birds provide a unique system to examine mechanistic consequences of life-history trade-offs at opposing ends of the pace-of-life spectrum; tropical birds tend to have a slow pace of life whereas temperate birds the opposite. Birds in the tropics have a lower whole-animal basal metabolic rate and peak metabolic rate, lower rates of reproduction, and longer survival than birds in temperate regions. Although skeletal muscle has a relatively low tissue-specific metabolism at rest, it makes up the largest fraction of body mass and therefore contributes more to basal metabolism than any other tissue. A principal property of muscle cells that influences their rate of metabolism is fiber size. The optimal fiber size hypothesis attempts to link whole-animal basal metabolic rate to the cost of maintaining muscle mass by stating that larger fibers may be metabolically cheaper to maintain since the surface area∶volume ratio (SA∶V) is reduced compared with smaller fibers and thus the amount of area to transport ions is also reduced. Because tropical birds have a reduced whole-organism metabolism, we hypothesized that they would have larger muscle fibers than temperate birds, given that larger muscle fibers have reduced energy demand from membrane Na(+)-K(+) pumps. Alternatively, smaller muscle fibers could result in a lower capacity for shivering and exercise. To test this idea, we examined muscle fiber size and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in 16 phylogenetically paired species of tropical and temperate birds. We found that 3 of the 16 paired comparisons indicated that tropical birds had significantly larger fibers, contrary to our hypothesis. Our data show that SA∶V is proportional to Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in muscles of birds.

  10. Role of temperate zone forests in the world carbon cycle: problem definition and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T.V.; Hett, J. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    The proceedings of a workshop on carbon uptake and losses from temperate zone forests are presented. The goals of the workshop were to analyze existing data on growth and utilization of the temperate zone forest carbon pool and to identify further research needs in relation to the role of temperate forests in the global carbon cycle. Total standing stock and growth recovery transients were examined for most of the temperate region over a period from pre-settlement times to the present, with emphasis on the last three decades. Because of data availability, certain regions and topics were covered more in detail than others. Forest inventory data from most of the commercial timberlands of the north temperate zone suggest these forests have functioned over the past several decades as an annual sink for about 10/sup 9/ metric tons of carbon. Thus, net growth of these forests has withdrawn carbon from the atmosphere at a rate equivalent, approximately, to 50% of the annual rise in atmospheric carbon. Various data inadequacies make this estimate probably no more precise than plus or minus half of the value. Analysis of growth and vegetation changes in New England and the southeastern United States shows that forest biomass has partly recovered since extensive clearing took place in the 18th and 19th centuries. This regrowth represents a net withdrawal of carbon (carbon sink) from the atmosphere in recent decades, although the difference in pool size between present and original forests means that, in the longer term, the two regions have functioned as carbon sources.

  11. Strategies for Constraining the Atmospheres of Temperate Terrestrial Planets with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Natasha E.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Line, Michael R.; Valenti, Jeff; Stevenson, Kevin

    2018-04-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is expected to discover dozens of temperate terrestrial planets orbiting M-dwarfs with atmospheres that could be followed up with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Currently, the TRAPPIST-1 system serves as a benchmark for determining the feasibility and resources required to yield atmospheric constraints. We assess these questions and leverage an information content analysis to determine observing strategies for yielding high-precision spectroscopy in transmission and emission. Our goal is to guide observing strategies of temperate terrestrial planets in preparation for the early JWST cycles. First, we explore JWST’s current capabilities and expected spectral precision for targets near the saturation limits of specific modes. In doing so, we highlight the enhanced capabilities of high-efficiency readout patterns that are being considered for implementation in Cycle 2. We propose a partial saturation strategy to increase the achievable precision of JWST's NIRSpec Prism. We show that JWST has the potential to detect the dominant absorbing gas in the atmospheres of temperate terrestrial planets by the 10th transit using transmission spectroscopy techniques in the near-infrared (NIR). We also show that stacking ⪆10 transmission spectroscopy observations is unlikely to yield significant improvements in determining atmospheric composition. For emission spectroscopy, we show that the MIRI Low Resolution Spectroscopy (LRS) is unlikely to provide robust constraints on the atmospheric composition of temperate terrestrial planets. Higher-precision emission spectroscopy at wavelengths longward of those accessible to MIRI LRS, as proposed in the Origins Space Telescope concept, could help improve the constraints on molecular abundances of temperate terrestrial planets orbiting M-dwarfs.

  12. Marine Biodiversity in Temperate Western Australia: Multi-Taxon Surveys of Minden and Roe Reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Richards

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that temperate marine ecosystems are being tropicalised due to the poleward extension of tropical species. Such climate mediated changes in species distribution patterns have the potential to profoundly alter temperate communities, as this advance can serve to push temperate taxa, many of which are southern Australian endemics, southward. These changes can lead to cascading effects for the biodiversity and function of coastal ecosystems, including contraction of ranges/habitats of sensitive cool water species. Hence there is growing concern for the future of Australia’s temperate marine biodiversity. Here we examine the diversity and abundance of marine flora and fauna at two reefs near Perth’s metropolitan area—Minden Reef and Roe Reef. We report the presence of 427 species of marine flora and fauna from eight taxon groups occurring in the Perth metropolitan area; at least three species of which appear to be new to science. Our data also extends the known range of 15 species, and in numerous instances, thousands of kilometres south from the Kimberley or Pilbara and verifies that tropicalisation of reef communities in the Perth metropolitan area is occurring. We report the presence of 24 species endemic to south-west Australia that may be at risk of range contractions with continued ocean warming. The results of these surveys add to our knowledge of local nearshore marine environments in the Perth metropolitan area and support the growing body of evidence that indicates a diverse and regionally significant marine fauna occurs in temperate Western Australia. Regular, repeated survey work across seasons is important in order to thoroughly document the status of marine biodiversity in this significant transition zone.

  13. Biophysical processes leading to the ingress of temperate fish larvae into estuarine nursery areas: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Paris, Claire B.; Wolanski, Eric; Morais, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    A series of complementary hypotheses have been proposed to explain the recruitment of marine and temperate pelagic fish larvae originated from pelagic eggs in coastal environments. In this review, we propose a new and complementary hypothesis describing the biophysical processes intervening in the recruitment of temperate fish larvae into estuaries. This new hypothesis, the Sense Acuity And Behavioral (SAAB) hypothesis, recognizes that recruitment is unlikely if the larvae drift passively with the water currents, and that successful recruitment requires the sense acuity of temperate fish larvae and their behavioral response to the estuarine cues present in coastal areas. We propose that temperate fish larvae use a hierarchy of sensory cues (odor, sound, visual and geomagnetic cues) to detect estuarine nursery areas and to aid during navigation towards these areas. The sensorial acuity increases along ontogeny, which coincides with increased swimming capabilities. The swimming strategies of post-flexion larvae differ from offshore areas to the tidal zone. In offshore areas, innate behavior might lead larvae towards the coast guided by a sun compass or by the earth's geomagnetic field. In areas under limited influence of estuarine plumes (either in energetic nearshore areas or offshore), post-flexion larvae display a searching swimming behavior for estuarine disconnected patches (infotaxis strategy). After finding an estuarine plume, larvae may swim along the increasing cue concentration to ingress into the estuary. Here, larvae exhibit a rheotaxis behavior and avoid displacement by longshore currents by keeping bearing during navigation. When larvae reach the vicinity of an estuary, merging diel rhythms with feeding and predator avoidance strategies with tidally induced movements is essential to increase their chances of estuarine ingress. A fish larva recruitment model developed for the Ria Formosa lagoon supports the general framework of the SAAB hypothesis. In

  14. A comparison of PCB bioaccumulation factors between an arctic and a temperate marine food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobek, Anna; McLachlan, Michael S.; Borga, Katrine; Asplund, Lillemor; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Polder, Anuschka; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2010-01-01

    To test how environmental conditions in the Arctic and the resulting ecological adaptations affect accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine food web, bioaccumulation of four polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an arctic (Barents Sea 77 o N-82 o N) and a temperate marine (Baltic Sea 54 o N-62 o N) food web were compared. Three different trophic levels were studied (zooplankton, fish, and seal), representing the span from first-level consumer to top predator. Previously published high-quality data on PCB water concentrations in the two areas were used for calculation of bioaccumulation factors (BAF). BAF was calculated as the ratio of the PCB concentration in the organism ([PCB] org ; pg/kg lipid) to the dissolved water concentration (C w ; pg/L). The BAF Arctic :BAF Temperate ratios were above 1 for all four PCB congeners in zooplankton (6.4-13.8) and planktivorous fish (2.9-5.0)), whereas the ratios were below 1 in seal. The mean ratio between arctic and temperate BAFs for all trophic levels and congeners (BAF Arcti :BAF Temperate ) was 4.8. When the data were corrected for the seawater temperature difference between the two ecosystems, the ratio was 2.0. We conclude that bioaccumulation differences caused by ecological or physiological adaptations of organisms between the two ecosystems were well within a water concentration variability of 50%. Further, our data support the hypothesis that lower seawater temperature lead to a thermodynamically favoured passive partitioning to organic matrices and thus elevated ambient BAFs in the Arctic compared to the Baltic Sea. This would imply that bioaccumulation in the Arctic may be described in the same way as bioaccumulation in temperate regions, e.g. by the use of mechanistic models parameterised for the Arctic.

  15. Perturbation analysis of transient population dynamics using matrix projection models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Non-stable populations exhibit short-term transient dynamics: size, growth and structure that are unlike predicted long-term asymptotic stable, stationary or equilibrium dynamics. Understanding transient dynamics of non-stable populations is important for designing effective population management...... these methods to know exactly what is being measured. Despite a wealth of existing methods, I identify some areas that would benefit from further development....

  16. Exhaled nitric oxide in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beg Mohammed F S; Alzoghaibi, Mohammad A; Habib, Syed S; Abba, Abdullah A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is elevated in nonsmoking subjects with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and compare it with the results in patients with asthma and a control population. Pulmonology Clinic at a University Hospital. Twenty five control subjects, 25 steroid naive asthmatics and 14 COPD patients were studied. All the patients were nonsmokers and stable at the time of the study. All subjects completed a questionnaire and underwent spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide was measured online by chemiluminescence, using single-breath technique. All the study subjects were males. Subjects with stable COPD had significantly higher values of FENO than controls (56.54+ - 28.01 vs 22.00 + -6.69; P =0.0001) but lower than the subjects with asthma (56.54+ - 28.01 vs 84.78+ - 39.32 P 0.0285). The FENO values in COPD subjects were inversely related to the FEV 1 /FVC ratio. There was a significant overlap between the FENO values in COPD and the control subjects. There is a significant elevation in FENO in patients with stable COPD, but the elevation is less than in asthmatic subjects. Its value in clinical practice may be limited by the significant overlap with control subjects. (author)

  17. Potential climate change impacts on temperate forest ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Emily B.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Zhang, Shuxia; Bradford, John B.; Reich, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Large changes in atmospheric CO2, temperature and precipitation are predicted by 2100, yet the long-term consequences for carbon, water, and nitrogen cycling in forests are poorly understood. We applied the PnET-CN ecosystem model to compare the long-term effects of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 on productivity, evapotranspiration, runoff, and net nitrogen mineralization in current Great Lakes forest types. We used two statistically downscaled climate projections, PCM B1 (warmer and wetter) and GFDL A1FI (hotter and drier), to represent two potential future climate and atmospheric CO2 scenarios. To separate the effects of climate and CO2, we ran PnET-CN including and excluding the CO2 routine. Our results suggest that, with rising CO2 and without changes in forest type, average regional productivity could increase from 67% to 142%, changes in evapotranspiration could range from –3% to +6%, runoff could increase from 2% to 22%, and net N mineralization could increase 10% to 12%. Ecosystem responses varied geographically and by forest type. Increased productivity was almost entirely driven by CO2 fertilization effects, rather than by temperature or precipitation (model runs holding CO2 constant showed stable or declining productivity). The relative importance of edaphic and climatic spatial drivers of productivity varied over time, suggesting that productivity in Great Lakes forests may switch from being temperature to water limited by the end of the century.

  18. Effect of twice quenching and tempering on the mechanical properties and microstructures of SCRAM steel for fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Xuesong; Yang Feng; Zou Xingrong [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Suo Jinping, E-mail: jpsuo@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    The effect of twice quenching and tempering on the mechanical properties and microstructures of SCRAM steel was investigated. The results from tensile tests showed that whether twice quenching and tempering processes(1253 K/0.5 h/W.C(water cool) + 1033 K/2 h/A.C(air cool) + 1233 K/0.5 h/W.C + 1033 K/2 h/A.C named after 2Q and 2TI, and 1253 K/0.5 h/W.C + 1033 K/2 h/A.C + 1233 K/0.5 h/W.C + 1013 K/2 h/A.C named after 2Q and 2TII)increased strength of steel or not depended largely on the second tempering temperature compared to quenching and tempering process(1253 K/0.5 h/W.C + 1033 K/2 h/A.C named after 1Q and 1T). Charpy V-notch impact tests indicated that twice quenching and tempering processes reduced the ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT). Microstructure inspection revealed that the prior austenitic grain size and martensite lath width were refined after twice quenching and tempering treatments. Precipitate growth was inhibited by a slight decrease of the second tempering temperature from 1033 to 1013 K. The finer average size of precipitates is considered to be the main possible reason for the higher strength and lower DBTT of 2Q and 2TII compared with 2Q and 2TI.

  19. Meiotically stable natural epialleles of Sadhu, a novel Arabidopsis retroposon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjida H Rangwala

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic variation is a potential source of genomic and phenotypic variation among different individuals in a population, and among different varieties within a species. We used a two-tiered approach to identify naturally occurring epigenetic alleles in the flowering plant Arabidopsis: a primary screen for transcript level polymorphisms among three strains (Col, Cvi, Ler, followed by a secondary screen for epigenetic alleles. Here, we describe the identification of stable, meiotically transmissible epigenetic alleles that correspond to one member of a previously uncharacterized non-LTR retroposon family, which we have designated Sadhu. The pericentromeric At2g10410 element is highly expressed in strain Col, but silenced in Ler and 18 other strains surveyed. Transcription of this locus is inversely correlated with cytosine methylation and both the expression and DNA methylation states map in a Mendelian manner to stable cis-acting variation. The silent Ler allele can be converted by the epigenetic modifier mutation ddm1 to a meiotically stable expressing allele with an identical primary nucleotide sequence, demonstrating that the variation responsible for transcript level polymorphism among Arabidopsis strains is epigenetic. We extended our characterization of the Sadhu family members and show that different elements are subject to both genetic and epigenetic variation in natural populations. These findings support the view that an important component of natural variation in retroelements is epigenetic.

  20. Gauging the likelihood of stable cavitation from ultrasound contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Kenneth B; Holland, Christy K

    2013-01-07

    The mechanical index (MI) was formulated to gauge the likelihood of adverse bioeffects from inertial cavitation. However, the MI formulation did not consider bubble activity from stable cavitation. This type of bubble activity can be readily nucleated from ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) and has the potential to promote beneficial bioeffects. Here, the presence of stable cavitation is determined numerically by tracking the onset of subharmonic oscillations within a population of bubbles for frequencies up to 7 MHz and peak rarefactional pressures up to 3 MPa. In addition, the acoustic pressure rupture threshold of an UCA population was determined using the Marmottant model. The threshold for subharmonic emissions of optimally sized bubbles was found to be lower than the inertial cavitation threshold for all frequencies studied. The rupture thresholds of optimally sized UCAs were found to be lower than the threshold for subharmonic emissions for either single cycle or steady state acoustic excitations. Because the thresholds of both subharmonic emissions and UCA rupture are linearly dependent on frequency, an index of the form I(CAV) = P(r)/f (where P(r) is the peak rarefactional pressure in MPa and f is the frequency in MHz) was derived to gauge the likelihood of subharmonic emissions due to stable cavitation activity nucleated from UCAs.