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Sample records for stable tailwater elevation

  1. Effects of tailwater depth on spillway aeration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-15

    Apr 15, 2011 ... Hydraulic structures such as spillways or weirs with their water-air controlling mechanisms are not only important for their structural properties but also for their effects on downstream ecology. Tailwater depth is an important factor affecting dissolved oxygen transfer and aeration rates of spillways. In this ...

  2. Gravel addition as a habitat restoration technique for tailwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan McManamay; D. Orth; Charles Dolloff; Mark Cantrell

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of passive gravel addition at forming catostomid spawning habitat under various flow regimes in the Cheoah River, a high-gradient tailwater river in North Carolina. The purpose was to provide a case study that included recommendations for future applications. A total of 76.3 m3 (162 tons) of washed gravel (10-50 mm) was passively dumped down...

  3. Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

    2008-12-01

    In unimpounded rivers, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) typically spawn under relatively stable stream flows, with exceptions occurring during periodic precipitation events. In contrast, hydroelectric development has often resulted in an artificial hydrograph characterized by rapid changes in discharge and tailwater elevation that occur on a daily, or even an hourly basis, due to power generation (Cushman 1985; Moog 1993). Consequently, populations of Pacific salmon that are known to spawn in main-stem habitats below hydroelectric dams face the risks of changing habitat suitability, potential redd dewatering, and uncertain spawning success (Hamilton and Buell 1976; Chapman et al. 1986; Dauble et al. 1999; Garland et al. 2003; Connor and Pflug 2004; McMichael et al. 2005). Although the direct effects of a variable hydrograph, such as redd dewatering are apparent, specific effects on spawning behavior remain largely unexplored. Chum salmon (O. keta) that spawn below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are particularly vulnerable to the effects of water level fluctuations. Although chum salmon generally spawn in smaller tributaries (Johnson et al. 1997), many fish spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam near Ives Island (Tomaro et al. 2007; Figure 1). The primary spawning area near Ives Island is shallow and sensitive to changes in water level caused by hydroelectric power generation at Bonneville Dam. In the past, fluctuating water levels have dewatered redds and changed the amount of available spawning habitat (Garland et al. 2003). To minimize these effects, fishery managers attempt to maintain a stable tailwater elevation at Bonneville Dam of 3.5 m (above mean sea level) during spawning, which ensures adequate water is provided to the primary chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek (Figure 1). Given the uncertainty of winter precipitation and water supply, this strategy has been effective at restricting spawning to a specific

  4. Elevational Dependence of Catchment-scale Evapotranspiration Partitioning as Revealed by Water Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, T.; Sato, R.

    2017-12-01

    Transpiration (T) through plants (i.e., green water) does not induce isotopic fractionation, although evaporation (E) from soils and water surfaces do. Therefore, water stable isotopes offer a powerful tool to partition evapotranspiration (ET) components. We attempted to evaluate catchment-scale T/ET for five mountainous catchments in the central Japan, using river water isotopes and isotope maps of precipitation and soil water as well as climatic and radar precipitation maps. The estimated T/ET ranged from 56% to 79% (ET not including interception loss), and negatively correlated with mean elevation of the catchments (r = -0.88). This is due to decreasing transpiration (-82 mm/yr per 100 m) and slightly increasing evaporation (8 mm/yr per 100 m) with increasing elevation. Another estimation scheme using isotope data only showed a positive correlation between elevation and E/P*, where P* is effective precipitation defined by gross precipitation minus interception. Because the forest coverage within the catchments has positive correlation with catchment-mean-elevation, both decrease in transpiration and increase in soil evaporation seem to reflect structural change in forests (e.g., dense to sparse) along elevation and thus temperature gradients. Applying the space-for-time substitution, our results indicates that global warming will increase transpiration (and thus carbon intake) at mid-latitude mountainous landscapes.

  5. Plasma levels of myeloperoxidase are not elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, Lukas; Lu, Guijing; Baldus, Stephan; Berglund, Lars; Eiserich, Jason P

    2008-08-01

    Plasma and serum levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a redox-active hemoprotein released by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) upon activation, is now recognized as a powerful prognostic determinant of myocardial infarction in patients suffering acute coronary syndromes. However, there is limited information on whether systemic MPO levels are also elevated and of discriminating value in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) representing different ethnic groups. Plasma levels of MPO and traditional CAD risk factors were quantified in African American and Caucasian patients (n=557) undergoing elective coronary angiography. MPO levels did not differ significantly between patients with or without CAD [421 pM (321, 533) vs. 412 pM (326, 500), p>0.05]. MPO levels were similar across ethnicity and gender, and correlated positively with CRP and fibrinogen levels (r=0.132, p=0.002 and r=0.106, p=0.011, respectively). In conclusion, plasma MPO levels were not elevated in patients with stable CAD, suggesting that systemic release of MPO is not a characteristic feature of asymptomatic CAD.

  6. Stable Isotope Systematics in Grasshopper Assemblages Along an Elevation Gradient, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, M. J.; Evans, S.; Dean, J.; Nufio, C.

    2012-12-01

    Insects comprise over three quarters of all animal species, yet studies of body water isotopic composition are limited to only the cockroach, the hoverfly, and chironomid flies. These studies suggest that oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions in body water are primarily controlled by dietary water sources, with modification from respiratory and metabolic processes. In particular, outward diffusion of isotopically depleted water vapor through insect spiracles at low humidity enriches residual body water in 18O and 2H (D). Stable isotope compositions (δ18O and δD) also respond to gradients in elevation and humidity, but these influences remain poorly understood. In this study, we measured grasshopper body water and local vegetation isotopic compositions along an elevation gradient in Colorado to evaluate three hypotheses: 1) Insect body water isotopic composition is directly related to food source water composition 2) Water vapor transport alters body water isotopic compositions relative to original diet sources, and 3) Elevation gradients influence isotopic compositions in insect body water. Thirty-five species of grasshopper were collected from 14 locations in Colorado grasslands, ranging in elevation from 450 to 800 meters (n=131). Body water was distilled from previously frozen grasshopper specimens using a vacuum extraction line, furnaces (90 °C), and liquid nitrogen traps. Water samples were then analyzed for δ18O and δD on an LGR Liquid Water Isotope Analyzer, housed in the Department of Geosciences, Boise State University. Grasshopper body water isotopic compositions show wide variation, with values ranging between -76.64‰ to +42.82‰ in δD and -3.06‰ to +26.78‰ in δ18O. Precipitation δ18O values over the entire Earth excluding the poles vary by approximately 30‰, comparable to the total range measured in our single study area. Most grasshopper values deviate from the global meteoric water line relating δ18O and δD in precipitation

  7. Survey of stocking policies for tailwater trout fisheries in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swink, William D.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of the 16 southern states showed that 48 tailwaters in 13 states were stocked with trout in 1980. Of the almost 3.7 million trout released in these waters, 81% were of catchable size and 19% were fingerlings (Salmo gairdneri). A trend away from "put-grow-and-take" fisheries toward "put-and-take" fisheries was noted. Limited creel data confirmed that fishing pressure in southern tailwaters was heavy, and that 25 to 90% of the trout stocked were recovered by anglers

  8. Efficacy of constructed wetlands in pesticide removal from tailwaters in the Central Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Robert; O'Geen, Anthony; Goh, Kean S; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Gan, Jay

    2009-04-15

    Pollutants in agricultural irrigation return flow (tailwater) constitute a significant nonpoint source of pollution in intensive agricultural regions such as the Central Valley of California. Constructed wetlands (CWs) represent a feasible mitigation option to remove pollutants including pesticides in the tailwater. In this study, we evaluated two CWs in the Central Valley for their performance in removing pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides under field-scale production conditions. Both CWs were found to be highly effective in reducing pyrethroid concentrations in the tailwater, with season-average concentration reductions ranging from 52 to 94%. The wetlands also reduced the flow volume by 68-87%, through percolation and evapotranspiration. When both concentration and volume reductions were considered, the season-average removal of pyrethroids ranged from 95 to 100%. The primary mechanism for pyrethroid removal was through sedimentation of pesticide-laden particles, which was influenced by hydraulic residence time and vegetation density. Temporal analysis indicates a potential efficiency threshold during high flow periods. The season-average removal of chlorpyrifos ranged 52-61%. The wetlands, however, were less effective at removing diazinon, likely due to its limited sorption to sediment particles. Analysis of pesticide partitioning showed that pyrethroids were enriched on suspended particles in the tailwater. Monitoring of pesticide association with suspended solids and bed sediments suggested an increased affinity of pyrethroids for lighter particles with the potential to move further downstream before subject to sedimentation. Results from this study show that flow-through CWs, when properly designed, are an effective practice for mitigating hydrophobic pesticides in the irrigation tailwater.

  9. Spatial and temporal consumption dynamics of trout in catch-and-release areas in Arkansas tailwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, John M.; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2017-01-01

    Restrictive angling regulations in tailwater trout fisheries may be unsuccessful if food availability limits energy for fish to grow. We examined spatial and temporal variation in energy intake and growth in populations of Brown Trout Salmo trutta and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss within three catch-and-release (C-R) areas in Arkansas tailwaters to evaluate food availability compared with consumption. Based on bioenergetic simulations, Rainbow Trout fed at submaintenance levels in both size-classes (≤400 mm TL, >400 mm TL) throughout most seasons. A particular bottleneck in food availability occurred in the winter for Rainbow Trout when the daily ration was substantially below the minimum required for maintenance, despite reduced metabolic costs associated with lower water temperatures. Rainbow Trout growth rates followed a similar pattern to consumption with negative growth rates during the winter periods. All three size-classes (400 mm TL) of Brown Trout experienced high growth rates and limited temporal bottlenecks in food availability. We observed higher mean densities for Rainbow Trout (47–342 fish/ha) than for Brown Trout (3–84 fish/ha) in all C-R areas. Lower densities of Brown Trout coupled with an ontogenetic shift towards piscivory may have allowed for higher growth rates and sufficient consumption rates to meet energetic demands. Brown Trout at current densities were more effective in maintaining adequate growth rates and larger sizes in C-R areas than were Rainbow Trout. Bioenergetic simulations suggest that reducing stocking levels of Rainbow Trout in the tailwaters may be necessary in order to achieve increased catch rates of larger trout in the C-R areas.

  10. Representation of solid and nutrient concentrations in irrigation water from tailwater recovery systems by surface water grab samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailwater recovery (TWR) systems are being implemented on agricultural landscapes to create an additional source of irrigation water. Existing studies have sampled TWR systems using grab samples; however, the applicability of solids and nutrient concentrations in these samples to water being irrigat...

  11. Long-term stable vertical bone regeneration after sinus floor elevation and simultaneous implant placement with and without grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Fernando; Uribarri, Agurne; Laksmana, Theresia; D'addona, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    Less invasive surgical approaches to regenerate bone intra-sinus and allow long-term functional implant stability are needed. To evaluate long-term vertical bone regeneration after sinus floor elevation and simultaneous implant placement with and without bone grafting. Vertical bone gains (VBG) post-sinus elevation, with and without grafting, were evaluated in thirty individuals presenting an average residual bone height (RBH) of 4.2 mm using a standardized digital technique. Measurements were taken preoperatively, and at an average of 64.6 months follow-up. Clinically, peri-implant tissues were assessed for pocket formation and presence of inflammation to evaluate established success criteria. Overall, RBH averaged 4.2 ± 1.1 mm (range: 1.8-5.8) and VBG 7.7 ± 1.6 mm (range: 6.0-12.9). Mean difference of 7.6 mm between vertical bone heights (VBH) at augmented implants sites and initial RBH, 11.8 versus 4.2 mm, (P implant site. Long-term follow-ups average 64.6 months (range: 36-144) and all implants met the success criteria. VBG ≥ 7 mm were 7.3 times more likely to develop on grafted sites (OR = 7.3, P = 0.02, CI95%: 1.2-46.2). None to negligible amounts of grafting material are required to regenerate substantial amounts of autogenous bone into atrophic sinus cavities after simultaneous implant placement. The regenerated VBH seems stable for functional implant stability long-term. Implant success rates were 100% at an average of 64.6 months. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. First observations of elevated ducts associated with intermittent turbulence in the stable boundary layer over Bosten Lake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Ning, Hui; Song, Shihui; Yan, Dongmei

    2016-10-01

    Nocturnal radiative cooling is a main driver for atmospheric duct formation. Within this atmospheric process, the impacts of intermittent turbulence on ducting have seldom been studied. In this paper, we reported two confusing ducting events observed in the early morning in August 2014 over Bosten Lake, China, when a stable boundary layer (SBL) still survived, by using tethered high-resolution GPS radiosondes. Elevated ducts with strong humidity inversions were observed during the balloon ascents but were absent during observations made upon the balloon descents several minutes later. This phenomenon was initially hypothesized to be attributable to turbulence motions in the SBL, and the connection between the turbulence event and the radar duct was examined by the statistical Thorpe method. Turbulence patches were detected from the ascent profiles but not from the descent profiles. The possible reasons for the duct formation and elimination were discussed in detail. The turbulent transport of moisture in the SBL and the advection due to airflows coming from the lake are the most probable reasons for duct formation. In one case, the downward transport of moisture by turbulence mixing within a Kelvin-Helmholtz billow at the top of the low-level jet resulted in duct elimination. In another case, the passage of density currents originating from the lake may have caused the elimination of the duct. Few studies have attempted to associate intermittent turbulence with radar ducts; thus, this work represents a pioneering study into the connection between turbulent events and atmospheric ducts in a SBL.

  13. Impact of Clinical Presentation (Stable Angina Pectoris vs Unstable Angina Pectoris or Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction vs ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction) on Long-Term Outcomes in Women Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Drug-Eluting Stents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giustino, Gennaro; Baber, Usman; Stefanini, Giulio Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    ,577 women included in the pooled database, 10,133 with known clinical presentation received a DES. Of them, 5,760 (57%) had stable angina pectoris (SAP), 3,594 (35%) had unstable angina pectoris (UAP) or non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and 779 (8%) had ST...

  14. Skin autofluorescence is elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease and is associated with serum levels of neopterin and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Douwe J.; van Haelst, Paul L.; Gross, Sascha; de Leeuw, Karina; Bijzet, Johannes; Graaff, Reindert; Gans, Rijk O.; Zijlstra, Felix; Smit, Andries J.

    Aims: To investigate whether skin autofluorescence (AF), a non-invasive marker for advanced glycation end products (AGEs), is elevated in stable coronary artery disease (sCAD) and to investigate its relationship with serum levels of the soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE), neopterin and C-reactive

  15. Virtual histology study of atherosclerotic plaque composition in patients with stable angina and acute phase of acute coronary syndromes without ST segment elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is the cause of most acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Postmortem studies which compared stable coronary lesions and atherosclerotic plaques in patients who have died because of ACS indicated high lipid-core content as one of the major determinants of plaque vulnerability. Objective. Our primary goal was to assess the potential relations of plaque composition determined by IVUS-VH (Intravascular Ultrasound - Virtual Histology in patients with stable angina and subjects in acute phase of ACS without ST segment elevation. Methods. The study comprised of 40 patients who underwent preintervention IVUS examination. Tissue maps were reconstructed from radio frequency data using IVUS-VH software. Results. We analyzed 53 lesions in 40 patients. Stable angina was diagnosed in 24 patients (29 lesions, while acute phase of ACS without ST elevation was diagnosed in 16 patients (24 lesions. In the patients in acute phase of ACS without ST segment elevation IVUS-VH examination showed a significantly larger area of the necrotic core at the site of minimal lumen area and a larger mean of the necrotic core volume in the entire lesion comparing to stable angina subjects (1.84±0.90 mm2 vs. 0.96±0.69 mm2; p<0.001 and 20.94±15.79 mm3 vs. 11.54±14.15 mm3; p<0.05 respectively. Conclusion. IVUS-VH detected that the necrotic core was significantly larger in atherosclerotic lesions in patients in acute phase of ACS without ST elevation comparing to the stable angina subjects and that it could be considered as a marker of plaque vulnerability.

  16. The impact of long-term elevated CO2 on C and N retention in stable SOM pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.A.; Kessel, van C.; Six, J.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 frequently increases plant production and concomitant soil C inputs, which may cause additional soil C sequestration. However, whether the increase in plant production and additional soil C sequestration under elevated CO2 can be sustained in the long-term is unclear. One

  17. Why are tropical mountain passes "low" for some species? Genetic and stable-isotope tests for differentiation, migration and expansion in elevational generalist songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadek, Chauncey R; Newsome, Seth D; Beckman, Elizabeth J; Chavez, Andrea N; Galen, Spencer C; Bautista, Emil; Witt, Christopher C

    2017-11-06

    gradient, potentially concurrent with Holocene anthropogenic habitat conversion for agriculture. In different ways, each species defies the tendency for tropical birds to have long-term stable distributions and sedentary habits. We conclude that tropical elevational generalism is rare due to evolutionary instability. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  18. Prevalence and prognostic significance of incidental cardiac troponin T elevation in ambulatory patients with stable coronary artery disease: Data from The Heart and Soul Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Bill P. C.; Rogers, Adam M.; Na, Beeya; Wu, Alan H. B.; Schiller, Nelson B.; Whooley, Mary A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The significance of troponin elevation and clinical utility of troponin testing in ambulatory patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have not been examined. We sought to investigate the prevalence and prognostic value of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) elevation in a population with stable CAD. Methods We studied 987 patients with stable CAD enrolled in the Heart & Soul study who had plasma cTnT measurements before performing exercise treadmill testing. Results Of the studied population, 58 patients or 6.2% had detectable cTnT levels, ≥0.01 ng/mL (0.01–0.72 ng/mL). During a mean follow-up period of 4.3 (0.1–6.5) years, 58.6% of participants with detectable cTnT had cardiovascular events compared with 22.5% of those without detectable cTnT (hazard ratio [HR] 3.8, 95% CI 2.6–5.4, P <.001). This association remained strong after adjustment for traditional risk factors and C-reactive protein (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.1, P = .002). However, after further adjustment for N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide and echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular function, cTnT elevation was not an independent predictor of cardiovascular events (HR 1.3, 95% CI, 0.8–2.3, P = .28). Conclusions In ambulatory patients with stable CAD, the prevalence of cTnT elevation was 6.2%. Cardiac troponin T elevation detected using the conventional troponin assay was associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but its prognostic value was not incremental over N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide and echocardiographic evidence of cardiac abnormalities. PMID:19781430

  19. Comparison of long-term mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients treated for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction versus those with unstable and stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Alexander; Verouden, Niels J W; Koch, Karel T; Baan, Jan; Henriques, José P S; Piek, Jan J; Rohling, Wim J; van der Schaaf, Rene J; Tijssen, Jan G P; Vis, Marije M; de Winter, Robbert J

    2009-08-01

    Data remain limited regarding the comparative long-term mortality across the spectrum of patients with different indications for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We evaluated early and late mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary PCI compared with early and late mortality in patients undergoing PCI for unstable angina (UA) or non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and stable angina. A total of 10,549 consecutive patients undergoing PCI from 1997 to 2005 at a single institution were followed up prospectively (median 3.2 years, interquartile range 1.5 to 5.6) to assess all-cause mortality. The indication for PCI was STEMI in 28%, UA/NSTEMI in 32%, and stable angina in 40%. The mortality rate at 6 years was 18.9% in patients with STEMI, 16.2% in patients with UA/NSTEMI, and 11.7% in those with stable angina. During the initial 6 months, patients with STEMI had an increased risk of death compared with patients with UA/NSTEMI (relative risk [RR] 3.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.46 to 3.89) and stable angina (RR 5.82, 95% CI 4.45 to 7.62). However, between 6 months and 6 years, mortality accrued at an almost similar rate among patients with STEMI and those with stable angina (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.32) and mortality was greatest in patients with UA/NSTEMI (UA/NSTEMI vs stable angina: RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.58; STEMI vs UA/NSTEMI: RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.99). In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the inferior survival rates in patients with STEMI after primary PCI are mainly attributed to greater mortality in the first months after the event. These observations highlight that new adjunctive therapeutic strategies should aim at mortality reduction in the first months after primary PCI.

  20. Comparison of outcomes of patients ≥ 80 years of age having percutaneous coronary intervention according to presentation (stable vs unstable angina pectoris/non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction vs ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per

    2011-01-01

    ,792 elderly patients (≥ 80 years old) were treated with PCI and the annual proportion increased from 224 (5.4%) in 2002 to 588 (10.2%) in 2009. The clinical indication was stable angina pectoris (SAP) in 30.2%, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in 35.0%, UAP/non-STEMI in 29.7.......08 to 4.85), UAP/non-STEMI (hazard ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.53 to 2.50), and ventricular arrhythmia or congestive heart failure (hazard ratio 2.75, 95% confidence interval 1.92 to 3.92). In patients with SAP target vessel revascularization decreased from 7.1% in 2002 to 2.5% in 2008...

  1. Impact of Clinical Presentation (Stable Angina Pectoris vs Unstable Angina Pectoris or Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction vs ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction) on Long-Term Outcomes in Women Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Drug-Eluting Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustino, Gennaro; Baber, Usman; Stefanini, Giulio Giuseppe; Aquino, Melissa; Stone, Gregg W; Sartori, Samantha; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Wijns, William; Smits, Pieter C; Jeger, Raban V; Leon, Martin B; Windecker, Stephan; Serruys, Patrick W; Morice, Marie-Claude; Camenzind, Edoardo; Weisz, Giora; Kandzari, David; Dangas, George D; Mastoris, Ioannis; Von Birgelen, Clemens; Galatius, Soren; Kimura, Takeshi; Mikhail, Ghada; Itchhaporia, Dipti; Mehta, Laxmi; Ortega, Rebecca; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Valgimigli, Marco; Kastrati, Adnan; Chieffo, Alaide; Mehran, Roxana

    2015-09-15

    The long-term risk associated with different coronary artery disease (CAD) presentations in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES) is poorly characterized. We pooled patient-level data for women enrolled in 26 randomized clinical trials. Of 11,577 women included in the pooled database, 10,133 with known clinical presentation received a DES. Of them, 5,760 (57%) had stable angina pectoris (SAP), 3,594 (35%) had unstable angina pectoris (UAP) or non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and 779 (8%) had ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as clinical presentation. A stepwise increase in 3-year crude cumulative mortality was observed in the transition from SAP to STEMI (4.9% vs 6.1% vs 9.4%; p <0.01). Conversely, no differences in crude mortality rates were observed between 1 and 3 years across clinical presentations. After multivariable adjustment, STEMI was independently associated with greater risk of 3-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.99 to 5.98; p <0.01), whereas no differences were observed between UAP or NSTEMI and SAP (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.34; p = 0.94). In women with ACS, use of new-generation DES was associated with reduced risk of major adverse cardiac events (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.98). The magnitude and direction of the effect with new-generation DES was uniform between women with or without ACS (pinteraction = 0.66). In conclusion, in women across the clinical spectrum of CAD, STEMI was associated with a greater risk of long-term mortality. Conversely, the adjusted risk of mortality between UAP or NSTEMI and SAP was similar. New-generation DESs provide improved long-term clinical outcomes irrespective of the clinical presentation in women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. River recharge sources and the partitioning of catchment evapotranspiration fluxes as revealed by stable isotope signals in a typical high-elevation arid catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Tian, Lide; Wang, Lei; Yu, Wusheng; Qu, Dongmei

    2017-06-01

    Catchment-scale hydrological cycles are expected to suffer more extremes under a background of climate change. Quantifying hydrological changes in high and remote areas is practically challenging. However, stable isotopes in river water can be seen to vary, dependent upon the combined influence exerted by recharge sources and local climatic conditions; the study of river water stable isotopes can therefore provide a meaningful method for delineating catchment-scale hydrological studies. In this study, we present high-resolution time series of river δ18O and d-excess values; additionally, we identify the seasonal dynamics of river recharge sources and major components of the catchment-scale water balance, together with precipitation and groundwater isotopes, and concurrent meteorological data recorded in Magazangbu catchment on the northwestern Tibetan Plateau (TP). Using isotopic analysis, and within a proportional framework, we partitioned the isotopic fractionation (E1) or non-fractionation (E2) from soil evaporation fluxes (Esoil) apparent in different processes, using NDVI (Normal Differential Vegetation Index) data collected by MODIS satellites to calculate the vegetation fractional coverage (VFC), and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) records to determine evapotranspiration data (ET). Finally, the contributions made by each ET component (Esoil and plant transpiration) to total catchment ET were computed for the high and remote northwestern TP. Our results show that: (1) river δ18O values were high in summer and low in winter, while d-excess values displayed a contrary seasonal cycle; (2) for the monsoon period, precipitation contributed 60.6% to Magazangbu catchment runoff. Deeper groundwater was the main water source for the winter low base flow, and shallow groundwater or high elevation snowmelt was the principal component of the spring thaw and autumn freezing periods; and (3) a substantial proportion of Esoil (96.4% annually; 92.2% during

  3. Comparison of outcomes of patients ≥ 80 years of age having percutaneous coronary intervention according to presentation (stable vs unstable angina pectoris/non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction vs ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Christiansen, Evald Høj; Junker, Anders; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Kaltoft, Anne; Maeng, Michael; Hansen, Knud Noerregaard; Ravkilde, Jan; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Madsen, Morten; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Thuesen, Leif

    2011-11-15

    Patients ≥ 80 years old with coronary artery disease constitute a particular risk group in relation to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). From 2002 through 2008 we examined the annual proportion of patients ≥ 80 years old undergoing PCI in western Denmark, their indications for PCI, and prognosis. From 2002 through 2009 all elderly patients treated with PCI were identified in a population of 3.0 million based on the Western Denmark Heart Registry. Cox regression analysis was used to compare mortality rates according to clinical indications controlling for potential confounding. In total 3,792 elderly patients (≥ 80 years old) were treated with PCI and the annual proportion increased from 224 (5.4%) in 2002 to 588 (10.2%) in 2009. The clinical indication was stable angina pectoris (SAP) in 30.2%, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in 35.0%, UAP/non-STEMI in 29.7%, and "ventricular arrhythmia or congestive heart failure" in 5.1%. Overall 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were 9.2% and 18.1%, respectively. Compared to patients with SAP the adjusted 1-year mortality risk was significantly higher for patients presenting with STEMI (hazard ratio 3.86, 95% confidence interval 3.08 to 4.85), UAP/non-STEMI (hazard ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.53 to 2.50), and ventricular arrhythmia or congestive heart failure (hazard ratio 2.75, 95% confidence interval 1.92 to 3.92). In patients with SAP target vessel revascularization decreased from 7.1% in 2002 to 2.5% in 2008. In conclusion, the proportion of patients ≥ 80 years old treated with PCI increased significantly over an 8-year period. Patients with SAP had the lowest mortality rates and rates of clinically driven target vessel revascularization decreased over time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Determining Carbon and Oxygen Stable Isotope Systematics in Brines at Elevated p/T Conditions to Enhance Monitoring of CO2 Induced Processes in Carbon Storage Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, V.; Myrttinen, A.; Mayer, B.; Barth, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) are a powerful tool for inferring carbon sources and mixing ratios of injected and baseline CO2 in storage reservoirs. Furthermore, CO2 releasing and consuming processes can be deduced if the isotopic compositions of end-members are known. At low CO2 pressures (pCO2), oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of CO2 usually assume the δ18O of the water plus a temperature-dependent isotope fractionation factor. However, at very high CO2 pressures as they occur in CO2 storage reservoirs, the δ18O of the injected CO2 may in fact change the δ18O of the reservoir brine. Hence, changing δ18O of brine constitutes an additional tracer for reservoir-internal carbon dynamics and allows the determination of the amount of free phase CO2 present in the reservoir (Johnson et al. 2011). Further systematic research to quantify carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation between the involved inorganic carbon species (CO2, H2CO3, HCO3-, CO32-, carbonate minerals) and kinetic and equilibrium isotope effects during gas-water-rock interactions is necessary because p/T conditions and salinities in CO2 storage reservoirs may exceed the boundary conditions of typical environmental isotope applications, thereby limiting the accuracy of stable isotope monitoring approaches in deep saline formations (Becker et al. 2011). In doing so, it is crucial to compare isotopic patterns observed in laboratory experiments with artificial brines to similar experiments with original fluids from representative field sites to account for reactions of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with minor brine components. In the CO2ISO-LABEL project, funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research, multiple series of laboratory experiments are conducted to determine the influence of pressure, temperature and brine composition on the δ13C of DIC and the δ18O of brines in water-CO2-rock reactions with special focus placed on kinetics and stable oxygen and carbon isotope fractionation

  5. Prey size and availability limits maximum size of rainbow trout in a large tailwater: insights from a drift-foraging bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodrill, Michael J.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Haye, John W

    2016-01-01

    The cold and clear water conditions present below many large dams create ideal conditions for the development of economically important salmonid fisheries. Many of these tailwater fisheries have experienced declines in the abundance and condition of large trout species, yet the causes of these declines remain uncertain. Here, we develop, assess, and apply a drift-foraging bioenergetics model to identify the factors limiting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) growth in a large tailwater. We explored the relative importance of temperature, prey quantity, and prey size by constructing scenarios where these variables, both singly and in combination, were altered. Predicted growth matched empirical mass-at-age estimates, particularly for younger ages, demonstrating that the model accurately describes how current temperature and prey conditions interact to determine rainbow trout growth. Modeling scenarios that artificially inflated prey size and abundance demonstrate that rainbow trout growth is limited by the scarcity of large prey items and overall prey availability. For example, shifting 10% of the prey biomass to the 13 mm (large) length class, without increasing overall prey biomass, increased lifetime maximum mass of rainbow trout by 88%. Additionally, warmer temperatures resulted in lower predicted growth at current and lower levels of prey availability; however, growth was similar across all temperatures at higher levels of prey availability. Climate change will likely alter flow and temperature regimes in large rivers with corresponding changes to invertebrate prey resources used by fish. Broader application of drift-foraging bioenergetics models to build a mechanistic understanding of how changes to habitat conditions and prey resources affect growth of salmonids will benefit management of tailwater fisheries.

  6. Tailored antiplatelet therapy to improve prognosis in patients exhibiting clopidogrel low-response prior to percutaneous coronary intervention for stable angina or non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paarup Dridi, Nadia; Johansson, Pär I; Lønborg, Jacob T

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To investigate whether an intensified antiplatelet regimen could improve prognosis in stable or non-ST elevation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients exhibiting high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) on clopidogrel and treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI......). There is a wide variability in the platelet reactivity to clopidogrel and HTPR has been associated with a poor prognosis. Methods: In this observational study, 923 consecutive patients without ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and adequately pre-treated with clopidogrel were screened for HTPR...... was demonstrated in 237 patients (25.7%). Of these, 114 continued on conventional clopidogrel therapy, while the remaining 123 received intensified antiplatelet therapy with either double-dose clopidogrel (150 mg daily, n = 55) or the newer P2Y12-inhibitors, prasugrel or ticagrelor (n = 68) for at least 30 days...

  7. Comparison of plaque characteristics in narrowings with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI/unstable angina pectoris and stable coronary artery disease (from the ADAPT-DES IVUS Substudy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Mintz, Gary S; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Metzger, D Christopher; Rinaldi, Michael J; Duffy, Peter L; Weisz, Giora; Stuckey, Thomas D; Brodie, Bruce R; Yun, Kyeong Ho; Xu, Ke; Kirtane, Ajay J; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy With Drug-Eluting Stents (ADAPT-DES) was a prospective, multicenter registry of 8,582 consecutive stable and unstable patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention using a drug-eluting stent. We sought to identify key morphologic features leading to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) versus non-STEMI (NSTEMI) or unstable angina pectoris (UA) versus stable coronary artery disease (CAD) presentation. In the prespecified grayscale and virtual histology (VH) substudy of ADAPT-DES, preintervention imaging identified 676 patients with a single culprit lesion. The relation between lesion morphology and clinical presentation was compared among patients with (1) STEMI, (2) NSTEMI or UA, and (3) stable CAD. Intravascular ultrasound identified more plaque rupture and VH thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) in STEMI lesions compared with NSTEMI/UA or stable CAD lesions; conversely, fibroatheromas appeared more often calcified with a thick fibrous cap in stable CAD. Minimum lumen cross-sectional area (MLA) was smaller with larger plaque burden and positive remodeling in STEMI lesions. Lesions with plaque rupture versus those without plaque rupture showed higher prevalence of VH-TCFA and larger plaque burden with positive remodeling, especially in patients with STEMI. Multivariate analysis showed that in the lesions with plaque rupture, plaque burden at the MLA site was the only independent predictor for STEMI (cutoff of plaque burden = 85%) and in lesions without plaque rupture, MLA was the only independent predictor for STEMI (cutoff of MLA = 2.3 mm(2)). In conclusion, culprit lesions causing STEMI have smaller lumen areas, greater plaque burden, and more plaque rupture or VH-TCFA compared with NSTEMI/UA or stable CAD; in lesions with plaque rupture, only plaque burden predicted STEMI, and in lesions without plaque rupture, only MLA area predicted STEMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevating your elevator talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  9. Correlation of stable elevations in striatal mu-opioid receptor availability in detoxified alcoholic patients with alcohol craving: a positron emission tomography study using carbon 11-labeled carfentanil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Andreas; Reimold, Matthias; Wrase, Jana; Hermann, Derik; Croissant, Bernhard; Mundle, Götz; Dohmen, Bernhard M; Braus, Dieter F; Braus, Dieter H; Schumann, Gunter; Machulla, Hans-Jürgen; Bares, Roland; Mann, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The pleasant effects of food and alcohol intake are partially mediated by mu-opiate receptors in the ventral striatum, a central area of the brain reward system. Blockade of mu-opiate receptors with naltrexone reduces the relapse risk among some but not all alcoholic individuals. To test the hypothesis that alcohol craving is pronounced among alcoholic individuals with a high availability of mu-opiate receptors in the brain reward system. Patients and comparison sample. The availability of central mu-opiate receptors was measured in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET) and the radioligand carbon 11-labeled carfentanil in the ventral striatum and compared with the severity of alcohol craving as assessed by the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). Hospitalized care. Volunteer sample of 25 male alcohol-dependent inpatients assessed after detoxification of whom 12 underwent PET again 5 weeks later. Control group of 10 healthy men. After 1 to 3 weeks of abstinence, the availability of mu-opiate receptors in the ventral striatum, including the nucleus accumbens, was significantly elevated in alcoholic patients compared with healthy controls and remained elevated when 12 alcoholic patients had these levels measured 5 weeks later (P<.05 corrected for multiple testing). Higher availability of mu-opiate receptors in this brain area correlated significantly with the intensity of alcohol craving as assessed by the OCDS. Abstinent alcoholic patients displayed an increase in mu-opiate receptors in the ventral striatum, including the nucleus accumbens, which correlated with the severity of alcohol craving. These findings point to a neuronal correlate of alcohol urges.

  10. The Time Profile of Pentraxin 3 in Patients with Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Stable Angina Pectoris Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild Helseth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High levels of Pentraxin 3 (PTX3 are reported in acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Aim. To investigate circulating levels and gene expression of PTX3 in patients with AMI and stable angina pectoris (AP undergoing PCI. Methods. Ten patients with AP and 20 patients with AMI were included. Blood samples were drawn before PCI in the AP group and after 3 and 12 hours and days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 in both groups. Results. Circulating PTX3 levels were higher in AMI compared to AP at 3 and 12 hours (P<0.001 and P=0.003. Within the AMI group, reduction from 3 hours to all later time points was observed (all P≤0.001. Within the AP group, increase from baseline to 3 hours (P=0.022, followed by reductions thereafter (all P<0.05, was observed. PTX3 mRNA increased in the AMI group from 3 hours to days 7 and 14 in a relative manner of 62% and 73%, while a relative reduction from baseline to 3 and 12 hours of 29% and 37% was seen in the AP group. Conclusion. High circulating PTX3 levels shortly after PCI in AMI indicate that AMI itself influences PTX3 levels. PTX3 mRNA might be in response to fluctuations in circulating levels.

  11. Complete versus incomplete revascularization with drug-eluting stents for multi-vessel disease in stable, unstable angina or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tomo; Takagi, Hisato; Grines, Cindy L

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether drug-eluting stent (DES) coronary complete revascularization (CR) confers clinical benefit over incomplete revascularization (IR) in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (MVD). Clinical benefit of CR over IR in patients with MVD with angina (both stable and unstable) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in DES has not been well studied. We conducted a systematic online literature search of PUBMED and EMBASE. Literatures that compared the clinical outcomes between CR and IR with exclusively or majority (>80%) using DES in patients without or included only small portion (meta-analysis. CR was associated with lower incident of all-cause mortality (HR 0.71, P = 0.001), major adverse events (HR 0.75, P Meta-regression analysis showed that CR significantly reduced the risk of all-cause mortality in advanced age, triple vessel disease and male sub-groups. CR with DES conferred favorable outcomes compared to IR in MVD patients with stable, unstable angina or NTEMI. Further research to achieve higher CR in MVD patients may lead to improvement in prognosis in these cohorts. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Elevation of Non-Classical (CD14+/lowCD16++) Monocytes Is Associated with Increased Albuminuria and Urine TGF-β1 in HIV-Infected Individuals on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brooks I; Byron, Mary Margaret; Ng, Roland C; Chow, Dominic C; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Shikuma, Cecilia M

    2016-01-01

    High rates of albuminuria are observed among HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART). Though pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses are described as components of albuminuria in the general population, it is unclear how these responses are associated to albuminuria in ART-treated chronic HIV. We investigated the relationship of monocyte subsets and urine inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers to albuminuria in ART-treated HIV-infected participants. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on Hawaii Aging with HIV-cardiovascular disease study cohort participants who were required at entry to be ≥40 years old and on ART ≥3 months. Monocyte subpopulations were determined in banked peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using multi-parametric flow-cytometry. Entry random urine samples were assessed for albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR). Urine samples were measured for inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers using Luminex technology. Among 96 HIV-infected subjects with measured UACR (87% male, 59% Caucasian, and 89% undetectable HIV RNA with median CD4 of 495.5 cells/μL), 18 patients (19%) had albuminuria. Non-classical (CD14low/+CD16++) monocytes were significantly elevated in subjects with albuminuria (p = 0.034) and were correlated to UACR (r = 0.238, p = 0.019). Elevated non-classical monocyte counts were significant predictors of worsening albuminuria, independent of traditional- and ART-associated risk factors (β = 0.539, p = 0.007). Urine TGF-β1 and collagen-IV were significantly higher in albuminuric compared to non-albuminuric participants (TGF-β1; p = 0.039 and collagen-IV; p = 0.042). Urine TGF-β1 was significantly correlated with non-classical monocyte counts (r = 0.464, p = 0.017). Alterations in monocyte subpopulations and urine pro-fibrotic factors may play a role in kidney dysfunction during chronic HIV infection and warrants further study.

  13. Elevation of Non-Classical (CD14+/lowCD16++ Monocytes Is Associated with Increased Albuminuria and Urine TGF-β1 in HIV-Infected Individuals on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks I Mitchell

    Full Text Available High rates of albuminuria are observed among HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART. Though pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses are described as components of albuminuria in the general population, it is unclear how these responses are associated to albuminuria in ART-treated chronic HIV. We investigated the relationship of monocyte subsets and urine inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers to albuminuria in ART-treated HIV-infected participants.Cross-sectional analyses were performed on Hawaii Aging with HIV-cardiovascular disease study cohort participants who were required at entry to be ≥40 years old and on ART ≥3 months. Monocyte subpopulations were determined in banked peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC using multi-parametric flow-cytometry. Entry random urine samples were assessed for albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR. Urine samples were measured for inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers using Luminex technology.Among 96 HIV-infected subjects with measured UACR (87% male, 59% Caucasian, and 89% undetectable HIV RNA with median CD4 of 495.5 cells/μL, 18 patients (19% had albuminuria. Non-classical (CD14low/+CD16++ monocytes were significantly elevated in subjects with albuminuria (p = 0.034 and were correlated to UACR (r = 0.238, p = 0.019. Elevated non-classical monocyte counts were significant predictors of worsening albuminuria, independent of traditional- and ART-associated risk factors (β = 0.539, p = 0.007. Urine TGF-β1 and collagen-IV were significantly higher in albuminuric compared to non-albuminuric participants (TGF-β1; p = 0.039 and collagen-IV; p = 0.042. Urine TGF-β1 was significantly correlated with non-classical monocyte counts (r = 0.464, p = 0.017.Alterations in monocyte subpopulations and urine pro-fibrotic factors may play a role in kidney dysfunction during chronic HIV infection and warrants further study.

  14. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  15. Data Elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-29

    Data Elevator: Efficient Asynchronous Data Movement in Hierarchical Storage Systems Multi-layer storage subsystems, including SSD-based burst buffers and disk-based parallel file systems (PFS), are becoming part of HPC systems. However, software for this storage hierarchy is still in its infancy. Applications may have to explicitly move data among the storage layers. We propose Data Elevator for transparently and efficiently moving data between a burst buffer and a PFS. Users specify the final destination for their data, typically on PFS, Data Elevator intercepts the I/O calls, stages data on burst buffer, and then asynchronously transfers the data to their final destination in the background. This system allows extensive optimizations, such as overlapping read and write operations, choosing I/O modes, and aligning buffer boundaries. In tests with large-scale scientific applications, Data Elevator is as much as 4.2X faster than Cray DataWarp, the start-of-art software for burst buffer, and 4X faster than directly writing to PFS. The Data Elevator library uses HDF5's Virtual Object Layer (VOL) for intercepting parallel I/O calls that write data to PFS. The intercepted calls are redirected to the Data Elevator, which provides a handle to write the file in a faster and intermediate burst buffer system. Once the application finishes writing the data to the burst buffer, the Data Elevator job uses HDF5 to move the data to final destination in an asynchronous manner. Hence, using the Data Elevator library is currently useful for applications that call HDF5 for writing data files. Also, the Data Elevator depends on the HDF5 VOL functionality.

  16. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  17. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  18. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  19. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  20. An elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastorguyev, M.A.; Maloyarovslavtesv, D.A.; Prokopov, O.I.; Tukayev, Sh.V.; Zanilov, I.F.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body with a turning collar locking device and a rod with longitudinal grooves, which are flexibly linked with jaws positioned in grooves in the body. To increase safety through ensuring automatic locking of the jaws in the closed position, the locking device is made in the form of head on wedges, spring loaded relative to the collar and made with cams and positioned with the capability of interacting with the grooves of the rod and through the cams with the collar.

  1. Bucket elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Chromek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je návrh svislého korečkového elevátoru, který má sloužit k dopravě obilovin s dopravní výškou 19 m a dopravovaným množstvím 100 t/hod. Práce se skládá z popisu korečkového elevátoru a jeho hlavních částí, zmiňující se v úvodní rešerši. Tato práce je zaměřena na funkční a kapacitní výpočet, určení pohonu a napínacího zařízení. Další výpočet je kontrolní, skládající se z pevnostní kontroly hnacího hřídele, výpočtu pera, životnosti ložisek a výpočtu napínacího zaříze...

  2. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  3. Use of dynamic occupancy models to assess the response of Darters (Teleostei: Percidae) to varying hydrothermal conditions in a southeastern United States tailwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, C.P.; Bettoli, Phillip William; Potoka, K. M.; Saylor, C. F.; Shute, P. W.

    2015-01-01

    During the past 100 years, most large rivers in North America have been altered for flood control, hydropower, navigation or water supply development. Although these activities clearly provide important human services, their associated environmental disturbances can profoundly affect stream-dwelling organisms. We used dynamic multi-species occupancy models combined with a trait-based approach to estimate the influence of site-level and species-level characteristics on patch dynamic rates for 15 darter species native to the Elk River, a large, flow-regulated Tennessee River tributary in Tennessee and Alabama. Dynamic occupancy modelling results indicated that for every 2.5 °C increase in stream temperature, darters were 3.94 times more likely to colonize previously unoccupied stream reaches. Additionally, large-bodied darter species were 3.72 times more likely to colonize stream reaches compared with small-bodied species, but crevice-spawning darter species were 5.24 times less likely to colonize previously unoccupied stream reaches. In contrast, darters were 2.21 times less likely to become locally extinct for every 2.5 °C increase in stream temperature, but high stream discharge conditions elevated the risk of local extinction. Lastly, the presence of populations in neighbouring upstream study reaches contributed to a lower risk of extinction, whereas the presence of populations in neighbouring downstream study reaches contributed to higher rates of colonization. Our study demonstrates the application of a trait-based approach combined with a metapopulation framework to assess the patch dynamics of darters in a regulated river. Results from our study will provide a baseline for evaluating the ecological consequences of alternative dam operations.

  4. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  5. National Elevation Dataset (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Database (NED). The NED is a seamless mosaic of best-available elevation data. The 7.5-minute elevation...

  6. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  7. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  8. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE ON ELEVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    concrete. Data obtained at 7 and 28 days for the effects of temperature with compressive strength are shown in Tables 1 and 2 respectively while the loss of weight as related to elevated temperature and age, are in. Figure 1. The effect of elevated temperature on the compressive strength at 7 days and 28 days for concrete ...

  9. Iowa Bedrock Surface Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface elevation in Iowa was compiled using all available data, principally information from GEOSAM, supplemented...

  10. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  11. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  12. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  13. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  14. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  15. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Renee M.; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to i...

  16. De stille elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Det er blevet en afgørende samværskompetence i uddannelsessystemet at stå aktivt frem og deltage verbalt i skoleklassens liv både fagligt og socialt. Men ikke alle elever deltager lige villigt verbalt i plenum. Artiklen handler om de stille elever og konsekvenserne af stillehed i skolen. Det...... foreslås at skolesystemet sanktionerer ældre elever hårdere for stillehed end yngre elever og det forklares med at skolelivet også er en kultivering henimod elevhed som social identitet og denne er der forventning om at eleverne mestrer i udskolingen....

  17. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  18. Stable isotope ratios and reforestation potential in Acacia koa populations on Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneka Lawson; Carrie Pike

    2017-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes can be influenced by a multitude of factors including elevation, precipitation rate, season, and temperature. This work examined variability in foliar stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios of koa (Acacia koa) across 17 sites on Hawai'i Island, delineated by elevation and precipitation...

  19. Undervisning af tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen fremdrager hovedresultaterne fra Virginia P. Collier's og Wayne P. Thomas's længdeundersøgelser af tosprogede elever i USA, som formentlig er de mest omfattende undersøgelser af undervisningen af tosprogede elever overhovedet. Resultaterne diskuteres i relation til udviklingen af en...

  20. Elevators or stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin; O’Byrne, Michael; Wilson, Merne; Wilson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Staff in hospitals frequently travel between floors and choose between taking the stairs or elevator. We compared the time savings with these two options. Methods: Four people aged 26–67 years completed 14 trips ranging from one to six floors, both ascending and descending. We compared the amount of time per floor travelled by stairs and by two banks of elevators. Participants reported their fatigue levels using a modified Borg scale. We performed two-way analysis of variance to compare the log-transformed data, with participant and time of day as independent variables. Results: The mean time taken to travel between each floor was 13.1 (standard deviation [SD] 1.7) seconds by stairs and 37.5 (SD 19.0) and 35.6 (SD 23.1) seconds by the two elevators (F = 8.61, p elevator equaled about 15 minutes a day. Self-reported fatigue was less than 13 (out of 20) on the Borg scale for all participants, and they all stated that they were able to continue their duties without resting. The extra time associated with elevator use was because of waiting for its arrival. There was a difference in the amount of time taken to travel by elevator depending on the time of day and day of the week. Interpretation: Taking the stairs rather than the elevator saved about 15 minutes each workday. This 3% savings per workday could translate into improved productivity as well as increased fitness. PMID:22159365

  1. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  2. Photoreflectance at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongen

    1990-08-01

    Using the contactiess modulation spectroscopy technique of photoreflectance, the temperature variations of the direct gap E0 of GaAs, InP, GaA1As, InGaAs have been measured at elevated temperatures up to 600°C. The parameters which describe the temperature dependence of the band gap energies have been evaluated. The ability to measure the band gap at elevated temperatures opens up many new possibilities for in-situ monitoring of MBE and MOCVD processes. In this paper, we review some of the recent developments in the use of photoreflectance at elevated temperatures.

  3. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  4. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  5. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  6. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  7. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  8. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  9. Indsatser for tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dines; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Fagligt set klarer tosprogede elever sig dårligere i skolen og det videre uddannelsessystem end ’danske’ elever. Kommuner og folkeskoler har derfor sat en række tiltag i værk, som sigter mod at forbedre de tosprogede elevers skole- og uddannelsessituation. Rapporten kortlægger og analyserer...... af klasseundervisningen. Analysen viser, at de elever, der bliver taget ud af klassen for at få ekstra undervisning i dansk som andetsprog, klarer sig dårligere end elever, der modtager ekstraundervisningen i klassen eller uden for skoletid. Undersøgelsen er baseret på spørgeskemaundersøgelser blandt...... kommunale forvaltningschefer, skoleledere, lærere og forældre til børn i 2. klasse samt lærere til og elever i 9. klasse, SFI’s forløbsundersøgelse af årgang 1995 og registerdata. Undersøgelsen er via Ministeriet for Børn og Undervisning betalt med midler fra satspuljeaftalen 2009 om integration....

  10. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  11. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  12. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte; Otzen, Elsebeth

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  13. Udeskole og elevers handlekompetence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Elever elsker at komme væk fra undervisningen i skolen. Er det positivt eller negativt? Og hvad har betydning for, at eleverne får mest muligt ud af oplevelserne uden for skolen? Forskellige former for udeskole giver nogle oplagte muligheder, så eleverne udvikler sig som engagerede borgere i et...

  14. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte F.; Otzen, Elsebeth

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  15. Influence of elevated CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annibale, D' Alessandra; Larsen, Thomas; Sechi, Valentina; Cortet, Jérôme; Strandberg, Beate; Vincze, Éva; Filser, Juliane; Audisio, Paolo Aldo; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the combined effect of rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and increasing use of genetically modified (GM) crops in agriculture may affect soil food-webs. So we designed a study for the assessment of the effects of elevated CO2

  16. Ivabradine in stable coronary artery disease without clinical heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Kim; Ford, Ian; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An elevated heart rate is an established marker of cardiovascular risk. Previous analyses have suggested that ivabradine, a heart-rate-reducing agent, may improve outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease, left ventricular dysfunction, and a heart rate of 70 beats per m...

  17. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  18. Skuldertesten "Kombineret Elevation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Overkær, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Formål: At udarbejde en testprotokol for testen Kombineret Elevation (KE) og undersøge test-retest variationen ved test af elite svømmere, samt diskutere testens relevans og validitet. Materiale og Metode: 9 elite og 10 sub-elite svømmere, heraf var 11 mænd og 8 kvinder, gennemførte testen KE 2...

  19. Elevation data for floodplain mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Elevation Data for Floodplain Mapping shows that there is sufficient two-dimensional base map imagery to meet FEMA's flood map modernization goals, but that the three-dimensional base elevation data...

  20. Exhaled nitric oxide in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beg Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective : The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO is elevated in nonsmoking subjects with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and compare it with the results in patients with asthma and a control population. Design : Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods : Pulmonology Clinic at a University Hospital. Twenty five control subjects, 25 steroid naοve asthmatics and 14 COPD patients were studied. All the patients were nonsmokers and stable at the time of the study. All subjects completed a questionnaire and underwent spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide was measured online by chemiluminescence, using single-breath technique. Results : All the study subjects were males. Subjects with stable COPD had significantly higher values of FENO than controls (56.54±28.01 vs 22.00±6.69; P =0.0001 but lower than the subjects with asthma (56.54±28.01 vs 84.78±39.32 P = 0.0285.The FENO values in COPD subjects were inversely related to the FEV 1 /FVC ratio. There was a significant overlap between the FENO values in COPD and the control subjects. Conclusion : There is a significant elevation in FENO in patients with stable COPD, but the elevation is less than in asthmatic subjects. Its value in clinical practice may be limited by the significant overlap with control subjects.

  1. Exhaled nitric oxide in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Mohammed F. S.; Alzoghaibi, Mohammad A.; Abba, Abdullah A.; Habib, Syed S.

    2009-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is elevated in nonsmoking subjects with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and compare it with the results in patients with asthma and a control population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pulmonology Clinic at a University Hospital. Twenty five control subjects, 25 steroid naïve asthmatics and 14 COPD patients were studied. All the patients were nonsmokers and stable at the time of the study. All subjects completed a questionnaire and underwent spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide was measured online by chemiluminescence, using single-breath technique. RESULTS: All the study subjects were males. Subjects with stable COPD had significantly higher values of FENO than controls (56.54±28.01 vs 22.00±6.69; P=0.0001) but lower than the subjects with asthma (56.54±28.01 vs 84.78±39.32 P=0.0285).The FENO values in COPD subjects were inversely related to the FEV1/FVC ratio. There was a significant overlap between the FENO values in COPD and the control subjects. CONCLUSION: There is a significant elevation in FENO in patients with stable COPD, but the elevation is less than in asthmatic subjects. Its value in clinical practice may be limited by the significant overlap with control subjects. PMID:19561927

  2. Exhaled nitric oxide in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beg Mohammed F S; Alzoghaibi, Mohammad A; Habib, Syed S; Abba, Abdullah A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is elevated in nonsmoking subjects with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and compare it with the results in patients with asthma and a control population. Pulmonology Clinic at a University Hospital. Twenty five control subjects, 25 steroid naive asthmatics and 14 COPD patients were studied. All the patients were nonsmokers and stable at the time of the study. All subjects completed a questionnaire and underwent spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide was measured online by chemiluminescence, using single-breath technique. All the study subjects were males. Subjects with stable COPD had significantly higher values of FENO than controls (56.54+ - 28.01 vs 22.00 + -6.69; P =0.0001) but lower than the subjects with asthma (56.54+ - 28.01 vs 84.78+ - 39.32 P 0.0285). The FENO values in COPD subjects were inversely related to the FEV 1 /FVC ratio. There was a significant overlap between the FENO values in COPD and the control subjects. There is a significant elevation in FENO in patients with stable COPD, but the elevation is less than in asthmatic subjects. Its value in clinical practice may be limited by the significant overlap with control subjects. (author)

  3. Pendulum motions of extended lunar space elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, A. A.; Kosenko, I. I.

    2014-09-01

    In the usual everyday life, it is well known that the inverted pendulum is unstable and is ready to fall to "all four sides," to the left and to the right, forward and backward. The theoretical studies and the lunar experience of moon robots and astronauts also confirms this property. The question arises: Is this property preserved if the pendulum is "very, very long"? It turns out that the answer is negative; namely, if the pendulum length significantly exceeds the Moon radius, then the radial equilibria at which the pendulum is located along the straight line connecting the Earth and Moon centers are Lyapunov stable and the pendulum does not fall in any direction at all. Moreover, if the pendulum goes beyond the collinear libration points, then it can be extended and manufactured from cables. This property was noted by F. A. Tsander and underlies the so-called lunar space elevator (e.g., see [1]). In the plane of the Earth and Moon orbits, there are some other equilibria which turn out to be unstable. The question is, Are there equilibria at which the pendulum is located outside the orbital plane? In this paper, we show that the answer is positive, but such equilibria are unstable in the secular sense. We also study necessary conditions for the stability of lunar pendulum oscillations in the plane of the lunar orbit. It was numerically discovered that stable and unstable equilibria alternate depending on the oscillation amplitude and the angular velocity of rotation. The study of the lunar elevator dynamics originates in [2]. The concept of lunar elevator was developed in detail in [3, 4]. Several classes of equilibria with the finiteness of the Moon size taken into account were studied in [5]. The possibility of location of an orbital station fixed to the Moon surface by a pair of tethers was investigated in [6]. The problem of orientation of the terminal station of the lunar space elevator was studied in [7]. The influence of the tether length variations on the

  4. The nature of stable insomnia phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Longitudinal. Urban, community-based. Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). None. At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the 'neither criterion' phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With the exception of daytime sleepiness, few clinical differences are apparent across stable phenotypes.

  5. Dynamical attraction to stable processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Albert M.; Talet, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We apply dynamical ideas within probability theory, proving an almost-sure invariance principle in log density for stable processes. The familiar scaling property (self-similarity) of the stable process has a stronger expression, that the scaling flow on Skorokhod path space is a Bernoulli flow. We prove that typical paths of a random walk with i.i.d. increments in the domain of attraction of a stable law can be paired with paths of a stable process so that, after applying a non-random regula...

  6. Northeastern Salt Marshes: Elevation Capital and Resilience to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable tidal salt marshes exist at an elevation that is supra-optimal relative to peak biomass production, which for Spartina alterniflora, and other marsh macrophytes, follows a parabolic distribution as a function of elevation, as a surrogate for inundation frequency. In order...

  7. Respiratory depression by stable xenon in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies with stable xenon have recently become practical. Xenon pharmacology is thus a more than academic interest. The authors studied the respiratory response of three trained goats to a mixture of 70% xenon, 30% oxygen. The relatively high xenon concentration was used because of the animals' resistance to anesthetic effects. Two other goats were treated with equivalent anesthetic concentration of nitrous oxide and halothane. The xenon-treated animals showed respiratory depression, in contrast to the stimulating effects observed with halothane and nitrous oxide. Elevation of PaCO/sub 2/ was significant and would substantially increase cRBF. Their findings emphasize the need to monitor ventilation and respond appropriately if necessary

  8. Tanzania Elevation and Surface Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The dataset displays Elevation, Slope, Aspect, Topographic Position Index, Terrain Ruggedness, and Roughness based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (3...

  9. Lærer-elev-relationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Per Fibæk; Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2015-01-01

    I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence.......I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence....

  10. Microbiological characterization of stable resuspended dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Kováts

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Air quality in the stables is characterized by elevated level of dust and aeroallergens which are supposed to directly cause or exacerbate several respiratory disorders. The most often recognized problem is recurrent airway obstruction (RAO, previously known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. There is some indication that aeroallergens (among them endotoxins may also cause inflammation in human airways and may exceed safe levels in stables. Monitoring studies have covered mainly the determination of the concentration of respirable particles and of culturable fungi and their toxins. However, these particles do not only directly affect the respiratory system, but might act as a carrier conveying toxic contaminants and biological agents such as bacteria. In a typical, 20-horse Hungarian stable, microbial community of respirable fraction of resuspended dust has been characterized to reveal if these particles convey hazardous pathogenic bacteria, posing risk to either horses or staff. Material and Methods: Resuspended dust was sampled using a mobile instrument. The instrument contains a PARTISOL-FRM model 2000 sampler that was operated at a flow rate of 16.7 l/min and a cyclone separator which collected the particulate matter with an aerodynamic size between 1 μm and 10 μm (PM1–10 fraction. Microbial taxa were identified by culture-independent next generation sequencing (NGS of variable 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA gene regions. Results: In total, 1491 different taxa were identified, of them 384 were identified to species level, 961 to genus level. The sample was dominated by common ubiquitous soil and organic material-dwelling taxa. Conclusions: Pathogens occurred at low abundance, and were represented by mostly facultative human pathogens, with the prevalence of Staphylococcus species.

  11. Elevation Change Measurements of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, R.; Keller, K.; Nielsen, C. S.

    2000-01-01

    Repeated GPS measurements have been performed at the centre of the Greenland Ice Sheet since 1992. Results have shown that the ice sheet is essentially stable at this location, with GPS-determined strain and elevation change rates in good accordance with yearly snow accumulation and glaciological...... flow models. In a local ice cap in East Greenland (Geikie Plateau) repeated GPS, airborne laser altimetry and SAR interferometry have been used to study ice movements in the more climatically variable coastal zone, where meter-level annual elevation changes are possible due to the high precipitation...

  12. Experiment and calculation of reinforced concrete at elevated temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhenhai

    2011-01-01

    Concrete as a construction material goes through both physical and chemical changes under extreme elevated temperatures. As one of the most widely used building materials, it is important that both engineers and architects are able to understand and predict its behavior in under extreme heat conditions. Brief and readable, this book provides the tools and techniques to properly analysis the effects of high temperature of reinforced concrete which will lead to more stable, safer structures. Based on years of the author's research, Reinforced Concrete at Elevated Temperatures four par

  13. Elevation Change Measurements of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, R.; Keller, K.; Nielsen, C. S.

    2000-01-01

    flow models. In a local ice cap in East Greenland (Geikie Plateau) repeated GPS, airborne laser altimetry and SAR interferometry have been used to study ice movements in the more climatically variable coastal zone, where meter-level annual elevation changes are possible due to the high precipitation......Repeated GPS measurements have been performed at the centre of the Greenland Ice Sheet since 1992. Results have shown that the ice sheet is essentially stable at this location, with GPS-determined strain and elevation change rates in good accordance with yearly snow accumulation and glaciological...

  14. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an MRE? Is an MRE shelf stable? What foods are packaged in retort packages? What is aseptic ... type of package is used for aseptic processing? What foods are packaged in aseptic packages? Can I microwave ...

  15. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  16. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  17. Elevation of the diaphragmatic cupola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V.M.; Talesnik, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Altogether 45 patients with elevation of the diaphragmatic cupola were examined. A high frequency of erroneous initial interpretation of examination results was noted in inflammatory and tumorous lesions and congenital conditions. Routine and contrast methods (pneumoperitoneum, bronchography, pleurography and fistulography) were used. Disease-related methods of X-ray investigation were proposed. A variety of causes of diaphragm elevation was indicated

  18. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  19. PCPV instrumentation and measurement techniques at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemann, H.

    1978-11-01

    Strain measurement within the structural concrete of the prototype Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessel have been performed during a one year operation at elevated temperatures up to 120 0 C. Laboratory investigations on the properties of the gauges and the concrete mix are applied to separate the different contributions to the strain data. A decrease of creep and loss of prestress and the arise of stable conditions is observed. (author)

  20. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

  1. Bio-geomorphic feedback causes alternative stable landscape states: insights from coastal marshes and tidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, Stijn; Wang, Chen

    2014-05-01

    Many bio-geomorphic systems, such as hill slopes, river floodplains, tidal floodplains and dune areas, seem to be vulnerable to shifts between alternative bare and vegetated landscape states, and these shifts seem to be driven by bio-geomorphic feedbacks. Here we search for empirical evidence for alternative stable state behavior in intertidal flats and marshes, where bio-geomorphic interactions are known to be intense. Large-scale transitions have been reported worldwide between high-elevation vegetated marshes and low-elevation bare flats in intertidal zones of deltas, estuaries, and coastal embayments. It is of significant importance to understand and predict such transitions, because vegetated marshes provide significant services to coastal societies. Previous modeling studies suggest that the ecological theory of catastrophic shifts between alternative stable ecosystem states potentially explains the transition between bare flats and vegetated marshes. However, up to now only few empirical evidence exists. In our study, the hypothesis is empirically tested that vegetated marshes and bare tidal flats can be considered as alternative stable landscape states with rapid shifts between them. We studied historical records (1930s - 2000s) of intertidal elevation surveys and aerial pictures from the Westerschelde estuary (SW Netherlands). Our results demonstrated the existence of: (1) bimodality in the intertidal elevation distribution, i.e., the presence of two peaks in the elevation frequency distribution corresponding to a completely bare state and a densely vegetated state; (2) the relatively rapid transition in elevation when intertidal flats evolve from bare to vegetated states, with sedimentation rates that are 2 to 8 times faster than during the stable states; (3) a threshold elevation above which the shift from bare to vegetated state has a high chance to occur. Our observations demonstrate the abrupt non-linear shift between low-elevation bare flats and high

  2. Elevator ride comfort monitoring and evaluation using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Sun, Xiaowei; Zhao, Xuefeng; Su, Wensheng

    2018-05-01

    With rapid urbanization, the demand for elevators is increasing, and their level of safety and ride comfort under vibrating conditions has also aroused interest. It is therefore essential to monitor the ride comfort level of elevators. The traditional method for such monitoring depends significantly on regular professional inspections, and requires expensive equipment and professional skill. With this regard, a new method for elevator ride comfort monitoring using a smartphone is demonstrated herein in detail. A variety of high-precision sensors are installed in a smartphone with strong data processing and telecommunication capabilities. A series of validation tests were designed and completed, and the international organization for standardization ISO2631-1997 was applied to evaluate the level of elevator ride comfort. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is stable and reliable, its precision meets the engineering requirements, and the elevator ride comfort level can be accurately monitored under various situations. The method is very economical and convenient, and provides the possibility for the public to participate in elevator ride comfort monitoring. In addition, the method can both provide a wide range of data support and eliminate data errors to a certain extent.

  3. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  4. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  5. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  6. Coastal Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital elevation models (DEMs) of U.S. and other coasts that typically integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography. The DEMs support NOAA's mission to understand...

  7. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis N. Mavridis; Maria Meliou; Efstratios-Stylianos Pyrgelis

    2015-01-01

    Troponin (tr) elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neur...

  8. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic-Posilovic, Gordana; Balenovic, Diana; Barisic, Ivan; Strinic, Dean; Stambolija, Vasilije; Udovicic, Mario; Uzun, Sandra; Drmic, Domagoj; Vlainic, Josipa; Bencic, Martina Lovric; Sindic, Aleksandra; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-12-15

    Bupivacaine toxicity following accidental overdose still lacks therapeutic solution. However, there are major arguments for testing BPC 157 against bupivacaine toxicity in vivo in rats, in particular, and then finally, in vitro. These are: the lack of any known BPC 157 toxicity, a lifesaving effect via the mitigation of arrhythmias in rats underwent hyperkalemia or digitalis toxicity, the elimination of hyperkalemia and arrhythmias in rats underwent succinylcholine toxicity and finally, the reduction of potassium-induced depolarization in vitro (in HEK293 cells) in severe hyperkalemia. Most importantly, BPC 157 successfully prevents and counteracts bupivacaine cardiotoxicity; BPC 157 is effective even against the worst outcomes such as a severely prolonged QRS complex. Here, rats injected with bupivacaine (100mg/kg IP) exhibited bradycardia, AV-block, ventricular ectopies, ventricular tachycardia, T-wave elevation and asystole. All of the fatalities had developed T-wave elevation, high-degree AV-block, respiratory arrest and asystole. These were largely counteracted by BPC 157 administration (50µg/kg, 10µg/kg, 10ng/kg, or 10pg/kg IP) given 30min before or 1min after the bupivacaine injection. When BPC 157 was given 6min after bupivacaine administration, and after the development of prolonged QRS intervals (20ms), the fatal outcome was markedly postponed. Additionally, the effect of bupivacaine on cell membrane depolarization was explored by measuring membrane voltages (Vm) in HEK293 cells. Bupivacaine (1mM) alone caused depolarization of the cells, while in combination with BPC 157 (1µm), the bupivacaine-induced depolarization was inhibited. Together, these findings suggest that the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 should be a potential antidote for bupivacaine cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  10. Monitoring of stable glaucoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Holtzer-Goor (Kim); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T. Plochg; E. van Sprundel (Esther)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA high workload for ophthalmologists and long waiting lists for patients challenge the organization of ophthalmic care. Tasks that require less specialized skills, like the monitoring of stable (well controlled) glaucoma patients could be substituted from ophthalmologists to other

  11. Effects of Reservoirs Releases on Tailwater Ecology: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Food,- by the shredding and scraping inv,,rtebrates that are involved 31 - ! in the mechanical aspects of leaf decomposition . The fungi and bacte- ria...and leaf - ltter iccompijosition in natural and channelized portions of a rassstream. Pun. Miai. Nat. 99(1) :238-A53. Goeii-ike, I’. ’v. 1if 8 . 1’ad... Decomposition rates of organic matter increase with increasing temperature, resulting in an additional deple- tion of oxygen content. The rate of

  12. Habitat Factors in Tailwaters with Emphasis on Peaking Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    that appear to ingest phytoplankton and zooplankton discharged from the project ( Kondratieff and Voshell 1981). Species that feed on allochthonous...to Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science for publication. Kondratieff , B. C., and Voshell, J. R., Jr. 1981. "Influence of a Reservoir with

  13. Plasma levels of myeloperoxidase are not elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubala, Lukáš; Lu, G.; Baldus, S.; Berglund, L.; Eiserich, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 394, - (2008), s. 59-62 ISSN 0009-8981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : cardiovascular disease s * myeloperoxidase * polymorphonuclear neutrophils Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.960, year: 2008

  14. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry of the Mount Everest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebelin, A.; Mulch, A.; Teyssier, C.; Jessup, M. J.; Law, R. D.; Brunel, M.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term climatic evolution and atmospheric circulation patterns are influenced to a first order by the topography of the largest mountain ranges. Reconstructing the Neogene elevation history of the Mount Everest region is of particular interest for understanding the tectonic history of the Himalaya-Tibet orogen as well as global scale atmospheric circulation and biotic changes through time. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry uses the isotopic lapse rate of precipitations preserved in the near-surface record. In the absence of surface deposits such as paleosols, volcanic ashes, or lacustrine limestone that record the stable isotopic composition of early to mid-Miocene water preserved in the highly erosive Himalayan range, we conduct stable-isotope paleoaltimetry based on the hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of hydrous minerals that crystallized in the South Tibetan detachment (STD) shear zone at ~17 Ma. For paleoaltimetry reconstruction we compare stable isotope records from the STD mylonitic footwall to age-equivalent oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) measured within pedogenic carbonate from Siwalik foreland paleosols that developed near Miocene sea level. The relative differences between meteoric water compositions in the foreland basin and the δ18Owater calculated from the hydrogen isotope composition of syntectonic minerals suggest that by ~17 Ma the central Himalaya was at an elevation similar to what it is today, and that a rain shadow likely existed at that time. Our results demonstrate the power of shear-zone based paleoaltimetry in eroded mountain belts, call for caution in interpreting basin-based stable isotope paleoaltimetry in the rain shadow of the mid-Miocene Himalayan range and suggest that strengthening of the South Asian monsoon may have occurred in early to mid-Miocene, earlier than previously thought.

  15. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  16. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  17. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  18. Historie i spillefilm - for elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Lone Guldbrandt

    2016-01-01

    MOOC om historiebrug i spillefilm, hvor elever kan lære om, hvordan spillefilm bruger fortiden, og om hvordan vores opfattelse af historien både sætter sig spor i filmene og bliver påvirket af dem.......MOOC om historiebrug i spillefilm, hvor elever kan lære om, hvordan spillefilm bruger fortiden, og om hvordan vores opfattelse af historien både sætter sig spor i filmene og bliver påvirket af dem....

  19. Tether Elevator Crawler Systems (TECS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Frank R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the needs of the experimenters on the space station is access to steady and controlled-variation microgravity environments. A method of providing these environments is to place the experiment on a tether attached to the space station. This provides a high degree of isolation from structural oscillations and vibrations. Crawlers can move these experiments along the tethers to preferred locations, much like an elevator. This report describes the motion control laws developed for these crawlers and the testing of laboratory models of these tether elevator crawlers.

  20. Methylphenidatinduceret ST-elevations-myokardieinfarkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth; Ruwald, Anne-Christine Huth; Tønder, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Adult attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) is increasingly diagnosed and treated with methylphenidate. We present the case of an 20 year-old man, who was diagnosed with ADHD and suffered a ST elevation acute myocardial infarction due to coronary vasospasm related to an overdose...

  1. Dannelsen af den ansvarlige elev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Denne artikel handler om den del af lærergerningen, der har at gøre med udarbejdelse af elevplaner. Der tages udgangspunkt i en foucaultsk forståelse, hvor beskrivelsen af den enkelte elev udtrykker et særligt normativt ideal om, hvilke former for elevhed der er de ønskværdige i den danske...

  2. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  3. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  4. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  5. 46 CFR 120.540 - Elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevators. 120.540 Section 120.540 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 120.540 Elevators. Each elevator on a vessel must meet the requirements of American National Standards Institute (ANSI) A17.1. “Safety Code for Elevators, and Escalators,” or other standard specified...

  6. Stable nuclear transformation of Eudorina elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerche Kai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental step in evolution was the transition from unicellular to differentiated, multicellular organisms. Volvocine algae have been used for several decades as a model lineage to investigate the evolutionary aspects of multicellularity and cellular differentiation. There are two well-studied volvocine species, a unicellular alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and a multicellular alga with differentiated cell types (Volvox carteri. Species with intermediate characteristics also exist, which blur the boundaries between unicellularity and differentiated multicellularity. These species include the globular alga Eudorina elegans, which is composed of 16–32 cells. However, detailed molecular analyses of E. elegans require genetic manipulation. Unfortunately, genetic engineering has not yet been established for Eudorina, and only limited DNA and/or protein sequence information is available. Results Here, we describe the stable nuclear transformation of E. elegans by particle bombardment using both a chimeric selectable marker and reporter genes from different heterologous sources. Transgenic algae resistant to paromomycin were achieved using the aminoglycoside 3′-phosphotransferase VIII (aphVIII gene of Streptomyces rimosus, an actinobacterium, under the control of an artificial promoter consisting of two V. carteri promoters in tandem. Transformants exhibited an increase in resistance to paromomycin by up to 333-fold. Co-transformation with non-selectable plasmids was achieved with a rate of 50 - 100%. The luciferase (gluc gene from the marine copepod Gaussia princeps, which previously was engineered to match the codon usage of C. reinhardtii, was used as a reporter gene. The expression of gluc was mediated by promoters from C. reinhardtii and V. carteri. Heterologous heat shock promoters induced an increase in luciferase activity (up to 600-fold at elevated temperatures. Long-term stability and both constitutive and

  7. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  8. Elevator deflections on the icing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of elevator deflection of the horizontal stabilizer for certain icing parameters is investigated. Elevator deflection can severely change the lower and upper leading-edge impingement limits, and ice can accrete on the elevator itself. Also, elevator deflection had practically no effect on the maximum local collection efficiency. It is shown that for severe icing conditions (large water droplets), elevator deflections that increase the projected height of the airfoil can significantly increase the total collection efficiency of the airfoil.

  9. Når elever producerer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Jesper; Hansen, Rune; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel præsenterer centrale resultater fra studiet Elevopgaver og elevproduktion i det 21. århundrede der blandt andet rummer den første større kvantitative undersøgelse af opgavedidaktik og elevers produktive arbejde i den danske grundskole. Studiet omfatter også en kvalitativ del, og i...... undersøgelsen præsenteres og diskuteres gennem en række konkrete eksempler fra de berørte fag. I forhold til elevers produktive arbejde peger undersøgelsens resultater både på potentialer og særlige barrierer i forbindelse med at udvikle en kompetenceorienteret undervisning. I kapitlet argumenteres desuden...

  10. Læring mellem elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgsen, Marianne; Davidsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    I denne rapport præsenteres resultater fra følgeforskningen til projektet Læring gennem Bevægelse, som er gennemført på Søndervangskolen i Hammel i perioden august 2009 - maj 2010. Projektet er gennemført i samspil mellem lærere, it-vejleder, elever og skolens ledelse. Projektets overordnede formål...

  11. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  12. Stable isotope ratios and reforestation potential in Acacia koa populations on Hawai’i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaneka Lawson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes can be influenced by a multitude of factors including elevation, precipitation rate, season, and temperature. This work examined the variability in foliar stable carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N isotope ratios of koa (Acacia koa for 17 sites on Hawai’i Island delineated by elevation and precipitation gradients. Sites were identified and grouped with respect to mean annual precipitation (MAP, mean annual temperature (MAT and position along three elevation ranges. Analysis of the resultant δ13C and δ15N isotope ratios from multiple individuals at these sites indicated that certain sites showed a demonstrated correlation between carbon and/or nitrogen content, isotope ratios, precipitation, and elevation however many sites showed no correlation. We used publicly available temperature and moisture data to help eliminate confounding effects by climatic drivers and capture possible points of contention. At sites where the temperature, precipitation, and elevation data were not significantly different we compared stable isotope information to determine if additional variables could have contributed to the lack of more correlative data. Our results note several areas within the Waiakea Forest Reserve and Volcanoes National Park where, based on isotope results, reforestation efforts could be most successfully initiated.

  13. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  14. Tracers Reveal Recharge Elevations, Groundwater Flow Paths and Travel Times on Mount Shasta, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Peters

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mount Shasta (4322 m is famous for its spring water. Water for municipal, domestic and industrial use is obtained from local springs and wells, fed by annual snow melt and sustained perennially by the groundwater flow system. We examined geochemical and isotopic tracers in samples from wells and springs on Mount Shasta, at the headwaters of the Sacramento River, in order to better understand the hydrologic system. The topographic relief in the study area imparts robust signatures of recharge elevation to both stable isotopes of the water molecule (δ18O and δD and to dissolved noble gases, offering tools to identify recharge areas and delineate groundwater flow paths. Recharge elevations determined using stable isotopes and noble gas recharge temperatures are in close agreement and indicate that most snowmelt infiltrates at elevations between 2000 m and 2900 m, which coincides with areas of thin soils and barren land cover. Large springs in Mt Shasta City discharge at an elevation more than 1600 m lower. High elevation springs (>2000 m yield very young water (<2 years while lower elevation wells (1000–1500 m produce water with a residence time ranging from 6 years to over 60 years, based on observed tritium activities. Upslope movement of the tree line in the identified recharge elevation range due to a warming climate is likely to decrease infiltration and recharge, which will decrease spring discharge and production at wells, albeit with a time lag dependent upon the length of groundwater flow paths.

  15. Uses of stable isotopes in fish ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of fish tissues (other than otoliths) for stable isotope ratios can provide substantial information on fish ecology, including physiological ecology. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon frequently are used to determine the mix of diet sources for consumers. Stable i...

  16. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  17. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  18. Theory of stable allocations II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Shapley provided the fundamental theoretical contribution to this field of research, whereas Roth, a professor at the Harvard University in Boston, developed and upgraded these theoretical investigations by applying them to the American market of medical doctors. Namely, their research helps explain the market processes at work, for instance, when doctors are assigned to hospitals, students to schools and human organs for transplant to recipients.

  19. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  20. Vegetation engineers marsh morphology through multiple competing stable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marani, Marco; Da Lio, Cristina; D’Alpaos, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Marshes display impressive biogeomorphic features, such as zonation, a mosaic of extensive vegetation patches of rather uniform composition, exhibiting sharp transitions in the presence of extremely small topographic gradients. Although generally associated with the accretion processes necessary for marshes to keep up with relative sea level rise, competing environmental constraints, and ecologic controls, zonation is still poorly understood in terms of the underlying biogeomorphic mechanisms. Here we find, through observations and modeling interpretation, that zonation is the result of coupled geomorphological–biological dynamics and that it stems from the ability of vegetation to actively engineer the landscape by tuning soil elevation within preferential ranges of optimal adaptation. We find multiple peaks in the frequency distribution of observed topographic elevation and identify them as the signature of biologic controls on geomorphodynamics through competing stable states modulated by the interplay of inorganic and organic deposition. Interestingly, the stable biogeomorphic equilibria correspond to suboptimal rates of biomass production, a result coherent with recent observations. The emerging biogeomorphic structures may display varying degrees of robustness to changes in the rate of sea level rise and sediment availability, with implications for the overall resilience of marsh ecosystems to climatic changes. PMID:23401529

  1. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry and the evolution of landscapes and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulch, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing topography of our planet not only advances our knowledge of the geodynamic processes that shape the Earth's surface; equally important it adds a key element towards understanding long-term continental moisture transport, atmospheric circulation and the distribution of biomes and biodiversity. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry exploits systematic decreases in the oxygen (δ18O) or hydrogen (δD) isotopic composition of precipitation along a mountain front when the interaction of topography and advected moist air masses induces orographic precipitation. These changes in δ18O or δD can be recovered from the geologic record and recent geochemical and modeling advances allow a broad range of proxy materials to be evaluated. Over the last 10 yr stable isotope paleoaltimetry has witnessed rapidly expanding research activities and has produced a broad array of fascinating tectonic and geomorphologic studies many of which have concentrated on determining the elevation history of continental plateau regions. These single-site studies have greatly expanded what used to be very sparse global paleoaltimetric data. The challenge now lies in disentangling the surface uplift component from the impact of climate change on δ18O and δD in precipitation. The robustness of stable isotope paleoaltimetry can be enhanced when high-elevation δ18O or δD data are referenced against low-elevation sites that track climate-modulated sea level δ18O or δD of precipitation through time (' δ- δ approach'). Analysis of central Andean paleosols documents that differences in δ18O of soil carbonate between the Subandean foreland and the Bolivian Altiplano are small between 11 and 7 Ma but rise rapidly to ca. 2.9‰ after 7 Ma, corroborating the magnitude of late Miocene change in δ18O on the Altiplano. Future advances in stable isotope paleoaltimetry will greatly benefit from addressing four key challenges: (1) Identifying topographically-induced changes in atmospheric

  2. Operation experience with elevated ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankova, Katerina; Kysela, Jan; Malac, Miroslav; Petrecky, Igor; Svarc, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The 10 VVER units in the Czech and Slovak Republics are all in very good water chemistry and radiation condition, yet questions have arisen regarding the optimization of cycle chemistry and improved operation in these units. To address these issues, a comprehensive experimental program for different water chemistries of the primary circuit was carried out at the Rez Nuclear Research Institute, Czech Republic, with the goal of judging the influence of various water chemistries on radiation build-up. Four types of water chemistries were compared: standard VVER water chemistry (in common use), direct hydrogen dosing without ammonia, standard VVER water chemistry with elevated ammonia levels, and zinc dosing to standard VVER water chemistry. The test results showed that the types of water chemistry other than the common one have benefits for the operation of the nuclear power plant (NPP) primary circuit. Operation experience with elevated ammonia at NPP Dukovany Units 3 and 4 is presented which validates the experimental results, demonstrating improved corrosion product volume activity. (orig.)

  3. Stable Treemaps via Local Moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, Max; Speckmann, Bettina; Verbeek, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Treemaps are a popular tool to visualize hierarchical data: items are represented by nested rectangles and the area of each rectangle corresponds to the data being visualized for this item. The visual quality of a treemap is commonly measured via the aspect ratio of the rectangles. If the data changes, then a second important quality criterion is the stability of the treemap: how much does the treemap change as the data changes. We present a novel stable treemapping algorithm that has very high visual quality. Whereas existing treemapping algorithms generally recompute the treemap every time the input changes, our algorithm changes the layout of the treemap using only local modifications. This approach not only gives us direct control over stability, but it also allows us to use a larger set of possible layouts, thus provably resulting in treemaps of higher visual quality compared to existing algorithms. We further prove that we can reach all possible treemap layouts using only our local modifications. Furthermore, we introduce a new measure for stability that better captures the relative positions of rectangles. We finally show via experiments on real-world data that our algorithm outperforms existing treemapping algorithms also in practice on either visual quality and/or stability. Our algorithm scores high on stability regardless of whether we use an existing stability measure or our new measure.

  4. Global variation in elevational diversity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinfeng; Kelt, Douglas A; Sun, Zhongyu; Liu, Hongxiao; Hu, Liangjun; Ren, Hai; Wen, Jun

    2013-10-25

    While horizontal gradients of biodiversity have been examined extensively in the past, vertical diversity gradients (elevation, water depth) are attracting increasing attention. We compiled data from 443 elevational gradients involving diverse organisms worldwide to investigate how elevational diversity patterns may vary between the Northern and Southern hemispheres and across latitudes. Our results show that most elevational diversity curves are positively skewed (maximum diversity below the middle of the gradient) and the elevation of the peak in diversity increases with the elevation of lower sampling limits and to a lesser extent with upper limit. Mountains with greater elevational extents, and taxonomic groups that are more inclusive, show proportionally more unimodal patterns whereas other ranges and taxa show highly variable gradients. The two hemispheres share some interesting similarities but also remarkable differences, likely reflecting differences in landmass and mountain configurations. Different taxonomic groups exhibit diversity peaks at different elevations, probably reflecting both physical and physiological constraints.

  5. Digtial Elevation Model (DEM) 250K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  6. Digitial Elevation Model (DEM) 100K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USG to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  7. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  8. Seasonal elevational movements of Eastern Olive Sunbird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the seasonal elevational movements for most tropical avifauna species. Seasonal elevational movements of the Eastern Olive Sunbird Cyanomitra olivacea were studied along an elevational gradient from 600 to 1 500 m above sea level in the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania, between May 2005 and ...

  9. Elevated Tank Due to Earthquake Even

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotrasová Kamila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated reservoirs are mainly used for storing of variety water. During earthquake activity the fluid exerts impulsive and convective (sloshing effects on the walls and bottom of tank. This paper provides theoretical background for analytical calculating of elevated water tank due to earthquake even and deals with simplified seismic design procedures for elevated tanks.

  10. Global variation in elevational diversity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Douglas A. Kelt; Zhongyu Sun; Hongxiao Liu; Liangjun Hu; Hai Ren; Jun We

    2013-01-01

    While horizontal gradients of biodiversity have been examined extensively in the past, vertical diversity gradients (elevation, water depth) are attracting increasing attention. We compiled data from 443 elevational gradients involving diverse organisms worldwide to investigate how elevational diversity patterns may vary between the Northern and Southern hemispheres...

  11. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair elevator is a motorized lift device intended for medical...

  12. 46 CFR 183.540 - Elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevators. 183.540 Section 183.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 183.540 Elevators. Each elevator on a vessel must meet...

  13. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  14. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  15. Heart rate at discharge and long-term prognosis following percutaneous coronary intervention in stable and acute coronary syndromes — results from the BASKET PROVE trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Kaiser, Christoph; Sandsten, Karl Erik

    2013-01-01

    Elevated heart rate (HR) is associated with mortality in a number of heart diseases. We examined the long-term prognostic significance of HR at discharge in a contemporary population of patients with stable angina (SAP), non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), and ST...

  16. Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.

    2013-01-01

    elevational gradients for understanding community and ecosystem responses to global climate change at much larger spatial and temporal scales than is possible through conventional ecological experiments. However, future studies that integrate elevational gradient approaches with experimental manipulations...... will provide powerful information that can improve predictions of climate change impacts within and across ecosystems.......Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients...

  17. YKL-40 a new biomarker in patients with acute coronary syndrome or stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y.Z.; Ripa, R.S.; Johansen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. YKL-40 is involved in remodelling and angiogenesis in non-cardiac inflammatory diseases. Aim was to quantitate plasma YKL-40 in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or stable chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), and YKL-40 gene activation in human myocardium....... Methods and results. We included 73 patients: I) 20 patients with STEMI; II) 28 patients with stable CAD; III) 15 CAD patients referred for coronary by-pass surgery. YKL-40 mRNA expression was measured in myocardium subtended by stenotic or occluded arteries and areas with no apparent disease; and IV) 10...

  18. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  19. physico-chemical and stable isotopes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper details the mineralogical, chemical and stable isotope abundances of calcrete in the Letlhakeng fossil valley. The stable isotope abundances (O and C) of calcretes yielded some values which were tested against the nature of the calcretes – pedogenic or groundwater type. The Kgalagadi (Kalahari) is a vast ...

  20. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015

    Summary

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  1. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar

  2. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope

  3. Stable Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of the halophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the halophytic Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Yan-Lin Sun, Soon-Kwan Hong. Abstract. In this study, an efficient procedure for stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Leymus chinensis (Trin.) was established. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105, harboring a ...

  4. The space station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  5. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-02-01

    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  6. Stable Fly, (L., Dispersal and Governing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L., has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (13 km is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one “lineage”, the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  7. Scientific Return of a Lunar Elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Eubanks, T. M.; Radley, C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing th...

  8. Vertebrate Fossils Imply Paleo-elevations of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, T.; Wang, X.; Li, Q.; Wu, F.; Wang, S.; Hou, S.

    2017-12-01

    The uplift of the Tibetan Plateau remains unclear, and its paleo-elevation reconstructions are crucial to interpret the geodynamic evolution and to understand the climatic changes in Asia. Uplift histories of the Tibetan Plateau based on different proxies differ considerably, and two viewpoints are pointedly opposing on the paleo-elevation estimations of the Tibetan Plateau. One viewpoint is that the Tibetan Plateau did not strongly uplift to reach its modern elevation until the Late Miocene, but another one, mainly based on stable isotopes, argues that the Tibetan Plateau formed early during the Indo-Asian collision and reached its modern elevation in the Paleogene or by the Middle Miocene. In 1839, Hugh Falconer firstly reported some rhinocerotid fossils collected from the Zanda Basin in Tibet, China and indicated that the Himalayas have uplifted by more than 2,000 m since several million years ago. In recent years, the vertebrate fossils discovered from the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas implied a high plateau since the late Early Miocene. During the Oligocene, giant rhinos lived in northwestern China to the north of the Tibetan Plateau, while they were also distributed in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent to the south of this plateau, which indicates that the elevation of the Tibetan Plateau was not too high to prevent exchanges of large mammals; giant rhinos, the rhinocerotid Aprotodon, and chalicotheres still dispersed north and south of "Tibetan Plateau". A tropical-subtropical lowland fish fauna was also present in the central part of this plateau during the Late Oligocene, in which Eoanabas thibetana was inferred to be closely related to extant climbing perches from South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. In contrast, during the Middle Miocene, the shovel-tusked elephant Platybelodon was found from many localities north of the Tibetan Plateau, while its trace was absent in the Siwaliks of the subcontinent, which implies that the Tibetan Plateau had

  9. Cholecystokinin elevates mouse plasma lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Zhou

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK is a peptide hormone that induces bile release into the intestinal lumen which in turn aids in fat digestion and absorption in the intestine. While excretion of bile acids and cholesterol into the feces eliminates cholesterol from the body, this report examined the effect of CCK on increasing plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Our data demonstrated that intravenous injection of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK at a dose of 50 ng/kg significantly increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 22 and 31%, respectively, in fasting low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/- mice. The same dose of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK induced 6 and 13% increases in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol, respectively, in wild-type mice. However, these particular before and after CCK treatment values did not achieve statistical significance. Oral feeding of olive oil further elevated plasma triglycerides, but did not alter plasma cholesterol levels in CCK-treated mice. The increased plasma cholesterol in CCK-treated mice was distributed in very-low, low and high density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL with less of an increase in HDL. Correspondingly, the plasma apolipoprotein (apo B48, B100, apoE and apoAI levels were significantly higher in the CCK-treated mice than in untreated control mice. Ligation of the bile duct, blocking CCK receptors with proglumide or inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 transporter with ezetimibe reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK in LDLR(-/- mice. These findings suggest that CCK-increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of the reabsorption of biliary lipids from the intestine.

  10. Soil nematodes show a mid-elevation diversity maximum and elevational zonation on Mt. Norikura, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Moroenyane, Itumeleng; Tripathi, Binu; Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Takahashi, Koichi; Yamamoto, Naomichi; An, Choa; Cho, Hyunjun; Adams, Jonathan

    2017-06-08

    Little is known about how nematode ecology differs across elevational gradients. We investigated the soil nematode community along a ~2,200 m elevational range on Mt. Norikura, Japan, by sequencing the 18S rRNA gene. As with many other groups of organisms, nematode diversity showed a high correlation with elevation, and a maximum in mid-elevations. While elevation itself, in the context of the mid domain effect, could predict the observed unimodal pattern of soil nematode communities along the elevational gradient, mean annual temperature and soil total nitrogen concentration were the best predictors of diversity. We also found nematode community composition showed strong elevational zonation, indicating that a high degree of ecological specialization that may exist in nematodes in relation to elevation-related environmental gradients and certain nematode OTUs had ranges extending across all elevations, and these generalized OTUs made up a greater proportion of the community at high elevations - such that high elevation nematode OTUs had broader elevational ranges on average, providing an example consistent to Rapoport's elevational hypothesis. This study reveals the potential for using sequencing methods to investigate elevational gradients of small soil organisms, providing a method for rapid investigation of patterns without specialized knowledge in taxonomic identification.

  11. An Automatic System for Elevator Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Haidar Sharif; Ibrahim Furkan Ince

    2015-01-01

    An elevator is a conveyor device or transport equipment that moves people or goods between floors or levels or decks of a building, vessel, or other structures. It has become a part and parcel of modern life in developed countries. The number of floors in high buildings, skyscrapers, and towers generate the usage of elevators. If it is simply assumed that each floor has at least two elevators in a thirty-floor building, people call the elevators in each floor even they are already occupied in...

  12. The influence of elevated feed stalls on feeding behaviour of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Benz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance level of high yielding cows can only be guaranteed by high quality forage and high feed intake. An about 15–20 cm elevated and 160 cm long feed stall with rubber flooring doesn’t only offer undisturbed meals but also a yielding and dry standing surface. In a pilot stable with 130 dairy cows (German Simmental the feeding alley was subsequently equipped with elevated feed stalls. The results show that animals frequented the feeding barn less often while the duration of single meals prolonged. The specific behavioural changes differed depending on milk yield and number of lactation.

  13. Stable Organic Neutral Diradical via Reversible Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenpin; Quanz, Henrik; Burghaus, Olaf; Hofmann, Jonas; Logemann, Christian; Beeck, Sebastian; Schreiner, Peter R; Wegner, Hermann A

    2017-12-27

    We report the formation of a stable neutral diboron diradical simply by coordination of an aromatic dinitrogen compound to an ortho-phenyldiborane. This process is reversible upon addition of pyridine. The diradical species is stable above 200 °C. Computations are consistent with an open-shell triplet diradical with a very small open-shell singlet-triplet energy gap that is indicative of the electronic disjointness of the two radical sites. This opens a new way of generating stable radicals with fascinating electronic properties useful for a large variety of applications.

  14. In-Situ Measurements of Surface Elevations in Tail Water Channel for SSG Pilot Plant at Kvitsøy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Margheritini, Lucia

    This report presents the measurements from the installation of a pressure transducer in the tail water channel at the second proposed position of the SSG pilot plant at the island of Kvitsøy near Stavanger, Norway. The measured data are compared to tide data from other source, and among...... the conclusions is that the obtained results from the performed measurements described in this report are very uncertain. However, from the experiences obtained throughout the study it is found that the channel considered tail water outflow is not suitable, due to the risk of too large tailwater fluctuations....

  15. National requirements for improved elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory I.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Jason, Allyson L.; Maune, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of surveys, structured interviews, and workshops conducted to identify key national requirements for improved elevation data for the United States and its territories, including coastlines. Organizations also identified and reported the expected economic benefits that would be realized if their requirements for improved elevation were met (appendixes 1–3). This report describes the data collection methodology and summarizes the findings. Participating organizations included 34 Federal agencies, 50 States and two territories, and a sampling of local governments, tribes, and nongovernmental orgnizations. The nongovernmental organizations included The Nature Conservancy and a sampling of private sector businesses. These data were collected in 2010-2011 as part of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), a study to identify program alternatives for better meeting the Nation’s elevation data needs. NEEA tasks included the collection of national elevation requirements; analysis of the benefits and costs of meeting these requirements; assessment of emerging elevation technologies, lifecycle data management needs, and costs for managing and distributing a national-scale dataset and derived products; and candidate national elevation program alternatives that balance costs and benefits in meeting the Nation’s elevation requirements. The NEEA was sponsored by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), a government coordination body with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as managing partner that includes the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), among the more than a dozen agencies and organizations. The term enhanced elevation data as used in this report refers broadly to three-dimensional measurements of land or

  16. 28 CFR 36.404 - Alterations: Elevator exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alterations: Elevator exemption. 36.404... Alterations: Elevator exemption. (a) This section does not require the installation of an elevator in an... facility has an elevator. ...

  17. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  18. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  19. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  20. Allan Hills Stable Water Isotopes, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes stable water isotope values at 10 m resolution along an approximately 5 km transect through the main icefield of the Allan Hills Blue Ice...

  1. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the pharmacokinetic profile or mode of action of a drug substance. Secondly, stable isotopes may be used for the assessment of drug products or drug delivery systems by determination of parameters such as the bioavailability or the release profile. Thirdly, patients may be assessed in relation to patient-specific drug treatment; this concept is often called personalized medicine. In this article, the application of stable isotope technology in the aforementioned three areas is reviewed, with emphasis on developments over the past 25 years. The applications are illustrated with examples from clinical studies in humans. PMID:21801197

  2. Tannaka duality and stable infinity-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanari, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of fine tannakian infinity-categories and prove Tannaka duality results for symmetric monoidal stable infinity-categories over a field of characteristic zero. We also discuss several examples.

  3. On Stable Marriages and Greedy Matchings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manne, Fredrik; Naim, Md; Lerring, Hakon; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2016-12-11

    Research on stable marriage problems has a long and mathematically rigorous history, while that of exploiting greedy matchings in combinatorial scientific computing is a younger and less developed research field. In this paper we consider the relationships between these two areas. In particular we show that several problems related to computing greedy matchings can be formulated as stable marriage problems and as a consequence several recently proposed algorithms for computing greedy matchings are in fact special cases of well known algorithms for the stable marriage problem. However, in terms of implementations and practical scalable solutions on modern hardware, the greedy matching community has made considerable progress. We show that due to the strong relationship between these two fields many of these results are also applicable for solving stable marriage problems.

  4. Preventing hairline elevation in endoscopic browlifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamas, R S; Rohrich, R J

    1997-04-01

    An endoscopic-assisted method of brow elevation using galea aponeurosis plication with direct suture fixation is presented. This technique does not elevate the hairline, nor is any skin or scalp resected. Dissection is easy because it is limited to the subgaleal plane of the forehead.

  5. 78 FR 22221 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... referenced ground [caret] Communities affected elevation ** Elevation in meters (MSL) Effective Modified Pitt... feet above ground. [caret] Mean Sea Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1 meter. \\**\\ BFEs to be changed... inspection at the Department of Public Works, 1500 Beatty Street, Greenville, NC 27834. Unincorporated Areas...

  6. 75 FR 77762 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... Flooding source(s) elevation in feet above Communities affected ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL..., rounded to the nearest 0.1 meter. ADDRESSES City of Aurora Maps are available for inspection at 15151 East... Arapahoe County Department of Public Works and Development, 10730 West Briarwood Avenue, Centennial, CO...

  7. 75 FR 69892 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ...: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth... county +899 City of Norwich, Town boundary. of Greene, Town of North Norwich, Town of Oxford, Town of...). Susquehanna River At the downstream county +965 Town of Afton, Town of boundary. Bainbridge, Village of Afton...

  8. 77 FR 6980 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in feet above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Unincorporated Areas of Nowata County... Bayou An area bounded by the +100 Town of Mayersville, county boundary to the Unincorporated Areas of...

  9. 76 FR 1535 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in feet above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Unincorporated Areas of Poinsett County... with the St. Francis River...... +212 Areas of Poinsett County. Approximately 0.45 mile downstream of...

  10. 77 FR 66737 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding... +43 Town of Kingstree, Unincorporated Areas of Williamsburg County. Approximately 0.3 mile +48... Town of Hemingway, confluence. Unincorporated Areas of Williamsburg County. Approximately 0.3 mile +50...

  11. 75 FR 29253 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ...: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above State City/town/county Source of... +21 Town of Ebro, upstream of the Unincorporated Areas confluence with the of Washington County. East... County, Colorado, and Incorporated Areas Willow Creek At the confluence with None +8,154 Unincorporated...

  12. 75 FR 68710 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ...: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth... County, California Docket Nos.: FEMA-B-7762, FEMA-B-7795, and FEMA-B-1053 California Unincorporated Oregon Slough..... City of Montague +2503 Areas of Siskiyou and County. Unincorporated Siskiyou County...

  13. 77 FR 45262 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of Location Depth in feet flooding above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Unincorporated Areas of Solano County... Areas of Solano upstream of the County. McCune Creek confluence. Approximately 930 feet +149 upstream of...

  14. 76 FR 50918 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet State City/town/county Source of flooding... affected [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Jones County, Texas, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1122 Lake Fort Phantom Hill Just downstream of County +1642 City of Abilene, Highway 1082...

  15. 78 FR 10066 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet State City/town/county Source...). Scriba Creek Approximately 0.90 mile +546 Town of Amboy. upstream of County Route 23 (Potter Road.... Town of Palermo Maps are available for inspection at the Palermo Town Municipal Offices, 53 County...

  16. 77 FR 49367 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in feet above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Unincorporated Areas of Chickasaw County... Chickasaw County. (backwater effects feet upstream of from Cedar River). the Cedar River confluence...

  17. 77 FR 49379 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in feet above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Unincorporated Areas of Washington County... of the +35 Areas of railroad. Washington County. Approximately 2.1 miles upstream of the railroad...

  18. 75 FR 43418 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding... +869 Town of Peoria, upstream of Main Street. Unincorporated Areas of Ottawa County. Approximately 1.... Town of Peoria Maps are available for inspection at the Ottawa County Courthouse, 102 East Central...

  19. Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

  20. High elevation white pines educational website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/highelevationwhitepines/) serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  1. The Reactivity of Stable Metallacyclobutenes and Vinylcarbenes

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Ryan Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1. Historical Development of Stable Metallacyclobutenes Fred Tebbe and co-workers synthesized the first stable metallacyclobutene complexes in the late 1970’s by treatment of an intermediate titanium methylene species – later popularized as the “Tebbe reagent” – with acetylenes. Robert Grubbs at Caltech further studied this system, using it to detail a degenerate metathesis reaction and to isolate a metallacyclobutane complex – which was implicated in the emerging field of alkene meta...

  2. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Cementitious porous pavement in stormwater quality control: pH and alkalinity elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xuheng; Sansalone, John

    2011-01-01

    A certain level of alkalinity acts as a buffer and maintains the pH value in a stable range in water bodies. With rapid urban development, more and more acidic pollutants flow to watersheds with runoff and drop alkalinity to a very low level and ultimately degrade the water environment. Cementitious porous pavement is an effective tool for stormwater acidic neutralization. When stormwater infiltrates cement porous pavement (CPP) materials, alkalinity and pH will be elevated due to the basic characteristics of cement concrete. The elevated alkalinity will neutralize acids in water bodies and maintain the pH in a stable level as a buffer. It is expected that CPP materials still have a certain capability of alkalinity elevation after years of service, which is important for CPP as an effective tool for stormwater management. However, few previous studies have reported on how CPP structures would elevate runoff alkalinity and pH after being exposed to rainfall-runoff for years. In this study, three groups of CPP specimens, all exposed to rainfall-runoff for 3 years, were used to test the pH and alkalinity elevation properties. It was found that runoff pH values were elevated from 7.4 to the range of 7.8-8.6 after infiltrating through the uncoated specimens, and from 7.4 to 8.5-10.7 after infiltrating through aluminum-coated specimens. Runoff alkalinity elevation efficiencies are 11.5-14.5% for uncoated specimens and 42.2% for coated specimens. The study shows that CPP is an effective passive unit operation for stormwater acid neutralization in our built environment.

  4. The benefits of improved national elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory I.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) has identified substantial benefits that could come about if improved elevation data were publicly available for current and emerging applications and business uses such as renewable energy, precision agriculture, and intelligent vehicle navigation and safety. In order to support these diverse needs, new national elevation data with higher resolution and accuracy are needed. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative was developed to meet the majority of these needs and it is expected that 3DEP will result in new, unimagined information services that would result in job growth and the transformation of the geospatial community. Private-sector data collection companies are continuously evolving sensors and positioning technologies that are needed to collect improved elevation data. An initiative of this scope might also provide an opportunity for companies to improve their capabilities and produce even higher data quality and consistency at a pace that might not have otherwise occurred.

  5. Comparison of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Patients With Progressive and Stable Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Mohammad Javad; Seyedi Noghabi, Seyed Ali; Taghavi, Morteza; Afzal Aghaee, Monavar; Zabolinejad, Naghmeh

    2016-01-01

    Activity of vitiligo has not been considered as a patient selection criteria in previous studies; we decided to compare the presence of elevated thyroid auto-antibodies in patients with progressive and stable vitiligo. Seventy-two patients with vitiligo were examined for thyroid problems and were divided into 2 groups of stable and progressive vitiligo according to their history and physical examination. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were assessed for all patients. Elevated levels of anti-TPO antibodies were observed in 43.7% of the patients with stable vitiligo and in 37.5% of patients with progressive vitiligo, which was not statistically significant (P = .315). This study not only confirmed thyroid dysfunction in patients with vitiligo but also showed that there was no difference in thyroid dysfunction and anti-TPO antibody levels in the subgroups of patients with stable or progressive vitiligo. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Local Search Approaches in Stable Matching Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the

  7. Management of Elevated Therapeutic Impedances on Deep Brain Stimulation Leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam Deeb

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Vignette: A 64-year-old male with a history of essential tremor with bilateral thalamic ventralis intermedius deep brain stimulation implants had elevated therapeutic impedance values despite normal lead integrity impedances and good response to stimulation.Clinical Dilemma: Do elevated therapeutic impedance values indicate a sign of hardware malfunction? What are the guidelines to approach deep brain stimulation hardware malfunction?Clinical Solution: Lead integrity impedance values are a better evaluation of hardware integrity. The discrepancy between therapeutic and lead-integrity impedance values can arise when using low voltage settings.Gaps in Knowledge: There are no established guidelines for the management of possible hardware malfunction in deep brain stimulation. The recommended approach is to distinguish between open and short circuit problems followed by an “inching” evaluation, assessing the structures from the implantable and programmable generator to the intracranial leads. Constant-current devices will deliver a more stable stimulation but the effect of their adoption is still not clear.Expert Commentary: This case emphasizes the need for clinicians to understand fundamental differences in lead integrity and therapeutic impedance while utilizing a methodical approach in treating hardware malfunction. It highlights future avenues of investigation regarding the utility of constant current DBS technology.

  8. Management of Elevated Therapeutic Impedances on Deep Brain Stimulation Leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Wissam; Patel, Amar; Okun, Michael S; Gunduz, Aysegul

    2017-01-01

    A 64-year-old male with a history of essential tremor with bilateral thalamic ventralis intermedius deep brain stimulation implants had elevated therapeutic impedance values despite normal lead integrity impedances and good response to stimulation. Do elevated therapeutic impedance values indicate a sign of hardware malfunction? What are the guidelines to approach deep brain stimulation hardware malfunction? Lead integrity impedance values are a better evaluation of hardware integrity. The discrepancy between therapeutic and lead-integrity impedance values can arise when using low voltage settings. There are no established guidelines for the management of possible hardware malfunction in deep brain stimulation. The recommended approach is to distinguish between open and short circuit problems followed by an "inching" evaluation, assessing the structures from the implantable and programmable generator to the intracranial leads. Constant-current devices will deliver a more stable stimulation but the effect of their adoption is still not clear. This case emphasizes the need for clinicians to understand fundamental differences in lead integrity and therapeutic impedance while utilizing a methodical approach in treating hardware malfunction. It highlights future avenues of investigation regarding the utility of constant current DBS technology.

  9. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  10. Electrospun melamine resin-based multifunctional nonwoven membrane for lithium ion batteries at the elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingfu; Yu, Yong; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei

    2016-09-01

    A flame retardant and thermally dimensional stable membrane with high permeability and electrolyte wettability can overcome the safety issues of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) at elevated temperatures. In this work, a multifunctional thermoset nonwoven membrane composed of melamine formaldehyde resin (MFR) nano-fibers was prepared by a electro-spinning method. The resultant porous nonwoven membrane possesses superior permeability, electrolyte wettability and thermally dimensional stability. Using the electrospun MFR membrane, the LiFePO4/Li battery exhibits high safety and stable cycling performance at the elevated temperature of 120 °C. Most importantly, the MFR membrane contains lone pair electron in the nitrogen element, which can chelate with Mn2+ ions and suppress their transfer across the separator. Therefore, the LiMn2O4/graphite cells with the electrospun MFR multifunctional membranes reveal an improved cycle performance even at high temperature. This work demonstrated that electrospun MFR is a promising candidate material for high-safety separator of LIBs with stable cycling performance at elevated temperatures.

  11. Stable chaos in fluctuation driven neural circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo-Garcia, David; Torcini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nonlinear instabilities in fluctuation driven (balanced) neural circuits are studied. • Balanced networks display chaos and stable phases at different post-synaptic widths. • Linear instabilities coexists with nonlinear ones in the chaotic regime. • Erratic motion appears also in linearly stable phase due to stable chaos. - Abstract: We study the dynamical stability of pulse coupled networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons against infinitesimal and finite perturbations. In particular, we compare mean versus fluctuations driven networks, the former (latter) is realized by considering purely excitatory (inhibitory) sparse neural circuits. In the excitatory case the instabilities of the system can be completely captured by an usual linear stability (Lyapunov) analysis, whereas the inhibitory networks can display the coexistence of linear and nonlinear instabilities. The nonlinear effects are associated to finite amplitude instabilities, which have been characterized in terms of suitable indicators. For inhibitory coupling one observes a transition from chaotic to non chaotic dynamics by decreasing the pulse-width. For sufficiently fast synapses the system, despite showing an erratic evolution, is linearly stable, thus representing a prototypical example of stable chaos

  12. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  13. Postmenopausal pregnancy? Evaluation of elevated hCG in a 59-year-old woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basham, Mary Margaret; Bryan, Teresa

    2017-06-05

    Slightly elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) can be a normal finding in postmenopausal women. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman with a history of abnormal uterine bleeding who presented with a concern for pregnancy after developing nausea and vomiting a few weeks after unprotected intercourse. Although pregnancy was extremely unlikely, hCG was obtained in order to reassure the patient since she reported that her mother conceived at the age of 60. Serum hCG was positive, prompting concern for malignancy versus pregnancy. Stable serum hCG levels, elevated follicle-stimulating hormone and negative transvaginal ultrasound ruled out both malignancy and pregnancy. Positive serum pregnancy test and hCG elevation was attributed to normal postmenopausal state. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...... is controlled using wall mounted ventilation flaps. In the paper an algorithm for air flow control is presented meeting the needs for temperature and humidity while taking the air flow pattern in consideration. To obtain simple and realisable controllers a model based control design method is applied....... In the design dynamic models for temperature and humidity are very important elements and effort is put into deriving and testing the models. It turns out that non-linearities are dominating in both models making feedback linearization the natural design method. The air controller as well as the temperature...

  15. On some topological properties of stable measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Krabbe

    1996-01-01

    Summary The paper shows that the set of stable probability measures and the set of Rational Beliefs relative to a given stationary measure are closed in the strong topology, but not closed in the topology of weak convergence. However, subsets of the set of stable probability measures which...... are characterized by uniformity of convergence of the empirical distribution are closed in the topology of weak convergence. It is demonstrated that such subsets exist. In particular, there is an increasing sequence of sets of SIDS measures who's union is the set of all SIDS measures generated by a particular...... system and such that each subset consists of stable measures. The uniformity requirement has a natural interpretation in terms of plausibility of Rational Beliefs...

  16. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed.

  17. King Cove, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Midway Atoll Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Arecibo, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Keauhou, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Craig, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Shemya, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Daytona Beach, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Kawaihae, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Cordova, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Arena Cove, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Sand Point, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Montauk, New York Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Atka, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Monterey, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. Garibaldi, Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Increasing heel skin perfusion by elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jacqueline; Reddy, Raj; Pitham, Tom; Huber, David

    2008-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of elevation in the primary prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers by studying the blood flow in tissue at risk of ulceration. A prospective study was used to compare different preventative devices with an elevating prosthesis. : Wollongong Hospital Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. Normal subjects and subjects with vasculopathy were tested with their heel resting on a hospital bed, medical-grade lamb's wool, or a viscoelastic gel overlay, with or without the test prosthesis. Skin perfusion was measured throughout using a laser Doppler monitor. A device designed to elevate the heel off the bed and distribute the weight of the leg and foot on the calf. Heel capillary blood perfusion. Perfusion in the heel was significantly greater when elevated than when using the other devices tested. The differences in mean red blood cell flux were significant, with P pressure ulcer prevention and treatment and should be incorporated into health care practice.

  13. Juneau, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  14. Chenega, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  15. Mariana Trench Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) created a bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) for the Mariana Trench and adjacent seafloor in the Western...

  16. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Black & White

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  17. Nikolski, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) was developed jointly by the U.S. National...

  19. La Push, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Nantucket, Massachusetts Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Ocean City, Maryland Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Hilo, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Portland, Maine Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Hanalei, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Chignik, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Adak, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Kachemak Bay, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Lahaina, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Oahu, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. Santa Barbara, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Central Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Virginia Beach, Virginia Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Galveston, Texas Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Biloxi, Mississippi Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Ponce, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Corpus Christi, Texas Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. ASTER Digital Elevation Model V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER Digital Elevation Model (DEM) product is generated using bands 3N (nadir-viewing) and 3B (backward-viewing) of an ASTER Level-1A image acquired by the...

  19. Savannah, Georgia Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.

  1. Grain Elevators: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Grain Elevators aims to reduce particulate matter pollution. The new amendments seek to clarify definitions, and requirements, as well as propose new regulations on particulate matter emissions

  2. Elevator mechanism and method for scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, E.

    1975-01-01

    An elevator mechanism and method for raising and lowering radioactive samples through a shielded vertical counting chamber in a benchtop scintillation detector is described. The elevator mechanism adds little or nothing to the height of the detector by using an elongated flexible member such as a metal tape secured to the bottom of the elevator platform and extending downwardly through the counting chamber and its bottom shielding, where the tape is bent laterally for connection to a drive means. In the particular embodiment illustrated, the tape is bent laterally below the bottom shielding for the counting chamber, and then upwardly along or through one side of the shielding to a reel at the top of the shielding. The tape is wound onto the reel, and the reel is driven by a reversible motor which winds and unwinds the tape on the reel to raise and lower the elevator platform

  3. Southeast Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  4. Taholah, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Whittier, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  6. Gustavus, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  7. Fajardo, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Port Alexander Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  9. Dutch Harbor, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Port Orford, Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. Panama City, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Guayama, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  14. New Orleans, Louisiana Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  15. Elevated temperature erosive wear of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Manish

    2006-01-01

    Solid particle erosion of metals and alloys at elevated temperature is governed by the nature of the interaction between erosion and oxidation, which, in turn, is determined by the thickness, pliability, morphology, adhesion characteristics and toughness of the oxide scale. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present state of understanding of the elevated temperature erosion behaviour of metals and alloys. First of all, the erosion testing at elevated temperature is reviewed. This is followed by discussion of the essential features of elevated temperature erosion with special emphasis on microscopic observation, giving details of the erosion-oxidation (E-O) interaction mechanisms. The E-O interaction has been elaborated in the subsequent section. The E-O interaction includes E-O maps, analysis of transition criteria from one erosion mechanism to another mechanism and quantification of enhanced oxidation kinetics during erosion. Finally, the relevant areas for future studies are indicated. (topical review)

  16. Electrostatic Climber for Space Elevator and Launcher

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonkin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Author details research on the new, very prospective, electrostatic Space Elevator climber based on a new electrostatic linear engine previously offered at the 42nd Joint Propulsion Conference (AIAA-2006-5229) and published in AEAT, Vol.78, No.6, 2006, pp. 502-508. The electrostatic climber discussed can have any speed (and braking), the energy for climber movement is delivered by a lightweight high-voltage line into a Space Elevator-holding cable from Earth electric generator. This electric ...

  17. Elevator Illusion and Gaze Direction in Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Hargens, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A luminous visual target in a dark hypergravity (Gz greater than 1) environment appears to be elevated above its true physical position. This "elevator illusion" has been attributed to changes in oculomotor control caused by increased stimulation of the otolith organs. Data relating the magnitude of the illusion to the magnitude of the changes in oculomotor control have been lacking. The present study provides such data.

  18. Faster and Simpler Approximation of Stable Matchings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Paluch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We give a 3 2 -approximation algorithm for finding stable matchings that runs in O(m time. The previous most well-known algorithm, by McDermid, has the same approximation ratio but runs in O(n3/2m time, where n denotes the number of people andm is the total length of the preference lists in a given instance. In addition, the algorithm and the analysis are much simpler. We also give the extension of the algorithm for computing stable many-to-many matchings.

  19. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  20. Bordism, stable homotopy and adams spectral sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kochman, Stanley O

    1996-01-01

    This book is a compilation of lecture notes that were prepared for the graduate course "Adams Spectral Sequences and Stable Homotopy Theory" given at The Fields Institute during the fall of 1995. The aim of this volume is to prepare students with a knowledge of elementary algebraic topology to study recent developments in stable homotopy theory, such as the nilpotence and periodicity theorems. Suitable as a text for an intermediate course in algebraic topology, this book provides a direct exposition of the basic concepts of bordism, characteristic classes, Adams spectral sequences, Brown-Peter

  1. Modelling stable water isotopes: Status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of stable water isotopes H2 18O and HDO within various parts of the Earth’s hydrological cycle has clearly improved our understanding of the interplay between climatic variations and related isotope fractionation processes. In this article key principles and major research results of stable water isotope modelling studies are described. Emphasis is put on research work using explicit isotope diagnostics within general circulation models as this highly complex model setup bears many resemblances with studies using simpler isotope modelling approaches.

  2. Global elevational diversity and diversification of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Ignacio; Jetz, Walter

    2018-03-08

    Mountain ranges harbour exceptionally high biodiversity, which is now under threat from rapid environmental change. However, despite decades of effort, the limited availability of data and analytical tools has prevented a robust and truly global characterization of elevational biodiversity gradients and their evolutionary origins. This has hampered a general understanding of the processes involved in the assembly and maintenance of montane communities. Here we show that a worldwide mid-elevation peak in bird richness is driven by wide-ranging species and disappears when we use a subsampling procedure that ensures even species representation in space and facilitates evolutionary interpretation. Instead, richness corrected for range size declines linearly with increasing elevation. We find that the more depauperate assemblages at higher elevations are characterized by higher rates of diversification across all mountain regions, rejecting the idea that lower recent diversification rates are the general cause of less diverse biota. Across all elevations, assemblages on mountains with high rates of past temperature change exhibit more rapid diversification, highlighting the importance of climatic fluctuations in driving the evolutionary dynamics of mountain biodiversity. While different geomorphological and climatic attributes of mountain regions have been pivotal in determining the remarkable richness gradients observed today, our results underscore the role of ongoing and often very recent diversification processes in maintaining the unique and highly adapted biodiversity of higher elevations.

  3. Energy considerations in the partial space elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Pamela; Misra, Arun K.

    2014-06-01

    The space elevator has been proposed as an alternate method for space transportation. A partial elevator is composed of a tether of several hundreds of kilometres, held vertically in tension between two end masses, with its centre of orbit placed at the geosynchronous orbit. A spacecraft can dock at the lower end, and then use the climber on the elevator to ascend to higher altitudes. In this paper, energy calculations are performed, to determine whether a partial elevator can provide sufficient savings in operational costs, compared to the traditional rocket-powered launch. The energy required to launch a spacecraft from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to the geostationary orbit (GEO) is calculated for two trajectories. In the first trajectory, the spacecraft travels from LEO to GEO via a Hohmann transfer. In the second trajectory, the spacecraft travels from LEO to the lower end of the partial space elevator with a Hohmann transfer, and then uses the elevator to climb to GEO. The total energy required is compared between the two trajectories. The effects of tether length, spacecraft-to-climber mass ratio, altitude of LEO, and tether material are investigated.

  4. P Elevator: An Innovatively Designed Elevator for Extraction of Third Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pradeep; Xiao, Shui Sheng; Ajmera, Deepal Haresh

    2015-01-01

    To modify the conventional straight elevator with a unique and innovative design in respect to approach and accessibility during extraction for patients with abrasions around corners of the mouth and with thick buccal mucosa, without causing overstretching of angles of the mouth. The shank of the straight elevator in the shape of a 'U' was modified, giving it a shape similar to 'P' in the English alphabet hence it is named the P Elevator. The P elevator utilises a 'U' shaped bend in the shank of the conventional straight elevator making space for the buccal soft tissues and the angle of the mouth, to accommodate properly in the 'U' shank. The application of this elevator in the successful removal of third molars is described. Two hundred patients underwent extraction of third molars with the P elevator including 166 patients with disimpaction of all third molars, 23 patients with abrasion around the angle of the mouth, and 11 patients with thick buccal mucosa. Satisfactory results were obtained in all the cases with no postoperative complications. The P elevator permits prudent, meticulous, innovative and proficient extraction of third molars in patients with thick buccal mucosa and abrasions around the angle of the mouth, without overstretching the corners of the mouth. We introduce novel applications of the P elevator in third molar extraction that provide substantial advantages over a conventional straight elevator.

  5. Clinical presentation and management of stable coronary artery disease in Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Pichlhöfer

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in Austria. However, no systematic information exists regarding characteristics and treatments of contemporary patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD in Austria. We assembled two retrospective physicians' databases to describe demographics, clinical profiles, and therapeutic strategies in patients with stable CAD. In addition, we compared patient profiles of secondary care internists and hospital-based cardiologists with those of general practitioners in a primary care setting outside of hospital.The study population was identified from retrospective chart review of 1020 patients from 106 primary care physicians in Austria (ProCor II registry, and was merged with a previous similar database of 1280 patients under secondary care (ProCor I registry to yield a total patient number of 2300.Female patients with stable CAD were older, had more angina and/or heart failure symptoms, and more depression than males. Female gender, type 2 diabetes mellitus, higher CCS class and asthma/COPD were predictors of elevated heart rate, while previous coronary events/revascularization predicted a lower heart rate in multivariate analysis. There were no significant differences with regard to characteristics and management of patients of general practitioners in the primary care setting versus internists in secondary care.Characteristics and treatments of unselected patients with stable ischemic heart disease in Austria resemble the pattern of large international registries of stable ischemic heart disease, with the exception that diabetes and systemic hypertension were more prevalent.

  6. Phosphate stable oxygen isotope variability within a temperate agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Steven J; Harris, Paul; Peukert, Sabine; Guo, Rongrong; Tamburini, Federica; Blackwell, Martin S A; Howden, Nicholas J K; McGrath, Steve

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we conduct a spatial analysis of soil total phosphorus (TP), acid extractable phosphate (PO 4 ) and the stable oxygen (O) isotope ratio within the PO 4 molecule (δ 18 O PO 4 ) from an intensively managed agricultural grassland site. Total P in the soil was found to range from 736 to 1952 mg P kg - 1 , of which between 12 and 48% was extractable using a 1 M HCl (HCl PO 4 ) solution with the two variables exhibiting a strong positive correlation. The δ 18 O PO 4 of the extracted PO 4 ranged from 17.0 to 21.6‰ with a mean of 18.8‰ (± 0.8). While the spatial variability of Total P has been researched at various scales, this is the first study to assess the variability of soil δ 18 O PO 4 at a field-scale resolution. We investigate whether or not δ 18 O PO 4 variability has any significant relationship with: (i) itself with respect to spatial autocorrelation effects; and (ii) HCl PO 4 , elevation and slope - both globally and locally. Results indicate that δ 18 O PO 4 was not spatially autocorrelated; and that δ 18 O PO 4 was only weakly related to HCl PO 4 , elevation and slope, when considering the study field as a whole. Interestingly, the latter relationships appear to vary in strength locally. In particular, the δ 18 O PO 4 to HCl PO 4 relationship may depend on the underlying soil class and/or on different field managements that had operated across an historical north-south field division of the study field, a division that had been removed four years prior to this study.

  7. Differential effects of stable elevated levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone and systemic corticosterone on various types of rat learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáčová, Lenka; Svoboda, Jan; Stuchlík, Aleš; Valeš, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2011), s. 64-76 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR9180; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA ČR(CZ) GCP303/10/J032; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : corticosterone * CRH * behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.296, year: 2011

  8. Turbulent and Stable/Unstable Laminar Burning Velocity Measurements from Outwardly Propagating Spherical Hydrogen-Air Flames at Elevated Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, Andrew; Tsuneyoshi, Kousaku; Kitagawa, Toshiaki

    The laminar burning velocity of pre-mixed hydrogen-air mixtures was measured in a fan stirred combustion bomb. Unstretched laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths were obtained at 0.10MPa for equivalence ratios of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 using high speed flame imaging. The difficulties which arose whilst obtaining similar measurements at 0.25MPa and 0.50MPa are outlined. The turbulent burning velocity was measured at equivalence ratios of 0.4 and 0.8 from explosions carried out at 0.10MPa with turbulence intensities of 0.8 and 1.6m/s. Higher turbulent burning velocity ratios were observed for mixtures which yielded lower Markstein lengths in the laminar combustion experiments.

  9. Stable isotope analysis of dynamic lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Joost; Bailey, Andrew P; Koster, Grielof; Gould, Alex P; Postle, Anthony D

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic pathway flux is a fundamental element of biological activity, which can be quantified using a variety of mass spectrometric techniques to monitor incorporation of stable isotope-labelled substrates into metabolic products. This article contrasts developments in electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for the measurement of lipid metabolism with more established gas chromatography mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry methodologies. ESI-MS combined with diagnostic tandem MS/MS scans permits the sensitive and specific analysis of stable isotope-labelled substrates into intact lipid molecular species without the requirement for lipid hydrolysis and derivatisation. Such dynamic lipidomic methodologies using non-toxic stable isotopes can be readily applied to quantify lipid metabolic fluxes in clinical and metabolic studies in vivo. However, a significant current limitation is the absence of appropriate software to generate kinetic models of substrate incorporation into multiple products in the time domain. Finally, we discuss the future potential of stable isotope-mass spectrometry imaging to quantify the location as well as the extent of lipid synthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: BBALIP_Lipidomics Opinion Articles edited by Sepp Kohlwein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope geochemistry of the Ewekoro formation from Ibese Corehole, eastern Dahomey basin, southwestern Nigeria. ME Nton, MO ... Preserved pore types such as; intercrystaline, moldic and vuggy pores were observed as predominant conduits for fluids. The major ...

  11. petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Subsurface samples of the predominantly carbonate Ewekoro Formation, obtained from Ibese core hole within the Dahomey basin were used in this study. Investigations entail petrographic, elemental composition as well as stable isotopes (carbon and oxygen) geochemistry in order to deduce the different microfacies and ...

  12. Substitution of stable isotopes in Chlorella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaumenhaft, E.; Katz, J. J.; Uphaus, R. A.

    1969-01-01

    Replacement of biologically important isotopes in the alga Chlorella by corresponding heavier stable isotopes produces increasingly greater deviations from the normal cell size and changes the quality and distribution of certain cellular components. The usefulness of isotopically altered organisms increases interest in the study of such permuted organisms.

  13. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  14. Stable propagation of 'selfish'genetic elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    viruses such as the Epstein-Barr virus (Harris et al 1985;. Kanda et al 2001) and bovine papilloma virus (Lehman and Botchan 1998; Ilves et al 1999), which exist pre- dominantly as extrachromosomal episomes, have been shown to utilize chromosome tethering as a means for stable segregation. The tethering mechanism ...

  15. Unconditionally stable perfectly matched layer boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.

    2007-01-01

    A brief review is given of a systematic, product-formula based approach to construct unconditionally stable algorithms for solving the time-dependent Maxwell equations. The fundamental difficulties that arise when we want to incorporate uniaxial perfectly matched layer boundary conditions into this

  16. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that 13C and 18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution ...

  17. Connected domination stable graphs upon edge addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set S of vertices in a graph G is a connected dominating set of G if S dominates G and the subgraph induced by S is connected. We study the graphs for which adding any edge does not change the connected domination number. Keywords: Connected domination, connected domination stable, edge addition ...

  18. Stable magnetic remanence in antiferromagnetic goethite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangway, D W; McMahon, B E; Honea, R M

    1967-11-10

    Goethite, known to be antiferromagnetic, acquires thermoremanent magnetization at its Neel temperature of 120 degrees C. This remanence, extremely stable, is due to the presence of unbalanced spins in the antiferromagnetic structure; the spins may result from grain size, imperfections, or impurities.

  19. Association between Nitrogen Stable Isotope Ratios in Human Hair and Serum Levels of Leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Song Vogue; Koh, Sang-Baek; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Bong, Yeon-Sik; Park, Jong-Ku

    2017-10-01

    Stable isotope ratios have been reported to be potential biomarkers of dietary intake and nutritional status. High serum levels of leptin, a hormone which regulates energy metabolism and food intake, are associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about the association between stable isotope ratios and the metabolic risk in humans. We investigated whether the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in hair are associated with serum leptin levels. Hair samples were collected from 399 healthy adults (233 men and 166 women) aged 40 to 70 years of a community-based cohort in Korea and the bulk stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) were measured for all hair samples. Serum leptin levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. δ 15 N showed positive correlations with serum leptin levels. In multivariate models, increasing δ 15 N were associated with elevated serum leptin levels (defined as ≥ the median values), whereas δ 13 C were not significantly associated with serum leptin levels. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) per 1‰ increase in δ 15 N for an elevated serum leptin level was 1.58 (1.11-2.26). In participants with high body mass index, δ 15 N showed positive associations with serum leptin levels, whereas these associations were not seen in participants with low body mass index. The nitrogen stable isotopic ratio in hair is positively associated with serum leptin levels. The hair δ 15 N could be used as a clinical marker to estimate metabolic risk.

  20. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kilian A.

    2005-07-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator-launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required Δv, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  1. Epithelial integrity in palatal shelf elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Okuhara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The palate is the ceiling of the oral cavity that separates the nasal and oral cavities in mammals. Anterior two-thirds of the palate that has the bone and the rugae on the oral surface is the hard palate, and the posterior one-third of the palate lacks bone and is referred to as the soft palate. Palate development involves a sequential process of outgrowth, elevation, and fusion of palatal shelves. When these steps are interrupted or compromised, cleft palate, one of the most frequent human congenital anomalies, develops. In particular, during the elevation process, sufficient proliferation of palatal mesenchymal cells and concomitant synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM are required, and these are referred to as intrinsic factors. One of major extrinsic factors for this process is the functional maturation of masticatory muscles that are responsible for movement of the mandible and lingual muscles, such that the tongue can descend and sufficient space for shelf elevation is provided. In addition to these factors, recent findings have suggested that a third factor, epithelial integrity, may be an essential component for successful shelf elevation. For example, disruption of epithelial integrity can result in ectopic epithelial fusion between the palate and the mandible, or tongue, which anchors the palatal shelf to inhibit its elevation. Although most histological and molecular aspects of palatal elevation have been well reviewed, those of epithelial integrity have not been thoroughly elucidated. Therefore, in this review, features of epithelial integrity, and its contributing molecules, are described in relation to palatal shelf elevation in mice.

  2. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying basalt weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly basaltic, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from basaltic Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.

  4. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  5. Space Elevator Concept Considered a Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The `once upon a time' science fiction concept of a space elevator has been envisioned and studied as a real mass transportation system in the latter part of the 21st century. David Smitherman of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Projects Office has compiled plans for such an elevator. The space elevator concept is a structure extending from the surface of the Earth to geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) at 35,786 km in altitude. The tower would be approximately 50 km tall with a cable tethered to the top. Its center mass would be at GEO such that the entire structure orbits the Earth in sync with the Earth's rotation maintaining a stationary position over its base attachment at the equator. Electromagnetic vehicles traveling along the cable could serve as a mass transportation system for transporting people, payloads, and power between space and Earth. This illustration by artist Pat Rawling shows the concept of a space elevator as viewed from the geostationary transfer station looking down the length of the elevator towards the Earth.

  6. Effect of surface texture and structure on the development of stable fluvial armors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Stephane; Friedrich, Heide

    2018-04-01

    Stable fluvial armors are found in river systems under conditions of partial sediment transport and limited sediment supply, a common occurrence in nature. Stable armoring is also readily recreated in experimental flumes. Initially, this bed stabilizing phenomenon was examined for different flow discharges and solely related to surface coarsening and bedload transport reduction. The models developed suggest a specific armor composition (i.e., texture) dependent on the parent bed material and formative discharge. Following developments in topographic remote sensing, recent research suggests that armor structure is an important control on bed stability and roughness. In this paper, replicated flume runs during which digital elevation models (DEMs) were collected from both exposed and flooded gravel beds are used to interpret armoring manifestations and to assess their replicability. A range of methodologies was used for the analysis, providing information on (i) surface grain size and orientation, (ii) bed-elevation distributions, (iii) the spatial coherence of the elevations at the grain-scale, (iv) surface slope and aspect, (v) grain imbrication and (vi) the spatial variability in DEM properties. The bed-surface topography was found to be more responsive than bed-material size to changes in flow strength. Our experimental results also provide convincing evidence that gravel-beds' response to water-work during parallel degradation is unique (i.e., replicable) given the formative parameters. Based on this finding, relationships between the armors' properties and formative parameters are proposed, and are supported by adding extensive data from previous research.

  7. Intraspecific variation in exploratory behavior and elevational affinity in a widely distributed songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Yanina; Gutiérrez, Víctor; Cid, Valeska; Newsome, Seth D; Sabat, Pablo; Vasquez, Rodrigo A

    2018-04-01

    Populations of the same species can vary substantially in their behavioral and morphometric traits when they are subject to different environmental pressures, which may lead to the development of different adaptive strategies. We quantified variation in exploratory behavior and morphometric traits among two rufous-collared sparrow populations that occur at low and high elevations in central Chile. Moreover, we used census and δ 2 H values of feather and blood to evaluate migration. We found that individual sparrows inhabiting high elevations were larger and showed more intense exploratory behavior in comparison with those that were captured at lower elevation. Moreover, we observed a steady decline in sparrow abundance during the winter and similar δ 2 H values for blood collected in the winter and summer at this site, which were significantly lower than blood δ 2 H values observed at low elevation. This pattern suggests that individuals do not move long distances during winter, and likely they remain at similar elevations in refuge habitats. As predicted, our results support the existent of different adaptive strategies among populations of the same species, and suggest that the combination of behavioral, morphometric, and stable isotope data is a novel and robust integrative approach to assess differences in adaptation across environmental gradients.

  8. Traits and climate are associated with first flowering day in herbaceous species along elevational gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Solveig Franziska; König, Patrizia; Menzel, Annette; Migliavacca, Mirco; Ewald, Jörg; Römermann, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Phenological responses to changing temperatures are known as "fingerprints of climate change," yet these reactions are highly species specific. To assess whether different plant characteristics are related to these species-specific responses in flowering phenology, we observed the first flowering day (FFD) of ten herbaceous species along two elevational gradients, representing temperature gradients. On the same populations, we measured traits being associated with (1) plant performance (specific leaf area), (2) leaf biochemistry (leaf C, N, P, K, and Mg content), and (3) water-use efficiency (stomatal pore area index and stable carbon isotopes concentration). We found that as elevation increased, FFD was delayed for all species with a highly species-specific rate. Populations at higher elevations needed less temperature accumulation to start flowering than populations of the same species at lower elevations. Surprisingly, traits explained a higher proportion of variance in the phenological data than elevation. Earlier flowering was associated with higher water-use efficiency, higher leaf C, and lower leaf P content. In addition to that, the intensity of shifts in FFD was related to leaf N and K. These results propose that traits have a high potential in explaining phenological variations, which even surpassed the effect of temperature changes in our study. Therefore, they have a high potential to be included in future analyses studying the effects of climate change and will help to improve predictions of vegetation changes.

  9. Scientific return of a lunar elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Radley, C. F.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing the capabilities of robotic and human explorers. These missions use planetary scale tethers, strings many thousands of kilometers long stabilized either by rotation or by gravitational gradients. These systems promise major reduction in transport costs versus chemical rockets, in a rapid timeframe, for a modest investment. Science will thus benefit as well as commercial activities.

  10. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Detail design activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composites elevator for the Boeing 727 commercial transport. Design activities include discussion of the full scale ground test and flight test activities, the ancillary test programs, sustaining efforts, weight status, and the production status. Prior to flight testing of the advanced composites elevator, ground, flight flutter, and stability and control test plans were reviewed and approved by the FAA. Both the ground test and the flight test were conducted according to the approved plan, and were witnessed by the FAA. Three and one half shipsets have now been fabricated without any significant difficulty being encountered. Two elevator system shipsets were weighed, and results validated the 26% predicted weight reduction. The program is on schedule.

  11. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki; Okawa, Takeya

    2013-01-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  12. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  13. Analysis of heavy-rain-producing elevated thunderstorms in the MO-KS-OK region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Laurel

    Most elevated thunderstorms in the United States occur in the Midwest, with a maximum in eastern Kansas (Colman 1990a). Elevated thunderstorms are defined as thunderstorms that occur over a very stable surface boundary layer (Colman 1990b). They may be better defined as convection occurring over a stable layer near the surface, essentially cut off from surface-based instability (Corfidi et al. 2006). Elevated mesoscale convective systems produce 30-70% of the total rainfall during the warm season over the Central Plains (Moore et al. 2003). 1.1 Purpose Elevated thunderstorms are still not very well understood. Elevated convection can take a variety of forms, and can be very similar to surface-based convection. Corfidi et al. (2006) describe the challenge of finding the originating layer of parcels making up a convective cloud. Surface-based convection often incorporates elevated parcels, and elevated convection can bring surface parcels into its updraft. The distinction between the two types of storms can be defined by where most of the parcels originate. This becomes especially hard to distinguish as convection transitions from surface-based to elevated and vice-versa (Corfidi et al. 2006). Colman (1990a), in his study, used three criteria to delineate elevated thunderstorm station reports from surface-based thunderstorm station reports: 1) The observation must lie on the cold side of an analyzed front that shows a clear contrast in temperature, dew-point temperature, and wind. 2) The station's wind, temperature, and dew-point temperature must be qualitatively similar to the immediately surrounding values. 3) The surface air on the warm side of the analyzed front must have a higher equivalent potential temperature (thetae) than the air on the cold side of the front (Colman 1990a). These three criteria have been incorporated into several studies since for the evaluation of elevated convection (e.g., Grant 1995; Rochette and Moore 1996; Moore et al. 1998; Moore et

  14. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bamber

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated–ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  15. Dendritic mitochondria reach stable positions during circuit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faits, Michelle C; Zhang, Chunmeng; Soto, Florentina; Kerschensteiner, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria move throughout neuronal dendrites and localize to sites of energy demand. The prevailing view of dendritic mitochondria as highly motile organelles whose distribution is continually adjusted by neuronal activity via Ca2+-dependent arrests is based on observations in cultured neurons exposed to artificial stimuli. Here, we analyze the movements of mitochondria in ganglion cell dendrites in the intact retina. We find that whereas during development 30% of mitochondria are motile at any time, as dendrites mature, mitochondria all but stop moving and localize stably to synapses and branch points. Neither spontaneous nor sensory-evoked activity and Ca2+ transients alter motility of dendritic mitochondria; and pathological hyperactivity in a mouse model of retinal degeneration elevates rather than reduces motility. Thus, our findings indicate that dendritic mitochondria reach stable positions during a critical developmental period of high motility, and challenge current views about the role of activity in regulating mitochondrial transport in dendrites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11583.001 PMID:26742087

  16. Silent disease progression in clinically stable heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Hani N

    2017-04-01

    Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a progressive disorder whereby cardiac structure and function continue to deteriorate, often despite the absence of clinically apparent signs and symptoms of a worsening disease state. This silent yet progressive nature of HFrEF can contribute to the increased risk of death-even in patients who are 'clinically stable', or who are asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic-because it often goes undetected and/or undertreated. Current therapies are aimed at improving clinical symptoms, and several agents more directly target the underlying causes of disease; however, new therapies are needed that can more fully address factors responsible for underlying progressive cardiac dysfunction. In this review, mechanisms that drive HFrEF, including ongoing cardiomyocyte loss, mitochondrial abnormalities, impaired calcium cycling, elevated LV wall stress, reactive interstitial fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, are discussed. Additionally, limitations of current HF therapies are reviewed, with a focus on how these therapies are designed to counteract the deleterious effects of compensatory neurohumoral activation but do not fully prevent disease progression. Finally, new investigational therapies that may improve the underlying molecular, cellular, and structural abnormalities associated with HF progression are reviewed. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society of Cardiology.

  17. Characteristics of stable carbon isotopic composition of shale gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenya Qu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A type Ⅱ kerogen with low thermal maturity was adopted to perform hydrocarbon generation pyrolysis experiments in a vacuum (Micro-Scale Sealed Vessel system at the heating rates of 2 °C/h and 20 °C/h. The stable carbon isotopic compositions of gas hydrocarbons were measured to investigate their evolving characteristics and the possible reasons for isotope reversal. The δ13C values of methane became more negative with the increasing pyrolysis temperatures until it reached the lightest point, after which they became more positive. Meanwhile, the δ13C values of ethane and propane showed a positive trend with elevating pyrolysis temperatures. The carbon isotopic compositions of shale gasses were mainly determined by the type of parent organic matter, thermal evolutionary extent, and gas migration in shale systems. Our experiments and study proved that the isotope reversal shouldn't occur in a pure thermogenic gas reservoir, it must be involved with some other geochemical process/es; although mechanisms responsible for the reversal are still vague. Carbon isotopic composition of the Fayetteville and Barnett shale gas demonstrated that the isotope reversal was likely involved with water–gas reaction and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis during its generation.

  18. Strength properties of concrete at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freskakis, G.N.; Burrow, R.C.; Debbas, E.B.

    1979-01-01

    A study is presented concerning the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and stress-strain relationships of concrete at elevated temperatures. A review of published results provides information for the development of upper and lower bound relationships for compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity and establishes exposure conditions for a lower bound thermal response. The relationships developed from the literature review are confirmed by the results of a verification test program. The strength and elasticity relationships provide a basis for the development of design stress-strain curves for concrete exposed to elevated temperatures

  19. Forest succession at elevated CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2002-02-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

  20. On The Roman Domination Stable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajian Majid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (or just RDF on a graph G = (V,E is a function f : V → {0, 1, 2} satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. The weight of an RDF f is the value f(V (G = Pu2V (G f(u. The Roman domination number of a graph G, denoted by R(G, is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on G. A graph G is Roman domination stable if the Roman domination number of G remains unchanged under removal of any vertex. In this paper we present upper bounds for the Roman domination number in the class of Roman domination stable graphs, improving bounds posed in [V. Samodivkin, Roman domination in graphs: the class RUV R, Discrete Math. Algorithms Appl. 8 (2016 1650049].

  1. Design of optically stable image reflector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The design of a partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, in which the exit ray direction and image pose are unchanged as the reflector system rotates about a specific directional vector, was presented in an earlier study by the current group [Appl. Phys. B100, 883-890 (2010)]. The present study further proposes an optically stable image (OSI) reflector system, in which not only is the optical stability property of the POS system retained, but the image position and total ray path length are also fixed. An analytical method is proposed for the design of OSI reflector systems comprising multiple reflectors. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples.

  2. Stable microfluidic flow focusing using hydrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnyawali, Vaskar; Saremi, Mohammadali; Kolios, Michael C; Tsai, Scott S H

    2017-05-01

    We present a simple technique to generate stable hydrodynamically focused flows by driving the flow with hydrostatic pressure from liquid columns connected to the inlets of a microfluidic device. Importantly, we compare the focused flows generated by hydrostatic pressure and classical syringe pump driven flows and find that the stability of the hydrostatic pressure driven technique is significantly better than the stability achieved via syringe pumps, providing fluctuation-free focused flows that are suitable for sensitive microfluidic flow cytometry applications. We show that the degree of flow focusing with the hydrostatic method can be accurately controlled by the simple tuning of the liquid column heights. We anticipate that this approach to stable flow focusing will find many applications in microfluidic cytometry technologies.

  3. Utilization of stable isotopes in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The ten lectures given at this round table are presented together with a discussion. Five lectures, relating to studies in which deuterium oxide was employed as a tracer of body water, dealt with pulmonary water measurements in man and animals, the total water pool in adipose subjects, and liquid compartments in children undergoing hemodyalisis. The heavy water is analysed by infrared spectrometry and a new double spectrodoser is described. Two studies using 13 C as tracer, described the diagnosis of liver troubles and diabetes respectively. A general review of the perspectives of the application of stable isotopes in clinical medicine is followed by a comparison of the use of stable and radioactive isotopes in France [fr

  4. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-01-01

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed st...

  5. Stable iodine prophylaxis. Recommendations of the 2nd UK Working Group on Stable Iodine Prophylaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Working Group reviewed the revised Who guidance and the information published since 1991 on the risks of thyroid cancer in children from radioiodine and the risks of side effects from stable iodine. In particular, it reviewed data compiled on the incidence of thyroid cancers in children following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. It considered whether the NRPB Earls were still appropriate, in the light of the new data. It also reviewed a range of other recommendations given by the 1st Working Group, concerning the chemical form of stable iodine tablets and practical issues concerning implementation of stable iodine prophylaxis. Finally, it reviewed the Patient Information Leaflet that is required, by law, to be included in each box of tablets and provided suggestions for information to be included in a separate information leaflet to be handed out to the public when stable iodine tablets are distributed.

  6. Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, Allen; Kuhl, Allen L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Howard, W. Michael; Seizew, Michael R.; Bell, John B.; Beckner, Vincent; Grcar, Joseph F.

    2008-05-31

    We consider the energy accumulation in meta-stable clusters. This energy can be much larger than the typical chemical bond energy (~;;1 ev/atom). For example, polymeric nitrogen can accumulate 4 ev/atom in the N8 (fcc) structure, while helium can accumulate 9 ev/atom in the excited triplet state He2* . They release their energy by cluster fission: N8 -> 4N2 and He2* -> 2He. We study the locus of states in thermodynamic state space for the detonation of such meta-stable clusters. In particular, the equilibrium isentrope, starting at the Chapman-Jouguet state, and expanding down to 1 atmosphere was calculated with the Cheetah code. Large detonation pressures (3 and 16 Mbar), temperatures (12 and 34 kilo-K) and velocities (20 and 43 km/s) are a consequence of the large heats of detonation (6.6 and 50 kilo-cal/g) for nitrogen and helium clusters respectively. If such meta-stable clusters could be synthesized, they offer the potential for large increases in the energy density of materials.

  7. Investigating adult diet during Industrialization in Copenhagen based on stable isotope analysis of bone collagen and hair keratin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, M L S; Gröcke, Darren R

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated human diets during the nineteenth and twentieth century in Copenhagen through stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen according to sex, age, socio-economic status, and period (of death). Stable isotope analysis was conducted on bone collagen (n = 114) and hair keratin...... in elevating baseline δ15N values was not detected. Overall isotopic results indicate a diet rich in protein from brackish fish and terrestrial C3-based animal products with a larger dietary diversity among males during the twentieth century. Male diet may have been more affected by economical means than...

  8. Two stable steady states in the Hodgkin-Huxley axons

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, K.; Matsumoto, G.

    1983-01-01

    Two stable steady states were found in the numerical solution of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations for the intact squid axon bathed in potassium-rich sea water with an externally applied inward current. Under the conditions the two stable steady-states exist, the Hodgkin-Huxley equations have a complex bifurcation structure including, in addition to the two stable steady-states, a stable limit cycle, two unstable equilibrium points, and one asymptotically stable equilibrium point. It was also conc...

  9. Nurses' accuracy in estimating backrest elevation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-02-08

    Feb 8, 2007 ... associated pneumonia (VAP).1 Backrest elevation is defined as the angle of the backrest ... Aspiration of gastric contents is thought to be a major mechanism in the ... associated pneumonia (VAP) Compliance with this recommendation may be affected by nurses' knowledge of the recommendation and their ...

  10. Complement elevation in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhun, J; Botvin, J

    1980-05-01

    Laboratory studies revealed an elevated complement in 66% of patients with spinal cord injury. It is postulated that the activated complement may be a component of self-feeding immunological mechanism responsible for the failure of regeneration of a mature mammalian spinal cord. There was no evidence that such an injury had any effect on pre-existing atopy.

  11. Elevated transferrin saturation and risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik Ullits

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that elevated transferrin saturation is associated with an increased risk of any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 or type 2 diabetes separately. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used two general population studies, The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, N = 9...

  12. Elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, S; Auyeung, B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Hougaard, D M; Abdallah, M W; Melgaard, L; Cohen, A S; Chakrabarti, B; Ruta, L; Lombardo, M V

    2015-01-01

    Autism affects males more than females, giving rise to the idea that the influence of steroid hormones on early fetal brain development may be one important early biological risk factor. Utilizing the Danish Historic Birth Cohort and Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we identified all amniotic fluid samples of males born between 1993 and 1999 who later received ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS (pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) (n=128) compared with matched typically developing controls. Concentration levels of Δ4 sex steroids (progesterone, 17α-hydroxy-progesterone, androstenedione and testosterone) and cortisol were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All hormones were positively associated with each other and principal component analysis confirmed that one generalized latent steroidogenic factor was driving much of the variation in the data. The autism group showed elevations across all hormones on this latent generalized steroidogenic factor (Cohen's d=0.37, P=0.0009) and this elevation was uniform across ICD-10 diagnostic label. These results provide the first direct evidence of elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism. Such elevations may be important as epigenetic fetal programming mechanisms and may interact with other important pathophysiological factors in autism. PMID:24888361

  13. Elevated extracellular potassium ion concentrations suppress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To address this question, we examined how elevations of [K+]o affect hippocampal oscillations in Scn1a mutant mouse, a mouse model of Dravet syndrome, a devastating genetic-epilepsy associated with gliosis, a major cause of dysregulated K+ homeostasis in epileptic brain. Methods: To this end, performing local field ...

  14. 75 FR 59181 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ...) Depth in feet above State City/town/county Source of flooding Location ** ground [caret] Elevation in... of Southeast. the Town of Southeast. Muscoot River At the county boundary. +512 +509 Town of Carmel.... At the county boundary. +391 +393 Stephens Brook Approximately 250 feet +432 +433 Town of Patterson...

  15. 78 FR 5738 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet State City/town/county Source of flooding... of Winooski River. Barre, City of Montpelier, Town of Berlin. At county boundary +740 (approximately.... Approximately 60 feet +728 upstream of Water Street. Winooski River At Chittenden County +342 Town of Middlesex...

  16. 76 FR 72661 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ...) Depth in feet above State City/town/county Source of flooding Location ** ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Existing Modified Town of Richland, New York New York Town of Richland........ Lake Ontario Entire shoreline within Selkirk Shores State Park boundary None +249 New York Town of Richland...

  17. 75 FR 62751 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    .../town/county Source of flooding Location ** ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Existing Modified Unincorporated Areas of Claiborne County, Tennessee Tennessee Unincorporated Areas of Clinch River Approximately 2.3 miles downstream of Big Barren Creek.... +1055 +1032 Claiborne County. [[Page 62752...

  18. 76 FR 40670 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ...) Depth in feet above State City/town/county Source of flooding Location ** ground [caret] Elevation in... Contentnea Creek +76 +77 Town of Black Creek, confluence. Unincorporated Areas of Wilson County... +63 Town of Stantonsburg, confluence. Unincorporated Areas of Wilson County. Approximately 0.8 mile...

  19. 75 FR 3171 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in feet above ground [caret]Elevation in meters (MSL... Approximately 990 feet +388 Unincorporated Areas of upstream of the Lauderdale County, Town confluence of... Unincorporated Areas of Lee County, Town of Shannon. Approximately 6,220 feet +252 upstream of State Highway 145...

  20. 76 FR 50960 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ...) Depth in feet above State City/town/county Source of flooding Location ** ground [caret] Elevation in..., Town downstream of the of Snow Hill, Wheat Swamp confluence. Unincorporated Areas of Greene County... Contentnea Creek +47 +41 Town of Snow Hill, confluence. Unincorporated Areas of Greene County. [[Page 50964...

  1. 76 FR 66887 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...) Depth in feet above State City/town/county Source of flooding Location** ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Existing Modified Town of Richmond, Vermont Vermont Town of Richmond........ Winooski River... Incorporated Areas Little Thompson River At the downstream side None +4935 Town of Berthoud, of Weld County...

  2. 75 FR 67317 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... above State City/town/county Source of flooding Location ** ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Existing Modified Unincorporated Areas of Butte-Silver Bow County, Montana Montana Unincorporated Areas of Basin Creek Approximately 1,000 feet upstream of I-90 +5468 +5469 Butte-Silver Bow County. Approximately...

  3. 76 FR 69665 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in...) Modified Summit County, Colorado, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1049 Willow Creek At the confluence with + 8682 Town of Silverthorne, the Blue River. Unincorporated Areas of Summit County...

  4. 76 FR 68107 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet State City/town/county Source of flooding... Lee County. Approximately 796 feet +601 upstream of Thach Avenue. Town Creek Tributary 1 At the confluence with +460 City of Auburn, Town Creek. Unincorporated Areas of Lee County. Approximately 602 feet...

  5. 76 FR 59361 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...) Depth in feet above State City/town/county Source of flooding Location ** ground [caret] Elevation in... County. At the Wash 10 East None +1455 divergence. Wash 11 East Approximately 600 feet None +1348 Town of... Town of Surprise, confluence. Unincorporated Areas of Maricopa County. At the Wash 12 East None +1514...

  6. 76 FR 8978 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    .../town/county Source of flooding Location ** ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Existing Modified Unincorporated Areas of Yolo County, California California Unincorporated Areas of Cache Creek Settling Basin At........ Entire None +901 Town of shoreline Wolcottvill e, Unincorpora ted Areas of LaGrange County. * National...

  7. 76 FR 36482 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    .../town/county Source of flooding Location ** ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Existing Modified City of Colonial Heights, Virginia Virginia City of Colonial Heights Old Town Creek Approximately 0.63... for inspection at 202 James Avenue, Colonial Heights, VA 23834. Unincorporated Areas of Halifax County...

  8. 76 FR 35119 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet State City/town/county Source of flooding... Town of Marana, the vicinity of Central Unincorporated Areas Arizona Project Canal of Pima County.... Messalonskee Stream At the County Road Bridge.... +105 Town of Oakland. At the City of Waterville/ +105...

  9. 77 FR 3625 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in... Sierra County, California, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1128 Downie River Approximately 0.76 mile +2897 Unincorporated Areas of downstream of Jersey Sierra County. Flat Bridge. Approximately 167...

  10. 76 FR 3524 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... effects from Kentucky River). the Kentucky River to Garrard County. approximately 932 feet upstream of Old..., City of The Colony, Town of Hebron, Unincorporated Areas of Denton County. Approximately 2,940 feet... Communities affected [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Ashley County, Arkansas, and Incorporated...

  11. 77 FR 66788 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... Town of Clarkstown. Old Mill Road. Approximately 600 feet +150 +151 downstream of Rockland Lake. Golf..., Orangetown/Town of Town of Orangetown. Clarkstown corporate limit. At the downstream side +67 +66 of Old Mill... and modified elevations, and communities affected for Rockland County, New York (All Jurisdictions...

  12. 76 FR 35111 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    .... Conway County. Approximately 2.0 miles +301 upstream of Old Cherokee Road. * National Geodetic Vertical... inspection at the Town Hall, 34 West Main Street, Westborough, MA 01581. Marshall County, Mississippi, and... Communities affected [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Conway County, Arkansas, and Incorporated...

  13. Kas Euroopale oma "Elevant"? / Tiina Lokk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lokk, Tiina, 1955-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka teistest võistlusprogrammi filmidest ja "Klassi" võrdlus Gus Van Santi filmiga "Elevant"

  14. Der er nye elever i klassen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirsøe, Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Etniske minoritetsbørn bliver udsat for 'naturlig' forskelsbehandling i de danske skoler, hvor der stadig undervises, som om alle elever hedder Jensen og Petersen. Det er på tide, at pædagogikken anerkender den etniske kompleksitet i vores samfund og indretter undervisningen derefter....

  15. Measuring elevated intracranial pressure through noninvasive methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Helena; Nissborg, Emelie; Bartek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is an important cause of secondary brain injury, and a measurement of ICP is often of crucial value in neurosurgical and neurological patients. The gold standard for ICP monitoring is through an intraventricular catheter, but this invasive technique...

  16. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON THE ELECTRICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of elevated temperatures on the electrical properties of Bi metal probe to Si thin films had been investigated for electric field values 10-100V/m. Measurements of current (I) – voltage (V) characteristics were obtained at temperatures 300,320,340,360,380 and 400K respectively. The results indicated linear I–V ...

  17. Elevated Bladder Cancer Risk in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study has found that drinking water from private wells, particularly dug wells established during the first half of the 20th century, may have contributed to the elevated risk of bladder cancer that has been observed in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont for over 50 years.

  18. Troponin elevation after black widow spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sean P; Davy, J Veeran

    2015-09-01

    Black widow spider envenomation generally results in self-limiting pain that can be treated in the emergency department (ED) with analgesics and benzodiazepines, usually with no further intervention. Occasionally, a patient has to be admitted or treated with antivenom for refractory pain or a venom-induced complication. We present the case of an 84-year-old man who presented to our ED with chest pain and dyspnea after being bitten on the foot by a western black widow spider (Lactrodectus hesperus). His initial cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was elevated at 0.07 ng/ml and continued to rise to a peak of 0.17 ng/ml. He also had rhabdomyolysis, another uncommon complication of black widow envenomation. An elevated cTnI generally signifies myocardial injury and is rarely seen after black widow envenomation. We discuss the possible etiologies for an elevated cardiac biomarker, in this context, and review potentially serious complications of widow spider envenomation presenting with chest symptoms and an elevated cardiac biomarker.

  19. Estimating Coastal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amante, C.; Mesick, S.

    2017-12-01

    Integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation models (DEMs) are representations of the Earth's solid surface and are fundamental to the modeling of coastal processes, including tsunami, storm surge, and sea-level rise inundation. Deviations in elevation values from the actual seabed or land surface constitute errors in DEMs, which originate from numerous sources, including: (i) the source elevation measurements (e.g., multibeam sonar, lidar), (ii) the interpolative gridding technique (e.g., spline, kriging) used to estimate elevations in areas unconstrained by source measurements, and (iii) the datum transformation used to convert bathymetric and topographic data to common vertical reference systems. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the errors from these sources are typically unknown, and the lack of knowledge regarding these errors represents the vertical uncertainty in the DEM. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) has developed DEMs for more than 200 coastal communities. This study presents a methodology developed at NOAA NCEI to derive accompanying uncertainty surfaces that estimate DEM errors at the individual cell-level. The development of high-resolution (1/9th arc-second), integrated bathymetric-topographic DEMs along the southwest coast of Florida serves as the case study for deriving uncertainty surfaces. The estimated uncertainty can then be propagated into the modeling of coastal processes that utilize DEMs. Incorporating the uncertainty produces more reliable modeling results, and in turn, better-informed coastal management decisions.

  20. 76 FR 72627 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Areas Docket Nos.: FEMA-B-1022 and FEMA-B-1117 Agua Fria Canyon Approximately 340 feet +3384... Unincorporated Areas of Doyle Drive. Iberia Parish. At the intersection with +16 Adrian Street. Gulf of Mexico... AE zones have been made. Gulf of Mexico Base Flood Elevation +9-15 Unincorporated Areas of changes...

  1. 75 FR 31342 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... flood insurance premium rates for new buildings and the contents in those buildings. DATES: Comments are... these elevations are made final, and for the contents in those buildings. Comments on any aspect of the..., Augusta, ME 04330. Perry County, Missouri, and Incorporated Areas Apple Creek At a dam/unnamed road +400...

  2. Asymptomatic proteinuria and elevated blood pressure among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension and proteinuria are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease and renal impairment. Early detection and treatment will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with them. Objective: To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic proteinuria with or without elevated blood pressure among ...

  3. Stable Isotope Identification of Nitrogen Sources for United States (U.S.) Pacific Coast Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. A.; Kaldy, J. E.; Fong, P.; Fong, C.; Mochon Collura, T.; Clinton, P.

    2016-02-01

    Nutrients are the leading cause of water quality impairments in the United States, and as a result tools are needed to identify the sources of nutrients. We used natural abundance stable isotope data to evaluate nitrogen sources to U.S. west coast estuaries. We collected macroalgae and analyzed these samples for natural abundance of stable isotopes (δ15N) and supplemented this with available data from the literature for estuaries from Mexico to Alaska. Stable isotope ratios of green macroalgae were compared to δ15N of dissolved inorganic nitrogen of oceanic and watershed end members. There was a latitudinal gradient in δ15N of macroalgae with southern estuaries being 7 per mil heavier than northern estuaries. Gradients in isotope data were compared to nitrogen sources estimated by the USGS using the SPARROW model. In California estuaries, the elevation of isotope data appeared to be related to anthropogenic nitrogen sources. In Oregon systems, the nitrogen levels of streams flowing into the estuaries are related to forest cover, rather than to developed land classes. In Oregon estuaries, the δ15N of macroalgae suggested that the ocean and nitrogen-fixing trees in the watersheds were the dominant nitrogen sources with heavier sites located near the estuary mouth. In California estuaries, the gradient was reversed with heavier sites located upriver. In some Oregon estuaries, there was an elevation an elevation of δ15N above marine end members in the vicinity of wastewater treatment facility discharge locations, suggesting isotopes may be useful for distinguishing inputs along an estuarine gradient.

  4. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, K Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Meyyappan, M; Kim, Kwang S

    2015-09-25

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m(2) g(-1) and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm(3) g(-1) and exhibits a stable CH4 adsorption capacity of ∼4.2 mmol g(-1) at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon.

  5. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, K. Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Meyyappan, M.; Kim, Kwang S.

    2015-09-01

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m2 g-1 and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm3 g-1 and exhibits a stable CH4 adsorption capacity of ˜4.2 mmol g-1 at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon.

  6. Outcomes Following Traumatic Grain Elevator Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolefree, Sydnei; Truong, Anthony; Ward, Jeanette; Dong, Fanglong; Ablah, Elizabeth; Haan, James

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a comprehensive database of grain elevator-associated injuries hinders accurate evaluation of injury prevalence and may lead to discordant information about injury frequencies. The main purpose of this study was to identify the most common mechanisms of injury related to grain elevator events. Comparisons of hospital outcomes between patients who sustained traumatic injuries associated with grain elevators at Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-regulated industrial sites versus those on OSHA-exempt farming operations were also made. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients' presenting with grain elevator-related injuries at a level-1 trauma center between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. Data collected included demographics, mechanism of injury, injury severity, hospitalization details, and discharge disposition. Data were summarized, and comparisons were made between the groups. All patients (N = 18) in the study were male, with a mean age of 37 years. Falls and being caught in equipment each accounted for 27.8% of injuries. Among the 18 patients, there were a total of 37 injuries. The majority of injuries were either lower extremity (29.7%) or chest injuries (21.6%). The average hospital length of stay was 4 ± 4.5 days, and one patient required mechanical ventilation. There were no reported deaths. The literature reports entrapments as the leading cause of grain elevator-related injuries; however, this study found that falls and being caught in equipment were the most common mechanisms of injury. This suggests that a greater emphasis should be placed on fall prevention and equipment safety.

  7. Pulsed IRSL: A stable and fast bleaching luminescence signal from feldspar for dating Quaternary sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Kondo, Reisuke; Lauer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    to measurement temperature), continuous wave (CW) pIRIR225 and pIRIR290 signals, as well as the two IR50 signals measured as a part of the pIRIR protocols. This comparison is carried out for 3 samples taken from Late Quaternary fluvial sediments, which have independent age estimates from radiocarbon dating......Elevated temperature post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (post-IR IRSL; pIRIR) dating method using feldspar has led to a significant advancement in dating Quaternary sediments, as this signal has been shown to be stable on geological time scales. In comparison to the conventional IRSL...

  8. Can We Untangle the Weather? Stable Water Isotope Controls on the Juneau Icefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, A. C.; Keenan, E.; Yong, C.; Bridgers, S. L.; Markle, B. R.; Hamel, J.; Klein, E. S.

    2017-12-01

    Stable water isotopes in snow and ice provide a reliable proxy for past weather and climate. However, untangling weather and climate signals from water isotopes on the Juneau Icefield, Alaska, has proven difficult due to consistent summer melt and rain. The Juneau Icefield is a large glaciated region consisting of complex terrain and sharp climatic gradients. Here we study how topographic steepness and elevation influence stable water isotope ratios on the Juneau Icefield using vertical snowpit profiles collected from water year 2017's snowpack. As terrain steepens, we expect gradients in isotope ratios to intensify. In addition, we aim to determine how post-depositional metamorphism, particularly precipitation, affects water isotope ratios. We anticipate rain events to increase the proportion of heavy water isotopes. Lastly, we compare model output and remote sensing observations of storm origin to vertical stratigraphy of stable isotope ratios in the snowpack in order to determine if it is possible to use isotopes to identify past storm tracks on the Juneau Icefield. Snowpack isotope stratigraphy ratios can likely be linked to seasonal trends of storm characteristics. Given this enhanced understanding of how stable water isotopes behave on the Juneau Icefield, we contribute to the understanding of past weather and climate, both here and elsewhere, and explore the possibility for future deep ice cores on the Juneau Icefield.

  9. Hurricane Wilma's impact on overall soil elevation and zones within the soil profile in a mangrove forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, K.R.T.; Smith, T. J.; Anderson, G.H.; Ouellette, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Soil elevation affects tidal inundation period, inundation frequency, and overall hydroperiod, all of which are important ecological factors affecting species recruitment, composition, and survival in wetlands. Hurricanes can dramatically affect a site's soil elevation. We assessed the impact of Hurricane Wilma (2005) on soil elevation at a mangrove forest location along the Shark River in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Using multiple depth surface elevation tables (SETs) and marker horizons we measured soil accretion, erosion, and soil elevation. We partitioned the effect of Hurricane Wilma's storm deposit into four constituent soil zones: surface (accretion) zone, shallow zone (0–0.35 m), middle zone (0.35–4 m), and deep zone (4–6 m). We report expansion and contraction of each soil zone. Hurricane Wilma deposited 37.0 (± 3.0 SE) mm of material; however, the absolute soil elevation change was + 42.8 mm due to expansion in the shallow soil zone. One year post-hurricane, the soil profile had lost 10.0 mm in soil elevation, with 8.5 mm of the loss due to erosion. The remaining soil elevation loss was due to compaction from shallow subsidence. We found prolific growth of new fine rootlets (209 ± 34 SE g m−2) in the storm deposited material suggesting that deposits may become more stable in the near future (i.e., erosion rate will decrease). Surficial erosion and belowground processes both played an important role in determining the overall soil elevation. Expansion and contraction in the shallow soil zone may be due to hydrology, and in the middle and bottom soil zones due to shallow subsidence. Findings thus far indicate that soil elevation has made substantial gains compared to site specific relative sea-level rise, but data trends suggest that belowground processes, which differ by soil zone, may come to dominate the long term ecological impact of storm deposit.

  10. Cerebral Pulsatility Index Is Elevated in Patients with Elevated Right Atrial Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Shouri; Schlick, Konrad H; Padrick, Matthew M; Rinsky, Brenda; Gonzalez, Nestor; Jones, Heather; Mayer, Stephan A; Lyden, Patrick D

    2018-01-01

    Extracerebral venous congestion can precipitate intracranial hypertension due to obstruction of cerebral blood outflow. Conditions that increase right atrial pressure, such as hypervolemia, are thought to increase resistance to jugular venous outflow and contribute to cerebro-venous congestion. Cerebral pulsatility index (CPI) is considered a surrogate marker of distal cerebrovascular resistance and is elevated with intracranial hypertension. Thus, we sought to test the hypothesis that elevated right atrial pressure is associated with increased CPI compared to normal right atrial pressure. We retrospectively reviewed 61 consecutive patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We calculated CPI from transcranial Doppler studies and correlated these with echocardiographic measures of right atrial pressure. CPIs were compared from patients with elevated and normal right atrial pressure. There was a significant difference between CPI obtained from all patients with elevated right atrial pressure compared to those with normal right atrial pressure (P right and left hemispheric CPI from patients with both elevated and normal right atrial pressure. Patients with elevated right atrial pressure had significantly higher CPI compared to patients with normal right atrial pressure. These findings suggest that cerebro-venous congestion due to impaired jugular venous outflow may increase distal cerebrovascular resistance as measured by CPI. Since elevated CPI is associated with poor outcome in numerous neurological conditions, future studies are needed to elucidate the significance of these results in other populations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  11. Reducing elevator energy use: A comparison of posted feedback and reduced elevator convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houten, Ron Van; Nau, Paul A.; Merrigan, Michael

    1981-01-01

    The effects of two different procedures for reducing elevator energy use were assessed using a multiple-baseline design. In the first procedure, feedback about the amount of energy consumed by the elevators each week was posted on each elevator door. Later, signs advocating the use of stairs to save energy and improve health were posted next to the feedback signs. In the second procedure, the time required to travel between floors was increased by adding a delay to the elevator door closing mechanisms. Results indicated that neither feedback alone nor feedback plus educational signs reduced the amount of energy consumed by the elevators. However, use of the door delay reduced consumption by one-third in all elevators. A second experiment replicated the effect of the door delay on energy consumption and, in addition, demonstrated that the door delay also produced a reduction in the number of persons using the elevator. The second experiment also showed that, following an initial period during which a full delay was in effect, a gradual reduction of the delay interval resulted in continued energy conservation. Reduced convenience as a general strategy for energy conservation is discussed. PMID:16795648

  12. Lip Repositioning Technique With Smile Elevator Muscle Containment - A Novel Cosmetic Approach for Gummy Smile: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littuma, Gustavo Javier Salazar; de Souza, Humberto Cherem Mendez; Peñarrieta, Gabriella Mercedes; Magini, Ricardo de Souza; Saba-Chujfi, Eduardo

    Excessive gingival display (EGD) is a challenge for dentists attempting to provide their patients a pleasant smile. EGD associated with hyperactivity of the smile elevator muscles can be treated with various surgical techniques; regardless of which technique is used, to achieve a predictable result with long-term stability limiting upper lip movement when the patient smiles, a firm muscle containment is imperative. This report describes an innovative suture procedure associated with a lip repositioning technique aimed at maintaining the traction and containment of the smile elevator muscles. This case demonstrates a successful and stable result for excessive gingival exposure, addressing and satisfying a patient's esthetic concerns.

  13. Stable channel of reclaimed tidal lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarifudin, Achmad; Imanuddin, Momon S.; Moerwanto, Arie S.; Suryadi, F. X.

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to develop models of the Operation and Maintenance in the reclaimed tidal marsh area to get a stable channel. The research location is reclaimed tidal delta area Telang I Primary 8 representing land typology A/B and a survey conducted in 13 South Secondary Schemes following existing tertiary Telang I. MIKE - 11 computer models used used to analyze the movement of sediment in the channel in both the Primary channel 8, SPD, SDU and tertiary channels in block 13 South. Calibration model with multiple channels in the field of physical parameters has been performed to obtain results close to the results of measurement modeling sediment movement in the channel. The integration models of MIKE - 11 models with various scenarios are used to model the operation and maintenance of the channel in the tidal marsh area to get a stable channel. According to the scheme P8 - 13S, OM models obtained 75 percent, in which the secondary channel (SPD/SDU) and built flap gate in tertiary channel, get a well prototype model of the stable channel (equilibriums), where the average erosion on P8 at a distance of 3,200 m in the amount of 4,472,049 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the SPD of 963,836 m3 and mean of sedimentation in the tertiary channel of 3,508,213 m3. Similarly, on average erosion P8 by 4,135,649 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the SDU of 681,304 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the tertiary channel of 3,454,345 m3.

  14. 30 CFR 75.1403-4 - Criteria-Automatic elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Automatic elevators. 75.1403-4 Section... Criteria—Automatic elevators. (a) The doors of automatic elevators should be equipped with interlocking switches so arranged that the elevator car will be immovable while any door is opened or unlocked, and...

  15. 29 CFR 1917.116 - Elevators and escalators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elevators and escalators. 1917.116 Section 1917.116 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.116 Elevators and escalators. (a) “Elevator” means a...) No elevator or escalator with a defect which affects safety shall be used. (d) Elevator safety...

  16. Aggressive Fibromatosis: Evidence for a Stable Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF is an uncommon locally infiltrating benign disease of soft tissue for which treatment comprises complete surgical resection. Radiotherapy can be given postoperatively if the margin is incompletely resected. If the tumour is inoperable radiotherapy provides an alternative treatment. Hormone therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy have also been used for unresectable or recurrent disease. All treatment modalities carry an associated morbidity. We believe that the natural history of aggressive fibromatosis may include a period of stable disease without progression, during which time, treatment is not always necessary.

  17. Stable isogeometric analysis of trimmed geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marussig, Benjamin; Zechner, Jürgen; Beer, Gernot; Fries, Thomas-Peter

    2017-04-01

    We explore extended B-splines as a stable basis for isogeometric analysis with trimmed parameter spaces. The stabilization is accomplished by an appropriate substitution of B-splines that may lead to ill-conditioned system matrices. The construction for non-uniform knot vectors is presented. The properties of extended B-splines are examined in the context of interpolation, potential, and linear elasticity problems and excellent results are attained. The analysis is performed by an isogeometric boundary element formulation using collocation. It is argued that extended B-splines provide a flexible and simple stabilization scheme which ideally suits the isogeometric paradigm.

  18. Remarks on stable and quasi-stable k-strings at large N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armoni, A.; Shifman, M.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss k-strings in the large-N Yang-Mills theory and its supersymmetric extension. Whereas the tension of the bona fide (stable) QCD string is expected to depend only on the N-ality of the representation, tensions that depend on specific representation R are often reported in the lattice literature. In particular, adjoint strings are discussed and found in certain simulations. We clarify this issue by systematically exploiting the notion of the quasi-stable strings which becomes well-defined at large N. The quasi-stable strings with representation-dependent tensions decay, but the decay rate (per unit length per unit time) is suppressed as Λ 2 F(N) where F(N) falls off as a function of N. It can be determined on the case-by-case basis. The quasi-stable strings eventually decay into stable strings whose tension indeed depends only on the N-ality. We also briefly review large-N arguments showing why the Casimir formula for the string tension cannot be correct, and present additional arguments in favor of the sine formula. Finally, we comment on the relevance of our estimates to Euclidean lattice measurements

  19. Rotating Space Elevators: Classical and Statistical Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Steven

    We investigate a novel and unique dynamical system, the Rotating Space Elevator (RSE). The RSE is a multiply rotating system of strings reaching beyond the Earth geo-synchronous satellite orbit. Objects sliding along the RSE string ("climbers") do not require internal engines or propulsion to be transported far away from the Earth's surface. The RSE thus solves a major problem in the space elevator technology which is how to supply the energy to the climbers moving along the string. The RSE is a double rotating floppy string. The RSE can be made in various shapes that are stabilized by an approximate equilibrium between the gravitational and inertial forces acting in the double rotating frame. The RSE exhibits a variety of interesting dynamical phenomena studied in this thesis.

  20. Regional elevator survey : grain transportation & industry trends for Great Plains elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    One potential means for gaining insight into the current state of the elevator industry, : and into expectations for future trends, is through a survey. The objective of this study is to profile the transportation and industry characteristics of the ...

  1. Multivariate Max-Stable Spatial Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-06

    Analysis of spatial extremes is currently based on univariate processes. Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and explicitly quantified, they are therefore widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extreme events of real processes, such as environmental phenomena, it may be useful to study several spatial variables simultaneously. To this end, we extend some theoretical results and applications of max-stable processes to the multivariate setting to analyze extreme events of several variables observed across space. In particular, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. Then, we define a Poisson process construction in the multivariate setting and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extremevalue, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the BrownResnick models. Inferential aspects of those models based on composite likelihoods are developed. We present results of various Monte Carlo simulations and of an application to a dataset of summer daily temperature maxima and minima in Oklahoma, U.S.A., highlighting the utility of working with multivariate models in contrast to the univariate case. Based on joint work with Simone Padoan and Huiyan Sang.

  2. Application of stable isotope to breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yasuto

    1988-01-01

    Needles to say, radioisotopes have good characteristics as a tracer for examining biological functions. In fact, scyntigraphy is widely used over Japan. It is true, however, that there are some difficulties in applying radioisotopes to humans. Thus, greater attention began to be attracted to stable isotopes in the late 1960s, because these substances can be used for infants and pregnant women. They can be stored for a long period of time since they do not suffer damping as in the case of radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a tracer, stable isotopes can provide structural-chemical information including the position of isotope labels, and the mass and atomic composition of fragment ions. Such techniques as NMR spectroscopy is employed for this purpose. The method is currently used to perform examinations of congenital metabolic disorders. The carbon isotopes of 13 C and 14 C are used for breath test. Compounds labeled with these isotopes are administered and their ratio to the total CO 2 in breath is measured to diagnose diseases. In the early 1970s, 13 C has come into use for breath test. Similar breath test is applied to diagnosis of the bacterial overgrowth syndrome and ileal dysfunction syndrome. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Stable states in a strong IR field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, Francis

    2015-05-01

    It is found that 10% of atoms stay in the quasi-stable states after being exposed to intense laser or microwave (MW) pulses, even though the pulses' intensity is much stronger than that needed for static fields ionization. The reason why atoms survive those strong pulses has attracted growing attentions. A. Arakelyan et al. have observed the optical spectra of the surviving Lithium atoms after interaction with intense 38-GHz MW fields for more than 1000 cycles, and the spectra exhibit a periodic train of peaks 38 GHz apart. It suggests that those weakly bound Rydberg electrons seldom go back to the ionic core, where the cycle average energy exchange happens. In this study, we are interested in the electron behavior in the presence of intense infrared fields with a much shorter wavelength (1000 nm). By solving the full 3D time dependent Schrodinger equation, we calculate the spectra of the surviving atoms under intense IR fields. Our numerical calculations show atoms survive the intense field in quasi-stable states for a long time, and the optical spectra are obviously modulated by the IR frequency. Through tuning the ponderomotive energy, we see how field parameters affect the behavior of electrons. Different atoms, such as Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, and Sodium, are tested to see how atom's energy structures influence the results.

  4. Color stable manganese-doped phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Robert Joseph [Burnt Hills, NY; Setlur, Anant Achyut [Niskayuna, NY; Deshpande, Anirudha Rajendra [Twinsburg, OH; Grigorov, Ljudmil Slavchev [Sofia, BG

    2012-08-28

    A process for preparing color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphors includes providing a phosphor of formula I; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]:Mn.sup.+4 I and contacting the phosphor in particulate form with a saturated solution of a composition of formula II in aqueous hydrofluoric acid; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]; II wherein A is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, NR.sub.4 or a combination thereof; M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, Al, Ga, In, Sc, Y, La, Nb, Ta, Bi, Gd, or a combination thereof; R is H, lower alkyl, or a combination thereof; x is the absolute value of the charge of the [MF.sub.y] ion; and y is 5, 6 or 7. In particular embodiments, M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, or a combination thereof. A lighting apparatus capable of emitting white light includes a semiconductor light source; and a phosphor composition radiationally coupled to the light source, and which includes a color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphor.

  5. Plants with elevated levels of glucan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, Markus; Kraemer, Florian J.; Hake, Sarah

    2018-03-20

    The present disclosure relates to mutations in licheninase genes encoding polypeptides with decreased licheninase activity, which when expressed in plants results in elevated levels of glucan in the plants. In particular, the disclosure relates to licheninase nucleic acids and polypeptides related to glucan accumulation in plants, plants with reduced expression of a licheninase nucleic acid, and methods related to the generation of plants with increased glucan content in the cell walls of leaf tissue.

  6. Prevalence of elevated serum creatinine among treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cut off mark of 1.5mg/dl was used to evaluate elevated serum creatinine levels. Results: There were 826patients with a male/female ratio of 1:1.32. Males were 356 (43.1%) and females 470 (56.9%). Among these patients, 118 (14.3%) had a serum creatinine value of over 1.5mg/dl, signifying renal disease. Conclusion: A ...

  7. Experimental prototype of an electric elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiceanu, M.; Epure, S.; Ciuta, S.

    2016-08-01

    The main objective is to achieve an elevator prototype powered by a three-phase voltage system via a bidirectional static power converter ac-ac with regenerating capability. In order to diminish the power size of the electric motor up to 1/3 of rated power, the elevator contains two carriages of the same weight, one serving as the payload, and the other as counterweight. Before proper operation of the static power converter, the capacitor must be charged at rated voltage via a precharge circuit. At the moment of stabilizing the DC voltage at nominal value, the AC-AC power converter can operates in the proper limits. The functions of the control structure are: the load control task, speed and torque controls. System includes transducers for current measuring, voltage sensors and encoder. As reserve power sources the hybrid battery-photovoltaic panels are used. The control voltage is modulated by implementing four types of pulse width modulations: sinusoidal, with reduced commutation, third order harmonic insertion, and the space vector modulation. Therefore, the prototype could operates with an increased efficiency, in spite of the existing ones. The experimental results confirm the well design of the chosen solution. The control solution assures bidirectional power flow control, precharge control, and load control and it is implemented on a digital signal processor. The elevator capacity is between 300-450 kg, and it is driven by using a 1.5 kW three-phase asynchronous machine.

  8. Endoscopic laryngeal web formation for pitch elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer

    2007-02-01

    Endoscopic laryngeal web formation has been used to elevate the speaking voice, primarily in male to female transsexuals as part of gender reassignment intervention. The goal of this article is to review the literature regarding surgical treatment for pitch elevation and to describe a novel method of laryngeal web formation. The results of this technique are also reported in a series of six patients. All patients were assessed and treated at the St. Michael's Hospital Voice Disorders Clinic, a tertiary referral centre for voice disorders. Pre- and postoperative voice recordings, acoustic analysis, and videostroboscopic examinations were performed in this series. The acoustic data collected included isolated vowel samples, a reading task, and a modified voice range profile. The patients all underwent successful endoscopic web formation with a Gelfoam augmentation technique. The voice results collected at least 6 months after vocal fold web formation demonstrate a dramatic increase in the habitual speaking fundamental frequency. This new modification for endoscopic web formation has been shown to be a successful procedure for permanent elevation of pitch with little or no morbidity.

  9. Rangeland -- plant response to elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owensby, C.E.; Coyne, P.I.; Ham, J.M.; Parton, W.; Rice, C.; Auen, L.M.; Adam, N.

    1993-01-01

    Plots of a tallgrass prairie ecosystem were exposed to ambient and twice-ambient CO 2 concentrations in open-top chambers and compared to unchambered ambient CO 2 plots during the entire growing season from 1989 through 1992. Relative root production among treatments was estimated using root ingrowth bags which remained in place throughout the growing season. Latent heat flux was simulated with and without water stress. Botanical composition was estimated annuallyin all treatments. Open-top chambers appeared to reduce latent heat flux and increase water use efficiency similar to elevated CO 2 when water stress was not severe, but under severe water stress, chamber effect on water use efficiency was limited. In natural ecosystems with periodic moisture stress, increased water use efficiency under elevated CO 2 apparently would have a greater impact on productivity than photosynthetic pathway. Root ingrowth biomass was greater in 1990 and 1991 on elevated CO 2 plots compared to ambient or chambered-ambient plots. In 1992, there was no difference in root ingrowth biomass among treatments

  10. Elevers læring og progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    praksisbaserede anbefalinger til, hvordan data om elevernes progression kan indsamles, sammenstilles, vises og understøtte elevernes udvikling, så alle elever bliver så dygtige, som de kan. Rapporten består af et resumé af en forskningskortlægning af danske og internationale studier af, hvordan man måler læring...... og progression, og hvordan fagprofessionelle kan arbejde med elevdata for at understøtte elevers læring og progression. Derefter følger opsamling på en spørgeskemaundersøgelse blandt private leverandører af digitale læremidler til folkeskolen og resultaterne af en erfaringsopsamling blandt lærere......, elever og forældre. Endelig præsenteres erfaringerne med et konkret udviklingsarbejde på en række områder, hvor elevdata spiller en væsentlig rolle samt fagdidaktiske overvejelser om fagprofessionelles brug af elevdata. På baggrund af undersøgelsen præsenteres anbefalinger til overordnede systembehov...

  11. Safety and efficacy of angioplasty with intracoronary stenting in patients with unstable coronary syndromes. Comparison with stable coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. L. Correia

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess safety and efficacy of coronary angioplasty with stent implantation in unstable coronary syndromes. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of in-hospital and late evolution of 74 patients with unstable coronary syndromes (unstable angina or infarction without elevation of the ST segment undergoing coronary angioplasty with stent placement. These 74 patients were compared with 31 patients with stable coronary syndromes (stable angina or stable silent ischemia undergoing the same procedure. RESULTS: No death and no need for revascularization of the culprit artery occurred in the in-hospital phase. The incidences of acute non-Q-wave myocardial infarction were 1.4% and 3.2% (p=0.6 in the unstable and stable coronary syndrome groups, respectively. In the late follow-up (11.2±7.5 months, the incidences of these events combined were 5.7% in the unstable coronary syndrome group and 6.9% (p=0.8 in the stable coronary syndrome group. In the multivariate analysis, the only variable with a tendency to significance as an event predictor was diabetes mellitus (p=0.07; OR=5.2; 95% CI=0.9-29.9. CONCLUSION: The in-hospital and late evolutions of patients with unstable coronary syndrome undergoing angioplasty with intracoronary stent implantation are similar to those of the stable coronary syndrome group, suggesting that this procedure is safe and efficacious when performed in unstable coronary syndrome patients.

  12. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  13. Elevated moisture stimulates carbon loss from mineral soils by releasing protected organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjuan; Hall, Steven J

    2017-11-24

    Moisture response functions for soil microbial carbon (C) mineralization remain a critical uncertainty for predicting ecosystem-climate feedbacks. Theory and models posit that C mineralization declines under elevated moisture and associated anaerobic conditions, leading to soil C accumulation. Yet, iron (Fe) reduction potentially releases protected C, providing an under-appreciated mechanism for C destabilization under elevated moisture. Here we incubate Mollisols from ecosystems under C 3 /C 4 plant rotations at moisture levels at and above field capacity over 5 months. Increased moisture and anaerobiosis initially suppress soil C mineralization, consistent with theory. However, after 25 days, elevated moisture stimulates cumulative gaseous C-loss as CO 2 and CH 4 to >150% of the control. Stable C isotopes show that mineralization of older C 3 -derived C released following Fe reduction dominates C losses. Counter to theory, elevated moisture may significantly accelerate C losses from mineral soils over weeks to months-a critical mechanistic deficiency of current Earth system models.

  14. Elevated serum liver enzymes and fatty liver changes associated with long driving among taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Steven J; Richardson, David B; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggested increased morbidities and mortalities of liver diseases in drivers. To examine whether driving (monthly driving distance; tenure) is associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), or chronic fatty liver (FL) changes, we performed a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of the Taxi Drivers' Health Study (n = 1,355), adjusting for clinical, demographic, and lifestyle factors. Prevalence of elevated ALT, elevated AST, and fatty liver changes were 22.0%, 5.1%, and 9.3%, respectively. Driving distance had a positive association with elevated ALT with a prevalence ratio of 1.35 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.89) comparing the highest versus lowest driving quartile. This association differed by alcohol use, with a corresponding prevalence ratio of 2.08 (95% CI: 1.30, 3.33) among "past/current" drinkers but no association among "never" drinkers. Similar patterns were found for AST, but estimates were less stable. We found a curvilinear response pattern for fatty liver changes; prevalence first increased with years as a taxi driver and then receded in the highest ranges of driving tenure, regardless of the alcohol history. Our results provide evidence that long driving is associated with both short-term and chronic liver insults, although alcohol use appears to modify this putative effect. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Elevated intracranial pressure causes optic nerve and retinal ganglion cell degeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, Derek M; Wu, Samuel M; Frankfort, Benjamin J

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel experimental system for the modulation and measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP), and to use this system to assess the impact of elevated ICP on the optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in CD1 mice. This system involved surgical implantation of an infusion cannula and a radiowave based pressure monitoring probe through the skull and into the subarachnoid space. The infusion cannula was used to increase ICP, which was measured by the probe and transmitted to a nearby receiver. The system provided robust and consistent ICP waveforms, was well tolerated, and was stable over time. ICP was elevated to approximately 30 mmHg for one week, after which we assessed changes in optic nerve structure with transmission electron microscopy in cross section and RGC numbers with antibody staining in retinal flat mounts. ICP elevation resulted in optic nerve axonal loss and disorganization, as well as RGC soma loss. We conclude that the controlled manipulation of ICP in active, awake mice is possible, despite their small size. Furthermore, ICP elevation results in visual system phenotypes of optic nerve and RGC degeneration, suggesting that this model can be used to study the impact of ICP on the visual system. Potentially, this model can also be used to study the relationship between ICP and IOP, as well diseases impacted by ICP variation such as glaucoma, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and the spaceflight-related visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased platelet aggregation and turnover in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Løkke Funck; Dalsgaard, Jens; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and clopidogrel and evaluate platelet turnover in the acute phase of STEMI compared to a stable phase 3 months later. In this observational follow-up study on 48 STEMI patients transferred for PPCI, loading doses of aspirin (300 mg) and clopidogrel (600 mg) were given orally......Newly produced platelets are present in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This may influence the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and clopidogrel administered prior to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). The aims of this study were to investigate...

  17. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivated as tuber or leafy vegetable supplier as affected by elevated tropospheric ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutgen, Norbert; Keutgen, Anna J; Janssens, Marc J J

    2008-08-13

    Sweet potato cultivars respond differently to elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations of ca. 130 mug m (-3), 8 h a day for 4 weeks, which affects their selection for cultivation. In the first cultivar presented here, an adequate leafy vegetable supplier, the ozone load resulted in a shift of biomass to maintain the canopy at the expense of tuber development. Starch content of leaves was reduced, indicating an impairment of quality, but carotenoid content remained stable. The second cultivar may be grown for tuber production. Although the ratio tuber/plant remained stable under ozone, tuber yield and its starch content were significantly reduced. The lower starch content indicated a worse quality for certain industrial processing, but it is desirable for chip production. Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations also influenced free amino acids and macronutrient contents of tubers, but these modifications were of minor significance for tuber quality in the second cultivar.

  18. ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (AS-PECAN) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D. D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Silver Spring, MD (United States); Geerts, B. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field campaign was a large multi-agency/multi-institutional experiment that targeted nighttime convection events in the central plains of the United States in order to better understand a range of processes that lead to the initiation and upscale growth of deep convection. Both weather and climate models struggle to properly represent the timing and intensity of precipitation in the central United States in their simulations. These models must be able to represent the interactions between the nocturnal stable boundary layer (SBL), the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ), and a reservoir of convectively available potential energy (CAPE) that frequently exists above the SBL. Furthermore, a large fraction of the nocturnal precipitation is due to the organization of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). In particular, there were four research foci for the PECAN campaign: •The initiation of elevated nocturnal convection focus seeks to elucidate the mesoscaleenvironmental characteristics and processes that lead to convection initiation (CI) and provide baseline data on the early evolution of mesoscale convective clusters. •The dynamics and internal structure and microphysics of nocturnal MCSs focus will investigatethe transition from surface-based to elevated storm structure, the interaction of cold pools generated by MCSs with the nocturnal stable boundary layer, and how the organization and evolution of elevated convection is influenced by the SBL and the vertical profile of wind and stability above the LLJ. •The bores and wave-like disturbances focus seeks to advance knowledge of the initiation of boredisturbances by convection, how the vertical profile of stability and winds modulate bore structure, the role of these disturbances in the initiation, maintenance, and organization of deep convection, and their impact on the LLJ and SBL. •The LLJ focus seeks to understand the processes that influence the spatial and

  19. Elevational gradient in clutch size of Red-faced Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Kristen G.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of life history evolution has benefited from debates regarding the underlying causes, and geographic ubiquity, of spatial patterns in avian clutch sizes. Past studies have revealed that birds lay smaller clutch sizes at higher elevation. However, in most previous studies, investigators have failed to adequately control for elevational differences in breeding phenology. To better understand the elevational gradient in avian clutch size, we need to know how clutch size changes across the entire elevational breeding range of a species (i.e., the shape of the relationship between elevation and clutch size), and whether the elevational gradient in clutch size is merely an artifact of elevational gradients in breeding phenology or breeding season length. We examined the relationship between breeding elevation and clutch size of Red-faced Warblers (Cardellina rubrifrons) along a 1000-m elevational gradient in Arizona. Our objectives were to determine how clutch size changed with elevation, and if the relationship between clutch size and elevation merely reflected elevational changes in breeding season length or phenology. The proportion of 5-egg clutches decreased and the proportion of 3- and 4-egg clutches increased non-linearly with increasing elevation, even after controlling for the elevational gradient in nest initiation date. Thus, average clutch size declined across the elevational breeding range of Red-faced Warblers, but this decline was not due to elevational variation in breeding phenology. Timing of breeding changed, but the duration of the breeding season did not change appreciably across the elevational gradient. Hence, elevational differences in breeding season length or breeding phenology cannot explain why Red-faced Warblers (and perhaps other birds) breeding at higher elevations have smaller clutches.

  20. Estimation of Time-Varying Autoregressive Symmetric Alpha Stable

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the last decade alpha-stable distributions have become a standard model for impulsive data. Especially the linear symmetric alpha-stable processes have found...

  1. Stable angina pectoris with no obstructive coronary artery disease is associated with increased risks of major adverse cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, L.; Hvelplund, A.; Abildstrom, S. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Patients with chest pain and no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) are considered at low risk for cardiovascular events but evidence supporting this is scarce. We investigated the prognostic implications of stable angina pectoris in relation to the presence and degree of CAD with no o...... with stable angina and normal coronary arteries or diffuse non-obstructive CAD have elevated risks of MACE and all-cause mortality compared with a reference population without ischaemic heart disease.......Aims Patients with chest pain and no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) are considered at low risk for cardiovascular events but evidence supporting this is scarce. We investigated the prognostic implications of stable angina pectoris in relation to the presence and degree of CAD...... (MACE), defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure, and all-cause mortality. Significantly more women (65%) than men (32%) had no obstructive CAD (P

  2. Stable CSR in Storage Rings: A Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user's shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  3. Stable CSR in storage rings: A model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Venturini, Marco; Abo-Bakr, Michael; Feikes, Jorge; Holldack, Karsten; Kuske, Peter; Wustefeld, Godehart; Hubers, Heinz-Willerm; Warnock, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user s shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  4. Chance and stability stable distributions and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Uchaikin, Vladimir V

    1999-01-01

    An introduction to the theory of stable distributions and their applications. It contains a modern outlook on the mathematical aspects of the theory. The authors explain numerous peculiarities of stable distributions and describe the principle concept of probability theory and function analysis. A significant part of the book is devoted to applications of stable distributions. Another notable feature is the material on the interconnection of stable laws with fractals, chaos and anomalous transport processes.

  5. Design of sintering-stable heterogeneous catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallas-Hulin, Agata

    the crystalline framework of a zeolite creates a steric hindrance against agglomeration into larger clusters. In the present study, experimental protocols for encapsulation of metal nanoparticles inside zeolites were developed. Two different methodologies were proposed to encapsulate gold, palladium and platinum......One of the major issues in the use of metal nanoparticles in heterogeneous catalysis is sintering. Sintering occurs at elevated temperatures because of increased mobility of nanoparticles, leading to their agglomeration and, as a consequence, to the deactivation of the catalyst. It is an emerging...... problem especially for the noble metals-based catalysis. These metals being expensive and scarce, it is worth developing catalyst systems which preserve their activity over time. Encapsulation of nanoparticles inside zeolites is one of the ways to prevent sintering. Entrapment of nanoparticles inside...

  6. A Note on Interpolation of Stable Processes | Nassiuma | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interpolation procedures tailored for gaussian processes may not be applied to infinite variance stable processes. Alternative techniques suitable for a limited set of stable case with index α∈(1,2] were initially studied by Pourahmadi (1984) for harmonizable processes. This was later extended to the ARMA stable process ...

  7. The production of stable isotopes in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgel, M.; Iglesias, J.; Casas, J.; Saviron, J. M.; Quintanilla, M.

    1965-07-01

    The activities developed in the field of the production of stable isotopes by means of ion-exchange chromatography and thermal diffusion techniques are reported. The first method was used to study the separation of the nitrogen and boron isotopes, whereby the separation factor was determined by the break through method. Values ranging from 1,028 to 1,022 were obtained for the separation factor of nitrogen by using ammonium hydroxide solutions while the corresponding values as obtained for boron amounted to 1,035-1,027 using boric acid solutions. Using ammonium chloride or acetate and sodium borate, respectively, resulted in the obtention of values for the separation factor approaching unity. The isotopic separation has been carried out according to the method of development by displacement. The separation of the isotopes of the noble gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon has been accomplished resorting to the method of thermal diffusion. (Author) 16 refs.

  8. The uniqueness of stable crack growth data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1981-01-01

    The paper addresses the uniqueness of the stable crack growth relation, with particular reference to creep crack growth and stress corrosion crack growth, where it is the pattern to use laboratory data which relates the stress intensity K to the crack growth rate dc/dt. Simple models are used to define the conditions under which the K versus dc/dt data is unique. Extensive use is made of the Dugdale-Bilby-Cottrell-Swinden (DBCS) model, in which the yield accompanying crack growth is assumed to be confined to an infinitesimal thin strip coplanar with the growing crack. The DBCS model can be modified to give an incremental growth criterion, which is in the form of a differential equation relating the stress intensity to crack length. The conditions under which this equation gives a unique relation between stress intensity and crack length are then investigated. (orig./HP)

  9. The production of stable isotopes in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urgel, M.; Iglesias, J.; Casas, J.; Saviron, J. M.; Quintanilla, M.

    1965-01-01

    The activities developed in the field of the production of stable isotopes by means of ion-exchange chromatography and thermal diffusion techniques are reported. The first method was used to study the separation of the nitrogen and boron isotopes, whereby the separation factor was determined by the break through method. Values ranging from 1,028 to 1,022 were obtained for the separation factor of nitrogen by using ammonium hydroxide solutions while the corresponding values as obtained for boron amounted to 1,035-1,027 using boric acid solutions. Using ammonium chloride or acetate and sodium borate, respectively, resulted in the obtention of values for the separation factor approaching unity. The isotopic separation has been carried out according to the method of development by displacement. The separation of the isotopes of the noble gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon has been accomplished resorting to the method of thermal diffusion. (Author) 16 refs

  10. The Search for Stable, Massive, Elementary Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we review the experimental and observational searches for stable, massive, elementary particles other than the electron and proton. The particles may be neutral, may have unit charge or may have fractional charge. They may interact through the strong, electromagnetic, weak or gravitational forces or through some unknown force. The purpose of this review is to provide a guide for future searches--what is known, what is not known, and what appear to be the most fruitful areas for new searches. A variety of experimental and observational methods such as accelerator experiments, cosmic ray studies, searches for exotic particles in bulk matter and searches using astrophysical observations is included in this review

  11. Multivariate max-stable spatial processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2015-02-11

    Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and quantified, so they are widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extremes, it may be useful to study several variables simultaneously. To this end, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. We define a Poisson process construction and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extreme-value, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the Brown–Resnick models. We develop inference for the models based on composite likelihoods. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations and an application to daily maximum wind speed and wind gust.

  12. Stable computation of generalized singular values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drmac, Z.; Jessup, E.R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study floating-point computation of the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) of a general matrix pair (A, B), where A and B are real matrices with the same numbers of columns. The GSVD is a powerful analytical and computational tool. For instance, the GSVD is an implicit way to solve the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problem Kx = {lambda}Mx, where K = A{sup {tau}}A and M = B{sup {tau}}B. Our goal is to develop stable numerical algorithms for the GSVD that are capable of computing the singular value approximations with the high relative accuracy that the perturbation theory says is possible. We assume that the singular values are well-determined by the data, i.e., that small relative perturbations {delta}A and {delta}B (pointwise rounding errors, for example) cause in each singular value {sigma} of (A, B) only a small relative perturbation {vert_bar}{delta}{sigma}{vert_bar}/{sigma}.

  13. Stable Oxygen-18 and Deuterium Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sascha

    The application of stable Oxygen-18 (18O) and Deuterium (2H) isotopes, as a tracer for fluxes between different compartments of the water cycle was subject of the present PhD-thesis. During a three year period, temporal data from a wide range of water cycle constituents was collected from...... the Skjern River catchment, Denmark. The presented applications focused on studying the isotopic 'input signal' to the hydrosphere in the form of precipitation, the isotopic 'output signal' with its related dynamic processes at a coastal saltwater-freshwater interface (groundwater isotopes) and the temporal...... development within a given lowland headwater catchment (stream water isotopes). Based on our investigations on the precipitation isotopic composition a local meteoric water line (LMWL) was constructed and expressed as: δ2H=7.4 δ18O + 5.36‰. Moreover, we showed that under maritime temperature climate influence...

  14. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-11-21

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed strategy has been further taken into consideration: a belief strategy is proposed in terms of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. Furthermore, based on the proposed belief strategy, a belief-based ESS has been developed. The belief strategy and belief-based ESS can reduce to the mixed strategy and mixed ESS, which provide more realistic and powerful tools to describe interactions among agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stable orbits for lunar landing assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoleo, Ennio; Cinelli, Marco; Ortore, Emiliano; Circi, Christian

    2017-10-01

    To improve lunar landing performances in terms of mission costs, trajectory determination and visibility the use of a single probe located over an assistance orbit around the Moon has been taken into consideration. To this end, the properties of two quasi-circular orbits characterised by a stable behaviour of semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination have been investigated. The analysis has demonstrated the possibility of using an assistance probe, located over one of these orbits, as a relay satellite between lander and Earth, even in the case of landings on the far side of the Moon. A comparison about the accuracy in retrieving the lander's state with respect to the use of a probe located in the Lagrangian point L2 of the Earth-Moon system has also been carried out.

  16. Stable glomerular filtration rate in normotensive IDDM patients with stable microalbuminuria. A 5-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E R; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hommel, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term course of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in IDDM patients with microalbuminuria in order to identify patients with stable or declining kidney function over a 5-year study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty normotensive (129 +/- 11/80 +/- 8 mmHg) IDDM...

  17. Stable carbides in transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrkowski, R.

    1991-01-01

    In the present work different techniques were employed for the identification of stable carbides in two sets of transition metal alloys of wide technological application: a set of three high alloy M2 type steels in which W and/or Mo were total or partially replaced by Nb, and a Zr-2.5 Nb alloy. The M2 steel is a high speed steel worldwide used and the Zr-2.5 Nb alloy is the base material for the pressure tubes in the CANDU type nuclear reactors. The stability of carbide was studied in the frame of Goldschmidt's theory of interstitial alloys. The identification of stable carbides in steels was performed by determining their metallic composition with an energy analyzer attached to the scanning electron microscope (SEM). By these means typical carbides of the M2 steel, MC and M 6 C, were found. Moreover, the spatial and size distribution of carbide particles were determined after different heat treatments, and both microstructure and microhardness were correlated with the appearance of the secondary hardening phenomenon. In the Zr-Nb alloy a study of the α and β phases present after different heat treatments was performed with optical and SEM metallographic techniques, with the guide of Abriata and Bolcich phase diagram. The α-β interphase boundaries were characterized as short circuits for diffusion with radiotracer techniques and applying Fisher-Bondy-Martin model. The precipitation of carbides was promoted by heat treatments that produced first the C diffusion into the samples at high temperatures (β phase), and then the precipitation of carbide particles at lower temperature (α phase or (α+β)) two phase field. The precipitated carbides were identified as (Zr, Nb)C 1-x with SEM, electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction techniques. (Author) [es

  18. Stable isotopes as tracers for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giussani, A.; Bartolo, D. de; Cantone, M.C.; Zilker, T.; Greim, H.; Roth, P.; Werner, E.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of internal dose after incorporation of radionuclides requires as input data the knowledge of the uptake into the systemic circulation, the distribution and retention in selected organs, the excretion pathways. Realistic biokinetic models are needed for reliable estimates, correct interpretation of bioassay measurements, appropriate decision-making in radiological emergencies. For many radionuclides, however, the biokinetic models currently recommended are often generic, with very few specific parameters, due to the lack of experimental human data. The use of stable isotopes as tracers enables to determine important biokinetic parameters such as the fractional uptake, the clearance from the transfer compartment, the excretion patterns under experimentally controlled conditions. The subjects investigated are not exposed to any radiation risk, so this technique enables to obtain biokinetic information also for sensitive groups of the population, such as children or pregnant women, and to determine age- and gender-specific model parameters. Sophisticated analytical method, able to discriminate and quantitate different isotopes of the same element in complex matrices such as biological fluids, have to be purposely developed and optimized. Activation analysis and mass spectrometry are the most proper techniques of choice. Experiments were conducted with molybdenum, tellurium, ruthenium and zirconium. Activation analysis with protons, thermal ionization mass spectrometry and inductively coupled mass spectrometry were employed for the determination of stable isotopes of these elements in blood plasma and urine samples. Several deviations from the predictions of the ICRP models were observed. For example, modifications to the current model for molybdenum have been suggested on the basis of these results. The dose coefficients to the target regions calculated with this proposed model are even of one order of magnitude different than the ICRP estimates

  19. Stable Breathing in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated With Increased Effort but Not Lowered Metabolic Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Camila M; Taranto-Montemurro, Luigi; Butler, James P; White, David P; Loring, Stephen H; Azarbarzin, Ali; Marques, Melania; Berger, Philip J; Wellman, Andrew; Sands, Scott A

    2017-10-01

    In principle, if metabolic rate were to fall during sleep in a patient with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), ventilatory requirements could be met without increased respiratory effort thereby favoring stable breathing. Indeed, most patients achieve periods of stable flow-limited breathing without respiratory events for periods during the night for reasons that are unclear. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that in patients with OSA, periods of stable breathing occur when metabolic rate (VO2) declines. Twelve OSA patients (apnea-hypopnea index >15 events/h) completed overnight polysomnography including measurements of VO2 (using ventilation and intranasal PO2) and respiratory effort (esophageal pressure). Contrary to our hypothesis, VO2 did not differ between stable and unstable breathing periods in non-REM stage 2 (208 ± 20 vs. 213 ± 18 mL/min), despite elevated respiratory effort during stable breathing (26 ± 2 versus 23 ± 2 cmH2O, p = .03). However, VO2 was lowered during deeper sleep (244 to 179 mL/min from non-REM stages 1 to 3, p = .04) in conjunction with more stable breathing. Further analysis revealed that airflow obstruction curtailed metabolism in both stable and unstable periods, since CPAP increased VO2 by 14% in both cases (p = .02, .03, respectively). Patients whose VO2 fell most during sleep avoided an increase in PCO2 and respiratory effort. OSA patients typically convert from unstable to stable breathing without lowering metabolic rate. During sleep, OSA patients labor with increased respiratory effort but fail to satisfy metabolic demand even in the absence of overt respiratory events. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. [Diagnostic capability of carcinoembryonic antigen elevation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo Ruiz, Antonio; Rosa Jiménez, Francisco; Lobón Hernández, José Antonio; Gómez Jiménez, Francisco Javier

    2014-12-01

    There is little information on the oncologic diagnostic accuracy of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels more than 3-fold above normal. To determine the prevalence of underlying cancer in patients with mild CEA elevation and the mean cost per patient of CEA determination. A retrospective study was carried out in all patients with CEA elevation (3-10 ng/ml) and suspicion of cancer referred to the gastroenterology or internal medicine outpatient units from 2001 to 2007. We studied 100 patients (60 men and 40 women), with a mean age of 67.4 ± 14.2 years and baseline CEA of 5.8 ± 1.7 ng/ml. The most important symptoms and signs were laboratory abnormalities (19 patients [19%]). Cancer was diagnosed in 4 patients (one gastric, 2 lung and one colon). Among patients without malignancies, 49 patients (49%) had no related processes, and 47 (47%) had benign diseases. During follow-up, one laryngeal cancer, one acute myeloid leukemia, and one colon cancer were detected (54.3 ± 24.6 months). We found no differences between baseline CEA levels in patients with and without cancer (6.6 ± 2.4 vs. 5.8 ± 1.7 ng/ml, p = 0.2). The mean cost per patient was 503.6 ± 257.6 €. Cancer was detected in a small proportion (7%) of patients with mild CEA elevation. The study of these patients is directly and indirectly associated with a not inconsiderable cost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiac Troponin I elevation after epileptic seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieweke Nicole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac troponin-I (cTNI is highly specific biomarker to prove myocardial damage, e.g. in acute coronary syndrome (ACS. However, it occurs in other conditions as well. We therefore analysed cTNI increase in patients after generalized convulsive seizure. Methods Consecutive patients admitted with acute generalized convulsive seizure were included in case of cTNI measurement on admission. Among 898 selected cases, 53 patients were referred secondary to our department; in 845 cases cTNI measurements on admission were available. In case of multiple admissions (81 cases, only the first admission entered our analysis. In 17 patients elevated cTNI was determined due to ACS; in one patient a myocarditis was found. 5 patients suffered of relevant renal insufficiency. Finally 741 patients were included in the analysis. A cTNI cut-off level of ≥ 0.1 ng/ml was considered. Factors associated with a cTNI increase were analysed subsequently. Results The mean age of the study population (n = 741 was 47.8 years (SD ± 18.6, 40.9% were female. In 50 patients (6.7% a cTNI elevation of unknown origin was found; no obvious cardiac involvement could be detected in these patients who all remained asymptomatic. A vascular risk profile (including at least hypertension, hypercholesterolemia or diabetes (OR = 3.62; CI: 1.59 to 8.21; p = 0.001 and elevated creatine kinase on admission (OR = 2.36; CI: 1.26 to 4.39; p = 0.002 were independent factors associated with cTNI release. Conclusion cTNI release occurs in patients with generalized convulsive seizure with predominance in patients with vascular risk profile.

  2. ST-elevations-myokardieinfarkt efter terapeutisk adrenalininjektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømhild Davidsen, Jesper; Lambrechtsen, Jess; Egstrup, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    A case of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following accidental iatrogenic overdose by adrenaline injection is described in a male aged 55 years. This patient was given 1 mg of adrenaline due to anaphylactic symptoms. Afterwards he presented with angina pectoris, dyspnoea and ST-segment elevation...... in the ECG. Plasma TnT and CK-MB were raised. A coronary angiography revealed a 66% stenosis of RCA. This patient had an asymptomatic RCA stenosis that probably became symptomatic due to coronary artery spasm related to adrenaline injection and thereby presented symptoms and signs of AMI....

  3. Elevation Derivatives for Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Gass, Leila

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the methods used to derive various elevation-derivative grids that were inputted to the Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat model (L. Gass and others, unpub. data). These grids, which capture information on surface roughness and topographic characteristics, are a subset of the environmental datasets evaluated for the tortoise habitat model. This habitat model is of major importance to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is charged with management of this threatened population, including relocating displaced tortoises to areas identified as suitable habitat.

  4. [Functional and mechanical anatomy of arm elevation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagey, O; Bonfait, H; Gillot, C; Mazas, F

    1988-01-01

    Experimental work on the functional anatomy of the shoulder has involved a study of the conditions involved in elevation of the arm. Movements of the upper limb are organised round a very special alignment of the scapulo-humeral joint whose geometric features and exact position have been determined. The ligaments of the joint play a major role in the controlling the attainment of this alignment. The value of this alignment in the physiology of the shoulder is demonstrated. A new terminology of shoulder movement is suggested.

  5. Elevated environmental temperature and methamphetamine neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.

    2003-01-01

    Amphetamines have been of considerable research interest for the last several decades. More recent work has renewed interest in the role of ambient temperature in both the toxicity and neurotoxicity of these drugs. We have determined that the striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity observed in the mouse is linked in some fashion to both body and environmental temperature. Most studies of d-methamphetamine (d-METH) neurotoxicity are conducted at standard laboratory ambient temperatures (e.g., ∼21-22 deg. C) and utilizing a repeated dosage regimen (e.g., three to four injections spaced 2 h apart). A lowering of the ambient temperature provides neuro protection, while an elevation increases neurotoxicity. d-METH causes long-term depletions of triatal dopamine (DA) that are accompanied by other changes that are indicative of nerve terminal degeneration. These include argyrophilia, as detected by silver degeneration stains, and an elevation in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of reactive gliosis in response to injury, as well as a long-term decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels. here we show that increasing the ambient temperature during and for some time following dosing increases the neurotoxicity of d-METH. Mice (female 57BL6/J) given a single dosage of d-METH (20 mg/kg s.c.) and maintained at the usual laboratory ambient temperature show minimal striatal damage (an ∼15% depletion of DA and an ∼ 86% increase in GFAP). substantial striatal damage (e.g., an ∼70% depletion of DA and an ∼200% elevation in GFAP) was induced by this regimen if mice were maintained at 27 deg. C for 24 or 72 h following dosing. An increase in neurotoxicity was also apparent in mice kept at an elevated temperature for only 5 or 9 h, but keeping animals at 27 deg. C for 24 or 72 h was the most effective in increasing the neurotoxicity of d-METH. Our data show how a relatively minor change in ambient temperature can have a major impact on the degree of

  6. Stability properties of nonlinear dynamical systems and evolutionary stable states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleria, Iram, E-mail: iram@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió-AL (Brazil); Brenig, Leon [Faculté des Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Rocha Filho, Tarcísio M.; Figueiredo, Annibal [Instituto de Física and International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Universidade de Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil)

    2017-03-18

    Highlights: • We address the problem of equilibrium stability in a general class of non-linear systems. • We link Evolutionary Stable States (ESS) to stable fixed points of square quasi-polynomial (QP) systems. • We show that an interior ES point may be related to stable interior fixed points of QP systems. - Abstract: In this paper we address the problem of stability in a general class of non-linear systems. We establish a link between the concepts of asymptotic stable interior fixed points of square Quasi-Polynomial systems and evolutionary stable states, a property of some payoff matrices arising from evolutionary games.

  7. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle John

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. Methods The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13 in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Results Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-β-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Conclusion Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to

  8. Sudden cerebral depression detected by bispectral index monitoring in cryptococcal meningitis with elevated near-fatal cerebrospinal fluid pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hironori; Annen, Suguru; Umakoshi, Kensuke; Takeba, Jun; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Nakabayashi, Yuki; Moriyama, Naoki; Ohshita, Muneaki; Aibiki, Mayuki

    2017-07-01

    An increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) is usually prominent in cryptococcal meningitis, which has a high mortality rate, so aggressive management to control CSFP is crucial. In this case, a 40-year-old-man survived cryptococcal meningitis treated with continuous spinal drainage under bispectral index (BIS) monitoring. He unexpectedly showed hypertension, went into a coma, and even loss his light reflexes due to CSFP elevation. His BIS values had abruptly dropped before developing these symptoms, but dramatically recovered after lumbar puncture drainage, suggesting that BIS monitoring could reflect cerebral function changes due to CSFP alternations. Inducing continuous spinal drainage to control CSFP provided stable control of blood pressure and brain activity, which was continuously monitored by BIS, enabling us to provide prompt treatment. Cerebral depressions due to elevated CSFP may suddenly develop, so continuous spinal drainage is needed for preventing catastrophic events. Bispectral index could be useful for detecting early changes from CSFP elevation in meningitis cases with intracranial hypertension.

  9. Stable isotope analysis in primatology: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Paul A; Loudon, James E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2012-11-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become an important tool in ecology over the last 25 years. A wealth of ecological information is stored in animal tissues in the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of several elements, particularly carbon and nitrogen, because these isotopes navigate through ecological processes in predictable ways. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been measured in most primate taxonomic groups and have yielded information about dietary content, dietary variability, and habitat use. Stable isotopes have recently proven useful for addressing more fine-grained questions about niche dynamics and anthropogenic effects on feeding ecology. Here, we discuss stable carbon and nitrogen isotope systematics and critically review the published stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data for modern primates with a focus on the problems and prospects for future stable isotope applications in primatology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Biomechanical investigation of an alternative concept to angular stable plating using conventional fixation hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radtke Roman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angle-stable locking plates have improved the surgical management of fractures. However, locking implants are costly and removal can be difficult. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the biomechanical performance of a newly proposed crossed-screw concept ("Fence" utilizing conventional (non-locked implants in comparison to conventional LC-DCP (limited contact dynamic compression plate and LCP (locking compression plate stabilization, in a human cadaveric diaphyseal gap model. Methods In eight pairs of human cadaveric femora, one femur per pair was randomly assigned to receive a Fence construct with either elevated or non-elevated plate, while the contralateral femur received either an LCP or LC-DCP instrumentation. Fracture gap motion and fatigue performance under cyclic loading was evaluated successively in axial compression and in torsion. Results were statistically compared in a pairwise setting. Results The elevated Fence constructs allowed significantly higher gap motion compared to the LCP instrumentations (axial compression: p ≤ 0.011, torsion p ≤ 0.015 but revealed similar performance under cyclic loading (p = 0.43. The Fence instrumentation with established bone-plate contact revealed larger fracture gap motion under axial compression compared to the conventional LC-DCP osteosynthesis (p ≤ 0.017. However, all contact Fence specimens survived the cyclic test, whereas all LC-DCP constructs failed early during torsion testing (p Conclusions Even though accentuated fracture gap motion became obvious, the "Fence" technique is considered an alternative to cost-intensive locking-head devices. The concept can be of interest in cases were angle-stable implants are unavailable and can lead to new strategies in implant design.

  11. A global digital elevation model - GTOP030

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    GTOP030, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) digital elevation model (DEM) of the Earth, provides the flrst global coverage of moderate resolution elevation data.  The original GTOP30 data set, which was developed over a 3-year period through a collaborative effort led by the USGS, was completed in 1996 at the USGS EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.  The collaboration involved contributions of staffing, funding, or source data from cooperators including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United Nations Environment Programme Global Resource Information Database (UNEP/GRID), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) of Mexico, the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) of Japan, Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research of New Zealand, and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). In 1999, work was begun on an update to the GTOP030 data set. Additional data sources are being incorporated into GTOP030 with an enhanced and improved data set planned for release in 2000.

  12. CANDU fuel compression tests at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehn, E.; Chan, J.K.; Langman, V.J.; Hadaller, G.I.; Fortman, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    An inlet header large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in CANDU reactors with fuelling against flow can cause the fuel to shift in the channels with a consequent reactivity insertion. This results in an increased fuel power transient, and a potential increase in the mialyzed consequences for such events. As the reactor's age and the channel axial gaps increase, the magnitude of the predicted power u-dmient increases. A design solution to reduce the power transient is to limit the amount of fuel movement by reducing the channel axial gap. This solution was implemented into Ontario Hydro's Bruce B and Darlington reactors. A consequence of a reduced channel axial gap is the potential for the fuel column axial expansion to become constrained by the channel end components in large break LOCAs. This experimental program investigated the effects of pellet cracking and elevated sheath temperatures on the ability of the fuel elements, of the 37-element bundle design, to sustain axial loads. The unirradiated fuel elements tested were either in the as-received condition or with the U0 2 fuel pellets cracked in a mechanical process to simulate the effect of inufflation. The load deformation characteristics demonstrated that, for a given amount of axial compression. the loads sustainable by the elements at elevated sheath temperatures were low. As a result. excess axial expansion would be easily accommodated without further challenge to pressure tube integrity. (author)

  13. Elevation uncertainty in coastal inundation hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.; Cheval, Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Coastal inundation has been identified as an important natural hazard that affects densely populated and built-up areas (Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, 2008). Inundation, or coastal flooding, can result from various physical processes, including storm surges, tsunamis, intense precipitation events, and extreme high tides. Such events cause quickly rising water levels. When rapidly rising water levels overwhelm flood defenses, especially in heavily populated areas, the potential of the hazard is realized and a natural disaster results. Two noteworthy recent examples of such natural disasters resulting from coastal inundation are the Hurricane Katrina storm surge in 2005 along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the United States, and the tsunami in northern Japan in 2011. Longer term, slowly varying processes such as land subsidence (Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies, 2007) and sea-level rise also can result in coastal inundation, although such conditions do not have the rapid water level rise associated with other flooding events. Geospatial data are a critical resource for conducting assessments of the potential impacts of coastal inundation, and geospatial representations of the topography in the form of elevation measurements are a primary source of information for identifying the natural and human components of the landscape that are at risk. Recently, the quantity and quality of elevation data available for the coastal zone have increased markedly, and this availability facilitates more detailed and comprehensive hazard impact assessments.

  14. Engineering Clostridia Neurotoxins with elevated catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiubiao; Pan, Xuehua; Zhao, Yanxiang; Chen, Sheng

    2013-11-01

    BoNT/B and TeNT cleave substrate VAMP2 at the same scissile bond, yet these two toxins showed different efficiency on substrate hydrolysis and had different requirements for the recognition of P2' site of VAMP2, E(78). These differences may be due to their different composition of their substrate recognition pockets in the active site. Swapping of LC/T S1' pocket residue, L(230), with the corresponding isoleucine in LC/B increased LC/T activity by ∼25 fold, while swapping of LC/B S1' pocket residue, S(201), with the corresponding proline in LC/T increased LC/B activity by ∼10 fold. Optimization of both S1 and S1' pocket residues of LC/T, LC/T (K(168)E, L(230)I) elevated LC/T activity by more than 100-fold. The highly active LC/T derivative engineered in this study has the potential to be used as a more effective tool to study mechanisms of exocytosis in central neuron. The LC/B derivative with elevated activity has the potential to be developed into novel therapy to minimize the impact of immunoresistance during BoNT/B therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin: sources of carbon monoxide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchelli Ramirez, Herminia; Fernández Alvarez, Ramón; Rubinos Cuadrado, Gemma; Martinez Gonzalez, Cristina; Rodriguez Jerez, Francisco; Casan Clara, Pere

    2014-11-01

    Inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) can result in poisoning, with symptoms ranging from mild and nonspecific to severe, or even death. CO poisoning is often underdiagnosed because exposure to low concentrations goes unnoticed, and threshold values for normal carboxyhemoglobin vary according to different authors. The aim of our study was to analyze carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in an unselected population and detect sources of CO exposure In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we analyzed consecutive arterial blood gas levels processed in our laboratory. We selected those with COHb≥2.5% in nonsmokers and ≥5% in smokers. In these cases a structured telephone interview was conducted. Elevated levels of COHb were found in 64 (20%) of 306 initial determinations. Of these, data from 51 subjects aged 65±12 years, 31 (60%) of which were men, were obtained. Mean COHb was 4.0%. Forty patients (78%) were non-smokers with mean COHb of 3.2%, and 11 were smokers with COHb of 6.7%. In 45 patients (88.2%) we detected exposure to at least one source of ambient CO other than cigarette smoke. A significant proportion of individuals from an unselected sample had elevated levels of COHb. The main sources of CO exposure were probably the home, so this possibility should be explored. The population should be warned about the risks and encouraged to take preventive measures. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Topobathymetric elevation model development using a new methodology: Coastal National Elevation Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Poppenga, Sandra K.; Brock, John C.; Evans, Gayla A.; Tyler, Dean; Gesch, Dean B.; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John

    2016-01-01

    During the coming decades, coastlines will respond to widely predicted sea-level rise, storm surge, and coastalinundation flooding from disastrous events. Because physical processes in coastal environments are controlled by the geomorphology of over-the-land topography and underwater bathymetry, many applications of geospatial data in coastal environments require detailed knowledge of the near-shore topography and bathymetry. In this paper, an updated methodology used by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal National Elevation Database (CoNED) Applications Project is presented for developing coastal topobathymetric elevation models (TBDEMs) from multiple topographic data sources with adjacent intertidal topobathymetric and offshore bathymetric sources to generate seamlessly integrated TBDEMs. This repeatable, updatable, and logically consistent methodology assimilates topographic data (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) into a seamless coastal elevation model. Within the overarching framework, vertical datum transformations are standardized in a workflow that interweaves spatially consistent interpolation (gridding) techniques with a land/water boundary mask delineation approach. Output gridded raster TBDEMs are stacked into a file storage system of mosaic datasets within an Esri ArcGIS geodatabase for efficient updating while maintaining current and updated spatially referenced metadata. Topobathymetric data provide a required seamless elevation product for several science application studies, such as shoreline delineation, coastal inundation mapping, sediment-transport, sea-level rise, storm surge models, and tsunami impact assessment. These detailed coastal elevation data are critical to depict regions prone to climate change impacts and are essential to planners and managers responsible for mitigating the associated risks and costs to both human communities and ecosystems. The CoNED methodology approach has been used to construct integrated TBDEM models

  17. Tungsten Stable Isotope Compositions of Ferromanganese Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, K.; Barling, J.; Hein, J. R.; Schauble, E. A.; Halliday, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    We report the first accurate and precise data for mass-dependent fractionation of tungsten (W) stable isotopes, using a double spike technique and MC-ICPMS. Results are expressed relative to the NIST 3136 W isotope standard as per mil deviations in 186W/184W (δ186W). Although heavy element mass-dependent fractionations are expected to be small, Tl and U both display significant low temperature isotopic fractionations. Theoretical calculations indicate that W nuclear volume isotopic effects should be smaller than mass-dependent fractionations at low temperatures. Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts precipitate directly from seawater and have been used as paleoceanographic recorders of temporal changes in seawater chemistry. Crusts are strongly enriched in W and other metals, and are a promising medium for exploring W isotopic variability. Tungsten has a relatively long residence time in seawater of ~61,000 years, mainly as the tungstate ion (WO42-). Water depth profiles show conservative behaviour. During adsorption on Fe-Mn crusts, W species form inner-sphere complexes in the hexavalent (W6+) state. The major host phase is thought to be Mn oxides and the lighter W isotope is expected to be absorbed preferentially. Surface scrapings of 13 globally distributed hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts display δ186W from -0.08 to -0.22‰ (±0.03‰, 2sd). A trend toward lighter W isotope composition exists with increasing water depth (~1500 to ~5200m) and W concentration. One hydrothermal Mn-oxide sample is anomalously light and Mn nodules are both heavy and light relative to Fe-Mn crusts. Tungsten speciation depends on concentration, pH, and time in solution and is not well understood because of the extremely slow kinetics of the reactions. In addition, speciation of aqueous and/or adsorbed species might be sensitive to pressure, showing similar thermodynamic stability but different effective volumes. Thus, W stable isotopes might be used as a water-depth barometer in

  18. ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION IN STABLE ANGINA AND MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION COMBINED WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Popova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to determine the state of endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilatation in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Material and methods. In the cross-sectional study included 122 patients with CHD associated with COPD: 68 people of them are patients with stable angina without acute coronary events in history and 54 patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. Comparison group comprised 53 patients with stable angina and 51 patients after STEMI without concomitant COPD. Patients were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: male, age <60 years, verified forms of CHD (stable angina, STEMI, documented with COPD without exacerbation and forced expiratory volume in 1 second > 30% in the groups with CHD and COPD. Arterial endothelial function was tested with high-resolution ultrasonography: brachial artery diameter was measured at rest, after flow increase (which causes endothelium-dependent dilatation, and after administration of sublingual nitroglycerin (an endothelium-independent dilator.Results. We found that endothelial dysfunction in patients with acute and chronic forms of CHD in combination with COPD are more pronounced than in isolated CHD.Conclusion. Expressed depression functional vascular reserve in patients with CHD associated with COPD, should be taken into account when conducting individualized therapy of these patients.

  19. Lowering coefficient of friction in Cu alloys with stable gradient nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Han, Zhong; Li, Xiuyan; Lu, K

    2016-12-01

    The coefficient of friction (COF) of metals is usually high, primarily because frictional contacts induce plastic deformation underneath the wear surface, resulting in surface roughening and formation of delaminating tribolayers. Lowering the COF of metals is crucial for improving the reliability and efficiency of metal contacts in engineering applications but is technically challenging. Refining the metals' grains to nanoscale cannot reduce dry-sliding COFs, although their hardness may be elevated many times. We report that a submillimeter-thick stable gradient nanograined surface layer enables a significant reduction in the COF of a Cu alloy under high-load dry sliding, from 0.64 (coarse-grained samples) to 0.29, which is smaller than the COFs of many ceramics. The unprecedented stable low COF stems from effective suppression of sliding-induced surface roughening and formation of delaminating tribolayer, owing to the stable gradient nanostructures that can accommodate large plastic strains under repeated sliding for more than 30,000 cycles.

  20. Predictors of septic shock in initially stable patients with pyogenic liver abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunyoung; Lee, Eu Sun; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Kim, Youn-Jung; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Ahn, Shin; Seo, Dong-Woo; Lee, Jae Ho; Kim, Won Young; Lim, Kyung Soo

    2017-05-01

    The incidence of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA), a life-threatening condition, is increasing worldwide. This study was designed to evaluate clinical features and outcomes in initially stable patients with PLA and to determine the predictors of septic shock. The medical records of all adult patients who were hemodynamically stable and diagnosed with PLA in the emergency department from January 2010 to December 2014, inclusive, were reviewed. The primary outcome was septic shock. A review of medical records identified 453 patients (66.7% male), of mean age 61.4 years, diagnosed with PLA. Of these patients, 73 (16.1%) had septic shock and 10 (2.2%) died in-hospital. Of the 73 patients with septic shock, nine (12.3%) died in-hospital. The most common symptom was fever (79.5%), and the most common infectious agent was Klebsiella pneumoniae. Septic shock was significantly associated with age ≥60 years [odds ratio (OR): 2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38-6.48], malignancy (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.08-4.09), systolic blood pressure Septic shock also tended to be associated with procalcitonin concentration, but this was not statistically significant (OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 0.96-12.18). Septic shock was frequent in initially stable patients with PLA and was associated with older age, malignancy, low blood pressure, tachypnea and elevated lactate concentration.

  1. A Secure Automated Elevator Management System and Pressure Sensor based Floor Estimation for Indoor Mobile Robot Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abduljalil Abdulla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a secure elevator handling system is presented to enable a flexible movement of wheeled mobile robots among laboratories distributed in different floors. The automated handling system consists mainly of an ADAM module which has the ability to call the elevator to the robot’s current floor and to request the destination floor. The LPS25HP pressure sensor attached to an STM32F411 microcontroller is utilized as a height measurement system to estimate the robot’s current floor inside the elevator. The ultrasonic sensor is used to recognize the elevator’s door status. Many challenges have to be solved to realize a stable height measurement system based on pressure sensor readings. The difference of the pressure sensor readings before and after soldering is realized by comparing the reading after soldering with an accurate barometric reading. In addition, the sensor output signal shows oscillation and wide variation of the same floor pressure sensor readings at different times. The oscillation in the output signal has been handled using a first order FIR smoothing filter. The first order filter was selected to balance between the stability and the elapsed time to receive the updated values. An auto-calibration stage is established to maintain the wide variation in the atmospheric pressure readings by calibrating the sensor readings with the robot’s current floor before entering the elevator. An error handling management system is utilized to guarantee a stable automated elevator management system performance. Many experiments to assess and verify the performance of the automated elevator management system and robot’s current floor estimation are reported. The experimental results show that the proposed methods and sub-systems developed for the mobile robot are effective and efficient in providing a transportation service in multiple-floor life sciences laboratories.

  2. Severe bleeding after sinus floor elevation using the transcrestal technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Storgard; Eriksen, Jacob; Schiodt, Morten

    2012-01-01

    To present a rare but clinically significant complication to sinus floor elevation (SFE) using the transcrestal technique.......To present a rare but clinically significant complication to sinus floor elevation (SFE) using the transcrestal technique....

  3. Elevated carbon dioxide: impacts on soil and plant water relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkham, M. B

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2...

  4. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital elevation model (DEM) data are arrays of regularly spaced elevation values referenced horizontally either to a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection...

  5. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  6. Greenland 5 km DEM, Ice Thickness, and Bedrock Elevation Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Digital Elevation Model (DEM), ice thickness grid, and bedrock elevation grid of Greenland acquired as part of the PARCA program are available in ASCII text format...

  7. Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Meteoric Water Across an Elevation Gradient in Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D. R.; White, E.; Cassel, E. J.; Lynch, B.; Yanites, B.; Breecker, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Andes is a prime example of elevated topography generated by oceanic plate subduction. Whereas previous stable isotope studies have investigated the paleoelevation of the Andean Eastern Cordillera, little is known about the paleoelevation of the Western Cordillera, where arc volcanism now occurs. As a first step towards studying the paleoelevation of this region, we investigated the change in δ18O values of modern soil waters across an elevation gradient from sea level to about 4725 meters in southern Peru. We sampled soil profiles from 5 to 80 cm in 15-20cm increments, and we sampled water from flowing natural streams at various elevations. We used cryogenic vacuum extraction to quantitatively remove non-structural water from soil samples. The δ18O values of water extracted from soil samples varies with the depth in the soil due to the diminishing effect of seasonality and evaporation. Every high elevation (>3500m) soil profile we measured had nearly constant δ18O values below 5cm and a total range of δ18O values between -12.8‰ and -17.1‰, apart from the Cusco profile. In the Cusco profile, the δ18O values ranged from -7.2 ‰ at 5 cm to -21.8 ‰ at 60 cm, defining a strong monotonic decrease not seen in other soil profiles. The δ18O trend in the Cusco profile may be different due to the impact of evaporation, soil hydrology, and/or seasonality in the δ18O values of precipitation. Further spatial analysis must be conducted to pinpoint a specific cause. Considering only the samples collected below 40cm, which are likely the best estimate of mean annual precipitation, the δ18O values decrease with increasing elevation at a rate higher than the global mean, suggesting that oxygen isotope paleoaltimetry can work in this study region.

  8. Climate conditions and resource availability drive return elevational migrations in a single-brooded insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, David; Wilson, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Seasonal elevational migrations have important implications for life-history evolution and ecological responses to environmental change. However, for most species, particularly invertebrates, evidence is still scarce for the existence of such migrations, as well as for the potential causes. We tested the extent to which seasonal abundance patterns in central Spain for overwintering (breeding) and summer (non-breeding) individuals of the butterfly Gonepteryx rhamni were consistent with three hypotheses explaining elevational migration: resource limitation (host plant and flower availability), physiological constraints of weather (maximum temperatures) and habitat limitation (forest cover for overwintering). For overwintering adults, abundance was positively associated with host plant density during two intensive survey seasons (2007-2008), and the elevational distribution was relatively stable over a 7-year period (2006-2012). The elevational distribution of summer adults was highly variable, apparently related both to temperature and habitat type. Sites occupied by adults in the summer were on average 3 °C cooler than their breeding sites, and abundance showed negative associations with summer temperature, and positive associations with forest cover and host plant density in 2007 and 2008. The results suggest that the extent of uphill migration in summer could be driven by different factors, depending on the year, and are mostly consistent with the physiological constraint and habitat limitation hypotheses. In contrast, the patterns for overwintering adults suggest that downhill migration can be explained by resource availability. Climate change could generate bottlenecks in the populations of elevational migrant species by constraining the area of specific seasonal habitat networks or by reducing the proximity of environments used at different times of year.

  9. Introducing Stable Radicals into Molecular Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Frasconi, Marco; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2017-09-27

    Ever since their discovery, stable organic radicals have received considerable attention from chemists because of their unique optical, electronic, and magnetic properties. Currently, one of the most appealing challenges for the chemical community is to develop sophisticated artificial molecular machines that can do work by consuming external energy, after the manner of motor proteins. In this context, radical-pairing interactions are important in addressing the challenge: they not only provide supramolecular assistance in the synthesis of molecular machines but also open the door to developing multifunctional systems relying on the various properties of the radical species. In this Outlook, by taking the radical cationic state of 1,1'-dialkyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (BIPY •+ ) as an example, we highlight our research on the art and science of introducing radical-pairing interactions into functional systems, from prototypical molecular switches to complex molecular machines, followed by a discussion of the (i) limitations of the current systems and (ii) future research directions for designing BIPY •+ -based molecular machines with useful functions.

  10. Canonical, stable, general mapping using context schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Adam M; Rosen, Yohei; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2015-11-15

    Sequence mapping is the cornerstone of modern genomics. However, most existing sequence mapping algorithms are insufficiently general. We introduce context schemes: a method that allows the unambiguous recognition of a reference base in a query sequence by testing the query for substrings from an algorithmically defined set. Context schemes only map when there is a unique best mapping, and define this criterion uniformly for all reference bases. Mappings under context schemes can also be made stable, so that extension of the query string (e.g. by increasing read length) will not alter the mapping of previously mapped positions. Context schemes are general in several senses. They natively support the detection of arbitrary complex, novel rearrangements relative to the reference. They can scale over orders of magnitude in query sequence length. Finally, they are trivially extensible to more complex reference structures, such as graphs, that incorporate additional variation. We demonstrate empirically the existence of high-performance context schemes, and present efficient context scheme mapping algorithms. The software test framework created for this study is available from https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/adamnovak/sequence-graphs/. anovak@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Chemically Stable Lipids for Membrane Protein Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishchenko, Andrii; Peng, Lingling; Zinovev, Egor; Vlasov, Alexey; Lee, Sung Chang; Kuklin, Alexander; Mishin, Alexey; Borshchevskiy, Valentin; Zhang, Qinghai; Cherezov, Vadim (MIPT); (USC); (Scripps)

    2017-05-01

    The lipidic cubic phase (LCP) has been widely recognized as a promising membrane-mimicking matrix for biophysical studies of membrane proteins and their crystallization in a lipidic environment. Application of this material to a wide variety of membrane proteins, however, is hindered due to a limited number of available host lipids, mostly monoacylglycerols (MAGs). Here, we designed, synthesized, and characterized a series of chemically stable lipids resistant to hydrolysis, with properties complementary to the widely used MAGs. In order to assess their potential to serve as host lipids for crystallization, we characterized the phase properties and lattice parameters of mesophases made of two most promising lipids at a variety of different conditions by polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. Both lipids showed remarkable chemical stability and an extended LCP region in the phase diagram covering a wide range of temperatures down to 4 °C. One of these lipids has been used for crystallization and structure determination of a prototypical membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin at 4 and 20 °C.

  12. 26 S proteasomes function as stable entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Tanaka, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    , shuttles between a free state and the 26-S proteasome, bringing substrate to the complex. However, S5a was not found in the free state in HeLa cells. Besides, all subunits in PA700, including S5a, exchanged at similar low rates. It therefore seems that 26-S proteasomes function as stable entities during...... dissociate and reassemble during initiation of protein degradation in a ternary complex with the substrate, as in the dissociation-reassembly cycles found for ribosomes and the chaperonin GroEL/GroES. Here we followed disassembly and assembly of 26-S proteasomes in cell extracts as the exchange of PA700...... subunits between mouse and human 26-S proteasomes. Compared to the rate of proteolysis in the same extract, the disassembly-reassembly cycle was much too slow to present an obligatory step in a degradation cycle. It has been suggested that subunit S5a (Mcb1, Rpn10), which binds poly-ubiquitin substrates...

  13. Migration, fertility, and aging in stable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Juha M

    2008-08-01

    Fertility is below replacement level in all European countries, and population growth is expected to decline in the coming decades. Increasing life expectancy will accentuate concomitant aging of the population. Migration has been seen as a possible means to decelerate aging. In this article, I introduce a stable, open-population model in which cohort net migration is proportional to births. In this case, the migration-fertility trade-off can be studied with particular ease. I show that although migration can increase the growth rate, which tends to make the age distribution younger, it also has an opposite effect because of its typical age pattern. I capture the effect of the age pattern of net migration in a migration-survivor function. The effect of net migration on growth is quantified with data from 17 European countries. I show that some countries already have a level of migration that will lead to stationarity. For other countries with asymptotically declining population, migration still provides opportunities for slowing down aging of the population as a whole.

  14. Shelf-stable foods through irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This survey has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of earlier reports, the last published in 1990. The information presented refers mostly to reference materials for trace element constituents; however, information is also included on a number of other selected measurands of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes, anions, cations, organometallic compounds and organic contaminants. The database presently contains over 10,000 analyte values for 455 measurands in 650 reference materials produced by 30 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the materials, the unit size supplied, and recommended minimum weight of material for analysis is also provided, if this information is available to the authors. It is expected that this survey will help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance purposes that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, their samples to be analyzed. 22 refs, 2 tabs

  15. STABLE ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY OF MASSIVE ICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurij K. Vasil’chuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises stable-isotope research on massive ice in the Russian and North American Arctic, and includes the latest understanding of massive-ice formation. A new classification of massive-ice complexes is proposed, encompassing the range and variabilityof massive ice. It distinguishes two new categories of massive-ice complexes: homogeneousmassive-ice complexes have a similar structure, properties and genesis throughout, whereasheterogeneous massive-ice complexes vary spatially (in their structure and properties andgenetically within a locality and consist of two or more homogeneous massive-ice bodies.Analysis of pollen and spores in massive ice from Subarctic regions and from ice and snow cover of Arctic ice caps assists with interpretation of the origin of massive ice. Radiocarbon ages of massive ice and host sediments are considered together with isotope values of heavy oxygen and deuterium from massive ice plotted at a uniform scale in order to assist interpretation and correlation of the ice.

  16. LHC Report: Towards stable beams and collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, the LHC re-commissioning with beam has continued at a brisk pace. The first collisions of 2011 were produced on 2 March, with stable beams and collisions for physics planned for the coming days. Low intensity beams with just a few bunches of particles were used to test the energy ramp to 3.5 TeV and the squeeze. The results were successful and, as a by-product, the first collisions of 2011 were recorded 2 March. One of the main activities carried out by the operation teams has been the careful set-up of the collimation system, and the injection and beam dump protection devices. The collimation system provides essential beam cleaning, preventing stray particles from impacting other elements of the machine, particularly the superconducting magnets. In addition to the collimation system, also the injection and beam dump protection devices perform a vital machine protection role, as they detect any beam that might be mis-directed during rare, but not totally unavoidable, hardware hiccups...

  17. Stable Isotope Group 1984 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    The work of the group in 1984 is described and includes studies in isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation. Geothermal studies have decreased compared to other years, but major data summaries were made for Wairakei and Ngawha. The hydrology of Whakarewarewa and Rotorua is being elucidated using water isotopes. Models of the subsurface flows at Kawerau and Ngawha are being made to relate fluid to mineral isotope compositions. A study of the δ 13 C and δ 34 S compositions of New Zealand oils has been started. Groups of oils of related origin are being defined, and compositions will be compared with those of potential source rocks. A method was developed for isotope analysis of sulphur in rocks. The isotopic composition of water is being used to identify and characterise groundwater aquifers in the Wairarapa and at Poverty Bay. Stable carbon isotopes have been used to identify food sources for invertebrates, and to show biochemical pathways in lactation by cows. The geochronology group is involved in major studies in Antarctica, using U-Pb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. Rocks from North Victoria Land, Marie Byrd Land and the USARP mountains are being compared with possible correlatives in New Zealand and Argentina. Strontium isotope data is being applied to the origin of magmas in several regions of New Zealand. The K-Ar data is being stored on computer files. Fission track measurements are being applied to unravel uplift histories in Westland and Taranaki

  18. Elevational diversity and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea community in meadow soils on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kang; Kong, Weidong; Khan, Ajmal; Liu, Jinbo; Guo, Guangxia; Muhanmmad, Said; Zhang, Xianzhou; Dong, Xiaobin

    2017-09-01

    Unraveling elevational diversity patterns of plants and animals has long been attracting scientific interests. However, whether soil microorganisms exhibit similar elevational patterns remains largely less explored, especially for functional microbial communities, such as ammonia oxidizers. Here, we investigated the diversity and distribution pattern of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in meadow soils along an elevation gradient from 4400 m to the grassline at 5100 m on the Tibetan Plateau using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and sequencing methods by targeting amoA gene. Increasing elevations led to lower soil temperature and pH, but higher nutrients and water content. The results showed that AOA diversity and evenness monotonically increased with elevation, while richness was relatively stable. The increase of diversity and evenness was attributed to the growth inhibition of warm-adapted AOA phylotypes by lower temperature and the growth facilitation of cold-adapted AOA phylotypes by richer nutrients at higher elevations. Low temperature thus played an important role in the AOA growth and niche separation. The AOA community variation was explained by the combined effect of all soil properties (32.6%), and 8.1% of the total variation was individually explained by soil pH. The total AOA abundance decreased, whereas soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) increased with increasing elevations. Soil PNR positively correlated with the abundance of cold-adapted AOA phylotypes. Our findings suggest that low temperature plays an important role in AOA elevational diversity pattern and niche separation, rising the negative effects of warming on AOA diversity and soil nitrification process in the Tibetan region.

  19. 46 CFR 116.438 - Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. 116.438... AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.438 Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a) A vessel... the requirements for stairways, ladders, and elevators in § 72.05-20 of this chapter. (b) Materials...

  20. 7 CFR 800.25 - Required elevator and merchandising records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required elevator and merchandising records. 800.25... REGULATIONS Recordkeeping and Access to Facilities § 800.25 Required elevator and merchandising records. (a) Elevator and merchandiser recordkeeping. Every person and every State or political subdivision of a State...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1400 - Personnel hoists and elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personnel hoists and elevators. 77.1400 Section... MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1400 Personnel hoists and elevators. Except as provided in § 77.1430, the sections in this Subpart O apply only to hoists and elevators, together with their appurtenances, that are...

  2. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and followed...

  3. 46 CFR 72.05-20 - Stairways, ladders, and elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stairways, ladders, and elevators. 72.05-20 Section 72... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-20 Stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a)(1..., ladders, and elevators within main machinery spaces or cargo holds are not covered by the general...

  4. 14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155 Section 23.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Controllability and Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force...

  5. Embryotoxicity of stable isotopes and use of stable isotopes in studies of teratogenetic mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielmann, H.; Nau, H.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments on teratogenic effects of stable isotopes from our own and other laboratories are evaluated. In the first series of investigations, the enrichment of the stable isotope 13 C derived from U- 13 C-glucose was studied in mouse embryos at various stages of development, including limb buds in organ culture. Preimplantation mouse embryos incubated in vitro in 13 C-enriched medium for 48 hours showed normal development during subsequent differentiation in vitro and also in vivo after embryo transfer to faster mothers. These embryos were 15% to 20% enriched in 13 C. Administration of U-13-C-glucose to pregnant mice during organogenesis led to an increase of the absolute 13 C content of the embryo for several days after the end of isotope administration, whereas the enrichment in maternal tissue decreased. No alterations of embryonic development were detected due to stable isotope enrichment. Development of cultured mouse limb buds was unaffected by incubation with 82 mol% U- 13 C-glucose as judged from morphologic and biochemical criteria. The second part of the article describes the value of deuterium-labeled drugs as probes into the mechanism of activation of teratogenic metabolites. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics as well as the teratogenicity between cyclophosphamide and some specific deuterium-labeled analogues showed that the isotope effect observed can be related to a particular metabolic pathway crucial for teratogenic activation by this drug

  6. [Angle-stable fixation of intramedullary nails using the Angular Stable Locking System® (ASLS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höntzsch, D; Blauth, M; Attal, R

    2011-12-01

    Greater stability in intramedullary osteosynthesis using angle-stable fixation with intramedullary nails and proximal locking screws. A novel screw-and-sleeve system (ASLS®, Synthes GmbH, Oberdorf, Switzerland) is applied using normal cannulated nails. Decisions can be made intraoperatively. This technology widens the range of indications for intramedullary nailing: The smaller and less stable the fragment requiring fixation, the greater the indication for angular stable fixation of the proximal and/or distal fragment. Femoral, tibial and humeral fractures, intramedullary osteosynthesis in osteoporotic bone and ante- and retrograde nailing. Particularly in the case of retrograde nailing, sustained prevention of nail toggling is achieved. None. Drill with the first drill bit, which has the same core diameter as the screw shaft. Drill the cortex to the external diameter of the sleeve. Place the sleeve on the tip of the screw. The screw-sleeve combination is then advanced through the larger near hole until the sleeve-covered screw tip sits in the locking hole of the intramedullary fixation nail. Advance the screw. As the screw diameter becomes larger, the sleeve expands resulting in an angular stable locking effect. The screw is then advanced until the head of the screw sits on the exposed surface of the cortex. The hole is filled with the expanded part of the screw shaft beneath the screw head. The necessary 1-3 turns are cut by the self-tapping flute on the screw. According to experience to date, this form of angle-stable fixation enables earlier and/or greater partial mobilization or earlier full mobilization. In all other respects, the guidelines for aftercare in intramedullary nailing apply. A multi-center pilot study has shown the technique to be reproducible and simple. There have been no complications using this technique to date. Biomechanical laboratory studies have demonstrated that stability with respect to axial and torsional loading is statically and

  7. Elevated temperature forming method and preheater apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Paul E; Hammar, Richard Harry; Singh, Jugraj; Cedar, Dennis; Friedman, Peter A; Luo, Yingbing

    2013-06-11

    An elevated temperature forming system in which a sheet metal workpiece is provided in a first stage position of a multi-stage pre-heater, is heated to a first stage temperature lower than a desired pre-heat temperature, is moved to a final stage position where it is heated to a desired final stage temperature, is transferred to a forming press, and is formed by the forming press. The preheater includes upper and lower platens that transfer heat into workpieces disposed between the platens. A shim spaces the upper platen from the lower platen by a distance greater than a thickness of the workpieces to be heated by the platens and less than a distance at which the upper platen would require an undesirably high input of energy to effectively heat the workpiece without being pressed into contact with the workpiece.

  8. Elevated temperature fatigue testing of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    The major technology areas needed to perform a life prediction of an aircraft turbine engine hot section component are discussed and the steps required for life prediction are outlined. These include the determination of the operating environment, the calculation of the thermal and mechanical loading of the component, the cyclic stress-strain and creep behavior of the material required for structural analysis, and the structural analysis to determine the local stress-strain-temperature-time response of the material at the critical location in the components. From a knowledge of the fatigue, creep, and failure resistance of the material, a prediction of the life of the component is made. Material characterization and evaluation conducted for the purpose of calculating fatigue crack initiation lives of components operating at elevated temperatures are emphasized.

  9. Effects of lixisenatide on elevated liver transaminases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise L; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2014-01-01

    identified on AST, alkaline phosphatase or bilirubin. No evidence of bias was identified. Mixed effect multilevel meta-regression analyses suggest that the benefit of lixisenatide on ALT was limited to patients who were overweight or obese. CONCLUSIONS: This review suggests that lixisenatide increases......) on lixisenatide versus placebo or active comparators for type 2 diabetes were included. PARTICIPANTS: Individual patient data were retrieved to calculate outcomes for patients with elevated liver blood tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase...... (AST). DATA SYNTHESIS: The results of included trials were combined in meta-analyses. Sequential, subgroup and regression analyses were performed to evaluate heterogeneity and bias. RESULTS: We included 12 RCTs on lixisenatide versus placebo and 3 RCTs with the active comparators liraglutide, exenatide...

  10. ICESat: Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, Jay; Shuman, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Ice exists in the natural environment in many forms. The Earth dynamic ice features shows that at high elevations and/or high latitudes,snow that falls to the ground can gradually build up tu form thick consolidated ice masses called glaciers. Glaciers flow downhill under the force of gravity and can extend into areas that are too warm to support year-round snow cover. The snow line, called the equilibrium line on a glacier or ice sheet, separates the ice areas that melt on the surface and become show free in summer (net ablation zone) from the ice area that remain snow covered during the entire year (net accumulation zone). Snow near the surface of a glacier that is gradually being compressed into solid ice is called firm.

  11. Magnesium sacrificial anode behavior at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohsen Othman

    2006-01-01

    Magnesium sacrificial anode coupled to mild steel was tasted in sodium chloride and tap water environments at elevated temperatures. The anode failed to protect the mild steel specimens in tap water environment at all temperatures specified. This was partly due to low conductivity of this medium. The temperature factor did not help to activate the anode in this medium. In sodium chloride environment the anode demonstrated good protection for steel cathodes. The weight loss was high for magnesium in sodium chloride environment particularly beyond 60 degree centigrade. In tap water environment the weight loss was negligible for the anode. It also suffered localized shallow pitting corrosion. Magnesium anode cannot be utilized where high temperature is involved particularly in high conductivity mediums. Protection of structures containing high resistivity waters is not feasible using sacrificial anode system. (author)

  12. Unit of stable isotopic N15 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera de Bisbal, Evelin; Paredes U, Maria

    1997-01-01

    The continuous and growing demand of crops and cattle for the domestic inhabitants, forces the search of technical solutions in agriculture. One of the solutions able to be covered in a near future it is the escalation of agricultural production in lands already being cultivated, either by means of an intensification of cultivation and / or increasing the unitary yields. In the intensive cropping systems, the crops extract substantial quantities of nutriments that is recovered by means of the application of fertilizers. Due to the lack of resources and to the increase of commercial inputs prices, it has been necessary to pay attention to the analysis and improvement of low inputs cropping systems and to the effective use of resources. Everything has made to establish a concept of plant nutrition focused system, which integrate the sources of nutriments for plants and the production factors of crops in a productive cropping system, to improve the fertility of soils, the agricultural productivity and profitability. This system includes the biggest efficiency of chemical fertilizers as the maximum profit of alternative sources of nutriments, such as organic fertilizers, citrate-phosphate rocks and biological nitrogen fixation. By means of field experiments under different environmental conditions (soils and climate) it can be determined the best combination of fertilizers practice (dose, placement, opportunity and source) for selected cropping systems. The experimentation with fertilizer, marked with stable and radioactive isotopes, provides a direct and express method to obtain conclusive answers to the questions: where, when and how should be applied. The fertilizers marked with N 1 5 have been used to understand the application of marked fertilizer to the cultivations, and the determination of the proportion of crops nutritious element derived from fertilizer. The isotopic techniques offer a fast and reliable mean to obtain information about the distribution of

  13. Stable Isotopes in the American Rivers, near Sacramento California: Application and Relevance to Sierra Nevada Paleoelevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, T.; Davidson, E.; Wagner, A. J.; Shimabukuro, D.

    2017-12-01

    Recent models have attempted to estimate paleoelevations in the Sierra Nevada using δ18O and δ2H values from kaolinitized granite clasts and hydration rinds in volcanic glass. These models require calculation of fluvial stable isotope composition, usually considered to be a function of elevation and source isotope composition at sea-level, applied to the hypsometric curve of the upstream drainage basin. However these relationships were initially determined in mountain ranges with different hydrologic patterns. Furthermore, they relied heavily on precipitation and groundwater oxygen isotope data, incorporating little to no surface water data. Since surface waters are a combination of groundwater and overland flow, it is unclear if these theoretical relationships hold true for the modern or ancestral Sierra Nevada. To test this relationship between oxygen isotopes, elevation, and hypsometry along a transect in the Northern Sierra, water was collected from the North and South Forks of the American River from their respective headwaters to their convergence with the Sacramento River. The stable isotope data from these rivers are presented here along with the average relationship between δ18O, δ2H, and elevation. Initial results suggest that δ18O values of surface waters vary by less than 1.0‰ and δ2H by less than 3‰ above 1300 meters elevation with δ18O and δ2H values at 1325 meters of -13.3‰ and -93.2‰ and -13.6‰ and -95.8‰ at 2200 meters. These new data could be used to modify the global isotope-elevation relationship for the Sierra Nevada.

  14. How structurally stable are global socioeconomic systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Rohr, Rudolf P; Gilarranz, Luis J; Bascompte, Jordi

    2014-11-06

    The stability analysis of socioeconomic systems has been centred on answering whether small perturbations when a system is in a given quantitative state will push the system permanently to a different quantitative state. However, typically the quantitative state of socioeconomic systems is subject to constant change. Therefore, a key stability question that has been under-investigated is how strongly the conditions of a system itself can change before the system moves to a qualitatively different behaviour, i.e. how structurally stable the systems is. Here, we introduce a framework to investigate the structural stability of socioeconomic systems formed by a network of interactions among agents competing for resources. We measure the structural stability of the system as the range of conditions in the distribution and availability of resources compatible with the qualitative behaviour in which all the constituent agents can be self-sustained across time. To illustrate our framework, we study an empirical representation of the global socioeconomic system formed by countries sharing and competing for multinational companies used as proxy for resources. We demonstrate that the structural stability of the system is inversely associated with the level of competition and the level of heterogeneity in the distribution of resources. Importantly, we show that the qualitative behaviour of the observed global socioeconomic system is highly sensitive to changes in the distribution of resources. We believe that this work provides a methodological basis to develop sustainable strategies for socioeconomic systems subject to constantly changing conditions. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-02-15

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes1, 2, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other2. Electrostatic stabilization3, 4 of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains2, 5. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute–solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute–solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  16. Stable configurations of graphene on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javvaji, Brahmanandam; Shenoy, Bhamy Maithry [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Mahapatra, D. Roy, E-mail: droymahapatra@aero.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Ravikumar, Abhilash [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India); Hegde, G.M. [Center for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Rizwan, M.R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Simulations of epitaxial growth process for silicon–graphene system is performed. • Identified the most favourable orientation of graphene sheet on silicon substrate. • Atomic local strain due to the silicon–carbon bond formation is analyzed. - Abstract: Integration of graphene on silicon-based nanostructures is crucial in advancing graphene based nanoelectronic device technologies. The present paper provides a new insight on the combined effect of graphene structure and silicon (001) substrate on their two-dimensional anisotropic interface. Molecular dynamics simulations involving the sub-nanoscale interface reveal a most favourable set of temperature independent orientations of the monolayer graphene sheet with an angle of ∽15° between its armchair direction and [010] axis of the silicon substrate. While computing the favorable stable orientations, both the translation and the rotational vibrations of graphene are included. The possible interactions between the graphene atoms and the silicon atoms are identified from their coordination. Graphene sheet shows maximum bonding density with bond length 0.195 nm and minimum bond energy when interfaced with silicon substrate at 15° orientation. Local deformation analysis reveals probability distribution with maximum strain levels of 0.134, 0.047 and 0.029 for 900 K, 300 K and 100 K, respectively in silicon surface for 15° oriented graphene whereas the maximum probable strain in graphene is about 0.041 irrespective of temperature. Silicon–silicon dimer formation is changed due to silicon–carbon bonding. These results may help further in band structure engineering of silicon–graphene lattice.

  17. Stable Continental Region Earthquakes in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.

    This paper reviews some remarkable characteristics of earthquakes in a Stable Continental Region (SCR) of the South China Block (SCB). The kernel of the SCB is the Yangtze platform solidified in late Proterozoic time, with continental growth to the southeast by a series of fold belts in Paleozoic time. The facts that the deviatoric stress is low, the orientations of the major tectonic features in the SCB are substantially normal to the maximum horizontal principal stress, and a relatively uniform crust, seem to be the major reasons for lack of significant seismicity in most regions of the SCB. Earthquakes in this region are mainly associated with three seismic zones: (1) the Southeast China Coast seismic zone related to Guangdong-Fujian coastal folding belt (associated with Eurasia-Philippine Sea plate collision); (2) the Southern Yellow Sea seismic zone associated with continental shelf rifts and basins; and (3) the Downstream Yangtze River seismic zone spatially coinciding with Tertiary rifts and basin development. All three seismic zones are close to one or two major economic and population centers in the SCB so that they pose significant seismic hazards. Earthquake focal mechanisms in the SCB are consistent with strike-slip to normal faulting stress regimes. Because of the global and national economic significance of the SCB and its dense population, the seismic hazard of the region is of outstanding importance. Comparing the SCB with another less developed region, a pending earthquake with the same size and tectonic setting would cause substantially more severe social and economic losses in the SCB. This paper also compiles an inventory of historic moderate to great earthquakes in the SCB; most of the data are not widely available in English literature.

  18. Unusual head and neck injury in elevator: autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, B; Türkmen, N; Dokgöz, H

    2012-10-01

    Industrial injuries related to auto-load-carrying vehicles were not frequently reported in the literature. Presented case was, 31-year-old male furniture worker. Deceased was found in awkward position in furniture workshop. Victim was observed on his knees in front of the elevator, head and neck lodged within openings of the elevator, and head and neck structures compressed-guillotined by the lower platform of the elevator were detected. We presented rare case of head and neck compression by elevator. Key words: head - neck - accidents - elevator - autopsy.

  19. Tempered stable distributions stochastic models for multiscale processes

    CERN Document Server

    Grabchak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This brief is concerned with tempered stable distributions and their associated Levy processes. It is a good text for researchers interested in learning about tempered stable distributions.  A tempered stable distribution is one which takes a stable distribution and modifies its tails to make them lighter. The motivation for this class comes from the fact that infinite variance stable distributions appear to provide a good fit to data in a variety of situations, but the extremely heavy tails of these models are not realistic for most real world applications. The idea of using distributions that modify the tails of stable models to make them lighter seems to have originated in the influential paper of Mantegna and Stanley (1994). Since then, these distributions have been extended and generalized in a variety of ways. They have been applied to a wide variety of areas including mathematical finance, biostatistics,computer science, and physics.

  20. A three-dimensional analysis of vergence movements at various levels of elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minken, A W; Van Gisbergen, J A

    1994-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that eye positions, recorded in subjects scanning a distant visual scene with the head in a stable position, have only two degrees of freedom (Listing's law). Due to cyclovergence, this law is modified in near-vision. Two previous quantitative studies have documented that the sign of the torsional vergence component depends systematically on elevation: when fixating a nearby target, the eyes show intorsion in up gaze, extorsion in down gaze and no cyclotorsion at some intermediate elevation level (to be denoted as the null elevation). Both studies found a linear cyclovergence/elevation relation, but disagreed on the amount of cyclotorsion. A further uncertainty is how this phenomenon develops dynamically when the binocular fixation point shifts from a far to a near position. Therefore, we have investigated the dynamic coupling between the horizontal and torsional components of vergence in human subjects who were instructed to refixate a light target after it stepped in depth. The target steps were presented at various vertical and horizontal directions relative to the straight-ahead axis of the cyclopean eye. We found that the quantitative relations among horizontal vergence, torsional vergence and elevation were intermediate between those found in the two earlier near-vision studies and that they correspond reasonably to the predictions of a model by Mok and co-workers. The cyclotorsion vergence component had about the same latency and dynamics as the horizontal component. When refixations were studied at different elevations, the torsional vergence component changed from incyclotorsion in up gaze to excyclotorsion in down gaze. In agreement with expectations derived from two quantitative models, the null elevation of cyclovergence was near the binocular primary position. Furthermore, we found no consistent additional dependence on the horizontal direction of the refixation trajectory relative to the midsaggital plane. Other experiments

  1. Tracing changes in ecosystem function under elevated CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pataki, D E.; Ellsworth, David; Evans, R. D.; Gonzalez-Meler, M.; King, J.; Leavitt, S. W.; Matamala, R.; Pendall, D. E.; Siegwolf, R.; van Kessel, C.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2002-12-31

    Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen isotope ratios at natural abundance levels provide valuable tracers for integrated analyses in high-CO2 experiments of terrestrial ecosystems. The additional CO2 supplied in these experiments provides a very useful label that can be used to trace carbon flows and turnover rates in different pools, both under elevated CO2 treatment conditions as well after completion of the long-term experiment when the supplemental CO2 is turned off. In experiments where isotope ratio mass spectrometry is not available, archival of dry biomass and soil samples can provide opportunities for future isotope analysis of organic matter. Frozen leaf and soil samples, or if possible water extracted and stored in sealed head space vials, can provide valuable information regarding the effect of elevated CO2 on the leaf water budget and possibly on the leaf energy balance. Linking these stable isotope analyses with traditional approaches in elevated CO2 ecosystem studies provides a unique opportunity for tracing short-term and long-term changes in the carbon cycle and its impacts on the nitrogen cycle, the water cycle, and trophic-level interactions.

  2. Absolute Continuity of Stable Foliations for Mappings of Banach Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Alex; Young, Lai-Sang

    2017-09-01

    We prove the absolute continuity of stable foliations for mappings of Banach spaces satisfying conditions consistent with time- t maps of certain classes of dissipative PDEs. This property is crucial for passing information from submanifolds transversal to the stable foliation to the rest of the phase space; it is also used in proofs of ergodicity. Absolute continuity of stable foliations is well known in finite dimensional hyperbolic theory. On Banach spaces, the absence of nice geometric properties poses some additional difficulties.

  3. Tukey max-stable processes for spatial extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ganggang

    2016-09-21

    We propose a new type of max-stable process that we call the Tukey max-stable process for spatial extremes. It brings additional flexibility to modeling dependence structures among spatial extremes. The statistical properties of the Tukey max-stable process are demonstrated theoretically and numerically. Simulation studies and an application to Swiss rainfall data indicate the effectiveness of the proposed process. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Stable SU(5) monopoles with higher magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, S.; Sato, H.; Tomohiro, S.

    1985-01-01

    Taking into account the electroweak breaking effects, some multiply charged monopoles were shown to be stable by Gardner and Harvey. We give the explicit Ansa$uml: tze for finite-energy, nonsingular solutions of these stable higher-strength monopoles with eg = 1,(3/2),3. We also give the general stability conditions and the detailed behavior of the interaction potentials between two monopoles which produce the stable higher-strength monopoles

  5. Cokriging model for estimation of water table elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeksema, R.J.; Clapp, R.B.; Thomas, A.L.; Hunley, A.E.; Farrow, N.D.; Dearstone, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    In geological settings where the water table is a subdued replica of the ground surface, cokriging can be used to estimate the water table elevation at unsampled locations on the basis of values of water table elevation and ground surface elevation measured at wells and at points along flowing streams. The ground surface elevation at the estimation point must also be determined. In the proposed method, separate models are generated for the spatial variability of the water table and ground surface elevation and for the dependence between these variables. After the models have been validated, cokriging or minimum variance unbiased estimation is used to obtain the estimated water table elevations and their estimation variances. For the Pits and Trenches area (formerly a liquid radioactive waste disposal facility) near Oak Ridge National Laboratory, water table estimation along a linear section, both with and without the inclusion of ground surface elevation as a statistical predictor, illustrate the advantages of the cokriging model

  6. Traction sheave elevator, hoisting unit and machine space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Harri; Mustalahti, Jorma; Aulanko, Esko

    2000-01-01

    Traction sheave elevator consisting of an elevator car moving along elevator guide rails, a counterweight moving along counterweight guide rails, a set of hoisting ropes (3) on which the elevator car and counterweight are suspended, and a drive machine unit (6) driving a traction sheave (7) acting on the hoisting ropes (3) and placed in the elevator shaft. The drive machine unit (6) is of a flat construction. A wall of the elevator shaft is provided with a machine space with its open side facing towards the shaft, the essential parts of the drive machine unit (6) being placed in the space. The hoisting unit (9) of the traction sheave elevator consists of a substantially discoidal drive machine unit (6) and an instrument panel (8) mounted on the frame (20) of the hoisting unit.

  7. Geared-elevator flutter study. [transonic flutter characteristics of empennage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlin, C. L.; Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Gregory, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an experimental and analytical study of the transonic flutter characteristics of an empennage flutter model having an all-movable horizontal tail with a geared elevator. Two configurations were flutter tested: one with a geared elevator and one with a locked elevator with the model cantilever-mounted on a sting in the wind tunnel. The geared-elevator configuration fluttered experimentally at about 20% higher dynamic pressures than the locked-elevator configuration. The experimental flutter boundary was nearly flat at transonic speeds for both configurations. It was found that an analysis which treated the elevator as a discrete surface predicted flutter dynamic pressure levels better than analyses which treated the stabilizer and elevator as a warped surface. Warped-surface methods, however, predicted more closely the experimental flutter frequencies and Mach number trends.

  8. Purwarupa Sistem Kontrol Elevator Berbasis Programable Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathahillah Fathahillah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Various methods / types of controls developed in accordance with industry needs one of them in the field of building automation system. One of the controls in the field of building automation system is the elevator control system (elevator. Early elevator control systems that transport humans or goods as vertical transportation vehicles are still conventional using human power, then evolved using steam engines, until now the elevators use AC motors equipped with control systems. The purpose of this research is to design the prototype of elevator control system using programmable logic control (PLC. The type of PLC controller used in the study using Omron PLC. The results show the design of prototype of elevator control system using PLC successfully and can control eleveator in accordance with its function, besides its programming form can be more simple.

  9. Calcium and phosphorus metabolism in stable renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahi, Hamid T; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Azar, Sima Abedi; Tubbs, R Shane; Safa, Javid; Etemadi, Jalal; Ardalan, Mohammad R

    2007-12-01

    This study sought to elucidate the status of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone in patients following kidney transplant. In this cross-sectional study, 20 renal transplant recipients were evaluated. For each patient, age, sex, time since transplant, and body weight were recorded. Inclusion criteria were age > 14 years and good allograft function defined as a serum creatinine level urine calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, and uric acid, as well as concentrations of hemoglobin, serum creatinine, calcium, and phosphorus were measured. To obtain a mean value of serum intact parathyroid hormone in transplant recipients at our center, serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were additionally quantitated in another group of 30 renal transplant recipients. The mean hemoglobin level was 135.6 +/- 17.7 g/L, the mean serum creatinine level was 105.0 +/- 15.3 micromol/L, and the mean serum calcium and phosphorus levels were 2.25 +/- 0.17 mmol/L (normal range, 2.02-2.60 mmol/L) and 1.28 +/- 0.24 mmol/L (normal range, 0.81-1.61 mmol/L), respectively. The mean serum intact parathyroid hormone level was 33.17 +/- 14.67 ng/L (normal range, 10-60 ng/L). Mean 24-hour urine calcium and phosphorus values were 2.32 +/- 1.68 mmol/day (normal, 2.49-6.24 mmol/day) and 19.77 +/- 8.31 mmol/day (normal, 12.91-41.98 mmol/day), respectively. A positive correlation was found between serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels (r = +0.71, P = .006). Hemoglobin level was negatively correlated with serum phosphorus level (r = -0.65, P = .003) and sex (r = -0.57, P = .003) and positively correlated with urine creatinine levels (r = +0.69, P = .001). Renal transplant recipients with stable allograft function may have normal serum calcium, phosphorus, and intact parathyroid hormone levels. However, presence of hypocalciuria and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase levels might imply impaired calcium metabolism in these patients.

  10. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  11. Surface Elevation Change of Transantarctic Outlet Glaciers using Historical Aerial Imagery and Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, S. F.; Stearns, L. A.; Girod, L.

    2017-12-01

    Transantarctic Mountain outlet glaciers drain ice from the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to the Ross Ice Shelf and are generally considered to be stable. However, studies that assess these glaciers typically use data with coarse spatial resolutions (1 - 20 km) and span only the last 15 - 20 years. Here, we use trimetrogon aerial (TMA) photographs collected by the United States Geological Survey from 1960 - 1965 to create historical surface elevation maps. We construct elevations from both the vertical (0° nadir) and oblique photographs using MicMac, a Structure-from-Motion (SfM) software. With typical SfM processing, accurate ground control points (GCPs) are necessary for the best results; however, in situ GCPs are extremely sparse in Antarctica, so we manually identify GCPs using exposed rock outcrops in the WorldView imagery. The historical glacier surface elevations are then compared with present-day elevations derived from WorldView imagery. With this methodology, we assess how Transantarctic outlet glaciers have changed over 55 years. Recent studies indicate thinning of the eastern Ross Ice Shelf, where it borders the Transantarctic Mountains. With long-term records of glacier elevation change, we can differentiate whether ice shelf thinning is driven by changes in glacier or ocean dynamics. These results give us a better understanding of the long-term stability of East Antarctic outlet glaciers, which is essential in improving predictive models of ice sheet behavior.

  12. Stable glomerular filtration rate in normotensive IDDM patients with stable microalbuminuria. A 5-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E R; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hommel, E

    1997-01-01

    . Out of 40 patients, 14 progressed to diabetic nephropathy (UAE > 300 mg/24 h). These patients had a significant reduction in GFR (mean -2.2 +/- 3.8 ml x min-1 x year-1; P = 0.05), while GFR remained stable in the remaining 26 patients with nonprogressive microalbuminuria (change in GFR 0.5 +/- 2.1 ml...... x min-1 x year-1; NS). The difference in the rate of decline of GFR was significant (mean 2.7 ml x min-1 x year-1; P

  13. Elevated body mass index and fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marović Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obesity and overweight, expressed by elevated Body Mass Index (BMI, result from excessive consumption of fatty food and carbohydrates above the body needs. The fat from the blood, through free fatty acids, is taken directly into the liver. Objective The aim of this study was to examine correlation among the accepted ultrasonography findings of the fatty liver and the normal ultrasonography findings and the elevated average level of BMI and those with normal BMI in examinees in one investigation. All was done aimed at proving that the BMI is one of the direct factors of the increased occurence of fatty liver. METHOD The method of the investigation consisted of anthropometric measuring of height and weight on the basis of which there were established BMI values. Consequently, the examinees were divided in two groups: one with normal BMI (under 24.9 kg/m2 and the other with increased BMI (over 25 kg/m2. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver of the examinees was observed by ultrasonography. Thus there were given subgroups of the examinees, one with the findings of fatty liver and the second with a normal finding, without changes. After that, the obtained results were statistically analysed. Results It was found that the average level of BMI in the examinees was by two units higher in the subgroup with ultrasonography findings of fatty liver than the average value of BMI in the subgroup with the normal ultrasonography findings of the liver. The difference was tested by the Student's t-test and a significant difference was found. The difference in frequencies of the appearance of the finding of fatty liver in the subgroups was tested by χ2-test. A statistically significant difference was found in frequencies of the appearance of fatty liver in the subgroup with the increased value of BMI. Conclusion The increased BMI, which is represented by overweight and obesity, is one of the direct risk factors which cause fatty liver, checked by

  14. Design of a powered elevator control system. [powered elevator system for modified C-8A aircraft for STOL operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glende, W. L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The design, fabrication and flight testing of a powered elevator system for the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA or Mod C-8A) are discussed. The system replaces a manual spring tab elevator control system that was unsatisfactory in the STOL flight regime. Pitch control in the AWJSRA is by means of a single elevator control surface. The elevator is used for both maneuver and trim control as the stabilizer is fixed. A fully powered, irreversible flight control system powered by dual hydraulic sources was designed. The existing control columns and single mechanical cable system of the AWJSRA have been retained as has been the basic elevator surface, except that the elevator spring tab is modified into a geared balance tab. The control surface is directly actuated by a dual tandem moving body actuator. Control signals are transmitted from the elevator aft quadrant to the actuator by a linkage system that includes a limited authority series servo actuator.

  15. Periodontal disease and inflammatory blood cytokines in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio KAMPITS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Periodontal disease has been associated with elevations of blood cytokines involved in atherosclerosis in systemically healthy individuals, but little is known about this association in stable cardiovascular patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between periodontal disease (exposure and blood cytokine levels (outcomes in a target population of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study included 91 patients with stable CAD who had been under optimized cardiovascular care. Blood levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were measured by Luminex technology. A full-mouth periodontal examination was conducted to record probing depth (PD and clinical attachment (CA loss. Multiple linear regression models, adjusting for gender, body mass index, oral hypoglycemic drugs, smoking, and occurre:nce of acute myocardial infarction were applied. Results CAD patients that experienced major events had higher concentrations of IFN-γ (median: 5.05 pg/mL vs. 3.01 pg/mL; p=0.01, IL-10 (median: 2.33 pg/mL vs. 1.01 pg/mL; p=0.03, and TNF-α (median: 9.17 pg/mL vs. 7.47 pg/mL; p=0.02. Higher numbers of teeth with at least 6 mm of CA loss (R2=0.07 and PD (R2=0.06 were significantly associated with higher IFN-γ log concentrations. Mean CA loss (R2=0.05 and PD (R2=0.06 were significantly related to IL-10 concentrations. Elevated concentrations of TNF-α were associated with higher mean CA loss (R2=0.07. Conclusion Periodontal disease is associated with increased systemic inflammation in stable cardiovascular patients. These findings provide additional evidence supporting the idea that periodontal disease can be a prognostic factor in cardiovascular patients.

  16. Nesting habitat use by river chubs in a hydrologically variable Appalachian tailwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peoples, Brandon K. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Orth, Donald J. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Frimpong, Emmanuel A. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2013-07-02

    Hydrologic alteration continues to affect aquatic biodiversity asknowledge of the spawning requirements of fishes, especially keystone or foundation species, becomes more critical for conservation and management. Our objectives are to quantify the spawning micro- and mesohabitat use of river chub Nocomis micropogon, a gravel mound nesting minnow, in a hydrologically regulated river in North Carolina, USA. At the microhabitat scale, substrate sizes on nests were compared with pebble counts in 1-m2 adjacent quadrats. Average depths and current velocities at nests were compared with measurements from paired transects. At the mesohabitat scale, generalised linear mixed models (GLMMs) were used to identify the importance of average bed slope, average depth and percentages of rock outcrops (a measure of flow heterogeneity and velocity shelters) for predicting nest presence and abundance. To relate nesting activities to hydrologic alteration from dam operation, nest dimensions were measured before and after a scheduled discharge event approximately six times that of base flow. In addition, linear regression was used to predict changes in the use of flow refugia and overhead cover with increased fluvial distance from the dam. Microhabitats in which nests were placed had, on average, slower current velocities and shallower depths. Gravel diameters of nests were significantly smaller than substrate particles adjacent to nests. GLMMs revealed that mesohabitats with nests were shallower, had more moderate slopes and greater proportions of rock outcrops than mesohabitats without nests. Finally, the scheduled discharge event significantly flattened nests. Near the dam, nests were built in close proximity ( 2 m) to velocity shelters; this relationship diminished with distance from the dam. River chubs are spawning habitat specialists. Because multiple species rely on river chub nests for reproduction and food, the needs of this species should be considered when managing instream flows.

  17. Water Quality, Macroinvertebrates, and Fisheries in Tailwaters and Related Streams. An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    inhabiting either of these two areas are adapted mor- phologically for survival. Leaf litter in the fall may compose 60 percent of the organic matter entering... Shredders break the leaf into particles of organic matter. Collectors utilize the particles which the shredders have processed. Scrapers utilize the...production and leaf - litter decomposition in natural and channelized portions of a Kansas stream. Am. Midl. Nat. 99(1):238-243. The channelized portion of a

  18. The surface elevation table: marker horizon method for measuring wetland accretion and elevation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, John C.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Lynch, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Tidal wetlands are highly sensitive to processes that affect their elevation relative to sea level. The surface elevation table–marker horizon (SET–MH) method has been used to successfully measure these processes, including sediment accretion, changes in relative elevation, and shallow soil processes (subsidence and expansion due to root production). The SET–MH method is capable of measuring changes at very high resolution (±millimeters) and has been used worldwide both in natural wetlands and under experimental conditions. Marker horizons are typically deployed using feldspar over 50- by 50-cm plots, with replicate plots at each sampling location. Plots are sampled using a liquid N2 cryocorer that freezes a small sample, allowing the handling and measurement of soft and easily compressed soils with minimal compaction. The SET instrument is a portable device that is attached to a permanent benchmark to make high-precision measurements of wetland surface elevation. The SET instrument has evolved substantially in recent decades, and the current rod SET (RSET) is widely used. For the RSET, a 15-mm-diameter stainless steel rod is pounded into the ground until substantial resistance is achieved to establish a benchmark. The SET instrument is attached to the benchmark and leveled such that it reoccupies the same reference plane in space, and pins lowered from the instrument repeatedly measure the same point on the soil surface. Changes in the height of the lowered pins reflect changes in the soil surface. Permanent or temporary platforms provide access to SET and MH locations without disturbing the wetland surface.

  19. Darapladib for preventing ischemic events in stable coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Harvey D.; Held, Claes; Stewart, Ralph; Tarka, Elizabeth; Brown, Rebekkah; Davies, Richard Y.; Budaj, Andrzej; Harrington, Robert A.; Steg, P. Gabriel; Ardissino, Diego; Armstrong, Paul W.; Avezum, Alvaro; Aylward, Philip E.; Bryce, Alfonso; Chen, Hong; Chen, Ming-Fong; Corbalan, Ramon; Dalby, Anthony J.; Danchin, Nicolas; de Winter, Robbert J.; Denchev, Stefan; Diaz, Rafael; Elisaf, Moses; Flather, Marcus D.; Goudev, Assen R.; Granger, Christopher B.; Grinfeld, Liliana; Hochman, Judith S.; Husted, Steen; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Koenig, Wolfgang; Linhart, Ales; Lonn, Eva; López-Sendón, José; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Mohler, Emile R.; Nicolau, José C.; Pais, Prem; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Pedersen, Terje R.; Pella, Daniel; Ramos-Corrales, Marco A.; Ruda, Mikhail; Sereg, Mátyás; Siddique, Saulat; Sinnaeve, Peter; Smith, Peter; Sritara, Piyamitr; Swart, Henk P.; Sy, Rody G.; Teramoto, Tamio; Tse, Hung-Fat; Watson, David; Weaver, W. Douglas; Weiss, Robert; Viigimaa, Margus; Vinereanu, Dragos; Zhu, Junren; Cannon, Christopher P.; Wallentin, Lars; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Bucan, Olga; Elfström, Charlotta; Hegg, Lisa; Jarosz, Marie; Krug-Gourley, Sue; Rudman, Jerry; Collins, Rory; Anderson, Jeffrey; DeMets, David; Ganz, Peter; Sandercock, Peter; Weber, Michael; Fisher, Marian; Buhr, Kevin; Diegel, Scott; Schultz, Melissa; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Alexander, John H.; Al-Khatib, Sana; Baron, Tomasz; Bergström, Olle; Bushnell, Cheryl; Christersson, Christina; Eggers, Kai; Fredlund, Bengt-Olov; Hagström, Emil; Hijazi, Ziad; Örndahl, Lovisa Holm; James, Stefan K.; Jernberg, Tomas; Johnston, Nina; Lopez, Renato D.; Mehta, Rajendra H.; Newby, Kristin L.; Nordmark, Örjan; Oldgren, Jonas; Roe, Matthew T.; Saldéen, Katarina; Stenborg, Anna; Szummer, Karolina; Varenhorst, Christoph; Åkerblom, Axel; Bodén, Ulrika; Holmgren, Pernilla; Alm, Cristina; Hallberg, Theresa; Forsman, Margareta; Ljung, Hanna; Svanberg, Camilla; Loebs, Patrick F.; Atwater, Karen; Baldwin, Robert; Butts, Maria; Chan, Tuan; Connolly, Patricia; Esposito, Gerry; Hillier, Jacalyn B.; Jordan, Marla; Lane, Kathleen; Eckart, Debra; O'Malia, Kimberly; Ryan, Grace; Smitheran, Patsy; Tait, Maunette; Vyas, Sachin; Frazilus, Jessy; Douglas, Sarah; Alsweiler, Caroline; Ball, Lorinda; Bucan, Ana; Mackay, Laura; Wiviott, Stephen; Gignac, Gretchen; Goessling, Wolfram; Hochberg, Ephraim; Lane, Andrew; Rosenberg, Carol; Wagner, Andrew; Wolpin, Brian M.; Lowe, Cheryl; Mills, Kristen; Alkhalil, Maria; Ruvido, Jessica; Rehman, Mian Qasim; Shimmer, Margarita; Stebletsova, Irina; Barnes, Allison; Chiswell, Karen; Stebbins, Amanda; Bustamante Labarta, Miguel; Cartasegna, Luis R.; Chekherdemian, Sergio; Cuello, Jose L.; Elías, Pedro; Giordano, Jorge; Hirschson, Alfredo; Hominal, Miguel Angel; Ibañez, Julio O.; Jure, Horacio O.; Litvak, Marcos; Macin, Stella M.; MacKinnon, Ignacio Jorge; Maffei, Laura Elena; Montaña, Oscar R.; Prado, Aldo D.; Sala, Jorgelina M.; Sanchez, Ramiro A.; Brieger, David; Chew, Derek; Cross, David; de Looze, Ferdinandus J.; Farshid, Ahmad; Hall, Stephen; Krum, Henry; Lane, Geoff K.; Oqueli Flores, Ernesto; Stickland, John; Purnell, Peter W.; Szto, Gregory Y. F.; Thompson, Peter L.; Waites, Jonathan; William, Maged; Beauloye, Christophe; Boland, Jean; Charlier, Filip; de Raedt, Herbert J. L. P.; Dens, Joseph A. Y.; Dujardin, Karl; Friart, Alain; Scheen, André; Schröder, Erwin; Sinnaeve, Peter R.; Verheye, Stefan; Vranckx, Pascal; Abrantes, José A. M.; Albuquerque, Denilson; Ardito, Wilma Roberta; Baracioli, Luciano M.; Bertolami, Marcelo C.; Bodanese, Luiz C.; Dos Santos Filho, Raul D.; Maia, Lilia N.; Manenti, Euler R. F.; Marino, Roberto L.; Ogawa Indio do Brasil, Clarisse K.; Paiva, Maria Sanali de Oliveira; Rabelo Alves Junior, Álvaro; Rassi, Salvador; Reis, Gilmar; Rossi, Paulo R. F.; Saraiva, José Francisco K.; Benov, Haralambi; Chompalova, Boryana; Goudev, Assen; Grigorova, Valentina; Mihov, Atanas; Mincheva, Valentina; Petrova, Sylvia; Staneva, Angelina; Raev, Dimitar; Tisheva, Snezhanka; Aronson, Ronnie; Bedard, Jacques; Bhargava, Rakesh K.; Borts, David; Constance, Christian; Cusson, Jean; Davies, Richard F.; Ducas, John; Ferguson, Murdo E. R.; Goldenberg, Ronald M.; Grondin, Francois; Gyenes, Gabor; Halperin, Frank; Kornder, Jan; Kouz, Simon; Lainesse, Andre Y.; Leader, Rolland; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Lonn, Eva M.; Milot, Alain; Pearce, Murray E.; Pliamm, Lew; Powell, Calvin N.; Rose, Barry F.; Rupka, Dennis W.; Siega, Anthony J. D.; Klinke, Peter W.; St-Amour, Eric; Talbot, Paul; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tishler, Steven J.; Title, Lawrence; Wong, Graham C.; Buller, Christopher E.; Acevedo Blanco, Monica Andrea; Albornoz Alarcon, Francisco Javier; Escobar, Edgardo; Florenzano Urzua, Fernando; Pedemonte Villablanca, Oneglio Antonio; Prieto Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Sanhueza Cardemil, Patricio; Varleta Olivares, Paola Elena; Chen, Jiyan; Dong, Yugang; Ge, Junbo; He, Ben; Huo, Yong; Li, Weimin; Li, Xin-li; Liao, Yuhua; Wei, Meng; Yan, Xiaowei; Ye, Ping; Yuan, Zuyi; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Jianhua; Cermak, Ondrej; Dedek, Vratislav; Francek, Lumir; Grunfeldova, Hana; Hubac, Jan; Franc, Pavel; Kellnerova, Ivana; Klimsa, Zdenek; Kroupa, Josef; Kuchar, Ladislav; Malecha, Jan; Povolny, Jiri; Velimsky, Tomas; Volf, Roman; Jirka, Vladimir; Bang, Lia; Grande, Peer; Frost, Lars; Husted, Steen E.; Laursen, Rikke V.; Nielsen, Tonny; Hedman, Anu; Muda, Piibe; Planken, Ulle; Barnay, Claude; Bauters, Christophe; Bayet, Gilles; Bonnet, Jacques; Bruckert, Eric; Cottin, Yves; Courreges, Jean-Pierre; Decoulx, Eric; Demarcq, Jean-Michel; Dubois-Rande, Jean-Luc; Elbaz, Meyer; Khalife, Khalifé; Krempf, Michel; Maupas, Eric; Ovize, Michel; Roul, José Gérald; Schiele, François; Bassand, Jean-Pierre; Steg, Gabriel; Vaisse, Bernard; Aigner, Ulrich Michael; Bavendiek, Udo; Fischer, Dieter; Benedix, Gisela; Boeneke, Hilmar; Bott, Jochen; Brado, Bernadett; Buhr, Marianne; Butter, Christian; Fischer, Steffen; Foerster, Andreas P. D.; Grad, Marc Oliver; Grosskopf, Josef; Hanefeld, Markolf; Hoeltz, Susanne; Frick, Horst-Michael; Illies, Gabriele; Jung, Thomas W. G. E.; Kademann, Barbara; Kahrmann, Gert; Bourrat, Alexandra; Horacek, Thomas; Reusch, Regina; Klausmann, Gerhard; Klein, Christiane; Krause, Karl Heinz; Kuesters, Detlev; Mellwig, Klaus-Peter; Menke, Thomas; Mueller, Steve; Neumann, Gerhard; Nischik, Ruth; Preusche, Andreas; Prohaska, Martin; Regner, Stefan Franz; Rein, Wilfried; Rummel, Reinhard; Samer, Holger; Schaefer, Thomas; Schenkenberger, Isabelle; Schmidt, Ekkehard; Schoen, Norbert; Schreckenberg, Andreas; Schulze, Uwe; Wunderlich, Joachim; Sohn, Hae-Young; Klauss, Volker; Toursarkissian, Nicole; Voigt, Jan-Gerrit; Weber, Dirk; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Zuechner, Dirk; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Anastasiou-Nana, Maria; Kremastinos, Dimitrios; Geleris, Parashos; Kallikazaros, Ioannis; Kranidis, Athanasios; Manolis, Athanasios; Mantas, Ioannis; Olympios, Christoforos; Tziakas, Dimitrios; Voudris, Vassilis; Lam, Yat Yin Homer; Yip, Wai Kwok Gabriel; Siu, Chung Wah David; Benczúr, Béla; Hornyik, Andrea; László, Zoltán; Papp, András; Papp, Anikó; Plés, Zsolt; Piros, Annamária; Szakál, Imre; Túri, Tibor; Vértes, András; Abraham, Sunitha; Banker, Darshan N.; Chandwani, Prakash; Gupta, Rajeev; Hiremath, Jagdish; Jayadev, Santhosh; Joseph, Stigimon; Menon, Jaideep; Keshavamurth, C.; Srinivas, Arun; Parikh, Keyur; Pothineni, Ramesh B.; Sathe, Shireesh P.; Sawhney, Jitendra P.; Sethi, Sumeet; Chandra, Praveen Kumar; Varma, Sudhir; Bobbio, Marco; Bongo, Angelo S.; Cipollone, Francesco; Mezzetti, Andrea; Colivicchi, Furio; Santini, Massimo; Esposito, Giovanni; Chiariello, Massimo; Marzilli, Mario; Merlini, Piera; Moretti, Luciano; Olivari, Zoran; Patrizi, Giampiero; Valgimigli, Marco; Amemiya, Hiroshi; Ando, Kenji; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Endo, Masahiro; Nagashima, Hirotaka; Kametani, Ryosuke; Koike, Akihiro; Kuramochi, Takehiko; Nakamura, Yuichiro; Oku, Koji; Okutsu, Masaaki; Sueyoshi, Atsushi; Takahashi, Wataru; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Tanabe, Jun; Tanaka, Hideki; Kashima, Katsuro; Tanaka, Yutaka; Takeshita, Satoshi; Teranishi, Junichi; Betsuyaku, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yamazaki, Seiji; Yano, Shoji; Yoshida, Kazuro; Chae, Jei-Keon; Chae, Shung-Chull; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Choi, Dong-Hoon; Choi, Dong-Ju; Hong, Taek-Jong; Jeon, Hui-Kyung; Jeong, MyungHo; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Ryu, Kyu-Hyung; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Kwon-Sam; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lim, Do-Sun; Park, Seong-Wook; Seung, Ki-Bae; Cervantes-Escárcega, Jose-Luis; Hernández-Santamaría, Ismael; Sánchez-Díaz, Carlos Jerjes; Uribe-Rios, Marittza-Arasely; Alvarado-Ruiz, Ricardo; Dijkgraaf, René; Jansen, Rutger M. G.; Knufman, Nicole M. J.; Frederiks, Joost; Kuijper, Adrianus; Post, Johannes C.; Michels, Herman R.; Roeters van Lennep, Hendrik W. O.; Liem, Anho; Smits, Pieter C.; Swart, Hendrik P.; van Boven, Adrianus J.; van Daele, Marc E. R. M.; van der Zwaan, Coenraad; von Birgelen, Clemens; Westendorp, Iris C. D.; Davidson, Laura; Devlin, Gerard P.; Elliott, John M.; Hamer, Andrew W.; Harrison, Nigel A.; Rankin, Richard J.; Hart, Hamish H.; Hills, Matthew J.; O'Meeghan, Timothy J.; Scott, Douglas S.; Stewart, Ralph A. H.; Tisch, Jonathan G.; Williams, Michael J. A.; Chen, Victor H. T.; Berge, Christ; Istad, Helge; Sirnes, Per Anton; Hanif, Bashir; Ishaq, Riaz; Kayani, Azhar Mahmood; Qureshi, Muhammad Bilal Ahsan; Yaqub, Zia; Doig, Rafael; Britto, Frank; Yanac, Pedro; Horna, Manuel; Valdivia, José; Zubiate, Mario Cesar; Abelardo, Nelson S.; Abola, Maria Teresa B.; Añonuevo, John C.; Atilano, Alberto A.; Cheng, Federick C.; Gaspar-Trinidad, Emma Y.; Sison, Jorge A.; Sulit, Dennis Jose V.; Uy, Norbert Lingling; Chmielinski, Arkadiusz; Czepiel, Aleksandra; Guzniczak, Ewa M.; Siminiak, Tomasz; Kania, Grzegorz; Kincel, Krzysztof; Kopaczewski, Jerzy; Kubica, Jacek; Lysek, Roman; Miekus, Pawel; Mlodziankowski, Adam; Napora, Piotr; Prochaczek, Fryderyk; Ruscika, Teresa; Tarchalski, Janusz; Tracz, Wieslawa; Wrzosek, Bozena; Basarab, Gheorghe V.; Benedek, Imre; Cinteza, Mircea; Cristea, Madalina I.; Dimulescu, Doina R.; Dragusin, Daniela; Gabor, Iulia; Ginghina, Carmen D.; Macarie, Cezar E.; Sinescu, Crina; Tatu-Chitoiu, Gabriel; Andryushina, Natalya A.; Baum, Svetlana R.; Arkhipov, Mikhail V.; Barbarash, Olga L.; Boldueva, Svetlana; Boyarkin, Mikhail V.; Demko, Arkady P.; Freydlin, Marina S.; Golitsyn, Sergei P.; Gordeev, Ivan; Gratsiansky, Nikolay; Karpov, Yuri A.; Kobalava, Zhanna; Konstantinov, Vladimir; Kuimov, Andrey D.; Kukharchuk, Valery V.; Panov, Alexey; Ruda, Mikhail Y.; Sayganov, Sergey A.; Simanenkov, Vladimir; Smolenskaya, Olga G.; Tsyba, Larisa P.; Vishnevsky, Alexander Y.; Yakhontova, Polina K.; Yakushin, Sergey S.; Zateyshchikov, Dmitry A.; Gaspar, Ludovit; Hranai, Marian; Kokles, Martin; Badat, Aysha; Sliwa-Hahnle, Karen; Blignaut, Suzanne; Burgess, Lesley; Dalby, Anthony; Dawood, Saleem Y.; Gray, Thomas; Horak, Adrian R.; Mabin, Thomas; Manga, Pravin; Moodley, Rajendran; Pretorius, Maria M.; Hough, Frans S.; Roodt, Andre; Saaiman, Jan; Theron, Hendrik D.; Alonso Karlezi, Rodrigo; Mata López, Pedro; Aranda Granados, Pedro; Berrazueta Fernández, José Ramón; Carnevali Ruiz, Daniel; Castro Conde, Almudena; Cruz Fernández, José Ma; de Teresa Galván, Eduardo; de Teresa Parreño, Luis; Díaz Buschmann, Isabel; Domínguez Escribano, José Ramón; Garcia Puig, Juan; Gil Extremera, Blas; Gómez Cerezo, Jorge; Macaya, Carlos Miguel; Mostaza Prieto, José Ma; Muñoz Aguilera, Roberto; Pérez Muñoz, Carlos; Querejeta Iraola, Ramón; Romero Hinojosa, José Antonio; Ruilope Urioste, Luis Miguel; Sabán Ruiz, José; Sobrino Martínez, Javier; Suárez Suárez, Enma Concepción; Lozano Martínez-Luengas, Iñigo; Al-Khalili, Faris; Bandh, Stellan; Bennermo, Marie; Dellborg, Mikael; Herlitz, Johan; Johanson, Per; Hjelmaeus, Lars; Landergren, Karl; Linderfalk, Carina; Lindholm, Carl-Johan; Lindmark, Krister; Mooe, Thomas; Nilsson, Jan; Wodlin, Peter; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Hou, Charles; Hsia, Chien-Hsun; Lin, Shing-Jong; Tsai, Liang-Miin; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Chotinaiwattarakul, Chunhakasem; Kuanprasert, Srun; Sansanayudh, Nakarin; Suithichaiyakul, Taworn; Andriyevska, Svitlana; Basylevych, Andriy Y.; Denesiuk, Vitaliy I.; Kononenko, Lyudmyla G.; Korzh, Oleksii M.; Kovalenko, Volodymyr M.; Kraiz, Igor G.; Lishnevska, Viktoriia Y.; Lutay, Mykhaylo I.; Parkhomenko, Oleksandr M.; Rudenko, Leonid V.; Telyatnikova, Zinaida Y.; Tseluyko, Vira Y.; Vatutin, Mykola T.; Vizir, Vadym A.; Bakhai, Ameet; Bijral, Harbal S.; Stewart, Edmund; Dargie, Henry; Barlow, Marion G.; Dutka, David P.; Findlay, Iain N.; Fisher, Michael; Gorog, Diana A.; Jacques, Adam M.; Beeton, Ian; Logie, Brian; Pepper, John R.; Purcell, Ian F.; Scullion, William; Thompson, James F.; Senior, Roxy; Simpson, David A.; Thackray, Simon D. R.; Alamgir, Mohammed F.; Wilding, John P. H.; Wong, Yuk-ki; Ahmed, Abdel M.; Antonishen, Mark C.; Atassi, Keith; Azocar, Jose; Ball, Eric M.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Bays, Harold E.; Beavins, Jill E.; Benjamin, Sabrina A.; Benson, Mark R.; Berger, Peter B.; Buckley, Jeremy W.; Betz, William R.; Biederman, Robert W. W.; Bisher, Edward W.; Bittner, Vera A.; Breton, Cristian F.; Buttaci, Salvatore; Changlani, Mahesh; Patterson, John B.; Byrd, Leroy J.; Canaday, Donald B.; Cashion, William R.; Chandna, Harish; Chang, Anna R.; Chin, John; Claybrook, Harry P.; Martin, Frederick A.; Cohen, Kenneth R.; Colan, David R.; Coodley, Gregg O.; Corson, Marshall A.; Knopp, Robert H.; Paramsothy, Pathmaja; Cottiero, Richard A.; Dandona, Paresh; Davidson, Michael H.; Kamaradt, Kent T.; Davuluri, Ashwini K.; Desai, Vikas S.; Garson, Glen D.; East, Cara; Ebrahimi, Ramin; Ellison, Howard S.; Erickson, Bernard R.; Fernandes, Valerian L.; Flores, Angel R.; Folkerth, Steven D.; Foster, Robert E.; Gaona, Raul E.; Gardner, Timothy J.; George, William H.; Gessler, Carl J.; Gill, Santosh K.; Go, Alan S.; Goldberg, Anne C.; Goldschmidt, Marc E.; Gorman, Timothy A.; Brautigam, Donald F.; Guyton, John R.; Haffey, Thomas; Henry, Sheldon D.; Hermany, Paul R.; Hoekstra, John A.; Hudson, Michael; Iteld, Bruce J.; Jack, David B.; Johnson, Frank P.; Joswig, Bill C.; Kaissar, Amy J.; Karns, Adam D.; Karns, Robert M.; Kaster, Steven R.; Kerzner, Boris; Khan, Mohammed S.; Ahmed, Ismail S.; Kieval, Joshua; Kim, Edward; Klaff, Leslie J.; Klein, Eric J.; Koren, Michael J.; Kosinski, Edward J.; Krumian, Razmig; Portnoy, Edward B.; Kuvin, Jeffrey T.; Langer, Michael M.; Letts, Dustin P.; Lipetz, Robert S.; Long, William J.; Thomas, Ignatius; Lopes-Virella, Maria; Lubin, Barry C.; Martin, Richard A.; Masri, Bassem; Matthews, George; Corbelli, John C.; McCullum, Kevin; Meholick, Alan W.; Mitchell, Jerry R.; Modares, Fariba; Mohler, Emile; Morcos, Charle N.; Murdock, David K.; Narayan, Puneet; Oberoi, Mandeep S.; O'Connor, Thomas; Schnecker, Robert J.; O'Donnell, Philip J.; Ong, Stephen T.; Parang, Pirouz; Pasquini, John A.; Patel, Rajesh J.; Patlola, Raghotham; Penny, William; Pepine, Carl J.; Pierce, Charles H.; Stein, Evan A.; Popeil, Larry R.; Pratt, Stephen E.; Price, Robert W.; Raikhel, Marina; Ravi, Ram C.; Cho, Donald; Rhyne, James M.; Richards, Mary K.; Rivera, Ernesto; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Roth, Eli M.; Rubenstein, Carl J.; Sandoval, Jaime D.; Sangrigoli, Renee A.; Schramm, Erichn L.; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Serfer, Gregory T.; Shah, Dhiren H.; Shalek, Marc S.; Shanes, Jeffrey G.; Sharma, Marigene S.; Bretton, Elizabeth M.; Sheikh, Zafar; Sklaver, Neal L.; Solano, Maria Del Pilar; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Srivastava, Nalin K.; Staniloae, Cezar S.; Staub, Jonathan S.; Stillabower, Michael E.; Suresh, Damodhar P.; Szulawski, Ireneusz; Thompson, Paul; Polk, Donna M.; Tinkel, Jodi L.; Pandya, Utpal H.; Toth, Phillip T.; Traboulssi, Mourhaf; Tuohy, Edward R.; Uusinarkaus, Kari T.; Vijay, Nampalli K.; Voyce, Stephen; Wainwright, William; Rhancock, Holly; Walder, James S.; Wang, Tracy Yu-Ping; Watkins, Stanley P.; Weiss, Robert J.; Whitney, Edwin J.; Wickemeyer, William J.; Willis, John G.; Wilson, Dennis F.; Abrams, Cyril; Wiseman, Alan; Wolfson, Eric; Wright, David; Zawada, Edward T.; Verma, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Elevated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity promotes the development of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, and elevated plasma levels of this enzyme are associated with an increased risk of coronary events. Darapladib is a selective oral inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated

  20. Prognosis by C-reactive protein and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels in stable coronary heart disease during 15 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, N; Kragelund, C; Steffensen, R

    2012-01-01

    associate with prognosis in patients with stable coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured baseline plasma CRP and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in 1090 patients with stable coronary heart disease and as the primary composite endpoint detected incident unstable angina, myocardial infarction......BACKGROUND AND AIM: Elevated CRP and matrix metalloproteinase-9 associate with increased risk of cardiovascular events, possibly because these plasma proteins mark vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. We tested the hypothesis that levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and matrix metalloproteinase-9...