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Sample records for stable strategy ess

  1. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-11-21

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed strategy has been further taken into consideration: a belief strategy is proposed in terms of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. Furthermore, based on the proposed belief strategy, a belief-based ESS has been developed. The belief strategy and belief-based ESS can reduce to the mixed strategy and mixed ESS, which provide more realistic and powerful tools to describe interactions among agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-01-01

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed st...

  3. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  4. Multi-Objective Optimization of a Hybrid ESS Based on Optimal Energy Management Strategy for LHDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems (ESS play an important role in the performance of mining vehicles. A hybrid ESS combining both batteries (BTs and supercapacitors (SCs is one of the most promising solutions. As a case study, this paper discusses the optimal hybrid ESS sizing and energy management strategy (EMS of 14-ton underground load-haul-dump vehicles (LHDs. Three novel contributions are added to the relevant literature. First, a multi-objective optimization is formulated regarding energy consumption and the total cost of a hybrid ESS, which are the key factors of LHDs, and a battery capacity degradation model is used. During the process, dynamic programming (DP-based EMS is employed to obtain the optimal energy consumption and hybrid ESS power profiles. Second, a 10-year life cycle cost model of a hybrid ESS for LHDs is established to calculate the total cost, including capital cost, operating cost, and replacement cost. According to the optimization results, three solutions chosen from the Pareto front are compared comprehensively, and the optimal one is selected. Finally, the optimal and battery-only options are compared quantitatively using the same objectives, and the hybrid ESS is found to be a more economical and efficient option.

  5. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  6. Cryogenic Hazard at ESSstrategy, safety studies and lessons learned

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is building a linear accelerator (linac) aiming at delivering a 2 GeV proton beam on a tungsten target wheel at 5 MW nominal power. The entire accelerator will be housed in an underground tunnel and will be fully operational by 2023. The superconducting section of the linac is composed of 21 High Beta cryomodules, 9 Medium Beta cryomodules and 13 Spoke cryomodules, as well as a Cryogenic Distribution System (CDS) that will be provided with liquid helium. A total of 146 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities operating at 2 K will be housed in those cryomodules. Additionally, cryogenic fluids will also be used for the cold hydrogen moderator surrounding the target as well as for several neutron instruments. In order to achieve a proper cooling, different facilities are being built to house the future cryogenic installation and therefore will be subject to Oxygen Deficiency Hazard (ODH). In order to address cryogenic safety issues ESS wide, a long-term strategy has ...

  7. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    , a system is not driven by its players, by the differential success of strategies in a population (described later). In reality, animal combats are vastly complicated, and this simple game is likely to be played over and over again. In this repeated.

  8. MS PHD'S: Effective Strategies for the Retention and Advancement of URM Students in ESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, J.; Burgess, A. K.; Pace, L.; Scott, O.; Strickland, J.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ithier-Guzman, W.

    2012-12-01

    The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) Professional Development Program in Earth system science (ESS) is a model initiative for improving the retention of underrepresented minority (URM) students in STEM fields. Entering its ninth cohort, MS PHD'S remains committed to helping URM undergraduate and graduate students achieve outstanding careers in ESS. MS PHD'S facilitates URM student achievement through a three-phase program designed to increase student exposure to the ESS community. By engaging in a series of professional development and skill building exercises, peer-to-peer community building activities, participation in scientific society conferences and workshops, mentoring by URM and other scientists, and a virtual community, URM students gain the confidence and support necessary to achieve their academic goals and enter the ESS workforce. Since its inception, MS PHD'S continues to support 189 participants. Of these 189 participants, 35 have advanced from undergraduate and graduate academic pathways to completion of their PhD and another 60 are currently enrolled in doctoral programs. MS PHD'S maintains close ties with program alumni to further support retention, inclusivity, and broadening participation of URM students and graduates in STEM activities. Its model is built on reengaging alumni to become mentors and leaders for each new cohort as well as facilitating valuable opportunities for alumni to advance in their ESS related academic and professional career pathways.

  9. Non-factorizable joint probabilities and evolutionarily stable strategies in the quantum prisoner's dilemma game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek

    2009-01-01

    The well-known refinement of the Nash Equilibrium (NE) called an Evolutionarily Stable Strategy (ESS) is investigated in the quantum Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game that is played using an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen type setting. Earlier results report that in this scheme the classical NE remains intact as the unique solution of the quantum PD game. In contrast, we show here that interestingly in this scheme a non-classical solution for the ESS emerges for the quantum PD.

  10. Seasonal Sex Ratio Trend in the European Kestrel : An Evolutionarily Stable Strategy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, I.R.; Weissing, F.J.; Daan, S.

    We present an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) model to analyze selection on seasonal variation in the brood sex ratio, as observed in several species of raptorial birds. The model is specifically tailored to the life history of the European kestrel, and it reflects the maturation time

  11. Selection of energy source and evolutionary stable strategies for power plants under financial intervention of government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2017-09-01

    Currently, many socially responsible governments adopt economic incentives and deterrents to manage environmental impacts of electricity suppliers. Considering the Stackelberg leadership of the government, the government's role in the competition of power plants in an electricity market is investigated. A one-population evolutionary game model of power plants is developed to study how their production strategy depends on tariffs levied by the government. We establish that a unique evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) for the population exists. Numerical examples demonstrate that revenue maximization and environment protection policies of the government significantly affect the production ESS of competitive power plants. The results reveal that the government can introduce a green energy source as an ESS of the competitive power plants by imposing appropriate tariffs.

  12. ESS plans and synergy with CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bongardt, K

    2008-01-01

    Summarized are properties of 10 MW ESS H- SC Reference Linac, as described in ESS Update Report 2003. Particles are either injected into 2 accumulator rings, resulting in 1.4 μs pulses sent to a short pulse target station, or 2 ms long pulses directed to a long pulse target station. The 10 MW, 1.334 GeV ESS H-linac is 570m in length, modular cryomodules are used above 400 MeV with separated warm quads. After winding up the ESS Council and the Technical Team by the end of 2003, the neutron scattering community wanted to keep ESS on the political table and demonstrate to young scientist that the struggle for ESS goes on. For this purpose, the ESS-Initiative ( ESS-I ) was formed to include the European Neutron Scattering Association (ENSA), various consortia for site candidatures and some key European laboratories. A major highlight was the successful promotion of ESS to be as a high maturity project on the European Road Map of Research Infrastructures, published in October 2006 by the European Strategy Forum o...

  13. Stable isotope labeling strategy based on coding theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Takuma; Koshiba, Seizo; Yokoyama, Jun; Kigawa, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy for stable isotope-aided protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, called stable isotope encoding. The basic idea of this strategy is that amino-acid selective labeling can be considered as “encoding and decoding” processes, in which the information of amino acid type is encoded by the stable isotope labeling ratio of the corresponding residue and it is decoded by analyzing NMR spectra. According to the idea, the strategy can diminish the required number of labelled samples by increasing information content per sample, enabling discrimination of 19 kinds of non-proline amino acids with only three labeled samples. The idea also enables this strategy to combine with information technologies, such as error detection by check digit, to improve the robustness of analyses with low quality data. Stable isotope encoding will facilitate NMR analyses of proteins under non-ideal conditions, such as those in large complex systems, with low-solubility, and in living cells

  14. Leg-adjustment strategies for stable running in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peuker, Frank; Maufroy, Christophe; Seyfarth, André

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of the center of mass (CoM) in the sagittal plane in humans and animals during running is well described by the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). With appropriate parameters, SLIP running patterns are stable, and these models can recover from perturbations without the need for corrective strategies, such as the application of additional forces. Rather, it is sufficient to adjust the leg to a fixed angle relative to the ground. In this work, we consider the extension of the SLIP to three dimensions (3D SLIP) and investigate feed-forward strategies for leg adjustment during the flight phase. As in the SLIP model, the leg is placed at a fixed angle. We extend the scope of possible reference axes from only fixed horizontal and vertical axes to include the CoM velocity vector as a movement-related reference, resulting in six leg-adjustment strategies. Only leg-adjustment strategies that include the CoM velocity vector produced stable running and large parameter domains of stability. The ability of the model to recover from perturbations along the direction of motion (directional stability) depended on the strategy for lateral leg adjustment. Specifically, asymptotic and neutral directional stability was observed for strategies based on the global reference axis and the velocity vector, respectively. Additional features of velocity-based leg adjustment are running at arbitrary low speed (kinetic energy) and the emergence of large domains of stable 3D running that are smoothly transferred to 2D SLIP stability and even to 1D SLIP hopping. One of the additional leg-adjustment strategies represented a large convex region of parameters where stable and robust hopping and running patterns exist. Therefore, this strategy is a promising candidate for implementation into engineering applications, such as robots, for instance. In a preliminary comparison, the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the 3D SLIP is an

  15. Specification of the ESS Accelerator Cryoplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilong; Arnold, Philipp; Fydrych, Jaroslaw; Hees, Wolfgang; Jurns, John M.; Piso, Daniel; Weisend, John

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron-scattering facility being built with extensive international collaboration at Lund, Sweden. The ESS accelerator will deliver protons with 5 MW of power to the target at 2.0 GeV, with a nominal current of 62.5 mA. The superconducting part of the accelerator is about 300 meters long and contains 43 cryomodules. The ESS accelerator cryoplant will provide the cooling for the cryomodules and the cryogenic distribution systeminterconnecting cryoplant and cryomodules. The cryoplant will cover three cryogenic circuits: bath cooling for the cavities at 2 K, the thermal shields at around 40-50 K and 4.5 K forced helium cooling for the power couplers. This paper describes project stages,the cryogenic architecture andthe design basis including cooling capacity, operation modes and interfaces. The important design choices comprising no liquid nitrogen pre-cooling,one integrated cold box, waste heat recovery and process control system strategy as well as the principles of evaluation are presented. All the topics above are implemented and addressed in the technical specification, which has been finished and issued in June 2014. That is a very important step in the development of the ESS cryogenics system.

  16. Moderator Configuration Options for ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanini, L.; Batkov, K.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2016-01-01

    conventional, principles were also considered,such as the importance of moderator positioning, of the premoderator, and beam extraction considerations. Different design and configuration options are evaluated and compared with the reference volume moderator configuration described in the ESS Technical Design...

  17. Quantum evolutionary stable strategies of 2-player, 2-strategy symmetric games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.W.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum evolutionary stable strategies (ESSs) of games are considered as stable solutions to population games on molecular level. The distributive diagram of 2-player, 2-strategy (2 x 2) symmetric games is brought out to get a convenient way of looking for their quantum ESSs. It is found that transpositions, related to the parameters in classical payoff and those of initial quantum states, may occur when games are quantized. Conditions for transpositions are given in two tables. One can easily find quantum ESSs of a 2 x 2 symmetric game according to its transposition. This paper also draws an overall outline of NEs and ESSs of this kind of game.

  18. Development of stable marker-free nuclear transformation strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To avoid the negative effects caused by the marker genes, we tried to develop a stable marker-free nuclear transformation system in Chlorella. For this, linear gene expression cassettes (LGEC) were constructed with functional domains, which are responsible for transformation, of SV40 large T antigen. The LGECs were ...

  19. Strategies for stable water splitting via protected photoelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bae, Dowon; Seger, Brian; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2017-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar-fuel conversion is a promising approach to provide clean and storable fuel (e.g., hydrogen and methanol) directly from sunlight, water and CO2. However, major challenges still have to be overcome before commercialization can be achieved. One of the largest barriers...... photocathodes. In addition, we review protection layer approaches and their stabilities for a wide variety of experimental photoelectrodes for water reduction. Finally, we discuss key aspects which should be addressed in continued work on realizing stable and practical PEC solar water splitting systems....

  20. Evolutionarily stable strategy of carbon and nitrogen investments in forest leaves and its application in vegetation dynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, E.; Farrior, C.; Dybzinski, R.; Pacala, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) and leaf lifespan (LL) are two highly correlated plant traits that are key to plant physiological and ecological properties. Usually, low LMA means short LL, high nitrogen (N) content per unit mass, and fast turnover rates of nutrients; high LMA leads to long LL, low N content, and slow turnover rates. Deciduous trees with low LMA and short lifespan leaves have low carbon cost but high nitrogen demand; and evergreen trees, with high LMA and long lifespan leaves, have high carbon cost but low nitrogen demand. These relationships lead to: 1) evergreen trees have higher leaf area index than deciduous trees; 2) evergreen trees' carbon use efficiency is lower than the deciduous trees' because of their thick leaves and therefore high maintenance respiration; 3) the advantage of evergreens trees brought by their extra leaves over deciduous trees diminishes with increase N in ecosystem. These facts determine who will win when trees compete with each other in a N-limited ecosystem. In this study, we formulate a mathematical model according to the relationships between LMA, LL, leaf nitrogen, and leaf building and maintenance cost, where LMA is the fundamental variable determining the other three. We analyze the evolutionarily stable strategies (ESSs) of LMA with this mathematical model by examining the benefits of carbon and nitrogen investments to leaves in ecosystems with different N. The model shows the ESS converges to low LMA at high N and high LMA at low N. At intermediate N, there are two ESSs at low and high ends of LMA, respectively. The ESS also leads to low forest productivity by outcompeting the possible high productive strategies. We design a simulation scheme in an individual-based competition model (LM3-PPA) to simulate forest dynamics as results of the competition between deciduous and evergreen trees in three different biomes, which are temperate deciduous forest, deciduous-evergreen mixed forest, and boreal evergreen forest. The

  1. Neutron Position Sensitive Detectors for the ESS

    CERN Document Server

    Kirstein, Oliver; Stefanescu, Irina; Etxegarai, Maddi; Anastasopoulos, Michail; Fissum, Kevin; Gulyachkina, Anna; Höglund, Carina; Imam, Mewlude; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Khaplanov, Anton; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kolya, Scott; Nilsson, Björn; Ortega, Luis; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Piscitelli, Francesco; Ramos, Judith Freita; Robinson, Linda; Scherzinger, Julius

    2014-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden will become the world's leading neutron source for the study of materials. The instruments are being selected from conceptual proposals submitted by groups from around Europe. These instruments present numerous challenges for detector technology in the absence of the availability of Helium-3, which is the default choice for detectors for instruments built until today and due to the extreme rates expected across the ESS instrument suite. Additionally a new generation of source requires a new generation of detector technologies to fully exploit the opportunities that this source provides. The detectors will be sourced from partners across Europe through numerous in-kind arrangements; a process that is somewhat novel for the neutron scattering community. This contribution presents briefly the current status of detectors for the ESS, and outlines the timeline to completion. For a conjectured instrument suite based upon instruments recommended for construction, ...

  2. Neutron performance analysis for ESS target proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magán, M.; Terrón, S.; Thomsen, K.; Sordo, F.; Perlado, J.M.; Bermejo, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the course of discussing different target types for their suitability in the European Spallation Source (ESS) one main focus was on neutronics' performance. Diverse concepts have been assessed baselining some preliminary engineering and geometrical details and including some optimization. With the restrictions and resulting uncertainty imposed by the lack of detailed designs optimizations at the time of compiling this paper, the conclusion drawn is basically that there is a little difference in the neutronic yield of the investigated targets. Other criteria like safety, environmental compatibility, reliability and cost will thus dominate the choice of an ESS target.

  3. Birth of the first ESS: George Price, John Maynard Smith, and the discovery of the lost "Antlers" paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Oren

    2011-01-15

    The application of game theory to evolutionary problems is so commonplace today, that few stop to consider how it all began. John Maynard Smith and George R. Price's 1973 Nature article, "The Logic of Animal Conflict," is often referred to as the first description in the literature of the concept of an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS), but what was the "behind the scenes" of the writing of that seminal paper? This article tracks the little known story of the curious American polymath, George Price. As will be shown, it was an earlier paper, the lost "Antlers, Intraspecific Combat, and Altruism," sent by Price to Nature in August 1968 (Unpublished), and refereed by Maynard Smith, which instigated the birth of the first ESS. Recently, the "Antlers" paper has been re-discovered by the author, shedding new light, together with letters and journals from the personal papers of George Price and John Maynard Smith, on their historical paper. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Flow mapping for ESS horizontal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y.; Kikura, H.; Taishi, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Flow behaviour for ESS horizontal target is studied experimentally using two dimensional water model. A velocity field of stationary flow in reaction zone has been obtained. Three dimensional effect was also studied as a spanwise flow structure. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  5. The HIBEAM Experiment at the ESS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) offers an opportunity for a fundamental physics program with a unique reach which is complementary to that at other facilities. In this talk, the HIBEAM project is described. The HIBEAM collaboration has proposed a suite of searches and measurements which would use the Large ESS Beam Port with a high cold neutron flux. The program includes searches for conversions of free neutrons to antineutrons and to mirror neutrons with regeneration, as well as precision measurements of parity violation in nucleon-nucleon interactions. The high cold neutron intensity at HIBEAM would provide a higher sensitivity for the searches and measurements than was achieved at earlier experiments. The physics program addresses some of the central unresolved questions in particle physics and cosmology such as the energy scale and mechanism for baryon number violation, the origin of the baryon-antibaryon asymmetry of the universe, the composition of dark matter, and the mechanism for neutrino mass...

  6. Interfrm Cooperation Strategy of Hyper-Growth and Stable-Growth ICT Firms in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Golonka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to compare the phenomenon of interfrm cooperation strategy in both hyper-growth, and stable-growth knowledge and technology–intensive frms, in a country characterized by a high level of generalized trust: Sweden. Methodology: Qualitative methods were incorporated: direct semistructured interviews with top managers in 13 ICT frms (8 hyper-growth and 5 stable-growth, analyzis of reports, corporate websites and press releases. Furthermore, interviews in 3 expert frms in the industry were conducted, facilitating interfrm cooperation. Conclusions: There were signifcant differences in interfrm cooperation strategy in two distinguished groups of the frms: hyper-growth, and stable-growth. Managers’ individual approaches to uncertainty, strategy and cooperation might be more important than institutional settings. The ICT frms operate in a constantly changing global environment and local context seems to have only a minor impact on the rules of the game in the industry. Research limitations: This study was a qualitative explorative approach as an introduction to further empirical research. Originality: The study presents an interfrm cooperation phenomenon incorporating different perspectives and settings. It contributes to alliance portfolio literature (forming and managing of alliance portfolio in a different context/country/industry, and enhances understanding of frm strategies characterized by different growth rates.

  7. Formation of stable bdelloplasts as a starvation-survival strategy of marine bdellovibrios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Amat, A.; Torrella, F. (Universidad de Murcia (Spain))

    1990-09-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Bdellovibrio have been isolated from a variety of habitats, including soil (15), rivers (1), estuarine water, seawater, and solar salt concentration ponds. Several wild-type isolates of marine bdellovibrios formed stable bdelloplasts when they infected gram-negative bacterial prey under certain culture conditions. Synchronous predator-prey cultures and low nutrient concentrations increased the yield of stable bdelloplasts. The bdellovibrio cells retained in the stable bdelloplasts showed a high survival capacity in nutrient-depleted saline solution (10% viable Bdellovibrio cells after 3 months at 25{degrees}C), whereas Bdellovibrio attack-phase cells kept under the same starvation conditions lost viability more quickly (1% viable cells after 48 h). The addition of yeast extract to a stable bdelloplast suspension induced lysis of the bdelloplasts and release of motile infecting attack-phase Bdellovibrio cells. Other substances, such as free amino acids, protein hydrolysates, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, carbohydrates, and organic amines, did not induce such a release. Stable bdelloplasts were highly hydrophobic and had a lower endogenous respiration rate than attack-phase cells. In general, stable bdelloplasts were almost as sensitive to temperature changes, desiccation, sonication, tannic acid, and Triton X-100 treatment as attack-phase cells. Electron microscopy of stable bdelloplasts did not reveal any extra cell wall layer, either in the bdelloplast envelope or in the retained Bdellovibrio cells, unlike the bdellocysts of the soil bacterium Bdellovibrio sp. strain W. The authors propose that formation of stable bdelloplasts is a survival strategy of marine bdellovibrios which occurs in response to nutrient- and prey-poor seawater habitats.

  8. Marine bivalve feeding strategy, radiocarbon ages and stable isotopes in Scottish coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giudice Cappelli, Elena; Austin, William

    2017-04-01

    Marine bivalve molluscs have been widely used for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions as their carbonate provides a direct chronology of environmental change through radiocarbon dating, and their shell composition, particularly with regard to their oxygen and carbon stable isotopes, is likely to reflect ambient seawater conditions. However, stable isotope signatures of marine bivalve shells are difficult to interpret, as shell formation can be influenced by secondary factors such as metabolic processes and feeding strategies. In radiocarbon ages, uncertainty is introduced as bivalves inhabit a range of ecological niches which may be of significance in the case of deep borrowing and deposit feeding bivalves, as they could incorporate older carbon in their shells, resulting in apparent older ages than the true age of the dissolved inorganic carbon in the overlying seawater. To discriminate between the different factors influencing the composition of marine molluscs' shells, we measured radiocarbon ages, oxygen and carbon stable isotopes in nine species of marine bivalves having different known feeding strategies and inhabiting a number of ecological niches; all shells being live-collected (between 1923-1925) from six localities around the Scottish coast, a wider context than has been previously undertaken. Our results show that in situ variability (i.e.: replicate measurements of the same species at the same location) is generally low for both stable isotope analyses and radiocarbon dates, indicating good accuracy of the measurements. Intra-species (i.e.: same species - different location) and inter-species (i.e.: different species - same location) variability is significant in stable isotopes measurements, meaning that marine bivalve shells do record changes in the local environment and are sensitive to different feeding strategies and ecological settings. In contrast, radiocarbon ages do not change with location and are not sensitive to molluscs' diets or

  9. European Spallation Source ESS. Spanish participation in the ESS Primary system design; Fuente Europea de Spallation ESS. Participacion espanola en el diseno del sistema primario de la ESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, M. T.; Albisu, F.

    2001-07-01

    Neutron scattering provides basic microscopic information on the structure and dynamics of materials which underpins our understanding of condensed matter in fields as diverse as biology, material science chemistry, earth sciences and physics. Europe is preeminent, in this field and the current proposal for a next generation neutron source, the European Spallation source (ESS), will ensure that neutron beams of the highest quality are available early next century to a broad spectrum of users from academia and industry. In the Large Facilities Report to the Commission of the European Community (CEC) in 1990, the Neutron Study Panel underlined the continuing need for neutron scattering and recognised that a major initiative was necessary to secure an effective on-going neutron science programme in Europe for the year 2000 and beyond. (Author)

  10. Neutron production station ESS-BILBAO; Estacion de produccion de neutrones de ESS-BILBAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente Bueno, J. Pe. de; Bermejo, J.; Fraile Santiago, T.

    2012-07-01

    The ESS-Bilbao installation produces neutrons by nuclear reactions stripping energy 50 MeV protons on a target of beryllium. the Neutron Production Station would have a target and would allow condition the neutron energy, maximize their performance, provide structural support to the whole, the high power cooling and radiation shielding received abroad.

  11. Comparative Effectiveness Trials of Imaging-Guided Strategies in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Leslee J; Phillips, Lawrence M; Nagel, Eike; Newby, David E; Narula, Jagat; Douglas, Pamela S

    2017-03-01

    The evaluation of patients with suspected stable ischemic heart disease is among the most common diagnostic evaluations with nearly 20 million imaging and exercise stress tests performed annually in the United States. Over the past decade, there has been an evolution in imaging research with an ever-increasing focus on larger registries and randomized trials comparing the effectiveness of varying diagnostic algorithms. The current review highlights recent randomized trial evidence with a particular focus comparing the effectiveness of cardiac imaging procedures within the stable ischemic heart disease evaluation for coronary artery disease detection, angina, and other quality of life measures, and major clinical outcomes. Also highlighted are secondary analyses from these trials on the economic findings related to comparative cost differences across diagnostic testing strategies. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolutionary stability of mutualism: interspecific population regulation as an evolutionarily stable strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Schultz, Stewart T.

    2004-01-01

    Interspecific mutualisms are often vulnerable to instability because low benefit : cost ratios can rapidly lead to extinction or to the conversion of mutualism to parasite–host or predator–prey interactions. We hypothesize that the evolutionary stability of mutualism can depend on how benefits and costs to one mutualist vary with the population density of its partner, and that stability can be maintained if a mutualist can influence demographic rates and regulate the population density of its partner. We test this hypothesis in a model of mutualism with key features of senita cactus (Pachycereus schottii) – senita moth (Upiga virescens) interactions, in which benefits of pollination and costs of larval seed consumption to plant fitness depend on pollinator density. We show that plants can maximize their fitness by allocating resources to the production of excess flowers at the expense of fruit. Fruit abortion resulting from excess flower production reduces pre–adult survival of the pollinating seed–consumer, and maintains its density beneath a threshold that would destabilize the mutualism. Such a strategy of excess flower production and fruit abortion is convergent and evolutionarily stable against invasion by cheater plants that produce few flowers and abort few to no fruit. This novel mechanism of achieving evolutionarily stable mutualism, namely interspecific population regulation, is qualitatively different from other mechanisms invoking partner choice or selective rewards, and may be a general process that helps to preserve mutualistic interactions in nature.

  13. A comparison of stable caesium uptake by six grass species of contrasting growth strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willey, N.J.; Martin, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    Six plants in the family Gramineae were used to investigate the relationship between Cs uptake, nutrient regime and plant growth strategy sensu Grime (1979: Plant Growth Strategies and Vegetation Processes, John Wiley). The roots of 66 day old Elymus repens (L.) Gould., Bromus sterilis L., Agrostis stolonifera L., Anthoxanthum odoratum L., Festuca ovina L. and Nardus stricta L. plants grown in acid-washed sand at high and low nutrient levels were exposed to a 96 h pulse of stable Cs at 0.05 mM, 0.15 mM, 0.3 mM, 1.0 mM and 3.0 mM concentrations. Different nutrient regimes induced large differences in dry wt in E. repens, B. sterilis and A. stolonifera plants but only small differences in N. stricta and F. ovina plants. At high nutrient concentrations, A. stolonifera, A. odoratum, F. ovina and N. stricta shoots showed significantly greater increases in internal Cs concentration with rising external Cs concentrations than did E. repens and B. sterilis shoots. The relationship between increases in shoot and external Cs concentrations was statistically indistinguishable between species in plants grown at the low nutrient concentration. These patterns of Cs uptake ensured that with long-term high K concentrations the more competitive plants (E. repens and B. sterilis) accumulated higher concentrations of Cs from low external concentrations than did non-competitive plants or competitive plants grown at low nutrient levels. It is suggested that the relationship between plant growth strategy sensu Grime (1979) and Cs accumulation patterns may help to explain the different concentrations to which species accumulate radiocaesium from the soil. (author)

  14. A MPC Based ESS Control Method for PV Power Smoothing Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Mingyu; Yang, Zilong; Wang, Yibo

    2018-01-01

    Random fluctuation in photovoltaic (PV) power plants is becoming a serious problem affecting the power quality and stability of the grid along with the increasing penetration of PVs. In order to solve this problem, by the adding of energy storage systems (ESS), a grid-connected microgrid system can...... is obtained. The critical parameters, such as state of charge (SoC), are also taken into account in order to ensure the health and stability of the ESSs. In this proposed control strategy, communication between PVs and ESS is not needed, since control command can be calculated with local measured data...

  15. Foraging Strategies of Laysan Albatross Inferred from Stable Isotopes: Implications for Association with Fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Edwards

    Full Text Available Fatal entanglement in fishing gear is the leading cause of population decline for albatross globally, a consequence of attraction to bait and fishery discards of commercial fishing operations. We investigated foraging strategies of Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis, as inferred from nitrogen and carbon isotope values of primary feathers, to determine breeding-related, seasonal, and historic factors that may affect the likelihood of association with Alaskan or Hawaiian longline fisheries. Feather samples were collected from live birds monitored for breeding status and breeding success on Midway Atoll in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, birds salvaged as fisheries-bycatch, and birds added to museum collections before 1924. During the chick-rearing season (sampled April-May, means and variances of stable isotope values of birds with the highest, most consistent reproductive success were distinct from less productive conspecifics and completely different from birds caught in Hawaiian or Alaskan longline fisheries, suggesting birds with higher multi-annual reproductive success were less likely to associate with these fisheries. Contemporary birds with the highest reproductive success had mean values most similar to historic birds. Values of colony-bound, courting prebreeders were similar to active breeders but distinct from prebreeders caught in Alaskan longline fisheries. During the breeding season, δ15N values were highly variable for both contemporary and historic birds. Although some historic birds exhibited extremely low δ15N values unmatched by contemporary birds (< 11.2‰, others had values as high as the highest fishery-associated contemporary birds. During the non-breeding season (sampled July-September, isotopic variability coalesced into a more narrow set of values for both contemporary and historic birds. Our results suggest that foraging strategies of Laysan albatross are a complex function of season, breeding status, and

  16. Foraging Strategies of Laysan Albatross Inferred from Stable Isotopes: Implications for Association with Fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ann E; Fitzgerald, Shannon M; Parrish, Julia K; Klavitter, John L; Romano, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    Fatal entanglement in fishing gear is the leading cause of population decline for albatross globally, a consequence of attraction to bait and fishery discards of commercial fishing operations. We investigated foraging strategies of Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis), as inferred from nitrogen and carbon isotope values of primary feathers, to determine breeding-related, seasonal, and historic factors that may affect the likelihood of association with Alaskan or Hawaiian longline fisheries. Feather samples were collected from live birds monitored for breeding status and breeding success on Midway Atoll in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, birds salvaged as fisheries-bycatch, and birds added to museum collections before 1924. During the chick-rearing season (sampled April-May), means and variances of stable isotope values of birds with the highest, most consistent reproductive success were distinct from less productive conspecifics and completely different from birds caught in Hawaiian or Alaskan longline fisheries, suggesting birds with higher multi-annual reproductive success were less likely to associate with these fisheries. Contemporary birds with the highest reproductive success had mean values most similar to historic birds. Values of colony-bound, courting prebreeders were similar to active breeders but distinct from prebreeders caught in Alaskan longline fisheries. During the breeding season, δ15N values were highly variable for both contemporary and historic birds. Although some historic birds exhibited extremely low δ15N values unmatched by contemporary birds (isotopic variability coalesced into a more narrow set of values for both contemporary and historic birds. Our results suggest that foraging strategies of Laysan albatross are a complex function of season, breeding status, and multi-annual breeding success, factors that likely affect the probability of association with fisheries.

  17. Prosequence switching: an effective strategy to produce biologically active E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin STh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiglmeier, Philipp R; Berkner, Hanna; Seebahn, Angela; Vogel, Nico; Schreiber, Rainer; Wöhrl, Birgitta M; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Rösch, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections account for the majority of cases of acute secretory diarrhea. The causative agents are enterotoxins secreted by ETEC, among them is the heat-stable enterotoxin, STh. STh is a 19-amino acid peptide containing three disulfide bonds that stimulates fluid secretion in the bowel by binding to the receptor domain of intestinal guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C). Since GC-C agonists have pharmacologic potential for diagnosis and treatment of disorders such as constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C), chronic constipation, and colorectal carcinoma, it is crucial to develop methods for the large-scale production of STh and related peptides. Here, we present a strategy for recombinant expression of STh that relies on the use of the prosequence of human uroguanylin to support proper folding and disulfide bond formation. The chimeric protein CysCys-STh consisting of the propeptide of uroguanylin as N-terminus and the STh peptide as C-terminus was expressed in E. coli, and an efficient purification protocol was developed. Trypsin digestion of this protein released the enterotoxin which could be obtained in high purity. NMR and mass spectrometry confirmed the identity and homogeneity of the toxin, and its biological activity was confirmed by a cell-based in vivo assay. The expression scheme introduced here represents a cost-efficient and scalable way of STh production.

  18. Comparison of two different anaerobic feeding strategies to establish a stable aerobic granulated sludge bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocktäschel, T; Klarmann, C; Helmreich, B; Ochoa, J; Boisson, P; Sørensen, K H; Horn, H

    2013-11-01

    Two different anaerobic feeding strategies were compared to optimize the development and performance of aerobic granules. A stable aerobic granulation of activated sludge was achieved with an anaerobic plug flow operation (PI) and a fast influent step followed by an anaerobic mixing phase (PII). Two lab scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to test the different operation modes. PI with plug flow and a reactor H/D (height/diameter) ratio of 9 achieved a biomass concentration of 20 g(TSS)/L and an effluent TSS concentration of 0.10 g(TSS)/L. PII with the mixed anaerobic phase directly after feeding and a reactor H/D ratio of 2 achieved a biomass concentration of 9 g(TSS)/L and an effluent quality of 0.05 g(TSS)/L. Furthermore, it is shown that the plug flow regime during anaerobic feeding together with the lower H/D ratio of 2 led to channeling effects, which resulted in lower storage of organic carbon and a general destabilization of the granulation process. Compared to the plug flow regime (PI), the anaerobic mixing (PII) provided lower substrate gradients within the biofilm. However, these disadvantages could be compensated by higher mass transfer coefficients in PII (k(L) = 0.3 m/d for PI; k(L) = 86 m/d for PII) during the anaerobic phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Strategies for Extending Metabolomics Studies with Stable Isotope Labelling and Fluxomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Srivastava

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a perspective from the peer session on stable isotope labelling and fluxomics at the Australian & New Zealand Metabolomics Conference (ANZMET held from 30 March to 1 April 2016 at La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia. This report summarizes the key points raised in the peer session which focused on the advantages of using stable isotopes in modern metabolomics and the challenges in conducting flux analyses. The session highlighted the utility of stable isotope labelling in generating reference standards for metabolite identification, absolute quantification, and in the measurement of the dynamic activity of metabolic pathways. The advantages and disadvantages of different approaches of fluxomics analyses including flux balance analysis, metabolic flux analysis and kinetic flux profiling were also discussed along with the use of stable isotope labelling in in vivo dynamic metabolomics. A number of crucial technical considerations for designing experiments and analyzing data with stable isotope labelling were discussed which included replication, instrumentation, methods of labelling, tracer dilution and data analysis. This report reflects the current viewpoint on the use of stable isotope labelling in metabolomics experiments, identifying it as a great tool with the potential to improve biological interpretation of metabolomics data in a number of ways.

  20. Description of the moderator systems for the ESS project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stendal, K.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes a suggestion for the arrangement of the Cold Neutron Sources for the two targets in the ESS project. (European Spallation Source). The suggestion is based upon the technique of the existing cold neutron sources at Risoe in Denmark, HMI and Geestacht in Germany. As moderating media all of them use H{sub 2} in supercritical condition, circulated by blowers, and the safety of the systems is based upon the triple-containment philosophy. This seems to be the most convenient principle to use near the ESS targets, as it provides a larger degree of freedom with respect to the arrangement of these sources and pipe connections to the chambers, especially because the space is limited and access to the target is relatively complicated. The moderator chambers have been designed by KFA, Juelich and the rest of the arrangement by Risoe, DK. The price calculations used for the ESS project are based upon this arrangement. (au).

  1. Description of the moderator systems for the ESS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stendal, K.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes a suggestion for the arrangement of the Cold Neutron Sources for the two targets in the ESS project. (European Spallation Source). The suggestion is based upon the technique of the existing cold neutron sources at Risoe in Denmark, HMI and Geestacht in Germany. As moderating media all of them use H 2 in supercritical condition, circulated by blowers, and the safety of the systems is based upon the triple-containment philosophy. This seems to be the most convenient principle to use near the ESS targets, as it provides a larger degree of freedom with respect to the arrangement of these sources and pipe connections to the chambers, especially because the space is limited and access to the target is relatively complicated. The moderator chambers have been designed by KFA, Juelich and the rest of the arrangement by Risoe, DK. The price calculations used for the ESS project are based upon this arrangement. (au)

  2. Conservative versus invasive stable ischemic heart disease management strategies: what do we plan to learn from the ISCHEMIA trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Torres, Kathleen A; Desai, Karan P; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Maron, David J; Boden, William E

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, landmark randomized clinical trials comparing initial management strategies in stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) have demonstrated no significant reduction in 'hard' end points (all-cause mortality, cardiac death or myocardial infarction) with one strategy versus another. The main advantage derived from early revascularization is improved short-term quality of life. Nonetheless, questions remain regarding how best to manage SIHD patients, such as whether a high-risk subgroup can be identified that may experience a survival or myocardial infarction benefit from early revascularization, and if not, when should diagnostic catheterization and revascularization be performed. The International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches trial is designed to address these questions by randomizing SIHD patients with at least moderate ischemia to an initial conservative strategy of optimal medical therapy or an initial invasive strategy of optimal medical therapy plus cardiac catheterization and revascularization.

  3. Combined strategies for improving production of a thermo-alkali stable laccase in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayi Wang

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: The productivity of the thermo-alkali stable laccase from B. licheniformis expressed in P. pastoris was significantly improved through the combination of site-directed mutagenesis and optimization of the cultivation process. The mutant enzyme retains good stability under high temperature and alkaline conditions, and is a good candidate for industrial application in dye decolorization.

  4. The European Social Survey (ESS): o projektu a dostupnosti dat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plecitá, Klára; Kalvas, František

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2005), s. 14-16 ISSN 1212-995X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1N04192 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : ESS * data accesibility * data services Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  5. Neutron guide shielding for the BIFROST spectrometer at ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantulnikovs, K.; Bertelsen, M.; Cooper-Jensen, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the study of fast-neutron background for the BIFROST spectrometer at ESS. We investigate the effect of background radiation induced by the interaction of fast neutrons from the source with the material of the neutron guide and devise a reasonable fast, thermal/cold neutron shielding...

  6. LEP’s legacy continues at the ESS

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    The last components of a radio-frequency (RF) power station equipped with a LEP klystron were recently shipped to the city of Lund in Sweden. The station will be used as an integration test stand at the European Spallation Source (ESS), with the purpose of training ESS engineers for the setting up of 154 RF stations needed in Lund.   A truck with the LEP klystron has arrived at ESS, in Lund. A klystron that was originally part of the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP), CERN’s former flagship accelerator, will be used in the start-up phase of the world’s largest neutron source, the ESS. If this klystron could speak, it would have a long and interesting story to tell. During LEP decommissioning and dismantling, 44 klystrons were put aside to be used for other projects. For about 20 of them, the high-voltage part was adapted in order to accommodate Linac4’s pulsed-RF operation. “Some of the klystrons were built ...

  7. Ad hoc vs. Non-ad hoc Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Strategies in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Toshiaki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Ando, Kenji; Ono, Koh; Shizuta, Satoshi; Kato, Takao; Saito, Naritatsu; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Horie, Minoru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-03-24

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence and clinical outcomes of ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), performing diagnostic coronary angiography and PCI in the same session, in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.Methods and Results:From the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG registry cohort-2, 6,943 patients were analyzed as having stable CAD and undergoing first PCI. Ad hoc PCI and non-ad hoc PCI were performed in 1,722 (24.8%) and 5,221 (75.1%) patients, respectively. The cumulative 5-year incidence and adjusted risk for all-cause death were not significantly different between the 2 groups (15% vs. 15%, P=0.53; hazard ratio: 1.15, 95% confidence interval: 0.98-1.35, P=0.08). Ad hoc PCI relative to non-ad hoc PCI was associated with neutral risk for myocardial infarction, any coronary revascularization, and bleeding, but was associated with a trend towards lower risk for stroke (hazard ratio: 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.60-1.02, P=0.06). Ad hoc PCI in stable CAD patients was associated with at least comparable 5-year clinical outcomes as with non-ad hoc PCI. Considering patients' preference and the cost-saving, the ad hoc PCI strategy might be a safe and attractive option for patients with stable CAD, although the prevalence of ad hoc PCI was low in the current study population.

  8. Normalization Methods and Selection Strategies for Reference Materials in Stable Isotope Analyses - Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stable isotope analyst has to make a number of important decisions regarding how to best determine the 'true' stable isotope composition of analysed samples in reference to an international scale. It has to be decided which reference materials should be used, the number of reference materials and how many repetitions of each standard is most appropriate for a desired level of precision, and what normalization procedure should be selected. In this paper we summarise what is known about propagation of uncertainties associated with normalization procedures and propagation of uncertainties associated with reference materials used as anchors for the determination of 'true' values for δ''1''3C and δ''1''8O. Normalization methods Several normalization methods transforming the 'raw' value obtained from mass spectrometers to one of the internationally recognized scales has been developed. However, as summarised by Paul et al. different normalization transforms alone may lead to inconsistencies between laboratories. The most common normalization procedures are: single-point anchoring (versus working gas and certified reference standard), modified single-point normalization, linear shift between the measured and the true isotopic composition of two certified reference standards, two-point and multipoint linear normalization methods. The accuracy of these various normalization methods has been compared by using analytical laboratory data by Paul et al., with the single-point and normalization versus tank calibrations resulting in the largest normalization errors, and that also exceed the analytical uncertainty recommended for δ 13 C. The normalization error depends greatly on the relative differences between the stable isotope composition of the reference material and the sample. On the other hand, the normalization methods using two or more certified reference standards produces a smaller normalization error, if the reference materials are bracketing the whole range of

  9. Legitimizing ESS Big Science as a collaboration across boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    O'Dell, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Legitimizing ESS 'Big Science' is a broad epithet that can be associated with research projects as different as the Manhattan Project, the Hubble Telescope-construction, and the CERN-establishment in Geneva. While the science produced by these projects is vastly different, they have in common the fact that they all involve huge budgets, big facilities, complex instrumentation, years of planning, and large multidis...

  10. Stable isotope analyses of feather amino acids identify penguin migration strategies at ocean basin scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Michael J; Hinke, Jefferson T; Hart, Tom; Santos, Mercedes; Houghton, Leah A; Thorrold, Simon R

    2017-08-01

    Identifying the at-sea distribution of wide-ranging marine predators is critical to understanding their ecology. Advances in electronic tracking devices and intrinsic biogeochemical markers have greatly improved our ability to track animal movements on ocean-wide scales. Here, we show that, in combination with direct tracking, stable carbon isotope analysis of essential amino acids in tail feathers provides the ability to track the movement patterns of two, wide-ranging penguin species over ocean basin scales. In addition, we use this isotopic approach across multiple breeding colonies in the Scotia Arc to evaluate migration trends at a regional scale that would be logistically challenging using direct tracking alone. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Data-Driven Iterative Vibration Signal Enhancement Strategy Using Alpha Stable Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Żak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a novel procedure for enhancement of the signal to noise ratio in vibration data acquired from machines working in mining industry environment. Proposed method allows performing data-driven reduction of the deterministic, high energy, and low frequency components. Furthermore, it provides a way to enhance signal of interest. Procedure incorporates application of the time-frequency decomposition, α-stable distribution based signal modeling, and stability parameter in the time domain as a stoppage criterion for iterative part of the procedure. An advantage of the proposed algorithm is data-driven, automative detection of the informative frequency band as well as band with high energy due to the properties of the used distribution. Furthermore, there is no need to have knowledge regarding kinematics, speed, and so on. The proposed algorithm is applied towards real data acquired from the belt conveyor pulley drive’s gearbox.

  12. Self-Organization Schemes towards Thermodynamic Stable Bulk Heterojunction Morphologies: A Perspective on Future Fabrication Strategies of Polymer Photovoltaic Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benmouna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research efforts to improve our understanding of electronic polymers are developing fast because of their promising advantages over silicon in photovoltaic solar cells. A major challenge in the development of polymer photovoltaic devices is the viable fabrication strategies of stable bulk heterojunction architecture that will retain functionality during the expected lifetime of the device. Block copolymer self-assembly strategies have attracted particular attention as a scalable means toward thermodynamically stable microstructures that combine the ideal geometrical characteristics of a bulk heterojunction with the fortuitous combination of properties of the constituent blocks. Two primary routes that have been proposed in the literature involve the coassembly of block copolymers in which one domain is a hole conductor with the electron-conducting filler (such as fullerene derivatives or the self-assembly of block copolymers in which the respective blocks function as hole and electron conductor. Either way has proven difficult because of the combination of synthetic challenges as well as the missing understanding of the complex governing parameters that control structure formation in semiconducting block copolymer blends. This paper summarizes important findings relating to structure formation of block copolymer and block copolymer/nanoparticle blend assembly that should provide a foundation for the future design of block copolymer-based photovoltaic systems.

  13. Using stable isotopes to understand survival strategies of the living fossil, Welwitschia mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, K.; Henschel, J.; Macko, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Namib Desert along the southwestern coast of Africa is hyper-arid in terms of rainfall (gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis. Due to its perennial broad green leaves that apparently demand around 1 L of water per day, some have suggested that this living fossil survives on fog deposition. We have investigated this hypothesis using stable isotopes of water (δ18O, δ2H) and found that W. mirabilis shows no evidence of fog uptake. Rather, its stem water looks much like that of large trees that tap into an alluvial aquifer, and nothing like the stem water of shrubs that are endemic to the fog zone and have been shown elsewhere to take up and translocate fog water. We also investigated some biogeochemical aspects of W. mirabilis through δ13C, δ15N and δ34S analysis of stem organic matter. These data revealed a large amount of variability in δ13C and δ15N among plants growing in close proximity to one another, indicating the possibility of micro-environmental control on the C and N cycles. The δ34S data provided a necessary additional constraint on the water isotope investigation.

  14. Relative contributions of negative symptoms, insight, and coping strategies to quality of life in stable schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemagni, Cristiana; Castagna, Filomena; Crivelli, Barbara; De Marzi, Giampiero; Frieri, Tiziana; Macrì, Antonio; Rocca, Paola

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relative contributions of negative symptomatology, insight, and coping to quality of life (QOL) in a sample of 92 consecutive outpatients with stable schizophrenia referring to the Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatric Section, University of Turin, Struttura Semplice di Coordinamento a Valenza Dipartimentale (SSCVD), Department of Mental Health ASL TO1, Molinette, Italy, in the period between July 2009 and July 2011. In order to assess the specific effect of negative symptoms on QOL and the possible mediating role of insight and coping, two mediation hypotheses were tested, using multiple regression analyses specified by Baron and Kenny (1986). Our findings suggest that (a) higher negative symptoms predict a worse Quality of Life Scale (QLS) intrapsychic foundations (IF) subscale score; (b) attribution of symptoms and coping-social diversion have a direct and positive association with QLS-IF; (c) patients high in negative symptoms are less likely to use attribution of symptoms and coping-social diversion; and (d) attribution of symptoms and coping-social diversion act as partial mediators in the negative symptoms-QOL relationship. The prediction model accounts for 45.3% of the variance of the QLS-IF subscale score in our sample. In conclusion, our results suggest that insight and coping-social diversion substantially contribute to QOL in patients with higher negative symptoms. These factors are potentially modifiable from specific therapeutic interventions, which can produce considerable improvements in the QOL of this population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. ESSENSE: Ultra high resolution spectroscopy for the ESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasini, Stefano; Monkenbusch, Michael; Kozielewski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    The instrument concept for a very high intensity neutron spin-echo spectrometer with ultimate resolution properties has been developed and submitted as an instrument proposal to ESS. Effective intensity gain factors up to 30 compared to the best current instruments are anticipated. In addition the resolution will be boosted to the technical limits by newly designed superconducting precession solenoids. The intensity gain results from the use of an optimized guide transporting the high flux from the ESS cold moderator on the one side and from the utilization of an extended wavelength frame of 8 Å yielding a multiplication of information collection rate on the other side. The instrument thus enables novel views on soft matter systems ranging from polymers, functional gels and more to to dynamics of biological molecules with relevance for MD development; the employment of new techniques for surface NSE (GINSE) may contribute to new knowledge in tribology and lubrication and other surface phenomena that currently are hampered by low intensity. New developments in “intelligent” polymers as e.g. self-healing, the properties of which depend on molecular mobility and dynamics, require observation at many 100 ns of correlation times with high intensity, which can be made with ESSENSE. (paper)

  16. Practical Strategies for Stable Operation of HFF-QCM in Continuous Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried R. Waldvogel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are a few fields of application using quartz crystal microbalances (QCM. Because of environmental conditions and insufficient resolution of the microbalance, chemical sensing of volatile organic compounds in an open system was as yet not possible. In this study we present strategies on how to use 195 MHz fundamental quartz resonators for a mobile sensor platform to detect airborne analytes. Commonly the use of devices with a resonant frequency of about 10 MHz is standard. By increasing the frequency to 195 MHz the frequency shift increases by a factor of almost 400. Unfortunately, such kinds of quartz crystals tend to exhibit some challenges to obtain a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. It was possible to reduce the noise in frequency in a continuous air flow of 7.5 m/s to 0.4 Hz [i.e., σ(τ = 2 × 10−9] by elucidating the major source of noise. The air flow in the vicinity of the quartz was analyzed to reduce turbulences. Furthermore, we found a dependency between the acceleration sensitivity and mechanical stress induced by an internal thermal gradient. By reducing this gradient, we achieved reduction of the sensitivity to acceleration by more than one decade. Hence, the resulting sensor is more robust to environmental conditions such as temperature, acceleration and air flow.

  17. Stable Isotope Signatures Suggest Different Feeding Strategies for Atlantic and Gulf Menhaden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Perez, N.; Smith, S. L.; Gonsalves, L. C.; Lamb, M.

    2016-02-01

    Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) is a keystone forage species that ranges on the Atlantic Coast from Nova Scotia to Florida. A related species, the Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) is found in the northern Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Texas. They each serve as prey for important recreational and commercial fish, such as blue fish, tuna and striped bass. Menhaden are filter feeders whose diets consist mostly of phytoplankton and zooplankton, and menhaden act as direct links between primary producers and larger valuable predators. In this study, we investigated and compared the isotopic signatures of water column nitrate (δ15N), bulk plankton and juvenile menhaden (δ 15N and δ 13C) collected from 5 sites in both the Choptank River, MD, and Apalachicola Bay, FL. We determined that menhaden inhabiting the temperate zone versus the sub-tropical region exhibited statistically different isotopic signatures, suggesting different feeding strategies. Choptank River menhaden were enriched 4‰ in δ 15N over Apalachicola Bay menhaden. Choptank River menhaden are mostly likely obtaining their diet from a higher trophic level (copepods, primary consumers) than Apalachicola Bay fish, who may consume more phytoplankton. The Choptank River menhaden also may be consuming more allochthonous material, and those from the Gulf area eat a more authochthonous diet. In addition, Atlantic menhaden collected from fresh water creeks versus those collected closer to the bay differed in their δ 13C compositions, depending on site collection, with creek fish being more depleted in the heavier carbon isotope. The δ 15N values of water column nitrate were similar at Choptank and Apalachicola sites.

  18. Enantioselective cascade reactions of stable sulfur ylides and nitroolefins through an axial-to-central chirality transfer strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liang-Qiu; Ming, Zhi-Hui; An, Jing; Li, Chao; Chen, Jia-Rong; Xiao, Wen-Jing

    2012-01-20

    An enantioselective [4 + 1] annulation/rearrangement cascade of stable sulfur ylides and nitroolefins has been developed through an efficient axial-to-central chirality transfer with the use of a chiral BINOL-derived sulfide as a reliable stereocontroller. It can provide pharmaceutically and synthetically important oxazolidinones in high stereoselectivities (up to 96:4 e.r. and >95:5 d.r.). Moreover, this strategy was also successfully applied to the asymmetric [4 + 1]/[3 + 2] cycloaddition cascade of sulfur ylides with alkene-tethered nitroolefins, and the corresponding enantioenriched fused heterocycles (up to 87:13 e.r. and >95:5 d.r.) were obtained in good to excellent yields (54-95% yields).

  19. Evaluation of stable isotope labelling strategies for the quantitation of CP4 EPSPS in genetically modified soya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocana, Mireia Fernandez [Centre for Chemical and Bioanalytical Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Mireia.FernandezOcana@pfizer.com; Fraser, Paul D. [Centre for Chemical and Bioanalytical Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Patel, Raj K.P.; Halket, John M. [Specialist Bioanalytical Services Ltd., Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Bramley, Peter M. [Centre for Chemical and Bioanalytical Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-16

    The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops into the market has raised a general alertness relating to the control and safety of foods. The applicability of protein separation hyphenated to mass spectrometry to identify the bacterial enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) protein expressed in GM crops has been previously reported [M.F. Ocana, P.D. Fraser, R.K.P. Patel, J.M. Halket, P.M. Bramley, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 21 (2007) 319.]. Herein, we investigate the suitability of two strategies that employ heavy stable isotopes, i.e. AQUA and iTRAQ, to quantify different levels of CP4 EPSPS in up to four GM preparations. Both quantification strategies showed potential to determine whether the presence of GM material is above the limits established by the European Union. The AQUA quantification procedure involved protein solubilisation/fractionation and subsequent separation using SDS-PAGE. A segment of the gel in which the protein of interest was located was excised, the stable isotope labeled peptide added at a known concentration and proteolytic digestion initiated. Following recovery of the peptides, on-line separation and detection using LC-MS was carried out. A similar approach was used for the iTRAQ workflow with the exception that proteins were digested in solution and generated tryptic peptides were chemically tagged. Both procedures demonstrated the potential for quantitative detection at 0.5% (w/w) GM soya which is a level below the current European Union's threshold for food-labelling. In this context, a comparison between the two procedures is provided within the present study.

  20. Evaluation of stable isotope labelling strategies for the quantitation of CP4 EPSPS in genetically modified soya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocana, Mireia Fernandez; Fraser, Paul D.; Patel, Raj K.P.; Halket, John M.; Bramley, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops into the market has raised a general alertness relating to the control and safety of foods. The applicability of protein separation hyphenated to mass spectrometry to identify the bacterial enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS) protein expressed in GM crops has been previously reported [M.F. Ocana, P.D. Fraser, R.K.P. Patel, J.M. Halket, P.M. Bramley, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 21 (2007) 319.]. Herein, we investigate the suitability of two strategies that employ heavy stable isotopes, i.e. AQUA and iTRAQ, to quantify different levels of CP4 EPSPS in up to four GM preparations. Both quantification strategies showed potential to determine whether the presence of GM material is above the limits established by the European Union. The AQUA quantification procedure involved protein solubilisation/fractionation and subsequent separation using SDS-PAGE. A segment of the gel in which the protein of interest was located was excised, the stable isotope labeled peptide added at a known concentration and proteolytic digestion initiated. Following recovery of the peptides, on-line separation and detection using LC-MS was carried out. A similar approach was used for the iTRAQ workflow with the exception that proteins were digested in solution and generated tryptic peptides were chemically tagged. Both procedures demonstrated the potential for quantitative detection at 0.5% (w/w) GM soya which is a level below the current European Union's threshold for food-labelling. In this context, a comparison between the two procedures is provided within the present study

  1. Highly stable copper oxide composite as an effective photocathode for water splitting via a facile electrochemical synthesis strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen generation through photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting using solar light as an energy resource is believed to be a clean and efficient way to overcome the global energy and environmental problems. Extensive research effort has been focused on n-type metal oxide semiconductors as photoanodes, whereas studies of p-type metal oxide semiconductors as photocathodes where hydrogen is generated are scarce. In this paper, highly efficient and stable copper oxide composite photocathode materials were successfully fabricated by a facile two-step electrochemical strategy, which consists of electrodeposition of a Cu film on an ITO glass substrate followed by anodization of the Cu film under a suitable current density and then calcination to form a Cu 2O/CuO composite. The synthesized Cu 2O/CuO composite was composed of a thin layer of Cu 2O with a thin film of CuO on its top as a protecting coating. The rational control of chemical composition and crystalline orientation of the composite materials was easily achieved by varying the electrochemical parameters, including electrodeposition potential and anodization current density, to achieve an enhanced PEC performance. The best photocathode material among all materials prepared was the Cu 2O/CuO composite with Cu 2O in (220) orientation, which showed a highly stable photocurrent of -1.54 mA cm -2 at a potential of 0 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode at a mild pH under illumination of AM 1.5G. This photocurrent density was more than 2 times that generated by the bare Cu 2O electrode (-0.65 mAcm -2) and the stability was considerably enhanced to 74.4% from 30.1% on the bare Cu 2O electrode. The results of this study showed that the top layer of CuO in the Cu 2O/CuO composite not only minimized the Cu 2O photocorrosion but also served as a recombination inhibitor for the photogenerated electrons and holes from Cu 2O, which collectively explained much enhanced stability and PEC activity of the Cu 2O/CuO composite

  2. Forma dat esse: a Christian ontology of human spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Martínez Porcell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Forma dat esse was initially high fertility existential anthropology. Christian philosophy inherited although explanations hylemorphic with explaining human nature knew register the being and doing of the person inside the ontology of created spirits. The presence of human corporeality was a spirit that existed in the boundary and the horizon of eternity. The plasticity of human tendencies was a sign of his intelligence and it should be defined by their spirituality. The word was being-communication and love was the most important act of his life fertility. No wonder that we offer existential self as memory itself and the presence of the soul from the patenting of his spiritual being.

  3. HOM Coupler Optimisation for the Superconducting RF Cavities in ESS

    CERN Document Server

    Ainsworth, R; Calaga, R

    2012-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) will be the world’s most powerful next generation neutron source. It consists of a linear accelerator, target, and instruments for neutron experiments. The linac is designed to accelerate protons to a final energy of 2.5 GeV, with an average design beam power of 5 MW, for collision with a target used to produce a high neutron flux. A section of the linac will contain Superconducting RF (SCRF) cavities designed at 704 MHz. Beam induced HOMs in these cavities may drive the beam unstable and increase the cryogenic load, therefore HOM couplers are installed to provide sufficient damping. Previous studies have shown that these couplers are susceptible to multipacting, a resonant process which can absorb RF power and lead to heating effects. This paper will show how a coupler suffering from multipacting has been redesigned to limit this effect. Optimisation of the RF damping is also discussed.

  4. Activation Assessment of the Soil Around the ESS Accelerator Tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhno, I. L. [Fermilab; Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab; Ene, D. [ESS, Lund

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the soil surrounding the ESS accelerator tunnel calculated by the MARS15 code is presented. A detailed composition of the soil, that comprises about 30 different chemical elements, is considered. Spatial distributions of the produced activity are provided in both transverse and longitudinal direction. A realistic irradiation profile for the entire planned lifetime of the facility is used. The nuclear transmutation and decay of the produced radionuclides is calculated with the DeTra code which is a built-in tool for the MARS15 code. Radionuclide production by low-energy neutrons is calculated using the ENDF/B-VII evaluated nuclear data library. In order to estimate quality of this activation assessment, a comparison between calculated and measured activation of various foils in a similar radiation environment is presented.

  5. Strategy for designing stable and powerful nitrogen-rich high-energy materials by introducing boron atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Jie; Chi, Wei-Jie; Li, Quan-Song; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    One of the most important aims in the development of high-energy materials is to improve their stability and thus ensure that they are safe to manufacture and transport. In this work, we theoretically investigated open-chain N 4 B 2 isomers using density functional theory in order to find the best way of stabilizing nitrogen-rich molecules. The results show that the boron atoms in these isomers are aligned linearly with their neighboring atoms, which facilitates close packing in the crystals of these materials. Upon comparing the energies of nine N 4 B 2 isomers, we found that the structure with alternating N and B atoms had the lowest energy. Structures with more than one nitrogen atom between two boron atoms had higher energies. The energy of N 4 B 2 increases by about 50 kcal/mol each time it is rearranged to include an extra nitrogen atom between the two boron atoms. More importantly, our results also show that boron atoms stabilize nitrogen-rich molecules more efficiently than carbon atoms do. Also, the combustion of any isomer of N 4 B 2 releases more heat than the corresponding isomer of N 4 C 2 does under well-oxygenated conditions. Our study suggests that the three most stable N 4 B 2 isomers (BN13, BN24, and BN34) are good candidates for high-energy molecules, and it outlines a new strategy for designing stable boron-containing high-energy materials. Graphical abstract The structural characteristics, thermodynamic stabilities, and exothermic properties of nitrogen-rich N 4 B 2 isomers were investigated by means of density functional theory.

  6. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Every behaviourally responsive animal (including us) make decisions. These can be simple behavioural decisions such aswhere to feed, what to feed, how long to feed, decisions related to finding, choosing and competing for mates, or simply maintaining ones territory. All these are conflict situations between competing ...

  7. Athletes who train on unstable compared to stable surfaces exhibit unique postural control strategies in response to balance perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Blaise Williams, III

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: USA exhibit unique postural strategies compared to SSA. These unique strategies seemingly exhibit a direction-specific attribute and may be associated with divergent motor control strategies.

  8. MARS15 Simulation of Radiation Environment at the ESS Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Eidelman, Yu. I. [Euclid Techlabs, Solon; Rakhno, I. L. [Fermilab; Tchelidze, L. [ESS, Lund; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive studies with the MARS15(2016) Monte-Carlo code are described on evaluation of prompt and residual radiation levels induced by nominal and accidental beam losses in the 5-MW, 2-GeV European Spallation Source (ESS) Linac. These are to provide a basis for radiation shielding design verification through the accelerator complex. The calculation model is based on the latest engineering design and includes a sophisticated algorithm for particle tracking in the machine RF cavities as well as a well-established model of the beam loss. Substantial efforts were put in solving the deep-penetration problem for the thick shielding around the tunnel with numerous complex penetrations. It allowed us to study in detail not only the prompt dose, but also component and air activation, radiation loads on the soil outside the tunnel, and skyshine studies for the complicated 3-D surface above the machine. Among the other things, the newest features in MARS15 (2016), such as a ROOT-based beamline builder and a TENDL-based event generator for nuclear interactions below 100 MeV, were very useful in this challenging application

  9. The wavelength frame multiplication chopper system for the ESS test beamline at the BER II reactor—A concept study of a fundamental ESS instrument principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, M.; Bulat, M.; Habicht, K.

    2013-01-01

    Contributing to the design update phase of the European Spallation Source ESS–scheduled to start operation in 2019–a test beamline is under construction at the BER II research reactor at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB). This beamline offers experimental test capabilities of instrument concepts viable for the ESS. The experiments envisaged at this dedicated beamline comprise testing of components as well as of novel experimental approaches and methods taking advantage of the long pulse characteristic of the ESS source. Therefore the test beamline will be equipped with a sophisticated chopper system that provides the specific time structure of the ESS and enables variable wavelength resolutions via wavelength frame multiplication (WFM), a fundamental instrument concept beneficial for a number of instruments at ESS. We describe the unique chopper system developed for these purposes, which allows constant wavelength resolution for a wide wavelength band. Furthermore we discuss the implications for the conceptual design for related instrumentation at the ESS

  10. ESSE: Engineering Super Simulation Emulation for Virtual Reality Systems Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kune Y.; Yeon, Choul W.

    2008-01-01

    The trademark 4 + D Technology TM based Engineering Super Simulation Emulation (ESSE) is introduced. ESSE resorting to three-dimensional (3D) Virtual Reality (VR) technology pledges to provide with an interactive real-time motion, sound and tactile and other forms of feedback in the man machine systems environment. In particular, the 3D Virtual Engineering Neo cybernetic Unit Soft Power (VENUS) adds a physics engine to the VR platform so as to materialize a physical atmosphere. A close cooperation system and prompt information share are crucial, thereby increasing the necessity of centralized information system and electronic cooperation system. VENUS is further deemed to contribute towards public acceptance of nuclear power in general, and safety in particular. For instance, visualization of nuclear systems can familiarize the public in answering their questions and alleviating misunderstandings on nuclear power plants answering their questions and alleviating misunderstandings on nuclear power plants (NPPs) in general, and performance, security and safety in particular. An in-house flagship project Systemic Three-dimensional Engine Platform Prototype Engineering (STEPPE) endeavors to develop the Systemic Three-dimensional Engine Platform (STEP) for a variety of VR applications. STEP is home to a level system providing the whole visible scene of virtual engineering of man machine system environment. The system is linked with video monitoring that provides a 3D Computer Graphics (CG) visualization of major events. The database linked system provides easy access to relevant blueprints. The character system enables the operators easy access to visualization of major events. The database linked system provides easy access to relevant blueprints. The character system enables the operators to access the virtual systems by using their virtual characters. Virtually Engineered NPP Informative systems by using their virtual characters. Virtually Engineered NPP Informative

  11. [Efficacy comparison of 3 strategies for real-world stable coronary artery disease patients with three-vessel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R; Jiang, L; Xu, L J; Tian, J; Zhao, X Y; Zhang, Y; Xu, J J; Song, Y; Wang, H H; Gao, Z; Song, L; Yuan, J Q

    2017-12-24

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or medical therapy (MT) alone for real-world stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) patients with three-vessel disease (TVD) in mainland China. Methods: A total of 8 943 consecutive cases with TVD hospitalized in our center from April 2004 to February 2011 were screened for this study. In this cohort, 3 435 cases diagnosed as SCAD were analyzed. PCI, CABG, MT alone were performed in 1 313 (38.2%), 1 259 (36.7%) and 863 (25.1%) patients, respectively. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis using nearest neighbor matching with a 1∶1 ratio was applied, and 758 pairs of CABG and PCI groups, 552 pairs of PCI and MT groups, 639 pairs of CABG and MT groups were selected, respectively. 1- and 2-year clinical outcomes were evaluated among PCI, CABG and MT group. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox regression method were used for survival analysis. Results: Significant differences were found at baseline between PCI, CABG and MT group, including age, gender, body mass index, family history of coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial infarction, stroke, previous revascularization, peripheral vascular disease, SNYTAX score, left ventricular ejection fraction, hemoglobin, serum creatinine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, triglyceride and medication (all PSCAD patients with TVD, CABG shows better effectiveness by reducing MI and revascularization risk as compared to PCI, even though stroke risk is somehow higher in CABG patients. Patients received MT alone are associated with worse outcomes than those undergoing revascularization strategies.

  12. Role of Ess1 in growth, morphogenetic switching, and RNA polymerase II transcription in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanushki Samaranayake

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a fungal pathogen that causes potentially fatal infections among immune-compromised individuals. The emergence of drug resistant C. albicans strains makes it important to identify new antifungal drug targets. Among potential targets are enzymes known as peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases that catalyze isomerization of peptide bonds preceding proline. We are investigating a PPIase called Ess1, which is conserved in all major human pathogenic fungi. Previously, we reported that C. albicans Ess1 is essential for growth and morphogenetic switching. In the present study, we re-evaluated these findings using more rigorous genetic analyses, including the use of additional CaESS1 mutant alleles, distinct marker genes, and the engineering of suitably-matched isogenic control strains. The results confirm that CaEss1 is essential for growth in C. albicans, but show that reduction of CaESS1 gene dosage by half (δ/+ does not interfere with morphogenetic switching. However, further reduction of CaEss1 levels using a conditional allele does reduce morphogenetic switching. We also examine the role of the linker α-helix that distinguishes C. albicans Ess1 from the human Pin1 enzyme, and present results of a genome-wide transcriptome analysis. The latter analysis indicates that CaEss1 has a conserved role in regulation of RNA polymerase II function, and is required for efficient termination of small nucleolar RNAs and repression of cryptic transcription in C. albicans.

  13. An Optimization Model and Modified Harmony Search Algorithm for Microgrid Planning with ESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve problems such as the high cost of microgrids (MGs, balance between supply and demand, stability of system operation, and optimizing the MG planning model, the energy storage system (ESS and harmony search algorithm (HSA are proposed. First, the conventional MG planning optimization model is constructed and the constraint conditions are defined: the supply and demand balance and reserve requirements. Second, an ESS is integrated into the optimal model of MG planning. The model with an ESS can solve and identify parameters such as the optimal power, optimal capacity, and optimal installation year. Third, the convergence speed and robustness of the ESS are optimized and improved. A case study comprising three different cases concludes the paper. The results show that the modified HSA (MHSA can effectively improve the stability and economy of MG operation with an ESS.

  14. Viability of the ESS-Bilbao neutron source for irradiation of nuclear fusion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Páramo, A.R., E-mail: angel.rodriguez.paramo@upm.es [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear UPM, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, E28006 Madrid (Spain); Sordo, F. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear UPM, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, E28006 Madrid (Spain); Consorcio ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Cosimet, Paseo Landabarri, 2 1a planta, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Perlado, J.M.; Rivera, A. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear UPM, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, E28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-15

    The ESS-Bilbao neutron source, currently under construction, is conceived as a multipurpose facility. It will offer a fast neutron beam line for materials irradiation. In this paper we discuss the viability of ESS-Bilbao for experimental studies of fusion materials. Making use of the already designed target station we have calculated the neutron spectrum expected in the fast neutron line. Then, we have studied the neutron irradiation effects in two model materials: iron and silica. We have calculated the expected PKA (primary knock-on atom) spectra and light species production as well as the damage production in these materials. Regarding structural materials, we conclude that the ESS-Bilbao neutron irradiation facility will play a minor role due to the resulting low neutron fluxes (about two orders of magnitude lower than in fusion reactors). On the other hand, ESS-Bilbao turns out to be relevant for studies of final lenses in laser fusion power plants. A comparison with the conditions expected for HiPER final lenses shows that the fluxes will be only a factor 5 smaller in ESS-Bilbao and the PKA spectra will be very similar. Taking into account, in addition, that relevant effects on lenses occur from the onset of irradiation, we conclude that an appropriate irradiation cell with in situ characterisation techniques will make ESS-Bilbao very attractive for applied neutron damage studies of laser fusion final lenses. Finally, we compare ESS-Bilbao with other facilities.

  15. Viability of the ESS-Bilbao neutron source for irradiation of nuclear fusion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páramo, A. R.; Sordo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Rivera, A.

    2014-01-01

    The ESS-Bilbao neutron source, currently under construction, is conceived as a multipurpose facility. It will offer a fast neutron beam line for materials irradiation. In this paper we discuss the viability of ESS-Bilbao for experimental studies of fusion materials. Making use of the already designed target station we have calculated the neutron spectrum expected in the fast neutron line. Then, we have studied the neutron irradiation effects in two model materials: iron and silica. We have calculated the expected PKA (primary knock-on atom) spectra and light species production as well as the damage production in these materials. Regarding structural materials, we conclude that the ESS-Bilbao neutron irradiation facility will play a minor role due to the resulting low neutron fluxes (about two orders of magnitude lower than in fusion reactors). On the other hand, ESS-Bilbao turns out to be relevant for studies of final lenses in laser fusion power plants. A comparison with the conditions expected for HiPER final lenses shows that the fluxes will be only a factor 5 smaller in ESS-Bilbao and the PKA spectra will be very similar. Taking into account, in addition, that relevant effects on lenses occur from the onset of irradiation, we conclude that an appropriate irradiation cell with in situ characterisation techniques will make ESS-Bilbao very attractive for applied neutron damage studies of laser fusion final lenses. Finally, we compare ESS-Bilbao with other facilities.

  16. Early results of an in vivo trial of ESS in thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jennifer E.; Goukassian, Ilona D.; A'Amar, Ousama M.; Bigio, Irving J.; Lee, Stephanie L.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. The current gold standard for diagnosis, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, yields 10-25% of indeterminate cytology results, leading to patients undergoing thyroidectomy for diagnosis. We assessed the technical potential of a miniaturized in vivo ESS (elastic light scattering spectroscopy) probe, built into an FNA needle assembly, to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Methods: Under IRB approval, 15 patients in the endocrine clinic undergoing FNAB of a thyroid nodule had collection of ESS data using our novel miniaturized FNA probe. Using final surgical pathology as our gold standard, data post processing and visual inspection was completed. Results: 225 spectra were grouped and analyzed (120 benign, 30 malignant and 75 from indeterminate cytology). ESS probes demonstrated excellent reproducibility in use. Initial analysis of these preliminary data is promising, indicating distinction of spectral ESS features between malignant and benign conditions. Conclusion(s): An in vivo trial of an invasive miniaturized integrated ESS biopsy probe is acceptable to patients, and collection of ESS data is feasible and reliable. With development of a disease-specific algorithm, ESS could potentially be used as an in-situ real time intra-operative diagnostic tool or as a minimally invasive adjunct to conventional FNA cytology.

  17. Can we get more from the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) than just a single score?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaithe, Michelle; Skinner, Timothy C.; Clarke, Jemma

    2013-01-01

    a person's posture, activity and environment. These features of sleepiness are referred to as somnificity. This study evaluates and compares the fit of a one-factor structure (sleepiness) and three-factor structure (reflecting low, medium and high levels of somnificity) for the ESS. Methods: All...... participants (a community sample N = 356 and a clinical sample N = 679) were administered the ESS. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate and compare the fit of one- and three-factor models of the ESS. Results: In both samples, a three-factor structure (community sample adjusted X 2 = 2.95, root...

  18. Heterogeneity in ess transcriptional organization and variable contribution of the Ess/Type VII protein secretion system to virulence across closely related Staphylocccus aureus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneuper, Holger; Cao, Zhen Ping; Twomey, Kate B; Zoltner, Martin; Jäger, Franziska; Cargill, James S; Chalmers, James; van der Kooi - Pol, Magda; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Ryan, Robert P; Hunter, William N; Palmer, Tracy

    The Type VII protein secretion system, found in Gram-positive bacteria, secretes small proteins, containing a conserved W-x-G amino acid sequence motif, to the growth medium. Staphylococcus aureus has a conserved Type VII secretion system, termed Ess, which is dispensable for laboratory growth but

  19. Fluid dynamic calculations for the cooling of the European Spallation Source (ESS) target; Calculos fluidodinamicos para la refrigeracion del target de la Fuente Europea de Espalacin (ESS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magan Romero, M.; Sordo Balbin, F.; Domingo, S.; Bermejo, J.; Perlado, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    In this document is simulated the tantalum water cooling, that is going to be used in the ESS-Bilbao, using fluent. The target mesh, the models used and the options choices are displayed. At the end, the results and design recommendations are analyzed.

  20. On the Suitability of a Solenoid Horn for the ESS Neutrino Superbeam

    CERN Document Server

    Olvegård, Maja; Ruber, R; Ziemann, R; Koutchouk, J -P

    2015-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), now under construction in Lund, Sweden, offers unique opportunities for experimental physics, not only in neutron science but potentially in particle physics. The ESS neutrino superbeam project plans to use a 5 MW proton beam from the ESS linac to generate a high intensity neutrino superbeam, with the final goal of detecting leptonic CP-violation in an underground megaton Cherenkov water detector. The neutrino production requires a second target station and a complex focusing system for the pions emerging from the target. The normal-conducting magnetic horns that are normally used for these applications cannot accept the 2.86 ms long proton pulses of the ESS linac, which means that pulse shortening in an accumulator ring would be required. That, in turn, requires H- operation in the linac to accommodate the high intensity. As an attractive alternative, we investigate the possibility of using superconducting solenoids for the pion focusing. This solenoid horn system needs ...

  1. An explicit Berry-Ess\\'een bound for uniformly expanding maps on the interval

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Loïc

    2009-01-01

    For uniformly expanding maps on the interval, analogous versions of the Berry-Ess\\'een theorem are known but only with an unexplicit upper bound in $O(1/\\sqrt{n})$ without any constants being specified. In this paper, we use the recent complex cone technique to prove an explicit Berry-Ess\\'een estimate with a reasonable constant for these maps. Our method is not limited to maps on the interval however and should apply to many situations.

  2. Mercury, selenium and stable isotopes in four small cetaceans from the Southeastern Brazilian coast: Influence of feeding strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Gilberto; Kehrig, Helena A; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Almeida, Marcelo G; Rezende, Carlos E; Siciliano, Salvatore; de Moura, Jailson F; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    Dolphins are good bioindicators of the contamination status of marine ecosystems, since their dietary and habitat plasticity in both coastal and offshore ecotypes provide information on the trace elements levels originated from natural and anthropogenic sources. In this context, this study aimed to investigate provides mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) levels, trophic ecology and feeding environments of four small cetaceans (Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Sotalia guianensis and Pontoporia blainvillei) inhabiting the central-northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. For the latter, δ 15 N and δ 13 C stable isotopes were used as indicators in this regard. Stable isotope values indicate that the four studied species have distinctive foraging habitats, coastal and least coastal, and occupy different trophic positions. The significant relationship found between muscle Hg and δ 15 N suggests that individual foraging preference remains relatively constant for the studied dolphin species over extended periods. The individual prey size and species are probably responsible for the differences found in Hg and Se concentrations in muscle tissue among all dolphin species. The vulnerable small coastal cetacean, P. blainvillei, which feeds on small teleost fish and squid, presented the lowest muscular Hg concentrations (less than 3.5 μg g -1  dry wt.). Meanwhile, S. bredanensis is more likely to uptake large amounts of trace elements among the four dolphin species, due to its feeding habits mainly being large offshore fish that accumulate high amounts of trace elements in organs and tissues. Differences found between Hg concentrations in fetus-mother pairs were much higher in S. guianensis than in P. blainvillei, suggesting that maternal contribution of Hg via placenta was more significant for the former. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Realization of EEC OON strategy for education in the interest of stable development on the regional level (on the example of elaboration of the system of ecological education at non-core educational institution of higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Melnikova, O.

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the historical prerequisites of forming EEC OON strategy for education in the interest of stable development. Ecological education in the light of the conception of stable development as an integrating factor of education in general is described. The example of the realization of the strategy on the regional level is given. The topicality of making the system of ecological education at non-core educational institution of higher education is shown.

  4. A novel strategy for the synthesis of thermally stable and apoptosis-inducing 2,3-dihydroazetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanin, Ilia A; Novikov, Mikhail S; Agafonova, Anastasiya V; Rostovskii, Nikolai V; Khlebnikov, Alexander F; Kudryavtsev, Igor V; Terpilowski, Maxim A; Serebriakova, Maria K; Trulioff, Andrey S; Goncharov, Nikolay V

    2016-05-11

    A general and concise approach to thermally and hydrolytically stable alkyl 2,3-dihydroazete-2,3-di-/2,2,3-tricarboxylates from alkyl 2-bromoazirine-2-carboxylates or 4-bromo-5-alkoxyisoxazoles is reported. The synthesis involves the formation of 2-azabuta-1,3-diene by the reaction of rhodium carbenoid with isoxazole or azirine followed by cyclization/hydrodebromination cascade. The latter reaction is the first example of the selective hydrodehalogenation of a valence isomer under equilibrium conditions. In vitro cytotoxicity tests on THP-1 cell line revealed that the 2,3-dihydroazetes greatly differ in their ability to induce apoptosis and/or necrosis. To adequately describe and quantitatively assess these properties, the difference between the two areas under the curves of concentration dependency of apoptosis/necrosis induction within the concentration range was used. Trimethyl 4-phenyl-2,3-dihydroazete-2,2,3-tricarboxylate was found to display the maximal apoptotic potential coupled with high cytotoxic and minimal necrotic potential.

  5. A novel strategy to produce highly stable and transparent aqueous 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiexin; Zhang Zhibing; Le Yuan; Chen Jianfeng; Zhao Hong

    2011-01-01

    A surprisingly large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water-insoluble and, as a result, have poor oral bioavailability. To overcome insolubility, the drug particles are usually dispersed in a medium during product formation, but large particles that are formed may affect product performance and safety. Many techniques have been used to produce nanodispersions-dispersions with nanometre-scale dimensions-that have properties similar to solutions. However, making nanodispersions requires complex processing, and it is difficult to achieve stability over long periods. In this paper, we report a generic method for preparing drug nanoparticles with a combination of antisolvent precipitation in the presence of water-soluble matrices and spray-drying. The spray-dried powder composites (solid dispersion) are microspherical, highly stable and thus form transparent nanodispersions or so-called 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug when simply added to water. Aqueous nanodispersions of silybin (a kind of water-insoluble drug for liver protection) with an average size of 25 nm produced with this approach display a 10 times faster dissolution rate than that of raw drug. This has great potential to offer a novel solution for innovative drugs of the future.

  6. Czy ipsum esse św. Tomasza z Akwinu to istnienie czy egzystencja? (Is ipsum esse of Thomas Aquinas Existence or (Perfection of Being?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Cyciura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available While dealing with the topic that he discovered himself, Thomas had to use the languageof his predecessors and colloquial language too. That is why it is so difficultto spot the originality of his metaphysics of the esse-being. The most deceiving termabout it is existence (to exist, because to exist is far less than to be, viz. to be in thefull perfection of what is real. On the other hand, being completely perfect in a kinddoes not mean the same as being “divine”. Pseudo-Denis had accurately noticed itusing the ambiguous term proballein. For the real being might be regarded as proposedto us by God, and lead us to Him consequently, but might veil Him from usas well. Everything depends on whether we regard esse as the utmost common – theuniversal in Aristotelian sense (revealing the cause, and the Cause eventually, or assomething directly perceived and satisfying our desire of knowledge. The formermeaning allows to put esse as a perfection-end; the latter does not. As we first beholdwhat is imperfect, the utmost perfection of being must be seized at the end ofcognition. That is why only the proofs of existence of God involve seizing the actof being, whereas so-called existential judgments are a myth.

  7. Ontogenetic and among-individual variation in foraging strategies of northeast Pacific white sharks based on stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.L.; Tinker, M. Tim; Estes, J.A.; Koch, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence for individuality in dietary preferences and foraging behaviors within populations of various species. This is especially important for apex predators, since they can potentially have wide dietary niches and a large impact on trophic dynamics within ecosystems. We evaluate the diet of an apex predator, the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of vertebral growth bands to create lifetime records for 15 individuals from California. Isotopic variations in white shark diets can reflect within-region differences among prey (most importantly related to trophic level), as well as differences in baseline values among the regions in which sharks forage, and both prey and habitat preferences may shift with age. The magnitude of isotopic variation among sharks in our study (>5‰ for both elements) is too great to be explained solely by geographic differences, and so must reflect differences in prey choice that may vary with sex, size, age and location. Ontogenetic patterns in δ15N values vary considerably among individuals, and one third of the population fit each of these descriptions: 1) δ15N values increased throughout life, 2) δ15N values increased to a plateau at ~5 years of age, and 3) δ15N values remained roughly constant values throughout life. Isotopic data for the population span more than one trophic level, and we offer a qualitative evaluation of diet using shark-specific collagen discrimination factors estimated from a 3+ year captive feeding experiment (Δ13Cshark-diet and Δ15Nshark-diet equal 4.2‰ and 2.5‰, respectively). We assess the degree of individuality with a proportional similarity index that distinguishes specialists and generalists. The isotopic variance is partitioned among differences between-individual (48%), within-individuals (40%), and by calendar year of sub-adulthood (12%). Our data reveal substantial ontogenetic and individual dietary

  8. Ontogenetic and among-individual variation in foraging strategies of northeast Pacific white sharks based on stable isotope analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora L Kim

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence for individuality in dietary preferences and foraging behaviors within populations of various species. This is especially important for apex predators, since they can potentially have wide dietary niches and a large impact on trophic dynamics within ecosystems. We evaluate the diet of an apex predator, the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of vertebral growth bands to create lifetime records for 15 individuals from California. Isotopic variations in white shark diets can reflect within-region differences among prey (most importantly related to trophic level, as well as differences in baseline values among the regions in which sharks forage, and both prey and habitat preferences may shift with age. The magnitude of isotopic variation among sharks in our study (>5‰ for both elements is too great to be explained solely by geographic differences, and so must reflect differences in prey choice that may vary with sex, size, age and location. Ontogenetic patterns in δ(15N values vary considerably among individuals, and one third of the population fit each of these descriptions: 1 δ(15N values increased throughout life, 2 δ(15N values increased to a plateau at ∼5 years of age, and 3 δ(15N values remained roughly constant values throughout life. Isotopic data for the population span more than one trophic level, and we offer a qualitative evaluation of diet using shark-specific collagen discrimination factors estimated from a 3+ year captive feeding experiment (Δ(13C(shark-diet and Δ(15N(shark-diet equal 4.2‰ and 2.5‰, respectively. We assess the degree of individuality with a proportional similarity index that distinguishes specialists and generalists. The isotopic variance is partitioned among differences between-individual (48%, within-individuals (40%, and by calendar year of sub-adulthood (12%. Our data reveal substantial ontogenetic and

  9. A design study of VOR: A versatile optimal resolution chopper spectrometer for the ESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deen P.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available VOR, the versatile optimal resolution chopper spectrometer, is designed to probe dynamic phenomena that are currently inaccessible for inelastic neutron scattering due to flux limitations. VOR is a short instrument by the standards of the European Spallation Source (ESS, 30.2 m moderator to sample, and provides instantaneous access to a broad dynamic range, 1–120 meV within each ESS period. The short instrument length combined with the long ESS pulse width enables a quadratic flux increase, even at longer wavelengths, by relaxing energy resolution from ΔE/E = 1% up to ΔE/E = 7%. This is impossible both on a long chopper spectrometer at the ESS and with instruments at short pulsed sources. In comparison to current day chopper spectrometers, VOR can offer an order of magnitude improvement in flux for equivalent energy resolutions, ΔE/E = 1–3%. Further relaxing the energy resolution enables VOR to gain an extra order of magnitude in flux. In addition, VOR has been optimised for repetition rate multiplication (RRM and is therefore able to measure, in a single ESS period, 6–14 incident wavelengths, across a wavelength band of 9 Å with a novel chopper configuration that transmits all incident wavelengths with equivalent counting statistics. The characteristics of VOR make it a unique instrument with capabilities to access small, limited-lifetime samples and transient phenomena with inelastic neutron scattering.

  10. Conceptual design of a cold methane moderator system for the European Spallation Source (ESS)

    CERN Document Server

    Barnert-Wiemer, H

    2002-01-01

    As part of the work for the target station of the planned European spallation source (ESS) the Central Department of Technology at the Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH is also concerned with the moderators, particular attention being given to the development of cold methane moderators. This report discusses the technical feasibility of solid methane moderators. Methods to tailor the neutron output by adding absorption materials (decouplers or poisons) are not considered here, neither are composite moderators. Based on the given target-moderator-reflector assembly of the ESS project a concept for the ESS cold methane moderators has been developed and is being examined at the Forschungszentrum Juelich. According to this moderator concept the moderator is a fixed bed of small spheres, which makes moderator container filling homogeneous and reproducible. Since spheres form a defined packed bed, cooling of the moderator bed by H sub 2 is reliable. The process of filling the moderator container and of removing the pe...

  11. Stable malaria incidence despite scaling up control strategies in a malaria vaccine-testing site in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Drissa; Travassos, Mark A; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Tolo, Youssouf; Laurens, Matthew B; Traore, Karim; Diarra, Issa; Niangaly, Amadou; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Sissoko, Mody; Guindo, Bouréima; Douyon, Raymond; Guindo, Aldiouma; Kouriba, Bourema; Sissoko, Mahamadou S; Sagara, Issaka; Plowe, Christopher V; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Thera, Mahamadou A

    2014-09-19

    The recent decline in malaria incidence in many African countries has been attributed to the provision of prompt and effective anti-malarial treatment using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and to the widespread distribution of long-lasting, insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs). At a malaria vaccine-testing site in Bandiagara, Mali, ACT was introduced in 2004, and LLINs have been distributed free of charge since 2007 to infants after they complete the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) schedule and to pregnant women receiving antenatal care. These strategies may have an impact on malaria incidence. To document malaria incidence, a cohort of 400 children aged 0 to 14 years was followed for three to four years up to July 2013. Monthly cross-sectional surveys were done to measure the prevalence of malaria infection and anaemia. Clinical disease was measured both actively and passively through continuous availability of primary medical care. Measured outcomes included asymptomatic Plasmodium infection, anaemia and clinical malaria episodes. The incidence rate of clinical malaria varied significantly from June 2009 to July 2013 without a clear downward trend. A sharp seasonality in malaria illness incidence was observed with higher clinical malaria incidence rates during the rainy season. Parasite and anaemia point prevalence also showed seasonal variation with much higher prevalence rates during rainy seasons compared to dry seasons. Despite the scaling up of malaria prevention and treatment, including the widespread use of bed nets, better diagnosis and wider availability of ACT, malaria incidence did not decrease in Bandiagara during the study period.

  12. Game Analysis and Simulation of the River Basin Sustainable Development Strategy Integrating Water Emission Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water emission trading (WET is promising in sustainable development strategy. However, low participation impedes its development. We develop an evolutionary game model of two enterprise populations’ dynamics and stability in the decision-making behavior process. Due to the different perceived value of certain permits, enterprises choose H strategy (bidding for permit or D strategy (not bidding. External factors are simplified according to three categories: rH-bidding related cost, G-price and F-penalty. Participation increase equals reaching point (H,H in the model and is treated as an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS. We build a system dynamics model on AnyLogic 7.1.1 to simulate the aforementioned game and draw four conclusions: (1 to reach ESS more quickly, we need to minimize the bidding related cost rH and price G, but regulate the heavy penalty F; (2 an ESS can be significantly transformed, such as from (D,D to (H,H by regulating rH, G and F accordingly; (3 the initial choice of strategy is essential to the final result; (4 if participation seems stable but unsatisfying, it is important to check whether it is a saddle point and adjust external factors accordingly. The findings benefit both water management practice and further research.

  13. Application of the MCNPX-McStas interface for shielding calculations and guide design at ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Willendrup, Peter Kjær

    2014-01-01

    . The generation and moderation of neutrons is simulated using a full scale MCNPX model of the ESS target monolith. Upon entering the neutron beam extraction region, the individual neutron states are handed to McStas via the MCNPX-McStas interface. McStas transports the neutrons through the beam guide...

  14. College and University Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century (ESSE 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Ruzek, M.; Schweizer, D.

    2002-12-01

    The NASA/USRA Cooperative University-based Program in Earth System Science Education (ESSE), initiated over a decade ago through NASA support, has led in the creation of a nationwide collaborative effort to bring Earth system science into the undergraduate classroom. Forty-five ESSE institutions now offer over 120 Earth system courses each year, reaching thousands of students annually with interdisciplinary content. Through the course offerings by faculty from different disciplines and the organizational infrastructure of colleges and universities emphasizing cross disciplinary curricula, programs, degrees and departments, the ESSE Program has led in systemic change in the offering of a holistic view of Earth system science in the classroom. Building on this successful experience and collaborative infrastructure within and among colleges, universities and NASA partners, an expanded program called ESSE 21 is being supported by NASA to extend the legacy established during the last decade. Through its expanded focus including partnerships with under represented colleges and universities, the Program seeks to further develop broadly based educational resources, including shared courses, electronic learning materials and degree programs that will extend Earth system science concepts in both undergraduate and graduate classrooms and laboratories. These resources emphasizing fundamentals of Earth system science advance the nation's broader agenda for improving science, technology, engineering and mathematics competency. Overall the thrust within the classrooms of colleges and universities is critical to extending and solidifying courses of study in Earth system and global change science. ESSE 21 solicits proposals from undergraduate institutions to create or adopt undergraduate and graduate level Earth system science content in courses, curricula and degree programs. The goal for all is to effect systemic change through developing Earth system science learning materials

  15. Development of new ionic gelation strategy: Towards the preparation of new monodisperse and stable hyaluronic acid/β-cyclodextrin-grafted chitosan nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers for doxorubicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihoub, Amina Ben; Saidat, Boubakeur; Bal, Youssef; Frochot, Céline; Vanderesse, Régis; Acherar, Samir

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, β-cyclodextrin-grafted chitosan nanoparticles (β-CD-g-CS NPs) were prepared using a new ionic gelation strategy involving a synergistic effect of NaCl (150 mmol/L), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES, 10 mmol/L), and water bath sonication. This new strategy afforded smaller and more monodisperse β-CD-g-CS NPs vs. the classical ionic gelation method. New HA/β-CD-g-CS NPs were also prepared using the above-mentioned strategy by adding hyaluronic acid (HA) to the β-CD-g-CS copolymer at different weight ratios until the ZP values conversion. The best result was obtained with the weight ratio of w(HA):w(β-CD-g-CS) = 2:1 and furnished new spherical and smooth HA/β-CD-g-CS NPs. Furthermore, the stability of β- CD-g-CS NPs and HA/β-CD-g-CS NPs at 4°C in physiological medium (pH 7.4) was compared for 3 weeks period and showed that HA/β-CD-g-CS NPs were more stable all maintaining their monodispersity and high negative ZP values compared to β-CD-g-CS NPs. Finally, preliminary study of HA/β-CD-g-CS NPs as carrier for the controlled release of the anticancer drug doxorubicin was investigated. These new HA/β-CD-g-CS NPs can potentially be used as drug delivery and targeting systems for cancer treatment.

  16. Development of new ionic gelation strategy: Towards the preparation of new monodisperse and stable hyaluronic acid/β-cyclodextrin-grafted chitosan nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers for doxorubicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihoub, Amina Ben; Saidat, Boubakeur; Bal, Youssef; Frochot, Céline; Vanderesse, Régis; Acherar, Samir

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, β-cyclodextrin-grafted chitosan nanoparticles (β-CD- g-CS NPs) were prepared using a new ionic gelation strategy involving a synergistic effect of NaCl (150 mmol/L), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES, 10 mmol/L), and water bath sonication. This new strategy afforded smaller and more monodisperse β-CD- g-CS NPs vs. the classical ionic gelation method. New HA/β-CD- g-CS NPs were also prepared using the above-mentioned strategy by adding hyaluronic acid (HA) to the β-CD- g-CS copolymer at different weight ratios until the ZP values conversion. The best result was obtained with the weight ratio of w(HA): w(β-CD- g-CS) = 2:1 and furnished new spherical and smooth HA/β-CD- g-CS NPs. Furthermore, the stability of β- CD- g-CS NPs and HA/β-CD- g-CS NPs at 4°C in physiological medium (pH 7.4) was compared for 3 weeks period and showed that HA/β-CD- g-CS NPs were more stable all maintaining their monodispersity and high negative ZP values compared to β-CD- g-CS NPs. Finally, preliminary study of HA/β-CD- g-CS NPs as carrier for the controlled release of the anticancer drug doxorubicin was investigated. These new HA/β-CD- g-CS NPs can potentially be used as drug delivery and targeting systems for cancer treatment.

  17. Using stable isotopes and C:N ratios to examine the life-history strategies and nutritional sources of larval lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T M; Bauer, J E

    2016-02-01

    Natural abundance stable-isotope analysis (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and C:N ratios were used to study the ammocoete phase of two common non-parasitic lamprey species (least brook lamprey Lampetra aepyptera and American brook lamprey Lethenteron appendix) in two tributaries of the Ohio River (U.S.A.). The C:N ratios suggest that each species employs different lipid accumulation strategies to support its metamorphosis and recruitment into an adult animal. Ammocoete δ(13)C values generally increased with increasing C:N values. In contrast to δ(13)C, ammocoete δ(15)N values were weakly related to the total length (LT) in L. aepyptera, but positively correlated to both LT and C:N ratios in L. appendix. In L. appendix, C:N also correlated positively with LT, and presumably age. A Bayesian mixing model using δ(13)C and δ(15)N was used to estimate nutritional subsidies of different potential food resources to ammocoetes at each site. The models suggested that although nutritional subsidies to ammocoetes varied as a function of site, ammocoetes were generally reliant on large contributions (42-62% at three sites) from aquatic plants. Contributions from aquatic sediment organic matter were also important at all sites (32-63%) for ammocoetes, with terrestrially derived plant materials contributing smaller amounts (4-33%). These findings provide important insights into the feeding ecology and nutrition of two species of lampreys. They also suggest that similar and other quantitative approaches are required to (1) fully understand how the observed stable-isotopes ratios are established in ammocoetes and (2) better assess ammocoete nutritional subsidies in different natal streams. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  19. A neutron production target for ESS based upon the Canned-rods concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiglino, A.; Terrón, S.; Thomsen, K.; Wolters, J.; Magán, M.; Martínez, F.; Vicente, P.J. de; Vivanco, R.; Sordo, F.; Butzek, M.; Perlado, J.M.; Bermejo, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    The neutron production targets operating within the present day spallation neutron sources in the MW power range are either based on water-cooled solid state devices such as that implemented at the SINQ source at PSI or liquid metal loops such as those installed at SNS and MLSF. Here we describe a water-cooled rotating solid target as an option for the 5 MW ESS project as an alternative to the current design based upon a helium-cooled solid rotating target. Implementation of the proposed option would provide comparable neutronic performance to that of the gas-cooled concept and furthermore, it would involve a relatively straightforward adaptation of the current ESS baseline geometry

  20. A proposed framework to operationalize ESS for the mitigation of soil threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilch, Gudrun; Bernet, Lea; Fleskens, Luuk; Mills, Jane; Stolte, Jannes; van Delden, Hedwig; Verzandvoort, Simone

    2015-04-01

    Despite various research activities in the last decades across the world, many challenges remain to integrate the concept of ecosystem services (ESS) in decision-making, and a coherent approach to assess and value ESS is still lacking. There are a lot of different - often context-specific - ESS frameworks with their own definitions and understanding of terms. Based on a thorough review, the EU FP7 project RECARE (www.recare-project.eu) suggests an adapted framework for ecosystem services related to soils that can be used for practical application in preventing and remediating degradation of soils in Europe. This lays the foundation for the development and selection of appropriate methods to measure, evaluate, communicate and negotiate the services we obtain from soils with stakeholders in order to improve land management. Similar to many ESS frameworks, the RECARE framework distinguishes between an ecosystem and human well-being part. As the RECARE project is focused on soil threats, this is the starting point on the ecosystem part of the framework. Soil threats affect natural capital, such as soil, water, vegetation, air and animals, and are in turn influenced by those. Within the natural capital, the RECARE framework focuses especially on soil and its properties, classified in inherent and manageable properties. The natural capital then enables and underpins soil processes, while at the same time being affected by those. Soil processes, finally, are the ecosystem's capacity to provide services, thus they support the provision of soil functions and ESS. ESS may be utilized to produce benefits for individuals and human society. Those benefits are explicitly or implicitly valued by individuals and human society. The values placed on those benefits influence policy and decision-making and thus lead to a societal response. Individual (e.g. farmers') and societal decision making and policy determine land management and other (human) driving forces, which in turn affect

  1. Supporting NEESPI with Data Services - The SIB-ESS-C e-Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, R.; Schmullius, C.; Frotscher, K.

    2009-04-01

    Data discovery and retrieval is commonly among the first steps performed for any Earth science study. The way scientific data is searched and accessed has changed significantly over the past two decades. Especially the development of the World Wide Web and the technologies that evolved along shortened the data discovery and data exchange process. On the other hand the amount of data collected and distributed by earth scientists has increased exponentially requiring new concepts for data management and sharing. One such concept to meet the demand is to build up Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) or e-Infrastructures. These infrastructures usually contain components for data discovery allowing users (or other systems) to query a catalogue or registry and retrieve metadata information on available data holdings and services. Data access is typically granted using FTP/HTTP protocols or, more advanced, through Web Services. A Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach based on standardized services enables users to benefit from interoperability among different systems and to integrate distributed services into their application. The Siberian Earth System Science Cluster (SIB-ESS-C) being established at the University of Jena (Germany) is such a spatial data infrastructure following these principles and implementing standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The prime objective is to provide researchers with focus on Siberia with the technical means for data discovery, data access, data publication and data analysis. The region of interest covers the entire Asian part of the Russian Federation from the Ural to the Pacific Ocean including the Ob-, Lena- and Yenissey river catchments. The aim of SIB-ESS-C is to provide a comprehensive set of data products for Earth system science in this region. Although SIB-ESS-C will be equipped with processing capabilities for in-house data generation

  2. Design considerations for a superconducting linac as an option for the ESS

    CERN Document Server

    Bräutigam, W F; Schug, G; Zaplatin, E N; Meads, P F; Senichev, Yu V

    1999-01-01

    An approach for a superconducting high-current proton linac for the ESS has been discussed as an option in the "Proposal for a Next Generation Neutron Source for Europe-the European Spallation Source (ESS)". The following work studies the technical and economic conditions for a superconducting linac at the high-energy end of the proposed accelerator system. The use of superconducting elliptical cavities for the acceleration of high-energetic particles beta =v/c-1 is certainly state of the art. This is documented by many activities (TJNAF, TESLA, LEP, LHC, and KEK). A design study for the cavities is described in another paper on this conference. For low energy particles ( beta <<1) quarter wave type cavities and spoke-type cavities have been discussed. The main motivation for this study is the expectation of significant cost reduction in terms of operational and possibly investment cost. (5 refs).

  3. SIB-ESS-C - A Spatial Data Infrastructure to Facilitate Earth System Science in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmullius, C. C.; Gerlach, R.; Hese, S.

    2006-12-01

    The potential of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) to share geoinformation and services over the Internet has been widely recognized and various initiatives (e.g. INSPIRE, GMES, GEOSS) are actively engaged to implement such systems on local, national or global level. Standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) or the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) provide the basis for distributed yet interoperable SDI's. Following the available guidelines and standards the Siberian Earth System Science Cluster (SIB-ESS-C) is being developed as a spatial data infrastructure for remote sensing product generation, data dissemination and scientific data analysis. This paper describes the concept of the Siberian Earth System Science Cluster. SIB-ESS-C emerged from the EU funded SIBERIA-II project (EVG2-2001-00008, 2002-2005) which was a joint Russian-European remote sensing project focusing on a 300 Million ha area in the central Siberian region. This area represents a significant part of the Earth's boreal biome which plays a critical role in global climate change in Northern Eurasia. The overall objective of the SIBERIA-II project was to demonstrate the viability of full carbon accounting including greenhouse gases (GHG) on a regional basis using state-of-the-art environmental methods and advanced remote sensing technologies. The tools and systems which have been employed include a selected yet spectrally and temporally diverse set of 15 Earth observation instruments on 8 satellites, detailed GIS databases and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models to account for fluxes between land and atmosphere. The data sets and value-added products created within the SIBERIA-II project will form the basic set of products for SIB-ESS-C. These products include regional maps of land cover, fire induced disturbances, phenology, snow depth, snow melt date, onset and duration of freeze and thaw, LAI and others. Since these products

  4. Application of the MCNPX-McStas interface for shielding calculations and guide design at ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Willendrup, Peter Kjær

    2013-01-01

    . The generation and moderation of neutrons is simulated using a full scale MCNPX model of the ESS target monolith. Upon entering the beam extraction region, the individual neutron states are handed to McStas via the MCNPX-McStas interface. McStas transports the neutrons through the beam guide and by using newly......Recently, an interface between the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the neutron ray-tracing code MCNPX was developed[1]. Based on the expected neutronic performance and guide geometries relevant for the ESS, the combined MCNPX-McStas code is used to calculate dose rates along neutron beam guides...... developed event logging capability, the neutron state parameters corresponding to un-reflected neutrons are recorded at each scattering. This information is handed back to MCNPX where it serves as neutron source input for a second MCNPX simulation. This simulation enables calculation of dose rates...

  5. In-Pile 4He Source for UCN Production at the ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Batkov, Konstantin; Mezei, Ferenc

    2014-01-01

    a large 4He UCN source in a through-going tube which penetrates the shielding below the target. First calculations of neutron flux available for UCN production are given, along with heat-load estimates. It is estimated that the flux can give rise to a UCN production at a rate of up to 1.5 ⋅ 108 UCN......ESS will be a premier neutron source facility. Unprecedented neutron beam intensities are ensured by spallation reactions of a 5 MW, 2.0 GeV proton beam impinging on a tungsten target equipped with advanced moderators. The work presented here aims at investigating possibilities for installing...... an ultra cold neutron (UCN) source at the ESS. One consequence of using the recently proposed flat moderators is that they take up less space than the moderators originally foreseen and thus leave more freedom to design a UCN source, close to the spallation hotspot. One of the options studied is to place...

  6. Accurate Determination of Amino Acids in Serum Samples by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Using a Stable Isotope Labeling Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cuihua; Zhang, Shijuan; Ji, Zhongyin; Li, Yipeng; You, Jinmao

    2015-10-01

    An accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, valine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan) in serum samples using a stable isotope labeling strategy. Amino acid samples and standards were, respectively, derivatized by 10-methyl-acridone-2-sulfonyl chloride (d0-MASC) and its deuterated counterpart d3-MASC to form isotopic pairs which co-eluted and were detected by an MS detector at the same time. Accurate internal standard-based quantification was thereby achieved without the use of any internal standard analogy. The labeling reaction of MASC with amino acids is fast, simple and robust. Besides, derivatization increased the molecular weight of amino acids, and therefore they were shifted out of the background noise which was often observed in low mass region. The instrument LODs were in the range of 1.0-2.5 nmol/L. Linearities calculated by comparing theoretical peak area ratios of d0-/d3-MASC derivatives with the experimental peak area ratios were excellent with correlation coefficients of >0.995. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of amino acids in serum samples with high sensitivity and accuracy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Slightly modified technique of the original essed plication procedure for congenital penile deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Van Der Horst

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The Schroeder-Essed plication procedure is a standard technique for the correction of penile curvature. In a retrospective analysis we compared functional results and quality of life (LQ of the original technique with inverted sutures as described by Schroeder-Essed and our slight modification consisting of horizontal incisions into the tunica albuginea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with congenital penis deviation were treated for penile deviation by the original Schroeder-Essed plication with inverted sutures (11 patients and by the described modification (15 patients. In case of modified technique, horizontal and parallel incisions 4 mm to 6 mm apart and about 8 mm - 10 mm long were made through the tunica albuginea. The outer edges of the incisions were then approximated with permanent inverted sutures (Gore-Tex® 3-0. Mean age was 21.6 years in the first group and 23.2 years in the second group. Average follow-up was 28 months and 13 months, respectively. The preoperative penile deviation angle was > 25º in all patients without difference between the 2 groups. RESULTS: All patients in both groups reported an improvement in their quality of life and full ability to engage in sexual intercourse. Nine patients (88% in the first group and 14 patients (93% in the second group were satisfied with the cosmetic result. In contrast, 10 patients (91% of the first and 13 patients (87% of the second group complained of penile shorting. Recurrence of deviation was only noticed in 2 males in the first group (18%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that this simple modification of the Schroeder-Essed plication offers good functional and cosmetic results. Most patients were satisfied with the penile angle correction results.

  8. Opportunity to Participate in ESSE 21: The 2003 Call for Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century (ESSE 21), sponsored by NASA through the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), is a collaborative undergraduate/graduate education program offering small grants to colleges and universities to engage a diverse interdisciplinary community of faculty and scientists in the development of courses, curricula and degree programs and sharing of learning resources focused on the fundamental understanding and application of Earth system principles for the classroom and laboratory. Through an expanded focus including partnerships with minority institutions, ESSE 21 is further developing broadly based courses, educational resources, electronic learning materials and degree programs that extend Earth system science concepts in both undergraduate and graduate classrooms and laboratories. These resources emphasizing the fundamentals of Earth system science advance the nation's broader agenda for improving science, technology, engineering and mathematics competency. The thrust to establish Earth system and global change science within the classrooms of colleges and universities is critical to laying and extending the foundation for knowledge-based decision making in the 21st century by both scientists and society in an effort to achieve sustainability. ESSE 21 released a Call for Participation (CFP) in the Fall of 2002 soliciting proposals from undergraduate institutions to create and adopt undergraduate and graduate level Earth system science content in courses, curricula and degree programs. In February 2003, twelve college and university teams were competitively selected through the CFP as the Year 1 and Year 2 Program participants. Eight of the participating teams are from minority institutions. The goal for all is to effect systemic change through developing Earth system science learning materials, courses, curricula, degree tracks or programs, and departments that are self-sustaining in the coming decades. ESSE

  9. Attrition among Women and Minorities in Earth and Space Science (ESS) Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.; Hawthorne, C.; Allen, W. R.; Alvarez, R.; Geisler, J.

    2001-05-01

    Recent data collected by the American Geological Institute (AGI) indicates that the rate of enrollment of ethnic minorities in the geosciences has steadily declined since the 1980's, and in that time the number of geoscience degrees awarded to ethnic minorities has been fairly steady at less than 1%. Data from the National Science Foundation suggests that only 43 of 186 Universities offering an ESS program have ever graduated an ethnic minority in the history of their program. Factors contributing to these abysmal figures differ for different ethnic-minority groups. We will address institutional obstacles to graduate learning which result in above-normal attrition of ethnic-minorities in ESS graduate programs. The recent studies show an attrition rate of 70% among African American males in ESS graduate programs, while among Hispanic females the attrition rate is only 3%. Studies by sociologists have recently shown that some law schools and medical schools have traits in common with these geoscience departments in the rates at which degrees are awarded to ethnic minorities. Institutional barriers encountered by ethnic minorities in graduate schools may take many forms, but can also be as simple as a lack of community support. In the 1990's the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) made a commitment to the retention of women in their graduate and undergraduate schools. Their program included mentoring, focussed tutoring, self-esteem support groups, and other retention efforts. Under this program, the attrition rate of women has dramatically slowed. In this paper, we will discuss the AGI data, the program instituted by Caltech, possible causes of attrition among populations of Hispanic, and African American males and females, as well as potential programs to address these problems. We will also present, from the nationwide study, data on geoscience departments which have been relatively successful at retaining and graduating ethnic minorities in Earth and Space

  10. Stability properties of nonlinear dynamical systems and evolutionary stable states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleria, Iram, E-mail: iram@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió-AL (Brazil); Brenig, Leon [Faculté des Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Rocha Filho, Tarcísio M.; Figueiredo, Annibal [Instituto de Física and International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Universidade de Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil)

    2017-03-18

    Highlights: • We address the problem of equilibrium stability in a general class of non-linear systems. • We link Evolutionary Stable States (ESS) to stable fixed points of square quasi-polynomial (QP) systems. • We show that an interior ES point may be related to stable interior fixed points of QP systems. - Abstract: In this paper we address the problem of stability in a general class of non-linear systems. We establish a link between the concepts of asymptotic stable interior fixed points of square Quasi-Polynomial systems and evolutionary stable states, a property of some payoff matrices arising from evolutionary games.

  11. In-Pile 4He Source for UCN Production at the ESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Klinkby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ESS will be a premier neutron source facility. Unprecedented neutron beam intensities are ensured by spallation reactions of a 5 MW, 2.0 GeV proton beam impinging on a tungsten target equipped with advanced moderators. The work presented here aims at investigating possibilities for installing an ultra cold neutron (UCN source at the ESS. One consequence of using the recently proposed flat moderators is that they take up less space than the moderators originally foreseen and thus leave more freedom to design a UCN source, close to the spallation hotspot. One of the options studied is to place a large 4He UCN source in a through-going tube which penetrates the shielding below the target. First calculations of neutron flux available for UCN production are given, along with heat-load estimates. It is estimated that the flux can give rise to a UCN production at a rate of up to 1.5·108 UCN/s. A production in this range potentially allows for a number of UCN experiments to be carried out at unprecedented precision, including, for example, quantum gravitational spectroscopy with UCNs which rely on high phase-space density.

  12. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  13. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  14. Multipurpose Controller with EPICS integration and data logging: BPM application for ESS Bilbao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo, I.; Campo, M. del; Echevarria, P.; Jugo, J.; Etxebarria, V.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a multipurpose configurable control system which can be integrated in an EPICS control network, this functionality being configured through a XML configuration file. The core of the system is the so-called Hardware Controller which is in charge of the control hardware management, the set up and communication with the EPICS network and the data storage. The reconfigurable nature of the controller is based on a single XML file, allowing any final user to easily modify and adjust the control system to any specific requirement. The selected Java development environment ensures a multiplatform operation and large versatility, even regarding the control hardware to be controlled. Specifically, this paper, focused on fast control based on a high performance FPGA, describes also an application approach for the ESS Bilbao's Beam Position Monitoring system. The implementation of the XML configuration file and the satisfactory performance outcome achieved are presented, as well as a general description of the Multipurpose Controller itself

  15. RFQ-, chopping- and funneling-studies for the ESS-injector-linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, A.; Madlung, J.; Firjahn-Andersch, A.; Deitinghoff, H.; Parisi, G.

    1996-01-01

    The front end of the ESS Linac has to provide a bunched high current H-beam with a special time structure for injection into the following DTL. This can be achieved by a system of two 175 MHz RFQ lines, each with a current of 54 mA, whose beams will be combined in a funnel section to a 107 mA beam with a bunch repetition rate of 350 MHz. For a proper operation of the compressor rings the linac beam must be chopped with a 60 % duty factor at the ring revolution frequency of 1.67 MHz which implies beam pulses of 360 ns and gaps of 240 ns during the macro pulse of 1.2 ms. A layout of the chopping line will be presented. A new concept for beam funneling using a two-beam RFQ and a multigap funneling deflector will be discussed. (author)

  16. A configurable electronics system for the ESS-Bilbao beam position monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguira, L., E-mail: lmuguira@essbilbao.org [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Belver, D. [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Etxebarria, V. [University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Department of Electricity and Electronics, Science and Technology Faculty, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Varnasseri, S.; Arredondo, I.; Campo, M. del; Echevarria, P.; Garmendia, N.; Feuchtwanger, J. [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Jugo, J.; Portilla, J. [University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Department of Electricity and Electronics, Science and Technology Faculty, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain)

    2013-09-01

    A versatile and configurable system has been developed in order to monitorize the beam position and to meet all the requirements of the future ESS-Bilbao Linac. At the same time the design has been conceived to be open and configurable so that it could eventually be used in different kinds of accelerators, independent of the charged particle, with minimal change. The design of the Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) system includes a test bench both for button-type pick-ups (PU) and striplines (SL), the electronic units and the control system. The electronic units consist of two main parts. The first part is an Analog Front-End (AFE) unit where the RF signals are filtered, conditioned and converted to base-band. The second part is a Digital Front-End (DFE) unit which is based on an FPGA board where the base-band signals are sampled in order to calculate the beam position, the amplitude and the phase. To manage the system a Multipurpose Controller (MC) developed at ESSB has been used. It includes the FPGA management, the EPICS integration and Archiver Instances. A description of the system and a comparison between the performance of both PU and SL BPM designs measured with this electronics system are fully described and discussed. -- Author-Highlights: • A versatile and configurable BPM system for the ESS-Bilbao Linac has been designed. • The design works for PU and SL detectors, both in continuous and pulsed wave modes. • Several tests at simulated beamlines at 352 MHz and 175 MHz have been performed. • The BPM system has been integrated in EPICS and Archiver.

  17. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  18. Allocation of ESS by interval optimization method considering impact of ship swinging on hybrid PV/diesel ship power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Shuli; Lan, Hai; Hong, Ying-Yi; Yu, David C.; Zhang, Lijun; Cheng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An uncertainty model of PV generation on board is developed based on the experiments. • The moving and swinging of the ship are considered in the optimal ESS sizing problem. • Optimal sizing of ESS in a hybrid PV/diesel/ESS ship power system is gained by the interval optimization method. • Different cases were studied to show the significance of the proposed method considering the swinging effects on the cost. - Abstract: Owing to low efficiency of traditional ships and the serious environmental pollution that they cause, the use of solar energy and an energy storage system (ESS) in a ship’s power system is increasingly attracting attention. However, the swinging of a ship raises crucial challenges in designing an optimal system for a large oil tanker ship, which are associated with uncertainties in solar energy. In this study, a series of experiments are performed to investigate the characteristics of a photovoltaic (PV) system on a moving ship. Based on the experimental results, an interval uncertainty model of on-board PV generation is established, which considers the effect of the swinging of the ship. Due to the power balance equations, the outputs of the diesel generator and the ESS on a large oil tanker are also modeled using interval variables. An interval optimization method is developed to determine the optimal size of the ESS in this hybrid ship power system to reduce the fuel cost, capital cost of the ESS, and emissions of greenhouse gases. Variations of the ship load are analyzed using a new method, taking five operating conditions into account. Several cases are compared in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Analysis of global variability in 15 established and 5 new European Standard Set (ESS) STRs using the CEPH human genome diversity panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philips, C.; Fernandez-Formoso, L.; Garcia-Magarinos, M.

    2011-01-01

    five recently introduced European Standard Set (ESS) STRs: D1S1656, D2S441, D10S1248, D12S391 and D22S1045. From the genotypes obtained for the ESS STRs we identified rare, intermediate or off-ladder alleles that had not been previously reported for these loci. Examples of novel ESS STR alleles found...

  20. In pursuit of a promise perspectives on the political process to establish the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    On 28 May 2009, at a closed meeting in Brussels, ministers and state secretaries of education and science from several EU countries decided to build the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden. Or did they? It is common for big European science projects to be surrounded by secrecy and political deceit, but the ESS is extraordinary in its elusiveness. There is a remarkable lack of concrete economic, political, technical and scientific underpinnings to the project - but a boasting certainty in the promises of future paybacks. The ESS is an accelerator-based neutron spallation facility that will cost billions of Euros to build and run. It is expected to bring new knowledge in several fields including materials science, energy research, and the life sciences. But its financing is not yet certain, and future returns hard to predict. How then could the decision to build ESS occur? Why was there so little organized resistance? This book places the ESS project in its political and scientific context. It link...

  1. HYPERURICEMIA AND ITS CORRELATES IN THE RUSSIAN POPULATION (RESULTS OF ESSE-RF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shalnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the prevalence of hyperuricemia in the Russian regions, depending on the climatic, geographical, socio-demographic characteristics and some cardiometabolic risk factors.Material and methods. Data from the ESSE-RF study from 10 regions of theRussian Federationare presented. All study participants were examined according to a uniform protocol. Measurements were standardized, biochemical tests were carried out in three Federal centers using the same methodology. The study was approved by independent Ethics committees, and all participants signed informed consent.Results. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 16.8% (25.3% in men and 11.3% in women; p<0.0001. Hyperuricemia incidence increases with age, does not depend on education, significantly associates with place of residence, elevated blood pressure, obesity and abdominal obesity, alcohol consumption and diuretics taking. After adjustment for all factors included in the regression analysis, prevalence of hyperuricemia in the Ivanovo Region is 1.4 times higher than this in the reference region (Tyumen, while prevalence of hyperuricemia in the Samara Region and theRepublicofNorth Ossetia-Alaniais 30% and 40 % lower.Conclusion. Prevalence of hyperuricemia inRussiais defined; regions with the highest and lowest prevalence are identified. Associations of hyperuricemia with some social and demographic characteristics as well as cardiovascular risk factors are revealed.

  2. HYPERURICEMIA AND ITS CORRELATES IN THE RUSSIAN POPULATION (RESULTS OF ESSE-RF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shalnova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the prevalence of hyperuricemia in the Russian regions, depending on the climatic, geographical, socio-demographic characteristics and some cardiometabolic risk factors.Material and methods. Data from the ESSE-RF study from 10 regions of theRussian Federationare presented. All study participants were examined according to a uniform protocol. Measurements were standardized, biochemical tests were carried out in three Federal centers using the same methodology. The study was approved by independent Ethics committees, and all participants signed informed consent.Results. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 16.8% (25.3% in men and 11.3% in women; p<0.0001. Hyperuricemia incidence increases with age, does not depend on education, significantly associates with place of residence, elevated blood pressure, obesity and abdominal obesity, alcohol consumption and diuretics taking. After adjustment for all factors included in the regression analysis, prevalence of hyperuricemia in the Ivanovo Region is 1.4 times higher than this in the reference region (Tyumen, while prevalence of hyperuricemia in the Samara Region and theRepublicofNorth Ossetia-Alaniais 30% and 40 % lower.Conclusion. Prevalence of hyperuricemia inRussiais defined; regions with the highest and lowest prevalence are identified. Associations of hyperuricemia with some social and demographic characteristics as well as cardiovascular risk factors are revealed.

  3. ESS-FH: Enhanced Security Scheme for Fast Handover in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ilsun; Lee, Jong-Hyouk; Sakurai, Kouichi; Hori, Yoshiaki

    Fast Handover for Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (F-HMIPv6) that combines advantages of Fast Handover for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) and Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) achieves the superior performance in terms of handover latency and signaling overhead compared with previously developed mobility protocols. However, without being secured, F-HMIPv6 is vulnerable to various security threats. In 2007, Kang and Park proposed a security scheme, which is seamlessly integrated into F-HMIPv6. In this paper, we reveal that Kang-Park's scheme cannot defend against the Denial of Service (DoS) and redirect attacks while largely relying on the group key. Then, we propose an Enhanced Security Scheme for F-HMIPv6 (ESS-FH) that achieves the strong key exchange and the key independence as well as addresses the weaknesses of Kang-Park's scheme. More importantly, it enables fast handover between different MAP domains. The proposed scheme is formally verified based on BAN-logic, and its handover latency is analyzed and compared with that of Kang-Park's scheme.

  4. Baseline design of a low energy neutron source at ESS-Bilbao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordo, F; Ghiglino, A; Magán, M; Terrón, S; Martínez, F; De Vicente, J P; Vivanco, R; Bermejo, F J; Fernandez-Alonso, F; Gonzalez, M A; Perlado, J M

    2014-01-01

    This article briefly describes the basic design of the ESS-Bilbao neutron target station as well as its expected neutronic performance. The baseline engineering design, associated ancillary systems, and plant layout for the facility is now complete. A rotating target composed of twenty beryllium plates has been selected as the best choice in terms of both neutron yield and engineering complexity. It will provide neutron beams with a source term of 10 15 n s −1 resulting from the direct 9 Be(p, xn) reaction using a 75 mA proton beam at 50 MeV. The design envisages a target station equipped with two fully optimized moderators capable of withstanding a proton-beam power of 112 kW. This design is flexible enough to accommodate future upgrades in final proton energy. The envisaged neutron-beam brightness will enable several applications, including the use of cold and thermal neutrons for condensed matter research as well as fast-neutron irradiation studies. We close by discussing the role that this facility may play once the European Spallation Source becomes operational in Lund, Sweden

  5. Martensitic/ferritic steels as container materials for liquid mercury target of ESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In the previous report, the suitability of steels as the ESS liquid mercury target container material was discussed on the basis of the existing database on conventional austenitic and martensitic/ferritic steels, especially on their representatives, solution annealed 316 stainless steel (SA 316) and Sandvik HT-9 martensitic steel (HT-9). Compared to solution annealed austenitic stainless steels, martensitic/ferritic steels have superior properties in terms of strength, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, mercury corrosion resistance, void swelling and irradiation creep resistance. The main limitation for conventional martensitic/ferritic steels (CMFS) is embrittlement after low temperature (≤380 degrees C) irradiation. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) can increase as much as 250 to 300 degrees C and the upper-shelf energy (USE), at the same time, reduce more than 50%. This makes the application temperature range of CMFS is likely between 300 degrees C to 500 degrees C. For the present target design concept, the temperature at the container will be likely controlled in a temperature range between 180 degrees C to 330 degrees C. Hence, CMFS seem to be difficult to apply. However, solution annealed austenitic stainless steels are also difficult to apply as the maximum stress level at the container will be higher than the design stress. The solution to the problem is very likely to use advanced low-activation martensitic/ferritic steels (LAMS) developed by the fusion materials community though the present database on the materials is still very limited

  6. Electrical Energy Forecasting and Optimal Allocation of ESS in a Hybrid Wind-Diesel Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasingly serious energy crisis and environmental pollution problem, traditional fossil energy is gradually being replaced by renewable energy in recent years. However, the introduction of renewable energy into power systems will lead to large voltage fluctuations and high capital costs. To solve these problems, an energy storage system (ESS is employed into a power system to reduce total costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, this paper proposes a two-stage method based on a back-propagation neural network (BPNN and hybrid multi-objective particle swarm optimization (HMOPSO to determine the optimal placements and sizes of ESSs in a transmission system. Owing to the uncertainties of renewable energy, a BPNN is utilized to forecast the outputs of the wind power and load demand based on historic data in the city of Madison, USA. Furthermore, power-voltage (P-V sensitivity analysis is conducted in this paper to improve the converge speed of the proposed algorithm, and continuous wind distribution is discretized by a three-point estimation method. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE 30-bus system is adopted to perform case studies. The simulation results of each case clearly demonstrate the necessity for optimal storage allocation and the efficiency of the proposed method.

  7. BEER - The Beamline for European Materials Engineering Research at the ESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, J.; Rouijaa, M.; Šaroun, J.; Kampmann, R.; Staron, P.; Nowak, G.; Pilch, J.; Beran, P.; Šittner, P.; Strunz, P.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Ryukhtin, V.; Kadeřávek, L.; Strobl, M.; Müller, M.; Lukáš, P.; Schreyer, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Beamline for European Materials Engineering Research (BEER) will be built at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The diffractometer utilizes the high brilliance of the long-pulse neutron source and offers high instrument flexibility. It includes a novel chopper technique that extracts several short pulses out of the long pulse, leading to substantial intensity gain of up to an order of magnitude compared to pulse shaping methods for materials with high crystal symmetry. This intensity gain is achieved without compromising resolution. Materials of lower crystal symmetry or multi-phase materials will be investigated by additional pulse shaping methods. The different chopper set-ups and advanced beam extracting techniques offer an extremely broad intensity/resolution range. Furthermore, BEER offers an option of simultaneous SANS or imaging measurements without compromising diffraction investigations. This flexibility opens up new possibilities for in-situ experiments studying materials processing and performance under operation conditions. To fulfil this task, advanced sample environments, dedicated to thermo-mechanical processing, are foreseen.

  8. Sunlight based irradiation strategy for rapid green synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract and their antibacterial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Lori [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Arunachalam, J., E-mail: aruncccm@rediffmail.com [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We report green synthetic route for the production crystalline silver nanoparticles using garlic as both reducing and stabilizing agent. {yields} Synthesis has been achieved by exposing the solution mixture of [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and aqueous garlic extract under sunlight. {yields} Role of light in the synthesis process has been investigated and is discussed in detail. {yields} The antibacterial effect of the synthesized silver nanoparticles has been assessed against both Gram classes of bacteria. {yields} Synthesized silver colloidal solutions were found to be stable for a very long period and retained their bactericidal potential. - Abstract: A green synthetic route for the production of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic extract is being reported for the first time. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by exposing a mixture of 0.1 M [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and diluted aqueous garlic extract under bright sunlight for 15 min. The garlic extract components served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles while the sunlight acted as catalyst in the synthesis process. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GA-XRD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectrometry. The nanoparticles were found to be poly-dispersed in nature, spherical in shape and of 7.3 {+-} 4.4 nm in size. The FTIR analysis was suggestive of proteins as capping agents around the nanoparticles. The yield of synthesized nanoparticles was calculated to be approximately 80% by dry weight and 85% ICP-AES method. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains, as measured using well diffusion assay. Most importantly, the silver colloidal solutions thus synthesized were found to be stable for

  9. Large scale solvothermal synthesis and a strategy to obtain stable Langmuir–Blodgett film of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thampi, Arya; Babu, Keerthi; Verma, Seema

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Large scale, monodisperse CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles by solvothermal route. • LB technique to obtain stable film of CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles over a large area. • Hydrophobicity of substrate was enhanced utilizing LB films of cadmium arachidate. • P–A isotherm and AFM cross sectional height profile analysis confirms stability. • Large scale organization of nanoparticles for surface pressure higher than 15 mN/m. -- Abstract: Nearly monodisperse oleic acid coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized in large scale by a simple solvothermal method utilizing N-methyl 2-Pyrrolidone (NMP) as a high boiling solvent. The magnetic oxide was further investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique is discussed to obtain a 2D assembly of oleic acid coated CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles over a large area. We describe a method to obtain stable, condensed three layers of cadmium arachidate on a piranha treated glass substrate. The hydrophobic surface thus obtained was subsequently used for forming a stable monolayer of oleic acid stabilized cobalt ferrite nanoparticles at the air–water interface. The stability of the LB films at the air–water interface was studied by pressure–area isotherm curves and atomic force microscopy (AFM) cross sectional height profile analysis. 2D organization of the magnetic nanoparticles at different surface pressures was studied by TEM. Preparation of large area LB films of CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles is reported for a surface pressure more than 15 mN/m

  10. An isopropanol-assisted fabrication strategy of pinhole-free perovskite films in air for efficient and stable planar perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ziqiu; Zhu, Menghua; Li, Xin; Dong, Cunku

    2017-09-01

    As a promising photovoltaic device, perovskite solar cells have attracted numerous attention in recent years, where forming a compact and pinhole-free perovskite film in air is of great importance. Herein, we evaluate highly efficient and air stable planar perovskite solar cells in air (relative humidity over 50%) with the modified two-step sequential deposition method by adjusting the CH3NH3I (MAI) concentrations and regulating the crystallization process of the perovskite film. The optimum MAI concentration is 60 mg mL-1 in isopropanol. With a planar structure of FTO/TiO2/MAPbI3/spiro-OMeTAD/Au, the efficient devices composed of compact and pinhole-free perovskite films are constructed in air, achieving a high efficiency of up to 15.10% and maintaining over 80% after 20 days storing without any encapsulation in air. With a facile fabrication process and high photovoltaic performance, this work represents a promising method for fabricating low-cost, highly efficient and stable photovoltaic device.

  11. Immunization strategy against cervical cancer involving an alphavirus vector expressing high levels of a stable fusion protein of human papillomavirus 16 E6 and E7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; Regts, J; Holtrop, M; Wilschut, J

    We are developing immunization strategies against cervical carcinoma and premalignant disease, based on the use of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) encoding the onco-proteins E6 and E7 from high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV). Thus far, protein-based, as well as genetic immunization

  12. FAME 2 – The best initial strategy for patients with stable coronary artery disease: Do we have an answer at last?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M ElGuindy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of the Fractional flow reserve versus Angiography for Multivessel Evaluation 2 (FAME 2 trial were recently presented at the European Society of Cardiology (ESC meeting in Munich and published concurrently in the New England Journal of Medicine1. Interpretation of the results and clinical significance of the study continue to be topics of considerable controversy. FAME 2 is a randomized “all-comers” multicenter trial, designed to test the hypothesis that in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (IHD, stenting ischemia-producing stenoses – defined as fractional flow reserve (FFR < 0.80 – plus optimal medical treatment (OMT, would reduce the composite end-point of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI and urgent revascularization, compared to OMT alone. Secondary endpoints included individual components of the primary endpoint, cardiac death, non-urgent revascularization and angina class. The trial was funded by St. Jude Medical, Inc.

  13. Synthesis of stable isotopically labeled peptides with filter-assisted enzymatic labeling for the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus infection utilizing mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hsing-Fen; Hsiao, He-Hsuan

    2017-01-01

    A facile method for the preparation of stable isotopically labeled peptides was developed by means of filter-assisted tryptic 16 O/ 18 O water labeling, which could be directly applied to the determination of hepatitis B virus infection from human serum with tandem mass spectrometry. Tryptic peptides of hepatitis B surface antigen or hepatitis B e antigen from different subtypes of hepatitis B virus were synthesized with traditional solid-phase peptide synthesis as potential biomarkers. Trypsin catalyzed oxygen-18 exchange at their amidated c-terminus of arginine or lysine residue. The protease catalyzed oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 back exchange reaction was eliminated due to the complete removal of trypsin by the centrifugal filter containing a thin membrane associated with molecular weight cut-off of 10 KDa. The synthetic isotopic peptides were spiked into trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitated human serum as internal standards and were selectively detected with multiplexed parallel reaction monitoring on a hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer. The limit of detection for all synthetic peptides were in the range of 0.09 fmol–1.13 fmol. The results indicated that the peptide YLWEWASVR derived from hepatitis B surface antigen was quantified approximately 200 fmol per μl serum and may serve as a diagnostic biomarker for the detection of hepatitis B virus infected disease. - Highlights: • Facile synthesis of an inexpensive and highly reproducible stable isotopically labeled peptides. • Complete incorporation of two 18 O atoms into synthesized peptides with filter-assisted enzymatic labeling. • Targeted analysis with parallel reaction monitoring assay for the disease diagnosis.

  14. Synthesis of stable isotopically labeled peptides with filter-assisted enzymatic labeling for the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus infection utilizing mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Hsing-Fen; Hsiao, He-Hsuan, E-mail: hhhsiao@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2017-03-01

    A facile method for the preparation of stable isotopically labeled peptides was developed by means of filter-assisted tryptic {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O water labeling, which could be directly applied to the determination of hepatitis B virus infection from human serum with tandem mass spectrometry. Tryptic peptides of hepatitis B surface antigen or hepatitis B e antigen from different subtypes of hepatitis B virus were synthesized with traditional solid-phase peptide synthesis as potential biomarkers. Trypsin catalyzed oxygen-18 exchange at their amidated c-terminus of arginine or lysine residue. The protease catalyzed oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 back exchange reaction was eliminated due to the complete removal of trypsin by the centrifugal filter containing a thin membrane associated with molecular weight cut-off of 10 KDa. The synthetic isotopic peptides were spiked into trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitated human serum as internal standards and were selectively detected with multiplexed parallel reaction monitoring on a hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer. The limit of detection for all synthetic peptides were in the range of 0.09 fmol–1.13 fmol. The results indicated that the peptide YLWEWASVR derived from hepatitis B surface antigen was quantified approximately 200 fmol per μl serum and may serve as a diagnostic biomarker for the detection of hepatitis B virus infected disease. - Highlights: • Facile synthesis of an inexpensive and highly reproducible stable isotopically labeled peptides. • Complete incorporation of two {sup 18}O atoms into synthesized peptides with filter-assisted enzymatic labeling. • Targeted analysis with parallel reaction monitoring assay for the disease diagnosis.

  15. The optimal neural strategy for a stable motor task requires a compromise between level of muscle cocontraction and synaptic gain of afferent feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dideriksen, Jakob L; Negro, Francesco; Farina, Dario

    2015-09-01

    Increasing joint stiffness by cocontraction of antagonist muscles and compensatory reflexes are neural strategies to minimize the impact of unexpected perturbations on movement. Combining these strategies, however, may compromise steadiness, as elements of the afferent input to motor pools innervating antagonist muscles are inherently negatively correlated. Consequently, a high afferent gain and active contractions of both muscles may imply negatively correlated neural drives to the muscles and thus an unstable limb position. This hypothesis was systematically explored with a novel computational model of the peripheral nervous system and the mechanics of one limb. Two populations of motor neurons received synaptic input from descending drive, spinal interneurons, and afferent feedback. Muscle force, simulated based on motor unit activity, determined limb movement that gave rise to afferent feedback from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs. The results indicated that optimal steadiness was achieved with low synaptic gain of the afferent feedback. High afferent gains during cocontraction implied increased levels of common drive in the motor neuron outputs, which were negatively correlated across the two populations, constraining instability of the limb. Increasing the force acting on the joint and the afferent gain both effectively minimized the impact of an external perturbation, and suboptimal adjustment of the afferent gain could be compensated by muscle cocontraction. These observations show that selection of the strategy for a given contraction implies a compromise between steadiness and effectiveness of compensations to perturbations. This indicates that a task-dependent selection of neural strategy for steadiness is necessary when acting in different environments. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. DC superimposed AC high voltage: A new strategy for transferring stable He atmospheric pressure cold plasma bullets through long dielectric tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadati, S. N.; Sohbatzadeh, F.; Valinataj Omran, Azadeh

    2017-06-01

    This study developed a stable transfer of He atmospheric pressure cold plasma bullets in a large dielectric tube with a length of 70 cm and an inner diameter of 0.4-1.6 cm. DC superimposed AC voltage was used for this purpose. The DC component of the applied voltage generated corona ionization through the tube, which helped in the ignition and transfer of the plasma as a pre-ionization background. The bullets followed the frequency of the AC component; therefore, very high applied energy was not required to ignite this large-scale plasma. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a complex waveform has been reported for the transfer of a plasma bullet. The characteristics of the transferring plasma bullet, such as the power, charge, propagation speed, resistance, AC electrical field (EF) of the plasma, and electrostatic field on the tube surface, were measured. The influence of the tube diameter on these characteristics was investigated. The results showed that the power applied, charge, and power deposited on the target increased as the tube diameter increased. Less plasma resistance and radiation were observed using larger diameters. The root mean square (RMS) values of the axial AC EF of the bullet along the jet axis were higher for the larger diameters, but no special relation between the propagation speed, radial AC EF, and static surface field and tube diameter was observed.

  17. Strategy of Solution-Processed All-Inorganic Heterostructure for Humidity/Temperature-Stable Perovskite Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhifeng; Li, Sen; Li, Ying; Ji, Huifang; Li, Xinjian; Wu, Di; Xu, Tingting; Chen, Yongsheng; Tian, Yongtao; Zhang, Yuantao; Shan, Chongxin; Du, Guotong

    2018-02-27

    Recently, a pressing requirement of solid-state lighting sources with high performance and low cost has motivated increasing research in metal halide perovskites. However, the relatively low emission efficiency and poor operation stability of perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are still critical drawbacks. In this study, a strategy of solution-processed all-inorganic heterostructure was proposed to overcome the emission efficiency and operation stability issues facing the challenges of perovskite LEDs. Solution-processed n-ZnO nanoparticles and p-NiO are used as the carrier injectors to fabricate all-inorganic heterostructured CsPbBr 3 quantum dot LEDs, and a high-efficiency green emission is achieved with maximum luminance of 6093.2 cd/m 2 , external quantum efficiency of 3.79%, and current efficiency of 7.96 cd/A. More importantly, the studied perovskite LEDs possess a good operation stability after a long test time in air ambient. Typically, the devices can endure a high humidity (75%, 12 h) and a high working temperature (393 K, three heating/cooling cycles) even without encapsulation, and the operation stability is better than any previous reports. It is anticipated that this work will provide an effective strategy for the fabrication of high-performance perovskite LEDs with good stability under ambient and harsh conditions, making practical applications of such LEDs a real possibility.

  18. Environmental System Science Data Infrastructure for a Virtual Ecosystem (ESS-DIVE) - A New U.S. DOE Data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, D.; Varadharajan, C.; Cholia, S.; Snavely, C.; Hendrix, V.; Gunter, D.; Riley, W. J.; Jones, M.; Budden, A. E.; Vieglais, D.

    2017-12-01

    The ESS-DIVE archive is a new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) data archive designed to provide long-term stewardship and use of data from observational, experimental, and modeling activities in the earth and environmental sciences. The ESS-DIVE infrastructure is constructed with the long-term vision of enabling broad access to and usage of the DOE sponsored data stored in the archive. It is designed as a scalable framework that incentivizes data providers to contribute well-structured, high-quality data to the archive and that enables the user community to easily build data processing, synthesis, and analysis capabilities using those data. The key innovations in our design include: (1) application of user-experience research methods to understand the needs of users and data contributors; (2) support for early data archiving during project data QA/QC and before public release; (3) focus on implementation of data standards in collaboration with the community; (4) support for community built tools for data search, interpretation, analysis, and visualization tools; (5) data fusion database to support search of the data extracted from packages submitted and data available in partner data systems such as the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and DataONE; and (6) support for archiving of data packages that are not to be released to the public. ESS-DIVE data contributors will be able to archive and version their data and metadata, obtain data DOIs, search for and access ESS data and metadata via web and programmatic portals, and provide data and metadata in standardized forms. The ESS-DIVE archive and catalog will be federated with other existing catalogs, allowing cross-catalog metadata search and data exchange with existing systems, including DataONE's Metacat search. ESS-DIVE is operated by a multidisciplinary team from Berkeley Lab, the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), and DataONE. The primarily data copies are hosted at DOE's NERSC

  19. Global Strategy Choices (GSC) : Prognosis and Strategic Planning for European Foreign and Security Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej; Kettle, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The European Security Strategy (ESS) is currently being reformulated. This working paper puts forward a new methodological approach in the construction of global strategies for stakeholders in the international system. It makes the case that contemporary strategy formulation (including the ESS)

  20. Dynamic Analysis of a Hybrid Energy Storage System (H-ESS Coupled to a Photovoltaic (PV Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Barelli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays energy storage is strongly needed to allow grid safety and stability due to the wide penetration of renewable plants. Mainly economic and technological issues impede a relevant integration of conventional storage devices in the energy system. In this scenario, the hybridization of different storage technologies can be a techno-economic solution useful to overcome these issues and promote their diffusion. Hybridization allows multi-operation modes of the Energy Storage System (ESS, merging the positive features of base-technologies and extending their application ranges. This paper provides a dynamic analysis of a hybrid energy storage system (H-ESS consisting of a flywheel and a battery pack coupled to a photovoltaic generation plant and a residential load up to 20 kW. A dynamic model of the overall micro-grid (MG was developed implementing the H-ESS preliminary sizing and a suitable management algorithm. The instantaneous behavior of each component was evaluated. A brief summary of the MG performance at different weather and load conditions was provided together with a characterization of the impact of power fluctuations on the battery current and on the power exchange with the grid.

  1. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  2. Absolute versus Relative Assessments of Individual Status in Status-Dependent Strategies in Stochastic Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachiki, Yuuya; Koizumi, Itsuro

    2016-07-01

    Status-dependent strategies represent one of the most remarkable adaptive phenotypic plasticities. A threshold value for individual status (e.g., body size) is assumed above and below which each individual should adopt alternative tactics to attain higher fitness. This implicitly assumes the existence of an "absolute" best threshold value, so each individual chooses a tactic only on the basis of its own status. However, animals may be able to assess their status on the basis of surrounding individuals. This "relative" assessment considers a threshold value to be changeable depending on individual situations, which may result in significant differences in ecological and evolutionary dynamics compared with absolute assessment. Here, we incorporated Bayesian decision-making and adaptive dynamics frameworks to explore the conditions necessary for each type of assessment to evolve. Our model demonstrates that absolute assessment is always an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) in a stable environment, whereas relative assessment can be an ESS in stochastic environments. The consequences of future environmental change differ considerably depending on the assessment chosen. Our results underscore the need to better understand how individuals assess their own status when choosing alternative tactics.

  3. Assessing narcolepsy with cataplexy in children and adolescents: development of a cataplexy diary and the ESS-CHAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Y Grace Wang,1 Khadra Benmedjahed,2 Jérémy Lambert,2 Christopher J Evans,3 Steve Hwang,3 Jed Black,1,4 Murray W Johns5 1Clinical Development, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 2Patient-Centered Outcomes, Mapi, Lyon, France; 3Endpoint Outcomes, Boston, MA, USA; 4Sleep Medicine, Stanford Sleep Medicine Center, Redwood City, CA, USA; 5Epworth Sleep Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia Objective: The aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate concepts for incorporation into a daily diary to capture cataplexy frequency and to assess the content validity of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale for Children and Adolescents (ESS-CHAD in pediatric patients with narcolepsy.Patients and methods: Face-to-face concept elicitation and cognitive interviews were conducted with children (7–9 years; n=13 and adolescents (10–17 years; n=16 who have narcolepsy with cataplexy, and their parents/caregivers.Results: Similarities and differences were noted between narcolepsy concepts described by children and their parents/caregivers, suggesting some different but complementary perspectives; parents may not recognize cataplexy symptoms/triggers as well as children, but parents have greater recognition of the circumstances of falling asleep. Cataplexy diary modifications included changes in definitions and examples of cataplexy, using child-friendly terminology, adding a quantitative question to determine daily frequency, and standardizing the questionnaire for evening administration with self-completion by the child. Modifications were made to ESS-CHAD for child-friendly wording and to ensure that items reflect activities (eating, watching TV/video and environments (school, bus/car transport in which children are likely to participate. Two ESS-CHAD versions were proposed: one with a 1-month recall period, for general use, and the other with a recall period of “since your last study visit,” for research, which could be shorter or longer than 1 month

  4. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  5. A preliminary comparative study of the electron-cloud effect for the PSR, ISIS, and the ESS

    CERN Document Server

    Furman, M A

    2003-01-01

    We present preliminary electron-cloud simulation results for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at LANL, ISIS at RAL, and the European Spallation Source (ESS). For each storage ring, we simulate the build-up and dissipation of the electron cloud (EC) in a representative field-free section of the vacuum chamber. For all three cases, we choose the same residual gas temperature, secondary emission yield (SEY), and secondary emission spectrum. Other variables such as proton loss rate, bunch profile, intensity and energy, residual gas pressure and chamber geometry, are set at the corresponding values for each machine. Under these assumptions, we conclude that, of the three machines, the PSR is the most severely affected by the electron cloud effect (ECE), followed by the ESS, with ISIS a distant third. We illustrate a strong sensitivity of the ECE to the longitudinal bunch profile by choosing two different shapes for the case of the PSR, and a weak sensitivity to residual gas pressure. This preliminary study does not a...

  6. Offering strategy of a price-maker energy storage system in day-ahead and balancing markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vespermann, Niklas Peter René Erich; Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    . The offering strategy of a price-maker ESS operator is formulated as a bilevel model, where the upper-level problem represents the profit maximization of the ESS operator and the lower-level problem simulates the market-clearing outcome. This methodological framework can be used either to assess market......Energy storage systems (ESS) are considered as a promising solution to improve power system flexibility and facilitate the integration of renewables in electricity markets. This paper investigates the impact of strategic offering by an ESS operator in the day-ahead and balancing market...... efficiency distortion or as a trading strategy from the perspective of the ESS operator. Our analysis shows that adopting strategic behavior may improve ESS expected profit but reduces social welfare, especially for high ESS energy-to-power ratios....

  7. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  8. The use the a high intensity neutrino beam from the ESS proton linac for measurement of neutrino CP violation and mass hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Baussan, E.; Ekelof, T.; Martinez, E.Fernandez; Ohman, H.; Vassilopoulos, N.

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed to complement the ESS proton linac with equipment that would enable the production, concurrently with the production of the planned ESS beam used for neutron production, of a 5 MW beam of 10$^{23}$ 2.5 GeV protons per year in microsecond short pulses to produce a neutrino Super Beam, and to install a megaton underground water Cherenkov detector in a mine to detect $\

  9. Enabling the development of Community Extensions to GI-cat - the SIB-ESS-C case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, L.; Meier, N.; Boldrini, E.; Gerlach, R.

    2009-04-01

    GI-cat is a Java software package that implements discovery and access services for disparate geospatial resources. An instance of GI-cat provides a single point of service for querying and accessing remote, as well as local, heterogeneous sources of geospatial information, either through standard interfaces, or taking advantage of GI-cat advanced features, such as incremental responses, query feedback, etc. GI-cat supports a number of de-iure and de-facto standards, but can also be extended to additional community catalog/inventory services, by defining appropriate mediation components. The GI-cat and the SIB-ESS-C development teams collaborated in the development of a mediator to the Siberian Earth Science System Cluster (SIB-ESS-C), a web-based infrastructure to support the communities of environmental and Earth System research in Siberia. This activity resulted in the identification of appropriate technologies and internal mechanisms supporting the development of GI-cat extensions, that are the object of this work. GI-cat is actually built up of a modular framework of SOA components, that can be variously arranged to fit the needs of a community of users. For example, a particular GI-cat instance may be configured to provide discovery functionalities onto an OGC WMS; or to adapt a THREDDS catalog to the standard OGC CSW interface; or to merge a number of CDI repositories into a single, more efficient catalog. The flexibility of GI-cat framework is achieved thanks to its design, that follows the Tree of Responsibility (ToR) pattern and the Uniform Pipe and Filter architectural style. This approach allows the building of software blocks that can be flexibly reused and composed in multiple ways. In fact, the components that make up any GI-cat configuration all implement two common interfaces (i.e. IChainNode and ICatalogService), that support chaining one component to another . Hence, it would suffice to implement those interfaces (plus an appropriate factory

  10. Strategy; Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-15

    Francois Loos, Minister of Industry, explains the French energy policy in the frame of Europe. ONERC is a French public body in charge of defining a national strategy against climate changes. It submits its first strategic elements to the Government. (authors)

  11. An optional focusing SELENE extension to conventional neutron guides: A case study for the ESS instrument BIFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U.B., E-mail: uhansen@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Bertelsen, M. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Stahn, J. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Lefmann, K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-04-21

    The high brilliance at the European Spallation Source (ESS) will allow for performing experiments with much smaller samples than at present neutron facilities and in much more complex sample environments. However the higher flux also results in higher background from unwanted neutrons not originating from scattering of the sample. We here present a new design idea for beam delivery, where a 165 m ballistic guide system with good transport properties is followed by a 4–8 m SELENE guide system similar to Montel optics used for X-ray optics. We have investigated the system by detailed Monte-Carlo simulations using McStas. We show that under certain conditions, this set-up works surprisingly well, with a brilliance transfer of 20–60% for neutrons of wavelength 4 Å and above. We demonstrate that the guide system is able to focus the beam almost perfectly onto samples sizes in the range of 0.1–2 mm. We furthermore show that our SELENE system is insensitive to gravity and to realistic values of guide waviness. We argue that this guide system can be useful as an optional guide insert when small samples are used in the vicinity of bulky sample environment, e.g. for high-field or high-pressure experiments.

  12. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  13. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  14. HEALTHCARE RESOURCES UTILIZATION AND TEMPORARY DISABILITY IN POPULATION AGED 50-64 ACCORDING TO THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ESSE-RF STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kontsevaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze health care resource utilization and temporary disability in people of pre-retirement age in the Russian population.Material and methods. The analysis was carried out on the basis of the ESSE-RF study materials (13 regions of the RF. Standard epidemiological survey methods and evaluation criteria were used. The analysis included results of a survey of the ESSE-RF study participants about health care resource utilization and temporary disability (TD during 12 months before the survey. The following characteristics were ascertained: a number and reasons of outpatient visits for medical assistance, hospital admissions (including duration of in-hospital treatment, emergency calls and temporary disability (a number of days and cases, their mean number per one study participant, mean number of cases and days of TD per 100 working participants, associations with social-demographic parameters, risk factors, chronic non-communicable diseases, stress and anxiety levels by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS.Results. A total of 8334 people aged 50-64 years were examined: men – 2784 (33% and women – 5550 (67%. A share of the hospitalized (at least one time was 11% in the age group of 50-54 years, 12% – in the age group of 55-59 years and by the age of 60-64 this indicator increased to 15%. 20% of the participants at least one time were admitted to hospital and/or called an ambulance. A share of people who had utilized health care resources at least one time was increasing with age. Unemployed people were hospitalized more frequently than employed ones. Number of chronic non-communicable diseases correlated with the probability of hospitalization and/or emergency call. Categories 2 and 3 of disability, presence of diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease and hypertension were statistically significantly associated with the probability of hospitalization and/or emergency call. Smoking did not increase the probability of

  15. THE ASSOCIATION OF DEPRESSION WITH C-REACTIVE PROTEIN (THE DATA OF ESSE-RF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Evstifeeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the association of depression with a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP level, taking into account the main risk factors and noncommunicable diseases in Russia residents.Material and methods. The data of ESSE-RF multicenter study (a representative sample of the unorganized male and female population aged 25-64 years from 8 regions surveyed in 2012-2014 were used in the work. A total 11884 people were involved into the study including 35.9% men. The examination included a survey on the standard questionnaire containing data on disease history, etc. The level of depression was assessed by the validated in Russian Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, 1983. hsCRP level was determined in all patients.Results. The continuing association between elevated levels of depression (HADS-D ≥8+ and high level of hsCRP ≥3.0 mg/l (odds ratio [OR] 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.27; p=0.009 was found in the multivariate model, after adjustment for sex, age, education, and risk factors. Reducing of the relationship of elevated levels of depression with a high level of hsCRP (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.00-1.24; p=0.048 was found with the additional introduction of diseases in the model. This relationship was reduced to not statistically significant level (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.98-1.20; p=0.134 in the full model adjusted for regions.Conclusion. The reduced association of depression with hsCRP ajusted for aggregate risk factors was found in the study. This suggests about multifactor affecting on this relationship.

  16. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  17. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  18. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  19. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  20. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  1. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  3. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  4. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  5. Safety Outreach and Incident Response Stakeholder Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Conover, David [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this document is to set out a strategy to reach all stakeholders that can impact the timely deployment of safe stationary energy storage systems in the built environment with information on ESS technology and safety that is relevant to their role in deployment of the technology.

  6. Improving offering strategies for wind farms enhanced with storage capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Hu, Zechun; Song, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    the wind power deviation from day-ahead contracts. Taking into account the operation strategy as well as two-price balancing market rules, a day-ahead bidding strategy of WF-ESS system is put forward and formulated. A modified gradient descent algorithm is described to solve the formulations. In the case......Due to the flexible charging and discharging capability, energy storage system (ESS) is thought of as a promising complement to wind farms (WF) in participating into electricity markets. This paper proposes a reserve-based real-time operation strategy of ESS to make arbitrage and to alleviate...... studies, the computational efficiency of the algorithm is validated firstly. Moreover, a number of scenarios with/without considering the temporal dependence of wind power forecast error are designed and employed to compare the proposed strategy with other common ones in terms of profit....

  7. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  8. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  9. New insight in the structural features of haloadaptation in α-amylases from halophilic Archaea following homology modeling strategy: folded and stable conformation maintained through low hydrophobicity and highly negative charged surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorgani, Mohamed Amine; Patron, Kevin; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2014-07-01

    Proteins from halophilic archaea, which live in extreme saline conditions, have evolved to remain folded, active and stable at very high ionic strengths. Understanding the mechanism of haloadaptation is the first step toward engineering of halostable biomolecules. Amylases are one of the main enzymes used in industry. Yet, no three-dimensional structure has been experimentally resolved for α-amylases from halophilic archaea. In this study, homology structure modeling of α-amylases from the halophilic archaea Haloarcula marismortui, Haloarcula hispanica, and Halalkalicoccus jeotgali were performed. The resulting models were subjected to energy minimization, evaluation, and structural analysis. Calculations of the amino acid composition, salt bridges and hydrophobic interactions were also performed and compared to a set of non-halophilic counterparts. It clearly appeared that haloarchaeal α-amylases exhibited lower propensities for helix formation and higher propensities for coil-forming regions. Furthermore, they could maintain a folded and stable conformation in high salt concentration through highly negative charged surface with over representation of acidic residues, especially Asp, and low hydrophobicity with increase of salt bridges and decrease in hydrophobic interactions on the protein surface. This study sheds some light on the stability of α-amylases from halophilic archaea and provides strong basis not only to understand haloadaptation mechanisms of proteins in microorganisms from hypersalines environments but also for biotechnological applications.

  10. Influência de essências na alimentação artificial energética na atratividade de Abelhas Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Almeida Neto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a atratividade de diferentes aromas adicionados a alimentação artificial energética de abelhas Apis mellifera. O delineamento experimental usado foi DIC no qual constou de 11 tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos os aromas tutti-frutte, erva-doce, maracujá, café, baunilha, morango, amarula, menta, cereja, coco e testemunha (sem aroma e as repetições foram considerados os dias de coleta de dados. Foram feitas observações do fluxo de abelhas a cada cinco minutos fazendo o registro fotográfico para contagem das mesmas. O período de observação ao longo do dia foi de 20 minutos sendo realizado no horário da manhã. Observamos que no decorrer do trabalho o fluxo das abelhas foi aumentando gradativamente em todas as essências a cada repetição sendo que essência que mais atraiu as abelhas foi a amarula (em media 147 abelhas, não deferindo da essência da baunilha, porém a baunilha não diferiu das demais essências.Influence of essences in energy artificial food the bees attractiveness Apis melliferaAbstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of Apis mellifera by energy added artificial feeding of different aromas. The experimental design used was DIC in which consisted of 11 treatments and four replications, and the treatments the tutti-frutte aromas, fennel, passion fruit, coffee, vanilla, strawberry, amarula, mint, cherry, coconut and control (without aroma and repetitions were considered the days of data collection. Observations of bees stream samples were collected every five minutes making the photographic record to count them. The observation period throughout the day was 20 minutes being held in the morning hours. We note that during the work flow of bees has been increasing gradually in all essences with each repetition being that essence that attracted the bees was amarula (on average 147 bees, not deferring the essence of vanilla, but vanilla

  11. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  12. Engaging local industry in the development of basic research infrastructure and instrumentation – The case of HIE-ISOLDE and ESS Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlander, Claes, E-mail: claes.fahlander@nuclear.lu.se [Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100, Lund (Sweden)

    2016-07-07

    Two world-class research facilities, the European Spallation Source, ESS, and the light-source facility MAX-IV, are being built in southern Sweden. They will primarily, when completed, be used for research in the fields of material sciences, life sciences, medicine and pharmacology. Their construction and the operation and maintenance of them for many years will create new business opportunities for companies in Europe in general and in Sweden, Denmark and Norway in particular in many different sectors. A project, CATE, Cluster for Accelerator Technology, was set up with the aim to strengthen the skills of companies in the Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak region in Scandinavia in the field of accelerator technology such that they will become competitive and be able to take advantage of the potential of these two research facilities. CATE was strategically important and has helped to create partnerships between companies and new business opportunities in the region.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 367 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): • 10-09-03, Mud Pit • 10-45-01, U-10h Crater (Sedan) • 10-45-02, Ess Crater Site • 10-45-03, Uncle Crater Site The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation of the corrective actions and site closure activities implemented at CAU 367. A corrective action of closure in place with use restrictions was completed at each of the three crater CASs (10-45-01, 10-45-02, and 10-45-03); corrective actions were not required at CAS 10-09-03. In addition, a limited soil removal corrective action was conducted at the location of a potential source material release. Based on completion of these correction actions, no additional corrective action is required at CAU 367, and site closure is considered complete. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 2010 through March 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of non-test or other releases (e.g., migration in washes and potential source material). Based on the proximity of the Uncle, Ess, and Sedan craters, the impact of the Sedan test on the fallout deposited from the two earlier tests, and aerial radiological surveys, the CAU 367 investigation was designed to study the releases from the three crater CASs as one combined release (primary release). Corrective Action Site 10-09-03, Mud Pit, consists of two mud pits identified at CAU 367. The mud pits are considered non-test releases or other releases and were investigated independent of the three crater CASs. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 367 dataset of

  14. Engaging local industry in the development of basic research infrastructure and instrumentation – The case of HIE-ISOLDE and ESS Scandinavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahlander, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Two world-class research facilities, the European Spallation Source, ESS, and the light-source facility MAX-IV, are being built in southern Sweden. They will primarily, when completed, be used for research in the fields of material sciences, life sciences, medicine and pharmacology. Their construction and the operation and maintenance of them for many years will create new business opportunities for companies in Europe in general and in Sweden, Denmark and Norway in particular in many different sectors. A project, CATE, Cluster for Accelerator Technology, was set up with the aim to strengthen the skills of companies in the Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak region in Scandinavia in the field of accelerator technology such that they will become competitive and be able to take advantage of the potential of these two research facilities. CATE was strategically important and has helped to create partnerships between companies and new business opportunities in the region.

  15. Engaging local industry in the development of basic research infrastructure and instrumentation - The case of HIE-ISOLDE and ESS Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlander, Claes

    2016-07-01

    Two world-class research facilities, the European Spallation Source, ESS, and the light-source facility MAX-IV, are being built in southern Sweden. They will primarily, when completed, be used for research in the fields of material sciences, life sciences, medicine and pharmacology. Their construction and the operation and maintenance of them for many years will create new business opportunities for companies in Europe in general and in Sweden, Denmark and Norway in particular in many different sectors. A project, CATE, Cluster for Accelerator Technology, was set up with the aim to strengthen the skills of companies in the Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak region in Scandinavia in the field of accelerator technology such that they will become competitive and be able to take advantage of the potential of these two research facilities. CATE was strategically important and has helped to create partnerships between companies and new business opportunities in the region.

  16. O conceito de reflexão de Hegel como crítica aos conceitos de essência e de reflexão tradicionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Iber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo ilumina o específico do conceito de reflexão de Hegel em cinco momentos. Em um primeiro momento, delineia-se um esboço do conceito de reflexão na lógica da essência de Hegel. Em um segundo momento, o conceito de reflexão de Hegel é apresentado como estrutura lógica objetiva em contraste com a reflexão subjetiva da consciência e do entendimento, com a qual, ao mesmo tempo, o conceito de essência ontológica independente da reflexão é submetido a uma crítica. Do novo conceito de reflexão de Hegel resulta, em terceiro lugar, uma adaptação radical do círculo vicioso na teoria tradicional da reflexão da autoconsciência. Num quarto momento, lança-se um olhar sobre o conceito de reflexão anterior de Hegel como pensar do entendimento que separa, do qual o conceito de reflexão posterior se distingue. Por fim, apresenta-se, em quinto lugar, a lógica da reflexão de Hegel como crítica à fundação ontológica da reflexão em Schelling. O conceito de reflexão de Hegel se mostra, com isto, como crítica da metafísica ontológica tradicional e como fundação de uma metafísica da relacionalidade absoluta que supera a relatividade do pensar moderno do entendimento.

  17. Dynamical attraction to stable processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Albert M.; Talet, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We apply dynamical ideas within probability theory, proving an almost-sure invariance principle in log density for stable processes. The familiar scaling property (self-similarity) of the stable process has a stronger expression, that the scaling flow on Skorokhod path space is a Bernoulli flow. We prove that typical paths of a random walk with i.i.d. increments in the domain of attraction of a stable law can be paired with paths of a stable process so that, after applying a non-random regula...

  18. WORKSHOP: Stable particle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Alessandro G.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Particle beam stability is crucial to any accelerator or collider, particularly big ones, such as Brookhaven's RHIC heavy ion collider and the larger SSC and LHC proton collider schemes. A workshop on the Stability of Particle Motion in Storage Rings held at Brookhaven in October dealt with the important issue of determining the short- and long-term stability of single particle motion in hadron storage rings and colliders, and explored new methods for ensuring it. In the quest for realistic environments, the imperfections of superconducting magnets and the effects of field modulation and noise were taken into account. The workshop was divided into three study groups: Short-Term Stability in storage rings, including chromatic and geometric effects and correction strategies; Long-Term Stability, including modulation and random noise effects and slow varying effects; and Methods for determining the stability of particle motion. The first two were run in parallel, but the third was attended by everyone. Each group considered analytical, computational and experimental methods, reviewing work done so far, comparing results and approaches and underlining outstanding issues. By resolving conflicts, it was possible to identify problems of common interest. The workshop reaffirmed the validity of methods proposed several years ago. Major breakthroughs have been in the rapid improvement of computer capacity and speed, in the development of more sophisticated mathematical packages, and in the introduction of more powerful analytic approaches. In a typical storage ring, a particle may be required to circulate for about a billion revolutions. While ten years ago it was only possible to predict accurately stability over about a thousand revolutions, it is now possible to predict over as many as one million turns. If this trend continues, in ten years it could become feasible to predict particle stability over the entire storage period. About ninety participants

  19. Que urbano é esse? o habitat num espaço de transição do norte de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Grabois

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available ESTE TRABALHO CONSISTE numa tentativa de resgatar, para a Geografia, o assunto habitat rural, não de maneira descritiva, mas dentro de uma perspectiva histórica que ligue as formas do habitat e suas transformações ao desenvolvimento das forças produtivas e à evolução das relações sociais de produção. A proposta da pesquisa é demonstrar como o surgimento e a evolução do habitat existente nas Terras Altas da Transição Agreste/Mata do Norte de Pernambuco, especialmente aquele ligado à pequena produção, encontram-se fortemente vinculados à histórica relação de subordinação dos pequenos produtores à grande produção. Para tanto, tratou-se de caracterizar a produção camponesa, parte substancial da referida pequena produção. O engenho bangüê, exprimindo relações capitalistas de produção, cria no seu interior uma forma de produção camponesa representada mais caracteristicamente pelos foreiros. Os moradores não chegavam a representar unidades de produção camponesa. Estavam muito mais ligados ao trabalho coletivo, isto é, ao canavial. Assalariados, formavam a parte fundamental da força de trabalho empregada no engenho. Assim, os bangüês engendraram numerosas unidades de pequena produção traduzidas num habitat disperso, cujo adensamento acabou por criar pequenos centros urbanos locais. Com o surto usineiro, o capitalismo, na sua evolução, redefiniu as antigas relações de trabalho e morada, desmantelando esse universo de pequenos produtores e transformando sua grande maioria em proletários. Tais fatos sempre se refletiram fielmente na organização do habitat rural e urbano; a resposta que se observa na organização espacial é também uma redefinição do habitat, com o surgimento e crescimento das pontas-de-rua a permanência de formas residuais, as paleoformas. Esse urbano tem de ser visto hoje como um repositório, um viveiro de mão-de-obra. Aí vive uma população proletária que trabalha

  20. The peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1/Ess1 inhibits phosphorylation and toxicity of tau in a yeast model for Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann De Vos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since hyperphosphorylation of protein tau is a crucial event in Alzheimer’s disease, additional mechanisms besides the interplay of kinase and phosphatase activities are investigated, such as the effect of the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1. This isomerase was shown to bind and isomerize phosphorylated protein tau, thereby restoring the microtubule associated protein function of tau as well as promoting the dephosphorylation of the protein by the trans-dependent phosphatase PP2A. In this study we used models based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae to further elucidate the influence of Pin1 and its yeast ortholog Ess1 on tau phosphorylation and self-assembly. We could demonstrate that in yeast, a lack of Pin1 isomerase activity leads to an increase in phosphorylation of tau at Thr231, comparable to AD brain and consistent with earlier findings in other model organisms. However, we could also distinguish an effect by Pin1 on other residues of tau, i.e. Ser235 and Ser198/199/202. Furthermore, depletion of Pin1 isomerase activity results in reduced growth of the yeast cells, which is enhanced upon expression of tau. This suggests that the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated and aggregation-prone tau causes cytotoxicity in yeast. This study introduces yeast as a valuable model organism to characterize in detail the effect of Pin1 on the biochemical characteristics of protein tau, more specifically its phosphorylation and aggregation.

  1. Development of stable marker-free nuclear transformation strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed & Sameh

    Schematic flow diagram for the construction of naked marker-free DNA cassettes. QIAquick Gel Extraction Kit (Qiagen, CA, USA). All PCR reactions were carried out using the high fidelity DNA polymerase (TLA polymerase) (Bioneer, Daejeon, Republic of Korea). Generation of transgenic C. vulgaris by electroporation.

  2. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an MRE? Is an MRE shelf stable? What foods are packaged in retort packages? What is aseptic ... type of package is used for aseptic processing? What foods are packaged in aseptic packages? Can I microwave ...

  3. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  4. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  5. Integrated Bidding and Operating Strategies for Wind-Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2016-01-01

    to perform arbitrage and to alleviate wind power deviations from day-ahead contracts. The strategy is developed with two-price balancing markets in mind. A mixed integer nonlinear optimization formulation is built to determine optimal offers by taking into account expected wind power forecasting errors......Due to their flexible charging and discharging capabilities, energy storage systems (ESS) are considered a promising complement to wind farms (WFs) participating in electricity markets. This paper presents integrated day-ahead bidding and real-time operation strategies for a wind-storage system...... and the power balancing capability of the ESS. A modified gradient descent algorithm is designed to solve this nonlinear problem. A number of case studies validate the computational efficiency and optimality of the algorithm. Compared to the existing strategies, the proposed strategies yield increased economic...

  6. Conducta alimentaria y perfil glucémico en dos líneas de ratas con diabetes genética: eSS y eSMT.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Marisa Montenegro; María Cristina Tarrés; Juan Carlos Picena; Stella Maris Martínez

    2005-01-01

    Introducción. La alimentación puede agravar la diabetes de humanos y modelos animales. Entre ellos, la rata eSMT presenta un curso más exacerbado y mayor biomasa que la línea parental eSS. Objetivo. Estudiar la conducta alimentaria de ratas macho eSMT y eSS ante oferta ilimitada y bajo restricción alternada, analizando su incidencia sobre el peso y la glucemia. Materiales y métodos. Se registró el consumo ad libitum en etapas de crecimiento y mantenimiento. Un grupo de eSMT recibió durante 5 ...

  7. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2009-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit 367 is located in Area 10 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 367 comprises the four corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 10-45-01, U-10h Crater (Sedan) • 10-45-02, Ess Crater Site • 10-09-03, Mud Pit • 10-45-03, Uncle Crater Site The CASs in CAU 367 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive contaminants may be present in concentrations that exceed risk-based corrective action (RBCA) levels. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend CAAs for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting CAAs. The scope of the corrective action investigation for CAU 367 includes the following activities: • Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. • Conduct radiological surveys. • Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine the area where TED at the site exceeds FALs (i.e., corrective action boundary). • Evaluate TED to potential receptors in areas along Mercury Highway that have been impacted by a release of radionuclides from the Sedan test. • Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis related to the drilling mud within CAS 10-09-03, Mud Pit, and any encountered stains or waste as necessary to determine whether COCs are present. • If COCs are present, collect additional step-out samples to define the extent of the contamination. • Collect samples of investigation-derived waste, as needed, for waste management purposes.

  9. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  10. Monitoring of stable glaucoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Holtzer-Goor (Kim); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T. Plochg; E. van Sprundel (Esther)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA high workload for ophthalmologists and long waiting lists for patients challenge the organization of ophthalmic care. Tasks that require less specialized skills, like the monitoring of stable (well controlled) glaucoma patients could be substituted from ophthalmologists to other

  11. Exposure to self-reported occupational noise and diabetes - A cross-sectional relationship in 7th European Social Survey (ESS7, 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel Mario

    2017-06-19

    Almost nothing is known about the effect of occupational noise on diabetes, and this is particularly relevant given the wide spread of both noise exposure and diabetes. This study has aimed to determine whether occupational noise exposure is associated with higher risk of diabetes in Europe. This study is based on 7th European Social Survey (ESS7, 2014) - a multi-country population-based questionnaire survey, which covered 28 221 Europeans aged ≥ 15 years old. Data on self-reported noise exposure, diabetes and other sociodemographic and work-related factors was available. The odds of prevalent diabetes were explored using unconditional logistic regression. In the total sample (N = 23 486), participants ever exposed to very loud noise had no substantive increase in the odds of diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78-1.32). There were subgroups with non-significantly increased odds: men (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.87-1.45), the elderly (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.91-1.31), ethnic minority members (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.62), those with secondary education (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.78-1.41) and those living in small cities/towns (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.89-1.29). Low-skilled white-collar workers had OR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.09-1.64). Among participants employed during the preceding 5 years the odds were OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 0.95-1.61). Self-reported occupational noise was not associated with increased odds of prevalent diabetes in the total sample. Sensitivity analyses revealed some subgroups with non-significantly higher odds. Our results suggest that further delve into the relationship between occupational noise and diabetes is feasible and warranted. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):537-551. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  13. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  14. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  15. Do Nations Have Stomachs? Food, Drink and Imagined Community in Africa Haben Nationen einen Magen? Ess- und Trinkgewohnheiten und Imagined Community in Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nugent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a rhetorical question posed by Ernest Gellner and reframes it to ask whether a sense of national identity can be forged through everyday acts of consumption – in particular, that of food and drink. The article finds value in Benedict Anderson’s conception of the nation as an imagined community, but argues that it makes little sense to privilege the printed word over other forms of consumption. The article goes on to suggest that there have been significant convergences at the level of consumption, but that not all of this has led to reflection about what it means to be a member of the nation. Some lessons are drawn from literatures about music and dress, following which the attention turns to alcoholic drinks and everyday foodstuffs. The history of the consumption of beer and wine in South Africa is used as a case study for convergence in a least likely scenario. The discussion on food observes that while cuisine is not a matter of debate in many African countries, in some countries, like Ethiopia and Senegal, it is taken very seriously indeed. In South Africa, there are ongoing efforts to posit food preferences as something distinctively South African. Although the braai is often discussed in a lighthearted manner, the promotion of a sense of awareness about what all South Africans share in terms of eating habits also has a more serious side to it. Ausgangspunkt des Beitrags ist eine abgewandelte rhetorische Frage von Ernest Gellner. Gefragt wird, ob alltägliche Akte des Konsums, insbesondere Ess- und Trinkgewohnheiten, zur Identifikation mit der eigenen Nation beitragen. Der Beitrag hält Benedict Andersons Konzeption der Nation als Imagined Community für hilfreich, argumentiert aber, dass es wenig Sinn macht, das gedruckte Wort gegenüber anderen Konsumbereichen besonders hervorzuheben. Der Autor beobachtet im Hinblick auf Konsumgewohnheiten signifikante Konvergenzen, die allerdings nicht immer zur Reflexion

  16. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  17. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  18. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  19. Dynamics and control of twisting bi-stable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Andres F.; van Gemmeren, Valentin; Anderson, Aaron J.; Weaver, Paul M.

    2018-02-01

    Compliance-based morphing structures have the potential to offer large shape adaptation, high stiffness and low weight, while reducing complexity, friction, and scalability problems of mechanism based systems. A promising class of structure that enables these characteristics are multi-stable structures given their ability to exhibit large deflections and rotations without the expensive need for continuous actuation, with the latter only required intermittently. Furthermore, multi-stable structures exhibit inherently fast response due to the snap-through instability governing changes between stable states, enabling rapid configuration switching between the discrete number of programmed shapes of the structure. In this paper, the design and utilisation of the inherent nonlinear dynamics of bi-stable twisting I-beam structures for actuation with low strain piezoelectric materials is presented. The I-beam structure consists of three compliant components assembled into a monolithic single element, free of moving parts, and showing large deflections between two stable states. Finite element analysis is utilised to uncover the distribution of strain across the width of the flange, guiding the choice of positioning for piezoelectric actuators. In addition, the actuation authority is maximised by calculating the generalised coupling coefficient for different positions of the piezoelectric actuators. The results obtained are employed to tailor and test I-beam designs exhibiting desired large deflection between stable states, while still enabling the activation of snap-through with the low strain piezoelectric actuators. To this end, the dynamic response of the I-beams to piezoelectric excitation is investigated, revealing that resonant excitations are insufficient to dynamically trigger snap-through. A novel bang-bang control strategy, which exploits the nonlinear dynamics of the structure successfully triggers both single and constant snap-through between the stable states

  20. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  1. Introducing fecal stable isotope analysis in primate weaning studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J

    2012-10-01

    This research investigates the potential of a new, noninvasive method for determining age of weaning among primates using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in feces. Analysis of stable isotope ratios in body tissues is a well-established method in archeology and ecology for reconstructing diet. This is the first study to investigate weaning in primates using fecal stable isotope ratios. Diets of a single François' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) mother-infant pair at the Toledo Zoo are reconstructed using this technique to track changes in infant suckling behavior over the weaning period. Stable isotope ratios in feces are sampled instead of more traditional samples such as bone or hair to enable daily, noninvasive snapshots of weaning status. Isotopic assessments of weaning status are compared to visual assessments to identify any discordance between the two. Three measurements documented the transition from breast milk to solid foods: stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C), stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ(15)N), and nitrogen content of feces (%N). It appears that solid foods were introduced at approximately 2 months of infant age, but that nursing continued into the 12th month, when sample collection ceased. Stable isotope data exposed a much longer weaning period than what was expected based on previously published data for captive langurs, and clarified visual estimates of weaning status. This reflects the method's sensitivity to suckling at night and ability to distinguish actual nursing from comfort nursing. After testing this method with zoo animals, it can readily be applied among wild populations. An isotopic approach to weaning provides a new, accurate, and biologically meaningful assessment of interbirth intervals, and facilitates a better understanding of mother-infant interactions. Both of these outcomes are critical for developing successful conservation strategies for captive and wild primates. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Energy Service Companies as a Component of a Comprehensive University Sustainability Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Joshua M.; Miller, Laura L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to quantify and critically analyze the best practices of a comprehensive environmental stewardship strategy (ESS), which included a guaranteed energy savings program (GESP) that utilized an energy service company (ESCO). Design/methodology/approach: The environmental and economic benefits and limitations of an approach…

  3. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  4. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  5. Uses of stable isotopes in fish ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of fish tissues (other than otoliths) for stable isotope ratios can provide substantial information on fish ecology, including physiological ecology. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon frequently are used to determine the mix of diet sources for consumers. Stable i...

  6. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  7. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  8. Theory of stable allocations II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Shapley provided the fundamental theoretical contribution to this field of research, whereas Roth, a professor at the Harvard University in Boston, developed and upgraded these theoretical investigations by applying them to the American market of medical doctors. Namely, their research helps explain the market processes at work, for instance, when doctors are assigned to hospitals, students to schools and human organs for transplant to recipients.

  9. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  10. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  11. Stable Treemaps via Local Moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, Max; Speckmann, Bettina; Verbeek, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Treemaps are a popular tool to visualize hierarchical data: items are represented by nested rectangles and the area of each rectangle corresponds to the data being visualized for this item. The visual quality of a treemap is commonly measured via the aspect ratio of the rectangles. If the data changes, then a second important quality criterion is the stability of the treemap: how much does the treemap change as the data changes. We present a novel stable treemapping algorithm that has very high visual quality. Whereas existing treemapping algorithms generally recompute the treemap every time the input changes, our algorithm changes the layout of the treemap using only local modifications. This approach not only gives us direct control over stability, but it also allows us to use a larger set of possible layouts, thus provably resulting in treemaps of higher visual quality compared to existing algorithms. We further prove that we can reach all possible treemap layouts using only our local modifications. Furthermore, we introduce a new measure for stability that better captures the relative positions of rectangles. We finally show via experiments on real-world data that our algorithm outperforms existing treemapping algorithms also in practice on either visual quality and/or stability. Our algorithm scores high on stability regardless of whether we use an existing stability measure or our new measure.

  12. Segunda Parte - Segundo Capítulo da Terceira Seção da Introdução à Lógica da Essência de Hegel: a Contingência ou Efetividade, Possibilidade e Necessidade Formais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo José Jimica

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa a apresentar o sentido da concepção hegeliana da efetividade à luz de uma leitura cortejada da Lógica da Essência. Adentra nos limites do método dialético como totalidade em movimento, a fim de superar o déficit da compreensão da visão geral da efetividade com tal e seus momentos na Lógica da Essência de Hegel. Para atingir este objetivo é preciso ter presente dois aspectos imprescindíveis de desenvolvimento: em primeiro lugar, Hegel começa por desenvolver, num primeiro tempo, o alcance geral de efetividade - a exposição do absoluto, o atributo e o modo do absoluto2, é o sentido do primeiro capítulo - e continua, em segundo lugar, pela exposição dos três momentos da efetividade como tal3, a possibilidade, a contingência e a necessidade - é o objetivo do segundo capítulo, da terceira seção da lógica da essência de Hegel. No presente artigo, sugere-se que somente este último pode fundamentar uma reflexão filosófica, assim como foi desenvolvida pelo filósofo alemão, G.W.F. Hegel, e utilizá-la para uma compreensão sistemática deste aspecto central da Ciência da Lógica, a efetividade possibilita contribuir com as pesquisas em problemas e teorias da Filosofia Moderna e Contemporânea, na medida em que explicita a rede conceitual hegeliana da categoria de efetividade e atualiza seu potencial interpretativo, construindo perspectivas epistemológicas e metodológicas inovadoras, o que é próprio da pesquisa e interdisciplinaridade. Identidade do interior e do exterior que constitui a efetividade é uma forma de imediatidade. A efetividade define-se como unidade imediata da essência e da existência.

  13. BÚSQUEDA DE LA MUTACIÓN Phe-809 EN EL GEN DEL SUSTRATO DEL RECEPTOR DE INSULINA -1 (IRS-1) EN RATAS DIABÉTICAS eSS

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Maris Daniele; Silvana Marisa Montenegro; María Cristina Tarrés; Stella Maris Martínez

    2010-01-01

    El gen del sustrato del receptor de insulina IRS-1 juega un rol clave en la transducción de señales de insulina en músculo esquelético. Diversos polimorfismos del gen IRS-1 han sido reportados en estados de insulinorresistencia como obesidad y diabetes tipo 2.Las ratas eSS desarrollan espontáneamente diabetes tipo 2 magra, con insulinoresistencia caracterizada por hiperglucemia e hiperinsulinemia. Durante el segundo año existe disminución progresiva de la insulinemia y agravamiento del síndro...

  14. BÚSQUEDA DE LA MUTACIÓN Phe-809 EN EL GEN DEL SUSTRATO DEL RECEPTOR DE INSULINA -1 (IRS-1 EN RATAS DIABÉTICAS eSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El gen del sustrato del receptor de insulina IRS-1 juega un rol clave en la transducción de señales de insulina en músculo esquelético. Diversos polimorfismos del gen IRS-1 han sido reportados en estados de insulinorresistencia como obesidad y diabetes tipo 2.Las ratas eSS desarrollan espontáneamente diabetes tipo 2 magra, con insulinoresistencia caracterizada por hiperglucemia e hiperinsulinemia. Durante el segundo año existe disminución progresiva de la insulinemia y agravamiento del síndrome. Nuestro propósito fue buscar la mutación Phe-809 en el gen IRS-1, que implica sustitución del aminoácido Ser por Phe en el codon 809; dicho sitio se halla conservado en la rata. Esta variante fue identificada en pacientes diabéticos tipo 2. El gen del IRS-1 consta de un solo exón.Se analizó un fragmento de 281pb del gen IRS-1, que posee 90% de homología con el mismo fragmento en humanos. Se purificó ADN de leucocitos de un pool de sangre de ratas machos eSS y controles Wistar. Se cuantificó y amplificó por PCR utilizando un par de primers para amplificar ese mismo fragmento en el gen IRS-1 en humanos. Se usó sangre humana como control de amplificación. Se empleó el método de Sanger en la secuenciación del fragmento obtenido por PCR, previa extracción del mismo de un gel de agarosa al 2%. Se observó que la rata eSS y las controles mantuvieron la lectura esperada para ese fragmento, no encontrándose la mutación investigada. Se descarta la mutación Phe-809 como origen de la insulinoresistencia de la rata eSS.

  15. Adaptive Sniping for Volatile and Stable Continuous Double Auction Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, I. E.; Bagnall, A. J.

    This paper introduces a new adaptive sniping agent for the Continuous Double Auction. We begin by analysing the performance of the well known Kaplan sniper in two extremes of market conditions. We generate volatile and stable market conditions using the well known Zero Intelligence-Constrained agent and a new zero-intelligence agent Small Increment (SI). ZI-C agents submit random but profitable bids/offers and cause high volatility in prices and individual trader performance. Our new zero-intelligence agent, SI, makes small random adjustments to the outstanding bid/offer and hence is more cautious than ZI-C. We present results for SI in self-play and then analyse Kaplan in volatile and stable markets. We demonstrate that the non-adaptive Kaplan sniper can be configured to suit either market conditions, but no single configuration is performs well across both market types. We believe that in a dynamic auction environment where current or future market conditions cannot be predicted a viable sniping strategy should adapt its behaviour to suit prevailing market conditions. To this end, we propose the Adaptive Sniper (AS) agent for the CDA. AS traders classify sniping opportunities using a statistical model of market activity and adjust their classification thresholds using a Widrow-Hoff adapted search. Our AS agent requires little configuration, and outperforms the original Kaplan sniper in volatile and stable markets, and in a mixed trader type scenario that includes adaptive strategies from the literature.

  16. The iron stable isotope fingerprint of the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Noordmann, Janine; Guelke-Stelling, Monika

    2013-12-11

    The stable isotopes of iron disclose the metabolic pathways of iron within the human food chain. We have measured with precise multicollector ICP-MS the iron concentrations and stable isotope composition of 60 food products that are representative of the average German diet. We find that vegetables fall within the range typical of strategy I plants (-0.1 to -1.4‰ in δ(56)Fe), crop products and processed crop foods into the range typical of strategy II plants (-0.6 to +0.4‰), and animal products into the (54)Fe-enriched range known for animal tissue and blood (-1.1 to -2.7‰). Weighting these isotope compositions by the average iron dietary sources, we find a representative composition of European vegetarian diet of -0.45‰, whereas that of omnivores is -0.82‰. For human blood, known to be enriched in light iron isotopes, we find fractionation factors for iron absorption of -2.0 and -2.3‰ for vegetarians (female and male, respectively) and -1.3 and -1.5‰ for omnivores (female and male, respectively). Knowing these fractionation factors is a prerequisite for using stable iron isotope ratios in blood as monitors of intestinal iron uptake regulation.

  17. Divergence of stable isotopes in tap water across China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Sihan; Hu, Hongchang; Tian, Fuqiang; Tie, Qiang; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Yaling; Shi, Chunxiang

    2017-03-02

    Stable isotopes in water (e.g., δ2H and δ18O) are important indicators of hydrological and ecological patterns and processes. Tap water can reflect integrated features of regional hydrological processes and human activities. China is a large country with significant meteorological and geographical variations. This report presents the first national-scale survey of Stable Isotopes in Tap Water (SITW) across China. 780 tap water samples have been collected from 95 cities across China from December 2014 to December 2015. (1) Results yielded the Tap Water Line in China is δ2H = 7.72 δ18O + 6.57 (r2 = 0.95). (2) SITW spatial distribution presents typical "continental effect". (3) SITW seasonal variations indicate clearly regional patterns but no trends at the national level. (4) SITW can be correlated in some parts with geographic or meteorological factors. This work presents the first SITW map in China, which sets up a benchmark for further stable isotopes research across China. This is a critical step toward monitoring and investigating water resources in climate-sensitive regions, so the human-hydrological system. These findings could be used in the future to establish water management strategies at a national or regional scale. Title: Divergence of stable isotopes in tap water across China Authors: Zhao, SH; Hu, HC; Tian, FQ; Tie, Q; Wang, LX; Liu, YL; Shi, CX Source: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 7 10.1038/srep43653 MAR 2 2017

  18. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  19. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  20. Treatment of stable COPD: antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. MacNee

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence that an increased oxidative burden occurs in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and this results in an imbalance between oxidants/antioxidants or oxidative stress, which may play a role in many of the processes involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. These include enhanced proteolytic activity, mucus hypersecretion and the enhanced inflammatory response in the lungs to inhaling tobacco smoke, which is characteristic of COPD. COPD is now recognised to have multiple systemic consequences, such as weight loss and skeletal muscle dysfunction. It is now thought that oxidative stress may extend beyond the lungs and is involved in these systemic effects. Antioxidant therapy therefore would seem to be a logical therapeutic approach in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There is a need for more potent antioxidant therapies to test the hypothesis that antioxidant drugs may be a new therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  1. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  2. The opportunity offered by the ESSnuSB project to exploit the larger leptonic CP violation signal at the second oscillation maximum and the requirements of this project on the ESS accelerator complex

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, Elena; Blennow, M.; Bogomilov, M.; Burgman, A.; Bouquerel, E.; Carlile, C.; Cederkäll, J.; Christiansen, P.; Cupial, P.; Danared, H.; Dracos, M.; Ekelöf, T.; Eshraqi, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Koutchouk, J.P.; Lindroos, M.; Martini, M.; Matev, R.; McGinnis, D.; Miyamoto, R.; Ohlsson, T.; Öhman, H.; Olvegård, M.; Ruber, R.; Schönauer, H.; Tang, J.Y.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Vassilopoulos, N.

    2016-01-01

    Very intense neutrino beams and large neutrino detectors will be needed to enable the discovery of CP violation in the leptonic sector. The European Spallation Source (ESS), currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, is a research center that will provide, by 2023, the world's most powerful neutron source. The average power will be 5 MW. Pulsing this linac at higher frequency, at the same instantaneous power, will make it possible to raise the average beam power to 10 MW to produce, in parallel with the spallation neutron production, a high performance neutrino Super Beam of about 0.4 GeV mean neutrino energy. The ESS neutrino Super Beam, ESSnuSB, operated with a 2.0 GeV linac proton beam, together with a large underground Water Cherenkov detector located at 540 km from Lund, close to the second oscillation maximum, will make it possible to discover leptonic CP violation at 5 sigma significance level in 56 percent (65 percent for an upgrade to 2.5 GeV beam energy) of the leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase r...

  3. Combined effect of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and antileishmanial drugs on promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis Efeito combinado do óleo de essência de Chenopodium ambrosioides e drogas anti-leishmaniose nos promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are no vaccines against Leishmania, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive and with a growing frequency of refractory infections. Because of these limitations, a combination therapy is the better hope. This work demonstrates that the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides shows a synergic activity after incubation in conjunction with pentamidine against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. However, an indifferent effect has been found for combinations of meglumine antimoniate or amphotericin B and the essential oil.Até hoje não temos vacina contra a Leishmania e a quimioterapia é a indicação para o controle desta doença. Os remédios que hoje utilizamos são tóxicos e muito caros e além disso o resultado não é sempre o desejado. Por isso, uma terapia de combinação é a melhor opção. Este trabalho mostra que o óleo de essência de C. ambrosioides tem atividade sinérgica junto com a pentamidina sobre os promastigotas de L. amazonensis, diferente do resultado da combinação de antimônio de meglumine e anfotericina B e o óleo de essência.

  4. Autonomous Active and Reactive Power Distribution Strategy in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Tang, Fen; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    (RES) units regulate different active power, the proposed reactive power distribution is adaptively controlled according to the active power distribution among energy storage systems (ESS) and RES units. The virtual impedance is implemented in order to improve the reactive power sharing......This paper proposes an autonomous active and reactive power distribution strategy that can be applied directly on current control mode (CCM) inverters, being compatible as well with conventional droop-controlled voltage control mode (VCM) converters. In a microgrid, since renewable energy sources...... in a distributed way. Real-time hardware-in-the-loop results are presented to verify the proposed control strategy....

  5. Strategie podniku

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlašinský, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of theoretic part of the thesis is to define the term of a strategy, specify the way how to create the strategy, what approach, methods and instruments are used for the strategy determination. Part of the definicions and further focus will be the area of strategic analysis,competetive advantage and the Enterprise's resources. In the application part, the present strategy of Airport Prague company, that is the the international Prague Ruzyne airport operator, will be specified. On the ...

  6. How structurally stable are global socioeconomic systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Rohr, Rudolf P; Gilarranz, Luis J; Bascompte, Jordi

    2014-11-06

    The stability analysis of socioeconomic systems has been centred on answering whether small perturbations when a system is in a given quantitative state will push the system permanently to a different quantitative state. However, typically the quantitative state of socioeconomic systems is subject to constant change. Therefore, a key stability question that has been under-investigated is how strongly the conditions of a system itself can change before the system moves to a qualitatively different behaviour, i.e. how structurally stable the systems is. Here, we introduce a framework to investigate the structural stability of socioeconomic systems formed by a network of interactions among agents competing for resources. We measure the structural stability of the system as the range of conditions in the distribution and availability of resources compatible with the qualitative behaviour in which all the constituent agents can be self-sustained across time. To illustrate our framework, we study an empirical representation of the global socioeconomic system formed by countries sharing and competing for multinational companies used as proxy for resources. We demonstrate that the structural stability of the system is inversely associated with the level of competition and the level of heterogeneity in the distribution of resources. Importantly, we show that the qualitative behaviour of the observed global socioeconomic system is highly sensitive to changes in the distribution of resources. We believe that this work provides a methodological basis to develop sustainable strategies for socioeconomic systems subject to constantly changing conditions. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  8. physico-chemical and stable isotopes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper details the mineralogical, chemical and stable isotope abundances of calcrete in the Letlhakeng fossil valley. The stable isotope abundances (O and C) of calcretes yielded some values which were tested against the nature of the calcretes – pedogenic or groundwater type. The Kgalagadi (Kalahari) is a vast ...

  9. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015

    Summary

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  10. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar

  11. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope

  12. Stable Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of the halophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the halophytic Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Yan-Lin Sun, Soon-Kwan Hong. Abstract. In this study, an efficient procedure for stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Leymus chinensis (Trin.) was established. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105, harboring a ...

  13. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-02-01

    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  14. Stable Fly, (L., Dispersal and Governing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L., has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (13 km is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one “lineage”, the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  15. Conducta alimentaria y perfil glucémico en dos líneas de ratas con diabetes genética: eSS y eSMT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Marisa Montenegro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La alimentación puede agravar la diabetes de humanos y modelos animales. Entre ellos, la rata eSMT presenta un curso más exacerbado y mayor biomasa que la línea parental eSS. Objetivo. Estudiar la conducta alimentaria de ratas macho eSMT y eSS ante oferta ilimitada y bajo restricción alternada, analizando su incidencia sobre el peso y la glucemia. Materiales y métodos. Se registró el consumo ad libitum en etapas de crecimiento y mantenimiento. Un grupo de eSMT recibió durante 5 semanas a partir del destete, una dieta restringida intermitente seguida de oferta ilimitada, y otro fue restringido hasta el año de edad, midiéndose el peso y el perfil glucémico en distintas edades. Resultados. Durante el crecimiento, eSMT aumentó de peso más que eSS con ingestas similares, y en la etapa de mantenimiento sustentó mayor biomasa con menor consumo. La restricción intermitente posterior al destete indujo un patrón de crecimiento más lento y menor peso adulto. A los 5 meses presentaron valores de G0 normales (85±12 mg/dl y los controles mostraron cifras alteradas (119±14 mg/dl. En los animales restringidos la posterior oferta ilimitada produjo glucemias de ayuno compatibles con diabetes (163±25 mg/dl y un incremento ponderado 75% superior a los alimentados ad libitum. Conclusión. La alternancia prolongada hambre-saciedad indujo en eSMT desaceleración de su metabolopatía mientras que la realimentación se asoció con incrementos superiores de peso y glucemia, atribuibles a un aumento de la eficiencia de conversión inducida por el ayuno. Estos resultados enfatizan la importancia de mejorar el conocimiento sobre las relaciones entre crecimiento, alimentación y diabetes.

  16. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive......Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...

  17. Stable Organic Neutral Diradical via Reversible Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenpin; Quanz, Henrik; Burghaus, Olaf; Hofmann, Jonas; Logemann, Christian; Beeck, Sebastian; Schreiner, Peter R; Wegner, Hermann A

    2017-12-27

    We report the formation of a stable neutral diboron diradical simply by coordination of an aromatic dinitrogen compound to an ortho-phenyldiborane. This process is reversible upon addition of pyridine. The diradical species is stable above 200 °C. Computations are consistent with an open-shell triplet diradical with a very small open-shell singlet-triplet energy gap that is indicative of the electronic disjointness of the two radical sites. This opens a new way of generating stable radicals with fascinating electronic properties useful for a large variety of applications.

  18. Air-stable n-type colloidal quantum dot solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun

    2014-06-08

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer promise in flexible electronics, light sensing and energy conversion. These applications rely on rectifying junctions that require the creation of high-quality CQD solids that are controllably n-type (electron-rich) or p-type (hole-rich). Unfortunately, n-type semiconductors made using soft matter are notoriously prone to oxidation within minutes of air exposure. Here we report high-performance, air-stable n-type CQD solids. Using density functional theory we identify inorganic passivants that bind strongly to the CQD surface and repel oxidative attack. A materials processing strategy that wards off strong protic attack by polar solvents enabled the synthesis of an air-stable n-type PbS CQD solid. This material was used to build an air-processed inverted quantum junction device, which shows the highest current density from any CQD solar cell and a solar power conversion efficiency as high as 8%. We also feature the n-type CQD solid in the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of atmospheric NO2. This work paves the way for new families of electronic devices that leverage air-stable quantum-tuned materials. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutron detectors for the ESS diffractometers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stefanescu, I.; Christensen, M.; Fenske, J.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Henry, P. F.; Kirstein, O.; Muller, M.; Nowak, G.; Pooley, D.; Raspino, D.; Rhodes, N.; Šaroun, Jan; Schefer, J.; Schooneveld, E.; Sykora, J.; Schweika, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, JAN (2017), č. článku P01019. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015048 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : instrumentation for neutron sources * neutron diffraction detectors * neutron detectors (cold, thermal, fast neutrons) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  20. Teraviljakatsed tootjate põldudel / Margus Ess

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ess, Margus, 1969-

    2010-01-01

    Katsete eesmärgiks oli võrrelda Eestis enamlevinud suviteraviljade sorte omavahel, hinnata nende haiguskindlust ning vaadata, millist mõju avaldavad saagile fungitsiidid. Pikemalt katsetest ja katsetulemustest loe www.sordiaretus.ee ja www.kevili.ee

  1. Tabagismo: apague esse vício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Dias SILVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of Public Health in the last times is the tobacco. In such away, innumerable scientific publications have alerted to the population for the implications of thetobaccoism, including the dependence, that was recognized for the World-wide Organization of Health asan incurable and gradual disease. Currently, the dependence of the tobacco meets registered in cadastre inthe International Code of Diseases (CID-10 and still, in accordance with the WHO, the tobacco is the main cause of avoidable and premature death in the world. However, the use of the tobacco can be considered a pandemic and as such needs to be fought. Therefore, some actions have been implemented for the National Program of Control of the Tobaccoism with the objective to reduce the prevalence of smokers, as well as the morbidade and mortality for tobacco-related illnesses.

  2. Advanced Neutron Moderators for the ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönfeldt, Troels

    , which generates an interest in moderator development. Many facilities have proposed and applied advanced moderator concepts to better utilize the produced neutrons. The topic of this thesis is the study of these advanced moderator concepts. Chapters 1 to 6 briefly summarize the historical development......Thermal and cold neutrons are used in a wide array of different experiments investigating the sub-micrometer properties of matter. Neutrons are typically produced at reactor or spallation sources and subsequently cooled to the wanted thermal or cold energy levels by employing neutron moderators....... Today these sources are still the most intense neutron sources. The short-pulsed sources SNS and J-PARC are the most powerful spallation sources in the world; although less intense than ILL and HFIR, these sources provide more useful neutrons because of their pulsed beam structure. This thesis focuses...

  3. Neutron detectors for the ESS diffractometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanescu, I.; Christensen, Mogens; Fenske, J.

    2017-01-01

    The ambitious instrument suite for the future European Spallation Source whose civil construction started recently in Lund, Sweden, demands a set of diverse and challenging requirements for the neutron detectors. For instance, the unprecedented high flux expected on the samples to be investigated...... in neutron diffraction or reflectometry experiments requires detectors that can handle high counting rates, while the investigation of sub-millimeter protein crystals will only be possible with large-area detectors that can achieve a position resolution as low as 200 {\\mu}m. This has motivated an extensive...... are briefly discussed. Analytical calculations, Monte-Carlo simulations, and real experimental data are used to develop a generic method to esti- mate the event rate in the diffraction detectors. The proposed approach is based upon conservative assumptions that use information and input parameters...

  4. HP investeerib tulevikku / Fredy-Edwin Esse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Maailma suurima tehnoloogiafirma Hewlett-Packard (HP) tootearenduskulud kasvasid IV kvartalis 16%, 814 mln dollarini. Autor märgib, et HP aktsia on praegu väga hea saak, kuid mingit imehüpet aktsia hinnas ei tuleks kindlasti oodata

  5. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  6. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  7. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  8. Allan Hills Stable Water Isotopes, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes stable water isotope values at 10 m resolution along an approximately 5 km transect through the main icefield of the Allan Hills Blue Ice...

  9. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the pharmacokinetic profile or mode of action of a drug substance. Secondly, stable isotopes may be used for the assessment of drug products or drug delivery systems by determination of parameters such as the bioavailability or the release profile. Thirdly, patients may be assessed in relation to patient-specific drug treatment; this concept is often called personalized medicine. In this article, the application of stable isotope technology in the aforementioned three areas is reviewed, with emphasis on developments over the past 25 years. The applications are illustrated with examples from clinical studies in humans. PMID:21801197

  10. Tannaka duality and stable infinity-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanari, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of fine tannakian infinity-categories and prove Tannaka duality results for symmetric monoidal stable infinity-categories over a field of characteristic zero. We also discuss several examples.

  11. On Stable Marriages and Greedy Matchings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manne, Fredrik; Naim, Md; Lerring, Hakon; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2016-12-11

    Research on stable marriage problems has a long and mathematically rigorous history, while that of exploiting greedy matchings in combinatorial scientific computing is a younger and less developed research field. In this paper we consider the relationships between these two areas. In particular we show that several problems related to computing greedy matchings can be formulated as stable marriage problems and as a consequence several recently proposed algorithms for computing greedy matchings are in fact special cases of well known algorithms for the stable marriage problem. However, in terms of implementations and practical scalable solutions on modern hardware, the greedy matching community has made considerable progress. We show that due to the strong relationship between these two fields many of these results are also applicable for solving stable marriage problems.

  12. Representing strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijf, Hein; Broersen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Quite some work in the ATL-tradition uses the differences between various types of strategies (positional, uniform, perfect recall) to give alternative semantics to the same logical language. This paper contributes to another perspective on strategy types, one where we characterise the differences

  13. Representing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Duijf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quite some work in the ATL-tradition uses the differences between various types of strategies (positional, uniform, perfect recall to give alternative semantics to the same logical language. This paper contributes to another perspective on strategy types, one where we characterise the differences between them on the syntactic (object language level. This is important for a more traditional knowledge representation view on strategic content. Leaving differences between strategy types implicit in the semantics is a sensible idea if the goal is to use the strategic formalism for model checking. But, for traditional knowledge representation in terms of object language level formulas, we need to extent the language. This paper introduces a strategic STIT syntax with explicit operators for knowledge that allows us to charaterise strategy types. This more expressive strategic language is interpreted on standard ATL-type concurrent epistemic game structures. We introduce rule-based strategies in our language and fruitfully apply them to the representation and characterisation of positional and uniform strategies. Our representations highlight crucial conditions to be met for strategy types. We demonstrate the usefulness of our work by showing that it leads to a critical reexamination of coalitional uniform strategies.

  14. The Reactivity of Stable Metallacyclobutenes and Vinylcarbenes

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Ryan Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1. Historical Development of Stable Metallacyclobutenes Fred Tebbe and co-workers synthesized the first stable metallacyclobutene complexes in the late 1970’s by treatment of an intermediate titanium methylene species – later popularized as the “Tebbe reagent” – with acetylenes. Robert Grubbs at Caltech further studied this system, using it to detail a degenerate metathesis reaction and to isolate a metallacyclobutane complex – which was implicated in the emerging field of alkene meta...

  15. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coto Chotto, Mayela; Wentzer, Helle; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an evaluation strategy based on deliberate ideals and principles of dialogue design. The evaluation strategy is based on experiential phenomenology taking the point of departure for design and evaluation processes in the experienced practitioners themselves. The article present...... the evaluation strategy and methodology of a research project Making Online Path to Enter new Markets, MOPEM. It is an EU-research project with partners from different Educational Institutions of Technology and Business in five European Countries.......The paper presents an evaluation strategy based on deliberate ideals and principles of dialogue design. The evaluation strategy is based on experiential phenomenology taking the point of departure for design and evaluation processes in the experienced practitioners themselves. The article presents...

  17. Improved Control Strategy for Microgrid Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Dou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultracapacitors (UCs, with their features of high power density and high current charge-discharge, have become the best choice for dynamic power compensation to improve the stability of microgrids and are increasingly being applied in microgrids. This paper presents the control of an energy storage system (ESS based on ultracapacitors in the context of grid-connected microgrids. The ESS is composed of DC/AC and DC/DC converters tied by a dc link. An improved dynamic model for the ESS is proposed. Based on the proposed model a Proportional-Integral-Resonant (PIR DC link voltage controller is proposed to maintain the DC link voltage through the charging-discharging control of ultracapacitors, capable of working properly under all operating conditions. An extra double frequency component is injected into the UC current by a R controller to dynamically compensate for DC instantaneous power and double frequency AC instantaneous power due to unbalanced grid conditions and disturbances. This feature maintains the DC link voltage constant under unbalanced conditions and increases the degrees of freedom of the DC/AC converter and thus facilitates the application of UCs in microgrids. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  18. Mixed integer evolution strategies for parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Emmerich, Michael T M; Eggermont, Jeroen; Bäck, Thomas; Schütz, M; Dijkstra, J; Reiber, J H C

    2013-01-01

    Evolution strategies (ESs) are powerful probabilistic search and optimization algorithms gleaned from biological evolution theory. They have been successfully applied to a wide range of real world applications. The modern ESs are mainly designed for solving continuous parameter optimization problems. Their ability to adapt the parameters of the multivariate normal distribution used for mutation during the optimization run makes them well suited for this domain. In this article we describe and study mixed integer evolution strategies (MIES), which are natural extensions of ES for mixed integer optimization problems. MIES can deal with parameter vectors consisting not only of continuous variables but also with nominal discrete and integer variables. Following the design principles of the canonical evolution strategies, they use specialized mutation operators tailored for the aforementioned mixed parameter classes. For each type of variable, the choice of mutation operators is governed by a natural metric for this variable type, maximal entropy, and symmetry considerations. All distributions used for mutation can be controlled in their shape by means of scaling parameters, allowing self-adaptation to be implemented. After introducing and motivating the conceptual design of the MIES, we study the optimality of the self-adaptation of step sizes and mutation rates on a generalized (weighted) sphere model. Moreover, we prove global convergence of the MIES on a very general class of problems. The remainder of the article is devoted to performance studies on artificial landscapes (barrier functions and mixed integer NK landscapes), and a case study in the optimization of medical image analysis systems. In addition, we show that with proper constraint handling techniques, MIES can also be applied to classical mixed integer nonlinear programming problems.

  19. Local Search Approaches in Stable Matching Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the

  20. Safety strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    The basis for safety strategy in nuclear industry and especially nuclear power plants is the prevention of radioactivity release inside or outside of the technical installation. Therefore either technical or administrative measures are combined to a general strategy concept. This introduction will explain in more detail the following topics: - basic principles of safety - lines of assurance (LOA) - defense in depth - deterministic and probabilistic methods. This presentation is seen as an introduction to the more detailed discussion following in this course, nevertheless some selected examples will be used to illustrate the aspects of safety strategy development although they might be repeated later on. (orig.)

  1. Export strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2002-01-01

    It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater...... importance. Following this elaboration of the dynamic capabilities perspective, we outline some implications and guidelines for future export strategy research....

  2. Closeout of CRADA JSA 2012S004: Chapter 5, Integrated Control System, of the document of the ESS Conceptual Design Report, publicly available at https://europeanspallationsource.se/accelerator-documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satogata, Todd [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-04-22

    The integrated control system (ICS) is responsible for the whole ESS machine and facility: accelerator, target, neutron scattering instruments and conventional facilities. This unified approach keeps the costs of development, maintenance and support relatively low. ESS has selected a standardised, field-proven controls framework, the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which was originally developed jointly by Argonne and Los Alamos National Laboratories. Complementing this selection are best practices and experience from similar facilities regarding platform standardisation, control system development and device integration and commissioning. The components of ICS include the control system core, the control boxes, the BLED database management system, and the human machine interface. The control system core is a set of systems and tools that make it possible for the control system to provide required data, information and services to engineers, operators, physicists and the facility itself. The core components are the timing system that makes possible clock synchronisation across the facility, the machine protection system (MPS) and the personnel protection system (PPS) that prevent damage to the machine and personnel, and a set of control system services. Control boxes are servers that control a collection of equipment (for example a radio frequency cavity). The integrated control system will include many control boxes that can be assigned to one supplier, such as an internal team, a collaborating institute or a commercial vendor. This approach facilitates a clear division of responsibilities and makes integration much easier. A control box is composed of a standardised hardware platform, components, development tools and services. On the top level, it interfaces with the core control system components (timing, MPS, PPS) and with the human-machine interface. At the bottom, it interfaces with the equipment and parts of the facility through

  3. Globalization strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ryuei

    1992-01-01

    History of overseas strategies of Japanese firms can be divided into three periods; until 1960's, when import and export were the main focus; from 1970's to the first half of 1980's, when establishing overseas bases was a major interest for clear purposes of reducing labor cost, averting trade conflicts, or securing natural resources; and after 1985, when strategy started to be formulated from more global viewpoint in order to cope with new situation arising from stronger yen and Japan having...

  4. Stable chaos in fluctuation driven neural circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo-Garcia, David; Torcini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nonlinear instabilities in fluctuation driven (balanced) neural circuits are studied. • Balanced networks display chaos and stable phases at different post-synaptic widths. • Linear instabilities coexists with nonlinear ones in the chaotic regime. • Erratic motion appears also in linearly stable phase due to stable chaos. - Abstract: We study the dynamical stability of pulse coupled networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons against infinitesimal and finite perturbations. In particular, we compare mean versus fluctuations driven networks, the former (latter) is realized by considering purely excitatory (inhibitory) sparse neural circuits. In the excitatory case the instabilities of the system can be completely captured by an usual linear stability (Lyapunov) analysis, whereas the inhibitory networks can display the coexistence of linear and nonlinear instabilities. The nonlinear effects are associated to finite amplitude instabilities, which have been characterized in terms of suitable indicators. For inhibitory coupling one observes a transition from chaotic to non chaotic dynamics by decreasing the pulse-width. For sufficiently fast synapses the system, despite showing an erratic evolution, is linearly stable, thus representing a prototypical example of stable chaos

  5. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  6. Nepetalactones from essential oil of Nepeta cataria represent a stable fly feeding and oviposition repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J J; Berkebile, D R; Dunlap, C A; Zhang, A; Boxler, D; Tangtrakulwanich, K; Behle, R W; Baxendale, F; Brewer, G

    2012-06-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most serious pests to livestock. It feeds mainly on cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. Standard stable fly control involving insecticides and sanitation is usually costly and often has limited effectiveness. As we continue to evaluate and develop safer fly control strategies, the present study reports on the effectiveness of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) oil and its constituent compounds, nepetalactones, as stable fly repellents. The essential oil of catnip reduced the feeding of stable flies by >96% in an in vitro bioassay system, compared with other sesquiterpene-rich plant oils (e.g. amyris and sandalwood). Catnip oil demonstrated strong repellency against stable flies relative to other chemicals for repelling biting insects, including isolongifolenone, 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide and (1S,2'S)-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide. The repellency against stable flies of the most commonly used mosquito repellent, DEET, was relatively low. In field trials, two formulations of catnip oil provided >95% protection and were effective for up to 6 h when tested on cattle. Catnip oil also acted as a strong oviposition repellent and reduced gravid stable fly oviposition by 98%. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Decision of Lead-Time Compression and Stable Operation of Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A cost optimization strategy and a robust control strategy were studied to realize the low-cost robust operation of the supply chain with lead times. Firstly, for the multiple production lead times which existed in the supply chain, a corresponding inventory state model and a supply chain cost model were constructed based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control system. Then, by considering the actual inventory level, the lead-time compression cost, and the stock-out cost, a cost optimization strategy was proposed. Furthermore, a fuzzy robust control strategy was proposed to realize the flexible switching among the models. Finally, the simulation results show that the total cost of the supply chain could be reduced effectively by the cost optimization strategy, and the stable operation of the supply chain could be realized by the proposed fuzzy robust control strategy.

  8. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...... is controlled using wall mounted ventilation flaps. In the paper an algorithm for air flow control is presented meeting the needs for temperature and humidity while taking the air flow pattern in consideration. To obtain simple and realisable controllers a model based control design method is applied....... In the design dynamic models for temperature and humidity are very important elements and effort is put into deriving and testing the models. It turns out that non-linearities are dominating in both models making feedback linearization the natural design method. The air controller as well as the temperature...

  9. On some topological properties of stable measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Krabbe

    1996-01-01

    Summary The paper shows that the set of stable probability measures and the set of Rational Beliefs relative to a given stationary measure are closed in the strong topology, but not closed in the topology of weak convergence. However, subsets of the set of stable probability measures which...... are characterized by uniformity of convergence of the empirical distribution are closed in the topology of weak convergence. It is demonstrated that such subsets exist. In particular, there is an increasing sequence of sets of SIDS measures who's union is the set of all SIDS measures generated by a particular...... system and such that each subset consists of stable measures. The uniformity requirement has a natural interpretation in terms of plausibility of Rational Beliefs...

  10. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed.

  11. Faster and Simpler Approximation of Stable Matchings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Paluch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We give a 3 2 -approximation algorithm for finding stable matchings that runs in O(m time. The previous most well-known algorithm, by McDermid, has the same approximation ratio but runs in O(n3/2m time, where n denotes the number of people andm is the total length of the preference lists in a given instance. In addition, the algorithm and the analysis are much simpler. We also give the extension of the algorithm for computing stable many-to-many matchings.

  12. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  13. Bordism, stable homotopy and adams spectral sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kochman, Stanley O

    1996-01-01

    This book is a compilation of lecture notes that were prepared for the graduate course "Adams Spectral Sequences and Stable Homotopy Theory" given at The Fields Institute during the fall of 1995. The aim of this volume is to prepare students with a knowledge of elementary algebraic topology to study recent developments in stable homotopy theory, such as the nilpotence and periodicity theorems. Suitable as a text for an intermediate course in algebraic topology, this book provides a direct exposition of the basic concepts of bordism, characteristic classes, Adams spectral sequences, Brown-Peter

  14. Modelling stable water isotopes: Status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of stable water isotopes H2 18O and HDO within various parts of the Earth’s hydrological cycle has clearly improved our understanding of the interplay between climatic variations and related isotope fractionation processes. In this article key principles and major research results of stable water isotope modelling studies are described. Emphasis is put on research work using explicit isotope diagnostics within general circulation models as this highly complex model setup bears many resemblances with studies using simpler isotope modelling approaches.

  15. A stable RNA virus-based vector for citrus trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folimonov, Alexey S.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Dawson, William O.

    2007-01-01

    Virus-based vectors are important tools in plant molecular biology and plant genomics. A number of vectors based on viruses that infect herbaceous plants are in use for expression or silencing of genes in plants as well as screening unknown sequences for function. Yet there is a need for useful virus-based vectors for woody plants, which demand much greater stability because of the longer time required for systemic infection and analysis. We examined several strategies to develop a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)-based vector for transient expression of foreign genes in citrus trees using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These strategies included substitution of the p13 open reading frame (ORF) by the ORF of GFP, construction of a self-processing fusion of GFP in-frame with the major coat protein (CP), or expression of the GFP ORF as an extra gene from a subgenomic (sg) mRNA controlled either by a duplicated CTV CP sgRNA controller element (CE) or an introduced heterologous CE of Beet yellows virus. Engineered vector constructs were examined for replication, encapsidation, GFP expression during multiple passages in protoplasts, and for their ability to infect, move, express GFP, and be maintained in citrus plants. The most successful vectors based on the 'add-a-gene' strategy have been unusually stable, continuing to produce GFP fluorescence after more than 4 years in citrus trees

  16. Sai desse corpo que esse caminho não te pertence! Pessoas trans* e ex-trans* em (re/descaminhos de gênero, corpo e alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Meinberg de Albuquerque Maranhão Fo.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresento, neste artigo, algumas indicações inconclusivas sobre os múltiplos (re/descaminhos religiosos e generificados de pessoas transgêneras e (ex-ex-transgêneras, conectados a discursos religiosos/generificados. Esse trabalho, de história das religiões e religiosidades no tempo imediato, se fundamentou no que chamei, provisoriamente, de etnografia ciborgue, processo que envolve, dentre outras coisas, a conexão entre história oral e trabalho de campo on e off-line. O campo principal de pesquisa se deu em ministérios de “cura e libertação” de travestis, e os resultados provisórios do trabalho, que também utilizou bibliografia referente à questão do corpo como caminho de e para Deus, permitiram perceber algumas das conexões entre agência subjetiva de pessoas trans*, ex-trans*, ex-ex-trans*, e discurso religioso/generificado, ou melhor explicando, como, de formas diversas, discursos religiosos/generificados atuaram nas (re/descarpintarias identitárias de pessoas transgêneras e (ex-ex-transgêneras.

  17. Stable isotope analysis of dynamic lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Joost; Bailey, Andrew P; Koster, Grielof; Gould, Alex P; Postle, Anthony D

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic pathway flux is a fundamental element of biological activity, which can be quantified using a variety of mass spectrometric techniques to monitor incorporation of stable isotope-labelled substrates into metabolic products. This article contrasts developments in electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for the measurement of lipid metabolism with more established gas chromatography mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry methodologies. ESI-MS combined with diagnostic tandem MS/MS scans permits the sensitive and specific analysis of stable isotope-labelled substrates into intact lipid molecular species without the requirement for lipid hydrolysis and derivatisation. Such dynamic lipidomic methodologies using non-toxic stable isotopes can be readily applied to quantify lipid metabolic fluxes in clinical and metabolic studies in vivo. However, a significant current limitation is the absence of appropriate software to generate kinetic models of substrate incorporation into multiple products in the time domain. Finally, we discuss the future potential of stable isotope-mass spectrometry imaging to quantify the location as well as the extent of lipid synthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: BBALIP_Lipidomics Opinion Articles edited by Sepp Kohlwein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope geochemistry of the Ewekoro formation from Ibese Corehole, eastern Dahomey basin, southwestern Nigeria. ME Nton, MO ... Preserved pore types such as; intercrystaline, moldic and vuggy pores were observed as predominant conduits for fluids. The major ...

  19. petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Subsurface samples of the predominantly carbonate Ewekoro Formation, obtained from Ibese core hole within the Dahomey basin were used in this study. Investigations entail petrographic, elemental composition as well as stable isotopes (carbon and oxygen) geochemistry in order to deduce the different microfacies and ...

  20. Substitution of stable isotopes in Chlorella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaumenhaft, E.; Katz, J. J.; Uphaus, R. A.

    1969-01-01

    Replacement of biologically important isotopes in the alga Chlorella by corresponding heavier stable isotopes produces increasingly greater deviations from the normal cell size and changes the quality and distribution of certain cellular components. The usefulness of isotopically altered organisms increases interest in the study of such permuted organisms.

  1. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  2. Stable propagation of 'selfish'genetic elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    viruses such as the Epstein-Barr virus (Harris et al 1985;. Kanda et al 2001) and bovine papilloma virus (Lehman and Botchan 1998; Ilves et al 1999), which exist pre- dominantly as extrachromosomal episomes, have been shown to utilize chromosome tethering as a means for stable segregation. The tethering mechanism ...

  3. Unconditionally stable perfectly matched layer boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.

    2007-01-01

    A brief review is given of a systematic, product-formula based approach to construct unconditionally stable algorithms for solving the time-dependent Maxwell equations. The fundamental difficulties that arise when we want to incorporate uniaxial perfectly matched layer boundary conditions into this

  4. Facies, dissolution seams and stable isotope compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stable isotope analysis of the limestone shows that 13C and 18O values are compatible with the early Mesoproterozoic open seawater composition. The ribbon limestone facies in the Rohtas Limestone is characterized by micritic beds, each decoupled in a lower band enriched and an upper band depleted in dissolution ...

  5. Connected domination stable graphs upon edge addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set S of vertices in a graph G is a connected dominating set of G if S dominates G and the subgraph induced by S is connected. We study the graphs for which adding any edge does not change the connected domination number. Keywords: Connected domination, connected domination stable, edge addition ...

  6. Stable magnetic remanence in antiferromagnetic goethite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangway, D W; McMahon, B E; Honea, R M

    1967-11-10

    Goethite, known to be antiferromagnetic, acquires thermoremanent magnetization at its Neel temperature of 120 degrees C. This remanence, extremely stable, is due to the presence of unbalanced spins in the antiferromagnetic structure; the spins may result from grain size, imperfections, or impurities.

  7. Macromolecular surface design: photopatterning of functional stable nitrile oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Ozcan; Glassner, Mathias; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Welle, Alexander; Trouillet, Vanessa; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2015-05-04

    The efficient trapping of photogenerated thioaldehydes with functional shelf-stable nitrile oxides in a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition is a novel and versatile photochemical strategy for polymer end-group functionalization and surface modification under mild and equimolar conditions. The modular ligation in solution was followed in detail by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to analyze the functionalized surfaces, whereas time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) confirmed the spatial control of the surface functionalization using a micropatterned shadow mask. Polymer brushes were grown from the surface in a spatially confined regime by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) as confirmed by TOF-SIMS, XPS as well as ellipsometry. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Stable phantom-energy wormholes admitting conformal motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhfittig, Peter K. F.

    It has been argued that wormholes are as good a prediction of Einstein’s theory as black holes but the theoretical construction requires a reverse strategy, specifying the desired geometric properties of the wormhole and leaving open the determination of the stress-energy tensor. We begin by confirming an earlier result by the author showing that a complete wormhole solution can be obtained by adopting the equation of state p = ωρ and assuming that the wormhole admits a one-parameter group of conformal motions. The main purpose of this paper is to use the assumption of conformal symmetry to show that the wormhole is stable to linearized radial perturbations whenever - 1.5 < ω < -1.

  9. Fused electron deficient semiconducting polymers for air stable electron transport

    KAUST Repository

    Onwubiko, Ada

    2018-01-23

    Conventional semiconducting polymer synthesis typically involves transition metal-mediated coupling reactions that link aromatic units with single bonds along the backbone. Rotation around these bonds contributes to conformational and energetic disorder and therefore potentially limits charge delocalisation, whereas the use of transition metals presents difficulties for sustainability and application in biological environments. Here we show that a simple aldol condensation reaction can prepare polymers where double bonds lock-in a rigid backbone conformation, thus eliminating free rotation along the conjugated backbone. This polymerisation route requires neither organometallic monomers nor transition metal catalysts and offers a reliable design strategy to facilitate delocalisation of frontier molecular orbitals, elimination of energetic disorder arising from rotational torsion and allowing closer interchain electronic coupling. These characteristics are desirable for high charge carrier mobilities. Our polymers with a high electron affinity display long wavelength NIR absorption with air stable electron transport in solution processed organic thin film transistors.

  10. Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying basalt weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly basaltic, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from basaltic Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.

  11. Tapered composite likelihood for spatial max-stable models

    KAUST Repository

    Sang, Huiyan

    2014-05-01

    Spatial extreme value analysis is useful to environmental studies, in which extreme value phenomena are of interest and meaningful spatial patterns can be discerned. Max-stable process models are able to describe such phenomena. This class of models is asymptotically justified to characterize the spatial dependence among extremes. However, likelihood inference is challenging for such models because their corresponding joint likelihood is unavailable and only bivariate or trivariate distributions are known. In this paper, we propose a tapered composite likelihood approach by utilizing lower dimensional marginal likelihoods for inference on parameters of various max-stable process models. We consider a weighting strategy based on a "taper range" to exclude distant pairs or triples. The "optimal taper range" is selected to maximize various measures of the Godambe information associated with the tapered composite likelihood function. This method substantially reduces the computational cost and improves the efficiency over equally weighted composite likelihood estimators. We illustrate its utility with simulation experiments and an analysis of rainfall data in Switzerland.

  12. Optical bi-stable shutter development/improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizon, J. L.; Haddad, N.; Castillo, R.

    2012-09-01

    Two of the VLT instruments (Giraffe and VIMOS) are using the large magnetic E/150 from Prontor (with an aperture diameter of 150 mm). As we were facing an unacceptable number of failures with this component some improvement plan was discussed already in 2004. The final decision for starting this program was conditioned by the decision from the constructor to stop the production. The opportunity was taken to improve the design building a fully bi-stable mechanism in order to reduce the thermal dissipation. The project was developed in collaboration between the two main ESO sites doing the best use of the manpower and of the technical capability available at the two centers. The project took advantage of the laser Mask Manufacturing Unit and the invar sheets used to prepare the VIMOS MOS mask to fabricate the shutter petals. Our paper describes the development including the intensive and long optimization period. To conclude this optimization we proceed with a long life test on two units. These units have demonstrate a very high level of reliability (up to 100 000 cycles without failure which can be estimated to an equivalent 6 years of operation of the instrument) A new bi-stable shutter driver and controller have also been developed. Some of the highlights of this unit are the fully configurable coil driving parameters, usage of braking strategy to dump mechanical vibration and reduce mechanical wearing, configurable usage of OPEN and CLOSE sensors, non volatile storage of parameters, user friendly front panel interface.

  13. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  14. FLOSS strategies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabaso, NM

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Mabaso_2006_D.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1617 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Mabaso_2006_D.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 FLOSS Strategies Presented...

  15. Teaching Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994

    This instruction guide conveys effective strategies for engaging students in small group exercises, brainstorming, discussions, case studies and controversial issues. After emphasizing the importance of the first small group session for setting the tone, the guide advises teachers to appoint groups of two to five students, assigning the most…

  16. CSR STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    LAURENTIU BARANGA; ION STEGAROIU

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has got three components: economic responsibility of shareholders, corporate environmental responsibility, corporate responsibility of the society. Each component of the CSR has its own features, according to which adequate individual behaviour is established. Knowing these features is very important in CSR strategy development.

  17. Assessment of Iron Bioavailability in Humans Using Stable Iron Isotope Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication on the assessment of iron bioavailability was developed as part of the IAEA's continuing efforts to transfer knowledge and technology in the use of stable isotope techniques in nutrition. It provides information on the theoretical background and practical application of state of the art methodology to measure human iron absorption and dietary iron bioavailability using stable (non-radioactive) isotopes. These techniques can be used to guide fortification and food based strategies to combat iron deficiency, which remains unacceptably high among infants, children and women of childbearing age in developing countries.

  18. Prognostic Determinants of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease: Anatomy, Physiology, or Morphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Amir; Stone, Gregg W; Leipsic, Jonathon; Shaw, Leslee J; Villines, Todd C; Kern, Morton J; Hecht, Harvey; Erlinge, David; Ben-Yehuda, Ori; Maehara, Akiko; Arbustini, Eloisa; Serruys, Patrick; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Narula, Jagat

    2016-07-08

    Risk stratification in patients with stable ischemic heart disease is essential to guide treatment decisions. In this regard, whether coronary anatomy, physiology, or plaque morphology is the best determinant of prognosis (and driver an effective therapeutic risk reduction) remains one of the greatest ongoing debates in cardiology. In the present report, we review the evidence for each of these characteristics and explore potential algorithms that may enable a practical diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for the management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Application of stable isotopes to investigate the metabolism of fatty acids, glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Josef; Liebisch, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Nature provides an enormous diversity of lipid molecules that originate from various pathways. To gain insight into the metabolism and dynamics of lipid species, the application of stable isotope-labeled tracers combined with mass spectrometric analysis represents a perfect tool. This review provides an overview of strategies to track fatty acid, glycerophospholipid, and sphingolipid metabolism. In particular, the selection of stable isotope-labeled precursors and their mass spectrometric analysis is discussed. Furthermore, examples of metabolic studies that were performed in cell culture, animal and clinical experiments are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DOT strategies versus orbiter strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope is a high-resolution solar imager coming on-line at La Palma. The definition of the DOT science niche, strategies, and requirements resemble Solar Orbiter considerations and deliberations. I discuss the latter in the light of the former, and claim that multi-line observation

  1. Study Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Kirketerp; Noer, Vibeke Røn

    module”. The projects differ in terms of both starting point and main focus of research (an alternative educational model and profession-orientated Game-based learning). However, in the on-going process of research, an empirical ´harmony´ on common recurrent themes related to students `study strategies......ID: 1277 / 22 SES 06 B: 2 22. Research in Higher Education Format of Presentation: Paper Alternative EERA Network: 19. Ethnography Topics: NW 22: Teaching, learning and assessment in higher education Keywords: Profession-oriented learning, study strategies, professionalisation processes......-class until graduation and entrance into the nursing field as professional nurses. Case 2: In the veterinary educational environment, a pedagogical development project on development, implementation and evaluation of game-based learning as a possible way of strengthening the interplay between practice...

  2. On The Roman Domination Stable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajian Majid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (or just RDF on a graph G = (V,E is a function f : V → {0, 1, 2} satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. The weight of an RDF f is the value f(V (G = Pu2V (G f(u. The Roman domination number of a graph G, denoted by R(G, is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on G. A graph G is Roman domination stable if the Roman domination number of G remains unchanged under removal of any vertex. In this paper we present upper bounds for the Roman domination number in the class of Roman domination stable graphs, improving bounds posed in [V. Samodivkin, Roman domination in graphs: the class RUV R, Discrete Math. Algorithms Appl. 8 (2016 1650049].

  3. Design of optically stable image reflector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The design of a partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, in which the exit ray direction and image pose are unchanged as the reflector system rotates about a specific directional vector, was presented in an earlier study by the current group [Appl. Phys. B100, 883-890 (2010)]. The present study further proposes an optically stable image (OSI) reflector system, in which not only is the optical stability property of the POS system retained, but the image position and total ray path length are also fixed. An analytical method is proposed for the design of OSI reflector systems comprising multiple reflectors. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples.

  4. Stable microfluidic flow focusing using hydrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnyawali, Vaskar; Saremi, Mohammadali; Kolios, Michael C; Tsai, Scott S H

    2017-05-01

    We present a simple technique to generate stable hydrodynamically focused flows by driving the flow with hydrostatic pressure from liquid columns connected to the inlets of a microfluidic device. Importantly, we compare the focused flows generated by hydrostatic pressure and classical syringe pump driven flows and find that the stability of the hydrostatic pressure driven technique is significantly better than the stability achieved via syringe pumps, providing fluctuation-free focused flows that are suitable for sensitive microfluidic flow cytometry applications. We show that the degree of flow focusing with the hydrostatic method can be accurately controlled by the simple tuning of the liquid column heights. We anticipate that this approach to stable flow focusing will find many applications in microfluidic cytometry technologies.

  5. Utilization of stable isotopes in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The ten lectures given at this round table are presented together with a discussion. Five lectures, relating to studies in which deuterium oxide was employed as a tracer of body water, dealt with pulmonary water measurements in man and animals, the total water pool in adipose subjects, and liquid compartments in children undergoing hemodyalisis. The heavy water is analysed by infrared spectrometry and a new double spectrodoser is described. Two studies using 13 C as tracer, described the diagnosis of liver troubles and diabetes respectively. A general review of the perspectives of the application of stable isotopes in clinical medicine is followed by a comparison of the use of stable and radioactive isotopes in France [fr

  6. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Renee M.; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to i...

  7. The nature of stable insomnia phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Longitudinal. Urban, community-based. Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). None. At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the 'neither criterion' phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With the exception of daytime sleepiness, few clinical differences are apparent across stable phenotypes.

  8. Stable iodine prophylaxis. Recommendations of the 2nd UK Working Group on Stable Iodine Prophylaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Working Group reviewed the revised Who guidance and the information published since 1991 on the risks of thyroid cancer in children from radioiodine and the risks of side effects from stable iodine. In particular, it reviewed data compiled on the incidence of thyroid cancers in children following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. It considered whether the NRPB Earls were still appropriate, in the light of the new data. It also reviewed a range of other recommendations given by the 1st Working Group, concerning the chemical form of stable iodine tablets and practical issues concerning implementation of stable iodine prophylaxis. Finally, it reviewed the Patient Information Leaflet that is required, by law, to be included in each box of tablets and provided suggestions for information to be included in a separate information leaflet to be handed out to the public when stable iodine tablets are distributed.

  9. Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, Allen; Kuhl, Allen L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Howard, W. Michael; Seizew, Michael R.; Bell, John B.; Beckner, Vincent; Grcar, Joseph F.

    2008-05-31

    We consider the energy accumulation in meta-stable clusters. This energy can be much larger than the typical chemical bond energy (~;;1 ev/atom). For example, polymeric nitrogen can accumulate 4 ev/atom in the N8 (fcc) structure, while helium can accumulate 9 ev/atom in the excited triplet state He2* . They release their energy by cluster fission: N8 -> 4N2 and He2* -> 2He. We study the locus of states in thermodynamic state space for the detonation of such meta-stable clusters. In particular, the equilibrium isentrope, starting at the Chapman-Jouguet state, and expanding down to 1 atmosphere was calculated with the Cheetah code. Large detonation pressures (3 and 16 Mbar), temperatures (12 and 34 kilo-K) and velocities (20 and 43 km/s) are a consequence of the large heats of detonation (6.6 and 50 kilo-cal/g) for nitrogen and helium clusters respectively. If such meta-stable clusters could be synthesized, they offer the potential for large increases in the energy density of materials.

  10. Control Strategies to Smooth Short-Term Power Fluctuations in Large Photovoltaic Plants Using Battery Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Marcos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The variations in irradiance produced by changes in cloud cover can cause rapid fluctuations in the power generated by large photovoltaic (PV plants. As the PV power share in the grid increases, such fluctuations may adversely affect power quality and reliability. Thus, energy storage systems (ESS are necessary in order to smooth power fluctuations below the maximum allowable. This article first proposes a new control strategy (step-control, to improve the results in relation to two state-of-the-art strategies, ramp-rate control and moving average. It also presents a method to quantify the storage capacity requirements according to the three different smoothing strategies and for different PV plant sizes. Finally, simulations shows that, although the moving-average (MA strategy requires the smallest capacity, it presents more losses (2–3 times more and produces a much higher number of cycles over the ESS (around 10 times more, making it unsuitable with storage technologies as lithium-ion. The step-control shown as a better option in scenery with exigent ramp restrictions (around 2%/min and distributed generation against the ramp-rate control in all ESS key aspects: 20% less of capacity, up to 30% less of losses and a 40% less of ageing. All the simulations were based on real PV production data, taken every 5 s in the course of one year (2012 from a number of systems with power outputs ranging from 550 kW to 40 MW.

  11. Two stable steady states in the Hodgkin-Huxley axons

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, K.; Matsumoto, G.

    1983-01-01

    Two stable steady states were found in the numerical solution of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations for the intact squid axon bathed in potassium-rich sea water with an externally applied inward current. Under the conditions the two stable steady-states exist, the Hodgkin-Huxley equations have a complex bifurcation structure including, in addition to the two stable steady-states, a stable limit cycle, two unstable equilibrium points, and one asymptotically stable equilibrium point. It was also conc...

  12. Long-term outcome of FFR-guided PCI for stable coronary artery disease in daily clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Biasco, Luigi; Lønborg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Our aim was to investigate the strength of fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable coronary artery disease (CAD) in daily practice. METHODS AND RESULTS: For this study, 3,512 patients with stable CAD and at least one 50-89% coronary stenosis ...... that performing FFR has a significant impact on therapeutic strategy and demonstrates the favourable long-term outcome of FFR-guided PCI in an "all-comers" population of patients with stable CAD in daily clinical practice....

  13. Optimal intervention strategies for tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowong, Samuel; Aziz Alaoui, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of optimal control of a deterministic model of tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus). We first present and analyze an uncontrolled tuberculosis model which incorporates the essential biological and epidemiological features of the disease. The model is shown to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where a stable disease-free equilibrium co-exists with one or more stable endemic equilibria when the associated basic reproduction number is less than the unity. Based on this continuous model, the tuberculosis control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how control terms on the chemoprophylaxis and detection should be introduced in the population to reduce the number of individuals with active TB. Results provide a framework for designing the cost-effective strategies for TB with two intervention methods.

  14. [The prevalence of anxiety and depression in different regions of the Russian Federation and its association with sociodemographic factors (according to the data of the ESSE-RF study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shal'nova, S A; Evstifeeva, S E; Deev, A D; Artamova, G V; Gatagonova, T M; Dupliakov, D V; Efanov, A Iu; Zhernakova, Iu V; Konradi, A O; Libis, R A; Minakov, E V; Nedogoda, S V; Oshchepkova, E V; Romanchuk, S V; Rotar', O P; Trubacheva, I A; SHliakhto, E V; Boitsov, S A

    2014-01-01

    To study the prevalence of anxiety and depression by psychometric methods (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in different regions of the Russian Federation (RF), which are characterized by various climatic, geographic, economic, and demographic indicators. The investigation used the data of the multicenter epidemiological survey of cardiovascular diseases in different regions of the Russian Federation--the ESSE-RF study. The subjects of the study were representative samples from unorganized male and female populations aged 25-64 years from 10 RF regions. The survey included a total 16,877 people (6244 men and 10,623 women). All the examinees were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. An analysis involved their gender, age, education level, place and region of residence, and income and morbidity level. The HADS validated in Russia was used to rate the level of anxiety/depression. The total prevalence of higher anxiety and depression averaged 46.3 and 25.6%, respectively. Respondents with clinical anxiety/depression constituted more than one third of those who had a higher level of these conditions. In the examined population, the moderate level of anxiety/depression was 7.5 ± 0.06 and 5.1 ± 0.04, respectively. The population of Volgograd, Samara, Saint Petersburg, and Tomsk had the similar values of the moderate level of anxiety/depression (p > 0.05). The lowest level of anxiety/ depression (p Ossetia-Alania (NOA) (8.4 ± 0.1 and 6.8 ± 0.1, respectively). These regions showed the lowest and highest prevalence of higher anxiety (22% in Tyumen and 59.8% in the Republic of NOA (p < 0.0001). All the 10 selected RF regions differing in demographic, economic, climatic, and geographical parameters are characterized by a high level of anxiety that remains statistically significant after adjusting for gender and age, so are parameters, such as income and morbidity levels are present in only 4 of the 10 regions.

  15. THE PREVALENCE OF ELEVATED LEVELS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH TRADITIONAL RISK FACTORS AND MORBIDITY AMONG RESIDENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ACCORDING TO THE ESSE-RF STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Evstifeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP level with socio-demographic, behavioral and traditional risk factors in different regions of the Russian Federation (RF.Material and methods. Data of the multicenter epidemiological study of cardiovascular disease in different regions of the Russian Federation (ESSE-RF were used. Representative sample of the unorganized male and female population aged 25-64 from 6 regions of the Russian Federation was drown. 3407 men and 6354 women (n=9761 were included into the study. Standard questionnaire was applied in all subjects. Gender, age, level of education, place of residence and region of residence, traditional risk factors and diseases were analyzed. HsCRP level (level ≥3.0 mg/l was defined as elevated one was evaluated to detect of indolent inflammation.Results. HsCRP levels in women was significantly higher compared to males (p<0.005. The average prevalence of elevated hsCRP in the regions was 24.2%, for men - 21.4%, and for women - 25.7% (p<0.005. Significant age-related dynamics of hsCRP (p<0.0001 was found. The average level of hsCRP was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in a cohort of persons with higher education against these with lower level of education. Level of hsCRP as well as prevalence of elevated hsCRP level were higher in villagers than this in the urban population (p<0.05. Prevalence of elevated hsCRP in patients with traditional risk factors after adjustment for sex, age, and region of residence showed that the elevated hsCRP was mostly associated with metabolic factors and diseases that were characterized by systemic inflammation.Conclusion. Elevated level of hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/l was significantly associated with female gender, with an older, less educated, and smoking population of Russians. After the multivariate adjustment there remained significant associations (p<0.0001 of elevated hsCRP level with obesity, including abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia

  16. THE PREVALENCE OF ELEVATED LEVELS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH TRADITIONAL RISK FACTORS AND MORBIDITY AMONG RESIDENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ACCORDING TO THE ESSE-RF STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Evstifeeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP level with socio-demographic, behavioral and traditional risk factors in different regions of the Russian Federation (RF.Material and methods. Data of the multicenter epidemiological study of cardiovascular disease in different regions of the Russian Federation (ESSE-RF were used. Representative sample of the unorganized male and female population aged 25-64 from 6 regions of the Russian Federation was drown. 3407 men and 6354 women (n=9761 were included into the study. Standard questionnaire was applied in all subjects. Gender, age, level of education, place of residence and region of residence, traditional risk factors and diseases were analyzed. HsCRP level (level ≥3.0 mg/l was defined as elevated one was evaluated to detect of indolent inflammation.Results. HsCRP levels in women was significantly higher compared to males (p<0.005. The average prevalence of elevated hsCRP in the regions was 24.2%, for men - 21.4%, and for women - 25.7% (p<0.005. Significant age-related dynamics of hsCRP (p<0.0001 was found. The average level of hsCRP was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in a cohort of persons with higher education against these with lower level of education. Level of hsCRP as well as prevalence of elevated hsCRP level were higher in villagers than this in the urban population (p<0.05. Prevalence of elevated hsCRP in patients with traditional risk factors after adjustment for sex, age, and region of residence showed that the elevated hsCRP was mostly associated with metabolic factors and diseases that were characterized by systemic inflammation.Conclusion. Elevated level of hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/l was significantly associated with female gender, with an older, less educated, and smoking population of Russians. After the multivariate adjustment there remained significant associations (p<0.0001 of elevated hsCRP level with obesity, including abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia

  17. Microbiological characterization of stable resuspended dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Kováts

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Air quality in the stables is characterized by elevated level of dust and aeroallergens which are supposed to directly cause or exacerbate several respiratory disorders. The most often recognized problem is recurrent airway obstruction (RAO, previously known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. There is some indication that aeroallergens (among them endotoxins may also cause inflammation in human airways and may exceed safe levels in stables. Monitoring studies have covered mainly the determination of the concentration of respirable particles and of culturable fungi and their toxins. However, these particles do not only directly affect the respiratory system, but might act as a carrier conveying toxic contaminants and biological agents such as bacteria. In a typical, 20-horse Hungarian stable, microbial community of respirable fraction of resuspended dust has been characterized to reveal if these particles convey hazardous pathogenic bacteria, posing risk to either horses or staff. Material and Methods: Resuspended dust was sampled using a mobile instrument. The instrument contains a PARTISOL-FRM model 2000 sampler that was operated at a flow rate of 16.7 l/min and a cyclone separator which collected the particulate matter with an aerodynamic size between 1 μm and 10 μm (PM1–10 fraction. Microbial taxa were identified by culture-independent next generation sequencing (NGS of variable 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA gene regions. Results: In total, 1491 different taxa were identified, of them 384 were identified to species level, 961 to genus level. The sample was dominated by common ubiquitous soil and organic material-dwelling taxa. Conclusions: Pathogens occurred at low abundance, and were represented by mostly facultative human pathogens, with the prevalence of Staphylococcus species.

  18. Stable channel of reclaimed tidal lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarifudin, Achmad; Imanuddin, Momon S.; Moerwanto, Arie S.; Suryadi, F. X.

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to develop models of the Operation and Maintenance in the reclaimed tidal marsh area to get a stable channel. The research location is reclaimed tidal delta area Telang I Primary 8 representing land typology A/B and a survey conducted in 13 South Secondary Schemes following existing tertiary Telang I. MIKE - 11 computer models used used to analyze the movement of sediment in the channel in both the Primary channel 8, SPD, SDU and tertiary channels in block 13 South. Calibration model with multiple channels in the field of physical parameters has been performed to obtain results close to the results of measurement modeling sediment movement in the channel. The integration models of MIKE - 11 models with various scenarios are used to model the operation and maintenance of the channel in the tidal marsh area to get a stable channel. According to the scheme P8 - 13S, OM models obtained 75 percent, in which the secondary channel (SPD/SDU) and built flap gate in tertiary channel, get a well prototype model of the stable channel (equilibriums), where the average erosion on P8 at a distance of 3,200 m in the amount of 4,472,049 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the SPD of 963,836 m3 and mean of sedimentation in the tertiary channel of 3,508,213 m3. Similarly, on average erosion P8 by 4,135,649 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the SDU of 681,304 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the tertiary channel of 3,454,345 m3.

  19. Aggressive Fibromatosis: Evidence for a Stable Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF is an uncommon locally infiltrating benign disease of soft tissue for which treatment comprises complete surgical resection. Radiotherapy can be given postoperatively if the margin is incompletely resected. If the tumour is inoperable radiotherapy provides an alternative treatment. Hormone therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy have also been used for unresectable or recurrent disease. All treatment modalities carry an associated morbidity. We believe that the natural history of aggressive fibromatosis may include a period of stable disease without progression, during which time, treatment is not always necessary.

  20. Stable isogeometric analysis of trimmed geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marussig, Benjamin; Zechner, Jürgen; Beer, Gernot; Fries, Thomas-Peter

    2017-04-01

    We explore extended B-splines as a stable basis for isogeometric analysis with trimmed parameter spaces. The stabilization is accomplished by an appropriate substitution of B-splines that may lead to ill-conditioned system matrices. The construction for non-uniform knot vectors is presented. The properties of extended B-splines are examined in the context of interpolation, potential, and linear elasticity problems and excellent results are attained. The analysis is performed by an isogeometric boundary element formulation using collocation. It is argued that extended B-splines provide a flexible and simple stabilization scheme which ideally suits the isogeometric paradigm.

  1. Sustaining high-energy orbits of bi-stable energy harvesters by attractor selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Janav P.; Arrieta, Andres F.

    2017-11-01

    Nonlinear energy harvesters have the potential to efficiently convert energy over a wide frequency range; however, difficulties in attaining and sustaining high-energy oscillations restrict their applicability in practical scenarios. In this letter, we propose an actuation methodology to switch the state of bi-stable harvesters from the low-energy intra-well configuration to the coexisting high-energy inter-well configuration by controlled phase shift perturbations. The strategy is designed to introduce a change in the system state without creating distinct metastable attractors by exploiting the basins of attraction of the coexisting stable attractors. Experimental results indicate that the proposed switching strategy yields a significant improvement in energy transduction capabilities, is highly economical, enabling the rapid recovery of energy spent in the disturbance, and can be practically implemented with widely used low-strain piezoelectric transducers.

  2. On Nash Equilibrium and Evolutionarily Stable States That Are Not Characterised by the Folk Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawei; Kendall, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In evolutionary game theory, evolutionarily stable states are characterised by the folk theorem because exact solutions to the replicator equation are difficult to obtain. It is generally assumed that the folk theorem, which is the fundamental theory for non-cooperative games, defines all Nash equilibria in infinitely repeated games. Here, we prove that Nash equilibria that are not characterised by the folk theorem do exist. By adopting specific reactive strategies, a group of players can be better off by coordinating their actions in repeated games. We call it a type-k equilibrium when a group of k players coordinate their actions and they have no incentive to deviate from their strategies simultaneously. The existence and stability of the type-k equilibrium in general games is discussed. This study shows that the sets of Nash equilibria and evolutionarily stable states have greater cardinality than classic game theory has predicted in many repeated games. PMID:26288088

  3. Remarks on stable and quasi-stable k-strings at large N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armoni, A.; Shifman, M.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss k-strings in the large-N Yang-Mills theory and its supersymmetric extension. Whereas the tension of the bona fide (stable) QCD string is expected to depend only on the N-ality of the representation, tensions that depend on specific representation R are often reported in the lattice literature. In particular, adjoint strings are discussed and found in certain simulations. We clarify this issue by systematically exploiting the notion of the quasi-stable strings which becomes well-defined at large N. The quasi-stable strings with representation-dependent tensions decay, but the decay rate (per unit length per unit time) is suppressed as Λ 2 F(N) where F(N) falls off as a function of N. It can be determined on the case-by-case basis. The quasi-stable strings eventually decay into stable strings whose tension indeed depends only on the N-ality. We also briefly review large-N arguments showing why the Casimir formula for the string tension cannot be correct, and present additional arguments in favor of the sine formula. Finally, we comment on the relevance of our estimates to Euclidean lattice measurements

  4. Revascularisation versus medical treatment in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windecker, Stephan; Stortecky, Stefan; Stefanini, Giulio G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether revascularisation improves prognosis compared with medical treatment among patients with stable coronary artery disease. DESIGN: Bayesian network meta-analyses to combine direct within trial comparisons between treatments with indirect evidence from other trials...... while maintaining randomisation. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: A strategy of initial medical treatment compared with revascularisation by coronary artery bypass grafting or Food and Drug Administration approved techniques for percutaneous revascularization: balloon angioplasty, bare metal...

  5. Multivariate Max-Stable Spatial Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-06

    Analysis of spatial extremes is currently based on univariate processes. Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and explicitly quantified, they are therefore widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extreme events of real processes, such as environmental phenomena, it may be useful to study several spatial variables simultaneously. To this end, we extend some theoretical results and applications of max-stable processes to the multivariate setting to analyze extreme events of several variables observed across space. In particular, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. Then, we define a Poisson process construction in the multivariate setting and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extremevalue, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the BrownResnick models. Inferential aspects of those models based on composite likelihoods are developed. We present results of various Monte Carlo simulations and of an application to a dataset of summer daily temperature maxima and minima in Oklahoma, U.S.A., highlighting the utility of working with multivariate models in contrast to the univariate case. Based on joint work with Simone Padoan and Huiyan Sang.

  6. Application of stable isotope to breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yasuto

    1988-01-01

    Needles to say, radioisotopes have good characteristics as a tracer for examining biological functions. In fact, scyntigraphy is widely used over Japan. It is true, however, that there are some difficulties in applying radioisotopes to humans. Thus, greater attention began to be attracted to stable isotopes in the late 1960s, because these substances can be used for infants and pregnant women. They can be stored for a long period of time since they do not suffer damping as in the case of radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a tracer, stable isotopes can provide structural-chemical information including the position of isotope labels, and the mass and atomic composition of fragment ions. Such techniques as NMR spectroscopy is employed for this purpose. The method is currently used to perform examinations of congenital metabolic disorders. The carbon isotopes of 13 C and 14 C are used for breath test. Compounds labeled with these isotopes are administered and their ratio to the total CO 2 in breath is measured to diagnose diseases. In the early 1970s, 13 C has come into use for breath test. Similar breath test is applied to diagnosis of the bacterial overgrowth syndrome and ileal dysfunction syndrome. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Stable states in a strong IR field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, Francis

    2015-05-01

    It is found that 10% of atoms stay in the quasi-stable states after being exposed to intense laser or microwave (MW) pulses, even though the pulses' intensity is much stronger than that needed for static fields ionization. The reason why atoms survive those strong pulses has attracted growing attentions. A. Arakelyan et al. have observed the optical spectra of the surviving Lithium atoms after interaction with intense 38-GHz MW fields for more than 1000 cycles, and the spectra exhibit a periodic train of peaks 38 GHz apart. It suggests that those weakly bound Rydberg electrons seldom go back to the ionic core, where the cycle average energy exchange happens. In this study, we are interested in the electron behavior in the presence of intense infrared fields with a much shorter wavelength (1000 nm). By solving the full 3D time dependent Schrodinger equation, we calculate the spectra of the surviving atoms under intense IR fields. Our numerical calculations show atoms survive the intense field in quasi-stable states for a long time, and the optical spectra are obviously modulated by the IR frequency. Through tuning the ponderomotive energy, we see how field parameters affect the behavior of electrons. Different atoms, such as Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, and Sodium, are tested to see how atom's energy structures influence the results.

  8. Color stable manganese-doped phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Robert Joseph [Burnt Hills, NY; Setlur, Anant Achyut [Niskayuna, NY; Deshpande, Anirudha Rajendra [Twinsburg, OH; Grigorov, Ljudmil Slavchev [Sofia, BG

    2012-08-28

    A process for preparing color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphors includes providing a phosphor of formula I; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]:Mn.sup.+4 I and contacting the phosphor in particulate form with a saturated solution of a composition of formula II in aqueous hydrofluoric acid; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]; II wherein A is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, NR.sub.4 or a combination thereof; M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, Al, Ga, In, Sc, Y, La, Nb, Ta, Bi, Gd, or a combination thereof; R is H, lower alkyl, or a combination thereof; x is the absolute value of the charge of the [MF.sub.y] ion; and y is 5, 6 or 7. In particular embodiments, M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, or a combination thereof. A lighting apparatus capable of emitting white light includes a semiconductor light source; and a phosphor composition radiationally coupled to the light source, and which includes a color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphor.

  9. Distribution Learning in Evolutionary Strategies and Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Oswin

    The thesis is concerned with learning distributions in the two settings of Evolutionary Strategies (ESs) and Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs). In both cases, the distributions are learned from samples, albeit with different goals. Evolutionary Strategies are concerned with finding an optimum...... of an objective function for which the gradient is not available. The algorithm samples function values from a search distribution and adapts the parameters of the distribution during the optimization process. In the thesis, new update schemes for the covariance matrix used by the CMA-ES are investigated....... An update rule using a triangular Cholesky factor is introduced and the additive covariance matrix update is replaced by a multiplicative rule. Experiments show that the proposed methods improve performance of the CMA-ES either computationally or by allowing simpler handling of constraints. The second part...

  10. Radioactive and Stable Cesium Distributions in Fukushima Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioshchenko, V.; Kivva, S.; Konoplev, A.; Nanba, K.; Onda, Y.; Takase, T.; Zheleznyak, M.

    2015-12-01

    Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident has resulted in release into the environment of large amounts of 134Cs and 137Cs and in radioactive contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In Fukushima prefecture up to 2/3 of the most contaminated territory is covered with forests, and understanding of its further fate in the forest ecosystems is essential for elaboration of the long-term forestry strategy. At the early stage, radiocesium was intercepted by the trees' canopies. Numerous studies reported redistribution of the initial fallout in Fukushima forests in the followed period due to litterfall and leaching of radiocesium from the foliage with precipitations. By now these processes have transported the major part of deposited radiocesium to litter and soil compartments. Future levels of radiocesium activities in the aboveground biomass will depend on relative efficiencies of the radiocesium root uptake and its return to the soil surface with litterfall and precipitations. Radiocesium soil-to-plant transfer factors for typical tree species, soil types and landscape conditions of Fukushima prefecture have not been studied well; moreover, they may change in time with approaching to the equilibrium between radioactive and stable cesium isotopes in the ecosystem. The present paper reports the results of several ongoing projects carried out by Institute of Environmental Radioactivity of Fukushima University at the experimental sites in Fukushima prefecture. For typical Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest, we determined distributions of radiocesium in the ecosystem and in the aboveground biomass compartments by the end of 2014; available results for 2015 are presented, too, as well as the results of test application of D-shuttle dosimeters for characterization of seasonal variations of radiocesium activity in wood. Based on the radiocesium activities in biomass we derived the upper estimates of its incorporation and root uptake fluxes, 0.7% and 3% of the total

  11. Clinical presentation and management of stable coronary artery disease in Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Pichlhöfer

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in Austria. However, no systematic information exists regarding characteristics and treatments of contemporary patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD in Austria. We assembled two retrospective physicians' databases to describe demographics, clinical profiles, and therapeutic strategies in patients with stable CAD. In addition, we compared patient profiles of secondary care internists and hospital-based cardiologists with those of general practitioners in a primary care setting outside of hospital.The study population was identified from retrospective chart review of 1020 patients from 106 primary care physicians in Austria (ProCor II registry, and was merged with a previous similar database of 1280 patients under secondary care (ProCor I registry to yield a total patient number of 2300.Female patients with stable CAD were older, had more angina and/or heart failure symptoms, and more depression than males. Female gender, type 2 diabetes mellitus, higher CCS class and asthma/COPD were predictors of elevated heart rate, while previous coronary events/revascularization predicted a lower heart rate in multivariate analysis. There were no significant differences with regard to characteristics and management of patients of general practitioners in the primary care setting versus internists in secondary care.Characteristics and treatments of unselected patients with stable ischemic heart disease in Austria resemble the pattern of large international registries of stable ischemic heart disease, with the exception that diabetes and systemic hypertension were more prevalent.

  12. Stable propagation of 'selfish'genetic elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These elements exhibit a variety of `selfish' strategies to ensure their replication and propagation during the growth of their host cells. To establish long-term ... The 2 m plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related yeast plasmids provide models for optimized eukaryotic selfish DNA elements. Selfish DNA elements ...

  13. Estimation of Time-Varying Autoregressive Symmetric Alpha Stable

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the last decade alpha-stable distributions have become a standard model for impulsive data. Especially the linear symmetric alpha-stable processes have found...

  14. Stable CSR in Storage Rings: A Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user's shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  15. Stable CSR in storage rings: A model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Venturini, Marco; Abo-Bakr, Michael; Feikes, Jorge; Holldack, Karsten; Kuske, Peter; Wustefeld, Godehart; Hubers, Heinz-Willerm; Warnock, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user s shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  16. Chance and stability stable distributions and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Uchaikin, Vladimir V

    1999-01-01

    An introduction to the theory of stable distributions and their applications. It contains a modern outlook on the mathematical aspects of the theory. The authors explain numerous peculiarities of stable distributions and describe the principle concept of probability theory and function analysis. A significant part of the book is devoted to applications of stable distributions. Another notable feature is the material on the interconnection of stable laws with fractals, chaos and anomalous transport processes.

  17. A Note on Interpolation of Stable Processes | Nassiuma | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interpolation procedures tailored for gaussian processes may not be applied to infinite variance stable processes. Alternative techniques suitable for a limited set of stable case with index α∈(1,2] were initially studied by Pourahmadi (1984) for harmonizable processes. This was later extended to the ARMA stable process ...

  18. Respiratory depression by stable xenon in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies with stable xenon have recently become practical. Xenon pharmacology is thus a more than academic interest. The authors studied the respiratory response of three trained goats to a mixture of 70% xenon, 30% oxygen. The relatively high xenon concentration was used because of the animals' resistance to anesthetic effects. Two other goats were treated with equivalent anesthetic concentration of nitrous oxide and halothane. The xenon-treated animals showed respiratory depression, in contrast to the stimulating effects observed with halothane and nitrous oxide. Elevation of PaCO/sub 2/ was significant and would substantially increase cRBF. Their findings emphasize the need to monitor ventilation and respond appropriately if necessary

  19. The production of stable isotopes in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgel, M.; Iglesias, J.; Casas, J.; Saviron, J. M.; Quintanilla, M.

    1965-07-01

    The activities developed in the field of the production of stable isotopes by means of ion-exchange chromatography and thermal diffusion techniques are reported. The first method was used to study the separation of the nitrogen and boron isotopes, whereby the separation factor was determined by the break through method. Values ranging from 1,028 to 1,022 were obtained for the separation factor of nitrogen by using ammonium hydroxide solutions while the corresponding values as obtained for boron amounted to 1,035-1,027 using boric acid solutions. Using ammonium chloride or acetate and sodium borate, respectively, resulted in the obtention of values for the separation factor approaching unity. The isotopic separation has been carried out according to the method of development by displacement. The separation of the isotopes of the noble gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon has been accomplished resorting to the method of thermal diffusion. (Author) 16 refs.

  20. The uniqueness of stable crack growth data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1981-01-01

    The paper addresses the uniqueness of the stable crack growth relation, with particular reference to creep crack growth and stress corrosion crack growth, where it is the pattern to use laboratory data which relates the stress intensity K to the crack growth rate dc/dt. Simple models are used to define the conditions under which the K versus dc/dt data is unique. Extensive use is made of the Dugdale-Bilby-Cottrell-Swinden (DBCS) model, in which the yield accompanying crack growth is assumed to be confined to an infinitesimal thin strip coplanar with the growing crack. The DBCS model can be modified to give an incremental growth criterion, which is in the form of a differential equation relating the stress intensity to crack length. The conditions under which this equation gives a unique relation between stress intensity and crack length are then investigated. (orig./HP)

  1. The production of stable isotopes in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urgel, M.; Iglesias, J.; Casas, J.; Saviron, J. M.; Quintanilla, M.

    1965-01-01

    The activities developed in the field of the production of stable isotopes by means of ion-exchange chromatography and thermal diffusion techniques are reported. The first method was used to study the separation of the nitrogen and boron isotopes, whereby the separation factor was determined by the break through method. Values ranging from 1,028 to 1,022 were obtained for the separation factor of nitrogen by using ammonium hydroxide solutions while the corresponding values as obtained for boron amounted to 1,035-1,027 using boric acid solutions. Using ammonium chloride or acetate and sodium borate, respectively, resulted in the obtention of values for the separation factor approaching unity. The isotopic separation has been carried out according to the method of development by displacement. The separation of the isotopes of the noble gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon has been accomplished resorting to the method of thermal diffusion. (Author) 16 refs

  2. The Search for Stable, Massive, Elementary Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we review the experimental and observational searches for stable, massive, elementary particles other than the electron and proton. The particles may be neutral, may have unit charge or may have fractional charge. They may interact through the strong, electromagnetic, weak or gravitational forces or through some unknown force. The purpose of this review is to provide a guide for future searches--what is known, what is not known, and what appear to be the most fruitful areas for new searches. A variety of experimental and observational methods such as accelerator experiments, cosmic ray studies, searches for exotic particles in bulk matter and searches using astrophysical observations is included in this review

  3. Multivariate max-stable spatial processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2015-02-11

    Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and quantified, so they are widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extremes, it may be useful to study several variables simultaneously. To this end, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. We define a Poisson process construction and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extreme-value, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the Brown–Resnick models. We develop inference for the models based on composite likelihoods. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations and an application to daily maximum wind speed and wind gust.

  4. Stable computation of generalized singular values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drmac, Z.; Jessup, E.R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study floating-point computation of the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) of a general matrix pair (A, B), where A and B are real matrices with the same numbers of columns. The GSVD is a powerful analytical and computational tool. For instance, the GSVD is an implicit way to solve the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problem Kx = {lambda}Mx, where K = A{sup {tau}}A and M = B{sup {tau}}B. Our goal is to develop stable numerical algorithms for the GSVD that are capable of computing the singular value approximations with the high relative accuracy that the perturbation theory says is possible. We assume that the singular values are well-determined by the data, i.e., that small relative perturbations {delta}A and {delta}B (pointwise rounding errors, for example) cause in each singular value {sigma} of (A, B) only a small relative perturbation {vert_bar}{delta}{sigma}{vert_bar}/{sigma}.

  5. Stable Oxygen-18 and Deuterium Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sascha

    The application of stable Oxygen-18 (18O) and Deuterium (2H) isotopes, as a tracer for fluxes between different compartments of the water cycle was subject of the present PhD-thesis. During a three year period, temporal data from a wide range of water cycle constituents was collected from...... the Skjern River catchment, Denmark. The presented applications focused on studying the isotopic 'input signal' to the hydrosphere in the form of precipitation, the isotopic 'output signal' with its related dynamic processes at a coastal saltwater-freshwater interface (groundwater isotopes) and the temporal...... development within a given lowland headwater catchment (stream water isotopes). Based on our investigations on the precipitation isotopic composition a local meteoric water line (LMWL) was constructed and expressed as: δ2H=7.4 δ18O + 5.36‰. Moreover, we showed that under maritime temperature climate influence...

  6. Stable orbits for lunar landing assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoleo, Ennio; Cinelli, Marco; Ortore, Emiliano; Circi, Christian

    2017-10-01

    To improve lunar landing performances in terms of mission costs, trajectory determination and visibility the use of a single probe located over an assistance orbit around the Moon has been taken into consideration. To this end, the properties of two quasi-circular orbits characterised by a stable behaviour of semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination have been investigated. The analysis has demonstrated the possibility of using an assistance probe, located over one of these orbits, as a relay satellite between lander and Earth, even in the case of landings on the far side of the Moon. A comparison about the accuracy in retrieving the lander's state with respect to the use of a probe located in the Lagrangian point L2 of the Earth-Moon system has also been carried out.

  7. Análise da rentabilidade econômica dos reflorestamentos com essências nativas brasileiras: o caso do Estado de São Paulo Economic profitability analysis of reforestation with native trees: the state of São Paulo's case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arimatéia Rabelo Machado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, analisou-se a rentabilidade econômica dos reflorestamentos com essências nativas brasileiras destinados à produção de toras, considerando como caso em estudo o Estado de São Paulo. Na revisão de literatura, constatou-se que poucos são os trabalhos publicados a respeito do reflorestamento com essências nativas e com um longo período de observação. Dentre esses trabalhos, destacou-se um, no qual os autores recomendaram três espécies florestais como viáveis para reflorestamentos comerciais: Centrolobium tomentosum (araruva, Balfourodendron riedelianum (pau-marfim e Araucaria angustifolia (pinheiro-brasileiro. Após recuperar as informações técnicas dos experimentos com essas essências nativas, realizou-se a análise de rentabilidade econômica de possíveis projetos, em condições deterministas e de risco. Concluiu-se que, do ponto de vista privado, os projetos de reflorestamento com essas essências nativas são viáveis economicamente. Diante desse cenário, sugerem-se novas linhas de pesquisa técnica capazes de gerar resultados que assegurem maior confiabilidade e ampliação na rentabilidade dos projetos de reflorestamento com essências nativas brasileiras.This paper analyzes the economic profitability of native-tree reforestation for the production of sawlogs. The projects evaluated are experimental rather than commercial and are located in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. These experimental plots were reforested with the native tree species Centrolobium tomentosum ("araruva", Balforodendron riedelianum ("pau-marfim" and Araucaria angustifolia ("pinheiro-brasileiro", recommended for their economic value by a previous evaluation of long-term native-tree reforestation. Economic profitability analyses were made under both deterministic and risk conditions using data from the reforestation experiments. It was found that all the experiments would be profitable. This paper concludes with the suggestion

  8. Stable glomerular filtration rate in normotensive IDDM patients with stable microalbuminuria. A 5-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E R; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hommel, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term course of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in IDDM patients with microalbuminuria in order to identify patients with stable or declining kidney function over a 5-year study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty normotensive (129 +/- 11/80 +/- 8 mmHg) IDDM...

  9. Stable carbides in transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrkowski, R.

    1991-01-01

    In the present work different techniques were employed for the identification of stable carbides in two sets of transition metal alloys of wide technological application: a set of three high alloy M2 type steels in which W and/or Mo were total or partially replaced by Nb, and a Zr-2.5 Nb alloy. The M2 steel is a high speed steel worldwide used and the Zr-2.5 Nb alloy is the base material for the pressure tubes in the CANDU type nuclear reactors. The stability of carbide was studied in the frame of Goldschmidt's theory of interstitial alloys. The identification of stable carbides in steels was performed by determining their metallic composition with an energy analyzer attached to the scanning electron microscope (SEM). By these means typical carbides of the M2 steel, MC and M 6 C, were found. Moreover, the spatial and size distribution of carbide particles were determined after different heat treatments, and both microstructure and microhardness were correlated with the appearance of the secondary hardening phenomenon. In the Zr-Nb alloy a study of the α and β phases present after different heat treatments was performed with optical and SEM metallographic techniques, with the guide of Abriata and Bolcich phase diagram. The α-β interphase boundaries were characterized as short circuits for diffusion with radiotracer techniques and applying Fisher-Bondy-Martin model. The precipitation of carbides was promoted by heat treatments that produced first the C diffusion into the samples at high temperatures (β phase), and then the precipitation of carbide particles at lower temperature (α phase or (α+β)) two phase field. The precipitated carbides were identified as (Zr, Nb)C 1-x with SEM, electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction techniques. (Author) [es

  10. Stable isotopes as tracers for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giussani, A.; Bartolo, D. de; Cantone, M.C.; Zilker, T.; Greim, H.; Roth, P.; Werner, E.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of internal dose after incorporation of radionuclides requires as input data the knowledge of the uptake into the systemic circulation, the distribution and retention in selected organs, the excretion pathways. Realistic biokinetic models are needed for reliable estimates, correct interpretation of bioassay measurements, appropriate decision-making in radiological emergencies. For many radionuclides, however, the biokinetic models currently recommended are often generic, with very few specific parameters, due to the lack of experimental human data. The use of stable isotopes as tracers enables to determine important biokinetic parameters such as the fractional uptake, the clearance from the transfer compartment, the excretion patterns under experimentally controlled conditions. The subjects investigated are not exposed to any radiation risk, so this technique enables to obtain biokinetic information also for sensitive groups of the population, such as children or pregnant women, and to determine age- and gender-specific model parameters. Sophisticated analytical method, able to discriminate and quantitate different isotopes of the same element in complex matrices such as biological fluids, have to be purposely developed and optimized. Activation analysis and mass spectrometry are the most proper techniques of choice. Experiments were conducted with molybdenum, tellurium, ruthenium and zirconium. Activation analysis with protons, thermal ionization mass spectrometry and inductively coupled mass spectrometry were employed for the determination of stable isotopes of these elements in blood plasma and urine samples. Several deviations from the predictions of the ICRP models were observed. For example, modifications to the current model for molybdenum have been suggested on the basis of these results. The dose coefficients to the target regions calculated with this proposed model are even of one order of magnitude different than the ICRP estimates

  11. Research on Taxi Driver Strategy Game Evolution with Carpooling Detour

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; He, Ruichun; Ma, Changxi; Gao, Mingxia

    2018-01-01

    For the problem of taxi carpooling detour, this paper studies driver strategy choice with carpooling detour. The model of taxi driver strategy evolution with carpooling detour is built based on prospect theory and evolution game theory. Driver stable strategies are analyzed under the conditions of complaint mechanism and absence of mechanism, respectively. The results show that passenger’s complaint mechanism can effectively decrease the phenomenon of driver refusing passengers with carpoolin...

  12. Toward an Active and Stable Catalyst for Oxygen Evolution in Acidic Media: Ti-Stabilized MnO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Rasmus; Paoli, Elisa Antares; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Catalysts are required for the oxygen evolution reaction, which are abundant, active, and stable in acid. MnO2 is a promising candidate material for this purpose. However, it dissolves at high overpotentials. Using first-principles calculations, a strategy to mitigate this problem by decorating...

  13. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle John

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. Methods The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13 in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Results Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-β-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Conclusion Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to

  14. Stable hovering of a jellyfish-like flying machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristroph, Leif; Childress, Stephen

    2014-03-06

    Ornithopters, or flapping-wing aircraft, offer an alternative to helicopters in achieving manoeuvrability at small scales, although stabilizing such aerial vehicles remains a key challenge. Here, we present a hovering machine that achieves self-righting flight using flapping wings alone, without relying on additional aerodynamic surfaces and without feedback control. We design, construct and test-fly a prototype that opens and closes four wings, resembling the motions of swimming jellyfish more so than any insect or bird. Measurements of lift show the benefits of wing flexing and the importance of selecting a wing size appropriate to the motor. Furthermore, we use high-speed video and motion tracking to show that the body orientation is stable during ascending, forward and hovering flight modes. Our experimental measurements are used to inform an aerodynamic model of stability that reveals the importance of centre-of-mass location and the coupling of body translation and rotation. These results show the promise of flapping-flight strategies beyond those that directly mimic the wing motions of flying animals.

  15. Stable aqueous dispersions of optically and electronically active phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joohoon; Wells, Spencer A; Wood, Joshua D; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Liu, Xiaolong; Ryder, Christopher R; Zhu, Jian; Guest, Jeffrey R; Husko, Chad A; Hersam, Mark C

    2016-10-18

    Understanding and exploiting the remarkable optical and electronic properties of phosphorene require mass production methods that avoid chemical degradation. Although solution-based strategies have been developed for scalable exfoliation of black phosphorus, these techniques have thus far used anhydrous organic solvents in an effort to minimize exposure to known oxidants, but at the cost of limited exfoliation yield and flake size distribution. Here, we present an alternative phosphorene production method based on surfactant-assisted exfoliation and postprocessing of black phosphorus in deoxygenated water. From comprehensive microscopic and spectroscopic analysis, this approach is shown to yield phosphorene dispersions that are stable, highly concentrated, and comparable to micromechanically exfoliated phosphorene in structure and chemistry. Due to the high exfoliation efficiency of this process, the resulting phosphorene flakes are thinner than anhydrous organic solvent dispersions, thus allowing the observation of layer-dependent photoluminescence down to the monolayer limit. Furthermore, to demonstrate preservation of electronic properties following solution processing, the aqueous-exfoliated phosphorene flakes are used in field-effect transistors with high drive currents and current modulation ratios. Overall, this method enables the isolation and mass production of few-layer phosphorene, which will accelerate ongoing efforts to realize a diverse range of phosphorene-based applications.

  16. Integrated crop pollination: Combining strategies to ensure stable and sustainable yields of pollination-dependent crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeting the nutritional needs of our growing human population will be increasingly dependent on bees and other pollinators that provide the essential delivery of pollen to crop flowers during bloom. Honey bees have experienced population declines in some regions, and similar changes are evident for ...

  17. Stable isotope analysis in primatology: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Paul A; Loudon, James E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2012-11-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become an important tool in ecology over the last 25 years. A wealth of ecological information is stored in animal tissues in the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of several elements, particularly carbon and nitrogen, because these isotopes navigate through ecological processes in predictable ways. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been measured in most primate taxonomic groups and have yielded information about dietary content, dietary variability, and habitat use. Stable isotopes have recently proven useful for addressing more fine-grained questions about niche dynamics and anthropogenic effects on feeding ecology. Here, we discuss stable carbon and nitrogen isotope systematics and critically review the published stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data for modern primates with a focus on the problems and prospects for future stable isotope applications in primatology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Tungsten Stable Isotope Compositions of Ferromanganese Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, K.; Barling, J.; Hein, J. R.; Schauble, E. A.; Halliday, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    We report the first accurate and precise data for mass-dependent fractionation of tungsten (W) stable isotopes, using a double spike technique and MC-ICPMS. Results are expressed relative to the NIST 3136 W isotope standard as per mil deviations in 186W/184W (δ186W). Although heavy element mass-dependent fractionations are expected to be small, Tl and U both display significant low temperature isotopic fractionations. Theoretical calculations indicate that W nuclear volume isotopic effects should be smaller than mass-dependent fractionations at low temperatures. Hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts precipitate directly from seawater and have been used as paleoceanographic recorders of temporal changes in seawater chemistry. Crusts are strongly enriched in W and other metals, and are a promising medium for exploring W isotopic variability. Tungsten has a relatively long residence time in seawater of ~61,000 years, mainly as the tungstate ion (WO42-). Water depth profiles show conservative behaviour. During adsorption on Fe-Mn crusts, W species form inner-sphere complexes in the hexavalent (W6+) state. The major host phase is thought to be Mn oxides and the lighter W isotope is expected to be absorbed preferentially. Surface scrapings of 13 globally distributed hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts display δ186W from -0.08 to -0.22‰ (±0.03‰, 2sd). A trend toward lighter W isotope composition exists with increasing water depth (~1500 to ~5200m) and W concentration. One hydrothermal Mn-oxide sample is anomalously light and Mn nodules are both heavy and light relative to Fe-Mn crusts. Tungsten speciation depends on concentration, pH, and time in solution and is not well understood because of the extremely slow kinetics of the reactions. In addition, speciation of aqueous and/or adsorbed species might be sensitive to pressure, showing similar thermodynamic stability but different effective volumes. Thus, W stable isotopes might be used as a water-depth barometer in

  19. Stable nuclear transformation of Eudorina elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerche Kai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental step in evolution was the transition from unicellular to differentiated, multicellular organisms. Volvocine algae have been used for several decades as a model lineage to investigate the evolutionary aspects of multicellularity and cellular differentiation. There are two well-studied volvocine species, a unicellular alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and a multicellular alga with differentiated cell types (Volvox carteri. Species with intermediate characteristics also exist, which blur the boundaries between unicellularity and differentiated multicellularity. These species include the globular alga Eudorina elegans, which is composed of 16–32 cells. However, detailed molecular analyses of E. elegans require genetic manipulation. Unfortunately, genetic engineering has not yet been established for Eudorina, and only limited DNA and/or protein sequence information is available. Results Here, we describe the stable nuclear transformation of E. elegans by particle bombardment using both a chimeric selectable marker and reporter genes from different heterologous sources. Transgenic algae resistant to paromomycin were achieved using the aminoglycoside 3′-phosphotransferase VIII (aphVIII gene of Streptomyces rimosus, an actinobacterium, under the control of an artificial promoter consisting of two V. carteri promoters in tandem. Transformants exhibited an increase in resistance to paromomycin by up to 333-fold. Co-transformation with non-selectable plasmids was achieved with a rate of 50 - 100%. The luciferase (gluc gene from the marine copepod Gaussia princeps, which previously was engineered to match the codon usage of C. reinhardtii, was used as a reporter gene. The expression of gluc was mediated by promoters from C. reinhardtii and V. carteri. Heterologous heat shock promoters induced an increase in luciferase activity (up to 600-fold at elevated temperatures. Long-term stability and both constitutive and

  20. Introducing Stable Radicals into Molecular Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Frasconi, Marco; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2017-09-27

    Ever since their discovery, stable organic radicals have received considerable attention from chemists because of their unique optical, electronic, and magnetic properties. Currently, one of the most appealing challenges for the chemical community is to develop sophisticated artificial molecular machines that can do work by consuming external energy, after the manner of motor proteins. In this context, radical-pairing interactions are important in addressing the challenge: they not only provide supramolecular assistance in the synthesis of molecular machines but also open the door to developing multifunctional systems relying on the various properties of the radical species. In this Outlook, by taking the radical cationic state of 1,1'-dialkyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (BIPY •+ ) as an example, we highlight our research on the art and science of introducing radical-pairing interactions into functional systems, from prototypical molecular switches to complex molecular machines, followed by a discussion of the (i) limitations of the current systems and (ii) future research directions for designing BIPY •+ -based molecular machines with useful functions.

  1. Canonical, stable, general mapping using context schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Adam M; Rosen, Yohei; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2015-11-15

    Sequence mapping is the cornerstone of modern genomics. However, most existing sequence mapping algorithms are insufficiently general. We introduce context schemes: a method that allows the unambiguous recognition of a reference base in a query sequence by testing the query for substrings from an algorithmically defined set. Context schemes only map when there is a unique best mapping, and define this criterion uniformly for all reference bases. Mappings under context schemes can also be made stable, so that extension of the query string (e.g. by increasing read length) will not alter the mapping of previously mapped positions. Context schemes are general in several senses. They natively support the detection of arbitrary complex, novel rearrangements relative to the reference. They can scale over orders of magnitude in query sequence length. Finally, they are trivially extensible to more complex reference structures, such as graphs, that incorporate additional variation. We demonstrate empirically the existence of high-performance context schemes, and present efficient context scheme mapping algorithms. The software test framework created for this study is available from https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/adamnovak/sequence-graphs/. anovak@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Chemically Stable Lipids for Membrane Protein Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishchenko, Andrii; Peng, Lingling; Zinovev, Egor; Vlasov, Alexey; Lee, Sung Chang; Kuklin, Alexander; Mishin, Alexey; Borshchevskiy, Valentin; Zhang, Qinghai; Cherezov, Vadim (MIPT); (USC); (Scripps)

    2017-05-01

    The lipidic cubic phase (LCP) has been widely recognized as a promising membrane-mimicking matrix for biophysical studies of membrane proteins and their crystallization in a lipidic environment. Application of this material to a wide variety of membrane proteins, however, is hindered due to a limited number of available host lipids, mostly monoacylglycerols (MAGs). Here, we designed, synthesized, and characterized a series of chemically stable lipids resistant to hydrolysis, with properties complementary to the widely used MAGs. In order to assess their potential to serve as host lipids for crystallization, we characterized the phase properties and lattice parameters of mesophases made of two most promising lipids at a variety of different conditions by polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. Both lipids showed remarkable chemical stability and an extended LCP region in the phase diagram covering a wide range of temperatures down to 4 °C. One of these lipids has been used for crystallization and structure determination of a prototypical membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin at 4 and 20 °C.

  3. 26 S proteasomes function as stable entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Tanaka, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    , shuttles between a free state and the 26-S proteasome, bringing substrate to the complex. However, S5a was not found in the free state in HeLa cells. Besides, all subunits in PA700, including S5a, exchanged at similar low rates. It therefore seems that 26-S proteasomes function as stable entities during...... dissociate and reassemble during initiation of protein degradation in a ternary complex with the substrate, as in the dissociation-reassembly cycles found for ribosomes and the chaperonin GroEL/GroES. Here we followed disassembly and assembly of 26-S proteasomes in cell extracts as the exchange of PA700...... subunits between mouse and human 26-S proteasomes. Compared to the rate of proteolysis in the same extract, the disassembly-reassembly cycle was much too slow to present an obligatory step in a degradation cycle. It has been suggested that subunit S5a (Mcb1, Rpn10), which binds poly-ubiquitin substrates...

  4. Migration, fertility, and aging in stable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Juha M

    2008-08-01

    Fertility is below replacement level in all European countries, and population growth is expected to decline in the coming decades. Increasing life expectancy will accentuate concomitant aging of the population. Migration has been seen as a possible means to decelerate aging. In this article, I introduce a stable, open-population model in which cohort net migration is proportional to births. In this case, the migration-fertility trade-off can be studied with particular ease. I show that although migration can increase the growth rate, which tends to make the age distribution younger, it also has an opposite effect because of its typical age pattern. I capture the effect of the age pattern of net migration in a migration-survivor function. The effect of net migration on growth is quantified with data from 17 European countries. I show that some countries already have a level of migration that will lead to stationarity. For other countries with asymptotically declining population, migration still provides opportunities for slowing down aging of the population as a whole.

  5. Shelf-stable foods through irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This survey has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of earlier reports, the last published in 1990. The information presented refers mostly to reference materials for trace element constituents; however, information is also included on a number of other selected measurands of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes, anions, cations, organometallic compounds and organic contaminants. The database presently contains over 10,000 analyte values for 455 measurands in 650 reference materials produced by 30 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the materials, the unit size supplied, and recommended minimum weight of material for analysis is also provided, if this information is available to the authors. It is expected that this survey will help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance purposes that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, their samples to be analyzed. 22 refs, 2 tabs

  6. STABLE ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY OF MASSIVE ICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurij K. Vasil’chuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises stable-isotope research on massive ice in the Russian and North American Arctic, and includes the latest understanding of massive-ice formation. A new classification of massive-ice complexes is proposed, encompassing the range and variabilityof massive ice. It distinguishes two new categories of massive-ice complexes: homogeneousmassive-ice complexes have a similar structure, properties and genesis throughout, whereasheterogeneous massive-ice complexes vary spatially (in their structure and properties andgenetically within a locality and consist of two or more homogeneous massive-ice bodies.Analysis of pollen and spores in massive ice from Subarctic regions and from ice and snow cover of Arctic ice caps assists with interpretation of the origin of massive ice. Radiocarbon ages of massive ice and host sediments are considered together with isotope values of heavy oxygen and deuterium from massive ice plotted at a uniform scale in order to assist interpretation and correlation of the ice.

  7. LHC Report: Towards stable beams and collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, the LHC re-commissioning with beam has continued at a brisk pace. The first collisions of 2011 were produced on 2 March, with stable beams and collisions for physics planned for the coming days. Low intensity beams with just a few bunches of particles were used to test the energy ramp to 3.5 TeV and the squeeze. The results were successful and, as a by-product, the first collisions of 2011 were recorded 2 March. One of the main activities carried out by the operation teams has been the careful set-up of the collimation system, and the injection and beam dump protection devices. The collimation system provides essential beam cleaning, preventing stray particles from impacting other elements of the machine, particularly the superconducting magnets. In addition to the collimation system, also the injection and beam dump protection devices perform a vital machine protection role, as they detect any beam that might be mis-directed during rare, but not totally unavoidable, hardware hiccups...

  8. Stable Isotope Group 1984 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    The work of the group in 1984 is described and includes studies in isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation. Geothermal studies have decreased compared to other years, but major data summaries were made for Wairakei and Ngawha. The hydrology of Whakarewarewa and Rotorua is being elucidated using water isotopes. Models of the subsurface flows at Kawerau and Ngawha are being made to relate fluid to mineral isotope compositions. A study of the δ 13 C and δ 34 S compositions of New Zealand oils has been started. Groups of oils of related origin are being defined, and compositions will be compared with those of potential source rocks. A method was developed for isotope analysis of sulphur in rocks. The isotopic composition of water is being used to identify and characterise groundwater aquifers in the Wairarapa and at Poverty Bay. Stable carbon isotopes have been used to identify food sources for invertebrates, and to show biochemical pathways in lactation by cows. The geochronology group is involved in major studies in Antarctica, using U-Pb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. Rocks from North Victoria Land, Marie Byrd Land and the USARP mountains are being compared with possible correlatives in New Zealand and Argentina. Strontium isotope data is being applied to the origin of magmas in several regions of New Zealand. The K-Ar data is being stored on computer files. Fission track measurements are being applied to unravel uplift histories in Westland and Taranaki

  9. Optimal Offering and Operating Strategy for a Large Wind-Storage System as a Price Maker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2017-01-01

    and real-time operation policies to maximize their overall profit. As participants with large capacity in electricity markets can influence cleared prices by strategic offering, a large scaled WFESS is assumed to be a price maker in day-ahead markets. Correspondingly, the strategy considers influence...... of offering quantity on cleared day-ahead prices, and adopts linear decision rules as the real time control strategy. These allow enhancing overall profits from both day-ahead and balancing markets. The integrated price-maker strategy is formulated as a stochastic programming problem, where uncertainty......Wind farms and energy storage systems are playing increasingly more important roles in power systems, which makes their offering non-negligible in some markets. From the perspective of wind farm-energy storage systems (WF-ESS), this paper proposes an integrated strategy of day-ahead offering...

  10. Embryotoxicity of stable isotopes and use of stable isotopes in studies of teratogenetic mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielmann, H.; Nau, H.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments on teratogenic effects of stable isotopes from our own and other laboratories are evaluated. In the first series of investigations, the enrichment of the stable isotope 13 C derived from U- 13 C-glucose was studied in mouse embryos at various stages of development, including limb buds in organ culture. Preimplantation mouse embryos incubated in vitro in 13 C-enriched medium for 48 hours showed normal development during subsequent differentiation in vitro and also in vivo after embryo transfer to faster mothers. These embryos were 15% to 20% enriched in 13 C. Administration of U-13-C-glucose to pregnant mice during organogenesis led to an increase of the absolute 13 C content of the embryo for several days after the end of isotope administration, whereas the enrichment in maternal tissue decreased. No alterations of embryonic development were detected due to stable isotope enrichment. Development of cultured mouse limb buds was unaffected by incubation with 82 mol% U- 13 C-glucose as judged from morphologic and biochemical criteria. The second part of the article describes the value of deuterium-labeled drugs as probes into the mechanism of activation of teratogenic metabolites. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics as well as the teratogenicity between cyclophosphamide and some specific deuterium-labeled analogues showed that the isotope effect observed can be related to a particular metabolic pathway crucial for teratogenic activation by this drug

  11. [Angle-stable fixation of intramedullary nails using the Angular Stable Locking System® (ASLS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höntzsch, D; Blauth, M; Attal, R

    2011-12-01

    Greater stability in intramedullary osteosynthesis using angle-stable fixation with intramedullary nails and proximal locking screws. A novel screw-and-sleeve system (ASLS®, Synthes GmbH, Oberdorf, Switzerland) is applied using normal cannulated nails. Decisions can be made intraoperatively. This technology widens the range of indications for intramedullary nailing: The smaller and less stable the fragment requiring fixation, the greater the indication for angular stable fixation of the proximal and/or distal fragment. Femoral, tibial and humeral fractures, intramedullary osteosynthesis in osteoporotic bone and ante- and retrograde nailing. Particularly in the case of retrograde nailing, sustained prevention of nail toggling is achieved. None. Drill with the first drill bit, which has the same core diameter as the screw shaft. Drill the cortex to the external diameter of the sleeve. Place the sleeve on the tip of the screw. The screw-sleeve combination is then advanced through the larger near hole until the sleeve-covered screw tip sits in the locking hole of the intramedullary fixation nail. Advance the screw. As the screw diameter becomes larger, the sleeve expands resulting in an angular stable locking effect. The screw is then advanced until the head of the screw sits on the exposed surface of the cortex. The hole is filled with the expanded part of the screw shaft beneath the screw head. The necessary 1-3 turns are cut by the self-tapping flute on the screw. According to experience to date, this form of angle-stable fixation enables earlier and/or greater partial mobilization or earlier full mobilization. In all other respects, the guidelines for aftercare in intramedullary nailing apply. A multi-center pilot study has shown the technique to be reproducible and simple. There have been no complications using this technique to date. Biomechanical laboratory studies have demonstrated that stability with respect to axial and torsional loading is statically and

  12. Genetic variability of the stable fly assessed on a global scale using amplified fragment length polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeland, Kathleen M; Skoda, Steven R; Foster, John E

    2016-10-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is a blood-feeding, economically important pest of animals and humans worldwide. Improved management strategies are essential and their development would benefit from studies on genetic diversity of stable flies. Especially if done on a global scale, such research could generate information necessary for the development and application of more efficient control methods. Herein we report on a genetic study of stable flies using amplified fragment length polymorphism, with samples of 10-40 individuals acquired from a total of 25 locations in the Nearctic, Neotropic, Palearctic, Afrotropic and Australasian biogeographical regions. We hypothesized that genetic differentiation would exist across geographical barriers. Although FST (0.33) was moderately high, the GST (0.05; representing genetic diversity between individuals) was very low; Nm values (representing gene flow) were high (9.36). The mismatch distribution and tests of neutrality suggested population expansion, with no genetic differentiation between locations. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) results showed the majority of genetic diversity was within groups. The mantel test showed no correlation between geographic and genetic distance; this strongly supports the AMOVA results. These results suggest that stable flies did not show genetic differentiation but are panmictic, with no evidence of isolation by distance or across geographical barriers. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Efficacy and longevity of newly developed catnip oil microcapsules against stable fly oviposition and larval growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J J; Wienhold, B J; Wehrle, J; Davis, D; Chen, H; Taylor, D; Friesen, K; Zurek, L

    2014-06-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most important pests of cattle and costs U.S. cattle producers billions of dollars in losses annually. In this study, the efficacy of catnip oil encapsulated in gelatin in oviposition deterrence and larval growth inhibition in stable flies was examined under laboratory conditions. More than 98% inhibition of stable fly larval growth and female oviposition was observed in larval and oviposition media treated with encapsulated catnip oil (0.5 g). Further, dose-response tests showed that as little as 0.1 g of encapsulated catnip oil provided > 85% oviposition deterrence. The release of nepetalactones from the capsules was more rapid when the capsules were placed on a moist substrate rather than a dry substrate. Encapsulated catnip oil also exhibited antibacterial activity, supporting the hypothesis that its inhibition of larval growth may be based on its killing of the bacteria on which larvae feed. The use of encapsulated catnip oil can provide an alternative control strategy for stable fly management. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Towards strategy formulation in a complex environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The management sciences offer mainly linear solutions to an environment that is becoming increasingly complex. This is aggravated by the need for innovation outcomes. Formulating and implementing strategy is therefore far more complicated. Since developing economies face far less stable environments, businesses operating in these domains are more accustomed (even adept to deal with complexity. This article compares the deployment of complexity in strategy to achieve innovation in either a developing or a developed economy setting. From interviews conducted with selected CEOs from both economies, it was found that the businesses in the developing economies include complexity factors in their strategies whereas those in developed economies focus on operational excellence and not on complexity. Therefore, at this point, businesses in developed economies may want to explore the strategies adopted by those in developing economies to accommodate diversity and the dynamic environment that require innovations.

  15. Unit of stable isotopic N15 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera de Bisbal, Evelin; Paredes U, Maria

    1997-01-01

    The continuous and growing demand of crops and cattle for the domestic inhabitants, forces the search of technical solutions in agriculture. One of the solutions able to be covered in a near future it is the escalation of agricultural production in lands already being cultivated, either by means of an intensification of cultivation and / or increasing the unitary yields. In the intensive cropping systems, the crops extract substantial quantities of nutriments that is recovered by means of the application of fertilizers. Due to the lack of resources and to the increase of commercial inputs prices, it has been necessary to pay attention to the analysis and improvement of low inputs cropping systems and to the effective use of resources. Everything has made to establish a concept of plant nutrition focused system, which integrate the sources of nutriments for plants and the production factors of crops in a productive cropping system, to improve the fertility of soils, the agricultural productivity and profitability. This system includes the biggest efficiency of chemical fertilizers as the maximum profit of alternative sources of nutriments, such as organic fertilizers, citrate-phosphate rocks and biological nitrogen fixation. By means of field experiments under different environmental conditions (soils and climate) it can be determined the best combination of fertilizers practice (dose, placement, opportunity and source) for selected cropping systems. The experimentation with fertilizer, marked with stable and radioactive isotopes, provides a direct and express method to obtain conclusive answers to the questions: where, when and how should be applied. The fertilizers marked with N 1 5 have been used to understand the application of marked fertilizer to the cultivations, and the determination of the proportion of crops nutritious element derived from fertilizer. The isotopic techniques offer a fast and reliable mean to obtain information about the distribution of

  16. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic-Posilovic, Gordana; Balenovic, Diana; Barisic, Ivan; Strinic, Dean; Stambolija, Vasilije; Udovicic, Mario; Uzun, Sandra; Drmic, Domagoj; Vlainic, Josipa; Bencic, Martina Lovric; Sindic, Aleksandra; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-12-15

    Bupivacaine toxicity following accidental overdose still lacks therapeutic solution. However, there are major arguments for testing BPC 157 against bupivacaine toxicity in vivo in rats, in particular, and then finally, in vitro. These are: the lack of any known BPC 157 toxicity, a lifesaving effect via the mitigation of arrhythmias in rats underwent hyperkalemia or digitalis toxicity, the elimination of hyperkalemia and arrhythmias in rats underwent succinylcholine toxicity and finally, the reduction of potassium-induced depolarization in vitro (in HEK293 cells) in severe hyperkalemia. Most importantly, BPC 157 successfully prevents and counteracts bupivacaine cardiotoxicity; BPC 157 is effective even against the worst outcomes such as a severely prolonged QRS complex. Here, rats injected with bupivacaine (100mg/kg IP) exhibited bradycardia, AV-block, ventricular ectopies, ventricular tachycardia, T-wave elevation and asystole. All of the fatalities had developed T-wave elevation, high-degree AV-block, respiratory arrest and asystole. These were largely counteracted by BPC 157 administration (50µg/kg, 10µg/kg, 10ng/kg, or 10pg/kg IP) given 30min before or 1min after the bupivacaine injection. When BPC 157 was given 6min after bupivacaine administration, and after the development of prolonged QRS intervals (20ms), the fatal outcome was markedly postponed. Additionally, the effect of bupivacaine on cell membrane depolarization was explored by measuring membrane voltages (Vm) in HEK293 cells. Bupivacaine (1mM) alone caused depolarization of the cells, while in combination with BPC 157 (1µm), the bupivacaine-induced depolarization was inhibited. Together, these findings suggest that the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 should be a potential antidote for bupivacaine cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-02-15

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes1, 2, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other2. Electrostatic stabilization3, 4 of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains2, 5. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute–solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute–solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  18. Stable configurations of graphene on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javvaji, Brahmanandam; Shenoy, Bhamy Maithry [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Mahapatra, D. Roy, E-mail: droymahapatra@aero.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Ravikumar, Abhilash [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India); Hegde, G.M. [Center for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Rizwan, M.R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Simulations of epitaxial growth process for silicon–graphene system is performed. • Identified the most favourable orientation of graphene sheet on silicon substrate. • Atomic local strain due to the silicon–carbon bond formation is analyzed. - Abstract: Integration of graphene on silicon-based nanostructures is crucial in advancing graphene based nanoelectronic device technologies. The present paper provides a new insight on the combined effect of graphene structure and silicon (001) substrate on their two-dimensional anisotropic interface. Molecular dynamics simulations involving the sub-nanoscale interface reveal a most favourable set of temperature independent orientations of the monolayer graphene sheet with an angle of ∽15° between its armchair direction and [010] axis of the silicon substrate. While computing the favorable stable orientations, both the translation and the rotational vibrations of graphene are included. The possible interactions between the graphene atoms and the silicon atoms are identified from their coordination. Graphene sheet shows maximum bonding density with bond length 0.195 nm and minimum bond energy when interfaced with silicon substrate at 15° orientation. Local deformation analysis reveals probability distribution with maximum strain levels of 0.134, 0.047 and 0.029 for 900 K, 300 K and 100 K, respectively in silicon surface for 15° oriented graphene whereas the maximum probable strain in graphene is about 0.041 irrespective of temperature. Silicon–silicon dimer formation is changed due to silicon–carbon bonding. These results may help further in band structure engineering of silicon–graphene lattice.

  19. Stable Continental Region Earthquakes in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.

    This paper reviews some remarkable characteristics of earthquakes in a Stable Continental Region (SCR) of the South China Block (SCB). The kernel of the SCB is the Yangtze platform solidified in late Proterozoic time, with continental growth to the southeast by a series of fold belts in Paleozoic time. The facts that the deviatoric stress is low, the orientations of the major tectonic features in the SCB are substantially normal to the maximum horizontal principal stress, and a relatively uniform crust, seem to be the major reasons for lack of significant seismicity in most regions of the SCB. Earthquakes in this region are mainly associated with three seismic zones: (1) the Southeast China Coast seismic zone related to Guangdong-Fujian coastal folding belt (associated with Eurasia-Philippine Sea plate collision); (2) the Southern Yellow Sea seismic zone associated with continental shelf rifts and basins; and (3) the Downstream Yangtze River seismic zone spatially coinciding with Tertiary rifts and basin development. All three seismic zones are close to one or two major economic and population centers in the SCB so that they pose significant seismic hazards. Earthquake focal mechanisms in the SCB are consistent with strike-slip to normal faulting stress regimes. Because of the global and national economic significance of the SCB and its dense population, the seismic hazard of the region is of outstanding importance. Comparing the SCB with another less developed region, a pending earthquake with the same size and tectonic setting would cause substantially more severe social and economic losses in the SCB. This paper also compiles an inventory of historic moderate to great earthquakes in the SCB; most of the data are not widely available in English literature.

  20. Tempered stable distributions stochastic models for multiscale processes

    CERN Document Server

    Grabchak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This brief is concerned with tempered stable distributions and their associated Levy processes. It is a good text for researchers interested in learning about tempered stable distributions.  A tempered stable distribution is one which takes a stable distribution and modifies its tails to make them lighter. The motivation for this class comes from the fact that infinite variance stable distributions appear to provide a good fit to data in a variety of situations, but the extremely heavy tails of these models are not realistic for most real world applications. The idea of using distributions that modify the tails of stable models to make them lighter seems to have originated in the influential paper of Mantegna and Stanley (1994). Since then, these distributions have been extended and generalized in a variety of ways. They have been applied to a wide variety of areas including mathematical finance, biostatistics,computer science, and physics.

  1. Absolute Continuity of Stable Foliations for Mappings of Banach Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Alex; Young, Lai-Sang

    2017-09-01

    We prove the absolute continuity of stable foliations for mappings of Banach spaces satisfying conditions consistent with time- t maps of certain classes of dissipative PDEs. This property is crucial for passing information from submanifolds transversal to the stable foliation to the rest of the phase space; it is also used in proofs of ergodicity. Absolute continuity of stable foliations is well known in finite dimensional hyperbolic theory. On Banach spaces, the absence of nice geometric properties poses some additional difficulties.

  2. Tukey max-stable processes for spatial extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ganggang

    2016-09-21

    We propose a new type of max-stable process that we call the Tukey max-stable process for spatial extremes. It brings additional flexibility to modeling dependence structures among spatial extremes. The statistical properties of the Tukey max-stable process are demonstrated theoretically and numerically. Simulation studies and an application to Swiss rainfall data indicate the effectiveness of the proposed process. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Stable SU(5) monopoles with higher magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, S.; Sato, H.; Tomohiro, S.

    1985-01-01

    Taking into account the electroweak breaking effects, some multiply charged monopoles were shown to be stable by Gardner and Harvey. We give the explicit Ansa$uml: tze for finite-energy, nonsingular solutions of these stable higher-strength monopoles with eg = 1,(3/2),3. We also give the general stability conditions and the detailed behavior of the interaction potentials between two monopoles which produce the stable higher-strength monopoles

  4. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  5. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of stable aqueous dispersion of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; Asiri, Abdullah M; Al-Otaibi, Maha M

    2011-09-01

    A facile approach for the synthesis of stable aqueous dispersion of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using glucose as the reducing agent in water/micelles system, in which cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as capping agent (stabilizer) is described. The evolution of plasmon band of AgNPs was monitored under different conditions such as (a) concentration of sodium hydroxide, (b) concentration of glucose, (c) concentration of silver nitrate (d) concentration of CTAB, and (e) reaction time. AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorescence spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. The results revealed an easy and viable strategy for obtaining stable aqueous dispersion of AgNPs with well controlled shape and size below 30 nm in diameter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying Neolithic animal management practices in the Adriatic using stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Zavodny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We synthesise reported stable isotope values for domesticates and wild herbivores from sites spanning the Neolithic in coastal Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy (6000–3500 calBC. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values are analyzed as proxies of diet and environment, with differences between species possibly indicating anthropogenic influence. Results are used to characterise diets and address questions of the origin and development of husbandry strategies, especially transhumance, in early farming communities. Changes in pig carbon and nitrogen isotope values through time suggest alterations in practices, whereas values remain relatively constant for cattle and ovicaprids during most of the Neolithic, despite assumptions of seasonal mobility.

  7. Stable glomerular filtration rate in normotensive IDDM patients with stable microalbuminuria. A 5-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E R; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hommel, E

    1997-01-01

    . Out of 40 patients, 14 progressed to diabetic nephropathy (UAE > 300 mg/24 h). These patients had a significant reduction in GFR (mean -2.2 +/- 3.8 ml x min-1 x year-1; P = 0.05), while GFR remained stable in the remaining 26 patients with nonprogressive microalbuminuria (change in GFR 0.5 +/- 2.1 ml...... x min-1 x year-1; NS). The difference in the rate of decline of GFR was significant (mean 2.7 ml x min-1 x year-1; P

  8. Strategy as active waiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sull, Donald N

    2005-09-01

    Successful executives who cut their teeth in stable industries or in developed countries often stumble when they face more volatile markets. They falter, in part, because they assume they can gaze deep into the future and develop a long-term strategy that will confer a sustainable competitive advantage. But visibility into the future of volatile markets is sharply limited because so many different variables are in play. Factors such as technological innovation, customers' evolving needs, government policy, and changes in the capital markets interact with one another to create unexpected outcomes. Over the past six years, Donald Sull, an associate professor at London Business School, has led a research project examining some of the world's most volatile markets, from national markets like China and Brazil to industries like enterprise software, telecommunications, and airlines. One of the most striking findings from this research is the importance of taking action during comparative lulls in the storm. Huge business opportunities are relatively rare; they come along only once or twice in a decade. And, for the most part, companies can't manufacture those opportunities; changes in the external environment converge to make them happen. What managers can do is prepare for these golden opportunities by managing smart during the comparative calm of business as usual. During these periods of active waiting, leaders must probe the future and remain alert to anomalies that signal potential threats or opportunities; exercise restraint to preserve their war chests; and maintain discipline to keep the troops battle ready. When a golden opportunity or"sudden death"threat emerges, managers must have the courage to declare the main effort and concentrate resources to seize the moment.

  9. Extended Stable Boundary of LCL-Filtered Grid-Connected Inverter Based on An Improved Grid-Voltage Feedforward Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Minghui; Xin, Zhen; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    For the LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter, it has been reported that the digital time delays will narrow the stable region of current control loop when the inverter-side current is used for implementing the feedback control. A sufficient stable condition is that the filter resonance frequency....... Theoretical analysis is then provided to validate its feasibility and stability. Compared to other widely used active damping strategies, no extra sensors are needed because the filter capacitor voltage, which is used for voltage feedforward control, is also sampled for phase-locked loop in this paper...

  10. Analytical strategies for phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Larsen, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    sensitive and specific strategies. Today, most phosphoproteomic studies are conducted by mass spectrometric strategies in combination with phospho-specific enrichment methods. This review presents an overview of different analytical strategies for the characterization of phosphoproteins. Emphasis...

  11. Stable families of coalitions for network resource allocation problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gurvich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A very common question appearing in resource management is: what is the optimal way of behaviour of the agents and distribution of limited resources. Is any form of cooperation more preferable strategy than pure competition? How cooperation can be treated in the game theoretic framework: just as one of a set of Pareto optimal solutions or cooperative game theory is a more promising approach? This research is based on results proving the existence of a non-empty K -core, that is, the set of allocations acceptable for the family K of all feasible coalitions, for the case when this family is a set of subtrees of a tree. A wide range of real situations in resource management, which include optimal water, gas and electricity allocation problems, can be modeled using this class of games. Thus, the present research is pursuing two goals: 1. optimality and 2. stability.Firstly, we suggest to players to unify their resources and then we optimize the total payoff using some standard LP technique. The same unification and optimization can be done for any coalition of players, not only for the total one.  However, players may object unification of resources. It may happen when a feasible coalition can guarantee a better result for every coalitionist.  Here we obtain some stability conditions which ensure that this cannot happen for some family K. Such families were characterized by Boros, Gurvich and Vasin [4] as Berge’s normal hypergraphs.  Thus, we obtain a solution which is optimal and stable. From practical point of view, we suggest a distribution of profit that would cause no conflict between players.

  12. Strategy Development in Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    There exist certain ambiguities with the converging fields of information technology and organisational strategy development. The term "IT strategy" has evolved and reflects in some respects this confusion. This paper discusses some of the ambiguities and difficulties of the term "IT strategy......" as used in practice and literature. Emphasis is put on how the term is related to the problem, the organisation, the strategy process and the practical way of methodologically developing the strategy. Finally, alternative strategy developing perspectives are presented....

  13. Quantum Chinos game: winning strategies through quantum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea, F; Martin-Delgado, M A

    2003-01-01

    We apply several quantization schemes to simple versions of the Chinos game. Classically, for two players with one coin each, there is a symmetric stable strategy that allows each player to win half of the times on average. A partial quantization of the game (semiclassical) allows us to find a winning strategy for the second player, but it is unstable w.r.t. the classical strategy. However, in a fully quantum version of the game we find a winning strategy for the first player that is optimal: the symmetric classical situation is broken at the quantum level. (letter to the editor)

  14. Optimal offering and operating strategies for wind-storage systems with linear decision rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2016-01-01

    to be used at the balancing stage. Linear decision rules are seen as a natural approach to model and optimize the real-time operation policy. These allow enhancing profits from balancing markets based on updated information on prices and wind power generation. Our integrated strategies for WF......The participation of wind farm-energy storage systems (WF-ESS) in electricity markets calls for an integrated view of day-ahead offering strategies and real-time operation policies. Such an integrated strategy is proposed here by co-optimizing offering at the day-ahead stage and operation policy......-ESS in electricity markets are optimized under uncertainty in both wind power and price predictions. The resulting stochastic optimization problem readily yields optimal offers and linear decision rules. By adding a risk-aversion term in form of conditional value at risk into the objective function, the optimization...

  15. Stable architectures for deep neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Eldad; Ruthotto, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Deep neural networks have become invaluable tools for supervised machine learning, e.g. classification of text or images. While often offering superior results over traditional techniques and successfully expressing complicated patterns in data, deep architectures are known to be challenging to design and train such that they generalize well to new data. Critical issues with deep architectures are numerical instabilities in derivative-based learning algorithms commonly called exploding or vanishing gradients. In this paper, we propose new forward propagation techniques inspired by systems of ordinary differential equations (ODE) that overcome this challenge and lead to well-posed learning problems for arbitrarily deep networks. The backbone of our approach is our interpretation of deep learning as a parameter estimation problem of nonlinear dynamical systems. Given this formulation, we analyze stability and well-posedness of deep learning and use this new understanding to develop new network architectures. We relate the exploding and vanishing gradient phenomenon to the stability of the discrete ODE and present several strategies for stabilizing deep learning for very deep networks. While our new architectures restrict the solution space, several numerical experiments show their competitiveness with state-of-the-art networks.

  16. Caffeine Citrate Dosing Adjustments to Assure Stable Caffeine Concentrations in Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Gilbert; Datta, Alexandre N; Jost, Kerstin; Schulzke, Sven M; van den Anker, John; Pfister, Marc

    2017-12-01

    To identify dosing strategies that will assure stable caffeine concentrations in preterm neonates despite changing caffeine clearance during the first 8 weeks of life. A 3-step simulation approach was used to compute caffeine doses that would achieve stable caffeine concentrations in the first 8 weeks after birth: (1) a mathematical weight change model was developed based on published weight distribution data; (2) a pharmacokinetic model was developed based on published models that accounts for individual body weight, postnatal, and gestational age on caffeine clearance and volume of distribution; and (3) caffeine concentrations were simulated for different dosing regimens. A standard dosing regimen of caffeine citrate (using a 20 mg/kg loading dose and 5 mg/kg/day maintenance dose) is associated with a maximal trough caffeine concentration of 15 mg/L after 1 week of treatment. However, trough concentrations subsequently exhibit a clinically relevant decrease because of increasing clearance. Model-based simulations indicate that an adjusted maintenance dose of 6 mg/kg/day in the second week, 7 mg/kg/day in the third to fourth week and 8 mg/kg/day in the fifth to eighth week assures stable caffeine concentrations with a target trough concentration of 15 mg/L. To assure stable caffeine concentrations during the first 8 weeks of life, the caffeine citrate maintenance dose needs to be increased by 1 mg/kg every 1-2 weeks. These simple adjustments are expected to maintain exposure to stable caffeine concentrations throughout this important developmental period and might enhance both the short- and long-term beneficial effects of caffeine treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What's in a Strategy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    in the organization, and it becomes difficult to get an overview of the interaction and relationships between the translated strategies. This not only raises questions about which function the strategy has in an organization but also about what is strategy implementation when the managers don’t implement the strategy......Although a strategy, in theory, should help the organization to move in the same direction by showing a direction for the organization, in practice the strategy increases the number of possible paths, as managers translate the strategy into their own context. This increases the number of strategies...

  18. Stable pair invariants of surfaces and Seiberg-Witten invariants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.

    2016-01-01

    The moduli space of stable pairs on a local surface X = KS is in general non-compact. The action of C ∗ on the fibres of X induces an action on the moduli space and the stable pair invariants of X are defined by the virtual localization formula. We study the contribution to these invariants of

  19. Stable isotope methodology and its application to nutrition and gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, P.D.; Hachey, D.L.; Wong, W.W.; Abrams, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the Stable Isotope Laboratory in its function as a core resource facility for stable isotope applications in human nutrition research. Three aspects are covered: Training of visitors, assessment of new instrumentation, and development of new methodology. The research achievements of the laboratory are indicated in the publications that appeared during this period. (author). 23 refs

  20. Visual and olfactory enhancement of stable fly trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei J; Zhang, Qing-He; Taylor, David B; Friesen, Kristina A

    2016-09-01

    Stable flies are considered to be one of the major blood-feeding pests in the US livestock industry, causing losses running into billions of dollars annually. Adult stable flies are highly attracted to Alsynite traps; however, Alsynite is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain and is expensive. Here, we report on the development of a less expensive and more efficacious trap based upon a white panel with the option to add visual and olfactory stimuli for enhanced stable fly trapping. White panel traps caught twice as many stable flies than Alsynite traps. Baiting the traps with synthetic manure volatiles increased catches 2-3-fold. Electroretinographic recordings of stable flies showed strong peaks of visual sensitivities occurring at 330-360 nm, 460-525 nm and 605-635 nm. A laboratory study indicated that young stable flies are more responsive to white, whereas gravid females prefer blue; in the field, white traps caught more stable flies than patterned or blue-black traps. Stable fly control can be enhanced by developing more efficient trapping systems with added visual and olfactory stimuli. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Stability of Picard Bundle Over Moduli Space of Stable Vector ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Answering a question of [BV] it is proved that the Picard bundle on the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two, on a Riemann surface of genus at least three, with fixed determinant of odd degree is stable.

  2. Stable isotope geochemistry. 3. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefs, J.

    1987-01-01

    Stable Isotope Geochemistry is an authoritative book comprising theoretical and experimental principles; surveying important fractionation mechanisms affecting the most important elements; discussing the natural variations of geologically important reservoirs. This updated 3rd edition, with a completely rewritten and extended main part, contains two new chapters on stable isotope composition of mantle material and on changes of the ocean during the geological past. (orig.)

  3. Exploring Scintillometry in the Stable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartogensis, O.K.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to investigate observation methods of heat and momentum exchange and key variables that characterise turbulence in the atmospheric stable surface layer (SSL), a layer defined as the lower part of the stable boundary layer (SBL) where surface fluxes do not change

  4. DFT computations of the lattice constant, stable atomic structure and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the most stable atomic structure and lattice constant of Fullerenes (C60). FHI-aims DFT code was used to predict the stable structure and the computational lattice constant of C60. These were compared with known experimental structures and lattice constants of C60. The results obtained showed that ...

  5. Saturate hydraulic conductivity, water stable aggregates and soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saturate hydraulic conductivity, water stable aggregates and soil organic matter in a sandy-loam soil in Ikwuano lga of Abia state. ... carbon content of the soil. . Keywords: Toposequence, Water stable aggregates, Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Organic carbon, Slope position. Agro-Science Vol. 4 (1) 2005: pp. 34-37.

  6. Optimization for getting stable plasma initiation in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Ryuji; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Abe, T.

    1988-06-01

    This paper analyses the plasma current build-up just after the breakdown, and investigates the method for obtaining more stable plasma initiation with reduced Volt-second consumption. Control of the amount of particles contained in the wall is necessary for getting the optimum plasma density just after the breakdown, and is essential for obtaining the stable current build-up. (author)

  7. Improved Atmospheric Stable Boundary Layer Formulations for Navy Seasonal Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Long-term goals are to develop methods, descriptions and parameterizations that will alleviate long-standing problems in basically all large-scale numerical atmospheric models in dealing with statically stable and/or very stable conditions, and to implement these for Navy extended forecasting

  8. Fitted-Stable Finite Difference Method for Singularly Perturbed Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fitted-stable central difference method is presented for solving singularly perturbed two point boundary value problems with the boundary layer at one end (left or right) of the interval. A fitting factor is introduced in second order stable central difference scheme (SCD Method) and its value is obtained using the theory of ...

  9. Stable isotope methods in biological and ecological studies of arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hood-Nowotny, R.C.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This is an eclectic review and analysis of contemporary and promising stable isotope methodologies to study the biology and ecology of arthropods. It is augmented with literature from other disciplines, indicative of the potential for knowledge transfer. It is demonstrated that stable isotopes can

  10. Formulation of stable protein powders by supercritical fluid drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanović, N.

    2007-01-01

    Protein pharmaceuticals are potent drugs for the treatment of several chronic and life-threatening diseases. However, the complex and sensitive nature of protein molecules requires special attention in the development of stable dosage forms. Developing stable aqueous protein formulations is often a

  11. Enhanced trapping of stable flies via olfactory and visual cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult stable flies are highly attracted to the so-called Alsynite cylinder trap; however this trap is expensive. Here we report the development of a cheaper and better white panel trap with options of adding visual and olfactory stimuli for enhanced stable fly trapping. The white panel trap attracte...

  12. Development of novel control strategies for single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal: A process oriented approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    The autotrophic nitrogen removing granular sludge process is a novel and intensified process. However, its stable operation and control remain a challenging issue. In this contribution, a process oriented approach was used to develop, evaluate and benchmark novel control strategies to ensure stable...

  13. Evolutionary stability of mixed strategies on graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Xinsheng; Claussen, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    Up to the present time, the study of evolutionary dynamics mostly focused on pure strategy games in finite discrete strategy space, either in well-mixed or structured populations. In this paper, we study mixed strategy games in continuous strategy space on graphs of degree k . Each player is arranged on a vertex of the graph. The edges denote the interaction between two individuals. In the limit of weak selection, we first derive the payoff functions of two mixed strategies under three different updating rules, named birth–death, death–birth and imitation. Then we obtain the conditions for a strategy being a continuously stable strategy (CSS), and we also confirm that the equilibrium distribution corresponding to the CSS is neighborhood attracting and strongly uninvadable. Finally, we apply our theory to the prisoner’s dilemma and the snowdrift game to obtain possible CSS. Simulations are performed for the two special games and the results are well consistent with the conclusions we made. (paper)

  14. Working memory, strategy knowledge, and strategy instruction in children with reading disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H Lee; Kehler, Pam; Jerman, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of strategy knowledge and strategy training on the working memory (WM) performance in children (ages 10-11) with and without reading disabilities (RD). Experiment 1 examined the relationship between strategy knowledge (stability of strategy choices) and WM performance as a function of initial, gain (cued), and maintenance conditions. WM performance was significantly improved for both groups under cued conditions; however, the performances of children with RD were inferior to those of children without RD across all memory conditions. Measures of WM capacity rather than strategy stability or processing efficiency best predicted reading comprehension performance. Experiment 2 assessed the effects of strategy training on WM performance by randomly assigning children to strategy instruction or control conditions. Significant improvements in WM performance occurred as a function of training conditions, but the residual WM differences between the reading groups remained. Although the results showed that stable strategy choices, cued performance, and strategy instruction significantly bolstered WM performance in children with RD, their overall WM performance, however, was constrained by capacity limitations.

  15. Danish stable schools for experiential common learning in groups of organic dairy farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waarst, M.; Nissen, T.B; Østergaard, I.

    2007-01-01

    The farmer field school (FFS) is a concept for farmers' learning, knowledge exchange, and empowerment that has been developed and used in developing countries. In Denmark, a research project focusing on explicit non-antibiotic strategies involves farmers who have actively expressed an interest...... and in this context, problems were identified and solutions proposed based on each farmer's individual goals. In this article, we describe the experiences of 4 stable school groups (each comprising farmers and a facilitator), and the common process of building a concept that is suitable for Danish organic dairy...

  16. Research on Taxi Driver Strategy Game Evolution with Carpooling Detour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of taxi carpooling detour, this paper studies driver strategy choice with carpooling detour. The model of taxi driver strategy evolution with carpooling detour is built based on prospect theory and evolution game theory. Driver stable strategies are analyzed under the conditions of complaint mechanism and absence of mechanism, respectively. The results show that passenger’s complaint mechanism can effectively decrease the phenomenon of driver refusing passengers with carpooling detour. When probability of passenger complaint reaches a certain level, the stable strategy of driver is to take carpooling detour passengers. Meanwhile, limiting detour distance and easing traffic congestion can decrease the possibility of refusing passengers. These conclusions have a certain guiding significance to formulating taxi policy.

  17. Discursive strategies of strategy in public organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang; Holmgren, Jens; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    relations, however they have not depicted an underlying conceptual structure in how strategy making is given discursive legitimacy in public service organizations. In this study, we depart from previous discursive strategy research by taking a deconstructive approach in order to identify underlying......In the last decades, private sector principles and policies have spread into public management. This has fuelled the growth of strategic practices in public service organizations. Although public service organizations typically do not exist in markets or have directs competitors, they tend...... to articulate their strategies through private sector strategy terminology about competition, ranking, benchmarking, etc.. Thus, it is time to explore how strategy making is given discursive legitimacy in public organizations. An important way to study strategy as practice is by attending of the discourse...

  18. Stable isotopes for improving human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uauy, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    recent FAO review of nutrition programs in 19 Latin American countries found that over 20 percent of the population - approximately 83 million people out of an estimated 414 million in the study countries - receives some level of benefits in nutrition-related programs. The allocation of limited national and international assistance resources for these activities in the region is on the order of several billion dollars annually. Undoubtedly these programs are influencing child growth. Significant reductions in underweight and wasting have occurred; but stunting has been more resistant to change. In this setting providing food supplements may be beneficial for some while it may be detrimental for others. The definition of who should benefit from the programs and what is the right combination of nutrients/foods, education, and lifestyle interventions that is required to optimise nutrition and health at each stage of the life cycle is a truly complex problem. This demands the use of the best scientific tools to define who should benefit, what should done and measured as an outcome, how programs should be evaluated, when programs should be expanded, and when they should be stopped. Isotopic and nuclear techniques are tools, not solutions. This presentation will serve to demonstrate how isotopes can contribute to refining nutrition interventions and their impact on public health. Isotopic methods can shorten the time needed to evaluate impact, because they provide sensitive measurements of biological effects. They are faster than traditional methods such as anthropometry for detecting changes in growth and body composition. Micronutrient malnutrition, and especially the bioavailability of vitamins and minerals from traditional foods, are not well evaluated using routine biochemical methods. Radioisotopes have been used successfully in the past. But recent developments in stable isotope techniques offer unique advantages for the design and evaluation of programmes that address

  19. A stable high-order perturbation of surfaces method for numerical simulation of diffraction problems in triply layered media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Youngjoon, E-mail: hongy@uic.edu; Nicholls, David P., E-mail: davidn@uic.edu

    2017-02-01

    The accurate numerical simulation of linear waves interacting with periodic layered media is a crucial capability in engineering applications. In this contribution we study the stable and high-order accurate numerical simulation of the interaction of linear, time-harmonic waves with a periodic, triply layered medium with irregular interfaces. In contrast with volumetric approaches, High-Order Perturbation of Surfaces (HOPS) algorithms are inexpensive interfacial methods which rapidly and recursively estimate scattering returns by perturbation of the interface shape. In comparison with Boundary Integral/Element Methods, the stable HOPS algorithm we describe here does not require specialized quadrature rules, periodization strategies, or the solution of dense non-symmetric positive definite linear systems. In addition, the algorithm is provably stable as opposed to other classical HOPS approaches. With numerical experiments we show the remarkable efficiency, fidelity, and accuracy one can achieve with an implementation of this algorithm.

  20. The use of stable isotopes in drug metabolism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, F P

    2001-06-01

    Although there is a long history of stable isotopes use in drug metabolism research, it is appropriate to evaluate them in pregnancy drug studies in which safety takes highest priority. It is well established through a number of human and animal experiments that stable isotopes themselves rarely generate additional toxicities beyond the molecules to which they are attached. For the analysis of stable isotopes involved in metabolism studies, mass spectrometry plays the predominant role. Several mass spectrometry-based techniques now exist that enable the selective quantitative detection of stable isotopes with better sensitivity and better retention of chromatographic resolution than do in-line radioactivity monitors for 14C. Even mass balance studies can be performed by using stable isotopes, a type of experiment that still predominantly uses radioisotopes. Some of the newest developments in the use of stable isotopes involve biopolymers, in which fully isotope-labeled species can be generated from cells grown in isotopically labeled growth media. Having shown safety, sensitivity, specificity, and versatility, stable isotopes should play an important role in drug metabolism studies in pregnancy.

  1. A Model Describing Stable Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model describing high power stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), which enhances higher frequency coherent emission, and limits to stable emission due to an instability excited by the SR wakefield. It gives a quantitative explanation of several features of the recent observations of CSR at the BESSY II storage ring. We also use this model to optimize the performance of a source for stable CSR emission

  2. A model describing stable coherent synchrotron radiation in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.; Byrd, J.M.; Loftsdottir, A.; Venturini, M.; Abo-Bakr, M.; Feikes, J.; Holldack, K.; Kuske, P.; Wuestefeld, G.; Huebers, H.-W.; Warnock, R.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model describing high power stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), which enhances higher frequency coherent emission, and limits to stable emission due to an instability excited by the SR wakefield. It gives a quantitative explanation of several features of the recent observations of CSR at the BESSY II storage ring. We also use this model to optimize the performance of a source for stable CSR emission

  3. Stable black phosphorus quantum dots for alkali PH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weilan; Song, Haizeng; Yan, Shancheng

    2018-01-01

    Black phosphorus, as a new two-dimensional material has been widely used in sensors, photovoltaic devices, etc. However, thin layered black phosphorus chemically degrades rapidly under ambient and aqueous conditions, which hinders the application of it in the chemical sensors. In this work, stable black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) in solution are successfully synthesized by functionalization with 4-nitrobenzene-diazonium (4-NBD). The stable BPQDs are investigated by TEM, AFM, Raman, and UV-absorption. As a potential application, the stable BPQDs are used as sensors in alkali solution, which exhibit outstanding performance. Our work paves the way towards a new application with BPQDs in solution.

  4. Use of stable isotopes in human nutrition in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, the Laboratory of Nutrition of the Department of Animal Biology of the Faculty of Science and Technology of UCAD has been using stable isotopic techniques for nearly twenty years. Stable isotopes were applied to different target populations to measure milk production, exclusive breastfeeding, body composition, micronutrient bioavailability and total energy expenditure.The application of stable isotopic techniques in nutrition has contributed to advocacy for exclusive breastfeeding for up to 6 months in Senegal. It enabled government decision-makers to obtain essential information on the quality of foods needed for optimal effect during pregnancy and for infant growth and the results were reflected in the national policy on micronutrient supplementation.

  5. High-Order Entropy Stable Formulations for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Fisher, Travis C.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented for developing entropy stable (SS) formulations of any order for the Navier-Stokes equations. These SS formulations discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows provided sufficient dissipation is added at shocks and discontinuities. Entropy stable formulations exist for all diagonal norm, summation-by-parts (SBP) operators, including all centered finite-difference operators, Legendre collocation finite-element operators, and certain finite-volume operators. Examples are presented using various entropy stable formulations that demonstrate the current state-of-the-art of these schemes.

  6. Stable emulsions in extraction systems containing zirconium and silicic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinegribova, O.A.; Chizhevskaya, S.V.; Kotenko, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of zirconium nitrate compound nature and silicic acid on the rate of emulsions stratification in extraction systems depending on the components concentration, solution acidity, its past history, is studied. It is stated that stable multinuclear zirconium compounds have an influence on formation of stable emulsions in systems containing silicic acid. On the basis of results of chemical analysis and properties of interphase precipitates, being part of stable emulsion, suppositions on mechanism of interaction of zirconium nitrate compounds with silicic acid β-form are made

  7. What can Fe stable isotopes tell us about magmas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausberg, Niklas

    The majority of the Earth’s crust is formed by magmas, and understanding their production and differentiation is important to interpret the geologic rock record. A powerful tool to investigate magmatic processes is the distribution of the stable isotopes of the major redox-sensitive element...... the differentiation of magmas from the perspective of Fe stable isotopes, integrated with petrology, by studying igneous rocks and their constituent phases (minerals and glasses) from the Bushveld Complex, South Africa, Thingmuli, Iceland, Pantelleria, Italy, and the Bishop Tuff, USA. The findings are interpreted...... and for more quantitative model of the magmatic processes producing enigmatic stable isotope compositions of rhyolitic and granite magmas....

  8. Strategy and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    The article is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation over time. The focus is to identify, how different space strategies have been implemented...... in different periods and how these strategies can be related to the general conditions of the corporation. The strategic uncertainty of the corporation is investigated as a main determining factor for changes in space strategy based on theories of the relations between strategy and place. These theories...... include that corporations follows one of the three generic space strategies: Incrementalism, standardization, and value-based strategy. Among the conclusion are, that the space strategies mostly changes between incremental and value-based strategies, but one period of standardization was identified...

  9. Surgical stabilization for open tibial fractures in children: External fixation or elastic stable intramedullary nail - which method is optimal?

    OpenAIRE

    Rohan A Ramasubbu; Benjamin M Ramasubbu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Management of open tibial fractures is well documented in adults, with existing protocols outlining detailed treatment strategies. No clear guidelines exist for children. Surgical stabilization of tibial fractures in the pediatric population requires implants that do not disrupt the open epiphyses (growth plate). Both elastic stable intramedullary nails and external fixation can be used. The objective of this study was to identify the optimal method of surgical stabilization in th...

  10. Enhancement of plasmid-mediated stable gene expression by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WPRE) is a possible enhancer of gene expression in mammalian cells that promotes efficient export of unspliced (RNA) into the cytoplasm, as has been proved in transient transfection. In this study, WPRE was evaluated for enhancing stable ...

  11. Estimation of Time Varying Autoregressive Symmetric Alpha Stable

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work, we present a novel method for modeling time-varying autoregressive impulsive signals driven by symmetric alpha stable distributions. The proposed...

  12. Quantification of stable isotope label in metabolites via mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huege, Jan; Goetze, Jan; Dethloff, Frederik; Junker, Bjoern; Kopka, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Isotope labelling experiments with stable or radioactive isotopes have long been an integral part of biological and medical research. Labelling experiments led to the discovery of new metabolic pathways and made it possible to calculate the fluxes responsible for a metabolic phenotype, i.e., the qualitative and quantitative composition of metabolites in a biological system. Prerequisite for efficient isotope labelling experiments is a reliable and precise method to analyze the redistribution of isotope label in a metabolic network. Here we describe the use of the CORRECTOR program, which utilizes matrix calculations to correct mass spectral data from stable isotope labelling experiments for the distorting effect of naturally occurring stable isotopes (NOIs). CORRECTOR facilitates and speeds up the routine quantification of experimentally introduced isotope label from multiple mass spectral readouts, which are generated by routine metabolite profiling when combined with stable isotope labelling experiments.

  13. On the classification of complex vector bundles of stable rank

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , the tuples of cohomology classes on a compact, complex manifold, corresponding to the Chern classes of a complex vector bundle of stable rank. This classification becomes more effective on generalized flag manifolds, where the Lie ...

  14. Comparing Fr\\'echet and positive stable laws

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Let ${\\bf L}$ be the unit exponential random variable and ${\\bf Z}_\\alpha$ the standard positive $\\alpha$-stable random variable. We prove that $\\{(1-\\alpha) \\alpha^{\\gamma_\\alpha} {\\bf Z}_\\alpha^{-\\gamma_\\alpha}, 0< \\alpha

  15. Thermally-Stable High Strain Deployable Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is for the development of a thermally-stable composite made of carbon fibers and elastomeric resin. This combination of materials will allow...

  16. Using stable isotopes to determine seabird trophic relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Keith A.; Piatt, John F.; Pitocchelli, Jay

    1994-01-01

    1. The stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) were analysed in 22 species of marine birds from coastal waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean. Analyses confirm that stable nitrogen isotopes can predict seabird trophic positions.2. Based on δ15N analyses, seabird trophic-level inferences generally agree with those of conventional dietary studies, but suggest that lower trophic-level organisms are more important to several seabirds than was recognized previously.3. Stable-carbon isotope analysis may be a good indicator of inshore vs. offshore feeding preference.4. In general, stable-isotope analysis to determine trophic level offers many advantages over conventional dietary approaches since trophic inferences are based on time-integrated estimates of assimilated and not just ingested foods, and isotopic abundance represents a continuous variable that is amenable to statistical analysis.

  17. STABLE ISOTOPES IN ECOLOGICAL STUDIES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN MIXING MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in ecological studies. One application uses isotopic ratios to quantify the proportional contributions of multiple sources to a mixture. Examples include food sources for animals, water sources for plants, pollution sources...

  18. Stable isotope views on ecosystem function: challenging or challenged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resco, Víctor; Querejeta, José I.; Ogle, Kiona; Voltas, Jordi; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Linares, Juan C.; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Herrero, Asier; Carreira, José A.; Torres-Cañabate, Patricia; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Stable isotopes and their potential for detecting various and complex ecosystem processes are attracting an increasing number of scientists. Progress is challenging, particularly under global change scenarios, but some established views have been challenged. The IX meeting of the Spanish Association of Terrestrial Ecology (AAET, Úbeda, 18–22 October 2009) hosted a symposium on the ecology of stable isotopes where the linear mixing model approach of partitioning sinks and sources of carbon and water fluxes within an ecosystem was challenged, and new applications of stable isotopes for the study of plant interactions were evaluated. Discussion was also centred on the need for networks that monitor ecological processes using stable isotopes and key ideas for fostering future research with isotopes. PMID:20015858

  19. US ITASE Stable Isotope Data, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes stable isotope measurements from snow pits, firn, and ice cores collected by the the US component of the International Trans-Antarctic...

  20. A stable isotopic study of the diet of Potamonautes sidneyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natal, South Africa. Recent flood events in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park have allowed a substantial range expansion of this species, including previously hypersaline and desiccated areas. A stable isotope study was conducted to examine ...

  1. Stable isotopes: essential tools in biological and medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, P. D.; Hachey, D. L.; Kreek, M. J.; Schoeller, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of the stable isotopes, /sup 13/C, /sup 15/N, /sup 17/O, and /sup 18/O, as tracers in research studies in the fields of biology, medicine, pharmacology, and agriculture are briefly reviewed. (CH)

  2. Stable π-Extended p -Quinodimethanes: Synthesis and Tunable Ground States

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Zebing

    2014-12-18

    © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. p-Quinodimethane (p-QDM) is a highly reactive hydrocarbon showing large biradical character in the ground state. It has been demonstrated that incorporation of the p-QDM moiety into an aromatic hydrocarbon framework could lead to new π-conjugated systems with significant biradical character and unique optical, electronic and magnetic properties. On the other hand, the extension of p-QDM is expected to result in molecules with even larger biradical character and higher reactivity. Therefore, the synthesis of stable π-extended p-QDMs is very challenging. In this Personal Account we will briefly discuss different stabilizing strategies and synthetic methods towards stable π-extended p-QDMs with tunable ground states and physical properties, including two types of polycyclic hydrocarbons: (1) tetrabenzo-Tschitschibabin\\'s hydrocarbons, and (2) tetracyano-rylenequinodimethanes. We will discuss how the aromaticity, substituents and steric hindrance play important roles in determining their ground states and properties. Incorporation of the p-quinodimethane moiety into aromatic hydrocarbon frameworks can lead to new π-conjugated systems with significant biradical character and unique optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Furthermore, the extension of p-QDM is expected to result in molecules with even larger biradical character and higher reactivity. In this Personal Account, different stabilizing strategies and synthetic methods towards stable π-extended p-QDMs with tunable ground states and physical properties are briefly discussed, including the roles of aromaticity, substituents and steric hindrance.

  3. [Fractionation of hydrogen stable isotopes in the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniak, Iu E; Grigor'ev, A I; Skuratov, V M; Ivanova, S M; Pokrovskiĭ, B G

    2006-01-01

    Fractionation of hydrogen stable isotopes was studied in 9 human subjects in a chamber with normal air pressure imitating a space cabin. Mass-spectrometry of isotopes in blood, urine, saliva, and potable water evidenced increases in the contents of heavy H isotope (deuterium) in the body liquids as compared with water. These results support one of the theories according to which the human organism eliminates heavy stable isotopes of biogenous chemical elements.

  4. Stable isotopes in pharmacology studies: present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Stable-isotope techniques offer advantages over older methods in safety, sensitivity, specificity, and reduction in numbers of subjects required and analytic determinations for some types of pharmacology studies. In addition to their use as internal standards in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytic methods, stable isotopes have been successfully employed in studies of absorption, bioavailability, distribution, biotransformation, excretion, metabolite identification, time-dependent and dose-dependent pharmacokinetic changes, drug interactions, pharmacologic changes during pregnancy, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity. 32 references

  5. Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing for Treatment of Pediatric Tibial Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Gurung; Dipendra KC; Roshni Khatri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tibia fractures in the skeletally immature patient can usually be treated with above knee cast or patellar tendon bearing cast. The purpose of our study was to evaluate epidemiology and outcome of Elastic stable intramedullary nailing fixation of pediatric tibial shaft fractures treated at our institution. Methods: Over a period of one year, fifty pediatric patients of tibial shaft fractures, with average age of 9.68 yr (SD=2.37), were treated with elastic stable intramedul...

  6. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during ir...... findings can find application in off-shore, seismic and other engi- neering practice, or inspire new branches of research and modelling wherever dynamic, cyclic or transient loaded sand is encountered....

  7. Risk following hospitalization in stable chronic systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Putte; Swedberg, Karl; Borer, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    We explored the impact of being hospitalized due to worsening heart failure (WHF) or a myocardial infarction (MI) on subsequent mortality in a large contemporary data set of patients with stable chronic systolic heart failure (HF).......We explored the impact of being hospitalized due to worsening heart failure (WHF) or a myocardial infarction (MI) on subsequent mortality in a large contemporary data set of patients with stable chronic systolic heart failure (HF)....

  8. A parallel approach to the stable marriage problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes two parallel algorithms for the stable marriage problem implemented on a MIMD parallel computer. The algorithms are tested against sequential algorithms on randomly generated and worst-case instances. The results clearly show that the combination fo a very simple problem...... and a commercial MIMD system results in parallel algorithms which are not competitive with sequential algorithms wrt. practical performance. 1 Introduction In 1962 the Stable Marriage Problem was....

  9. Protein body formation in stable transgenic tobacco expressing elastin-like polypeptide and hydrophobin fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Sonia P; Saberianfar, Reza; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Menassa, Rima

    2013-05-10

    Plants are recognized as an efficient and inexpensive system to produce valuable recombinant proteins. Two different strategies have been commonly used for the expression of recombinant proteins in plants: transient expression mediated by Agrobacterium; or stable transformation of the plant genome. However, the use of plants as bioreactors still faces two main limitations: low accumulation levels of some recombinant proteins and lack of efficient purification methods. Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), hydrophobin I (HFBI) and Zera® are three fusion partners found to increase the accumulation levels of recombinant proteins and induce the formation of protein bodies (PBs) in leaves when targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in transient expression assays. In this study the effects of ELP and HFBI fusion tags on recombinant protein accumulation levels and PB formation was examined in stable transgenic Nicotiana tabacum. The accumulation of recombinant protein and PB formation was evaluated in two cultivars of Nicotiana tabacum transformed with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to ELP or HFBI, both targeted and retrieved to the ER. The ELP and HFBI tags increased the accumulation of the recombinant protein and induced the formation of PBs in leaves of stable transgenic plants from both cultivars. Furthermore, these tags induced the formation of PBs in a concentration-dependent manner, where a specific level of recombinant protein accumulation was required for PBs to appear. Moreover, agro-infiltration of plants accumulating low levels of recombinant protein with p19, a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), increased accumulation levels in four independent transgenic lines, suggesting that PTGS might have caused the low accumulation levels in these plants. The use of ELP and HFBI tags as fusion partners in stable transgenic plants of tobacco is feasible and promising. In a constitutive environment, these tags increase the accumulation levels

  10. Inferring foraging areas of nesting loggerhead turtles using satellite telemetry and stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriani, Simona A; Roth, James D; Evans, Daniel R; Weishampel, John F; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the use of intrinsic markers such as stable isotopes to link breeding and foraging grounds of migratory species has increased. Nevertheless, several assumptions still must be tested to interpret isotopic patterns found in the marine realm. We used a combination of satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis to (i) identify key foraging grounds used by female loggerheads nesting in Florida and (ii) examine the relationship between stable isotope ratios and post-nesting migration destinations. We collected tissue samples for stable isotope analysis from 14 females equipped with satellite tags and an additional 57 untracked nesting females. Telemetry identified three post-nesting migratory pathways and associated non-breeding foraging grounds: (1) a seasonal continental shelf-constrained migratory pattern along the northeast U.S. coastline, (2) a non-breeding residency in southern foraging areas and (3) a residency in the waters adjacent to the breeding area. Isotopic variability in both δ(13)C and δ(15)N among individuals allowed identification of three distinct foraging aggregations. We used discriminant function analysis to examine how well δ(13)C and δ(15)N predict female post-nesting migration destination. The discriminant analysis classified correctly the foraging ground used for all but one individual and was used to predict putative feeding areas of untracked turtles. We provide the first documentation that the continental shelf of the Mid- and South Atlantic Bights are prime foraging areas for a large number (61%) of adult female loggerheads from the largest loggerhead nesting population in the western hemisphere and the second largest in the world. Our findings offer insights for future management efforts and suggest that this technique can be used to infer foraging strategies and residence areas in lieu of more expensive satellite telemetry, enabling sample sizes that are more representative at the population level.

  11. Wideband quin-stable energy harvesting via combined nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a wideband quintuple-well potential piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvester using a combined nonlinearity: the magnetic nonlinearity induced by magnetic force and the piecewise-linearity produced by mechanical impact. With extra stable states compared to other multi-stable harvesters, the quin-stable harvester can distribute its potential energy more uniformly, which provides shallower potential wells and results in lower excitation threshold for interwell motion. The mathematical model of this quin-stable harvester is derived and its equivalent piecewise-nonlinear restoring force is measured in the experiment and identified as piecewise polynomials. Numerical simulations and experimental verifications are performed in different levels of sinusoid excitation ranging from 1 to 25 Hz. The results demonstrate that, with lower potential barriers compared with tri-stable counterpart, the quin-stable arrangement can escape potential wells more easily for doing high-energy interwell motion over a wider band of frequencies. Moreover, by utilizing the mechanical stoppers, this harvester can produce significant output voltage under small tip deflections, which results in a high power density and is especially suitable for a compact MEMS approach.

  12. Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle.

  13. Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  14. Stable Fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), Dispersal and Governing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T; Osbrink, Weste L A

    2015-01-01

    Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (fly movement occurs between host animals and resting sites to feed and mate, mainly at on-farm locations where herbivorous livestock regularly congregate. Small numbers emigrate from livestock congregation sites in search of other hosts and oviposition substrate, mostly within stable flies are active year-round in warm latitudes, cold winters in temperate areas result in substantial population and activity declines, limiting movement of any sort to warmer seasons. Long-distance dispersal (>13 km) is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one "lineage", the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  15. Metal stable isotope signatures as tracers in environmental geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Jan G

    2015-03-03

    The biogeochemical cycling of metals in natural systems is often accompanied by stable isotope fractionation which can now be measured due to recent analytical advances. In consequence, a new research field has emerged over the last two decades, complementing the traditional stable isotope systems (H, C, O, N, S) with many more elements across the periodic table (Li, B, Mg, Si, Cl, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, W, Pt, Hg, Tl, U) which are being explored and potentially applicable as novel geochemical tracers. This review presents the application of metal stable isotopes as source and process tracers in environmental studies, in particular by using mixing and Rayleigh model approaches. The most important concepts of mass-dependent and mass-independent metal stable isotope fractionation are introduced, and the extent of natural isotopic variations for different elements is compared. A particular focus lies on a discussion of processes (redox transformations, complexation, sorption, precipitation, dissolution, evaporation, diffusion, biological cycling) which are able to induce metal stable isotope fractionation in environmental systems. Additionally, the usefulness and limitations of metal stable isotope signatures as tracers in environmental geochemistry are discussed and future perspectives presented.

  16. Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Dejmal

    Full Text Available A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle.

  17. Stable and sporadic symbiotic communities of coral and algal holobionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Eric R; Barott, Katie L; Nulton, Jim; Vermeij, Mark JA; Rohwer, Forest L

    2016-01-01

    Coral and algal holobionts are assemblages of macroorganisms and microorganisms, including viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, protists and fungi. Despite a decade of research, it remains unclear whether these associations are spatial–temporally stable or species-specific. We hypothesized that conflicting interpretations of the data arise from high noise associated with sporadic microbial symbionts overwhelming signatures of stable holobiont members. To test this hypothesis, the bacterial communities associated with three coral species (Acropora rosaria, Acropora hyacinthus and Porites lutea) and two algal guilds (crustose coralline algae and turf algae) from 131 samples were analyzed using a novel statistical approach termed the Abundance-Ubiquity (AU) test. The AU test determines whether a given bacterial species would be present given additional sampling effort (that is, stable) versus those species that are sporadically associated with a sample. Using the AU test, we show that coral and algal holobionts have a high-diversity group of stable symbionts. Stable symbionts are not exclusive to one species of coral or algae. No single bacterial species was ubiquitously associated with one host, showing that there is not strict heredity of the microbiome. In addition to the stable symbionts, there was a low-diversity community of sporadic symbionts whose abundance varied widely across individual holobionts of the same species. Identification of these two symbiont communities supports the holobiont model and calls into question the hologenome theory of evolution. PMID:26555246

  18. IT Supporting Strategy Formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Khosrow-Pour, M.

    2005-01-01

    This overview approaches information and communication technology (ICT) for competitive intelligence from the perspective of strategy formulation. It provides an ICT architecture for supporting the knowledge processes producing relevant knowledge for strategy formulation. To determine what this

  19. De Nederlandse cybersecurity strategie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent werd de Nederlandse 'Nationale Cybersecurity Strategie: Slagkracht door samenwerking' openbaar gemaakt. Wat zijn de hoofdpunten van deze strategie en wat betekend dat voor de burgers, bedrijven, overheid, afnemers of leveranciers van informatie- en communicatie technologie?

  20. National Privacy Research Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — On July 1, NITRD released the National Privacy Research Strategy. Research agencies across government participated in the development of the strategy, reviewing...

  1. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  2. An Energy Strategy for Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal C. Moore

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Canada is struggling to fully develop, sell and move its energy resources. This is a dramatic change from the recent past where the U.S. has provided stable growth in demand for energy supplied by the provinces, from hydrocarbons to electricity. Current circumstances now challenge this relationship, adding environmental, policy and economic hurdles that exacerbate the impact of fluctuations in world demand and pricing. In addition, competitive interaction between provinces, aboriginal land owners and special interest groups complicate and compound the issues of royalty returns, regulatory authority and direction, land-use management and long-term market opportunities for Canadian companies. There is no strategic document guiding the country’s energy future. As the steward of one of the largest, most diverse and valuable energy "banks" in the world, Canada has a unique opportunity to exploit a critical and valuable economic niche in the world economy. Given the lack of federal leadership and the tendency for each province to undercut each other in the same marketplace, there is also the distinct possibility the nation will squander the opportunity. This document offers the rationale for a comprehensive energy strategy, literally a vision where Canada can lead and not follow opportunities in energy markets. This strategic approach to energy systems by definition will include transportation, housing, employment and financial markets. It is not a plan, not a foil for tax or policy guidance in one or more sectors. This strategy is a fundamental rail on which plans, tactics and policies can be built. This vision identifies how the provinces can work together using all the tools available to them, maximizing long-term resource development while minimizing environmental damage. This document assumes there can be a broad commitment and effort by the federal government to help build those tools, providing guidance and assistance where needed without

  3. POSITIONING STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhshir Ghassan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in a much faster pace than in the past, thanks to communication development so companies are obliged to adopt more specific strategies in order for them to be effective. This essay represents a literary review presenting a documentary research within the scientific articles and strategy and positioning books. The paper begins with the analysis of company strategies and the marketing strategies in general. The first author to group the product positioning strategies is Porter with his three generic strategies. Following the development of brands and because of the lack of competitiveness in the simple generic positioning strategies, this paper has also presented the newer positioning strategies proposed by Kotler, Treacy & Wiersema, and also more complex ones such as Bowman's Strategy Clock and Blankson and Kalafatis positioning strategy based on the type of the consumer. The fast expansion of local brands in all categories has led to mistakes in positioning strategies, categories also presented in the current essay. The results of this study show that new positioning strategies are more and more based on the consumer and market segments and on the product specification - which have also evolved in the last decades. Adaptability to fast changes in the competitive market will represent the future positioning strategies.

  4. Strategies Against Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riessman, Frank

    The major antipoverty strategies of the 1960's are analyzed--the conflict model of Alinsky, the welfare crisis approach of Cloward and Piven, and the new careers viewpoint of Riessman and Pearl. The latter strategy is said to have a greater "multiplier effect" on poverty than other approaches. Discussed are such specific strategies in…

  5. Multi-stable perception balances stability and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander ePastukhov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report that multi-stable perception operates in a consistent, dynamical regime, balancing the conflicting goals of stability and sensitivity. When a multi-stable visual display is viewed continuously, its phenomenal appearance reverses spontaneously at irregular intervals. We characterized the perceptual dynamics of individual observers in terms of four statistical measures: the distribution of dominance times (mean and variance and the novel, subtle dependence on prior history (correlation and time-constant.The dynamics of multi-stable perception is known to reflect several stabilizing and destabilizing factors. Phenomenologically, its main aspects are captured by a simplistic computational model with competition, adaptation, and noise. We identified small parameter volumes (~3% of the possible volume in which the model reproduced both dominance distribution and history-dependence of each observer. For 21 of 24 data sets, the identified volumes clustered tightly (~15% of the possible volume, revealing a consistent `operating regime' of multi-stable perception. The `operating regime' turned out to be marginally stable or, equivalently, near the brink of an oscillatory instability. The chance probability of the observed clustering was <0.02.To understand the functional significance of this empirical `operating regime', we compared it to the theoretical `sweet spot' of the model. We computed this `sweet spot' as the intersection of the parameter volumes in which the model produced stable perceptual outcomes and in which it was sensitive to input modulations. Remarkably, the empirical `operating regime' proved to be largely coextensive with the theoretical `sweet spot'. This demonstrated that perceptual dynamics was not merely consistent but also functionally optimized (in that it balances stability with sensitivity. Our results imply that multi-stable perception is not a laboratory curiosity, but reflects a functional optimization of perceptual

  6. Pulicação de métodos de análise multivariada no controle qualitativo de essências alimentícias empregando espectroscopia no infravermelho médio Using multivariate analysis methods in quality control of food essence by mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Augusto Helfer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho é apresentada uma nova metodologia para a análise qualitativa de essências alimentícias, empregando espectroscopia por reflexão na região do infravermelho médio associada à análise multivariada. Este método apresenta entre suas principais vantagens: a não destruição da amostra e conseqüente não agressão ao ambiente; e a não necessidade de separação prévia dos seus componentes, que resulta em menor tempo de análise e redução de custos. Para tanto, diferentes lotes de amostras de essências alimentícias de baunilha, de leite, de caramelo, de cereja e de morango foram empregadas para a aquisição dos espectros, visando à construção dos modelos e validação do método. Como resultados mais significativos, foi possível observar que o método empregado, não só discrimina as diferentes essências (em função da composição, mas também a origem e uniformidade delas.In the present work a new methodology for the qualitative analysis of food essences is presented, using a mid-infrared spectroscopy associated to the multivaried analysis. This method presents the main advantages: not to destroy the sample, it has a lower cost, it makes the analysis quicker and does not produce residues. Taking this into account, different lots of samples of food essences of vanilla, milk, caramel, cherry and strawberry were used to acquire the specters with the purpose of developing models and validation of the method. Having more significant results, it can be observed that the used method not only discriminates the different essences (due to the composition, but also the origin and uniformity of the same ones.

  7. Light-enabled reversible self-assembly and tunable optical properties of stable hairy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihuang; Wang, Zewei; He, Yanjie; Yoon, Young Jun; Jung, Jaehan; Zhang, Guangzhao; Lin, Zhiqun

    2018-02-01

    The ability to dynamically organize functional nanoparticles (NPs) via the use of environmental triggers (temperature, pH, light, or solvent polarity) opens up important perspectives for rapid and convenient construction of a rich variety of complex assemblies and materials with new structures and functionalities. Here, we report an unconventional strategy for crafting stable hairy NPs with light-enabled reversible and reliable self-assembly and tunable optical properties. Central to our strategy is to judiciously design amphiphilic star-like diblock copolymers comprising inner hydrophilic blocks and outer hydrophobic photoresponsive blocks as nanoreactors to direct the synthesis of monodisperse plasmonic NPs intimately and permanently capped with photoresponsive polymers. The size and shape of hairy NPs can be precisely tailored by modulating the length of inner hydrophilic block of star-like diblock copolymers. The perpetual anchoring of photoresponsive polymers on the NP surface renders the attractive feature of self-assembly and disassembly of NPs on demand using light of different wavelengths, as revealed by tunable surface plasmon resonance absorption of NPs and the reversible transformation of NPs between their dispersed and aggregated states. The dye encapsulation/release studies manifested that such photoresponsive NPs may be exploited as smart guest molecule nanocarriers. By extension, the star-like block copolymer strategy enables the crafting of a family of stable stimuli-responsive NPs (e.g., temperature- or pH-sensitive polymer-capped magnetic, ferroelectric, upconversion, or semiconducting NPs) and their assemblies for fundamental research in self-assembly and crystallization kinetics of NPs as well as potential applications in optics, optoelectronics, magnetic technologies, sensory materials and devices, catalysis, nanotechnology, and biotechnology.

  8. Medical therapy v. PCI in stable coronary artery disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Tomlinson, George; Ko, Dennis T; Dzavik, Vladimir; Krahn, Murray D

    2013-10-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with either drug-eluting stents (DES) or bare metal stents (BMS) reduces angina and repeat procedures compared with optimal medical therapy alone. It remains unclear if these benefits are sufficient to offset their increased costs and small increase in adverse events. Cost utility analysis of initial medical therapy v. PCI with either BMS or DES. . Markov cohort decision model. Data Sources. Propensity-matched observational data from Ontario, Canada, for baseline event rates. Effectiveness and utility data obtained from the published literature, with costs from the Ontario Case Costing Initiative. Patients with stable coronary artery disease, confirmed after angiography, stratified by risk of restenosis based on diabetic status, lesion size, and lesion length. Time Horizon. Lifetime. Perspective. Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. Interventions. Optimal medical therapy, PCI with BMS or DES. Lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). of Base Case Analysis. In the overall population, medical therapy had the lowest lifetime costs at $22,952 v. $25,081 and $25,536 for BMS and DES, respectively. Medical therapy had a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 10.1 v. 10.26 QALYs for BMS, producing an ICER of $13,271/QALY. The DES strategy had a quality-adjusted life expectancy of only 10.20 QALYs and was dominated by the BMS strategy. This ranking was consistent in all groups stratified by restenosis risk, except diabetic patients with long lesions in small arteries, in whom DES was cost-effective compared with medical therapy (ICER of $18,826/QALY). Limitations. There is the possibility of residual unobserved confounding. In patients with stable coronary artery disease, an initial BMS strategy is cost-effective.

  9. Contemporary evolution strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Bäck, Thomas; Krause, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Evolution strategies have more than 50 years of history in the field of evolutionary computation. Since the early 1990s, many algorithmic variations of evolution strategies have been developed, characterized by the fact that they use the so-called derandomization concept for strategy parameter adaptation. Most importantly, the covariance matrix adaptation strategy (CMA-ES) and its successors are the key representatives of this group of contemporary evolution strategies. This book provides an overview of the key algorithm developments between 1990 and 2012, including brief descriptions of the a

  10. Creativity and Strategy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    This paper focus on how creative thinking, processes and methods can support the strategy development and planning process in organisations. First, several fundamental concepts related to both strategy development and planning are stipulated. In addition, the concept of living organisation...... will be discussed as well as the interaction between strategy and creativity. Then, methodological ideas to support the strategy making process are presented enhancing the use of creative methods and tools. Finally, a case study related to the development of a strategy for organisational development using...... creativity tools is discussed....

  11. Strategies in PRholog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besik Dundua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PRholog is an experimental extension of logic programming with strategic conditional transformation rules, combining Prolog with Rholog calculus. The rules perform nondeterministic transformations on hedges. Queries may have several results that can be explored on backtracking. Strategies provide a control on rule applications in a declarative way. With strategy combinators, the user can construct more complex strategies from simpler ones. Matching with four different kinds of variables provides a flexible mechanism of selecting (subterms during execution. We give an overview on programming with strategies in PRholog and demonstrate how rewriting strategies can be expressed.

  12. Book review: Use of Stable Iodine in Nuclear Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Following a radiological or nuclear event, radioactive iodine may be get into the body through respiratory or gastrointestinal systems. In the contaminated cases with radioactive iodine, the radioactive iodine absorbed by the thyroid can injure the gland. Because of the carcinogenic effects of its radiation, there is a significant public health risk in the event of exposure to radioactive iodine. On other hand, due to stable (non-radioactive iodine acts to block radioactive iodine from being taken into the thyroid gland, it can help protect this gland from injury and following side effects. In this query, potassium iodide (also called KI is a salt of stable iodine in a medicine form which is recommended to use sine many years ago. With effective planning and the use of stable iodine prophylaxis, accompanied with other protective implementations, this risk is mostly avoidable. This book contains information such as iodine and physiology kinetic , exposure risk to radioactive iodine, how to use stable iodine in this events , complications attributed to stable(non-radioactive iodine and also at last chapter the final recommendation published by WHO is included.

  13. Pembajakan Produk: Problema, Strategi dan Antisipasi Strategi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Hidayat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pemakaian ‘merek’ dalam dunia perdagangan telah dilakukan sejak jaman Yunani kuno. Demikian pula peniruan atau pembajakan terhadap produk bermerek. Di abad pertengahan, ancaman sangsi terhadap pe¬langgaran penggunaan merek juga telah dilakukan, misalnya ancaman hukuman gantung bagi para pelaku pem¬bajakan.Di era bisnis modern, bisnis produk bajakan menjadi semakin merajalela dengan skala internasional. Kerjasama internasional antar Negara telah dilakukan dalam menggalang pemberantasan dengan menghasilkan produk-produk hukum penangkalnya. Demikian pula upaya pemerintah domestik masing-masing negara di dunia di bawah koordinasi WTO, telah dan sebagian masih dalam proses menerapkan hukum perlindungan HKI. Misal¬nya Indonesia mencanangkan pemberlakuan UU HKI sejak tahun 2000.Meskipun penelitian di bidang pembajakan produk sudah mulai mendapatkan apresiasi dari para ahli, namun penelitian yang dikaitkan dengan ilmu pemasaran masih tergolong baru, dan hasilnya masih bersifat spo¬radis, belum menemukan konsep teori yang kuat, baik penelitian pada sisi permintaan maupun sisi penawaran produk. Penelitian sisi penawaran memang lebih dahulu mendapatkan perhatian dari para ahli dengan meng¬indentifikasikan strategi masuk pasar para pembajak dan memformulasikan anti strategi pembajakan produk. Namun anti strategi pembajakan produk belum menunjukkan hasil yang efektif, jika dilihat dari kenyataan di lapa¬ngan bahwa pembajakan masih merajalela, terutama di pasar Asia (Callan 1998.Kata Kunci: Pembajakan produk, strategi pembajakan, strategi anti pembajakan

  14. Stable Isotope Ratios as Biomarkers of Diet for Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a leading modifiable risk factor for chronic disease, but it remains difficult to measure accurately due to the error and bias inherent in self-reported methods of diet assessment. Consequently, there is a pressing need for more objective biomarkers of diet for use in health research. The stable isotope ratios of light elements are a promising set of candidate biomarkers because they vary naturally and reproducibly among foods, and those variations are captured in molecules and tissues with high fidelity. Recent studies have identified valid isotopic measures of short- and long-term sugar intake, meat intake, and fish intake in specific populations. These studies provide a strong foundation for validating stable isotopic biomarkers in the general US population. Approaches to improve specificity for specific foods are needed; for example, by modeling intake using multiple stable isotope ratios or by isolating and measuring specific molecules linked to foods of interest.

  15. Design of partially optically stable reflector systems and prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuang-Yu

    2010-09-01

    The characteristics and design method of the total optically stable (TOS) reflector systems/prisms were introduced in an early paper (Tsai and Lin in Appl. Opt. 47:4158-4163, 2008), where only two types of TOS reflector system exist, namely preservation or retroreflection. In this paper, we introduce the partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, which is only optically stable about a specific directional vector; nevertheless, the exiting light ray is not restricted to preservation or retroreflection. The proposed paper also presents an analytic method for the design of POS reflector systems comprised of multiple reflectors. Furthermore, it is shown that a POS prism can be obtained by adding two refracting flat boundary surfaces with specific conditions at the entrance and exit positions of the light ray in an optical system with multiple reflectors.

  16. Picosecond pulse generated supercontinuum as a stable seed for OPCPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indra, Lukáš; Batysta, František; Hříbek, Petr; Novák, Jakub; Hubka, Zbyněk; Green, Jonathan T; Antipenkov, Roman; Boge, Robert; Naylon, Jack A; Bakule, Pavel; Rus, Bedřich

    2017-02-15

    We present a stable supercontinuum (SC) generated in a bulk YAG crystal, pumped by 3 ps chirped pulses at 1030 nm. The SC is generated in a loose focus geometry in a 13 cm long YAG crystal, allowing for stable and robust single-filament generation. The SC energy stability exceeds that of the pump laser by almost a factor of 3. Additionally, we show that the SC spectrum has long-term stability and that the SC is coherent and compressible by compressing the portions of SC spectra close to the corresponding Fourier limit. This makes the picosecond-pulse-driven SC a suitable stable seed for OPCPA amplifiers.

  17. Self-similar anomalous diffusion and Levy-stable laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchaikin, Vladimir V

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic principles for constructing the process of anomalous diffusion are considered, and corresponding models of random processes are reviewed. The self-similarity and the independent-increments principles are used to extend the notion of diffusion process to the class of Levy-stable processes. Replacing the independent-increments principle with the renewal principle allows us to take the next step in generalizing the notion of diffusion, which results in fractional-order partial space-time differential equations of diffusion. Fundamental solutions to these equations are represented in terms of stable laws, and their relationship to the fractality and memory of the medium is discussed. A new class of distributions, called fractional stable distributions, is introduced. (reviews of topical problems)

  18. Stable solitons of quadratic ginzburg-landau equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasovan; Malomed; Mihalache; Mazilu; Lederer

    2000-07-01

    We present a physical model based on coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations that supports stable temporal solitary-wave pulses. The system consists of two parallel-coupled cores, one having a quadratic nonlinearity, the other one being effectively linear. The former core is active, with bandwidth-limited amplification built into it, while the latter core has only losses. Parameters of the model can be easily selected so that the zero background is stable. The model has nongeneric exact analytical solutions in the form of solitary pulses ("dissipative solitons"). Direct numerical simulations, using these exact solutions as initial configurations, show that they are unstable; however, the evolution initiated by the exact unstable solitons ends up with nontrivial stable localized pulses, which are very robust attractors. Direct simulations also demonstrate that the presence of group-velocity mismatch (walkoff) between the two harmonics in the active core makes the pulses move at a constant velocity, but does not destabilize them.

  19. Do planetary seasons play a role in attaining stable climates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kasper Wibeck; Bohr, Jakob

    2018-02-01

    A simple phenomenological account for planetary climate instabilities is presented. The description is based on the standard model where the balance of incoming stellar radiation and outward thermal radiation is described by the effective planet temperature. Often, it is found to have three different points, or temperatures, where the influx of radiation is balanced with the out-flux, even with conserved boundary conditions. Two of these points are relatively long-term stable, namely the point corresponding to a cold climate and the point corresponding to a hot climate. In a classical sense these points are equilibrium balance points. The hypothesis promoted in this paper is the possibility that the intermediate third point can become long-term stable by being driven dynamically. The initially unstable point is made relatively stable over a long period by the presence of seasonal climate variations.

  20. Embedded Controller Design for Pig Stable Ventilation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob

    present an early result for performing system identification for zone based climate dynamics, based on an idea of guaranteed internal flow directions. Paper 6 presents a verified stable distributed temperature controller for pig stables divided into zones. Paper 7 is an expanded journal version of paper 6......This thesis focuses on zone based climate control in pig stables and how to implement climate controllers in a new range of products. The presented controllers are based on simple models of climate dynamics and simple models of actuators. The implementation uses graphical point and click features...... from the Mathworks' range of products and automatic code generation. It is furthermore shown how to build new climate control systems based on cheap and readily available hardware and software. An early result for performing system identification for zone based climate dynamics is also presented...

  1. Ranking stability and super-stable nodes in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-07-19

    Pagerank, a network-based diffusion algorithm, has emerged as the leading method to rank web content, ecological species and even scientists. Despite its wide use, it remains unknown how the structure of the network on which it operates affects its performance. Here we show that for random networks the ranking provided by pagerank is sensitive to perturbations in the network topology, making it unreliable for incomplete or noisy systems. In contrast, in scale-free networks we predict analytically the emergence of super-stable nodes whose ranking is exceptionally stable to perturbations. We calculate the dependence of the number of super-stable nodes on network characteristics and demonstrate their presence in real networks, in agreement with the analytical predictions. These results not only deepen our understanding of the interplay between network topology and dynamical processes but also have implications in all areas where ranking has a role, from science to marketing.

  2. Source Partitioning Using Stable Isotopes: Coping with Too Much Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Andrew C.; Inger, Richard; Bearhop, Stuart; Jackson, Andrew L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Stable isotope analysis is increasingly being utilised across broad areas of ecology and biology. Key to much of this work is the use of mixing models to estimate the proportion of sources contributing to a mixture such as in diet estimation. Methodology By accurately reflecting natural variation and uncertainty to generate robust probability estimates of source proportions, the application of Bayesian methods to stable isotope mixing models promises to enable researchers to address an array of new questions, and approach current questions with greater insight and honesty. Conclusions We outline a framework that builds on recently published Bayesian isotopic mixing models and present a new open source R package, SIAR. The formulation in R will allow for continued and rapid development of this core model into an all-encompassing single analysis suite for stable isotope research. PMID:20300637

  3. Stable Isotope Ratios as Biomarkers of Diet for Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Diane M.

    2016-01-01

    Diet is a leading modifiable risk factor for chronic disease, but it remains difficult to measure accurately due to the error and bias inherent in self-reported methods of diet assessment. Consequently there is a pressing need for more objective biomarkers of diet for use in health research. The stable isotope ratios of light elements are a promising set of candidate biomarkers because they vary naturally and reproducibly among foods, and those variations are captured in molecules and tissues with high fidelity. Recent studies have identified valid isotopic measures of short and long-term sugar intake, meat intake, and fish intake in specific populations. These studies provide a strong foundation for validating stable isotopic biomarkers in the general United States population. Approaches to improve specificity for specific foods are needed, for example, by modeling intake using multiple stable isotope ratios, or by isolating and measuring specific molecules linked to foods of interest. PMID:26048703

  4. Application of enriched stable isotopes as tracers in biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stürup, Stefan; Hansen, Helle Rüsz; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2008-01-01

    The application of enriched stable isotopes of minerals and trace elements as tracers in biological systems is a rapidly growing research field that benefits from the many new developments in inorganic mass spectrometric instrumentation, primarily within inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...... (ICP-MS) instrumentation, such as reaction/collision cell ICP-MS and multicollector ICP-MS with improved isotope ratio measurement and interference removal capabilities. Adaptation and refinement of radioisotope tracer experiment methodologies for enriched stable isotope experiments......, and the development of new methodologies coupled with more advanced compartmental and mathematical models for the distribution of elements in living organisms has enabled a broader use of enriched stable isotope experiments in the biological sciences. This review discusses the current and future uses of enriched...

  5. Leaf water stable isotopes and water transport outside the xylem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, M M; Farquhar, G D; Buckley, T N

    2017-06-01

    How water moves through leaves, and where the phase change from liquid to vapour occurs within leaves, remain largely mysterious. Some time ago, we suggested that the stable isotope composition of leaf water may contain information on transport pathways beyond the xylem, through differences in the development of gradients in enrichment within the various pathways. Subsequent testing of this suggestion provided ambiguous results and even questioned the existence of gradients in enrichment within the mesophyll. In this review, we bring together recent theoretical developments in understanding leaf water transport pathways and stable isotope theory to map a path for future work into understanding pathways of water transport and leaf water stable isotope composition. We emphasize the need for a spatially, anatomically and isotopically explicit model of leaf water transport. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. High precision and stable structures for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Da Mota Silva, S; Hauviller, Claude

    1999-01-01

    The central detectors used in High Energy Physics Experiments require the use of light and stable structures capable of supporting delicate and precise radiation detection elements. These structures need to be highly stable under environmental conditions where external vibrations, high radiation levels, temperature and humidity gradients should be taken into account. Their main design drivers are high dimension and dynamic stability, high stiffness to mass ratio and large radiation length. For most applications, these constraints lead us to choose Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics ( CFRP) as structural element. The construction of light and stable structures with CFRP for these applications can be achieved by careful design engineering and further confirmation at the prototyping phase. However, the experimental environment can influence their characteristics and behavior. In this case, theuse of adaptive structures could become a solution for this problem. We are studying structures in CFRP with bonded piezoel...

  7. Structure-Guided Redesign Increases the Propensity of HIV Env To Generate Highly Stable Soluble Trimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenaga, Javier; Dubrovskaya, Viktoriya; de Val, Natalia; Sharma, Shailendra K; Carrette, Barbara; Ward, Andrew B; Wyatt, Richard T

    2015-12-30

    , are attractive vaccine candidates. However, the current designs do not allow most Envs to form well-ordered trimers. Here, we made design modifications to increase the propensity of representatives from two of the major HIV subtypes to form highly stable trimers. This approach should be applicable to other viral Envs, permitting the generation of a repertoire of homogeneous, highly stable trimers. The availability of such an array will allow us to assess if sequential or cocktail immune strategies can overcome some of the vaccine challenges presented by HIV diversity. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. 531-IJBCS-Article-Dr Anani Kotoklo Esse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    des galeries-tunnels et des placages de récolte des termites, par des racines, des écorces, du bois consommé entraînant la chute des feuilles, le dépérissement et/ou la mort de la plante. Les espèces de termites responsables des dommages causés aux arbres appartiennent au groupe trophique des xylophages. Il s'agit.

  9. The Gilded Age: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David

    1999-01-01

    Provides a list of teaching materials and general background information from the ERIC database on the Gilded Age and directions for obtaining the full text of these materials; topics include, but are not limited to, immigration, the 1896 presidential election, the Populist movement, the Industrial Revolution, urbanization, and the development of…

  10. Mitos gregos na literatura infantil : que Olimpo e esse?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria das Dores Soares Maziero

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: Os mitos gregos, pertencentes ao universo dos textos ditos clássicos ou canônicos, têm estado presentes na literatura infantil brasileira através de adaptações diversas, desde o início do século XX. O presente trabalho investiga a presença dos mitos gregos na literatura para crianças no Brasil, especialmente no período de 1990 a 2004, através de pesquisa nos catálogos de quatro editoras voltadas para o público escolar. Procura, também, analisar as estratégias utilizadas por editores, ...

  11. ESSE versus ESTE in Brazilian movies: substitution or specialization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcius Batista Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the discussion on the uses of demonstrative pronouns in Brazilian Portuguese. For this end, samples of Brazilian films were analyzed. It was found that in the endophoric uses and in the spatial exophoric uses there is a tendency to substitute “este” with “esse”. Based on these results, it was found that Marine thesis (2004 which defends that “Brazilian Portuguese” has a binary paradigm, in which “esse” has become specialized in endophoric uses and “este” has become specialized in exophoric uses is not correct.

  12. Optimization of moderators and beam extraction at the ESS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andersen, K. H.; Bertelsen, M.; Zanini, L.; Klinkby, E. B.; Schonfeldt, T.; Bentley, P. M.; Šaroun, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2018), s. 264-281 ISSN 1600-5767 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015048 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : water moderators * para-hydrogen moderators * low-dimensional moderators * pancake moderators * butterfly moderators * brilliance transfer * neutron instruments Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.495, year: 2016

  13. Que espiritismo é esse? Santa Maria e seus propagandistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Santos Mattos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho insere-se na pesquisa acerca do processo de organização do Espiritismo na cidade de Santa Maria - RS no contexto de 1930 a 1940. Nesse artigo, exploramos as estratégias de esclarecimento empreendido pelos agentes espíritas junto à população local. Frente a tais objetivos, abordamos inicialmente as questões específicas de disputas religiosas locais, e por fim, buscamos pensar como o Espiritismo se insere no contexto social da cidade do centro do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.

  14. Super Bowli teooria soovitab aktsiaid osta / Fredy-Edwin Esse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Super Bowli teooria kohaselt tõuseb Dow Jones, kui võidab algupärase NFL-i meeskond. MarketWatchi peaökonomist Irwin Keller avaldab arvamust, miks tasuks investoritel Super Bowli tulemustele tähelepanu pöörata

  15. Optimization of cold neutron beam extraction at ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönfeldt, Troels; Batkov, K.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    from which the moderator is viewed. This study does not only show changes in both cold and thermal neutron flux, depending on extraction position, but also shows that there are significant differences in the wavelength spectrum and origin of neutrons depending on the angel of view.......The present study takes its origin in the baseline design of European Spallation Source where a cold and a thermal moderator are situated next to each other enabling bispectral extraction. The study aims at mapping the differences in various neutron distributions depending on the angle and position...

  16. The Industrial Revolution: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)

  17. Stable isotope tracers and exercise physiology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Daniel J; Brook, Matthew S; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-05-01

    Stable isotope tracers have been invaluable assets in physiological research for over 80 years. The application of substrate-specific stable isotope tracers has permitted exquisite insight into amino acid, fatty-acid and carbohydrate metabolic regulation (i.e. incorporation, flux, and oxidation, in a tissue-specific and whole-body fashion) in health, disease and response to acute and chronic exercise. Yet, despite many breakthroughs, there are limitations to 'substrate-specific' stable isotope tracers, which limit physiological insight, e.g. the need for intravenous infusions and restriction to short-term studies (hours) in controlled laboratory settings. In recent years significant interest has developed in alternative stable isotope tracer techniques that overcome these limitations, in particular deuterium oxide (D 2 O or heavy water). The unique properties of this tracer mean that through oral administration, the turnover and flux through a number of different substrates (muscle proteins, lipids, glucose, DNA (satellite cells)) can be monitored simultaneously and flexibly (hours/weeks/months) without the need for restrictive experimental control. This makes it uniquely suited for the study of 'real world' human exercise physiology (amongst many other applications). Moreover, using D 2 O permits evaluation of turnover of plasma and muscle proteins (e.g. dynamic proteomics) in addition to metabolomics (e.g. fluxomics) to seek molecular underpinnings, e.g. of exercise adaptation. Here, we provide insight into the role of stable isotope tracers, from substrate-specific to novel D 2 O approaches, in facilitating our understanding of metabolism. Further novel potential applications of stable isotope tracers are also discussed in the context of integration with the snowballing field of 'omic' technologies. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  18. Target-like pigmentation after minipunch grafting in stable vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelee Bisen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment for vitiligo has been ever evolving. Each surgical modality has its own benefits and limitations. Miniature punch grafting is the most extensively performed surgery, which gives good results in stable vitiligo. Herein we report an unusual type of repigmentation observed after minipunch grafting in a patient of stable vitiligo, which resembled target-like lesions with a "perigraft halo" surrounding individual grafts. Such pigment spread occurred despite the use of 0.5 mm larger graft from the donor site.

  19. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2005-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeoclimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. (author). 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Coexistence of collapse and stable spatiotemporal solitons in multimode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyrina, Olga V.; Fedoruk, Mikhail P.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal solitons in multimode optical fibers and demonstrate the existence of stable solitons, in a sharp contrast to earlier predictions of collapse of multidimensional solitons in three-dimensional media. We discuss the coexistence of blow-up solutions and collapse stabilization by a low-dimensional external potential in graded-index media, and also predict the existence of stable higher-order nonlinear waves such as dipole-mode spatiotemporal solitons. To support the main conclusions of our numerical studies we employ a variational approach and derive analytically the stability criterion for input powers for the collapse stabilization.