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Sample records for stable social environment

  1. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

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    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society in every country is a single organism with closely interconnected and interacting parts and systems. Their conjugation and mutual influence are not always apparent and are often overlooked. It is quite easy to see how changes in policy affect the economy and then trace the feedback effect of the economy on policy. It is more difficult to discern the direct and feedback relationship of the economy with administrative relations, with the state of culture, science, morals and public opinion. Meanwhile, an underestimation of these mutual influences is a frequent cause of failures in socio-economic transformation. It is to be regretted that the reforms in Russia were accompanied by a dangerous disruption not only of the economy, but also of the entire system of social relations. What was primary here and what was secondary? In order to answer this question the paper takes a theoretical look at the problem of interaction between the economy and the social environment.

  2. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways

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    Pringle John

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. Methods The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13 in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Results Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-β-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Conclusion Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to

  3. Social Networks and the Environment

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    Julio Videras

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses empirical research on social networks and the environment; it summarizes findings from representative studies and the conceptual frameworks social scientists use to examine the role of social networks. The article presents basic concepts in social network analysis, summarizes common challenges of empirical research on social networks, and outlines areas for future research. Finally, the article discusses the normative and positive meanings of social networks.

  4. Social Monitoring Matters for Deterring Social Deviance in Stable but Not Mobile Socio-Ecological Contexts.

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    Su, Jenny C; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Lin, Wei-Fang; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reputational concerns can incentivize cooperation and deter socially deviant behavior. The current research showed that social monitoring of information that has the potential to damage one's reputation has differential effects on deviant behavior in social-ecological environments that vary in level of mobility. Study 1 showed that residentially stable cities that employed more journalists-who can be regarded as social monitoring agents in a community-tended to have lower rates of violent crime than residentially stable cities that employed fewer journalists; by contrast, in residentially mobile cities, violent crime rates did not vary as a function of the number of journalists employed. In Study 2, we found that individual differences in perceptions of relational mobility moderated the effects of social monitoring on cheating in a die-under-cup game. Specifically, social monitoring cues reduced the likelihood of cheating but only among participants who perceived their immediate social environment to be low in relational mobility. The same results were replicated in Study 3, an experiment in which participants' perception of relational mobility was manipulated before completing an online maze game that allowed them to earn extra cash. In the low mobility condition, the percentage of participants who continued working on the mazes after reaching the time limit decreased as a function of social monitoring; however, this pattern was not observed in the high mobility condition. Together, our findings suggest that socioecological context matters for understanding effective mechanisms of social control.

  5. Social Interaction in Science Environments.

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    Wampold, Bruce E.; And Others

    Understanding how people choose their work and educational environments and the dynamics that lead to satisfaction in these environments is critical to optimizing productivity and self actualization. The Strong Interest Inventory and the Social Skills Inventory were administered to 113 undergraduates to test the hypothesis that social types…

  6. Changing pronunciation but stable social evaluation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Jacob; Pharao, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    to understand how patterns of variation and change develop in a ‘prestige’ standard language which may function as a model for normative language. In order to study on-going sound change in standard spoken Danish and their socio-linguistic consequences, the paper investigates the production of a series of front...... to neighboring vowels as well as relating these results to the realization of (a) and (æ:) as observed in sociolinguistic interviews. These variables are of particular interest because they have been discussed as emblematic of substandard pronunciation for generations, and because the social evaluation...

  7. Representation of stable social dominance relations by human infants.

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    Mascaro, Olivier; Csibra, Gergely

    2012-05-01

    What are the origins of humans' capacity to represent social relations? We approached this question by studying human infants' understanding of social dominance as a stable relation. We presented infants with interactions between animated agents in conflict situations. Studies 1 and 2 targeted expectations of stability of social dominance. They revealed that 15-mo-olds (and, to a lesser extent, 12-mo-olds) expect an asymmetric relationship between two agents to remain stable from one conflict to another. To do so, infants need to infer that one of the agents (the dominant) will consistently prevail when her goals conflict with those of the other (the subordinate). Study 3 and 4 targeted the format of infants' representation of social dominance. In these studies, we found that 12- and 15-mo-olds did not extend their expectations of dominance to unobserved relationships, even when they could have been established by transitive inference. These results suggest that infants' expectation of stability originates from their representation of social dominance as a relationship between two agents rather than as an individual property. Infants' demonstrated understanding of social dominance reflects the cognitive underpinning of humans' capacity to represent social relations, which may be evolutionarily ancient, and may be shared with nonhuman species.

  8. England and Wales: Stable fertility and pronounced social status differences

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    Wendy Sigle-Rushton

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available For nearly three decades, the total fertility rate in England and Wales has remained high relative to other European countries, and stable at about 1.7 births per woman. In this chapter, we examine trends in both period and cohort fertility throughout the twentieth century, and demonstrate some important differences across demographic and social groups in the timing and quantum of fertility. Breaking with a market-oriented and laissez-faire approach to work and family issues, the last 10 years have seen the introduction of new social and economic policies aimed at providing greater support to families with children. However, the effect of the changes is likely to be limited to families on the lower end of the income scale. Rather than facilitating work and parenthood, some policies create incentives for a traditional gendered division of labour. Fertility appears to have remained stable despite, rather than because of, government actions.

  9. Group Modeling in Social Learning Environments

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    Stankov, Slavomir; Glavinic, Vlado; Krpan, Divna

    2012-01-01

    Students' collaboration while learning could provide better learning environments. Collaboration assumes social interactions which occur in student groups. Social theories emphasize positive influence of such interactions on learning. In order to create an appropriate learning environment that enables social interactions, it is important to…

  10. Social media management and media environment

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    Šiđanin Iva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the system of services that social media management can offer to a variety of users. As social media systems are emerging, social media management can strengthen teams in social media and help to manage numerous social channels and distribution of social information from one place. Social media management is a system of procedures that are used to manage the flow of information in the environment of social media. This involves connecting with social media like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Plaxo, Ecademy, YouTube and many others, then the aggregation and management of social data. Social media management services are analysed through various fields, such as managing multiple social media profiles, mail scheduling and filtering, reporting and analytics. Social media management enables managing personal business through social media, which contributes to a significant reduction in expenditures. The paper also discusses the importance of social media management in marketing activities and various forms of social promotion, which allow companies to easily reach their customers.

  11. Maternal insomnia and children's family socialization environments.

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    Gregory, Alice M; Moffitt, Terrie E; Ambler, Antony; Arseneault, Louise; Houts, Renate M; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-04-01

    To examine concurrent associations between maternal insomnia and different aspects of the family socialization environment. Mothers reported on their symptoms of insomnia in a private standardized interview and interviewers evaluated the family socialization environment using the Coder's Inventory. Assessments were conducted in participants' homes within the U.K. One thousand one hundred sixteen mothers of British children enrolled in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) study were invited to participate when their children were aged 12 years. N/A. After controlling for family socioeconomic status (SES), mothers' relationship status, and maternal depression, maternal insomnia was associated with a poorer family socialization environment (β = -0.10, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = -0.16, -0.04], P socialization environment subscales were examined, after controlling for family SES, mothers' relationship status, and maternal depression, maternal insomnia was associated with greater chaos (β = 0.09, [95% CI = 0.03, 0.15], P = 0.002), greater child neglect (β = 0.13, [95% CI = 0.07, 0.18], P socialization environment. This finding emphasizes the need to consider insomnia in the family context.

  12. Organizational socialization in team sport environments.

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    Benson, A J; Evans, M B; Eys, M A

    2016-04-01

    Socialization tactics are often used to manage initial group member interactions in a way that facilitates transition experiences. Although this process is heavily researched in organizational contexts, we sought to extend this line of inquiry to sport by examining the nature of socialization tactics used to integrate new members into existing teams. Interviews were conducted with 12 coaches and 12 athletes from several Canadian Interuniversity Sport teams to explore the nature of socialization and the circumstances underscoring why certain approaches are taken over others. A key process involved establishing congruency of role expectations between incoming athletes and group leaders, and socialization processes balanced expectations of conformity with encouragement of individual personalities within the group. A conceptual basis to examine socialization into team sport environments is discussed in relation to the extant organizational theories, and the practical implications of delineating sport socialization tactics are forwarded. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Social support and adjustment to a novel social environment.

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    Furukawa, T; Sarason, I G; Sarason, B R

    1998-01-01

    The present article aims to examine the ways in which social support may affect the adaptation of individuals to a novel social environment. A distinctive feature of this research was the assessment of social support both before and after entering a completely new network of social relationships. A cohort of international exchange high school students (N = 242) was administered a battery of self-report questionnaires dealing with personality traits, perceived social support, coping behaviors and emotional distress before leaving Japan and six months after living with a host family in a foreign community. Perceived social support abroad contributed to less emotional distress. This health-promoting effect of social support was found to be mediated by adaptive coping behaviours, and was not due to confounding by personality traits. Perceived social support at home was predictive of more emotional distress abroad. Subjects who reported high levels of social support at home were particularly vulnerable when they entered the completely new environment and found that such support was no longer available.

  14. Social Environments, Sexual Networking and Adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results also indicated the need for the Government to expand the existing curriculum of sexuality education in the secondary schools. Keywords: Social Environment; Sexual Networking; Heterosexual Relationships; Sexual Experimentation. International Journal of Educational Research Vol. 3 (1) 2007 pp. 127-134 ...

  15. Comparative biogeochemical behaviors of iron-55 and stable iron in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Langford, J.C.; Jenkins, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of atmospheric aerosols have demonstrated that much of the 55 Fe associated with the aerosol input to the oceans is present as either an amorphous or hydrous iron oxide or as very small particulate species attached to the surfaces of the large aerosol particles. By comparison, nearly all of the stable iron is bound in the mineral phase of aerosol particles. This difference in the chemical and physical forms of the radioactive and stable iron isotopes results in the 55 Fe being more biologically available than is the stable iron. This difference in availability is responsible for the transfer of a much higher specific activity 55 Fe to certain ocean organisms and man relative to the specific activity of the total aerosol or of sea water. This differential biological uptake of the radioactive element and its stable element counterpart points out that natural levels of stable elements in the marine environment may not effectively dilute radioelements or other stable elements of anthropogenic sources. The effectiveness of dilution by natural sources depends on the chemical and physical forms of the materials in both the source terms and the receiving environments. The large difference in specific activities of 55 Fe in aerosols and sea water relative to ocean organisms reflects the independent behaviors of 55 Fe and stable iron

  16. Conceptualizing and Measuring Safe, Stable, Nurturing Relationships and Environments in Educational Settings.

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    Robinson, Lara R; Leeb, Rebecca T; Merrick, Melissa T; Forbes, Lauren W

    2016-05-01

    Most children and adolescents older than five years spend at least six hours of their day in school settings. Like parents, education professionals can promote health and protect youth from harm by providing safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed a framework which posits that safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments are Essentials for Childhood and are fundamental to promoting health and well-being; protecting youth from maltreatment and other violence and victimization; and ensuring optimal, healthy development. In this paper, the authors propose an approach to applying safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments to the school ecology; review select survey measures to examine these constructs within educational settings; and suggest available indicators to measure safety, stability, and nurturance within the school context.

  17. Social Skills of and Social Environments Produced by Different Holland Types: A Social Perspective on Person-Environment Fit Models.

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    Wampold, Bruce E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes qualitative study of chemistry laboratory groups of undergraduates to explore notion that a critical aspect of the environment in person-environment models is the nature and density of the social interactions of the people in the environment. Holland's hexagonal model of personality types was the framework used to study related…

  18. Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

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    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.

  19. Stable isotope ratio method for the characterisation of the poultry house environment.

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    Skipitytė, Raminta; Mašalaitė, Agnė; Garbaras, Andrius; Mickienė, Rūta; Ragažinskienė, Ona; Baliukonienė, Violeta; Bakutis, Bronius; Šiugždaitė, Jūratė; Petkevičius, Saulius; Maruška, Audrius Sigitas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2017-06-01

    Stable isotope analysis was applied to describe the poultry house environment. The poultry house indoor environment was selected for this study due to the relevant health problems in animals and their caretakers. Air quality parameters including temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, NH 3 , CO 2 and total suspended particles, as well as mean levels of total airborne bacteria and fungi count, were measured. Carbon isotope ratios ( 13 C/ 12 C) were obtained in size-segregated aerosol particles. The carbon ( 13 C/ 12 C) and nitrogen ( 15 N/ 14 N) isotope ratios were measured in feed, litter, scrapings from the ventilation system, feathers and eggs. Additionally, the distribution of δ 13 C and δ 15 N values in different tissues of the chicken was examined. The airborne bacteria and fungi extracted from the air filters collected from poultry farms were grown in the laboratory in media with known isotope values and measured for stable isotope ratios. Analysis of isotope fractionation between microorganisms and their media indicated the applicability of stable isotope analysis in bulk samples for the identification of source material. The analysed examples imply that stable isotope analysis can be used to examine the indoor environment along with its biology and ecology, and serve as an informative bioanalytical tool.

  20. Controlling social stress in virtual reality environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Hartanto

    Full Text Available Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6 = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6 = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6 = -0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes.

  1. Controlling Social Stress in Virtual Reality Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Morina, Nexhmedin; Emmelkamp, Paul G. M.; Neerincx, Mark A.; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study: the social dialogue situation, and the dialogue feedback responses (negative or positive) between a human and a virtual character. In the first study, 16 participants were exposed in three virtual reality scenarios: a neutral virtual world, blind date scenario, and job interview scenario. Results showed a significant difference between the three virtual scenarios in the level of self-reported anxiety and heart rate. In the second study, 24 participants were exposed to a job interview scenario in a virtual environment where the ratio between negative and positive dialogue feedback responses of a virtual character was systematically varied on-the-fly. Results yielded that within a dialogue the more positive dialogue feedback resulted in less self-reported anxiety, lower heart rate, and longer answers, while more negative dialogue feedback of the virtual character resulted in the opposite. The correlations between on the one hand the dialogue stressor ratio and on the other hand the means of SUD score, heart rate and audio length in the eight dialogue conditions showed a strong relationship: r(6) = 0.91, p = 0.002; r(6) = 0.76, p = 0.028 and r(6) = −0.94, p = 0.001 respectively. Furthermore, more anticipatory anxiety reported before exposure was found to coincide with more self-reported anxiety, and shorter answers during the virtual exposure. These results demonstrate that social dialogues in a virtual environment can be effectively manipulated for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24671006

  2. Distribution tactics for success in turbulent versus stable environments: A complexity theory approach

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    Roger Bruce Mason

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes that the external environment influences the choice of distribution tactics. Since businesses and markets are complex adaptive systems, using complexity theory to understand such environments is necessary, but it has not been widely researched. A qualitative case method using in-depth interviews investigated four successful, versus less successful, companies in turbulent versus stable environments. The results tentatively confirmed that the more successful company, in a turbulent market, sees distribution activities as less important than other aspects of the marketing mix, but uses them to stabilise customer relationships and to maintain distribution processes. These findings can benefit marketers by emphasising a new way to consider place activities. How marketers can be assisted, and suggestions for further research, are provided.

  3. Distribution tactics for success in turbulent versus stable environments: A complexity theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Bruce Mason

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes that the external environment influences the choice of distribution tactics. Since businesses and markets are complex adaptive systems, using complexity theory to understand such environments is necessary, but it has not been widely researched. A qualitative case method using in-depth interviews investigated four successful, versus less successful, companies in turbulent versus stable environments. The results tentatively confirmed that the more successful company, in a turbulent market, sees distribution activities as less important than other aspects of the marketing mix, but uses them to stabilise customer relationships and to maintain distribution processes. These findings can benefit marketers by emphasising a new way to consider place activities. How marketers can be assisted, and suggestions for further research, are provided.

  4. The Formation of Social Conventions in Real-Time Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert X D Hawkins

    Full Text Available Why are some behaviors governed by strong social conventions while others are not? We experimentally investigate two factors contributing to the formation of conventions in a game of impure coordination: the continuity of interaction within each round of play (simultaneous vs. real-time and the stakes of the interaction (high vs. low differences between payoffs. To maximize efficiency and fairness in this game, players must coordinate on one of two equally advantageous equilibria. In agreement with other studies manipulating continuity of interaction, we find that players who were allowed to interact continuously within rounds achieved outcomes with greater efficiency and fairness than players who were forced to make simultaneous decisions. However, the stability of equilibria in the real-time condition varied systematically and dramatically with stakes: players converged on more stable patterns of behavior when stakes are high. To account for this result, we present a novel analysis of the dynamics of continuous interaction and signaling within rounds. We discuss this previously unconsidered interaction between within-trial and across-trial dynamics as a form of social canalization. When stakes are low in a real-time environment, players can satisfactorily coordinate 'on the fly', but when stakes are high there is increased pressure to establish and adhere to shared expectations that persist across rounds.

  5. A Stable Coordination Complex of Rh(IV) in an N,O-Donor Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Shashi B. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225 Prospect; Shopov, Dimitar Y. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225 Prospect; Sharninghausen, Liam S. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225 Prospect; Vinyard, David J. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225 Prospect; Mercado, Brandon Q. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225 Prospect; Brudvig, Gary W. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225 Prospect; Crabtree, Robert H. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225 Prospect

    2015-12-10

    We describe facial and meridional isomers of [RhIII(pyalk)3], as well as meridional [RhIV(pyalk)3]+ {pyalk =2-(2-pyridyl)-2-propanoate}, the first coordination complex in an N,O-donor environment to show a clean, reversible RhIII/IV redox couple and to have a stable Rh(IV) form, which we characterize by EPR and UV–visible spectroscopy as well as X-ray crystallography. The unprecedented stability of the Rh(IV) species is ascribed to the exceptional donor strength of the ligands, their oxidation resistance, and the meridional coordination geometry.

  6. Social cognition and interaction training for patients with stable schizophrenia in Chinese community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongguang; Roberts, David L; Xu, Baihua; Cao, Rifang; Yan, Min; Jiang, Qiongping

    2013-12-30

    Accumulated evidence suggests that Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) is associated with improved performance in social cognition and social skills in patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders. The current study examined the clinical utility of SCIT in patients with schizophrenia in Chinese community settings. Adults with stable schizophrenia were recruited from local community health institutions, and were randomly assigned to SCIT group (n = 22) or a waiting-list control group (n = 17). The SCIT group received the SCIT intervention plus treatment-as-usual, whereas the waiting-list group received only treatment-as-usual during the period of the study. All patients were administered the Chinese versions of the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP), Face Emotion Identification Task (FEIT), Eyes task, and Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) at baseline of the SCIT treatment period and at follow-up, 6 months after completion of the 20-week treatment period. Patients in SCIT group showed a significant improvement in the domains of emotion perception, theory of mind, attributional style, and social functioning compared to those in waiting-list group. Findings indicate that SCIT is a feasible and promising method for improving social cognition and social functioning among Chinese outpatients with stable schizophrenia. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Inexpensive, Stable, and Accurate Relative Humidity Measurement Method for Challenging Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ma, Hong; Yang, Simon X

    2016-03-18

    In this research, an improved psychrometer is developed to solve practical issues arising in the relative humidity measurement of challenging drying environments for meat manufacturing in agricultural and agri-food industries. The design in this research focused on the structure of the improved psychrometer, signal conversion, and calculation methods. The experimental results showed the effect of varying psychrometer structure on relative humidity measurement accuracy. An industrial application to dry-cured meat products demonstrated the effective performance of the improved psychrometer being used as a relative humidity measurement sensor in meat-drying rooms. In a drying environment for meat manufacturing, the achieved measurement accuracy for relative humidity using the improved psychrometer was ±0.6%. The system test results showed that the improved psychrometer can provide reliable and long-term stable relative humidity measurements with high accuracy in the drying system of meat products.

  8. Highly stable organic polymer field-effect transistor sensor for selective detection in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopfmacher, Oren; Hammock, Mallory L.; Appleton, Anthony L.; Schwartz, Gregor; Mei, Jianguo; Lei, Ting; Pei, Jian; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the susceptibility to degradation in both ambient and aqueous environments has prevented organic electronics from gaining rapid traction for sensing applications. Here we report an organic field-effect transistor sensor that overcomes this barrier using a solution-processable isoindigo-based polymer semiconductor. More importantly, these organic field-effect transistor sensors are stable in both freshwater and seawater environments over extended periods of time. The organic field-effect transistor sensors are further capable of selectively sensing heavy-metal ions in seawater. This discovery has potential for inexpensive, ink-jet printed, and large-scale environmental monitoring devices that can be deployed in areas once thought of as beyond the scope of organic materials.

  9. Gamification, social networks and sustainable environments

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fábio; Analide, César; Rosa, Luís; Felgueiras, Gilberto; Pimenta, Cedric

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent environments and ambient intelligence enabled systems provide means to gather rich information from both environments and its users. With the help of such systems, it is possible to foster communities of ambient intelligence systems with community driven knowledge, which is created by individual actions and setups in each of the environments. Such arrangements provides the potential to build systems that promote better practices and more efficient and sustainable environments by p...

  10. Review of Non-Chemical Stressors from the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-chemical stressors (e.g., noise, diet, temperature, overcrowding) are found in the built, natural and social environments. Correlations between exposure to non-chemical stressors in the social environment (e.g., SES, exposure to violence, acculturation) and negative health ou...

  11. Early social environment influences the behaviour of a family-living lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Julia L; Noble, Daniel W A; Byrne, Richard W; Whiting, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Early social environment can play a significant role in shaping behavioural development. For instance, in many social mammals and birds, isolation rearing results in individuals that are less exploratory, shyer, less social and more aggressive than individuals raised in groups. Moreover, dynamic aspects of social environments, such as the nature of relationships between individuals, can also impact the trajectory of development. We tested if being raised alone or socially affects behavioural development in the family-living tree skink, Egernia striolata . Juveniles were raised in two treatments: alone or in a pair. We assayed exploration, boldness, sociability and aggression repeatedly throughout each juvenile's first year of life, and also assessed social interactions between pairs to determine if juveniles formed dominant-subordinate relationships. We found that male and/or the larger skinks within social pairs were dominant. Developing within this social environment reduced skink growth, and subordinate skinks were more prone to tail loss. Thus, living with a conspecific was costly for E. striolata . The predicted negative effects of isolation failed to materialize. Nevertheless, there were significant differences in behavioural traits depending on the social environment (isolated, dominant or subordinate member of a pair). Isolated skinks were more social than subordinate skinks. Subordinate skinks also became more aggressive over time, whereas isolated and dominant skinks showed invariable aggression. Dominant skinks became bolder over time, whereas isolated and subordinate skinks were relatively stable in their boldness. In summary, our study is evidence that isolation rearing does not consistently affect behaviour across all social taxa. Our study also demonstrates that the social environment plays an important role in behavioural development of a family-living lizard.

  12. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.

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    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  13. Why the Neighborhood Social Environment Is Critical in Obesity Prevention.

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    Suglia, Shakira F; Shelton, Rachel C; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y Claire; Rundle, Andrew; Link, Bruce G

    2016-02-01

    The continuing obesity epidemic in the USA calls for the examination of antecedents to the well-known risk factors of physical activity and diet. The neighborhood built environment has been extensively studied in relation to obesity noting an increased risk of development and prevalence of obesity in relation to numerous built environment characteristics (lack of green spaces, higher number of fast food restaurants, low walkability indices). The neighborhood social environment, however, has been less extensively studied but is perhaps an equally important component of the neighborhood environment. The neighborhood social environment, particularly constructs of social capital, collective efficacy, and crime, is associated with obesity among both adults and children. Several studies have identified physical activity as a potential pathway of the neighborhood social environment and obesity association. Further work on social networks and norms and residential segregation, as well as the examination of dietary behaviors and mental health as potential mediating pathways, is necessary. Given the existing evidence, intervening on the neighborhood social environment may prove to be an effective target for the prevention on obesity. Intervention studies that promote healthy behaviors and prevent obesity while addressing aspects of the neighborhood social environment are necessary to better identify targets for obesity prevention.

  14. The Influence of Personality on Social Participation in Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avner; Chajut, Eran; Saporta, Kelly; Beyth-Marom, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of the instructional environment (classroom vs. Web-based instructional environment--WBIE) and personality differences on students' social participation were examined among 214 university students. Students reported their attendance, willingness to participate and actual participation in each instructional environment. Students'…

  15. Robust blind identification of room acoustic channels in symmetric alpha-stable distributed noise environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongsen; Lu, Jing; Chen, Jingdong; Qiu, Xiaojun; Benesty, Jacob

    2014-08-01

    Blind multichannel identification is generally sensitive to background noise. Although there have been some efforts in the literature devoted to improving the robustness of blind multichannel identification with respect to noise, most of those works assume that the noise is Gaussian distributed, which is often not valid in real room acoustic environments. This paper deals with the more practical scenario where the noise is not Gaussian. To improve the robustness of blind multichannel identification to non-Gaussian noise, a robust normalized multichannel frequency-domain least-mean M-estimate algorithm is developed. Unlike the traditional approaches that use the squared error as the cost function, the proposed algorithm uses an M-estimator to form the cost function, which is shown to be immune to non-Gaussian noise with a symmetric α-stable distribution. Experiments based on the identification of a single-input/multiple-output acoustic system demonstrate the robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Gamification, Social Networks and Sustainable Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent environments and ambient intelligence enabled systems provide means to gather rich information from both environments and its users. With the help of such systems, it is possible to foster communities of ambient intelligence systems with community driven knowledge, which is created by individual actions and setups in each of the environments. Such arrangements provides the potential to build systems that promote better practices and more efficient and sustainable environments by promoting the community best examples and engaging users to adopt and develop proactive behaviors to improve their standings in the community. This work aims to use knowledge from communities of intelligent environments to their own benefit. The approach presented in this work uses information from different environments, ranking them according to their sustainability assessment. Recommendations are then computed using similarity and clustering functions ranking users and environments, updating their previous records and launching new recommendations in the process. Gamification concepts are used in order to keep users motivation and engage them actively to produce better results in terms of sustainability.

  17. Social rearing environment influences dog behavioral development

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Naomi D.; Craigon, Peter J.; Blythe, Simon A.; England, Gary C.W.; Asher, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Early life experiences are known to influence behavior later in life. In dogs, environmental influences of early home rearing could be exploited to improve the chances of developing adult behavior most suited to the adult environment. For working dog organizations, such as Guide Dogs, suitable adult behavior is important to ensure that dogs can fulfill their role as guides for people with visual impairment. Here, we test the hypothesis that dogs' home rearing environment will influence behavi...

  18. SOCIAL NETWORKS AS THE ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojsław Czupryński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the global Internet has changed the way the entire human population communicates. The internet has become a platform, where human societies build their lives, and traditional communication over the last few years has been replaced by social networks. Today, social networks are the subject of many debates concerning their advantages, disadvantages and the ideas of what they bring to the future. Portals are not only the way of communication, fun, an idea to spend free time, but also source of social and humanistic knowledge too. Against that, social media could be a huge risk for those who use them. The assigned job above discusses about the topic the detrimental effect what the social networks bring. A series of deviant behaviors caused by use of the portal is also presented in this report. Often they become a dysfunctional generator of actions that manifest themselves among the youth. Consequently, there was a need to take action to stop the growth of this phenomenon among young people. First of all the primary activities at this level are prevention and education in the family.

  19. Socially Marginalized Environments, Unemployment and Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravčík Oto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In any society, regardless of its homogeneity and heterogeneity, there are minority groups, or those that require special attention and treatment because of their social and cultural characteristics, physical appearance, or because they have a lifestyle which differs from the dominant group and this causes them to be allocated the social status of minorities. The ongoing transformation of the economy since 1989 is now a major effect which continues to affect economic development. The planned economy and socialist market economy was replaced with the principles of free enterprise and the market mechanism. The market economy is closely tied to the labor market, which we view as the meeting point of labor supply with labor demand, resulting in labor costs - or wages. Position in the labor market is one of the most important factors through which an individual integrates into the social fabric.

  20. Social Contact in Virtual Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    A common question is whether technology will replace social contact. In this article it is argued that it will not, provided that we learn to use the characteristics of new media constructively in designing for learning. The term “social”, in this context is taken to mean “purposeful communicatio...

  1. Controlling social stress in virtual reality environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartanto, D.; Kampmann, I.L.; Morina, N.; Emmelkamp, P.G.M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Brinkman, W.P.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy has been proposed as a viable alternative in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder. Therapists could benefit from extensive control of anxiety eliciting stimuli during virtual exposure. Two stimuli controls are studied in this study:

  2. Social Pre-treatment Modulates Attention Allocation to Transient and Stable Object Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Oláh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that ostensive-communicative signals in social learning situations enable observers to focus their attention on the intrinsic features of an object (e.g. color at the expense of ignoring transient object properties (e.g. location. Here we investigated whether off-line social cues, presented as social primes, have the same power to modulate attention allocation to stable and transient object properties as on-line ostensive-communicative cues. The first part of the experiment consisted of a pre-treatment phase, where adult male participants either received intensive social stimulation or were asked to perform non-social actions. Then, they participated in a change detection test, where they watched pairs of pictures depicting an array of five objects. On the second picture, a change occurred compared to the first picture. One object changed either its location (moving forward or backward or was replaced by another object, and participants were required to indicate where the change had happened. We found that participants detected the change more successfully if it had happened in the location of the object; however, this difference was reduced following a socially intense pre-treatment phase. The results are discussed in relation to the claims of the natural pedagogy theory.

  3. THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND NEUROGENESIS IN THE ADULT MAMMALIAN BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eLieberwirth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis—the formation of new neurons in adulthood—has been shown to be modulated by a variety of endogenous (e.g., trophic factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones as well as exogenous (e.g., physical activity and environmental complexity factors. Research on exogenous regulators of adult neurogenesis has focused primarily on the non-social environment. Most recently, however, evidence has emerged suggesting that the social environment can also affect adult neurogenesis. The present review details the effects of adult-adult (e.g., mating, conspecific, and chemosensory signal exposure and adult-offspring (e.g., gestation, parenthood, and exposure to offspring interactions on adult neurogenesis. In addition, the effects of a stressful social environment (e.g., lack of social support and dominant-subordinate interactions on adult neurogenesis are reviewed. The underlying hormonal mechanisms and potential functional significance of adult-generated neurons in mediating social behaviors are also discussed.

  4. Awareness of cognitive and social behaviour in a CSCL environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Jos Fransen; P.A. Kirschner; C. Phielix; K. Kreijns

    2014-01-01

    Most distributed and virtual online environments for and pedagogies of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) neglect the social and social-emotional aspects underlying the group dynamics of learning and working in a CSCL group. These group dynamics often determine whether the group will

  5. Awareness of cognitive and social behaviour in a CSCL environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kreijns, Karel; Phielix, C.; Fransen, J.

    2018-01-01

    Most distributed and virtual online environments for and pedagogies of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) neglect the social and social-emotional aspects underlying the group dynamics of learning and working in a CSCL group. These group dynamics often determine whether the group

  6. Social Organization, Physical Environment, and Infant-Caretaker Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, R. H.; da Costa-Woodson, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Relationships of infant/caretaker interaction with the social organization and the physical environment of the home were examined in rural Malay and Chinese families living in Malaysia. Findings are discussed in terms of the integration of behavioral characteristics, patterns of social organization, and arrangements of the physical environment…

  7. Social Media: Valuable Tools in Today’s Operational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    The ever-increasing application of social media throughout the world, including in developing countries, signals a significant change in how new...level commanders must more effectively leverage social media as tools for strategic communication and to gain a better understanding of the operational...environment. This paper provides an assessment of how theater-strategic and operational level commanders are currently employing social media , and

  8. Social Perception of the Environment: dangerous dissosciations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano ESPINOSA RUBIO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human beings have taken wrong decisions about their own survival many times along the history and, in the middle of a very dangerous ecological crisis, it is urgent to analyse the causes and consequences of that fact. On the other hand, environmental questions are civilization ones today and the key is a changing in our way of life. But first of all it is necessary to have a right social perception of the problems in order to evaluate them and to prepare the action.

  9. [Research advances in identifying nitrate pollution sources of water environment by using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Liang, Zhi-wei; Li, Wei; Zhu, Yao; Yanng, Mu-yi; Jia, Chao-jie

    2013-04-01

    Water body' s nitrate pollution has become a common and severe environmental problem. In order to ensure human health and water environment benign evolution, it is of great importance to effectively identify the nitrate pollution sources of water body. Because of the discrepant composition of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in different sources of nitrate in water body, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes can be used to identify the nitrate pollution sources of water environment. This paper introduced the fractionation factors of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in the main processes of nitrogen cycling and the composition of these stable isotopes in main nitrate sources, compared the advantages and disadvantages of five pre-treatment methods for analyzing the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate, and summarized the research advances in this aspect into three stages, i. e. , using nitrogen stable isotope alone, using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes simultaneously, and combining with mathematical models. The future research directions regarding the nitrate pollution sources identification of water environment were also discussed.

  10. Why the Neighborhood Social Environment Is Critical in Obesity Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Suglia, Shakira F.; Shelton, Rachel C.; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y. Claire; Rundle, Andrew; Link, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    The continuing obesity epidemic in the USA calls for the examination of antecedents to the well-known risk factors of physical activity and diet. The neighborhood built environment has been extensively studied in relation to obesity noting an increased risk of development and prevalence of obesity in relation to numerous built environment characteristics (lack of green spaces, higher number of fast food restaurants, low walkability indices). The neighborhood social environment, however, has b...

  11. Design of New Food Technology: Social Shaping of Working Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2000-01-01

    A five-year design process of a continuous process wok has been studied with the aim of elucidating the conditions for integrating working environment aspects. The design process is seen as a network building activity and as a social shaping process of the artefact. A working environment log...... is suggested as a tool designers can use to integrate considerations of future operators' working environment....

  12. Detection of autotrophic verrucomicrobial methanotrophs in a geothermal environment using stable isotope probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eSharp

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Genomic analysis of the methanotrophic verrucomicrobium Methylacidiphilum infernorum strain V4 has shown that most pathways conferring its methanotrophic lifestyle are similar to those found in proteobacterial methanotrophs. However, due to the large sequence divergence of its methane monooxygenase-encoding genes (pmo, ‘universal’ pmoA polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers do not target these bacteria. Unlike proteobacterial methanotrophs, Methylacidiphilum fixes carbon autotrophically, and uses methane only for energy generation. As a result, techniques used to detect methanotrophs in the environment such as 13CH4-stable isotope probing (SIP and pmoA-targeted PCR do not detect verrucomicrobial methanotrophs, and they may have been overlooked in previous environmental studies. We developed a modified SIP technique to identify active methanotrophic verrucomicrobia in the environment by labelling with 13CO2 and 13CH4, individually and in combination. Testing the protocol in M. infernorum strain V4 resulted in assimilation of 13CO2 but not 13CH4, verifying its autotrophic lifestyle. To specifically detect methanotrophs (as opposed to other autotrophs via 13CO2-SIP, a quantitative PCR (qPCR assay specific for verrucomicrobial-pmoA genes was developed and used in combination with SIP. Incubation of an acidic, high-temperature geothermal soil with 13CH4 + 12CO2 caused little shift in the density distribution of verrucomicrobial-pmoA genes relative to controls. However, labelling with 13CO2 in combination with 12CH4 or 13CH4 induced a strong shift in the distribution of verrucomicrobial-pmoA genes towards the heavy DNA fractions. The modified SIP technique demonstrated that the primary methanotrophs active in the soil were autotrophs and belonged to the Verrucomicrobia. This is the first demonstration of autotrophic, non-proteobacterial methanotrophy in situ, and provides a tool to detect verrucomicrobial methanotrophs in other ecosystems.

  13. The Effect of Social Interaction on Learning Engagement in a Social Networking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Churchill, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of social interactions among a class of undergraduate students on their learning engagement in a social networking environment. Thirteen undergraduate students enrolled in a course in a university in Hong Kong used an Elgg-based social networking platform throughout a semester to develop their digital portfolios…

  14. Stress responsiveness and anxiety-like behavior: The early social environment differentially shapes stability over time in a small rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangenstedt, Susanne; Jaljuli, Iman; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2017-04-01

    The early social environment can profoundly affect behavioral and physiological phenotypes. We investigated how male wild cavy offspring, whose mothers had either lived in a stable (SE) or an unstable social environment (UE) during pregnancy and lactation, differed in their anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness. At two different time points in life, we tested the offspring's anxiety-like behavior in a dark-light test and their endocrine reaction to challenge in a cortisol reactivity test. Furthermore, we analyzed whether individual traits remained stable over time. There was no effect of the early social environment on anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness. However, at an individual level, anxiety-like behavior was stable over time in UE- but not in SE-sons. Stress responsiveness, in turn, was rather inconsistent in UE-sons and temporally stable in SE-sons. Conclusively, we showed for the first time that the early social environment differentially shapes the stability of behavioral and endocrine traits. At first glance, these results may be surprising, but they can be explained by the different functions anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness have. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interaction Between Physical Environment, Social Environment, and Child Characteristics in Determining Physical Activity at Child Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Kann, D.H.H. van; Stafleu, A.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Thijs, C.; Vries, N.K.de

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between the child-care environment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year-olds. Based on an ecological view of environmental influences on health behavior, we hypothesized that the social and physical environment, as well as child characteristics (age and

  16. Tracking Reactive Nitrogen Sources, Chemistry and Deposition in Urban Environments Using Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, M. G.; Clark, S. C.; Chai, J.; Joyce, E.; Miller, D. J.; Schiebel, H.; Walters, W.

    2017-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) includes compounds such as nitrogen oxides (NOx, HONO), ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and organic nitrates. These compounds serve major roles in controlling the composition of our atmosphere, and have a direct impact on ecosystem health and water quality. Our research is focused on using stable isotopes of Nr to investigate variations in sources, chemistry, atmospheric transport, and deposition. Our aim is to fingerprint distinct emission sources - such as vehicles, power plants, aircraft, agriculature, wildfires, and lightning - and track their influence in the environment. We have recently characterized vehicle emission plumes, emissions from agricultural soils under different management practices, and (in the near future) wildfire plumes in the western U.S. Our approach targets characterizing the isotopic composition of NOx, HONO, and NH3 at both the emissions source and the plume scale. In contrast to large ranges found for individual tailpipe emissions of NOx, on-road plumes in the U.S. have a mean δ15N of -4.7 ± 1.7‰. The plume scale approach integrates across the typical U.S. fleet giving a representative value that can be used for tracking the impact of this emission source in the environment. NH3 also tends towards a narrow isotopic range when considered at the roadside scale compared to individual vehicles. In agricultural settings, the isotopes of NOx and HONO released from soils under different fertilizer practices is typically very negative in δ15N (-40 to -10‰) and appears to vary most with soil N properties rather than meteorology. Our work is now extending to discern sources influencing Nr deposition in an urban area at the head of New England's largest estuary. National monitoring of N deposition shows decreases in NO3- (but not NH4+) deposition over the last two decades, following better controls on NOx emissions. Wet deposition collected in an urban area exhibits N concentrations that are often 3

  17. The natural environment as an area of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolak-Tuzimek Anna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Areas of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR have been defined in ISO 26000. Guidelines of the International Standardisation Organisation distinguish seven areas: corporate governance, human rights, labour practices, natural environment, fair operating practices, consumer issues, social commitment and development of local communities. This article presents good practices implemented by enterprises in the individual areas, in particular, actions in the area of the natural environment. Two research hypotheses are posited concerning the rate of implementing good CSR practices and the number of actions in the natural environment area. National Responsible Business Forum research and a survey of a group of enterprises in the Mazovian region, conducted by the authors in 2014–2016, served to verify the hypotheses. The results imply that the number of good practices realised in CSR areas tends to grow. In addition, actions in the area of the natural environment rank third with regard to good practices implemented.

  18. A Mentally Ill Patient and his/her Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Nekrasov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental illness (MI markedly affects a person’s daily living and leads to disability, reduced duration of active life and, finally, tremendous economic losses incurred by the state and society. Moreover, it has an adverse impact on the patient’s immediate social surroundings. The aim of the research was to study various aspects of mentally ill patients’ daily living and their social environment in order to optimize psychosocial rehabilitation programs and therapies. Methods: One thousand forty two mentally ill people and 580 persons from their social environment participated in an anonymous social survey. The survey was carried out using specially developed structured questionnaires. The results showed that MI changes the quality of life of mentally ill people (MIP: impaired well-being (84.4%, curbing of interests (36.0%, increased emotional sensitivity (39.0%, low self-esteem (75.4%, problems in family relations (78.0%, dramatic loss of sexual activity (72.3%, and in 75.8% patients – stigmatizing effect of their MI. The presence of a mentally-ill member in a family significantly affected the life and inner world of people close to that member, and modified their professional activity (38.8%, daily living (56.8% and emotional state (36.2%. Conclusion: To improve application of psychosocial rehabilitation methods, an attempt was made to conduct a comprehensive medical and social study of the mentally ill and their social environment.

  19. Investigation of Benthic Foraminiferal Non-Traditional Stable Isotopes to Reconstruct Methane Fluxes in Sedimentary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, C.; Gabitov, R. I.; Messenger, S. R.; Nguyen, A. N.; Torres, M. E.; Kessler, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, with a global warming potential much higher than carbon dioxide (CO2) on a short time scale. Even if the residence time of CH4 in the atmosphere is relatively short (tens of years), one of the products of CH4 oxidation is CO2, a greenhouse gas with a much longer residence time in the atmosphere (tens to hundreds of years). CH4 has been proposed as one of the trigger mechanisms for rapid global climate change today and in the geological past. With regards to the geological past, numerous studies proposed the benthic foraminiferal carbon isotope ratio (Delta13C) as a tool to reconstruct the impact of marine CH4 on rapid climate changes; however, the investigation of modern benthic foraminiferal Delta13C have produced inconclusive results. CH4 has a distinctive hydrogen isotope (Delta(D)) and Delta13C signature compared to seawater, and sulfate reduction, often coupled to CH4 anaerobic oxidation in sediments, changes the sulfur isotope signature (Delta34S) of the remaining sulfate in porewater. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Delta(D) and Delta34S signature of infaunal benthic foraminiferal species can provide a complementary approach to Delta13C to study CH4 dynamics in sedimentary environments. Here, we present the preliminary results obtained analyzing Uvigerina peregrina Delta(D) and Delta34S from three different locations at Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon. Unfortunately, the lack of chemical data related to the moment of foraminiferal calcification makes difficult to build a robust relationship among the U. peregrina stable isotopes and the CH4 fluxes at the sampling sites. However, our results look very promising, as each site is characterized by a different Delta(D) and Delta34S signature. We emphasize that this study represents the first step in the development of new proxies (Delta(D)) and Delta34S), which may complement the more traditional benthic foraminiferal Delta13C values, to reconstruct marine CH4

  20. Effect of Family Education and Social Environment to Student Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charina Oktaviani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to know whether or not an influence of family education and social environment on the characteristics of students during the accounting lesson at class XI IPS SMA Negeri I Pati; to know whether or not an influence of social environment on the characteristics of students during the accounting lesson at class XI IPS SMA Negeri I Pati; and to know whether or not an influence between family education and social environment on the characteristics of students during the accounting lesson at class XI IPS SMA Negeri I Pati. The population in this research is 71 students of class XI SMA Negeri I Pati. Method of data analysis in this research consists of percentage descriptive analysis, descriptive statistic, prerequisite test covering normality test and linearity test, multiple linear regression analysis, classical assumption test covering multicollinearity test and heteroscedasticity test, hypothesis test covering simultaneous test (F, coefficient of simultaneous determination (R2, partial test (t, and partial determinant coefficient (r2. Results shows that family education and social environment both simultaneously and individually have positive impacts on the student characteristics.

  1. Workplace Social and Organizational Environments and Healthy-Weight Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Hipp, J. Aaron; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important setting for health promotion including nutrition and physical activity behaviors to prevent obesity. This paper explores the relationship between workplace social environment and cultural factors and diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors and obesity among employees. Methods Between 2012 and 2013, telephone interviews were conducted with participants residing in four Missouri metropolitan areas. Questions included demographic characteristics, workpl...

  2. Growing Physical, Social and Cognitive Capacity: Engaging with Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Physical environments are a major contributor to human health, cognitive development, and social wellbeing but, until recently, these roles have largely been ignored. Historically the nature-nurture dichotomy divided understandings of human growth, learning and behaviour but the recent epigenetic research and the emergence of gene-environment…

  3. Designing a Social Environment for Human-Robot Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Fred M.

    Noting that work is partly a social activity, and that workers' psychological and emotional needs influence their productivity, this paper explores avenues for improving human-robot cooperation and for enhancing worker satisfaction in the environment of flexible automation. The first section of the paper offers a brief overview of the…

  4. Home environment and social media as correlates of academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was recommended that parents should serve as good role models to their high ability children by embarking on good social habits that is worthy of emulation. Parents and teachers must also counsel the high ability students from time to time to be mindful of what they browse in the internet. Keywords: Home environment ...

  5. The Effects of Integrating Social Learning Environment with Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopovic, Miroslava; Cvetanovic, Svetlana; Medan, Ivana; Ljubojevic, Danijela

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the learning and teaching styles using the Social Learning Environment (SLE), which was developed based on the computer supported collaborative learning approach. To avoid burdening learners with multiple platforms and tools, SLE was designed and developed in order to integrate existing systems, institutional…

  6. Social Constructivist Learning Environment in an Online Professional Practice Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulbumrungsil, Rungpetch; Theeraroungchaisri, Anuchai; Watcharadamrongkun, Suntaree

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the online social constructivist learning environment (SCLE) and student perceptions of the outcomes of the online introductory module of pharmacy professional practice that was designed based on social constructivism theory. Design The online introductory module of pharmacy professional practice in pharmaceutical marketing and business was carefully designed by organizing various activities, which were intended to encourage social interaction among students. The Constructivist Online Learning Environment Survey (COLLES) was applied to assess the SCLE. Course evaluation questionnaires were administered to assess student perceptions of this online module. Assessment The result from the COLLES illustrated the development of SCLE in the course. The students reported positive perceptions of the course. Conclusion An online introductory module of pharmacy professional practice in pharmaceutical marketing and business was effective in promoting SCLE. PMID:19513147

  7. Social constructivist learning environment in an online professional practice course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthapornnanon, Nunthaluxna; Sakulbumrungsil, Rungpetch; Theeraroungchaisri, Anuchai; Watcharadamrongkun, Suntaree

    2009-02-19

    To assess the online social constructivist learning environment (SCLE) and student perceptions of the outcomes of the online introductory module of pharmacy professional practice that was designed based on social constructivism theory. The online introductory module of pharmacy professional practice in pharmaceutical marketing and business was carefully designed by organizing various activities, which were intended to encourage social interaction among students. The Constructivist Online Learning Environment Survey (COLLES) was applied to assess the SCLE. Course evaluation questionnaires were administered to assess student perceptions of this online module. The result from the COLLES illustrated the development of SCLE in the course. The students reported positive perceptions of the course. An online introductory module of pharmacy professional practice in pharmaceutical marketing and business was effective in promoting SCLE.

  8. Supporting tactical intelligence using collaborative environments and social networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollocko, Arthur B.; Farry, Michael P.; Stark, Robert F.

    2013-05-01

    Modern military environments place an increased emphasis on the collection and analysis of intelligence at the tactical level. The deployment of analytical tools at the tactical level helps support the Warfighter's need for rapid collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence. However, given the lack of experience and staffing at the tactical level, most of the available intelligence is not exploited. Tactical environments are staffed by a new generation of intelligence analysts who are well-versed in modern collaboration environments and social networking. An opportunity exists to enhance tactical intelligence analysis by exploiting these personnel strengths, but is dependent on appropriately designed information sharing technologies. Existing social information sharing technologies enable users to publish information quickly, but do not unite or organize information in a manner that effectively supports intelligence analysis. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to structuring and supporting tactical intelligence analysis that combines the benefits of existing concepts, and provide detail on a prototype system embodying that approach. Since this approach employs familiar collaboration support concepts from social media, it enables new-generation analysts to identify the decision-relevant data scattered among databases and the mental models of other personnel, increasing the timeliness of collaborative analysis. Also, the approach enables analysts to collaborate visually to associate heterogeneous and uncertain data within the intelligence analysis process, increasing the robustness of collaborative analyses. Utilizing this familiar dynamic collaboration environment, we hope to achieve a significant reduction of time and skill required to glean actionable intelligence in these challenging operational environments.

  9. Social science genetics and fertility : Essays on the Interplay Between Genes, Social Environment and Human Fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tropf, Felix

    2016-01-01

    To what extent do genes influence the age at which you have your first child and the number of children that you have? Does the social environment influence genetic effects on fertility? Do genes lead to spurious associations between life outcomes such as education and age at first birth? The social

  10. The social responsibility commitment to the community and care environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena López Regalado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of csr has evolved in recent years, currently the main objective of the Company cannot lie only meet the monetary needs of the shareholders, but to seek the participation of all stakeholders in the company, with the different stakeholders that interact with the environment either customers, suppliers, employees and society at large, impacting the community with socially responsible actions. Because the concept has acquired new shades as social, economic and environmental responsibility among others, being on the great responsibility of the actions of companies to make social or common good acts to achieve their objectives without harming their economies community, the next job is presented focusing especially on two major indicators of social responsibility such as environmental care, and welfare of the community.

  11. Using Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen to Evaluate Trophic Interactions in Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, David R.; LaRoche, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a series of laboratory exercises for upper level biology courses, independent research and/or honors programs. Students sampled fish from a local water body with the assistance of a local fish and wildlife agency. Tissue samples from collected fish were utilized to obtain estimates of the stable isotopes delta[superscript 13]C…

  12. Recent research activities and future subjects on stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushita, Kouhei

    2001-12-01

    This report reviews the recent studies on the stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine from a viewpoint of environmental science, partly including historic references on this element. First, general properties, occurrence, and utilization of chlorine are described. Secondly, current status and research works on chlorine-compounds, which attract special attention in recent years as environmentally hazardous materials, are reported. Thirdly, research works on stable chlorine isotopes, 35 Cl and 37 Cl, are described with a focus laid on the newly-developed techniques; isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Fourthly, recent research works on chlorine radioisotopes, 36 Cl etc., are described, focusing on the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its application to geochemistry and others. Finally, taking account of the above-mentioned recent works on Cl isotopes, possible future research subjects are discussed. (author)

  13. Recent research activities and future subjects on stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushita, Kouhei [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report reviews the recent studies on the stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine from a viewpoint of environmental science, partly including historic references on this element. First, general properties, occurrence, and utilization of chlorine are described. Secondly, current status and research works on chlorine-compounds, which attract special attention in recent years as environmentally hazardous materials, are reported. Thirdly, research works on stable chlorine isotopes, {sup 35}Cl and {sup 37}Cl, are described with a focus laid on the newly-developed techniques; isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Fourthly, recent research works on chlorine radioisotopes, {sup 36}Cl etc., are described, focusing on the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its application to geochemistry and others. Finally, taking account of the above-mentioned recent works on Cl isotopes, possible future research subjects are discussed. (author)

  14. New trends in bio/nanotechnology: stable proteins as advanced molecular tools for health and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, M; Baldassarre, M; Esposito, M; Apicella, E; Vitale, R; Aurilia, V; D'Auria, S

    2010-01-01

    In this work the thermophilic trehalose/maltose-binding protein from Thermococcus litoralis is presented as a probe for the design of a high stable fluorescence biosensor for glucose. In particular, we show the possibility of modulating the protein specificity by changing temperature. In addition to glucose sensing, we also report on the possibility of utilizing odorant-binding proteins as a probe for the development of optical sensors for analytes of environmental interests.

  15. Metabolism of microbial communities in the environment : A compound-specific stable hydrogen isotope approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzelmann, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in all elemental cycles, their metabolic activity and potential impacts the environment on a local and global scale. In order to understand this significant role in the environment, microbial communities, their diversity and metabolic activity have to be studied in

  16. Physiological and behavioral responses to the social environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral reactions to the social environment are mediated in nature principally through aggressive interactions, although in some cases other aspects of the environment such as temperature or predators are important. Observations from 1946-50 of changes in populations of rats after alteration of social conditions suggested the hypothesis that changes in birth and mortality rates followed aggressive interactions. The pituitary-adrenal-gonadal mechanism provided a process that could be tested in three types of conditions: laboratory, simulated field, and field. Changes in social environment can result from: seasonal changes in conditions; appearance of transients; habitat changes due to succession; and increase of population. It became apparent from laboratory research that a physiological feedback from aggressive behavior could reduce birth rates and increase mortality rates. Studies in nature showed that a reduction of Norway rat population by 38 percent was followed by a reduction of adrenal weight by 32 percent. Also as the population of rats increased the weight of the adrenals increased. A comprehensive study of woodchucks, started in 1957, showed that the alteration of age composition and the increase in immigration was associated with increased adrenal function. Research by others on lemmings shows that the adrenals at the peak of a population fluctuation are larger and produce more hormones than at the low point. No evidence was obtained to support the hypothesis that genetic selection for aggressive behavior within the population occurs during the increase or decline of a population. The changes occur within an individual. The future of studies of responses to the social environment will require experimental programs in nature that last for a decade or more, long enough to monitor changes in numbers under a variety of conditions

  17. Interactive Environments: Opportunities for Social Innovation and Public Health Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag K. Nikolic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available How to keep people in a “good health”, longer and healthier life is more than just a phrase listed in a sustainable strategies it became crucial issue for any future social innovation initiative and community needs. New technologies and its application in everyday living surrounding are affecting a way we are interacting between each other and with services around us. As a result, we are facing huge psychological and cultural shift in human behavior and raising of new social practices. We are in need of using new approaches and models in order to provoke human behavior change which is more than ever depending on content and context users can reach in interactive environments they are approaching through their devices or in a physical space. New powerful playground for social innovations is born.

  18. The food environment is a complex social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David R; Brewster, Luther G

    2015-05-01

    The lack of demonstrated impact of the South LA fast food ban suggests that the policy was too narrowly crafted. Healthy food deserts like South LA are simultaneously unhealthy food swamps; and face myriad interrelated social, economic, and environmental challenges. The food environment is a complex social network impacted by social, economic and political factors at the neighborhood, regional, national, and international levels. Banning one subtype of unhealthy food venue is not likely to limit the availability of unhealthy processed and packaged foods nor result in increased access to affordable healthy foods. Food deserts and food insecurity are symptoms of the interacting pathologies of poverty, distressed communities, and unhealthy global macroeconomic and industrial policies. Policies that seek to impact urban health disparities need to tackle root causes including poverty and the global production and distribution of cheap, addictive, unhealthy products that promote unhealthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Merging social networking environments and formal learning environments to support and facilitate interprofessional instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sharla; Greidanus, Elaine; Carbonaro, Michael; Drummond, Jane; Patterson, Steven

    2009-04-28

    This study describes the redesign of an interprofessional team development course for health science students. A theoretical model is hypothesized as a framework for the redesign process, consisting of two themes: 1) the increasing trend among post-secondary students to participate in social networking (e.g., Facebook, Second Life) and 2) the need for healthcare educators to provide interprofessional training that results in effective communities of practice and better patient care. The redesign focused on increasing the relevance of the course through the integration of custom-designed technology to facilitate social networking during their interprofessional education. Results suggest that students in an educationally structured social networking environment can be guided to join learning communities quickly and access course materials. More research and implementation work is required to effectively develop interprofessional health sciences communities in a combined face-to-face and on-line social networking context.

  20. Behavioural responses of dairy cattle to the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, in an open field environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, B A; Lii, K-S; Mao, Y; Meyer, J A; Peterson, N G; Szijj, C E

    2006-03-01

    Individual cows (25 in each of four herds) were monitored 8-10 times weekly for 12 weeks (stable fly season) on a southern California dairy, with 100 observations per cow. The numbers of biting stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) on the front legs and the frequencies of four fly-repelling behaviours per 2-min observation period [head throws, front leg stamps, skin twitches (panniculus reflex) and tail flicks] were recorded. Fly numbers varied, peaking at 3.0-3.5 flies per leg in week 9 (late May). Weekly herd mean frequencies of fly-repelling behaviours were highly dependent on fly numbers, with a linear regression r(2) > 0.8. Head throws and stamps were less frequent than skin twitches and tail flicks. Individual cows differed in numbers of stable flies and behaviours. Behaviours were correlated with flies for individual cows, but at a lower level than were herd means (r = 0.3-0.7). Cows that stamped more within a herd tended to have lower fly counts; other fly-repelling behaviours were less effective. Cows maintained ranks within a herd with regard to fly numbers (r = 0.47), head throws (0.48), leg stamps (0.64), skin twitches (0.69) and tail flicks (0.64). Older cows tended to harbour higher fly numbers and to stamp less relative to younger adult cows. Ratios of leg stamps and head throws to fly numbers dropped significantly through time, suggesting habituation to pain associated with fly biting. Tail flicks were not effective for repelling Stomoxys, but were easiest to quantify and may help in monitoring pest intensity. At this low-moderate fly pressure, no consistent impacts on milk yield were detected, but methods incorporating cow behaviour are recommended for future studies of economic impact.

  1. Adolescents' social environment and depression: social networks, extracurricular activity, and family relationship influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J; Schmidt, Christopher; Abraham, Anisha; Walker, Leslie; Tercyak, Kenneth

    2009-12-01

    The present study examined components of adolescents' social environment (social network, extracurricular activities, and family relationships) in association with depression. A total of 332 adolescents presenting for a routine medical check-up were self-assessed for social network risk (i.e., smoking habits of best male and female friends), extracurricular activity level (i.e., participation in organized sports teams, clubs, etc.), family relationship quality (i.e., cohesion and conflict), and symptoms of depression (i.e., minimal, mild, moderate/severe). Results of a forward linear regression modeling indicate that social environment components were associated with a significant proportion of the variance in adolescent depression (Adjusted R (2) = .177, p extracurricular activities (beta = -.118, p activities, and attend to the quality of their family relationships.

  2. A closer look at the relationship between the subdomains of social functioning, social cognition and symptomatology in clinically stable patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elliot Clayton; Tas, Cumhur; Can, Huseyin; Esen-Danaci, Aysen; Brüne, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Impairments in social functioning commonly seen in schizophrenia are thought to be mediated by deficits in the domains of social cognition. Some previous research has explored how social cognitive skills and psychotic symptoms are associated with social functioning, however these associations are still under debate. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between different domains of social cognition and psychotic symptomatology, and also to look at the relationships with individual subdomains of social functioning within a clinically stable schizophrenia population. 45 outpatients were recruited and symptoms were assessed with the PANSS, and measures of emotion processing, affective and cognitive theory of mind (ToM), mental state reasoning attributional biases, and social functioning were taken. A correlational analysis was performed with the data. Following this, a regression analysis was used to reveal which domains of social cognition best predicted psychotic symptoms. In this stable group of patients, our results support the suggestion of a likely distinction between affective and cognitive components of ToM. The study also demonstrated that ToM and mental state reasoning were the best predictors of psychotic symptoms. Here we reveal that cognitive ToM had the most widespread relationship with social functioning, across multiple subdomains, while only some specific subdomains of social functioning correlated with other domains of social cognition and symptomatology. Further to this, positive symptoms were associated with much fewer subdomains of social functioning than negative and general symptoms. These findings imply that different aspects of social functioning may be served by different domains of social cognition and symptomatology. © 2014.

  3. The Fate of Contaminants and Stable Pb Isotopes in a Changing Estuarine Environment: 20 Years On.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundy, Andrew B; Croudace, Ian W

    2017-09-05

    Estuarine sediments provide an important sink for contaminants discharged into fluvial, estuarine, and nearshore settings, and numerous authors have utilized this trapping function to assess historical contaminant loadings and contaminant breakdown/transformation processes. This Article examines the retention of elemental and isotopic sedimentary signatures in an industrialized estuarine system subject to a strongly upward sea-level trend, over a 20 year period. Two contrasting saltmarsh sites (at Hythe and Hamble, part of the wider Southampton Water estuarine system, UK) were examined, which had been previously cored and analyzed in the early 1990s. Much of the geochemical record of recent anthropogenic activity has been eroded and lost at the Hamble site. In contrast, radiometric, isotopic and elemental records of anthropogenic activity have been retained in the Hythe marsh, with 137 Cs and Cu depth profiles showing retention of input maxima related to fallout and local industrial discharges, respectively. Stable Pb isotope data show a broad degree of correspondence in cores analyzed in 1994 and 2014 when plotted against sediment (radiometric) age, indicating the usefulness of isotopic data in retaining information on Pb sources and in disentangling Pb input histories. New ultrahigh precision, double-spike mass spectrometry stable Pb isotope data allow clearer discrimination of historical Pb input phases, and highlight within-estuary mixing and supply of reworked, secondary contamination from erosion of anthropogenically labeled sediments elsewhere in the estuary.

  4. More Than Just a Break from Treatment: How Substance Use Disorder Patients Experience the Stable Environment in Horse-Assisted Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern-Godal, Ann; Brenna, Ida Halvorsen; Arnevik, Espen Ajo; Ravndal, Edle

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of horse-assisted therapy (HAT) in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is rarely reported. Our previous studies show improved treatment retention and the importance of the patient-horse relationship. This qualitative study used thematic analysis, within a social constructionist framework, to explore how eight patients experienced contextual aspects of HAT's contribution to their SUD treatment. Participants described HAT as a "break from usual treatment". However, four interrelated aspects of this experience, namely "change of focus", "activity", "identity", and "motivation," suggest HAT is more than just a break from usual SUD treatment. The stable environment is portrayed as a context where participants could construct a positive self: one which is useful, responsible, and accepted; more fundamentally, a different self from the "patient/self" receiving treatment for a problem. The implications extend well beyond animal-assisted or other adjunct therapies. Their relevance to broader SUD policy and treatment practices warrants further study.

  5. Stable carbon isotope ratios of lipid biomarkers and their applications in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolosa, I.; Mora, S. de

    2001-01-01

    Studies on the distribution of lipid biomarkers in the environment help elucidate biogeochemical processes, but recent findings have significantly reduced the specificity of some biomarkers. The analytical development of Gas Chromatography-Combustion-IRMS (GC-C-IRMS) allows the determination of the δ 13 C of specific biomarkers, thereby improving the veracity of source apportionment. In this report, we present a brief description of the analytical approach for sample preparation and carbon isotope measurements of individual biomarkers. Selected examples of the applications in the use of GC-C-IRMS for biomarker source elucidation in the marine environment and potential applications to paleoclimatological studies are reviewed. (author)

  6. Social amplification of risk in the Internet environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ik Jae

    2011-12-01

    This article analyzes the dynamic process of risk amplification in the Internet environment with special emphasis on public concern for environmental risks from a high-speed railway tunnel construction project in South Korea. Environmental organizations and activists serving as social stations collected information about the project and its ecological impact, and communicated this with the general public, social groups, and institutions. The Internet provides social stations and the public with an efficient means for interactive communication and an open space for active information sharing and public participation. For example, while the website of an organization such as an environmental activist group can initially trigger local interest, the Internet allows this information to be disseminated to a much wider audience in a manner unavailable to the traditional media. Interaction among social stations demonstrates an amplifying process of public attention to the risk. Analyses of the volume of readers' comments to online newspaper articles and public opinions posted on message board of public and nonprofit organizations show the ripple effects of the amplification process as measured along temporal, geographical, and sectoral dimensions. Public attention is also influenced by the symbolic connotations of risk information. Interpretations of risk in religious, political, or legal terms intensify public concern for the environmental risk. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Promoting Social Nurturance and Positive Social Environments to Reduce Obesity in High-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K; Sweeney, Allison M; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Gause, Haylee; St George, Sara M

    2017-03-01

    Nurturing environments within the context of families, schools, and communities all play an important role in enhancing youth's behavioral choices and health outcomes. The increasing prevalence rates of obesity among youth, especially among low income and ethnic minorities, highlight the need to develop effective and innovative intervention approaches that promote positive supportive environments across different contexts for at-risk youth. We propose that the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Self-Determination Theory offers a useful framework for understanding how individual, family, and social-environmental-level factors contribute to the development of nurturing environments. In this paper, we summarize evidence-based randomized controlled trials that integrate positive parenting, motivational, and behavioral skills strategies in different contexts, including primary care, home, community, and school-based settings. Taken together, these studies suggest that youth and parents are most likely to benefit when youth receive individual-level behavioral skills, family-level support and communication, and autonomous motivational support from the broader social environment. Future investigators and healthcare providers should consider integrating these evidence-based approaches that support the effects of positive social climate-based interventions on promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management in youth.

  8. Promoting Social Nurturance and Positive Social Environments to Reduce Obesity in High Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K.; Sweeney, Allison M.; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Gause, Haylee; St. George, Sara M.

    2017-01-01

    Nurturing environments within the context of families, schools, and communities all play an important role in enhancing youth’s behavioral choices and health outcomes. The increasing prevalence rates of obesity among youth, especially among low income and ethnic minorities, highlight the need to develop effective and innovative intervention approaches that promote positive supportive environments across different contexts for at risk youth. We propose that the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Self-Determination Theory offers a useful framework for understanding how individual, family and social-environmental level factors contribute to the development of nurturing environments. In this paper, we summarize evidence-based randomized controlled trials that integrate positive parenting, motivational, and behavioral skills strategies in different contexts, including primary care, home, community, and school-based settings. Taken together, these studies suggest that youth and parents are most likely to benefit when youth receive individual-level behavioral skills, family-level support and communication, and autonomous motivational support from the broader social environment. Future investigators and health care providers should consider integrating these evidence-based approaches that support the effects of positive social climate-based interventions on promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management in youth. PMID:28229248

  9. Different Levels of Catabolite Repression Optimize Growth in Stable and Variable Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yea...

  10. Purchasing-Power Annuities: Financial Innovation for Stable Real Retirement Income in an Inflationary Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie

    1980-01-01

    This paper is organized as follows: The first part of the paper introduces the topic. In the next part, we explore the inadequacies of conventional and equity-based variable annuities in an inflationary environment by contrasting them with a hypothetical PPA. We then try to assess the suitability of money market instruments hedged with commodity futures as the asset base for PPA's, and consider the possibility of having financial institutions offer them to the public. The major conclusion of ...

  11. Peer Learning in Social Media Enhanced Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Maritta Tervakari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available TUT Circle, a dedicated social media service for students at Tampere University of Technology (TUT, was used as a learning environment for the purpose of enhancing students‘ collaboration, communication and networking skills required in business and working life and for promoting peer learning in small groups. Unfortunately, active conversation was limited. The students intensively read content created by other students, but they did not actively present their opinions, arguments or comments. Another reason for the lack of real conversation was procrastination. The students seemed to need more encouragement to comment on or question the ideas of others, more support to promote intergroup interaction and more assistance with time management.

  12. Institutionalization: A Theory of Human Behavior and the Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam McNown Johnson

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalism is the syndrome first recognized and described in inpatient psychiatric facilities,which is now used to describe a set of maladaptive behaviors that are evoked by the pressures of living in any institutional setting. This article traces the development of the theory of institutionalization, which predicts and explains an individual’s response to that particular type of environment. The article makes note of key contributors and contributions, and of empirical studies that have advanced the theory. Underlying perspectives and assumptions are identified and earlier theoretical models are reviewed and critiqued. An updated model of the theory, which includes individual vulnerabilities, objective conditions of the institutional placement, and the resident’s perceptions of the environment, is presented. New directions in the field of institutional care and implications for social workers, particularly for those working in nursing home and prison settings, are discussed, along with recommendations for next steps for theory progression.

  13. Consumer-oriented social data fusion: controlled learning in social environments, social advertising, and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, L.

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores the current practices in social data fusion and analysis as it applies to consumer-oriented applications in a slew of areas including business, economics, politics, sciences, medicine, education and more. A categorization of these systems is proposed and contributions to each area are explored preceded by a discussion of some special issues related to social data and networks. From this work, future paths of consumer-based social data analysis research and current outstanding problems are discovered.

  14. Social influence on evacuation behavior in real and virtual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Kinateder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR is a promising tool to study evacuation behavior as it allows experimentally controlled, safe simulation of otherwise dangerous situations. However, validation studies comparing evacuation behavior in real and virtual environments are still scarce. We compare the decision to evacuate in response to a fire alarm in matched physical and virtual environments. 150 participants were tested individually in a one-trial experiment in one of three conditions. In the Control condition, the fire alarm sounded while the participant performed a bogus perceptual matching task. In the Passive bystander condition, the participant performed the task together with a confederate who ignored the fire alarm. In the Active bystander condition, the confederate left the room when the fire alarm went off. Half of the participants in each condition experienced the scenario in the real laboratory, and the other half in a matched virtual environment with a virtual bystander, presented in a head-mounted display. The active bystander group was more likely to evacuate, and the passive bystander group less likely to evacuate, than the control group. This pattern of social influence was observed in both the real and virtual environments, although the overall response to the virtual alarm was reduced; positive influence was comparable, whereas negative influence was weaker in VR. We found no reliable gender effects for the participant or the bystander. These findings extend the bystander effect to the decision to evacuate, revealing a positive as well as the previous negative social influence. The results support the ecological validity of VR as a research tool to study evacuation behavior in emergency situations, with the caveat that effect sizes may be smaller in VR.

  15. Stable organic field-effect transistors for continuous and nondestructive sensing of chemical and biologically relevant molecules in aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minseong; Sharma, Asha; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Hwang, Do Kyung; Dindar, Amir; Singh, Sanjeev; Choi, Sangmoo; Kippelen, Bernard

    2014-02-12

    The use of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as sensors in aqueous media has gained increased attention for environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics. However, stable operation of OFETs in aqueous media is particularly challenging because of electrolytic hydrolysis of water, high ionic conduction through the analyte, and irreversible damage of organic semiconductors when exposed to water. To date, OFET sensors have shown the capability of label-free sensing of various chemical/biological species, but they could only be used once because their operational stability and lifetime while operating in aqueous environments has been poor, and their response times typically slow. Here, we report on OFETs with unprecedented water stability. These OFETs are suitable for the implementation of reusable chemical/biological sensors because they primarily respond to charged species diluted in an aqueous media by rapidly shifting their threshold voltage. These OFET sensors present stable current baselines and saturated signals which are ideal for detection of low concentration of small or large molecules that alter the pH of an aqueous environment. The overall response of these OFET sensors paves the way for the development of continuous chemical/biological nondestructive sensor applications in aqueous media.

  16. Social environments and interpersonal distance regulation in psychosis : A virtual reality study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraets, Chris N W; van Beilen, Marije; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van der Gaag, Mark; Veling, Wim

    BACKGROUND: Experimentally studying the influence of social environments on mental health and behavior is challenging, as social context is difficult to standardize in laboratory settings. Virtual Reality (VR) enables studying social interaction in terms of interpersonal distance in a more

  17. Differently Environment Stable Bio-Silver Nanoparticles: Study on Their Optical Enhancing and Antibacterial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Yekkuni L.; Girija, Shanmugam; Selvakumar, Rajendran; Tongpim, Saowanit; Gutleb, Arno C.; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajeyakesavalu

    2013-01-01

    Generally, limited research is extended in studying stability and applicational properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized by adopting ‘green chemistry’ protocol. In this work, we report on the synthesis of stable Ag NPs using plant-derived materials such as leaf extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) and biopolymer pectin from apple peel. In addition, the applicational properties of Ag NPs such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and antibacterial efficiencies were also investigated. As-synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized using various instrumentation techniques. Both the plant materials (leaf extract and biopolymer) favored the synthesis of well-defined NPs capped with biomaterials. The NPs were spherical in shape with an average particle size between 14-27 nm. These bio-NPs exhibited colloidal stability in most of the suspended solutions such as water, electrolyte solutions (NaCl; NaNO3), biological solution (bovine serum albumin), and in different pH solutions (pH 7; 9) for a reasonable time period of 120 hrs. Both the bio-NPs were observed to be SERS active through displaying intrinsic SERS signals of the Raman probe molecule (Nile blue A). The NPs were effective against the Escherichia coli bacterium when tested in nutrient broth and agar medium. Scanning and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (SEM and HRTEM) images confirmed cellular membrane damage of nanoparticle treated E. coli cells. These environmental friendly template Ag NPs can be used as an antimicrobial agent and also for SERS based analytical applications. PMID:24130832

  18. A Conceptual Framework of Immersive Shared Environments Emphasizing Social Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jeong Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of visual displays has often been linked to the sense of presence embodied by immersive visualization. However, efforts analyzing how presence is associated with multi-users’ quality of communication, including visualization capabilities to assist in architecture, engineering and construction (AEC, are still unfolding. This research is an exploratory study on social interaction, which aims to improve the presentation and communication of complex data through immersive simulation techniques. This paper reviews key concepts such as presence and immersion to identify factors that influence communication in the representative literature. It then introduces the Hub for Immersive Visualization and eResearch (HIVE with a focus on the technological components. Finally it presents a conceptual framework of immersive shared environment, which enables multi-users to understand how to implement social interaction in a system efficiently or to determine whether a visualization system could support communication effectively. Future studies to validate the proposed framework are discussed, particularly in the context of cognitive factors in a shared environment.

  19. From personal to social: learning environments that work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Camacho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available VLE (Virtual Learning Environments are rapidly falling short to meet the demandsof a networked society. Web 2.0 and social networks are proving to offer a morepersonalized, open environment for students to learn formally as they are alreadydoing informally. With the irruption of social media into society, and therefore,education, many voices claimed for he need of new models that demonstrate thetransferability and scalabilty of e-learning. Salmon (2005, Sclater (2008, Atwell(2007 and others coincide in the relevance of PLEs as being useful or indeedcentral to learning as well as their potential for knowledge development andsharing. However, how can we, as teachers, enhance the digital skills of our students topromote a more effective, meaningful learning? This article aims to provide somedata regarding the strategies for a successful implementation of the use of PLE’swith students and to share, at the same time, some examples and evidences ofPLE constructions which can be of help both in Higher Education and SecondaryEducation levels.

  20. Comments on the Paper "Is the Sea Level Stable at Aden, Yemen?" by Albert Parker and Clifford D. Ollier in Earth Systems and Environment (Volume 1, December 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickards, Lesley

    2018-02-01

    This short note provides comments and a response to the paper published in Earth Systems and Environment by Albert Parker and Clifford D. Ollier (Volume 1, December 2017) entitled "Is the Sea Level Stable at Aden, Yemen?"

  1. A Stable Metal-Organic Framework Featuring a Local Buffer Environment for Carbon Dioxide Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongming; Sun, Qi; Gao, Wenyang; Perman, Jason A; Sun, Fuxing; Zhu, Guangshan; Aguila, Briana; Forrest, Katherine; Space, Brian; Ma, Shengqian

    2018-04-16

    A majority of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) fail to preserve their physical and chemical properties after exposure to acidic, neutral, or alkaline aqueous solutions, therefore limiting their practical applications in many areas. The strategy demonstrated herein is the design and synthesis of an organic ligand that behaves as a buffer to drastically boost the aqueous stability of a porous MOF (JUC-1000), which maintains its structural integrity at low and high pH values. The local buffer environment resulting from the weak acid-base pairs of the custom-designed organic ligand also greatly facilitates the performance of JUC-1000 in the chemical fixation of carbon dioxide under ambient conditions, outperforming a series of benchmark catalysts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Epigenetic influence of stress and the social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of early-life stress and variation in social experience across the lifespan have contributed significantly to our understanding of the environmental regulation of the developing brain. Plasticity in neurobiological pathways regulating stress responsivity, cognition, and reproductive behavior is apparent during the prenatal period and continues into adulthood, suggesting a lifelong sensitivity to environmental cues. Recent evidence suggests that dynamic epigenetic changes--molecular modifications that alter gene expression without altering the underlying DNA sequence--account for this plasticity. In this review, we highlight studies of laboratory rodents that illustrate the association between the experience of prenatal stress, maternal separation, maternal care, abusive caregiving in infancy, juvenile social housing, and adult social stress and variation in DNA methylation and histone modification. Moreover, we discuss emerging evidence for the transgenerational impact of these experiences. These experimental paradigms have yielded insights into the potential role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating the effects of the environment on human development and also indicate that consideration of the sensitivity of laboratory animals to environmental cues may be an important factor in predicting long-term health and welfare.

  3. Areva at September 30, 2016: Stable revenue in an unfavorable market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachaux, Manuel; Jugean, Anne-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    At September 30, 2016, AREVA had 32.160 billion euros in backlog, up 10.9% in relation to December 31, 2015 (28.990 billion euros). This represents close to eight years of revenue. The backlog at September 30 does not include contracts for uranium supply, conversion services and enrichment services signed with EDF and NNB in connection with the Hinkley Point C project. Those contracts will be included in backlog upon signature of the Notice to Proceed. The order intake for the first nine months of the year totaled 7.2 billion euros, compared with 1.2 billion euros for the same period last year. Over the first nine months of 2016, AREVA generated consolidated revenue of 2.810 billion euros, which was stable in relation to the same period in 2015 (+1.1% like for like). Foreign exchange had a negative impact of 5 million euros over the period. Revenue for the third quarter of 2016 totaled 880 million euros, a decrease of 6.0% (-5.5% like for like) in comparison to the third quarter of 2015. Foreign exchange had a negative impact of 5 million euros over the period. The operations of AREVA NP (excluding the OL3 project), Nuclear Measurements, and Propulsion and Research Reactors meet the criteria of IFRS 5 for classification as 'operations held for sale and discontinued operations' at September 30, 2016. The backlog of the operations held for sale was 13.265 billion euros at September 30, 2016, compared with 13.693 billion euros at the end of 2015. It does not include the contracts for two nuclear steam supply systems and for the supply of fuel and of the operational instrumentation and control system related to Hinkley Point C, which will be recorded upon signature of the Notice to Proceed. Revenue from the operations held for sale and discontinued operations totaled 2.595 billion euros at September 30, 2016, a decrease of 10.1% compared with the same period in 2015. This change is essentially due to: - A drop in the activity of AREVA NP, with lower volumes

  4. Influence of social environment on caries prevalence in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tušek Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Early childhood caries (ECC is a special form of caries that affects decideous teeth with rapid progression and numerous complications. Objective. The aim of the study was to define the prevalence of ECC in children of the South Bačka area, the importance of social environment for the prevalence and severity of ECC, and define the model for its prevention. Methods. The survey was the cross-sectional analytical study in the 10% sample of children, aged 13-64 months, different sex, social status and human environment. Severity and prevalence of ECC were assessed by dental check-ups. The epidemiological data were obtained by the interview of parents. The tests of significant statistical differences were performed by the analysis variance and χ2 (p<0.05 test, as well as interdependence of ECC and single characteristics that could be a predictor of the disease by the logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 30.5%. The highest disease frequency was found in children of male sex (35.1%, out of kindergardens (54.2%, in the third and the next born child in the family (46.9% and in part-time employed mothers (47.2% who had only elementary education (59.3% and were poorly informed about oral health. The highest prevalence (47.1% of ECC was found in children whose parents had the lowest income per month. Type 1 of ECC was the most presented one (75.0%. Conclusion. The higher prevalence and more severe ECC were found in the third and the next born male child from rural environment.

  5. Workplace social and organizational environments and healthy-weight behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G; Hipp, J Aaron; Marx, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-01-01

    The workplace is an important setting for health promotion including nutrition and physical activity behaviors to prevent obesity. This paper explores the relationship between workplace social environment and cultural factors and diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors and obesity among employees. Between 2012 and 2013, telephone interviews were conducted with participants residing in four Missouri metropolitan areas. Questions included demographic characteristics, workplace socio/organizational factors related to activity and diet, and individual diet and PA behaviors, and obesity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between the workplace socio/organizational environment and nutrition, PA, and obesity. There were differences in reported health behaviors and socio/organizational environment by gender, race, age, income, and worksite size. For example, agreement with the statement the 'company values my health' was highest among Whites, older employees, and higher income workers. As worksite size increased, the frequency of reporting seeing co-workers doing several types of healthy behaviors (eat fruits and vegetables, doing PA, and doing PA on breaks at work) increased. In adjusted analyses, employees agreeing the company values my health were more likely to engage in higher PA levels (aOR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.09-2.16) and less likely to be obese (aOR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.98). Seeing co-workers eating fruits and vegetables was associated with increased reporting of eating at least one vegetable per day (aOR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.06-1.91) and seeing co-workers being active was associated with higher PA levels (aOR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.19-2.05). This research suggests that social/organizational characteristics of the workplace environment, particularly feeling the company values the workers' health and to seeing co-workers engaging in healthy behaviors, may be related to nutrition and PA behaviors and obesity. These findings point to the potential for

  6. How Trees Interact with Their Hydrologic Environment: a Stable Isotope Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierke, C.; Newton, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Sacramento Mountains of southeast New Mexico serve as the primary recharge area to adjacent regional aquifers, including the Roswell Artesian Basin, the Tularosa Basin and the Salt Basin. Under pressures of population growth and climate change, land and water managers are interested in identifying land management and forest restoration methods that may increase local and regional groundwater recharge in the high mountains. The Sacramento Mountain Watershed Study is designed to assess the effects of tree thinning in mountain watersheds as an effective method of increasing groundwater recharge. The project employs a soil water balance to quantify the partitioning of local precipitation before and after tree thinning. This study was designed to determine the role that trees play in the hydrologic cycle by using the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen to identify tree water sources. The study is being conducted in a 1st order watershed with no perennial outflow stream where vegetation is dominated by Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga Menziesii). Ridges are capped with San Andres Limestone while lower slopes and the valley bottom are underlain by the Yeso Formation which is composed of sandstones, mudstones and interbedded carbonate layers. The area has thin soils covering shallow fractured bedrock or epikarst features. Some of the fractures within the epikarst zone provide direct conduits to the larger groundwater system while others are isolated rendering the reservoir inactive. From March 2011 to February 2012, we collected soil and twig samples from which water was extracted by cryogenic vacuum distillation. Soil water was also sampled with passive capillary samplers (PCAPS). The isotopic composition of bulk soil water appears to be controlled by evaporation of snowmelt stored within the soil matrix. The isotopic composition of soil water sampled by wick samplers reflects mixing of non-evaporated rainfall with evaporated bulk soil water. As the monsoon season

  7. Constraining water uptake depths in semiarid environments using water stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Matthias; Königer, Paul; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    uptake distribution based on the labeling experiments implies main water uptake occurring in the upper two meters of the soil; however, infrequent uptake up to four meters depth was registered. The HYDRUS 1D model reveals a strong impact of the implemented root distribution on unsaturated zone water transport and transpiration to evaporation rates of 3:1. Lessons learned from this field and modeling study for semiarid environments are: i) Using soil profiles from the dry season are suitable for investigating groundwater use by certain plant species. Soil profiles from or shortly after the rainy season as input for mixing models lead to ambitious results, mainly due to the fact that water sources are too similar; ii) A variety of techniques is required in order to improve the understanding of water uptake in deep unsaturated zones; and iii) Characteristic parameters such as deep percolation are subject to large uncertainties and cannot be modeled accurately if the root distribution on site is not represented correctly. There is an urgent need to incorporate these aspects into any modeling approach and for investigating ecohydrological separation across environments.

  8. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  9. The social environment and health: a discussion of the epidemiologic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, I H; Syme, S L

    1999-01-01

    The environment can be thought of in terms of physical and social dimensions. The social environment includes the groups to which we belong, the neighborhoods in which we live, the organization of our workplaces, and the policies we create to order our lives. There have been recent reports in the literature that the social environment is associated with disease and mortality risks, independent of individual risk factors. These findings suggest that the social environment influences disease pathways. Yet much remains to be learned about the social environment, including how to understand, define, and measure it. The research that needs to be done could benefit from a long tradition in sociology and sociological research that has examined the urban environment, social areas, social disorganization, and social control. We summarize this sociological literature and discuss its relevance to epidemiologic research.

  10. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p social support (p social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  11. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherezade K Mama

    Full Text Available Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467 completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination, and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001 and U.S. (p < .001 and low social support (p < .001 were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  12. Trajectories of childhood weight gain: the relative importance of local environment versus individual social and early life factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A Carter

    Full Text Available To determine the association between local environmental factors with child weight status in a longitudinal study, using a semi-parametric, group-based method, while also considering social and early life factors.Standardized, directly measured BMI from 4-10 y of age, and group-based trajectory modeling (PROC TRAJ were used to estimate developmental trajectories of weight change in a Québec birth cohort (n = 1,566. Associations between the weight trajectories and living location, social cohesion, disorder, and material and social deprivation were estimated after controlling for social and early life factors.FOUR WEIGHT TRAJECTORY GROUPS WERE ESTIMATED: low-increasing (9.7%; low-medium, accelerating (36.2%; medium-high, increasing (43.0%; and high-stable (11.1%. In the low-increasing and medium-high trajectory groups, living in a semi-urban area was inversely related to weight, while living in a rural area was positively related to weight in the high-stable group. Disorder was inversely related to weight in the low-increasing group only. Other important risk factors for high-stable weight included obesity status of the mother, smoking during pregnancy, and overeating behaviors.In this study, associations between local environment factors and weight differed by trajectory group. Early life factors appear to play a more consistent role in weight status. Further work is needed to determine the influence of place on child weight.

  13. Social judgement in clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and healthy relatives : behavioural evidence of social brain dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, D.; van't Wout, M.; Aleman, A.; Kahn, R. S.

    Background. Patients with schizophrenia have been found to display abnormalities in social cognition. The aim of the study was to test whether patients with schizophrenia and unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients display behavioural signs of social brain dysfunction when making

  14. The Place of Place in Social Work: Rethinking the Person-in-Environment Model in Social Work Education and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, Bree; Burns, Victoria; Hordyk, Shawn-Renee

    2017-01-01

    Social work's traditional emphasis on the individual in the context of social environments has resulted in a neglect of the person in the context of physical environments. This conceptual article addresses this oversight by presenting three subconcepts of place--place attachment, place identity, and territoriality--and draws on research examples…

  15. Effects of the Social Environment and Stress on Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Methylation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Meaney, Michael J

    2016-01-15

    The early-life social environment can induce stable changes that influence neurodevelopment and mental health. Research focused on early-life adversity revealed that early-life experiences have a persistent impact on gene expression and behavior through epigenetic mechanisms. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis is sensitive to changes in the early-life environment that associate with DNA methylation of a neuron-specific exon 17 promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) (Nr3c1). Since initial findings were published in 2004, numerous reports have investigated GR gene methylation in relationship to early-life experience, parental stress, and psychopathology. We conducted a systematic review of this growing literature, which identified 40 articles (13 animal and 27 human studies) published since 2004. The majority of these examined the GR exon variant 1F in humans or the GR17 in rats, and 89% of human studies and 70% of animal studies of early-life adversity reported increased methylation at this exon variant. All the studies investigating exon 1F/17 methylation in conditions of parental stress (one animal study and seven human studies) also reported increased methylation. Studies examining psychosocial stress and psychopathology had less consistent results, with 67% of animal studies reporting increased exon 17 methylation and 17% of human studies reporting increased exon 1F methylation. We found great consistency among studies investigating early-life adversity and the effect of parental stress, even if the precise phenotype and measures of social environment adversity varied among studies. These results are encouraging and warrant further investigation to better understand correlates and characteristics of these associations. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Influence of Social Media on Collaborative Learning in a Cohort Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha James-Waldon; Debbi Bromley; Zandra Henry; Silas Wandera

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the impact that social media has on the development of collaborative learning within a cohort environment in a doctoral program. The researchers surveyed doctoral students in an education program to determine how social media use has influenced the doctoral students. The study looked at the following areas: a) the ability of social media use to develop a collaborative learning environment, b) access to social media content which supports learning, and c) whe...

  17. How does the social environment 'get into the mind'? Epigenetics at the intersection of social and psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Satoshi; Uddin, Monica; Koenen, Karestan C; Galea, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    The social environment plays a considerable role in determining major psychiatric disorders. Emerging evidence suggests that features of the social environment modify gene expression independently of the primary DNA sequence through epigenetic processes. Accordingly, dysfunction of epigenetic mechanisms offers a plausible mechanism by which an adverse social environment gets "into the mind" and results in poor mental health. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the studies suggesting that epigenetic changes introduced by the social environment then manifest as psychological consequences. Our goal is to build a platform to discuss the ways in which future epidemiologic studies may benefit from including epigenetic measures. We focus on schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anorexia nervosa, and substance dependence as examples that highlight the ways in which social environmental exposures, mediated through epigenetic processes, affect mental health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. More than Just a Break from Treatment: How Substance Use Disorder Patients Experience the Stable Environment in Horse-Assisted Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kern-Godal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion of horse-assisted therapy (HAT in substance use disorder (SUD treatment is rarely reported. Our previous studies show improved treatment retention and the importance of the patient–horse relationship. This qualitative study used thematic analysis, within a social constructionist framework, to explore how eight patients experienced contextual aspects of HAT's contribution to their SUD treatment. Participants described HAT as a “break from usual treatment”. However, four interrelated aspects of this experience, namely “change of focus”, “activity”, “identity”, and “motivation,” suggest HAT is more than just a break from usual SUD treatment. The stable environment is portrayed as a context where participants could construct a positive self: one which is useful, responsible, and accepted; more fundamentally, a different self from the “patient/self” receiving treatment for a problem. The implications extend well beyond animal-assisted or other adjunct therapies. Their relevance to broader SUD policy and treatment practices warrants further study.

  19. Nano-electromechanical Switch Based on a Physical Unclonable Function for Highly Robust and Stable Performance in Harsh Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyu-Man; Park, Jun-Young; Bae, Hagyoul; Lee, Seung-Wook; Kim, Choong-Ki; Seo, Myungsoo; Im, Hwon; Kim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Seong-Yeon; Lee, Geon-Beom; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2017-12-26

    A physical unclonable function (PUF) device using a nano-electromechanical (NEM) switch was demonstrated. The most important feature of the NEM-switch-based PUF is its use of stiction. Stiction is one of the chronic problems associated with micro- and nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) devices; however, here, it was utilized to intentionally implement a PUF for hardware-based security. The stiction is caused by capillary and van der Waals forces, producing strong adhesion, which can be utilized to design a highly robust and stable PUF. The probability that stiction will occur on either of two gates in the NEM switch is the same, and consequently, the occurrence of the stiction is random and unique, which is critical to its PUF performance. This uniqueness was evaluated by measuring the interchip Hamming distance (interchip HD), which characterizes how different responses are made when the same challenge is applied. Uniformity was also evaluated by the proportion of "1" or "0" in the response bit-string. The reliability of the proposed PUF device was assessed by stress tests under harsh environments such as high temperature, high dose radiation, and microwaves.

  20. Social Media and the New Academic Environment: Pedagogical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrut, Bogdan; Patrut, Monica; Cmeciu, Camelia

    2013-01-01

    As web applications play a vital role in our society, social media has emerged as an important tool in the creation and exchange of user-generated content and social interaction. The benefits of these services have entered in the educational areas to become new means by which scholars communicate, collaborate and teach. Social Media and the New…

  1. Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A lack of social support is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a decreased effect of prevention. Frequent attenders to primary care are characterised by poorer social conditions than other patients in general practice, but we do not know whether this is due to social...... inequalities in health or whether social factors in themselves determine the use of general practice. AIM: To examine if social factors are associated with frequent attendance in general practice after adjusting for physical and psychological health variables. DESIGN OF STUDY: Population-based cross...... during the period November 1997-October 1998. A questionnaire about physical, psychological and social factors was sent to the patients. The associations between social factors and frequent attendance were adjusted for physical and psychological health and tendency towards somatisation. RESULTS: A total...

  2. Quantifying the physical, social and attitudinal environment of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickinson, Heather O; Colver, Allan; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy

    2011-01-01

    To develop an instrument to represent the availability of needed environmental features (EFs) in the physical, social and attitudinal environment of home, school and community for children with cerebral palsy.......To develop an instrument to represent the availability of needed environmental features (EFs) in the physical, social and attitudinal environment of home, school and community for children with cerebral palsy....

  3. A Delineation of the Cognitive Processes Manifested in a Social Annotation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. C.; Pow, J. W. C.; Cheung, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine how students' learning trajectories progress in an online social annotation environment, and how their cognitive processes and levels of interaction correlate with their learning outcomes. Three different types of activities (cognitive, metacognitive and social) were identified in the online environment. The time…

  4. The influence of the built environment, social environment and health behaviors on body mass index. results from RESIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew; Timperio, Anna; Foster, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    To examine the individual, behavioral, social and built environment correlates of body mass index (BMI) in an Australian adult population. Using data from 2003 to 2005 on 1151 participants in the RESIDential Environments project (RESIDE), Perth, Western Australia, linear regression was used to construct multivariate models to examine the variance in BMI explained by significant socio-demographic, environmental and health behavior variables. Both self-report and GIS-derived measures of the built environment were examined. Age, gender, hours of work, total physical activity, sedentary leisure time and dietary fat were all associated with BMI (p≤0.05). BMI was not associated with any objective measures of the built environment or social capital, social cohesion or dog ownership but was independently associated with one perceived environment measure (perceived safety from crime). Overall, 3.3% of the variance in BMI was explained by socio-demographic factors, a further 2.7% by health behaviors and a further 1.5% by perceived environment factors. Whilst evidence mounts of built environment correlates to physical activity, the demonstrated translation of these effects on BMI remain more elusive. Nevertheless, built environment factors that constrain physical activity warrant further exploration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Corporate social responsibility in a competitive business environment

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn; Trifkovic, Neda

    2016-01-01

    Using a specially designed survey instrument in combination with a representative sample of Vietnamese enterprises, we explore firm-level efficiency effects of corporate social responsibility. We find a positive relationship between adoption of corporate social responsibility initiatives and firm efficiency, and reveal that the impact is stronger for firms in non-competitive industries. Moreover, we show that local community focused corporate social responsibility initiatives drive the aggreg...

  6. Branched GDGTs in Lacustrine Environments: Tracing Allochthonous and Autochthonous Sources Using Compound-Specific Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Y.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.; Lehmann, M. F.; Niemann, H.; Schubert, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that are ubiquitous in soils and peat, as well as in sediments of lakes, rivers and coastal marine environments. It has been found that the distribution of brGDGTs changes systematically with ambient temperature and pH, attesting to their potential as proxy indicators for paleoclimatic reconstruction. In lacustrine sedimentary archives, brGDGTs can originate from two sources: (1) allochthonous soil organic matter and (2) autochthonous brGDGTs produced within the lake system, both of which display fairly distinct temperature-brGDGT relationships. Until now, disentangling the relative contribution of these sources was impossible, complicating the use of brGDGTs for quantitative paleotemperature reconstructions. BrGDGTs in soils display a narrow range with respect to their stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C), generally between -27 and -30 ‰, whereas we recently found contrasting δ13C values as low as -43 ‰ to -46 ‰ for brGDGTs in sediments of a small Alpine lake. To trace the origin of this distinct isotope signal, we determined the 13C content of brGDGTs in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the water column of Lake Lugano (Switzerland). The δ13C of SPM-derived brGDGTs decreased systematically from -34 ‰ in the mixolimnion to -41 ‰ in the anoxic monimolimnion of Lake Lugano, providing evidence for aquatic in situ production of 13C-depleted brGDGT. In order to study whether the negative δ13C offset of water column- vs. soil-derived brGDGTs may serve as an indicator for lacustrine brGDGT production, we also analyzed surface sediments from 36 lakes across the Alpine Region. In most (~85 %) of the studied lake sediments, the δ13C of brGDGTs ranged between -34 ‰ and -45 ‰, indicating predominance or a substantial contribution of aquatically produced brGDGTs. However, in some lakes (~15 %) δ13C values between -27 ‰ and -30 ‰ suggest a mainly

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL STATUS AND ETHNICITY ON DIET IN MEDIAEVAL TALLINN AS SEEN THROUGH STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lightfoot, Emma; Naum, Magdalena; Kadakas, Villu

    2016-01-01

    , for comparative purposes. The individuals were investigated using carbon, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis. The results indicate that while all analysed individuals consumed diets based on C3 plants and animals consuming C3 plants, some individuals also consumed small amounts of C4 plants (likely......Food encodes social and cultural values and has an important role to play in defining identities. In mixed populations, diet can be used to distinguish between ‘us’ and ‘them’. This study investigates the extent to which the inhabitants of mediaeval Tallinn, an important trading centre, used food...... millet) or seafood. C 4 plants were consumed by the urban residents buried at the Church of the Holy Spirit and one or two individuals from Sulevimägi. It is thought that millet was an imported food consumed by the middle class. Marine foods were consumed by the individuals at St Catherine’s Church...

  8. Preliminary Study on the Role of Social Presence in Blended Learning Environment in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Khodabandelou, Rouhollah

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes to the growing body of knowledge which identifies benefits for Blended Learning in the understanding of social processes role. It reports on an exploratory study into the role of social presence in blended learning environment. Employing a qualitative methodology, the study sought to understand social presence of learners in…

  9. PUSH(ing) Limits: Using Fiction in the Classroom for Human Behavior and the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Natasha S.; Bonta, Kimberly; Horn, Philip; Moore, Erin; Gibson, Allison; Simmons, David

    2012-01-01

    The use of fiction and autobiography in social science course work has been shown to enhance students' learning experience. Using the novel PUSH, by Sapphire, we designed a curriculum supplement for the social work course, human behavior and the social environment (HBSE) that encourages students to integrate course content in an innovative way and…

  10. Does social environment influence learning ability in a family-living lizard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Julia L; Noble, Daniel W A; Byrne, Richard W; Whiting, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Early developmental environment can have profound effects on individual physiology, behaviour, and learning. In birds and mammals, social isolation during development is known to negatively affect learning ability; yet in other taxa, like reptiles, the effect of social isolation during development on learning ability is unknown. We investigated how social environment affects learning ability in the family-living tree skink (Egernia striolata). We hypothesized that early social environment shapes cognitive development in skinks and predicted that skinks raised in social isolation would have reduced learning ability compared to skinks raised socially. Offspring were separated at birth into two rearing treatments: (1) raised alone or (2) in a pair. After 1 year, we quantified spatial learning ability of skinks in these rearing treatments (N = 14 solitary, 14 social). We found no effect of rearing treatment on learning ability. The number of skinks to successfully learn the task, the number of trials taken to learn the task, the latency to perform the task, and the number of errors in each trial did not differ between isolated and socially reared skinks. Our results were unexpected, yet the facultative nature of this species' social system may result in a reduced effect of social isolation on behaviour when compared to species with obligate sociality. Overall, our findings do not provide evidence that social environment affects development of spatial learning ability in this family-living lizard.

  11. Social Aspects of CSCL Environments: A Research Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijns, Karel; Kirschner, Paul A.; Vermeulen, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    Although there are research findings supporting the positive effects of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), problems have been reported regarding the learning process itself, group formation, and group dynamics. These problems can be traced back to impeded social interaction between group members. Social interaction is necessary (a)…

  12. Sense.me : A EUD environment for social products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acerbis, A.; Fogli, D.; Giaccardi, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a framework that supports the physical prototyping of innovative interactive artifacts. Specifically, the framework allows designing, implementing, and testing “social products,” that is, physical artifacts able to interact with social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter,

  13. Feasibility of Virtual Reality Environments for Adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Danielle E.; Oxhandler, Holly K.; Duron, Jacuelynn F.; Swank, Paul; Bordnick, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the feasibility of virtual reality (VR) exposure as an assessment and treatment modality for youth with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Methods: Forty-one adolescents, 20 of which were identified as having SAD, were recruited from a community sample. Youth with and without SAD were exposed to two social virtual…

  14. The Intersection of Social Presence and Impression Management in Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Eveline; Makos, Alexandra; Meacock, Heather-Lynne

    2014-01-01

    In our day-to-day routines, we are being asked to extend ourselves into virtual environments that capture mere glimpses of who we are and what we think. As education focuses on the development of online learning environments, we are once again asked to recreate ourselves for another environment. This article explores aspects of social presence and…

  15. Media Environment as a Zone of Personal and Social Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, Tatyana; Kazantseva, Galina; Karpukova, Albina; Serova, Olga; Sizova, Olga; Bikteeva, Lolita

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers elements of modern media environment taking more and more space in day-to-day life of people. The modern media environment enriched with various informational and technological resources, information transfer speed and availability of all kinds of content in unlimited quantities, requires careful examination--first of all,…

  16. a New Ontological Perspective for Integration of Social and Physical Environments: Disability and Rehabilitation Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharebaghi, Amin; Abolfazl Mostafavi, Mir

    2016-06-01

    Social dimension of environment is an important aspect that should be reflected in research works related to studying the interactions between human and the environment. However, this dimension is usually neglected when representing the environment in geographic information systems for different applications. For instance, disability as a result of the interaction between human and environment is influenced by social and physical dimensions of environment. Although, this aspect is highlighted in most conceptual disability models by defining various taxonomies of the environment, from ontological perspective justifying and connecting social dimension to the physical dimension of the environment is not clearly determined. Integrating social dimension of the environment with its physical dimension for disability studies is a challenging task, which is the main objective of the present study. Here, we review some of the disability models and their perspective about classifying the environment. Then, from ontological perspective, their limitations are discussed and a new approach for the classification of concepts form the environment is presented. This approach facilitates and simplifies integration of social dimension in ontologies for more effective assessment of disability issue in Geographic Information System.

  17. Corporate social responsibility in a competitive business environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Using a specially designed survey instrument in combination with a representative sample of Vietnamese enterprises, we explore firm-level efficiency effects of corporate social responsibility. We find a positive relationship between adoption of corporate social responsibility initiatives and firm...... efficiency, and reveal that the impact is stronger for firms in non-competitive industries. Moreover, we show that local community focused corporate social responsibility initiatives drive the aggregate effect. This suggests that socially responsible actions by firms are likely to pay-off when stakeholder...... engagement has a localized focus. We provide evidence of reciprocity by showing that employees accept a lower share of additionally generated value added in exchange for working in a company that signals ‘good’ corporate values....

  18. Are tutor behaviors in problem-based learning stable?: a generalizability study of social congruence, expertise and cognitive congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Judith C; Alwis, W A M; Rotgans, Jerome I

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of three distinct tutor behaviors (1) use of subject-matter expertise, (2) social congruence and (3) cognitive congruence, in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. The data comprised the input from 16,047 different students to a survey of 762 tutors administered in three consecutive semesters. Over the three semesters each tutor taught two of the same course and one different course. A generalizability study was conducted to determine whether the tutor behaviors were generalizable across the three measurement occasions. The results indicate that three semesters are sufficient to make generalizations about all three tutor behaviors. In addition the results show that individual differences between tutors account for the greatest differences in levels of expertise, social congruence and cognitive congruence. The study concludes that tutor behaviors are fairly consistent in PBL and somewhat impervious to change. Implications of these findings for tutor training are discussed.

  19. Using a social capital framework to enhance measurement of the nursing work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheingold, Brenda Helen; Sheingold, Steven H

    2013-07-01

    To develop, field test and analyse a social capital survey instrument for measuring the nursing work environment. The concept of social capital, which focuses on improving productive capacity by examining relationships and networks, may provide a promising framework to measure and evaluate the nurse work environment in a variety of settings. A survey instrument for measuring social capital in the nurse work environment was developed by adapting the World Bank's Social Capital - Integrated Questionnaire (SC-IQ). Exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression analyses were applied to assess the properties of the instrument. The exploratory factor analysis yielded five factors that align well with the social capital framework, while reflecting unique aspects of the nurse work environment. The results suggest that the social capital framework provides a promising context to assess the nurse work environment. Further work is needed to refine the instrument for a diverse range of health-care providers and to correlate social capital measures with quality of patient care. Social capital measurement of the nurse work environment has the potential to provide managers with an enhanced set of tools for building productive capacity in health-care organisations and achieving desired outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Social science literature on the environment: review and prospects for energy studies. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    Much of the social science literature on environment is of recent origin and represents the response of the social science research community to a complex societal problem in which technology is a major factor. Energy represents another such problem to which the social science research community is now turning its attention. Because energy problems and environment problems have some similarities and because energy-conversion processes have large effects on the environment, a review of the social science literature on environment was undertaken. The purposes of this review are as follows: (1) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the concepts developed in social science research on the environment; (2) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the methodologies utilized in social science research on the environment; and (3) to study the extent to which the results of social science research on the environment have contributed to the development of policy. The first two items above receive major attention in this preliminary literature survey. 50 references.

  1. The feasibility and acceptability of virtual environments in the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Nina Wong; Beidel, Deborah C; Spitalnick, Josh S

    2014-01-01

    Two significant challenges for the dissemination of social skills training programs are the need to assure generalizability and provide sufficient practice opportunities. In the case of social anxiety disorder, virtual environments may provide one strategy to address these issues. This study evaluated the utility of an interactive virtual school environment for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in preadolescent children. Eleven children with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder between 8 to 12 years old participated in this initial feasibility trial. All children were treated with Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children, an empirically supported treatment for children with social anxiety disorder. However, the in vivo peer generalization sessions and standard parent-assisted homework assignments were substituted by practice in a virtual environment. Overall, the virtual environment programs were acceptable, feasible, and credible treatment components. Both children and clinicians were satisfied with using the virtual environment technology, and children believed it was a high-quality program overall. In addition, parents were satisfied with the virtual environment augmented treatment and indicated that they would recommend the program to family and friends. Findings indicate that the virtual environments are viewed as acceptable and credible by potential recipients. Furthermore, they are easy to implement by even novice users and appear to be useful adjunctive elements for the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder.

  2. Influence of the Environment on Participation in Social Roles for Young Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kitty-Rose; Girdler, Sonya; Bourke, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Einfeld, Stewart; Tonge, Bruce; Parmenter, Trevor R.; Leonard, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of disability is now understood as a result of the interaction between the individual, features related to impairment, and the physical and social environment. It is important to understand these environmental influences and how they affect social participation. The purpose of this study is to describe the social participation of young adults with Down syndrome and examine its relationship with the physical and social environment. Methods Families ascertained from the Down syndrome ‘Needs Opinion Wishes’ database completed questionnaires during 2011. The questionnaires contained two parts, young person characteristics and family characteristics. Young adults’ social participation was measured using the Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H) and the influences of environmental factors were measured by the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE). The analysis involved descriptive statistics and linear and logistic regression. Results Overall, participation in daily activities was higher (mean 6.45) than in social roles (mean 5.17) (range 0 to 9). When the physical and/or social environment was reported as a facilitator, compared to being no influence or a barrier, participation in social roles was greater (coef 0.89, 95%CI 0.28, 1.52, coef 0.83, 95%CI 0.17, 1.49, respectively). The relationships between participation and both the physical (coef 0.60, 95% CI −0.40, 1.24) and social (coef 0.20, 95%CI −0.47, 0.87) environments were reduced when age, gender, behavior and functioning in ADL were taken into account. Conclusion We found that young adults’ participation in social roles was influenced more by the physical environment than by the social environment, providing a potentially modifiable avenue for intervention. PMID:25259577

  3. Influence of the environment on participation in social roles for young adults with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kitty-Rose; Girdler, Sonya; Bourke, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Einfeld, Stewart; Tonge, Bruce; Parmenter, Trevor R; Leonard, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The concept of disability is now understood as a result of the interaction between the individual, features related to impairment, and the physical and social environment. It is important to understand these environmental influences and how they affect social participation. The purpose of this study is to describe the social participation of young adults with Down syndrome and examine its relationship with the physical and social environment. Families ascertained from the Down syndrome 'Needs Opinion Wishes' database completed questionnaires during 2011. The questionnaires contained two parts, young person characteristics and family characteristics. Young adults' social participation was measured using the Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H) and the influences of environmental factors were measured by the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE). The analysis involved descriptive statistics and linear and logistic regression. Overall, participation in daily activities was higher (mean 6.45) than in social roles (mean 5.17) (range 0 to 9). When the physical and/or social environment was reported as a facilitator, compared to being no influence or a barrier, participation in social roles was greater (coef 0.89, 95%CI 0.28, 1.52, coef 0.83, 95%CI 0.17, 1.49, respectively). The relationships between participation and both the physical (coef 0.60, 95% CI -0.40, 1.24) and social (coef 0.20, 95%CI -0.47, 0.87) environments were reduced when age, gender, behavior and functioning in ADL were taken into account. We found that young adults' participation in social roles was influenced more by the physical environment than by the social environment, providing a potentially modifiable avenue for intervention.

  4. Influence of the environment on participation in social roles for young adults with down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitty-Rose Foley

    Full Text Available The concept of disability is now understood as a result of the interaction between the individual, features related to impairment, and the physical and social environment. It is important to understand these environmental influences and how they affect social participation. The purpose of this study is to describe the social participation of young adults with Down syndrome and examine its relationship with the physical and social environment.Families ascertained from the Down syndrome 'Needs Opinion Wishes' database completed questionnaires during 2011. The questionnaires contained two parts, young person characteristics and family characteristics. Young adults' social participation was measured using the Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H and the influences of environmental factors were measured by the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE. The analysis involved descriptive statistics and linear and logistic regression.Overall, participation in daily activities was higher (mean 6.45 than in social roles (mean 5.17 (range 0 to 9. When the physical and/or social environment was reported as a facilitator, compared to being no influence or a barrier, participation in social roles was greater (coef 0.89, 95%CI 0.28, 1.52, coef 0.83, 95%CI 0.17, 1.49, respectively. The relationships between participation and both the physical (coef 0.60, 95% CI -0.40, 1.24 and social (coef 0.20, 95%CI -0.47, 0.87 environments were reduced when age, gender, behavior and functioning in ADL were taken into account.We found that young adults' participation in social roles was influenced more by the physical environment than by the social environment, providing a potentially modifiable avenue for intervention.

  5. Social Representations of the Environment in Press Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislei Mocelin Polli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues are given prominence in the media and scientific circles. From the 60’s until early 2010 there were changes in the way people related to the environment, with a paradigm shift occurring regarding the environment. This study sought to identify the representational content disseminated by the press media on the environment in different periods. A qualitative survey was therefore conducted of documents, and data were obtained through texts published in a magazine with national circulation. The data were analyzed using the ALCESTE program with a Lexicographic Analysis. It was identified that the press media reflects the paradigm shifts, and publications dating from the late 60’s are compatible with the old paradigm, evolving over time, and are now compatible with the new environmental paradigm. The results indicate that currently the environment needs care in all its aspects and lack of care creates global impacts.

  6. The Influence of Social Media on Collaborative Learning in a Cohort Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha James-Waldon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the impact that social media has on the development of collaborative learning within a cohort environment in a doctoral program. The researchers surveyed doctoral students in an education program to determine how social media use has influenced the doctoral students. The study looked at the following areas: a the ability of social media use to develop a collaborative learning environment, b access to social media content which supports learning, and c whether social media use has contributed to the enhancement of the doctoral students’ academic achievement and learning progress. As social media use and on-line learning become more prevalent in education, it is important to continue to understand the impact that social media has on improving students’ ability to achieve their academic goals. This study provides insight on how doctoral students used social media and how social media use has influenced academic development in their cohort environment. In addition, this paper provides a discerning view into the role social media plays when developing a collaborative learning environment in a cohort.

  7. User Identification Framework in Social Network Services Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh BAKARIYA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social Network Service is a one of the service where people may communicate with one an-other; and may also exchange messages even of any type of audio or video communication. Social Network Service as name suggests a type of network. Such type of web application plays a dominant role in internet technology. In such type of online community, people may share their common interest. Facebook LinkedIn, orkut and many more are the Social Network Service and it is good medium of making link with people having unique or common interest and goals. But the problem of privacy protection is a big issue in today’s world. As social networking sites allows anonymous users to share information of other stuffs. Due to which cybercrime is also increasing to a rapid extent. In this article we preprocessed the web log data of Social Network Services and assemble that data on the basis of image file format like jpg, jpeg, gif, png, bmp etc. and also propose a framework for victim’s identification.

  8. Genetic and social environment interactions and their impact on health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Perry W; Royal, Charmaine; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and social factors are not as separate as once thought. Researchers within the social sciences are beginning to realize that genetics and the social environment interact synergistically to affect health behaviors and outcomes. This way of thinking is leading to new research models and is influencing the development of research initiatives. The importance of this gene-social environment paradigm is evident in current and proposed health policies, and future research likely will spur further questions related to various areas of public policy.

  9. Social Media: An Optimal Virtual Environment for Learning Foreign Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdouan Faizi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at exploring the potential role that social media technologies play in learning foreign languages. For this purpose, a survey was carried out to examine students’ and language learners’ perceptions and attitudes about using these platforms. Results of the research study revealed that the great majority of the respondents actually use these web-based applications to enhance their language skills. Most importantly, they noted that social media contribute in improving their listening, reading, speaking and writing skills. Accordingly, we strongly recommend that instructors use these online tools in distant, blended, or face-to-face language learning settings.

  10. Implications of the Social Web Environment for User Story Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancott, Terrill; Kamthan, Pankaj; Shahmir, Nazlie

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, user stories have emerged in academia, as well as industry, as a notable approach for expressing user requirements of interactive software systems that are developed using agile methodologies. There are social aspects inherent to software development, in general, and user stories, in particular. This paper presents directions and…

  11. Creating Participatory Online Learning Environments: A Social Learning Approach Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Quincy; Lutz, Heather S.; Padgitt, Amanda J.

    2017-01-01

    Online learning has never been more popular than it is today. Due to the rapid growth of online instruction at colleges and universities, questions about the effectiveness of online courses have been raised. In this paper, we suggest guidelines for the selection and application of social media tools. In addition to describing the potential…

  12. A Framework for Exploring the Sense of Community and Social Life in Residential Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mahmoudi Farahani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sense of community and social life are two key concepts related to social cohesion, which have been the subject of extensive studies in several disciplines including sociology, psychology and built environment. Social life studies have been mostly conducted in the built environment discipline focusing on city centres; while sense of community studies were mostly the target of sociologists and psychologists focusing on neighbourhoods. As a result, the role of the built environment on the sense of community and social life of neighbourhoods is considered as a missing gap in the literature. This paper, through defining the concepts of social life and sense of community, aims to develop a conceptual framework for further implementation in future research. Accurate implication and interpretation of the concepts show that neighbourhoods can include the sense of community in the residential environment and the social life in the commercial environment. This is because residential environments are where residents’ requirements can be met through their commitment to the community and commercial environments are the fulcrum of interaction and communication.

  13. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space. Additionally, audit data on neighbourhood green space were collected. Multilevel regression analyses examined the relation between neighbourhood green space and individual mental health and the influence of neighbourhood social environment. Mental health was only related to green (audit) in Barcelona. The amount and quality of neighbourhood green space (audit and perceived) were related to social cohesion in Doetinchem and Stoke-on-Trent and to neighbourhood attachment in Doetinchem. In all four cities, mental health was associated with social contacts. Neighbourhood green was related to mental health only in Barcelona. Though neighbourhood green was related to social cohesion and attachment, the neighbourhood social environment seems not the underlying mechanism for this relationship.

  14. HIV-related stigma in social interactions: Approach and avoidance behaviour in a virtual environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toppenberg, H.L.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Pryor, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    People living with HIV are a stigmatized group in our society, especially homosexual people living with HIV. One of the behavioural manifestations of stigmatization is an increased interpersonal distance kept during social interactions. Immersive virtual environment technology enables the

  15. Representation in Computational Environments: Epistemological and Social Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Candia; Mariotti, Maria Alessandra; Maffei, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Computational environments have the potential to provide new representational resources and new ways of supporting teaching and learning of mathematics. In this paper, we seek to characterize relationships between the representations offered by particular technologies and other representations commonly available in the classroom context, using the…

  16. Quantification of Gaseous Elemental Mercury Dry Deposition to Environmental Surfaces using Mercury Stable Isotopes in a Controlled Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, A. P.; Schauer, J. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Olson, M.; Robinson, M.; Vanderveer, P.; Creswell, J. E.; Parman, A.; Mallek, J.; Gorski, P.

    2009-12-01

    Andrew P. Rutter (1) * *, James J, Schauer (1,2) *, Martin M. Shafer(1,2), Michael R. Olson (1), Michael Robinson (1), Peter Vanderveer (3), Joel Creswell (1), Justin L. Mallek (1), Andrew M. Parman (1) (1) Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 660 N. Park St, Madison, WI 53705. (2) Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 2601 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53718. (3) Biotron, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2115 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 * Correspond author(jjschauer@wisc.edu) * *Presenting author (aprutter@wisc.edu) Abstract Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is the predominant component of atmospheric mercury outside of arctic depletion events, and locations where anthropogenic point sources are not influencing atmospheric concentrations. GEM constitutes greater than 99% of the mercury mass in most rural and remote locations. While dry and wet deposition of atmospheric mercury is thought to be dominated by oxidized mercury (a.k.a. reactive mercury), only small GEM uptake to environmental surfaces could impact the input of mercury to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Dry deposition and subsequent re-emission of gaseous elemental mercury is a pathway from the atmosphere that remains only partially understood from a mechanistic perspective. In order to properly model GEM dry deposition and re-emission an understanding of its dependence on irradiance, temperature, and relative humidity must be measured and parameterized for a broad spectrum of environmental surfaces colocated with surrogate deposition surfaces used to make field based dry deposition measurements. Measurements of isotopically enriched GEM dry deposition were made with a variety of environmental surfaces in a controlled environment room at the University of Wisconsin Biotron. The experimental set up allowed dry deposition components which are not easily separated in the field to be decoupled. We were able to isolate surface transfer processes from variabilities caused by

  17. The Internet: A productive research environment for social scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Tulbure, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Since the first web-studies in 1995, scientists have investigated the major issues regarding the new Internet based research methods, study designs and on-line data collection techniques. New software programs and manuals make it easy for newcomers to implement simple experimental procedures in cyberspace. Despite their limits, most researchers consider the advantages of Internet research as greater comparing with their disadvantages. The Internet has changed the major aspects of social scien...

  18. Prioritizing social and economic effects of sport places on Urban Environment (A case study: Yazd City)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Soltanhosseini; M.Salimi; M. Salimi; M. Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    Extended Abstract1- IntroductionSport facilities and sport places as one of important land uses in urban environment can have positive and negative effects on their surroundings, of which the most important can be addressed to economic and social ones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify, assess and prioritize the social and economic effects of sport places on the urban environment. Based on these objectives, five typical sport places (Shahid Sadoughi, Shahid Paak Nejad, Shahid Na...

  19. Relations between the school physical environment and school social capital with student physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Brenton; Trites, Stephen; Janssen, Ian

    2013-12-17

    The physical and social environments at schools are related to students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive effects of the school physical environment and school social capital on the MVPA of students while at school. Data from 18,875 grade 6-10 students from 331 schools who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were analyzed using multi-level regression. Students answered questions on the amount of time they spend in MVPA at school and on their school's social capital. Administrator reports were used to create a physical activity related physical environment score. The school physical environment score was positively associated with student MVPA at school (β = 0.040, p school social capital and MVPA was also positive (β = 0.074, p students attending schools with the lowest number of physical environment features and about 40 minutes/week for students attending schools with the lowest school social capital scores by comparison to students attending schools with the highest scores. The findings suggest that school social capital may be a more important factor in increasing students MVPA than the school physical environment. The results of this study may help inform interventions aimed at increasing student physical activity levels.

  20. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  1. Energy and the Environment in Social Studies Education: An Isosceles Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamason, Barry W.

    1980-01-01

    Recommends that junior high school social studies classroom teachers incorporate information about the imminent and continuing shortages of energy into the curriculum. One way of organizing this information is as an inverted isosceles triangle in which energy, environment, and social studies education serve as sides of the triangle. Sample lessons…

  2. Living with robots: investigating the user acceptance of social robots in domestic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, M.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the most recent decades, the field of social robotics has advanced rapidly. There are a growing number of different types of robots, and their roles within society are expanding. This dissertation has argued that investigating the long-term acceptance of social robots in home environments is

  3. Social neighborhood environment and sports participation among Dutch adults: does sports location matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, D.; Stronks, K.; Maas, J.; Wingen, M.; Kunst, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social

  4. Social neighborhood environment and sports participation among Dutch adults: Does sports location matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, D.; Stronks, K.; Maas, J.; Wingen, M.; Kunst, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social

  5. Mentor-Mentee Interaction and Laboratory Social Environment: Do They Matter in Doctoral Students' Publication Productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Ynalvez, Ruby A.; Ramírez, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    We explored the social shaping of science at the micro-level reality of face-to-face interaction in one of the traditional places for scientific activities--the scientific lab. We specifically examined how doctoral students' perception of their: (i) interaction with doctoral mentors (MMI) and (ii) lab social environment (LSE) influenced…

  6. The Influence of Social Media on Collaborative Learning in a Cohort Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandera, Silas; James-Waldon, Natasha; Bromley, Debbi; Henry, Zandra

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the impact that social media has on the development of collaborative learning within a cohort environment in a doctoral program. The researchers surveyed doctoral students in an education program to determine how social media use has influenced the doctoral students. The study looked at the following areas: a)…

  7. Detecting Rumors Through Modeling Information Propagation Networks in a Social Media Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Songhua; Tourassi, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    In the midst of today's pervasive influence of social media content and activities, information credibility has increasingly become a major issue. Accordingly, identifying false information, e.g. rumors circulated in social media environments, attracts expanding research attention and growing interests. Many previous studies have exploited user-independent features for rumor detection. These prior investigations uniformly treat all users relevant to the propagation of a social media message as instances of a generic entity. Such a modeling approach usually adopts a homogeneous network to represent all users, the practice of which ignores the variety across an entire user population in a social media environment. Recognizing this limitation of modeling methodologies, this study explores user-specific features in a social media environment for rumor detection. The new approach hypothesizes that whether a user tends to spread a rumor is dependent upon specific attributes of the user in addition to content characteristics of the message itself. Under this hypothesis, information propagation patterns of rumors versus those of credible messages in a social media environment are systematically differentiable. To explore and exploit this hypothesis, we develop a new information propagation model based on a heterogeneous user representation for rumor recognition. The new approach is capable of differentiating rumors from credible messages through observing distinctions in their respective propagation patterns in social media. Experimental results show that the new information propagation model based on heterogeneous user representation can effectively distinguish rumors from credible social media content.

  8. Extraction of Hidden Social Networks from Wiki-Environment Involved in Information Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Rasim M. Alguliyev; Ramiz M. Aliguliyev; Irada Y. Alakbarova

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis is a widely used technique to analyze relationships among wiki-users in Wikipedia. In this paper the method to identify hidden social networks participating in information conflicts in wiki-environment is proposed. In particular, we describe how text clustering techniques can be used for extraction of hidden social networks of wiki-users caused information conflict. By clustering unstructured text articles caused information conflict we ...

  9. Detecting Rumors Through Modeling Information Propagation Networks in a Social Media Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Songhua; Tourassi, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    In the midst of today's pervasive influence of social media content and activities, information credibility has increasingly become a major issue. Accordingly, identifying false information, e.g. rumors circulated in social media environments, attracts expanding research attention and growing interests. Many previous studies have exploited user-independent features for rumor detection. These prior investigations uniformly treat all users relevant to the propagation of a social media message a...

  10. The Internet: A productive research environment for social scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulbure, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first web-studies in 1995, scientists have investigated the major issues regarding the new Internet based research methods, study designs and on-line data collection techniques. New software programs and manuals make it easy for newcomers to implement simple experimental procedures in cyberspace. Despite their limits, most researchers consider the advantages of Internet research as greater comparing with their disadvantages. The Internet has changed the major aspects of social sciences – from how researchers communicate to how they publish their studies.

  11. Assessing the Nexus of Built, Natural, and Social Environments and Public Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, R.; Alexander, S.; Douglas, J.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates community-related environmental justice concerns and chemical and non-chemical health stressors from built, natural, and social environments in Southeast Los Angeles (SELA) County and East Oakland, California. The geographical distribution of health outcomes is related to the built and natural environments, as well as impacts from the social environment. A holistic systems view is important in assessing healthy behaviors within a community, because they do not occur in isolation. Geospatial analysis will be performed to integrate a total environment framework and explore the spatial patterns of exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors and access to health-promoting environments. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis using primary and secondary existing data will be performed to determine how social environments impact exposure to chemical health stressors and access to health-promoting built and natural environments. This project will develop a comprehensive list of health-promoting built and natural environments (e.g., parks and community gardens) and polluting sites (e.g., shipping ports and sources of pollution not included in federal regulatory databases) in East Oakland and SELA. California Department of Public Health and U.S. Decennial Census data will also be included for geospatial analysis to overlay the distribution of air pollution-related morbidities (e.g. asthma, diabetes, and cancer) and access to health-promoting built and natural environments and related community assets, exposure to polluting industries, social disorganization, and public health outcomes in the target areas. This research will help identify the spatial and temporal distribution and cumulative impacts of critical pollution hotspots causing community environmental health impacts. The research team will also map how social environments impact exposure to chemical health stressors and access to health-promoting built and natural environments. The

  12. Using Social Simulations to Assess and Train Potential Leaders to Make Effective Decisions in Turbulent Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, L. Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe two social simulations created to assess leadership potential and train leaders to make effective decisions in turbulent environments. One is set in the novel environment of a lunar moon colony and the other is a military combat command. The research generated from these simulations for assessing…

  13. Sensitivity of Students to the Natural Environment, Animals, Social Problems and Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtdede Fidan, Nuray

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to determine the sensitivity levels of fourth-grade students to the natural environment, animals, social concerns and cultural heritage. Besides, it has been investigated whether some personal characteristics of the students have differentiating effect on the views related to the sensitivity to the natural environment, animals,…

  14. Improved perceived indoor environment in renovated and energy-retrofitted social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was, among other things, to evaluate how tenants perceived the indoor environment in renovated and energy-retrofitted social housing erected in the 1960s. Tenants answered a questionnaire to quantify problems and satisfaction with the indoor environment before...

  15. Genetic Interactions with Prenatal Social Environment: Effects on Academic and Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Dalton; Rauscher, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies report gene-environment interactions, suggesting that specific alleles have different effects on social outcomes depending on environment. In all these studies, however, environmental conditions are potentially endogenous to unmeasured genetic characteristics. That is, it could be that the observed interaction effects actually…

  16. The influence of the social environment context in stress and coping in sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Carlijn; van der Kamp, John; Polman, Remco

    2016-01-01

    Lazarus (1999) model of stress and coping is based on the reciprocal interaction between the person and the environment. The aim of this study therefore was to examine whether the social environment (significant others) are of influence on the stress and coping of team athletes. The study consisted

  17. Understanding the influence of social interactions on individual's behavior pattern in a work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Aztiria, Asier; Ben Allouch, Soumaya; Aghajan, Hamid; Salah, Albert Ali; Lepri, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we study social interactions in a work environment and investigate how the presence of other people changes personal behavior patterns. We design the visual processing algorithms to track multiple people in the environment and detect dyadic interactions using a discriminative

  18. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and environment. SIMS as applied to the detection of stable and radioactive isotopes in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassard-Bouchaud, C.; Escaig, F.; Hallegot, P.

    1984-01-01

    Several marine species of economical interest, Crustacea (crabs and prawns) and Molluscs (common mussels and oysters) were collected from coastal waters of France: English Channel, Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea and of Japan. Microanalyses which were performed at the tissue and cell levels, using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, revealed many contaminants; stable isotopes as well as radioactive actinids such as uranium were detected. Uptake, storage and excretion target organs were identified [fr

  19. VITAL ENERGY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT: INTERFACES BETWEEN WESTERN THOUGHT AND INDIGENOUS COSMOLOGY – THE JAVAÉ CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Panosso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike what happens in Western capitalist societies, who think the world so disruptive, creating dichotomies as culture / nature and society / environment, indigenous thought in such oppositions are not common. Thus, indigenous peoples do not live a crisis mentality on the environment. The Javaé provides elements with which it becomes possible to think about their "ideas" of body and vital energy and how these inform their practices and their relationship with social and environmental. Understanding this concept as something that includes a social totality that includes humans and nonhumans, and thus, maintaining a social and ecological balance.

  20. METHODS OF STATISTICAL MONITORING OF PROFESSIONAL ORIENTATION WORK OF SOCIAL EDUCATORS IN PERSONAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr M. Korniiets

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the application of social services WEB 2.0 for personal learning environment creation that is used for professional orientation work of social educator. The feedback is must be in personal learning environment for the effective professional orientation work. This feedback can be organized through statistical monitoring. The typical solution for organizing personal learning environment with built-in statistical surveys and statistical data processing is considered in the article. The possibilities of the statistical data collection and processing services on the example of Google Analytics are investigated.

  1. Uranium mining in the Canadian social environment of the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1981-11-01

    The attitude of the Canadian public to the mining industry as a whole has changed in recent years to one of mistrust because of the public perception of mining as environmentally harmful and humanly degrading. In addition, uranium mining has had to cope with the public fear of radiation. The uranium mining industry is closely regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board, not only in the area of radiation protection but also in other fields affecting worker health and safety. Uranium mining has been the subject of many hearings in Canada, and all but one have concluded that it is environmentally and socially acceptable. It is up to the mining industry to convey this message to the public

  2. Psychological factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in the educational environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmeleva E.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The negative sociocultural transformations that are taking place in modern society and the resulting psychological transformation of personality and mode of life strongly require searching for ways of providing social safety to the next generation, with teachers being the implementers of this process. Teachers’ professionalism is determined by their willingness to solve personal and socially relevant problems, including the willingness to provide social security for other people, to thwart social risks, and to build constructive interpersonal relationships. The aim of our research was to reveal and to analyze the psychological factors affecting the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in educational environments. The environmental factors of social risk have been theoretically characterized. It has been shown that the essential factor in ensuring students’ social security is providing a safe social environment in educational institutions; such an environment provides the learners and the teachers with sociopsychological security and psychosocial well-being. The empirical part of our study was devoted to identifying negative social phenomena in the schools in the Ivanovo region (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 700 students and to identifying the personally and professionally important qualities of the teachers and the subjective psychological factors of their readiness to ensure social security in the educational environment (through interviewing 300 teachers; the administration of the questionnaires and the interviewing were followed by an assessment of their significance (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 140 teachers. Using factor analysis we identified the relevant indicators and grouped them into six factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure a safe educational environment. Relevant personal and professional qualities of teachers were revealed; these are the subjective factors of the

  3. Application of the stable-isotope system to the study of sources and fate of Hg in the environment: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Runsheng; Feng Xinbin; Shi Wenfang

    2010-01-01

    With the improvement of analytical methods and the development of multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP/MS), research on non-traditional stable isotope (Cu, Zn, Fe, Se, Mo, Cr, Hg) in geochemistry has made tremendous progress in the past decade. Recent studies have demonstrated that both organic and inorganic reactions may cause Hg isotope fractionation, and variations of Hg isotopic composition in the environment have been successfully employed to explain Hg pollution history, Hg sources and tracking Hg pathways in nature. Furthermore, Hg isotopic fractionation studies can be a powerful tool in the calibration of global Hg cycling models. Stable isotope geochemistry of Hg is therefore becoming a new frontier subject in earth sciences. Based on summarizing previous research, this paper outlines the main advances in the study of Hg stable isotopes with particular emphasis placed on a brief explanation of Hg isotope analytical techniques, possible Hg isotope fractionation mechanisms observed in both natural and experimental processes, Hg isotope composition variations in different environmental matrices, and the application prospects of the Hg stable isotopes in environmental geosciences.

  4. Persistent social isolation reflects identity and social context but not maternal effects or early environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, L J N; Ruiz-Lambides, A; Platt, M L

    2017-12-19

    Individuals who are well integrated into society have greater access to resources and tend to live longer. Why some individuals are socially isolated and others are not is therefore puzzling from an evolutionary perspective. Answering this question requires establishing the mix of intrinsic and contextual factors that contribute to social isolation. Using social network data spanning up to half of the median adult lifespan in a gregarious primate, we found that some measures of social isolation were modestly repeatable within individuals, consistent with a trait. By contrast, social isolation was not explained by the identity of an animal's mother or the group into which it was born. Nevertheless, age, sex and social status each played a role, as did kin dynamics and familiarity. Females with fewer close relatives were more isolated, and the more time males spent in a new group the less isolated they became, independent of their social status. These results show that social isolation results from a combination of intrinsic and environmental factors. From an evolutionary perspective, these findings suggest that social isolation could be adaptive in some contexts and partly maintained by selection.

  5. Correlates of service delivery and social environment in adult day service programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, Joseph E

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to better describe adult day service (ADS) programs and determine how various structural and case mix characteristics of ADS were empirically associated with the services provided in and the social environments of adult day programs. All directors of ADS programs in Minnesota (United States) were contacted from 2011 to 2012 to complete a detailed online survey that collected information on ADS structure, client case mix, services and activities, and social environment (n = 83; 67.5% response rate). Several structural characteristics and case mix indicators (e.g., number of clients attending) were significantly associated (p social environment. The results suggest the potential need for bolstering staffing and enhancing the physical environment of ADS programs.

  6. Uranium mining in the Canadian social environment in the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board considers the health and safety of workers and members of the public to be of primary concern in the assessment of any proposed uranium mine or mill. Of great importance also is the influence mining practices may have on waste streams, subsequent waste management, and consequently the environment. Past mistakes and the reluctance of mining companies to talk openly to the public have resulted in the loss of credibility of the uranium mining industry. The public is subjected to the biased views of nuclear critics and does not have a balanced picture of the industry. The health hazards of radiation are generally overstated, and society is not willing to accept the small risks associated with nuclear power. Complete openness on the part of the industry and regulatory agencies will be required in order to regain public confidence

  7. Improvement of social infrastructure as a way to ensure a comfortable urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century the mankind to came to understanding that the comfortable living environment is the basis of a high-quality life, which represents the strategic resource of the state. The comfortable environment consists of numerous factors, which include the social infrastructure as well. The author of the article stats with the statement that the project of creation of the comfortable urban environment includes: economical, commercial and budget efficiency of the project, ecological consequences or results of the project impact on the environment, contribution of the project implementable to improvement of the social environment. Developing such approach, the author comes to a wider concept of the life quality. Thus, all three elements of the project of creation of the comfortable urban environment influence the quality of life of the population. According to the research results, presented in the article it becomes obvious that medical-and-demographic characteristics are being improved when the development of housing is followed by the corresponding development of the social infrastructure. Thus, the author makes the conclusion that for the solution of the task of creation of the social infrastructure as the environment for a healthy lifestyle, development of managerial decisions, which are made not on intuition basis but on rational estimation taking into account above-mentioned factors are necessary.

  8. Network Environments and Well-Being: An Examination of Personal Network Structure, Social Capital, and Perceived Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungyoon; Chung, Jae Eun; Park, Namkee

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the role of social networks, social capital, and social support in individuals' well-being. However, the ways in which these related constructs simultaneously influence one's well-being outcomes and relate to one another have not been closely examined. This study pays particular attention to the structural characteristics of personal networks, distinction between offline and online social capital, and different indicators of well-being outcomes. Based on survey data collected from 574 college students, the study found that two dimensions of personal networks-density and gender homophily-and social capital in the form of offline bonding capital explained perceived social support. Further, perceived social support consistently predicted well-being outcomes and played a mediating role between personal network density and well-being, as well as between offline bonding capital and well-being. The results offer implications for a more nuanced understanding of the role of individuals' interpersonal and social environments in well-being outcomes.

  9. Social accounting –factor for developing the enterprise’s internal and external environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungureanu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social responsibility represents a strategic approach that allows an economic entity to anticipate and solve its problems with third parties, for long-term successful projects. Thus, reputation becomes an invaluable asset which, although intangible, should be used with caution. This paper aims to analyze the role of the traditional accounting system, reflecting the impact of economic activities on the social environment in which they operate. It also makes reference to the opportunity to implement the concept of social accounting into enterprise practice, mainly by analyzing social policies’ costs and benefits.

  10. Physical and social environment and the risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Pfleger, Claudia C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark has doubled in women since 1970, whereas it has been almost unchanged in men. The rapid epidemiological changes suggest that environmental factors may modify the risk of MS. Objectives: To investigate whether occupational, physical......, or social environmental influence the risk of MS differently in women than in men. Methods: The cohort consists of all 1403 patients (939 women, 464 men) identified through Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry aged 1-55 of years at clinical onset between 2000 and 2004, and up to 25 control persons for each...... patients who had been employed in agriculture: OR 3.52; 95% CI 1.38-9.00, p=0.008 (0.046 when corrected for multiple significance) and a trend for exposure to outdoor work in 12 : OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.06-3.55, p=0.03 (0.09 when corrected for multiple significance), but the numbers of cases were small...

  11. Composing Focus: Shaping Temporal, Social, Media, Social Media, and Attentional Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Writers must learn to control factors that influence the ability to focus, especially in what some call a culture of distraction. In our efforts to promote metacognition and flexible writing processes, writing teachers need to engage students in study and discussion of factors in our temporal, social, media, social media, and attentional…

  12. Estimating Niche Width Using Stable Isotopes in the Face of Habitat Variability: A Modelling Case Study in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, David O.; Buhl, Jerome; Lee, Raymond W.; Simpson, Stephen J.; Holmes, Sebastian P.

    2012-01-01

    Distributions of stable isotopes have been used to infer an organism's trophic niche width, the ‘isotopic niche’, and examine resource partitioning. Spatial variation in the isotopic composition of prey may however confound the interpretation of isotopic signatures especially when foragers exploit resources across numerous locations. In this study the isotopic compositions from marine assemblages are modelled to determine the role of variation in the signature of prey items and the effect of dietary breadth and foraging strategies on predator signatures. Outputs from the models reveal that isotopic niche widths can be greater for populations of dietary specialists rather than for generalists, which contravenes what is generally accepted in the literature. When a range of different mixing models are applied to determine if the conversion from δ to p-space can be used to improve model accuracy, predator signature variation is increased rather than model precision. Furthermore the mixing models applied failed to correctly identify dietary specialists and/or to accurately estimate diet contributions that may identify resource partitioning. The results presented illustrate the need to collect sufficiently large sample sizes, in excess of what is collected under most current studies, across the complete distribution of a species and its prey, before attempts to use stable isotopes to make inferences about niche width can be made. PMID:22876280

  13. Sustainable development, social organization and environment in the Amazonian Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieco, Juan Jose

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the development on the environment and the culture in regions like the Amazonian are one of the most dramatic examples that can be in what refers to the physical disappearance of numerous cultures, as well as of their integration to the national society and their rising loss of cultural identity and the devastating consequences that have had the development politicians on the different Amazon ecosystems. The construction of a sustainable development for the region has to evaluate the different societies that have existed and they exist as for the use, handling and exploitation of the natural resources. This paper will be approached this problem in three Amazon societies: the cacique territory, the tribal societies and the societies in formation in the colonization regions. It will be done an analysis and a critic of the development concept and of the consequences that it has had their application so much in the indigenous towns as in the Amazon ecosystems, as well as their relationship with the current characterization of the Amazonian area

  14. Integration of the social environment in a mobility ontology for people with motor disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharebaghi, Amin; Mostafavi, Mir-Abolfazl; Edwards, Geoffrey; Fougeyrollas, Patrick; Gamache, Stéphanie; Grenier, Yan

    2017-07-07

    Our contemporary understanding of disability is rooted in the idea that disability is the product of human-environment interaction processes. People may be functionally limited, but this becomes a disability only when they engage with their immediate social and physical environments. Any attempt to address issues of mobility in relation to people with disabilities should be grounded in an ontology that encompasses this understanding. The objective of this study is to provide a methodology to integrate the social and physical environments in the development of a mobility ontology for people with motor disabilities (PWMD). We propose to create subclasses of concepts based on a Nature-Development distinction rather than creating separate social and physical subclasses. This allows the relationships between social and physical elements to be modelled in a more compact and efficient way by specifying them locally within each entity, and better accommodates the complexities of the human-environment interaction as well. Based on this approach, an ontology for mobility of PWMD considering four main elements - the social and physical environmental factors, human factors, life habits related to mobility and possible goals of mobility - is presented. We demonstrate that employing the Nature-Development perspective facilitates the process of developing useful ontologies, especially for defining the relationships between the social and physical parts of the environment. This is a fundamental issue for modelling the interaction between humans and their social and physical environments for a broad range of applications, including the development of geospatial assistive technologies for navigation of PWMD. Implications for rehabilitation The proposed perspective may actually have much broader interests beyond the issue of disability - much of the interesting dynamics in city development arises from the interaction between human-developed components - the built environment and its

  15. Social environments and interpersonal distance regulation in psychosis: A virtual reality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraets, Chris N W; van Beilen, Marije; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van der Gaag, Mark; Veling, Wim

    2018-02-01

    Experimentally studying the influence of social environments on mental health and behavior is challenging, as social context is difficult to standardize in laboratory settings. Virtual Reality (VR) enables studying social interaction in terms of interpersonal distance in a more ecologically valid manner. Regulation of interpersonal distance may be abnormal in patients with psychotic disorders and influenced by environmental stress, symptoms or distress. To investigate interpersonal distance in people with a psychotic disorder and at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR) compared to siblings and controls in virtual social environments, and explore the relationship between clinical characteristics and interpersonal distance. Nineteen UHR patients, 52 patients with psychotic disorders, 40 siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder and 47 controls were exposed to virtual cafés. In five virtual café visits, participants were exposed to different levels of social stress, in terms of crowdedness, ethnicity and hostility. Measures on interpersonal distance, distress and state paranoia were obtained. Baseline measures included trait paranoia, social anxiety, depressive, positive and negative symptoms. Interpersonal distance increased when social stressors were present in the environment. No difference in interpersonal distance regulation was found between the groups. Social anxiety and distress were positively associated with interpersonal distance in the total sample. This VR paradigm indicates that interpersonal distance regulation in response to environmental social stressors is unaltered in people with psychosis or UHR. Environmental stress, social anxiety and distress trigger both people with and without psychosis to maintain larger interpersonal distances in social situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account.

  17. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account. PMID:27487079

  18. Dynamically analyzing cell interactions in biological environments using multiagent social learning framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengwei; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Shuxin; Feng, Zhiyong

    2017-09-20

    Biological environment is uncertain and its dynamic is similar to the multiagent environment, thus the research results of the multiagent system area can provide valuable insights to the understanding of biology and are of great significance for the study of biology. Learning in a multiagent environment is highly dynamic since the environment is not stationary anymore and each agent's behavior changes adaptively in response to other coexisting learners, and vice versa. The dynamics becomes more unpredictable when we move from fixed-agent interaction environments to multiagent social learning framework. Analytical understanding of the underlying dynamics is important and challenging. In this work, we present a social learning framework with homogeneous learners (e.g., Policy Hill Climbing (PHC) learners), and model the behavior of players in the social learning framework as a hybrid dynamical system. By analyzing the dynamical system, we obtain some conditions about convergence or non-convergence. We experimentally verify the predictive power of our model using a number of representative games. Experimental results confirm the theoretical analysis. Under multiagent social learning framework, we modeled the behavior of agent in biologic environment, and theoretically analyzed the dynamics of the model. We present some sufficient conditions about convergence or non-convergence and prove them theoretically. It can be used to predict the convergence of the system.

  19. MAXIMIZING SOCIAL VALUE IN THE HOTEL ONLINE ENVIRONMENT USING AN ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Păunescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the possibilities that hoteliers have to create and maximize the social value of their online platforms, in terms of their functionality and usage, in order to improve sales and increase hotels’ performance. It also discusses the opportunities that hotel managers can take to improve the hotel online decision-making strategy to convert more effectively visitors into actual customers. Although social value creation of online platforms has been well researched in the specialized literature, recent research has not examined the ways the online social value can be maximized and put into effective commercial use. The paper reviews the dimensions and characteristics of the hotel online environment by integrating literature analysis and field research practices. It employs the analytic hierarchy process method to analyse key elements of the hotel online environment that can serve as a focal point for value creation. The literature review and field research conducted pinpoint three possibilities of creating online social value: (a building online trust, (b ensuring high quality of the online service, and (c providing effective online communication experience. The paper results have given deeper understanding regarding potential areas of the hotel online environment where social value can be obtained. They prove applicability of the analytic hierarchy process method for evaluation and selection of strategies for online social value creation. At the same time, the paper provides new valuable insights to hoteliers, which might support their decisions to improve the business by proactively incorporating strategies for online social value maximization.

  20. Social neighborhood environment and sports participation among Dutch adults: does sports location matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D; Stronks, K; Maas, J; Wingen, M; Kunst, A E

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social neighborhood environment and three location-specific sports outcomes. Repeated cross-sectional data on sports participation (any type of sports, sports at indoor sports clubs, sports at outdoor sports clubs, sports on streets) were obtained from 20 600 adults using the Dutch national health survey 2006-2009. Data on neighborhood social safety and social capital were obtained using the Dutch Housing Research 2006. Over 40% of Dutch adults participated in any type of sports. Indoor sports clubs were most popular. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that neighborhood social safety was positively associated with sports at indoor sports clubs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.48), but not with the other sports outcomes. Contrary, neighborhood social capital was positively associated with sports on streets only (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.17-2.44). The results suggest that a positive social neighborhood environment enhances sports participation, but that this impact depends on the location of the sports activity. This study highlights the importance of using location-specific sports outcomes when assessing environmental determinants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Social Skills Deficits in a Virtual Environment Among Spanish Children With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Castellar, Rosa; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Sánchez-Chiva, Desirée; Mikami, Amori Y

    2015-07-02

    Research assessing the social skills of children with ADHD has predominantly relied upon North American samples. In addition, most existing work has been conducted using methodology that fails to use a controlled peer stimulus; such methods may be more vulnerable to cultural influence. We examined the social skills of 52 Spanish children (ages 8-12) with and without ADHD using a controlled Chat Room Task, which simulates a virtual social environment where peers' responses are held constant, so that participants' social skills may be assessed. After statistical control of typing and reading comprehension skills, Spanish children with ADHD gave fewer prosocial comments and had greater difficulty remembering central details from the conversation between the peers, relative to comparison children. The virtual Chat Room Task may be useful to assess social skills deficits using a controlled paradigm, resulting in the identification of common social deficiencies cross-culturally. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  2. The neighborhood social environment and body mass index among youth: a mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veitch Jenny

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine associations between aspects of the neighborhood social environment and body mass index (BMI in youth both cross-sectionally and prospectively; and whether this association was mediated by physical activity, screen-time and sedentary time. Methods Data were collected in 2004 and 2006 in high and low socio-economic areas of Melbourne, Australia. In 2004, 185 children aged 8-9 years (47% boys and 359 children aged 13-15 years (45% boys participated. Parents reported their perceptions of aspects of the social environment (i.e. social networks and social trust/cohesion, and physical activity (i.e. time spent outdoors by their children; and their younger children's walking and cycling trips and screen-time (i.e. TV viewing, computer use. The older children self-reported their walking and cycling trips and their screen-time. All children wore an accelerometer to objectively assess outside-school hours moderate- to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time. BMI was calculated from height and weight measured in 2004 and 2006. Multilevel linear regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between the social environment and BMI. Mediation analyses using the products of coefficient method were conducted to determine whether associations between the social environment and BMI were mediated by the time spent in a range of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Results Cross-sectional and prospective regression analyses showed that a more positive social network and higher social trust/cohesion was related to lower BMI among children. There was no evidence that time spent in physical activity or sedentary behaviors mediated this relation, despite significant associations between social networks and screen-time and between screen-time and BMI. Conclusions The findings suggest that the neighborhood social environment may be important for preventing overweight and obesity in children. Further

  3. Exploring the role of the built and social neighborhood environment in moderating stress and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen A; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2010-05-01

    Health researchers have explored how different aspects of neighborhood characteristics contribute to health and well-being, but current understanding of built environment factors is limited. This study explores whether the association between stress and health varies by residential neighborhood, and if yes, whether built and social neighborhood environment characteristics act as moderators. This study uses multilevel modeling and variables derived from geospatial data to explore the role of neighborhood environment in moderating the association of stress with health. Individual-level data (N = 4,093) were drawn from residents of 45 neighborhoods within Philadelphia County, PA, collected as part of the 2006 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Household Health Survey. We find that the negative influence of high stress varied by neighborhood, that residential stability and affluence (social characteristics) attenuated the association of high stress with health, and that the presence of hazardous waste facilities (built environment characteristics) moderated health by enhancing the association with stress. Our findings suggest that neighborhood environment has both direct and moderating associations with health, after adjusting for individual characteristics. The use of geospatial data could broaden the scope of stress-health research and advance knowledge by untangling the intertwined relationship between built and social environments, stress, and health. In particular, future studies should integrate built environment characteristics in health-related research; these characteristics are modifiable and can facilitate health promotion policies.

  4. Social environment affects acquisition and color of structural nuptial plumage in a sexually dimorphic tropical passerine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Maia

    Full Text Available Structural colors result from the physical interaction of light with organic materials of differing refractive indexes organized at nanoscale dimensions to produce significant interference effects. Because color properties emerge from these finely organized nanostructures, the production of structural coloration could respond to environmental factors and be developmentally more plastic than expected, functioning as an indicator of individual quality. However, there are many unknown factors concerning the function and mechanisms regulating structural coloration, especially relative to social environment. We hypothesized that social environment, in the form of competitive settings, can influence the developmental pathways involving production of feather structural coloration. We experimentally assessed the impact of social environment upon body condition, molt and spectral properties of two types of structural color that compose the nuptial plumage in blue-black grassquits: black iridescent plumage and white underwing patches. We manipulated male social environment during nine months by keeping individuals in three treatments: (1 pairs; (2 all-male groups; and (3 male-female mixed groups. All morphological characters and spectral plumage measures varied significantly through time, but only acquisition of nuptial plumage coverage and nuptial plumage color were influenced by social environment. Compared with males in the paired treatment, those in treatments with multiple males molted into nuptial plumage faster and earlier, and their plumage was more UV-purple-shifted. Our results provide experimental evidence that social context strongly influences development and expression of structural plumage. These results emphasize the importance of long-term experimental studies to identify the phenotypic consequences of social dynamics relative to ornament expression.

  5. Social Environment Affects Acquisition and Color of Structural Nuptial Plumage in a Sexually Dimorphic Tropical Passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Rafael; Brasileiro, Luiza; Lacava, Roberto V.; Macedo, Regina H.

    2012-01-01

    Structural colors result from the physical interaction of light with organic materials of differing refractive indexes organized at nanoscale dimensions to produce significant interference effects. Because color properties emerge from these finely organized nanostructures, the production of structural coloration could respond to environmental factors and be developmentally more plastic than expected, functioning as an indicator of individual quality. However, there are many unknown factors concerning the function and mechanisms regulating structural coloration, especially relative to social environment. We hypothesized that social environment, in the form of competitive settings, can influence the developmental pathways involving production of feather structural coloration. We experimentally assessed the impact of social environment upon body condition, molt and spectral properties of two types of structural color that compose the nuptial plumage in blue-black grassquits: black iridescent plumage and white underwing patches. We manipulated male social environment during nine months by keeping individuals in three treatments: (1) pairs; (2) all-male groups; and (3) male-female mixed groups. All morphological characters and spectral plumage measures varied significantly through time, but only acquisition of nuptial plumage coverage and nuptial plumage color were influenced by social environment. Compared with males in the paired treatment, those in treatments with multiple males molted into nuptial plumage faster and earlier, and their plumage was more UV-purple-shifted. Our results provide experimental evidence that social context strongly influences development and expression of structural plumage. These results emphasize the importance of long-term experimental studies to identify the phenotypic consequences of social dynamics relative to ornament expression. PMID:23082172

  6. Authenticity testing of environment-friendly Korean rice (Oryza sativa L.) using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Park, Sung-Kyu; Lee, Kyoung-Jin; An, Min-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Hee; Oh, Yong-Taek; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2017-11-01

    The increasing demand for organic foods creates, in turn, a pressing need for the development of more accurate tools for the authentication of organic food in order to ensure both fair trade and food safety. This study examines the feasibility of δ 13 C and δ 15 N analyses as potential tools for authentication of environment-friendly rice sold in Korea. δ 13 C and δ 15 N examination in different rice grains showed that environment-friendly rice can be successfully distinguished from conventional rice. No multi-residue pesticides were detected in the examined rice samples, including conventional rice. This study demonstrates the complementary feasibility of δ 13 C and δ 15 N analyses for the authentication of environment-friendly rice sold in Korea in cases where pesticide residue analysis alone is insufficient for discrimination of organic and conventional rice. In future, complementary analyses including compound-specific isotope ratio analysis might be employed for improving the reliability of organic authentication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Learning about social determinants of health through chronicles, using a virtual learning environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Palacio, Sonia; Amaya-Guio, Jairo

    2016-01-01

    To describe the contributions of a pedagogical strategy based on the construction of chronicles, using a Virtual Learning Environment for training medical students from Universidad de La Sabana on social determinants of health. Descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Design and implementation of a Virtual Learning Environment based on the ADDIE instructional model. A Virtual Learning Environment was implemented with an instructional design based on the five phases of the ADDIE model, on the grounds of meaningful learning and social constructivism, and through the narration of chronicles or life stories as a pedagogical strategy. During the course, the structural determinants and intermediaries were addressed, and nine chronicles were produced by working groups made up of four or five students, who demonstrated meaningful learning from real life stories, presented a coherent sequence, and kept a thread; 82% of these students incorporated in their contents most of the social determinants of health, emphasizing on the concepts of equity or inequity, equality or inequality, justice or injustice and social cohesion. A Virtual Learning Environment, based on an appropriate instructional design, allows to facilitate learning of social determinants of health through a constructivist pedagogical approach by analyzing chronicles or life stories created by ninth-semester students of medicine from Universidad de La Sabana.

  8. Students' use of social software in self-organized learning environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The paper will argue that new possibilities of digital media, especially social software, have a potential regarding development of self-organized learning environments and facilitating self-governed activities. Based on a sociological perspective, the paper will clarify the concepts of informal...... support students' self-governed activities and their development of self-organized learning environments....... and formal learning used in this paper. It is argued that formal and informal conditions of learning can supplement each other within an educational setting. A formal setting of project work forms the basis of informal, selfgoverned activities of students. The paper will argue that social software tools can...

  9. Modeling Age-Friendly Environment, Active Aging, and Social Connectedness in an Emerging Asian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ming Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically tested eight key features of WHO guidelines to age-friendly community by surveying 211 informal caregivers and 402 self-care adults (aged 45 to 85 and above in Malaysia. We examined the associations of these eight features with active aging and social connectedness through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A structural model with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.11, RMSEA = 0.02, NFI = 0.97, TLI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, and GFI = 0.96 indicates that transportation and housing, community support and health services, and outdoor spaces and buildings are statistically significant in creating an age-friendly environment. We found a statistically significant positive relationship between an age-friendly environment and active aging. This relationship is mediated by social connectedness. The results indicate that built environments such as accessible public transportations and housing, affordable and accessible healthcare services, and elderly friendly outdoor spaces and buildings have to be put into place before social environment in building an age-friendly environment. Otherwise, the structural barriers would hinder social interactions for the aged. The removal of the environmental barriers and improved public transportation services provide short-term solutions to meet the varied and growing needs of the older population.

  10. Modeling Age-Friendly Environment, Active Aging, and Social Connectedness in an Emerging Asian Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming-Ming; Lein, Shi-Ying; Lau, Siok-Hwa; Lai, Ming-Ling

    2016-01-01

    This paper empirically tested eight key features of WHO guidelines to age-friendly community by surveying 211 informal caregivers and 402 self-care adults (aged 45 to 85 and above) in Malaysia. We examined the associations of these eight features with active aging and social connectedness through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A structural model with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.11, RMSEA = 0.02, NFI = 0.97, TLI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, and GFI = 0.96) indicates that transportation and housing, community support and health services, and outdoor spaces and buildings are statistically significant in creating an age-friendly environment. We found a statistically significant positive relationship between an age-friendly environment and active aging. This relationship is mediated by social connectedness. The results indicate that built environments such as accessible public transportations and housing, affordable and accessible healthcare services, and elderly friendly outdoor spaces and buildings have to be put into place before social environment in building an age-friendly environment. Otherwise, the structural barriers would hinder social interactions for the aged. The removal of the environmental barriers and improved public transportation services provide short-term solutions to meet the varied and growing needs of the older population.

  11. The social and learning environments experienced by underrepresented minority medical students: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orom, Heather; Semalulu, Teresa; Underwood, Willie

    2013-11-01

    To review the literature on the social and learning environments experienced by underrepresented minority (URM) medical students to determine what type of interventions are needed to eliminate potential barriers to enrolling and retaining URM students. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Ovid HealthStar, and Web of Science, and the reference lists of included studies, published between January 1, 1980, and September 15, 2012. Studies of the learning and social environments and of students' satisfaction, experiences with discrimination or unfair practices, and academic performance or progress, as well as assessments of programs or interventions to improve URM students' academic performance, were eligible for inclusion. The authors identified 28 studies (27 unique data sets) meeting the inclusion criteria. The results of the included studies indicated that URM students experienced less supportive social and less positive learning environments, were subjected to discrimination and racial harassment, and were more likely to see their race as having a negative impact on their medical school experiences than non-URM students. Academic performance on standardized exams was worse, progress less timely, and attrition higher for URM students as well. For URM students, an adverse climate may be decreasing the attractiveness of careers in medicine, impairing their academic performance, and increasing attrition. Improvements to the social and learning environments experienced by URM students are needed to make medicine a more inclusive profession. The current environment of health care reform creates an opportunity for institutions to implement strategies to achieve this goal.

  12. Adolescent vigorous physical activity and the neighborhood school environment: examinations by family social class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Schipperijn, Jasper; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    Purpose: To investigate whether associations between daily vigorous physical activity (VPA) and the built environment are patterned according to family social class. Methods: We used self-reported daily VPA measured in 6046 11 to 15-year-old boys and girls in 80 schools. Multi-level stratified...... likely to achieve daily VPA than boys. Among children from low family social class backgrounds, girls were less likely to achieve daily VPA than boys (OR = 0.40; CI: 0.28-0.57). Additionally, children from low family social class backgrounds attending schools with low exposure to walking and cycling...

  13. Teenager at the life crossroads: socialization, analysis of the factors of developmental environment change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.D. Hlomov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Compared with their forerunners, the modern teenagers experience adolescence and solve age problems in different way, and face other social risks. The representations of situations of social and psychological adjustment and maladjustment also differ in some aspects. The article discusses the factors which influence the adolescence in modern conditions: spread of the Internet, lack of public demand for a certain desired life trajectory of a growing teenager, high social tension and uncertainty, changes in the structure and essence of the family concept; blurred teenagers identity in the context of variety of identification options. These factors affect the development of the resources available to teenagers and their use of them, which social risks they are exposed to, and what forms of deviant behavior they show. Such changes in the social environment of adolescent development and, as a consequence, in the experiencing adolescence, allow to check and revise the existing representations of the teen age problems

  14. Social Force Model-Based Group Behavior Simulation in Virtual Geographic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Virtual geographic environments (VGEs are extensively used to explore the relationship between humans and environments. Crowd simulation provides a method for VGEs to represent crowd behaviors that are observed in the real world. The social force model (SFM can simulate interactions among individuals, but it has not sufficiently accounted for inter-group and intra-group behaviors which are important components of crowd dynamics. We present the social group force model (SGFM, based on an extended SFM, to simulate group behaviors in VGEs with focuses on the avoiding behaviors among different social groups and the coordinate behaviors among subgroups that belong to one social group. In our model, psychological repulsions between social groups make them avoid with the whole group and group members can stick together as much as possible; while social groups are separated into several subgroups, the rear subgroups try to catch up and keep the whole group cohesive. We compare the simulation results of the SGFM with the extended SFM and the phenomena in videos. Then we discuss the function of Virtual Reality (VR in crowd simulation visualization. The results indicate that the SGFM can enhance social group behaviors in crowd dynamics.

  15. Tolerance to uncertainty in the context of social support:gender specificity in the youth environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Lifintsev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of social support for young males and females, and also its relationship with tolerance of uncertainty. A series of psychodiagnostic tools were used to study gender determinants of social support, tolerance of uncertainty and interpersonal intolerance in young people with different levels of emotional and instrumental support. Young males and females aged 18–22 years with a high level of tolerance of uncertainty are susceptible to various forms of social support. The ability to accept uncertainty, to function in the system of unclear interpersonal communication and to act in the face of changing circumstances determine the level of satisfaction with social support in the participants. The research (N=165 confirmed the assumption that first and foremost social support as a communicative phenomenon has differences in the perception of emotional forms in young males and females. Secondly, the specific features of person functioning in the social supporting act system are interrelated, including the level of tolerance of uncertainty. Thirdly, social support can reduce human state of uncertainty and eventually neutralize the negative impact of stressful events. The human ability to «see and discover» the social support, be sensitive and attentive to the supporting acts of social environment has a close relationship with the ability to accept uncertainty and maintain stability in a state of discomfort if any.

  16. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  17. Being Social @ Work: Designing for Playfully Mediated Social Awareness in Work Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; van de Watering, M.R.; Eliens, A.P.W.; Eliëns, A.; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Venkatesh, A; Gonsalves, T; Monk, A; Buckner, K

    2007-01-01

    Awareness within work environments should not be seen limited to important work-related information, activities and relationships. Mediating somewhat casual and engaging encounters related to non-work issues could also lead to meaningful and pleasurable experiences. This paper explores a design

  18. Opinions of Pre-service Social Studies Teachers about Using Historical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı AVCI AKÇALI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to identify the knowledge, attitude and skill levels of pre-service social studies teachers about using historical environment in teaching. Based on this aim it can be included in the scope of the survey research. Participants of the research which was realized in 2015-2016 academic year were 75 senior grade pre-service teachers in the department of social studies teaching of a university from the north of Turkey. In the research, qualitative approach was followed in data collection. A questionnaire including open-ended questions and semi-structured interview technique were used. The data were analyzed according to the content analysis method. As the result of the study, it was identified that pre-service social studies teachers had knowledge to a certain extent about the definition of the historical environment, elements of it, educational attainments it might provide and the method and techniques which can be applied to use it. Moreover, they did not have enough knowledge about the nearby historical environment. Furthermore, it was propounded that attitude levels of the participants about using historical environment in social studies teaching were high whereas the skill levels were low.

  19. Differences in the Intensity and Duration of Adolescents' Sports and Exercise across Physical and Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Berrigan, David; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Perna, Frank; Graubard, Barry I.; Atienza, Audie A.

    2012-01-01

    We used data from the American Time Use Survey (years 2003-06) to analyze whether the intensity and duration of high school students' (ages 15-18 years) sports and exercise bouts differed across physical and social environments. Boys' sports and exercise bouts were more likely to reach a vigorous intensity when taking place at school and with…

  20. Pedagogical, Social and Technical Designs of a Blended Synchronous Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiyun; Huang, Changqin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a blended synchronous learning environment (BSLE) was designed from pedagogical, social and technical perspectives. It was created for a group of master's students to attend lessons in the classroom and at the same time allow a few of them to join the identical sessions using video conferencing from different sites. The purpose of…

  1. The importance of the social environment for physically active lifestyle: results from an international study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, T.; Rütten, A.; Nutbeam, D.; Bauman, A.; Kannas, L.; Abel, T.; Lüschen, G.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Vinck, J.; Zee, J. van der

    2001-01-01

    Physically active lifestyles are regularly associated with improved health and quality of life. Differences in lifestyles in society can partly be understood through the differences in the social and physical environment. This study examines the relationships between reported physical activity, and

  2. Long-term acceptance of social robots in domestic environments: Insights from a user's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, M.M.A.; Ben Allouch, Soumaya; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing mere presence of robots in everyday life does not automatically result in gradual acceptance of these systems by human users. Over the past years, we have conducted several studies with the goal to provide insight into the long-term process of social robots in domestic environments.

  3. Does the Social Working Environment Predict Beginning Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Feelings of Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Christelle; Dupriez, Vincent; Paquay, Leopold

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how the social working environment predicts beginning teachers' self-efficacy and feelings of depression. Two quantitative studies are presented. The results show that the goal structure of the school culture (mastery or performance orientation) predicts both outcomes. Frequent collaborative interactions with colleagues are related…

  4. Dynamic Scaffolding of Socially Regulated Learning in a Computer-Based Learning Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, I.; Roda, Claudia; van Boxtel, Carla A.M.; Sleegers, P.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the effects of dynamically scaffolding social regulation of middle school students working in a computer-based learning environment. Dyads in the scaffolding condition (N = 56) are supported with computer-generated scaffolds and students in the control condition (N =

  5. Female Arab Students' Perceptions of Social Networks as an English Language Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellili-Cherif, Maha

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate female Arab college students' use of and perceptions about social networking sites (SNSs) as an English language learning environment. A mixed methods approach was adopted for data collection and analysis. First, a questionnaire was used to explore the extent to which participants (n = 182) were…

  6. Cultivating Curiosity: Integrating Hybrid Teaching in Courses in Human Behavior in the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Keyes, Elizabeth; Schneider, Dana A.

    2013-01-01

    This study illustrates an experience of implementing a hybrid model for teaching human behavior in the social environment in an urban university setting. Developing a hybrid model in a BSW program arose out of a desire to reach students in a different way. Designed to promote curiosity and active learning, this particular hybrid model has students…

  7. Food, fat, family and friends : studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01


    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was

  8. Social Adjustment of College Freshmen: The Importance of Gender and Living Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enochs, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between living environment, gender and both overall adjustment to college and social adjustment in freshmen students was examined in this study. The College Adjustment Scales were administered to 511 freshmen students living in on-campus housing. There were 259 students living in Freshmen Year Experience (FYE) Halls verses 252…

  9. Is green space in the living environment associated with people's feelings of social safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Winsum-Westra, M. van; Verheij, R.A.; Vries, S. de; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. The authors investigate whether the percentage of green space in people's living environ- ment affects their feelings of social safety positively or negatively. More specifically they investigate the extent to which this relationship varies between urban and rural areas, between groups in

  10. Is green space in the living environment associated with people's feelings of social safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Winsum-Westra, M. van; Verheij, R.A.; Vries, S. de; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigate whether the percentage of green space in people’s living environment affects their feelings of social safety positively or negatively. More specifically they investigate the extent to which this relationship varies between urban and rural areas, between groups in the

  11. Theorising the Relationship between Older People and Their Immediate Social Living Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel, Tine; Verte, Dominique; De Donder, Liesbeth; De Witte, Nico; Dury, Sarah; Vanwing, Tom; Bolsenbroek, Anouk

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework for exploring the dynamics between older people and their immediate social living environment. After introducing a gerontological perspective that goes beyond "microfication," a literature review presents findings from studies that have explored the role of place and locality for older people. Next,…

  12. Unveiling Collaborative Group Identities in Social Synthetic Environments from Interaction Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado

    used to simulate aspects of real-life, yet by maintaining a customisable level of control of the phenomena under investigation. Examples of social synthetic environments are theoretical games and cooperative computer games. The proposed framework is composed of two pipelined modules. The first one...

  13. Discourses on the influence of the social environment in the drive towards a healthier lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siiger, Charlotte

    Research question: How do Danish middle-aged urban dwellers verbalize the influence of their social environment in the drive towards a healthier lifestyle? Data: 10 semi-structured, qualitative interviews; six men and five women with high blood pressure, overweight, signs of diabetes or high...

  14. The Performance Implications of Fit among Environment, Strategy, Structure, Control System and Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Fauzi

    2009-12-01

    domain will be contingent upon strategic behaviors, which are behaviors of members in an organization. The paper integrates the contextual variables including business environment, strategy, organization structure, and control system with corporate performance by using corporate social performance as moderating variable by means of a recent literatures study from strategic management and accounting field.

  15. Group Awareness of Social and Cognitive Behavior in a CSCL Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phielix, Chris; Prins, Frans; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Phielix, C., Prins, F. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Group awareness of social and cognitive behavior in a CSCL environment. In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.), Learning in the Disciplines: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS 2010): Volume 1 (pp.

  16. LumaFluid: a responsive environment to stimulate social interaction in public spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Gritti, T.; Van Beers, M.; Vermeulen, A.J.W.A.; Nab, B.; Thomassen, I.; Heijboer, M.; Suijkerbuijk, S.; Walmink, W.; Hendriks, M.

    2012-01-01

    LumaFluid is an interactive environment that explores new ways to stimulate emotional and social engagement through immersive light effects. A computer vision system detects and tracks persons present inthe LumaFluid square. Using this location information, colored spotlights highlight each person

  17. Studying social interactions through immersive virtual environment technology: Virtues, pitfalls, and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario eBombari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present review is to explain how Immersive Virtual Environment Technology (IVET can be used for the study of social interactions and how the use of virtual humans in immersive virtual environments can advance research and application in many different fields. Researchers studying individual differences in social interactions are typically interested in keeping the behavior and the appearance of the interaction partner constant across participants. With IVET researchers have full control over the interaction partners, can standardize them while still keeping the simulation realistic. Virtual simulations are valid: Growing evidence shows that indeed studies conducted with IVET can replicate some well-known findings of social psychology. Moreover, IVET allow researchers to subtly manipulate characteristics of the environment (e.g., visual cues to prime participants or of the social partner (e.g., his/her race to investigate their influences on participants' behavior and cognition. Furthermore, manipulations that would be difficult or impossible in real life (e.g., changing participants' height can be easily obtained with IVET. Beside the advantages for theoretical research, we explore the most recent training and clinical applications of IVET, its integration with other technologies (e.g., social sensing and future challenges for researchers (e.g., making the communication between virtual humans and participants smoother.

  18. Studying social interactions through immersive virtual environment technology: virtues, pitfalls, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombari, Dario; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Canadas, Elena; Bachmann, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present review is to explain how immersive virtual environment technology (IVET) can be used for the study of social interactions and how the use of virtual humans in immersive virtual environments can advance research and application in many different fields. Researchers studying individual differences in social interactions are typically interested in keeping the behavior and the appearance of the interaction partner constant across participants. With IVET researchers have full control over the interaction partners, can standardize them while still keeping the simulation realistic. Virtual simulations are valid: growing evidence shows that indeed studies conducted with IVET can replicate some well-known findings of social psychology. Moreover, IVET allows researchers to subtly manipulate characteristics of the environment (e.g., visual cues to prime participants) or of the social partner (e.g., his/her race) to investigate their influences on participants' behavior and cognition. Furthermore, manipulations that would be difficult or impossible in real life (e.g., changing participants' height) can be easily obtained with IVET. Beside the advantages for theoretical research, we explore the most recent training and clinical applications of IVET, its integration with other technologies (e.g., social sensing) and future challenges for researchers (e.g., making the communication between virtual humans and participants smoother).

  19. Exposition of Spontaneous Humor in Digital Environment Especially in Social Media After Social Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicabi Arslan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Humor, besides the fact that it is a funny, comic and extraordinary way to look to the social facts, it’s main character is criticism. Therefore it’s not a solo activity. Humor, not only lets us to look at the facts from another point of view, it also declines the pressure of the government and it enables the society’s perception to criticize the existing order and to protest it. Humor can be seen in various media channels (radio, TV, newspaper, magazine, social media etc. not only in Turkish society, but also in the other societies too. According to German political scientist and philosopher Hannah Arendt, “The biggest enemy of the authority is disobediency and the sharpest way to agitate it is to laugh”. Therefore, can we assume that  humor is a disobedience activity while it jeers with the authority? If it’s accepted as humor has an endless freedom area, then how the digital ambient creates a background for the social events which develops as a reflexion?

  20. Social housing, multi-ethnic environments and the training of social educators: combined anthropological and educational perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Virgilio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents part of a broader project that explores the role played by informal citizenship learning in social housing urban environments (SHe and the related educational challenges for social educators, NGO practitioners and also researchers. In this article, in particular, I focus on issues related with social educators’ and NGO practitioners’ professional training. The aim of the paper, in this perspective, is to offer some introductory theoretical and methodological remarks for the training of NGO practitioners working in SHe. The basis for this reflection is the idea of informal learning (Schugurensky, 2000, the concepts of learning for reflexive citizenship and learning for active citizenship (Johnston, 2005 and anthropology of citizenship (Ong, 1999, 2003. In the research process, we have intersected instruments and methodologies coming from the different fields of anthropology and educational sciences. Our hypothesis consists in considering the possibility that exploring the professional field of social educators in SHe with an ethnographic approach could contribute to improve reflexive attitudes of social educators and shape their educational attitudes.

  1. Association of Social Support and Family Environment with Cognitive Function in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Yang, Zhi-Kai; Sun, Xiu-Mei; Du, Yun; Song, Yi-Fan; Ren, Ye-Ping; Dong, Jie

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment (CI) is a common phenomenon and predictive of high mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study aimed to analyze the association of social support and family environment with cognitive function in PD patients. ♦ METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of PD patients from Peking University First Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. Global cognitive function was measured using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), executive function was measured by the A and B trail-making tests, and other cognitive functions were measured by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Social support was measured with the Social Support Scale developed by Xiaoshuiyuan and family environment was measured with the Chinese Version of the Family Environment Scale (FES-CV). ♦ RESULTS: The prevalence of CI and executive dysfunction among the 173 patients in the study was, respectively, 16.8% and 26.3%. Logistic regression found that higher global social support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09, 1.01 - 1.17, p = 0.027) and subjective social support predicted higher prevalence of CI (OR = 1.13, 1.02 - 1.25, p = 0.022), adjusting for covariates. Analyses of the FES-CV dimensions found that greater independence was significantly associated with better immediate memory and delayed memory. Moreover, higher scores on achievement orientation were significantly associated with poorer language skills. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that social support is negatively associated with the cognitive function of PD patients and that some dimensions of the family environment are significantly associated with several domains of cognitive function. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  2. The Impact of the Natural, Social, Built, and Policy Environments on Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Smith, Selina A

    The global burden of breast cancer in women is substantial and increasing. Efforts to address breast cancer have focused on primary prevention, reduction of modifiable risk factors, early detection, timely referral for appropriate treatment, and survivorship. Environmental and lifestyle factors that increase breast cancer risk include ionizing radiation, exogenous hormones, certain female reproductive factors, alcohol and other dietary factors, obesity, and physical inactivity. A variety of chemical exposures are purported to be associated with breast cancer. In this article, we summarize the influence of the natural, social, built, and policy environments on breast cancer incidence and cancer recurrence in women based upon bibliographic searches and relevant search terms. Despite a lack of conclusive evidence from epidemiologic studies, exposures to chemicals with estrogenic or other properties relevant to sex steroid activity could influence breast cancer risk if the exposures occur at critical life stages or in combination with exposure to other similar chemicals. Results from several studies support an association between shift work and disruption of the circadian rhythm with breast cancer risk. The social environment likely influences breast cancer risk through several mechanisms including social norms pertaining to breast feeding, age at first live birth, parity, use of oral contraceptives and replacement estrogens, diet, and consumption of alcohol. Social norms also influence body weight, obesity, and physical activity, which have an effect on risk of breast cancer incidence and recurrence. Obesity, which is influenced by the social, built, and policy environments, is a risk factor for the development of postmenopausal breast cancer and certain other cancer types. The natural, social, built, and policy environments affect breast cancer incidence and survival. Effective health care policies can encourage the provision of high-quality screening and treatment

  3. Investigation on future perspective of nuclear power generation. Countermeasures to global environment problems and role of stable energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikami, Yutaka

    1995-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with the long term energy demand and supply in the world, which was carried out by the Institute of Energy Economics Japan for the purpose of contributing to the deliberation of the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. This perspective of the demand and supply took the ultralong period up to 2100 as the object, and two points of the newest information on energy resources and the greenhouse effect problem due to carbon dioxide are included. The model used for the simulation was the modified Edmond Riley model. Energy consumption was estimated from that per one person and the population classified into nine districts. The assumed conditions for energy demand and supply are explained. The simulation of energy demand and supply was carried out for basic case in which the present state continues, carbon dioxide restriction case and restriction and plutonium utilization case. The results of the simulation on energy demand and supply, the effect to environment and the problems of resources are reported. The energy consumption in the world continues to increase hereafter centering around developing countries, and in 2100, the primary energy supply more than three times as much as that in 1990 becomes necessary. Unless the release of carbon dioxide is restricted, the resolution of environmental problems becomes difficult. Nuclear power generation is affected by uranium resource depletion around 2100, and early countermeasures are necessary. (K.I.)

  4. Family social environment in childhood and self-rated health in young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roustit Christelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family social support, as a form of social capital, contributes to social health disparities at different age of life. In a life-course epidemiological perspective, the aims of our study were to examine the association between self-reported family social environment during childhood and self-reported health in young adulthood and to assess the role of family functioning during childhood as a potential mediating factor in explaining the association between family breakup in childhood and self-reported health in young adulthood. Methods We analyzed data from the first wave of the Health, Inequalities and Social Ruptures Survey (SIRS, a longitudinal health and socio-epidemiological survey of a random sample of 3000 households initiated in the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. Sample-weighted logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the quality of family social environment in childhood and self-rated health (overall health, physical health and psychological well-being in young adults (n = 1006. We used structural equation model to explore the mediating role of the quality of family functioning in childhood in the association between family breakup in childhood and self-rated health in young adulthood. Results The multivariate results support an association between a negative family social environment in childhood and poor self-perceived health in adulthood. The association found between parental separation or divorce in childhood and poor self-perceived health in adulthood was mediated by parent-child relationships and by having witnessed interparental violence during childhood. Conclusion These results argue for interventions that enhance family cohesion, particularly after family disruptions during childhood, to promote health in young adulthood.

  5. The social dynamics of healthy food shopping and store choice in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannuscio, Carolyn C; Hillier, Amy; Karpyn, Allison; Glanz, Karen

    2014-12-01

    To respond to the high prevalence of obesity and its associated health consequences, recent food research and policy have focused on neighborhood food environments, especially the links between health and retail mix, proximity of food outlets, and types of foods available. In addition, the social environment exerts important influences on food-related behaviors, through mechanisms like role-modeling, social support, and social norms. This study examined the social dynamics of residents' health-related food-shopping behaviors in 2010-11 in urban Philadelphia, where we conducted 25 semi-structured resident interviews-the foundation for this paper-in addition to 514 structured interviews and a food environment audit. In interviews, participants demonstrated adaptability and resourcefulness in their food shopping; they chose to shop at stores that met a range of social needs. Those needs ranged from practical financial considerations, to fundamental issues of safety, to mundane concerns about convenience, and juggling multiple work and family responsibilities. The majority of participants were highly motivated to adapt their shopping patterns to accommodate personal financial constraints. In addition, they selectively shopped at stores frequented by people who shared their race/ethnicity, income and education, and they sought stores where they had positive interactions with personnel and proprietors. In deciding where to shop in this urban context, participants adapted their routines to avoid unsafe places and the threat of violence. Participants also discussed the importance of convenient stores that allowed for easy parking, accommodation of physical disabilities or special needs, and integration of food shopping into other daily activities like meeting children at school. Food research and policies should explicitly attend to the social dynamics that influence food-shopping behavior. In our social relationships, interactions, and responsibilities, there are

  6. The Value of the Model of a Socially Integral Teaching/Learning Environment in the Classroom from the Point of View of Learners Who Tend to Socially Withdraw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyburiene, Laima; Navickiene, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    The article gives a review of the investigations publicised in the scientific papers of various countries, which reveal the increase in social closure and analyse the problematic conception of social withdrawal; introduces the theoretical (ideal) model of a socially integral teaching/learning environment in the classroom; uncovers its impact on…

  7. Learning as You Journey: Anishinaabe Perception of Social-ecological Environments and Adaptive Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Davidson-Hunt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the linkages between social-ecological resilience and adaptive learning. We refer to adaptive learning as a method to capture the two-way relationship between people and their social-ecological environment. In this paper, we focus on traditional ecological knowledge. Research was undertaken with the Anishinaabe people of Iskatewizaagegan No. 39 Independent First Nation, in northwestern Ontario, Canada. The research was carried out over two field seasons, with verification workshops following each field season. The methodology was based on site visits and transects determined by the elders as appropriate to answer a specific question, find specific plants, or locate plant communities. During site visits and transect walks, research themes such as plant nomenclature, plant use, habitat descriptions, biogeophysical landscape vocabulary, and place names were discussed. Working with elders allowed us to record a rich set of vocabulary to describe the spatial characteristics of the biogeophysical landscape. However, elders also directed our attention to places they knew through personal experiences and journeys and remembered from stories and collective history. We documented elders' perceptions of the temporal dynamics of the landscape through discussion of disturbance events and cycles. Again, elders drew our attention to the ways in which time was marked by cultural references to seasons and moons. The social memory of landscape dynamics was documented as a combination of biogeophysical structures and processes, along with the stories by which Iskatewizaagegan people wrote their histories upon the land. Adaptive learning for social-ecological resilience, as suggested by this research, requires maintaining the web of relationships of people and places. Such relationships allow social memory to frame creativity, while allowing knowledge to evolve in the face of change. Social memory does not actually evolve directly out of

  8. In-situ unsaturated zone stable water isotope (2H and 18O) measurements in semi-arid environments using tunable off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaj, M.; Beyer, M.; Koeniger, P.; Wanke, H.; Hamutoko, J.; Himmelsbach, T.

    2015-06-01

    Stable isotopes (deuterium, 2H, and oxygen-18, 18O) of soil pore water were measured directly in the field using tunable off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and commercially available soil gas probes in a semi-arid region of the Cuvelai-Etosha-Basin, Namibia. High spatial and temporal resolution was achieved in the study area with reasonable accuracy and measurements were in agreement with laboratory-based cryogenic vacuum extraction and subsequent cavity ring down laser spectroscopic isotope analysis (CRDS). After drift correction of the isotope data, mean precision for over 140 measurements of two consecutive field campaigns in June and November 2014 were 1.8 and 0.46 ‰ for δ2H and 18O, respectively. Mean Accuracy using quality check standards was 5 and 0.3 ‰ for δ2H and δ18O, respectively. Results support the applicability of an in-situ measurement system for the determination of stable isotopes in soil pore water. Spatio-temporal variability could be deduced with the observed data in an extremely dry evaporation dominated environment which was sporadically affected by intermittent rainfall.

  9. Engagement in social media environments for individuals with who use augmentative and alternative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jessica

    2016-10-14

    Communicative interactions, despite the mode (e.g., face-to-face, online) rely on the communication skills of each individual participating. Some individuals have significant speech and language impairments and require the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) (i.e., signs, speech generating devices) to maximize their communication participation across a variety of on and offline contexts. Use of social media has brought about changes to communication environments, contributing new contexts for engagement. To provide a framework for considering application of engagement theory for interventions around social media use by individuals who use AAC. The author has applied examples from qualitative social media and AAC research to a framework of engagement. No formal data collection was used. Social media use has become a conventional form of communication. Yet recognition of the value of social media (and other electronic modalities) for individuals who use AAC has not been fully translated into practice. The examples used illustrated how the proposed framework can assist in clinical practice and future research directions. Engagement, including the proposed framework for considerations of social media engagement activities, can provide a systematic way to approach social media use for individuals who use AAC.

  10. The influence of social environment on the smoking status of women employed in health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikšić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a high prevalence of smoking among women, especially among health care professionals. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the social environment of women employed in health institutions in relation to the cigarettes smoking habits.Methods: The study included 477 women employed in hospitals, outpatient and public health institutions in Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina. We used a modifi ed questionnaire assessing smoking habits of medical staff in European hospitalsResults: The results showed that 50% of women are smokers, with the highest incidence among nurses (58.1% and administrative staff (55.6%. The social environment is characterized by a high incidence of colleagues (60.1% and friends who are smokers (54.0% at the workplace and in the family (p<0.005. One third of women (27.8%, mainly non-smokers, states that the work environment supports employees smoking (p=0.003.Conclusion: Workplace and social environment support smoking as an acceptable cultural habit and is contributing to increasing rates of smoking among women.

  11. How Urban Youth Perceive Relationships Among School Environments, Social Networks, Self-Concept, and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Perez-Aguilar, Giselle; Kim, Grace; Wong, Mitchell D; Chung, Paul J

    2017-03-01

    Studies suggest adolescent substance use aligns with academic and behavioral self-concept (whether teens think of themselves as good or bad students and as rule followers or rule breakers) as well as peer and adult social networks. Schools are an important context in which self-concept and social networks develop, but it remains unclear how school environments might be leveraged to promote healthy development and prevent substance use. We sought to describe how youth perceive the relationships among school environments, adolescent self-concept, social networks, and substance use. Semistructured interviews with 32 low-income minority youth (aged 17-22 years) who participated in a prior study, explored self-concept development, school environments, social networks, and substance use decisions. Recruitment was stratified by whether, during high school, they had healthy or unhealthy self-concept profiles and had engaged in or abstained from substance use. Youth described feeling labeled by peers and teachers and how these labels became incorporated into their self-concept. Teachers who made students feel noticed (eg, by learning students' names) and had high academic expectations reinforced healthy self-concepts. Academic tracking, extracurricular activities, and school norms determined potential friendship networks, grouping students either with well-behaving or misbehaving peers. Youth described peer groups, combined with their self-concept, shaping their substance use decisions. Affirming healthy aspects of their self-concept at key risk behavior decision points helped youth avoid substance use in the face of peer pressure. Youth narratives suggest school environments shape adolescent self-concept and adult and peer social networks, all of which impact substance use. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The interplay of physical and social wellbeing in older adults: investigating the relationship between physical training and social interactions with virtual social environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Khaghani Far

    2015-11-01

    study also confirms that a virtual gym service is effective for supporting individually tailored home-based physical training for older adults. The study also confirms that social facilitation tools motivate users to train together in a virtual fitness environment.Discussion. The study confirms that Gymcentral increases the participation of older adults in physical training compare to a similar version of the application without social and persuasive features. In addition, a significant increase in the co-presence of the Social group indicates that social presence motivates the participants to join training sessions at the same time with the other participants. These results are encouraging, as they motivate further research into using home-based training programs as an opportunity to stay physically and socially active, especially for those who for various reasons are bound to stay at home.

  13. The challenge of social networking in the field of environment and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Hazel Peter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fields of environment and health are both interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary, and until recently had little engagement in social networking designed to cross disciplinary boundaries. The EU FP6 project HENVINET aimed to establish integrated social network and networking facilities for multiple stakeholders in environment and health. The underlying assumption is that increased social networking across disciplines and sectors will enhance the quality of both problem knowledge and problem solving, by facilitating interactions. Inter- and trans-disciplinary networks are considered useful for this purpose. This does not mean that such networks are easily organized, as openness to such cooperation and exchange is often difficult to ascertain. Methods Different methods may enhance network building. Using a mixed method approach, a diversity of actions were used in order to investigate the main research question: which kind of social networking activities and structures can best support the objective of enhanced inter- and trans-disciplinary cooperation and exchange in the fields of environment and health. HENVINET applied interviews, a role playing session, a personal response system, a stakeholder workshop and a social networking portal as part of the process of building an interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary network. Results The interviews provided support for the specification of requirements for an interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary network. The role playing session, the personal response system and the stakeholder workshop were assessed as useful tools in forming such network, by increasing the awareness by different disciplines of other’s positions. The social networking portal was particularly useful in delivering knowledge, but the role of the scientist in social networking is not yet clear. Conclusions The main challenge in the field of environment and health is not so much a lack of scientific

  14. Social network forensics: using commercial software in a university forensics lab environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkin, Pavel; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this article is to give a practical overview of forensic investigation of social networks cases using certain commercial software packages in a university forensics lab environment. Students have to learn the usefulness of forensic procedures to ensure evidence collection, evidence preservation, forensic analysis, and reporting. It is demonstrated how to investigate important data from social network users. Different scenarios of investigations are presented that are well-suited for forensics lab work in university. In particular, we focus on the new version of Belkasoft Evidence Center and compare it with other well-known tools regarding functionality, usability and capabilities.

  15. The challenge of social networking in the field of environment and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hazel, Peter; Keune, Hans; Randall, Scott; Yang, Aileen; Ludlow, David; Bartonova, Alena

    2012-06-28

    The fields of environment and health are both interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary, and until recently had little engagement in social networking designed to cross disciplinary boundaries. The EU FP6 project HENVINET aimed to establish integrated social network and networking facilities for multiple stakeholders in environment and health. The underlying assumption is that increased social networking across disciplines and sectors will enhance the quality of both problem knowledge and problem solving, by facilitating interactions. Inter- and trans-disciplinary networks are considered useful for this purpose. This does not mean that such networks are easily organized, as openness to such cooperation and exchange is often difficult to ascertain. Different methods may enhance network building. Using a mixed method approach, a diversity of actions were used in order to investigate the main research question: which kind of social networking activities and structures can best support the objective of enhanced inter- and trans-disciplinary cooperation and exchange in the fields of environment and health. HENVINET applied interviews, a role playing session, a personal response system, a stakeholder workshop and a social networking portal as part of the process of building an interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary network. The interviews provided support for the specification of requirements for an interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary network. The role playing session, the personal response system and the stakeholder workshop were assessed as useful tools in forming such network, by increasing the awareness by different disciplines of other's positions. The social networking portal was particularly useful in delivering knowledge, but the role of the scientist in social networking is not yet clear. The main challenge in the field of environment and health is not so much a lack of scientific problem knowledge, but rather the ability to effectively communicate, share

  16. The Interaction of the Individual's Social Environment, Attention and Interest, and Public Affairs Media Use on Political Knowledge Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettey, Gary R.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the interplay between an individual's social environment and the individual's own motivations for political knowledge, such as political interest and attention to public affairs media. Finds that the perception of one's social environment made a significant contribution to the respondent's level of political knowledge. (MS)

  17. Identification of stable quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fiber quality traits across multiple environments in Gossypium hirsutum recombinant inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshed, Muhammad; Jia, Fei; Gong, Juwu; Palanga, Koffi Kibalou; Shi, Yuzhen; Li, Junwen; Shang, Haihong; Liu, Aiying; Chen, Tingting; Zhang, Zhen; Cai, Juan; Ge, Qun; Liu, Zhi; Lu, Quanwei; Deng, Xiaoying; Tan, Yunna; Or Rashid, Harun; Sarfraz, Zareen; Hassan, Murtaza; Gong, Wankui; Yuan, Youlu

    2016-03-08

    The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that are stable and consistent across multiple environments and populations plays an essential role in marker-assisted selection (MAS). In the present study, we used 28,861 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, which included 12,560 Gossypium raimondii (D genome) sequence-based SSR markers to identify polymorphism between two upland cotton strains 0-153 and sGK9708. A total of 851 polymorphic primers were finally selected and used to genotype 196 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between 0 and 153 and sGK9708 and used to construct a linkage map. The RIL population was evaluated for fiber quality traits in six locations in China for five years. Stable QTLs identified in this intraspecific cross could be used in future cotton breeding program and with fewer obstacles. The map covered a distance of 4,110 cM, which represents about 93.2 % of the upland cotton genome, and with an average distance of 5.2 cM between adjacent markers. We identified 165 QTLs for fiber quality traits, of which 47 QTLs were determined to be stable across multiple environments. Most of these QTLs aggregated into clusters with two or more traits. A total of 30 QTL clusters were identified which consisted of 103 QTLs. Sixteen clusters in the At sub-genome comprised 44 QTLs, whereas 14 clusters in the Dt sub-genome that included 59 QTLs for fiber quality were identified. Four chromosomes, including chromosome 4 (c4), c7, c14, and c25 were rich in clusters harboring 5, 4, 5, and 6 clusters respectively. A meta-analysis was performed using Biomercator V4.2 to integrate QTLs from 11 environmental datasets on the RIL populations of the above mentioned parents and previous QTL reports. Among the 165 identified QTLs, 90 were identified as common QTLs, whereas the remaining 75 QTLs were determined to be novel QTLs. The broad sense heritability estimates of fiber quality traits were high for fiber length (0.93), fiber strength (0

  18. From Brain-Environment Connections to Temporal Dynamics and Social Interaction: Principles of Human Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta

    2017-06-07

    Experimental data about brain function accumulate faster than does our understanding of how the brain works. To tackle some general principles at the grain level of behavior, I start from the omnipresent brain-environment connection that forces regularities of the physical world to shape the brain. Based on top-down processing, added by sparse sensory information, people are able to form individual "caricature worlds," which are similar enough to be shared among other people and which allow quick and purposeful reactions to abrupt changes. Temporal dynamics and social interaction in natural environments serve as further essential organizing principles of human brain function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adult Learners in a Novel Environment Use Prestige-Biased Social Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Atkisson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Social learning (learning from others is evolutionarily adaptive under a wide range of conditions and is a long-standing area of interest across the social and biological sciences. One social-learning mechanism derived from cultural evolutionary theory is prestige bias, which allows a learner in a novel environment to quickly and inexpensively gather information as to the potentially best teachers, thus maximizing his or her chances of acquiring adaptive behavior. Learners provide deference to high-status individuals in order to ingratiate themselves with, and gain extended exposure to, that individual. We examined prestige-biased social transmission in a laboratory experiment in which participants designed arrowheads and attempted to maximize hunting success, measured in caloric return. Our main findings are that (1 participants preferentially learned from prestigious models (defined as those models at whom others spent longer times looking, and (2 prestige information and success-related information were used to the same degree, even though the former was less useful in this experiment than the latter. We also found that (3 participants were most likely to use social learning over individual (asocial learning when they were performing poorly, in line with previous experiments, and (4 prestige information was not used more often following environmental shifts, contrary to predictions. These results support previous discussions of the key role that prestige-biased transmission plays in social learning.

  20. Adult learners in a novel environment use prestige-biased social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkisson, Curtis; O'Brien, Michael J; Mesoudi, Alex

    2012-08-13

    Social learning (learning from others) is evolutionarily adaptive under a wide range of conditions and is a long-standing area of interest across the social and biological sciences. One social-learning mechanism derived from cultural evolutionary theory is prestige bias, which allows a learner in a novel environment to quickly and inexpensively gather information as to the potentially best teachers, thus maximizing his or her chances of acquiring adaptive behavior. Learners provide deference to high-status individuals in order to ingratiate themselves with, and gain extended exposure to, that individual. We examined prestige-biased social transmission in a laboratory experiment in which participants designed arrowheads and attempted to maximize hunting success, measured in caloric return. Our main findings are that (1) participants preferentially learned from prestigious models (defined as those models at whom others spent longer times looking), and (2) prestige information and success-related information were used to the same degree, even though the former was less useful in this experiment than the latter. We also found that (3) participants were most likely to use social learning over individual (asocial) learning when they were performing poorly, in line with previous experiments, and (4) prestige information was not used more often following environmental shifts, contrary to predictions.  These results support previous discussions of the key role that prestige-biased transmission plays in social learning.

  1. THE ROLE OF TEENAGEERS’ LIFE EXPERIENCE ACTUALIZATION IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE SAFE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Selivanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the problem of social security and emphasizes the urgent need for developing the general theory of social security, its concepts and models designed to meet the requirements of time and specify different aspects and levels of socialization process – federal, regional and municipal. The author regards actualization of teenagers’ life experience as a promising direction for exploring the opportunities for creating the safe social environment.The individual socio-psychological functioning is delineated as a multilevel correlation of internal and external human resources used for resolving difficult situations. According to the author, the prompt mobilization of internal resources of a teenager, training the ability to apply the external resources for solving the problem and developing the safe behavior can improve the quality of life in the modern society. Along with the risks of modern information society, the author emphasizes a number of dangerous social trends: disruption of social institutions, ifantilization of education, distortion of historical cultural channels, and devaluation of the collectivism idea.In author’s opinion, teenagers should get some special knowledge and individual training to develop the skills of safe behavior in actual situations; and the prospects of the modern society considerably depend on the above procedures. 

  2. "Adventures of Harvey" - Use, Acceptance of and Relationship Building with a Social Robot in a Domestic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamer, Tineke; Ben Allouch, Somaya; Heylen, Dirk

    The goal of this study was to improve our understanding about how older people use social robots in domestic environments and in particular whether and how they build relationships with these robots. Three participants interacted with the Nabaztag, a social robot, for a 10-day period in their own home environment. Some of our findings are (1) utilitarian-, hedonic-, and social factors are important when accepting social robots, (2) utilitarian-, hedonic- and social factors are important for building a relationship with the Nabaztag, (3) there is a relationship between name-calling and relationship building and (4) there is a relationship between using non-verbal- and verbal communication and relationship building.

  3. Social maturity of the identity of seniors as condition of successful adaptation to the modern sociocultural environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov A.K.

    2017-01-01

    this article describes social maturity of the identity of seniors as a condition of successful adaptation to the modern sociocultural environment, marks out some criteria of definition of socially mature personality, gives definition to the concept «social competence of the personality».

  4. Explaining the role of personal, social and physical environment factors on employed women's physical activity: a structural equation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtari Aghdam, Fatemeh; Baghiani Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Dabagh Nikookheslat, Saed; Noorizadeh, Roghaieh

    2013-05-13

    PA is a multi-factorial behavior that is affected by interpersonal, intra personal, environmental and social factors. In this study we applied explanatory model to determine the total, indirect and direct impact of physical environment, personal factors and social support on PA among employed women. This study was a correlational cross-sectional study which was conducted to model total, indirect and direct impact of environmental, psychological and social factors on PA. A total of 200 women were chosen from Tabriz University by using convenience sampling method. Data about demographic characteristics, psychological variables, social and physical environment were gathered by using self-reported questionnaire and also the PA was measured by using the International PA Questionnaire and pedometer. personal factors, physical and social environment, showed direct effects on PA. Social factors could be seen to have indirect effects on PA through their influence on personal factors such as pros, cons and self-efficacy; also physical environment had indirect effects on PA through social environment. The total effects of physical and social environment on PA type were respectively 0.17, 0.16 on walking, 0.05, 0.07 on moderate activity and 0.15, 0.18 on vigorous activity. Findings from this study indicated that social factors had indirect effects on walking, moderate and vigorous activity, especially through the effects on these factors of self-efficacy, physical environment, pros and cons, and the interactive role of individual, environmental and social impacts on PA. The current study identifies that psychological, physical and social factors could be shown to have direct and indirect influences on all forms of activity. The barriers of PA were the most predictor of this behavior, and based on results, it can be concluded that decreasing the barriers along with improving social and physical environment can lead to increasing PA and health promotion.

  5. The Psycho-social Context of Panic Disorder (Barriers in Communication with the Client's Immediate Environment)

    OpenAIRE

    Svitáková, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The thesis entitled Psychosocial Context of the Panic Disorder; Barriers in Communication with the Client's Immediate Environment traces the influence of panic disorder on the social aspects of the client's life. The thesis attempts to define the term panic disorder, traces selected treatment possibilities, characterizes the panic attack and describes the impact of the panic disorder on the behaviour and mentality of the patient. Further, it focuses on the communication of non-psychiatric med...

  6. Influence of social environment on children with diagnosis ADHD - significance of foreknowledge of parents and teachers

    OpenAIRE

    KRATOCHVÍLOVÁ, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Social Environment Influence on Children with ADHD Diagnosis (Importance of Awareness among Parents and Teachers) ADHD syndrome diagnostics in children represents a demanding trial for parents, teachers, peers and the society in general nowadays. And for a child with ADHD syndrome as well of course, as it causes a lot of problems with inclusion into the society. It is important for parents, teachers but for the society in general to be sufficiently informed on ADHD syndrome and to be...

  7. Sensitivity of Students to the Natural Environment, Animals, Social Problems and Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray KURTDEDE FİDAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine the sensitivity levels of fourth-grade students to the natural environment, animals, social concerns and cultural heritage. Besides, it has been investigated whether some personal characteristics of the students have differentiating effect on the views related to the sensitivity to the natural environment, animals, social concerns and cultural heritage. The participants of the study were a total of 447 fourth-grade students attending fifteen different public schools in Afyonkarahisar province in the school year of 2014-2015. The data of the study were collected through the administration of the sensitivity value scale developed by the author of the current the study. The scale consisted of four dimensions and included fifty-eight items. In regard to content and face validity, the scale was reviewed by the field specialists. For construct validity first and second order confirmatory factor analysis was employed. In addition, the Cronbach alpha coefficient was found for the reliability of the scale. The findings of the study showed that the participants had sensitivity to the natural environment, to animals, to social concerns and to cultural heritage. It was also found that the gender of the students, residence, the educational background and occupation of parents and the frequency of follow up news had statistically significant effects on the sensitivity levels of the participants.

  8. Sensitivity of students to the natural environment, animals, social problems and cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Kurtdede Fidan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine the sensitivity levels of fourth-grade students to the natural environment, animals, social concerns and cultural heritage. Besides, it has been investigated whether some personal characteristics of the students have differentiating effect on the views related to the sensitivity to the natural environment, animals, social concerns and cultural heritage. The participants of the study were a total of 447 fourth-grade students attending fifteen different public schools in Afyonkarahisar province in the school year of 2014-2015. The data of the study were collected through the administration of the sensitivity value scale developed by the author of the current the study. The scale consisted of four dimensions and included fifty-eight items. In regard to content and face validity, the scale was reviewed by the field specialists. For construct validity first and second order confirmatory factor analysis was employed. In addition, the Cronbach alpha coefficient was found for the reliability of the scale. The findings of the study showed that the participants had sensitivity to the natural environment, to animals, to social concerns and to cultural heritage. It was also found that the gender of the students, residence, the educational background and occupation of parents and the frequency of follow up news had statistically significant effects on the sensitivity levels of the participants.

  9. Carry-over effects of the social environment on future divorce probability in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culina, Antica; Hinde, Camilla A; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-10-22

    Initial mate choice and re-mating strategies (infidelity and divorce) influence individual fitness. Both of these should be influenced by the social environment, which determines the number and availability of potential partners. While most studies looking at this relationship take a population-level approach, individual-level responses to variation in the social environment remain largely unstudied. Here, we explore carry-over effects on future mating decisions of the social environment in which the initial mating decision occurred. Using detailed data on the winter social networks of great tits, we tested whether the probability of subsequent divorce, a year later, could be predicted by measures of the social environment at the time of pairing. We found that males that had a lower proportion of female associates, and whose partner ranked lower among these, as well as inexperienced breeders, were more likely to divorce after breeding. We found no evidence that a female's social environment influenced the probability of divorce. Our findings highlight the importance of the social environment that individuals experience during initial pair formation on later pairing outcomes, and demonstrate that such effects can be delayed. Exploring these extended effects of the social environment can yield valuable insights into processes and selective pressures acting upon the mating strategies that individuals adopt. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Socialization and School Environment in an Inclusive Learning Community in the Province of Talca , Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marí­a Teresa Muñoz Quezada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is concern for promoting healthy and inclusive coexistence in schools. The aim of this research was to assess the perception of socialization and school environment in an inclusive school in the Province of Talca, Chile. We conducted a cross-sectional case study in a sample of 180 students, 193 parents and 21 teachers. A questionnaire evaluating school life was applied to students, parents and teachers and another assessing the school's social climate and bullying was applied to students in the last two grades. The results indicate that students perceive a positive social climate with a low risk of bullying. Issues of conflict were students’ respect for the rules, being on friendly terms with the teachers, and disciplinary actions on the part of the families. We observed that the inclusive learning system contributes to school life and a positive climate and interactions.

  11. Engaging technology-resistant elderly people: Empirical evidence from an ICT-enabled social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Filomena; Cornacchia, Michele; Sapio, Bartolomeo; Nicolò, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative investigation on user reactions, opinions, and sentiments about a TV-based technological solution developed within the EasyReach Project of the EU Ambient Assisted Living Joint Program to promote social interaction of less educated elderly people, that is, those individuals who, because of poor scholarization, low income, and, possibly, linguistic barriers, still find it difficult to use computers in order to improve their socialization. Experimental data were collected by extensive trials involving 40 real-end users. A methodology called "scenario engagement" was applied to get participants engaged in a live demonstration with the mediation of a facilitator who assisted elderly people to interact with the system. Results point out that the system can be effectively employed to foster social interaction, particularly when it is introduced in a collective use environment (e.g., Senior Center). Although the focus of the investigation was on information and communication technology-enabled social environments, the end users themselves strongly suggested to include in future system releases extra functions considered as essential opportunities for their potential digital lives: that is, medical or health services and bridges toward public administration.

  12. Standards of socially responsible management – Impact on sustainable development of the organization, the social and natural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Peršič

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to outline the results of a study on the importance of the introduction/implementation of standards of socially responsible management and their impact on the business performance of organizations as well as to confirm the correlations with the sustainable development of the broader social and natural environment. The research included a population of medium-sized and large organizations (over 50 employees in the fields of marketing services in the Republic of Slovenia. Research results confirmed a direct link of understanding the management standards in organizations with a larger number of employees and the achieved higher income from operations. Research participants are familiar with the requirements of the Quality Management System Standard ISO 9001 and the Environmental Management System Standard ISO 14001, which is particularly significant for older business executives with many years of work experience in the company they run. The hypothesis that the implementation of the principles of social responsibility has a positive impact on sustainable development and the financial indicators of the organization – higher profits, business growth, productivity and cost-effectiveness in operations – has been confirmed.

  13. Influence of social-economic institutions on innovative environment development: Russian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistyakova Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important questions for innovative environment development is social-economic institutions, which help to decrease transaction cost and risks in small and medium size enterprises (SMEs. Basic institutional framework is represented by a set of specific institutions, which form the innovation environment of the region and have an impact on the activities of the innovation system actors. The proposed set of institutions is divided into two groups: those institutions that directly affect the development of innovative environment and institutions, which influence is indirect, but nevertheless important. The result of analysis of institutions development of Tomsk region and five more innovation-oriented areas of the Russian Federation is given in the article.

  14. The Glaucous-Winged Gull (Larus glaucescens) as an Indicator of Chemical Contaminants in the Canadian Pacific Marine Environment: Evidence from Stable Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M L; Elliott, J E; Williams, T D

    2017-08-01

    The Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) has been selected by Environment Canada as a marine indicator species for long-term monitoring of persistent contaminants in the Canadian Pacific. However, the indicator value of this species depends on its trophic level and proportion of marine prey in its diet. Eggs, used as the monitoring medium, are produced entirely from maternal resources and knowledge of adult diet before and during egg production is critical to interpreting contaminant levels. Due to a lack of recent and reliable dietary ecology work, we examined the diet of breeding Glaucous-winged gulls through carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) stable isotope analysis at three colonies on the Pacific coast. Near-shore marine prey, occupying a high trophic level (δ 15 N), composed a predominant component of all Glaucous-winged gull diet. Adult diet composition from colonies in the Salish Sea was more varied than the west coast of Vancouver Island, reflecting the opportunistic foraging nature of this species in areas where the abundance of marine prey is known to fluctuate. Compared with incubating adults, pre-laying adults had a significantly lower trophic level that may reflect the need to consume marine invertebrates to acquire specific nutrients necessary for egg production. Interannual variation in both trophic level and prey source (δ 13 C) in egg and chick tissues indicates the need to pair ongoing contaminant monitoring with stable isotope analysis. The predominantly marine diet and relatively high trophic level of this gull supports its use as an indicator of marine pollution on the Pacific coast.

  15. Enhancing the Resilience of Human-Environment Systems: a Social Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stokols

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilience studies build on the notion that phenomena in the real world should be understood as dynamic social-ecological systems. However, the scholarly community may not be fully aware that social ecology, as a conceptual framework, has a long intellectual history, nor fully cognizant of its foundational theory. In this article, we trace the intellectual roots and core principles of social ecology and demonstrate how these principles enable a broader conceptualization of resilience than may be found in much of the literature. We then illustrate how the resulting notion of resilience as transactional process and multi-capital formation affords new perspectives on diverse phenomena such as global financial crises and adaptation to environmental stresses to communities and ecosystems. A social-ecological analysis of resilience enables the study of people-environment transactions across varying dimensions, time periods, and scales. Furthermore, in its openness to experiential knowledge and action research, the social ecology framework coheres well with participative-collaborative modes of inquiry, which traverse institutional, epistemological, and scale-related boundaries.

  16. Understanding social collaboration between actors and technology in an automated and digitised deep mining environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, M-A; Johansson, J; Johansson, B; Abrahamsson, L

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop knowledge and learning on the best way to automate organisational activities in deep mines that could lead to the creation of harmony between the human, technical and the social system, towards increased productivity. The findings showed that though the introduction of high-level technological tools in the work environment disrupted the social relations developed over time amongst the employees in most situations, the technological tools themselves became substitute social collaborative partners to the employees. It is concluded that, in developing a digitised mining production system, knowledge of the social collaboration between the humans (miners) and the technology they use for their work must be developed. By implication, knowledge of the human's subject-oriented and object-oriented activities should be considered as an important integral resource for developing a better technological, organisational and human interactive subsystem when designing the intelligent automation and digitisation systems for deep mines. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study focused on understanding the social collaboration between humans and the technologies they use to work in underground mines. The learning provides an added knowledge in designing technologies and work organisations that could better enhance the human-technology interactive and collaborative system in the automation and digitisation of underground mines.

  17. Social environment influences performance in a cognitive task in natural variants of the foraging gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Nancy R; Reaume, Christopher J; Moreno, Celine; Burns, James G; Sokolowski, Marla B; Mery, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, natural genetic variation in the foraging gene affects the foraging behaviour of larval and adult flies, larval reward learning, adult visual learning, and adult aversive training tasks. Sitters (for(s)) are more sedentary and aggregate within food patches whereas rovers (for(R)) have greater movement within and between food patches, suggesting that these natural variants are likely to experience different social environments. We hypothesized that social context would differentially influence rover and sitter behaviour in a cognitive task. We measured adult rover and sitter performance in a classical olfactory training test in groups and alone. All flies were reared in groups, but fly training and testing were done alone and in groups. Sitters trained and tested in a group had significantly higher learning performances compared to sitters trained and tested alone. Rovers performed similarly when trained and tested alone and in a group. In other words, rovers learning ability is independent of group training and testing. This suggests that sitters may be more sensitive to the social context than rovers. These differences in learning performance can be altered by pharmacological manipulations of PKG activity levels, the foraging (for) gene's gene product. Learning and memory is also affected by the type of social interaction (being in a group of the same strain or in a group of a different strain) in rovers, but not in sitters. These results suggest that for mediates social learning and memory in D. melanogaster.

  18. POSSIBILITY TO CREATE A SOCIAL ENTERPRISE IN TODAY’S WORKING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BRATU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to debate the possibility of creating a social enterprise in a certain region of Romania. Design/methodology/approach – In the first section there is a theoretical approach of some aspects of societal change processes and seven trends which indicate the change processes within the working environment. From the same point of view, there are also mentioned different types of entrepreneurial activities. The paper ends with a case study which is dealing with the study of the potential to create social enterprises to support rural communities in Bistrita Nasaud. Findings – The data provides an array of social problems that are facing the people of this region: the lack of jobs, of qualifications required by the market, poverty, social exclusion of vulnerable groups. Practical implications/originality/value – The presentation of a case study specific to social entrepreneurship within a larger theoretical framework triggers a complex approach in compliance with the specified theoretical aspects.

  19. Understanding environment-influenced swarm behavior from a social force perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Lu, D.; Jiang, Y.; Lee, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, J.

    2018-02-01

    The relevant research on swarm behavior has focused on the facts that when individuals agree with other members in the system globally consistent behaviors are generated and that individual decisions are completely dominated by other members. In fact, when individuals generate their own behavior strategies, they tend to consider not only the influences of other members but also autonomically consider their current environment. For example, in the social foraging of flocks, the behavior strategy of each individual animal is influenced by the food distribution, and individual movement patterns are characterized by a highly efficient search strategy-Lévy walks. To investigate this, this paper proposes using an environment-driven social force perspective to explore the Lévy walks of individuals in a group in patchy food environments. This model adopts the concept of social force to quantify the social effects and the interactions between individuals and food. The coordination between forces is a key in the formation of individual behavior strategies. Our simulation results show a power-law frequency distribution for agent flight lengths that conforms to Lévy walks and verifies the hypothesis of a relationship between food density and the Lévy index. In our model, the flock still exhibits collective consistency and cohesion and yields a high value for the order parameter and population density when moving between food patches. In addition, our model explains the intraspecific cooperation and competition that occurs during foraging as proposed in related work. The simulation also validates the impact of two inducements for individual behaviors compared with several benchmark models.

  20. Sources, migration and transformation of antimony contamination in the water environment of Xikuangshan, China: Evidence from geochemical and stable isotope (S, Sr) signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Bing [Geological Survey, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Lumo Rd 388, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Lumo Rd 388, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Zhou, Jianwei, E-mail: jw.zhou@cug.edu.cn [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Lumo Rd 388, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Zhou, Aiguo; Liu, Cunfu [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Lumo Rd 388, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Xie, Lina [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Lumo Rd 388, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Lumo Rd 388, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2016-11-01

    The Xikuangshan (XKS) mine in central China is the largest antimony (Sb) mine in the world. The mining activity has seriously contaminated the waters in the area. To determine the sources, migration and transformation of Sb contamination, 32 samples from groundwater (aquifer water), surface water and mine water were collected for water chemistry, trace element and S{sub SO4} and Sr stable isotope analyses. The results showed that the groundwater and surface water were in an oxidized environment. The S{sub SO4} and Sr isotope compositions in the water indicated that dissolved Sb and SO{sub 4}{sup 2} originated from sulfide mineral (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) oxidation, whereas radiogenic Sr may have been sourced from silicified limestone and stibnite in the Shetianqiao aquifer. Furthermore, a positive correlation between δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 87}Sr values revealed that the Sr, S and Sb in the waters had a common contamination source, i.e., silicified limestone and stibnite, whereas the Sr, S and Sb in rock and ore were sourced from Proterozoic basement clastics. The analysis also indicated that the isotope composition of dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2} {sup −} had been influenced by slight bacterial SO{sub 4} reduction in the Magunao aquifer. Mining or rock collapse may have caused Shetianqiao aquifer water to contaminate the Magunao aquifer water via mixing. This study has demonstrated that the stable isotopes of {sup 34}S{sub SO4} and {sup 87}Sr, combined with hydrochemical methods, are effective in tracking the sources, migration and transformation of Sb contamination. - Highlights: • Mining activities at XKS mine have caused serious water contamination. • The characteristics of Sb contamination in water environment are still unclear. • Combine S isotopes of sulfate and Sr isotopes with hydrochemical methods. • Sr, S, and Sb in natural water had a common source: silicified limestone and stibnite. • Shetianqiao aquifer water contaminated the Magunao

  1. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  2. Effect of temperature and social environment on worker size in the ant Temnothorax nylanderi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molet, Mathieu; Péronnet, Romain; Couette, Sébastien; Canovas, Christophe; Doums, Claudie

    2017-07-01

    Warm temperatures decrease insect developmental time and body size. Social life could buffer external environmental variations, especially in large social groups, either through behavioral regulation and compensation or through specific nest architecture. Mean worker size and distribution of worker sizes within colonies are important parameters affecting colony productivity as worker size is linked to division of labor in insect societies. In this paper, we investigate the effect of stressful warm temperatures and the role of social environment (colony size and size of nestmate workers) on the mean size and size variation of laboratory-born workers in the small European ant Temnothorax nylanderi. To do so, we reared field-collected colonies under medium or warm temperature treatments after having marked the field-born workers and removed the brood except for 30 first instar larvae. Warm temperature resulted in the production of fewer workers and a higher adult mortality, confirming that this regime was stressful for the ants. T. nylanderi ants followed the temperature size rule observed in insects, with a decreased developmental time and mean size under warm condition. Social environment appeared to play an important role as we observed that (i) larger colonies buffered the effect of temperature better than smaller ones (ii) colonies with larger workers produced larger workers whatever the rearing temperature and (iii) the coefficient of variation of worker size was similar in the field and under medium laboratory temperature. This suggests that worker size variation is not primarily due to seasonal environmental fluctuations in the field. Finally, we observed a higher coefficient of variation of worker size under warm temperature. We propose that this results from a disruption of social regulation, i.e. the control of nestmate workers over developing larvae and adult worker size, under stressful conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Peers and Social Environment on Adolescent Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Hussey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We use data from Add Health to estimate models of peer effects and effects of social environment on adolescent psychological well-being. Past literature has focused mostly on the role of peers on adolescents, notably on schooling (GPA, high school graduation, etc. and risk behavioral (smoking, drinking, drug use, etc. outcomes. Our study’s core innovation lies in the conceptual testing of the hypothesis that an enlarged adolescent social environment encompasses support from peers, school, parents, and the neighborhood. In this paper, we isolate the effects of each of these groups on adolescent psychological well-being and find significant effects of support from schools and parents. However, peer effects are insignificant except for the baseline Ordinary Least Squares (OLS model. Separate models for males and females and different age groups are also estimated and similar results are found, although the effects are greatest during late adolescence. Given the likely endogeneity of peer group formation, we also use an instrumental variables (IV approach. The IV results indicate that peer effects are not statistically significant, but otherwise mimic OLS estimates, supporting the presence of a multi-faceted social network influencing adolescent health. These results, reinforced by further statistical testing, suggest that past work limiting influence on adolescent behavior or outcome to only the peers tends to be incomplete.

  4. THE PRINCIPALS’ ROLE IN DEVELOPING SOCIAL CAPITAL FORTHE PROMOTION OF HEALTHY SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siphokazi Kwatubana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schoolleaders’ individual and collective efforts are essential in the promotion ofhealthy school environments. In this respect, the building of social capital is veryimportant for a school’s improvement. The aim of this paper was to determine therole principals played in developing social capital to enhance healthy schoolenvironments. The study was conducted in two districts, one in the Gauteng andthe other in the Free State provinces of South Africa. It was undertaken as aqualitative research study that involved seven participants. Data collectionstrategies employed included narratives, individual interviews and field notes. Thestudy was considered important in its application of the social capital theory todetermine the role of principals in solicitingeconomic resources for their schools.From the findings, the main challenge that was common in all the participatingschools was the lack of resources for the Promotion ofHealthySchoolEnvironments. It was found that some principals were able to identify andapproach companies that could assist their schools but were then unable to buildtrusting relationships. In view of the findings, this research recommendstrainingto equip principals with skills to enable them tomobilise resources by takingadvantage ofsocial capitalin their communities.

  5. Indoor environment and children's health: recent developments in chemical, biological, physical and social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Pierre; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Glorennec, Philippe; Deguen, Séverine; Goeury, Christophe; Le Bot, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Much research is being carried out into indoor exposure to harmful agents. This review focused on the impact on children's health, taking a broad approach to the indoor environment and including chemical, microbial, physical and social aspects. Papers published from 2006 onwards were reviewed, with regards to scientific context. Most of publications dealt with chemical exposure. Apart from the ongoing issue of combustion by-products, most of these papers concerned semi volatile organic compounds (such as phthalates). These may be associated with neurotoxic, reprotoxic or respiratory effects and may, therefore, be of particular interest so far as children are concerned. In a lesser extent, volatile organic compounds (such as aldehydes) that have mainly respiratory effects are still studied. Assessing exposure to metals is still of concern, with increasing interest in bioaccessibility. Most of the papers on microbial exposure focused on respiratory tract infections, especially asthma linked to allergens and bio-aerosols. Physical exposure includes noise and electromagnetic fields, and articles dealt with the auditory and non auditory effects of noise. Articles on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields mainly concerned questions about non-thermal effects and papers on extremely low-frequency magnetic fields focused on the characterization of exposure. The impact of the indoor environment on children's health cannot be assessed merely by considering the effect of these different types of exposure: this review highlights new findings and also discusses the interactions between agents in indoor environments and also with social aspects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Stable association of a Drosophila-derived microbiota with its animal partner and the nutritional environment throughout a fly population's life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téfit, Mélisandre A; Gillet, Benjamin; Joncour, Pauline; Hughes, Sandrine; Leulier, François

    2017-09-12

    In the past years, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been extensively used to study the relationship between animals and their associated microbes. Compared to the one of wild populations, the microbiota of laboratory-reared flies is less diverse, and comprises fewer bacterial taxa; nevertheless, the main commensal bacteria found in fly microbiota always belong to the Acetobacteraceae and Lactobacillaceae families. The bacterial communities associated with the fly are environmentally acquired, and the partners engage in a perpetual re-association process. Adult flies constantly ingest and excrete microbes from and onto their feeding substrate, which are then transmitted to the next generation developing within this shared habitat. We wanted to analyze the potential changes in the bacterial community during its reciprocal transfer between the two compartments of the niche (i.e. the fly and the diet). To address this question, we used a diverse, wild-derived microbial community and analyzed its relationship with the fly population and the nutritive substrate in a given habitat. Here we show that the community was overall well maintained upon transmission to a new niche, to a new fly population and to their progeny, illustrating the stable association of a Drosophila-derived microbiota with its fly partner and the nutritional environment. These results highlight the preponderant role of the nutritional substrate in the dynamics of Drosophila/microbiota interactions, and the need to fully integrate this variable when performing such studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SOCIAL WELL-BEING OF STAVROPOL IN EMPLOYMENT: THE RUSSIAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Dmitrievna Gritsenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the results of monitoring the social well-being of the labour community in the Russian environment. The level of stability in the region is largely determined by the social well-being of the population. In this context the most important aspect is a population estimation of the labor market and employment conditions. To this end there has been carried out questionnaire in 2006, 2009 and 2012, the sample - quota, the sample size - more than 1,000 people. The analysis of empirical material used the research “Monitoring the quality of life of the population of the Stavropol Territory” (2014. Comparative analysis of the data allows to suggest a narrowing of the labor market being accompanied by the outflow of labor, especially the young, and by the expansion of the share of pensioners. Detected trend is typical for economically underdeveloped areas. This creates a negative social well-being. However, the natural conditions in the Stavropol region are optimal for the development of agriculture and processing industry, which is especially important in the conditions of implementation of the policy of import substitution. The results confirm the low technological level of production in the economic region, the economic potential is insignificant. Social well-being of the labor community territory corresponds to national trends subsidized regions. This situation leads to the preservation of the investment unattractive edge, social and economic instability of the region, low labor activity of Stavropol region citizens. In the analyzed context must be entered in the policy of the regional authorities innovative mechanisms for socio-economic development of the region, must make the transition from the conservative version of social and economic development of the region in the moderately optimistic.

  8. Using social media to facilitate knowledge transfer in complex engineering environments: a primer for educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glen; Salomone, Sonia

    2013-03-01

    While highly cohesive groups are potentially advantageous they are also often correlated with the emergence of knowledge and information silos based around those same functional or occupational clusters. Consequently, an essential challenge for engineering organisations wishing to overcome informational silos is to implement mechanisms that facilitate, encourage and sustain interactions between otherwise disconnected groups. This paper acts as a primer for those seeking to gain an understanding of the design, functionality and utility of a suite of software tools generically termed social media technologies in the context of optimising the management of tacit engineering knowledge. Underpinned by knowledge management theory and using detailed case examples, this paper explores how social media technologies achieve such goals, allowing for the transfer of knowledge by tapping into the tacit and explicit knowledge of disparate groups in complex engineering environments.

  9. Linking academic social environments, ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Marie; Adams, Gerald R

    2008-01-01

    This study used Structural Equation Modeling to test an Eriksonian conceptual model linking academic social environments (relationships with faculty and fellow students), ego-identity formation, ego virtues, and academic success. Participants included 765 first-year students at a university in southern Ontario, Canada. Results indicated that supportive relationships with faculty was directly related to higher average grades and perceived academic ability, whereas positive relationships with fellow students was indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues. Positive ego-identity formation (identity achievement) was also indirectly related to academic success through ego virtues.

  10. The meaning of labour pain: how the social environment and other contextual factors shape women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Laura Y; Jones, Lester E; Davey, Mary-Ann; Small, Rhonda

    2017-05-30

    The majority of women experience pain during labour and childbirth, however not all women experience it in the same way. In order to develop a more complete understanding of labour pain, this study aimed to examine women's experiences within the perspective of modern pain science. A more complete understanding of this phenomenon can then guide the development of interventions to enhance women's experiences and potentially reduce their need for pharmacological intervention. A qualitative study was conducted using phenomenology as the theoretical framework. Data were collected from 21 nulliparous women, birthing at one of two large maternity services, through face-to-face interviews and written questionnaires. Data were analysed using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach. The data from this study suggest that a determining factor of a woman's experience of pain during labour is the meaning she ascribes to it. When women interpret the pain as productive and purposeful, it is associated with positive cognitions and emotions, and they are more likely to feel they can cope. Alternatively, when women interpret the pain as threatening, it is associated with negative cognitions and emotions and they tend to feel they need help from external methods of pain control. The social environment seems particularly important in shaping a woman's pain experience by influencing her interpretation of the context of the pain, and in doing so can change its meaning. The context and social environment are dynamic and can also change throughout labour. A determining factor in a woman's experience of pain during labour is its perceived meaning which can then influence how the woman responds to the pain. The meaning of the pain is shaped by the social environment and other contextual factors within which it is experienced. Focussed promotion of labour pain as a productive and purposeful pain and efforts to empower women to utilise their inner capacity to cope, as well as

  11. The Volatility of the ‘Other’: Identity Formation and Social Interaction in Diasporic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gayer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The construction of an ‘other’ and the confrontation with this intimate enemy lies at the heart of identity politics. In diasporic environments, these constructions of the ‘other’ have two major attributes: their multiplicity and their volatility. Ethnic entrepreneurs have a wide range of options to propose an ‘enemy’ to their audience, hence their multiplicity. At the same time, social and political evolutions in the migrants’ country of residence or in their home state make such politics of otherness highly contingent. The study of ethnic relations in diasporic environments is thus a difficult task and very little empirical material is presently available on this critical issue. This paper is an attempt to fill this gap, through an exploration of patterns of conflict and cooperation amongst South Asian residents of Southall, in West London.

  12. Testosterone Administration Moderates Effect of Social Environment on Trust in Women Depending on Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskens, Vincent; Raub, Werner; van Miltenburg, Nynke; Montoya, Estrella R; van Honk, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Animal research has established that effects of hormones on social behaviour depend on characteristics of both individual and environment. Insight from research on humans into this interdependence is limited, though. Specifically, hardly any prior testosterone experiments in humans scrutinized the

  13. Social media indicators of the food environment and state health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q C; Meng, H; Li, D; Kath, S; McCullough, M; Paul, D; Kanokvimankul, P; Nguyen, T X; Li, F

    2017-07-01

    Contextual factors can influence health through exposures to health-promoting and risk-inducing factors. The aim of this study was to (1) build, from geotagged Twitter and Yelp data, a national food environment database and (2) to test associations between state food environment indicators and health outcomes. This is a cross-sectional study based upon secondary analyses of publicly available data. Using Twitter's Streaming Application Programming Interface (API), we collected and processed 4,041,521 food-related, geotagged tweets between April 2015 and March 2016. Using Yelp's Search API, we collected data on 505,554 unique food-related businesses. In linear regression models, we examined associations between food environment characteristics and state-level health outcomes, controlling for state-level differences in age, percent non-Hispanic white, and median household income. A one standard deviation increase in caloric density of food tweets was related to higher all-cause mortality (+46.50 per 100,000), diabetes (+0.75%), obesity (+1.78%), high cholesterol (+1.40%), and fair/poor self-rated health (2.01%). More burger Yelp listings were related to higher prevalence of diabetes (+0.55%), obesity (1.35%), and fair/poor self-rated health (1.12%). More alcohol tweets and Yelp bars and pub listings were related to higher state-level binge drinking and heavy drinking, but lower mortality and lower percent reporting fair/poor self-rated health. Supplemental analyses with county-level social media indicators and county health outcomes resulted in finding similar but slightly attenuated associations compared to those found at the state level. Social media can be utilized to create indicators of the food environment that are associated with area-level mortality, health behaviors, and chronic conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Poor health and loneliness in later life: the role of depressive symptoms, social resources, and rural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burholt, Vanessa; Scharf, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    We draw on cognitive discrepancy theory to hypothesize and test a pathway from poor health to loneliness in later life. We hypothesize that poor health will have a negative influence on social participation and social resources, and these factors will mediate between health and loneliness. We hypothesize that rural environments will amplify any difficulties associated with social participation or accessing social resources and that depression will moderate how intensely people react to levels of social contact and support. We conceptualize a mediation model and a moderated-mediation model. Nationally representative data on older people living in the Republic of Ireland are used to validate the hypothesized pathways. In the mediation model, health has a significant indirect effect on loneliness through the mediating variables social resources and social participation. In the moderated-mediation model, rurality moderates the pathway between health and social resources but not social participation. Depressive symptoms moderate the effect of social resources on loneliness but not social participation. The results provide further credence to cognitive discrepancy theory, suggesting that depressive symptoms influence cognitive processes, interfering with judgments about the adequacy of social interaction. The theory is extended by demonstrating the impact of the environment on loneliness.

  15. Poor Health and Loneliness in Later Life: The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Social Resources, and Rural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We draw on cognitive discrepancy theory to hypothesize and test a pathway from poor health to loneliness in later life. We hypothesize that poor health will have a negative influence on social participation and social resources, and these factors will mediate between health and loneliness. We hypothesize that rural environments will amplify any difficulties associated with social participation or accessing social resources and that depression will moderate how intensely people react to levels of social contact and support. Methods. We conceptualize a mediation model and a moderated-mediation model. Nationally representative data on older people living in the Republic of Ireland are used to validate the hypothesized pathways. Results. In the mediation model, health has a significant indirect effect on loneliness through the mediating variables social resources and social participation. In the moderated-mediation model, rurality moderates the pathway between health and social resources but not social participation. Depressive symptoms moderate the effect of social resources on loneliness but not social participation. Discussion. The results provide further credence to cognitive discrepancy theory, suggesting that depressive symptoms influence cognitive processes, interfering with judgments about the adequacy of social interaction. The theory is extended by demonstrating the impact of the environment on loneliness. PMID:24326076

  16. [Perception of their social environment and their future in institutionalized school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remetić, Mirjana; Tahirović, Husref; Loga, Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Family home and institutions for children without parental care represent the rearing-environments where, from the early years, whole human development goes on. It's known today that despite the recognized importance of inborn traits, the influence of child-rearing environments dominates current models of development. The aim of the study was to investigate the satisfaction with the rearing-environment of school-aged institutionalized children, their dominating feeling and if institutionalization affects life optimism for now and for the future. The study was conducted in two institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina who share the same care model imitating the traditional Bosnian families where the older children care for the younger siblings. We took as a sample 30 institutionalized children aged 8-12, and for the control group 60 children matched by age and sex. Parents, children and teachers who gave their informed consent answered the questionnaires. It was confirmed that children without parental care are vulnerable group and in a great risk who need urgent help of professional multidisciplinary team of their close and broad environment. Lack of social support cause the withdrawing and suffering and can lead soon or later to problematic behaviour.

  17. State Authenticity as Fit to Environment: The Implications of Social Identity for Fit, Authenticity, and Self-Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmader, Toni; Sedikides, Constantine

    2017-10-01

    People seek out situations that "fit," but the concept of fit is not well understood. We introduce State Authenticity as Fit to the Environment (SAFE), a conceptual framework for understanding how social identities motivate the situations that people approach or avoid. Drawing from but expanding the authenticity literature, we first outline three types of person-environment fit: self-concept fit, goal fit, and social fit. Each type of fit, we argue, facilitates cognitive fluency, motivational fluency, and social fluency that promote state authenticity and drive approach or avoidance behaviors. Using this model, we assert that contexts subtly signal social identities in ways that implicate each type of fit, eliciting state authenticity for advantaged groups but state inauthenticity for disadvantaged groups. Given that people strive to be authentic, these processes cascade down to self-segregation among social groups, reinforcing social inequalities. We conclude by mapping out directions for research on relevant mechanisms and boundary conditions.

  18. Socialization Environments of Chinese and Euro-American Middle-Class Babies: Parenting Behaviors, Verbal Discourses and Ethnotheories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi; Abels, Monika; Borke, Jorn; Lamm, Bettina; Su, Yanjie; Wang, Yifang; Lo, Wingshan

    2007-01-01

    Children's socialization environments reflect cultural models of parenting. In particular, Euro-American and Chinese families have been described as following different socialization scripts. The present study assesses parenting behaviors as well as parenting ethnotheories with respect to three-month-old babies in middle-class families in Los…

  19. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlesia Mathis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01. Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005 and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001. Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  20. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel

    2015-12-22

    By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  1. Social environment and asthma: associations with crime and No Child Left Behind programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankardass, Ketan; Jerrett, Michael; Milam, Joel; Richardson, Jean; Berhane, Kiros; McConnell, Rob

    2011-10-01

    The relationship between asthma and socio-economic status remains unclear. The authors investigated how neighbourhood, school and community social environments were associated with incident asthma in Southern California schoolchildren. New-onset asthma was measured over 3 years of follow-up in the Children's Health Study cohort. Multilevel random-effects models assessed associations between social environments and asthma, adjusted for individual risk factors. At baseline, subjects resided in 274 census tracts (ie, neighbourhoods) and attended kindergarten or first grade in one of 45 schools distributed in 13 communities throughout Southern California. Neighbourhoods and communities were characterised by measures of deprivation, income inequality and racial segregation. Communities were further described by crime rates. Information on schools included whether a school received funding related to the Title 1 No Child Left Behind programme, which aims to reduce academic underachievement in disadvantaged populations. Increased risk for asthma was observed in subjects attending schools receiving Title I funds compared with those from schools without funding (adjusted HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.58), and residing in communities with higher rates of larceny crime (adjusted HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.02 across the range of 1827 incidents per 100,000 population). Risk for asthma was higher in areas of low socio-economic status, possibly due to unmeasured risk factors or chronic stress.

  2. ALTERNATION PEDAGOGY AND SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENT ON TEACHERS AND STUDENTS OF RURAL FAMILY HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edival Sebastião Teixeira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is one of the results of a wider research with aimed understanding the relationship between the field education, from the perspective of the alternation pedagogy and sustainable development of family farming. Given the relevance of environmental issues in agriculture, one of the research focus was the investigation of the environment social representations of the teachers and students of rural family houses in the Southwest region of Paraná. The data were collected through the use of a free recall instrument, based on the central core theory of the social representations. For quantitative analysis we used the usual procedures of the theory in question, while the qualitative data were analyzed using the content analysis technique. In this research were identified significant similarities in the representations of the two groups, suggesting the appropriation of speeches and practices conveyed in rural family houses by the students. Highlights the centrality of elements related to the water, the preservation and the degradation, suggesting that teachers and students are aware of the importance of preserving the natural resources for agriculture. On the other hand, the human element seems distant from its environment representations, or at least is not regarded with the same importance given to natural elements.

  3. Factors Affecting Online Impulse Buying: Evidence from Chinese Social Commerce Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Akram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available First, the purpose of this study is to examine the impact of situational variables, scarcity and serendipity, on online impulse buying (OIB in Chinese social commerce (SC environment. Second, the study further assesses the moderating role of five dimensions of hedonic shopping value. Data were gathered from 671 online shoppers who come from two metropolitan cities of China, Beijing, and Shanghai. Structure equation modeling utilized was generated by AMOS 23 version to test the study hypotheses. The results confirm that situational factors positively influence the online impulse buying among Chinese online shoppers in SC environment. Four dimensions of hedonic shopping value (social shopping, relaxation shopping, adventure shopping and idea shopping positively moderate the relationship between serendipity and OIB; value shopping is insignificant with moderation effect. The finding is helpful to the online retailers and SC web developers by recommending them to take the scarcity and serendipity in their consideration. These factors have the potential to motivate the consumers to initiate the hedonic shopping aptitude to urge to buy impulsively. Unlike the previous work which remained unsuccessful in incorporating all factors into one study, this study has incorporated irrational and unplanned consumption along with rational and planned one in the same research.

  4. Early social environment affects the endogenous oxytocin system: a review and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eAlves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous oxytocin plays an important role in a wide range of human functions including birth, milk ejection during lactation and facilitation of social interaction. There is increasing evidence that both variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR and concentrations of oxytocin are associated with differences in these functions. The causes for the differences that have been observed in tonic and stimulated oxytocin release remain unclear. Previous reviews have suggested that across the life course, these differences may be due to individual factors, e.g. genetic variation (of the OXTR, age or sex, or be the result of early environmental influences such as social experiences, stress or trauma partly by inducing epigenetic changes. This review has three aims. First, we briefly discuss the endogenous oxytocin system, including physiology, development, individual differences and function. Secondly, current models describing the relationship between the early life environment and the development of the oxytocin system in humans and animals are discussed. Finally, we describe research designs that can be used to investigate the effects of the early environment on the oxytocin system, identifying specific areas of research that need further attention.

  5. The Power of Specialized Educational Environments in the Development of Giftedness: The Need for Research on Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    The paper argues that educators of the gifted have overlooked important evidence on the power of special environments because of our habit of considering cognitive outcomes and an outsider view of evidence as the standard for judging the benefits of special environments. The author proposes that social context be used as a construct to help…

  6. An Analysis of Density and Degree-Centrality According to the Social Networking Structure Formed in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Esin; Usluel, Yasemin Koçak

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the communication structure in an educational online learning environment using social network analysis (SNA). The communication structure was examined with respect to time, and instructor's participation. The course was implemented using ELGG, a network learning environment, blended with face-to-face sessions over a…

  7. Can the Home Environment Promote Resilience for Children Born Very Preterm in the Context of Social and Medical Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Inder, Terrie E.; Lee, Katherine J.; Northam, Elisabeth A.; Doyle, Lex W.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between the home environment and early developmental outcomes were examined in 166 children born very preterm in one tertiary maternity hospital to explore whether a more optimal home environment could promote resilience. In particular, we explored whether this effect was apparent over and above social risk and children's biological…

  8. Thinking the World, Practicing the Social Environment: Ethnographies and Reflections from an Anthropology of Territorialities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nates Cruz, Beatriz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article will anthropologically present and analyze the configurations and the forms taken by the definition and location of the world and the social environment as philosophical postulates, and as physical and geographical objectivations among different cultures: the natives and Yanaconas of the Colombian Massif, the “paisas” of the Central Colombian Andes, and the southern France and northern Spain inhabitants in their relationship with immigrants of northern Europe. Even though there is a cultural, physical and social distance, the contents will frequently have relational postures.

    Este artículo mostrará y analizará desde una visión antropológica la configuración y las formas que toman la definición y ubicación del mundo y el entorno, tanto como posturas filosóficas, que como objetivaciones físicas y geográficas entre culturas diferentes: los indígenas y yanaconas del Macizo Colombiano, los llamados “paisas” de los Andes centrales de Colombia y los habitantes del sur de Francia y norte de España en su relación con los inmigrantes del norte de Europa. Aunque haya distancia cultural, física y social, los contenidos tendrán a menudo posturas relacionales.

  9. Reports of workers: perceptions of physical and social aspects of the organizational environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Manso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The working world is a sphere of life that most people at some point in life you willexperience. Thus, it becomes essential to know and explore the views of workersabout their experiences and issues related to welfare and health. This study objective of this study is to identify and analyze the perceptions of workers about the physicaland social environment. Research participants were 12 subjects who became ill on the job and have been removed or needed psychological help from organizations of different segments. After approval of the research project by the Ethics Research was conducted to collect data through a script of semi-structured interview about personal, professional, social worker and perceptions about what the work represents in your life. The responses were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The accounts of the participants indicated the need for relief in relation to work on aspects of work flow and division of tasks with lower load. Other things that annoy workers refer to social relations, especially complaints of leadership posture in which they feel somewhat devalued. This research contributes to the expansion of knowledge about the subject and the need to encourage more investment in the area, to enable greater well-being of workers in general, particularly the bio psychosocial aspects.

  10. Tweeting nano: how public discourses about nanotechnology develop in social media environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, Kristin K., E-mail: kkrunge@wisc.edu; Yeo, Sara K.; Cacciatore, Michael; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Brossard, Dominique [University of Wisconsin, Department of Life Sciences Communication (United States); Xenos, Michael [University of Wisconsin, Department of Communication Arts (United States); Anderson, Ashley; Choi, Doo-hun; Kim, Jiyoun; Li Nan; Liang Xuan; Stubbings, Maria; Su, Leona Yi-Fan [University of Wisconsin, Department of Life Sciences Communication (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The growing popularity of social media as a channel for distributing and debating scientific information raises questions about the types of discourse that surround emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, in online environments, as well as the different forms of information that audiences encounter when they use these online tools of information sharing. This study maps the landscape surrounding social media traffic about nanotechnology. Specifically, we use computational linguistic software to analyze a census of all English-language nanotechnology-related tweets expressing opinions posted on Twitter between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Results show that 55 % of tweets expressed certainty and 45 % expressed uncertainty. Twenty-seven percent of tweets expressed optimistic outlooks, 32 % expressed neutral outlooks and 41 % expressed pessimistic outlooks. Tweets were mapped by U.S. state, and our data show that tweets are more likely to originate from states with a federally funded National Nanotechnology Initiative center or network. The trend toward certainty in opinion coupled with the distinct geographic origins of much of the social media traffic on Twitter for nanotechnology-related opinion has significant implications for understanding how key online influencers are debating and positioning the issue of nanotechnology for lay and policy audiences.

  11. Social Responsibility of Directive – Teaching Personnel in the Strengthening the Community Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilú del Valle Parra Rojas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at socially committing the directive – teaching personnel in the strengthening of the community environment in “National Educational Unit Heroe Nigale” from Valmore Rodriguez municipality in Zulia state. To do this, a revision of the documents related to the theoretical trend on Responsibility and Social Commitment was made. For the development of this study, a participatory action-research was carried out, based on Elliont model (2000, the investigation was conducted with the directive-teaching personnel as well as parents and guardians. The information was obtained through interviews, field record, and focus group. The transformational action was made with the application of action plans that allowed to accomplish pertinent results to commit, socially and responsibly, all performers of the educational process and thus accomplish the quality of education required by the People’s Ministry for Education. On the other hand, we can conclude that both, the director and the teacher, are the ones committed to the Venezuelan education, they’re the ones who project to the community the development of a society, forming citizens for a country, capable of being, learning, living and coexisting with others.

  12. Tweeting nano: how public discourses about nanotechnology develop in social media environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, Kristin K.; Yeo, Sara K.; Cacciatore, Michael; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Brossard, Dominique; Xenos, Michael; Anderson, Ashley; Choi, Doo-hun; Kim, Jiyoun; Li Nan; Liang Xuan; Stubbings, Maria; Su, Leona Yi-Fan

    2013-01-01

    The growing popularity of social media as a channel for distributing and debating scientific information raises questions about the types of discourse that surround emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, in online environments, as well as the different forms of information that audiences encounter when they use these online tools of information sharing. This study maps the landscape surrounding social media traffic about nanotechnology. Specifically, we use computational linguistic software to analyze a census of all English-language nanotechnology-related tweets expressing opinions posted on Twitter between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Results show that 55 % of tweets expressed certainty and 45 % expressed uncertainty. Twenty-seven percent of tweets expressed optimistic outlooks, 32 % expressed neutral outlooks and 41 % expressed pessimistic outlooks. Tweets were mapped by U.S. state, and our data show that tweets are more likely to originate from states with a federally funded National Nanotechnology Initiative center or network. The trend toward certainty in opinion coupled with the distinct geographic origins of much of the social media traffic on Twitter for nanotechnology-related opinion has significant implications for understanding how key online influencers are debating and positioning the issue of nanotechnology for lay and policy audiences.

  13. Areva, Chalon/St-Marcel site, Environment, social and societal report for 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    After a brief indication of Areva's activities and a map locating Areva's implantations, and the distribution of turnover and personnel in the different continents, a brief recall of safety commitments, and a presentation of the activity of the Reactors and Services Business Group (turnover, personnel, number of reactors in charge), this report briefly presents the different AREVA sites in Burgundy, and more precisely the Chalon/St-Marcel site which comprises a technical centre and a plant of production of heavy components. The activities of the technical centre concern welding technology, nuclear fusion, corrosion and chemistry, fluid and structure mechanics, and technologies related to the development of new energies and to the environment. Fields of intervention and clients are evoked. The activity of the plant of production of heavy components (vapor generators, pressurizers, vessels, etc.) and some characteristics of these components are presented. The environmental aspect is then addressed: evolution of resource consumption (gas, water, electricity, paper), and of releases (greenhouse gases, used waters, waste management). The social aspect comprises social relationships, health (involved actors, prevention, safety, evolution of labour accidents), ability and job management (training, career management, education). The societal commitments have been acknowledged by several labels related to social inclusion and local activities, support of sporting and cultural activities

  14. Parental Perceptions of the Social Environment Are Inversely Related to Constraint of Adolescents’ Neighborhood Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Kepper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study examined relationships between the neighborhood social environment (parental perceived collective efficacy (PCE, constrained behaviors (e.g., avoidance or defensive behaviors and adolescent offspring neighborhood physical activity in low- versus high-incivility neighborhoods. Methods: Adolescents (n = 71; 11–18 years (14.2, SD ± 1.6; male = 37 (52%; non-white = 24 (33.8%; low-income = 20 (29%; overweight/obese = 40 (56% and their parents/guardians enrolled in the Molecular and Social Determinants of Obesity in Developing Youth study were included in the current study. Questionnaires measured parents’/guardians’ PCE, constrained outdoor play practices and offspring neighborhood physical activity. Systematic social observation performed at the parcel-level using Google Street View assessed neighborhood incivilities. t-tests and chi-square tests determined differences by incivilities. Multilevel regression models examined relationships between PCE and: (1 constrained behaviors; and (2 neighborhood physical activity. The Hayes (2013 macro determined the mediating role of constrained behaviors. Results: Parents who had higher PCE reported lower levels of avoidance (p = 0.04 and defensive (p = 0.05 behaviors. However, demographic variables (i.e., gender, race and annual household income limited these results. The direct relationship between PCE and parent-reported neighborhood physical activity was statistically significant in high-incivility neighborhoods only. Neither avoidance nor defensive behavior mediated the relationship between PCE and neighborhood physical activity. Conclusions: PCE influences parenting behaviors related to youth physical activity. Community-based programs that seek to facilitate social cohesion and control may be needed to increase adolescents’ physical activity.

  15. Social and cultural environment factors influencing physical activity among african-american adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Thind, Herpreet; Godsey, Emily

    2015-05-01

    African-American youth are at high risk for physical inactivity. This study explored social and cultural environment facilitators of physical activity among 12- to 14-year-old African-American adolescents living in a metropolitan area in the Southeast. Youth (n = 51; 45% male) participated in brainstorming focus groups responding to the prompt, "What about your family, friends, and community, encourages you to be physically active?" In a second meeting, participants (n = 56; 37.5% male) sorted statements (n = 84) based on similarity in meaning and rated statements on relative importance. Statement groups and ratings were entered into Concept Systems software where multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to create graphical representation of ideas. Finally, researchers named clusters according to the gestalt of grouped statements. The total sample included 28.9% of youth with household incomes ≤$30,000 (area median income = $30,701), 29% who perceived themselves as overweight, and 14.5% who reported being active for 60+ minutes everyday. Nine clusters, in rank order, emerged as follows: access/availability of physical activity resources; family and friend support; physical activity with friends; physical activity with family members; inspiration to/from others; parental reinforcement; opportunities in daily routine; pressure from social networks; and seeing consequences of activity/inactivity. Themes analyzed by gender were very similar (r = .90); however, "pressure from social networks" was more important for girls than boys (r = .10). Clear patterns of social and cultural facilitators of physical activity are perceived by African-American adolescents. Interventions targeting this group may benefit by incorporating these themes. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Influence of home nurture environment on language development and social emotion in children with developmental language disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Kai; Liu, Gui-Hua; Qian, Qin-Fang; Ge, Pin; Xie, Yan-Qin; Yang, Min-Yan; Wang, Zhang-Qiong; Ou, Ping

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the influence of home nurture environment on language development and social emotion in children with developmental language disorder (DLD). The 1-3 Years Child Home Nurture Environment Scale, Gesell Developmental Scale, and Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment Scale were used for the evaluation of 125 children with DLD. A total of 130 children with normal language development matched for age and sex were enrolled as control group. Compared with the control group, the DLD group had a significantly higher proportion of children in a bad home nurture environment and significantly lower scores of all domains of home nurture environment (Penvironment score was positively correlated with the level of language development (r=0.536, Penvironment had direct influence on language development in children with DLD and affected their language development via the mediating effect of social emotion. Home nurture environment influences language development and social emotion in children with DLD, and social emotion has a partial mediating effect between home nurture environment and language development.

  17. Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    biodiversity. Consequently, the major environmental challenges facing us in the 21st century include: global climate change , energy, population and food...technological prowess, and security interests. Challenges Global Climate Change – Evidence shows that our environment and the global climate ... urbanization will continue to pressure the regional environment . Although most countries have environmental protection ministries or agencies, a lack of

  18. Social interaction in austim in learning virtual environment / Interação social no autismo em ambientes digitais de aprendizagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Maria Passerino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to discuss the development of social interactions in virtual environments, specially considering the autism. The literature review is based on Sociohistorical Theory and main theoretical works about this condition. We start from a wide discussion about social interaction, its development and relation to autism characteristics, considering that the concept of intentional communication is fundamental to the analysis of social interaction of autistic subjects in virtual environments. Furthermore, we present and discuss the data obtained from a case of study carried out with four subjects that suffer from different levels of autism. The study was developed as a two years of research applying several virtual environments. We also discuss the main results of this research.

  19. Impact of rural urban migration on physical and social environment: The case of Dhaka city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momtaz Jahan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rural urban migration is the principle component of rapid and unplanned growth of towns and cities in the developing countries. Gross disparities in socio-economic opportunity between urban and rural areas and frequent natural disasters in some regions encourage large flow of migrants from rural Bangladesh to the large cities. For various reasons Dhaka is an attractive destination for the rural migrants. Migration to Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is the focus of this article which identifies the factors contributing to the migration process. The impact of migration is diverse both at the urban destination and at the rural origin. At both ends there are economic, demographic, environmental and socio-cultural impacts. This paper focuses on the urban end. It examines the overall conditions of the underprivileged, poor migrants and the consequences of migration on the physical and social environment on their choice of destination.

  20. Possibilities and challenges for physical and social environment research in Brazil: a systematic literature review on health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Belon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed articles focused on the relationship between environment (physical, built, perceived, and social and smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet, and obesity in Brazil. Studies published between 19952011 were retrieved from seven databases and hand searches. Based on the 42 articles reviewed, gaps were identified and recommendations were made for future research. Despite a growing number of studies, the Brazilian literature is still limited. The increase of articles in 2010-2011 coincided with the diversification of lifestyles studied, although physical activity domain remains predominant. Most studies analyzed neighborhood settings and used subjective measures for lifestyle and for environment. The presence of recreational facilities was the main physical environment aspect studied, while safety from crime was the prominent social environment factor. More research is needed to yield a rich body of evidence that leads to theoretical and methodological advances, and that supports interventions aimed at creating healthy environments.

  1. [Premature immunosenescence in catecholamines syntesis deficient mice. Effect of social environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Antonio; Cruces, Julia; Iriarte, Idoia; Hernández-Sánchez, Catalina; de Pablo, Flora; de la Fuente, Mónica

    Healthy state depends on the appropriate function of the homeostatic systems (nervous, endocrine and immune systems) and the correct communication between them. The functional and redox state of the immune system is an excellent marker of health, and animals with premature immunosenescence show a shorter lifespan. Since catecholamines modulate the function of immune cells, the alteration in their synthesis could provoke immunosenescence. The social environment could be a strategy for modulating this immunosenescence. To determine if an haploinsufficiency of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the limiting enzyme of synthesis of catecholamines, may produce a premature immunosenescence and if this immunosenescence could be modulated by the social environment. Adult (9±1 months) male ICR-CD1 mice with deletion of a single allele (hemi-zygotic: HZ) of the tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme (TH-HZ) and wild-type (WT) mice were used. Animals were housed in four subgroups: WT>50% (in the cage, the proportion of WT mice was higher than 50% in relation to TH-HZ), WT50%. Peritoneal leukocytes were collected and phagocytosis, chemotaxis and proliferation of lymphocytes in the presence of lipopolysaccharide were analyzed. Glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio were studied. TH-HZ>50% mice showed a deteriorated function and redox state in leukocytes respect to WT>50% and similar to old mice. However, TH-HZ<50% animals had similar values to those found in WT<50% mice. The haploinsufficiency of TH generates premature immunosenescence, which appears to be compensated by living together with an appropriate number of WT animals. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Runaway sexual selection without genetic correlations: social environments and flexible mate choice initiate and enhance the Fisher process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nathan W; Moore, Allen J

    2012-09-01

    Female mating preferences are often flexible, reflecting the social environment in which they are expressed. Associated indirect genetic effects (IGEs) can affect the rate and direction of evolutionary change, but sexual selection models do not capture these dynamics. We incorporate IGEs into quantitative genetic models to explore how variation in social environments and mate choice flexibility influence Fisherian sexual selection. The importance of IGEs is that runaway sexual selection can occur in the absence of a genetic correlation between male traits and female preferences. Social influences can facilitate the initiation of the runaway process and increase the rate of trait elaboration. Incorporating costs to choice do not alter the main findings. Our model provides testable predictions: (1) genetic covariances between male traits and female preferences may not exist, (2) social flexibility in female choice will be common in populations experiencing strong sexual selection, (3) variation in social environments should be associated with rapid sexual trait divergence, and (4) secondary sexual traits will be more elaborate than previously predicted. Allowing feedback from the social environment resolves discrepancies between theoretical predictions and empirical data, such as why indirect selection on female preferences, theoretically weak, might be sufficient for preferences to become elaborated. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Increased personal space of patients with schizophrenia in a virtual social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hyouk; Ku, Jeonghun; Kim, Jae-Jin; Jang, Hee Jeong; Kim, So Young; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Lee, Hyeongrae; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I

    2009-10-30

    Virtual reality may be a good alternative method for measuring personal space and overcoming some limitations in previous studies on the social aspects of schizophrenia. Using this technology, we aimed to investigate the characteristics of personal space in patients with schizophrenia and evaluate the relationship between their social behaviors and schizophrenic symptoms. The distance from a virtual person and the angle of head orientation while talking to a virtual person in a virtual environment were measured in 30 patients with schizophrenia and 30 normal controls. It was found that patients with schizophrenia had longer distances and larger angles than did normal controls. The severity of the negative syndrome had significant inverse correlations with the distance from the angry and neutral virtual persons and with the angle of head orientation toward the happy and angry virtual persons, suggesting that negative symptoms may have a close relationship with personal space, including distancing and eye gaze. The larger personal space of patients may reflect their discomfort in close situations or cognitive deficits. Showing these profiles to patients could help them realize the amount of personal space they need.

  4. Foreign Language Acquisition: Fostering Social Justice and Internalization within Web 2.0 environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lojacono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of mobile teaching the winds of change are coming from the “Steve Job Galaxy” confirming the vision Illich described in Deschooling Society (1971. The success of mobile learning is primarily due to easily searchable databases. Therefore a Copernican Revolution is on the go and will revise the way educational contents are accessed. In this paper we discuss a specific aspect of this the radical shift: collaborative teaching through globally networked learning environments. Within educational institutions, collaboration means the ability to harness ideas, resources and educational practioners from across boundaries. While it is clear that collaboration is acknowledged as a required win-win practice for any business organizations, in the field of education the most important outcome brought by Web 2.0 tools is social justice, in terms of equity in mobility and cross-cultural experiences. Therefore this paper describes practices aimed at fostering social justice within a language learning framework. Internet-based tools are analyzed in terms of hardware and software requirements as well as in terms of second language acquisition theories and cognitive approaches. In sum, this paper is aimed at serving the innovative teacher in the exploration of collaborative teaching in a Web 2.0 context.

  5. Social, economic, and political processes that create built environment inequities: perspectives from urban African Americans in Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Yanique; Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A; Yoshihama, Mieko; Wang, Caroline C; Kreuter, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the built environment features found in many high-poverty urban areas contribute to negative health outcomes. Both built environment hazards and negative health outcomes disproportionately affect poor people of color. We used community-based participatory research and Photovoice in inner-city Atlanta to elicit African Americans' perspectives on their health priorities. The built environment emerged as a critical factor, impacting physical and mental health outcomes. We offer a conceptual model, informed by residents' perspectives, linking social, economic, and political processes to built environment and health inequities. Research, practice, and policy implications are discussed within an environmental justice framework.

  6. Social class and self-rated health: can the gradient be explained by differences in life style or work environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, V; Kristensen, T S

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to describe differences in work environment and life style factors between social classes in Denmark and to investigate to what extent these factors can explain social class differences with regard to changes in self-rated health (SRH) over a 5 year period. We used data from a prospective study of a random sample of 5001 Danish employees, 18-59 years of age, interviewed at baseline in 1990 and again in 1995. At baseline we found higher prevalence in the lower classes of repetitive work, low skill discretion, low influence at work, high job insecurity, and ergonomic, physical, chemical, and climatic exposures. High psychological demands and conflicts at work were more prevalent in the higher classes. With regard to life style factors, we found more obese people and more smokers among the lower classes. The proportion with poor SRH increased with decreasing social class at baseline. The follow-up analyses showed a clear association between social class and worsening of SRH: The lower the social class, the higher the proportion with deterioration of SRH. There was no social gradient with regard to improved SRH over time. Approximately two thirds of the social gradient with regard to worsening of SRH could be explained by the work environment and life style factors. The largest contribution came from the work environment factors.

  7. Voluntary Medication Error Reporting by ED Nurses: Examining the Association With Work Environment and Social Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Amany; Blegen, Mary; Gedney-Lose, Amalia; Lose, Daniel; Perkhounkova, Yelena

    2017-05-01

    Medication errors are one of the most frequently occurring errors in health care settings. The complexity of the ED work environment places patients at risk for medication errors. Most hospitals rely on nurses' voluntary medication error reporting, but these errors are under-reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among work environment (nurse manager leadership style and safety climate), social capital (warmth and belonging relationships and organizational trust), and nurses' willingness to report medication errors. A cross-sectional descriptive design using a questionnaire with a convenience sample of emergency nurses was used. Data were analyzed using descriptive, correlation, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis statistics. A total of 71 emergency nurses were included in the study. Emergency nurses' willingness to report errors decreased as the nurses' years of experience increased (r = -0.25, P = .03). Their willingness to report errors increased when they received more feedback about errors (r = 0.25, P = .03) and when their managers used a transactional leadership style (r = 0.28, P = .01). ED nurse managers can modify their leadership style to encourage error reporting. Timely feedback after an error report is particularly important. Engaging experienced nurses to understand error root causes could increase voluntary error reporting. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. An Intelligent Web Digital Image Metadata Service Platform for Social Curation Commerce Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Yong Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Information management includes multimedia data management, knowledge management, collaboration, and agents, all of which are supporting technologies for XML. XML technologies have an impact on multimedia databases as well as collaborative technologies and knowledge management. That is, e-commerce documents are encoded in XML and are gaining much popularity for business-to-business or business-to-consumer transactions. Recently, the internet sites, such as e-commerce sites and shopping mall sites, deal with a lot of image and multimedia information. This paper proposes an intelligent web digital image information retrieval platform, which adopts XML technology for social curation commerce environment. To support object-based content retrieval on product catalog images containing multiple objects, we describe multilevel metadata structures representing the local features, global features, and semantics of image data. To enable semantic-based and content-based retrieval on such image data, we design an XML-Schema for the proposed metadata. We also describe how to automatically transform the retrieval results into the forms suitable for the various user environments, such as web browser or mobile device, using XSLT. The proposed scheme can be utilized to enable efficient e-catalog metadata sharing between systems, and it will contribute to the improvement of the retrieval correctness and the user’s satisfaction on semantic-based web digital image information retrieval.

  9. [Child health environment in the context of relocating of camp site families to social housing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Soledad; Sigala, Fiorenza; Argueta, Luzmila; Iglesias, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Housing interventions aimed at overcoming poverty can lead to changes in the health status of children by modifying risk factors in their physical and social environment the aim was to identify children's environmental health factors to change with the relocation of families from slums to public housing. A cross-sectional study was conducted in children ages 2-8 years old of families relocated to public housing (n=115) who were compared to children residing in slums (n=88) in Santiago, Chile. Family socioeconomic characteristics, indoor environment and neighborhoods were collected. It was included respiratory symptoms, accidents and maternal-child care of children. χ2, Fisher and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare groups. There were differences in households related to pets keeping, presence of humidity/molds in homes, types of fuels, and perceived safety problems in neighborhoods (phousing. Residents of public housing perceived more safety problems in neighborhood, and children have more asthma related symptoms and have lower diversity of accidents in home. Among the factors studied, indoor air quality and safety in neighborhoods could be linked to changes from the relocation of families. This reinforces the need to deepen the positive and negative influences of residential mobility of these groups focused on child welfare perspective. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The Influence of the Social Environment Context in Stress and Coping in Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdijk, Carlijn; van der Kamp, John; Polman, Remco

    2016-01-01

    Lazarus (1999) model of stress and coping is based on the reciprocal interaction between the person and the environment. The aim of this study therefore was to examine whether the social environment (significant others) are of influence on the stress and coping of team athletes. The study consisted of two separate studies in which a total of 12 team athletes participated. First, six field hockey players (two males, four females) aged 18-29 years (M = 23.0 years) participated in a diary study. Second, six team athletes of different sports (two males, four females) aged 24-29 years (M = 25.8 years) were interviewed. The results showed that in particular teammates are important for the appraisal of stress and coping in team sports. For over half (i.e., 51.5%) of the reported stressors in the diary study the participants felt that others were of influence on their coping. Team athletes experienced the highest stress intensity during competition, or when they appraised the situation as a threat. When others were of influence the team athletes were most likely to appraise the situation as a challenge and use problem- or emotion-focused coping strategies. These finding might provide a new portal for intervention to enhance coping with stress in sport and enhance performance and satisfaction.

  11. The Conditions of the Environment as Factors Affecting the Social and Political Stability of Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Pedrazzini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, the different conditions of the environment which could affect the well-being of the populations living on it are taken into consideration and analysed. A specific attention is paid to the phenomenon of water reduction, land degradation and consequent desertification. Such a phenomenon is particularly worrying in selected regions of the world (the Mediterranean Region and Central Asia in which a combination of several factors including climate variations, pressure of populations and increased competition for the available resources have a direct consequence on the economical, social and political conditions of the population. In addition, migrations could also take place, increasing the instability of entire regions. A proper management of water resources and the preservation of land and soil resources are essential requisites to counteract the mentioned adverse effects. Such a management is frequently a transboundary concern since it might involve different regions and countries; this is an additional reason for debating the environment degradation issues at the international level and for increasing the awareness of the civil society, the policy makers and governments.

  12. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  13. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  14. Self-Esteem is Relatively Stable Late in Life: The Role of Resources in the Health, Self-Regulation, and Social Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jenny; Hoppmann, Christiane; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    A large body of research has documented changes in self-esteem across adulthood and individual-difference correlates thereof. However, little is known about whether people maintain their self-esteem until the end of life and what role key risk factors in the health, cognitive, self-regulatory, and social domains play. To examine these questions, we apply growth modeling to 13-year longitudinal data obtained from by now deceased participants of the Berlin Aging Study (BASE, N = 462; age 70 – 103, M = 86.3 yrs., SD = 8.3; 51% male). Results revealed that self-esteem, on average, does decline in very old age and close to death, but the amount of typical decline is minor. Health-related constraints and disabilities as well as lower control beliefs and higher loneliness were each associated with lower self-esteem late in life. We obtained initial evidence that some of these associations were stronger among the oldest-old participants. Our results corroborate and extend initial reports that self-esteem is, on average, fairly stable into the last years of life. We discuss possible pathways by which common and often severe late-life challenges may undermine an otherwise relatively robust self-esteem system. PMID:25546600

  15. Work Environment and Health Status of the Nurses in Social Security (ESSALUD), Army and Private Hospitals in Lima - 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Loli Ponce, Amalia; Departamento de Enfermería Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To know and compare the main characteristics of work environment (WE) and health status (HS) through nurses opinions in the three classes of health care centers (HCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional study. 3259 nurses frorri social security, private entities and army hospitals were selected randomly and interviewed. RESULTS: Laboral regimens of nurses working at army hospitals or social security, consist of about 30 to 40 hours/week in which they h...

  16. [Person-organization fit as a mediator of relationship between work environment and stress among social workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkowska, Małlgorzata; Andysz, Aleksandra; Merecz, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Occupational stress of social workers is associated with various psychosocial hazards in the work environment. Some of them affect person-organization fit (P-O fit). The aim of the study was to verify a hypothesis on the mediating role of P-O fit in the relationship between work environment and stress. The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers directly involved in social work. The data were obtained using the Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska, the Work Environment Questionnaire developed by the Department of Occupational Psychology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) by Cohen et al. As revealed by the regression analysis of the 4 analyzed work environment factors, only organizational politics was significantly related with perceived stress. Complementary and supplementary dimensions of P-O fit and identification with organization were the mediators of the relationship between organizational policies and stress, but only complementary fit proved to be a total mediator. The results of the study suggest that person-organization fit, especially its complementary aspect, is an essential determinant of accomplishing the core functions of social work and good practice among social workers.

  17. Person-organization fit as a mediator of relationship between work environment and stress among social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Waszkowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress of social workers is associated with various psychosocial hazards in the work environment. Some of them affect person-organization fit (P-O fit. The aim of the study was to verify a hypothesis on the mediating role of P-O fit in the relationship between work environment and stress. Material and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers directly involved in social work. The data were obtained using the Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska, the Work Environment Questionnaire developed by the Department of Occupational Psychology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 by Cohen et al. Results: As revealed by the regression analysis of the 4 analyzed work environment factors, only organizational politics was significantly related with perceived stress. Complementary and supplementary dimensions of P-O fit and identification with organization were the mediators of the relationship between organizational policies and stress, but only complementary fit proved to be a total mediator. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that person-organization fit, especially its complementary aspect, is an essential determinant of accomplishing the core functions of social work and good practice among social workers. Med Pr 2014;65(2:219–228

  18. USE OF SLACK-WATER ENVIRONMENTS BY COHO SALMON JUVENILES IN A COASTAL OREGON STREAM AS INDICATED BY 34S STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotopes of sulfur are rarely used in studies of elemental cycling, trophic position or use of marine-derived nutrients by salmonids. The main reason for this probably is the reluctance on the part of isotope labs to expose their instruments to SO2 (because of its corrosi...

  19. Social conditions and urban environment associated with participation in the Ciclovia program among adults from Cali, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez,Luis Fernando; Mosquera,Janeth; Gómez,Olga Lucia; Moreno,José; Pinzon,Jose D.; Jacoby,Enrique; Cepeda,Magda; Parra,Diana Celmira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Ciclovia program (CP) has emerged as an effective initiative to promote active living in urban spaces in Latin America. This study assessed the association between social conditions, the urban environment and participation in the CP among adults living in the city of Cali, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 and 2012 among 719 adults aged 18 to 44. Urban environment measures were obtained using Geographic Information Systems. A multilevel logistic regression w...

  20. Adaptive Semantic and Social Web-based learning and assessment environment for the STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Hassan; Atchison, Chris; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar

    2014-05-01

    We are building a cloud- and Semantic Web-based personalized, adaptive learning environment for the STEM fields that integrates and leverages Social Web technologies to allow instructors and authors of learning material to collaborate in semi-automatic development and update of their common domain and task ontologies and building their learning resources. The semi-automatic ontology learning and development minimize issues related to the design and maintenance of domain ontologies by knowledge engineers who do not have any knowledge of the domain. The social web component of the personal adaptive system will allow individual and group learners to interact with each other and discuss their own learning experience and understanding of course material, and resolve issues related to their class assignments. The adaptive system will be capable of representing key knowledge concepts in different ways and difficulty levels based on learners' differences, and lead to different understanding of the same STEM content by different learners. It will adapt specific pedagogical strategies to individual learners based on their characteristics, cognition, and preferences, allow authors to assemble remotely accessed learning material into courses, and provide facilities for instructors to assess (in real time) the perception of students of course material, monitor their progress in the learning process, and generate timely feedback based on their understanding or misconceptions. The system applies a set of ontologies that structure the learning process, with multiple user friendly Web interfaces. These include the learning ontology (models learning objects, educational resources, and learning goal); context ontology (supports adaptive strategy by detecting student situation), domain ontology (structures concepts and context), learner ontology (models student profile, preferences, and behavior), task ontologies, technological ontology (defines devices and places that surround the

  1. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  2. Person/environment construct: positivist versus naturalist, dilemma or opportunity for health social work research and practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, M K

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to indicate that there is nothing fundamentally wrong with the social work purpose of simultaneous attention to persons in their contexts. In fact, the productive pull of both perspectives is what separates social work from other helping professions. Indeed, it is what separates health social work from other health professions. What has created difficulty, however, has been the predominant lens through which person and environment have been investigated, understood and manipulated. This paper compares two major models of knowledge building in an attempt to identify the consequences for research and practice in social work. Examples are provided from both research and practice that derive from these differing perspectives in an effort to clarify the choices social worker health professionals make when encountering a person-in situation.

  3. Interactions between Neighborhood Social Environment and Walkability to Explain Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Van Holle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between neighborhood social factors and physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB in older adults. Furthermore, possible moderating effects of neighborhood walkability were explored. Data from 431 community-dwelling Belgian older adults (≥65 years were analyzed. Neighborhood social factors included measures of neighboring, social trust and cohesion and social diversity. Neighborhood walkability was measured objectively. Outcome measures were self-reported weekly minutes of domain-specific walking and TV viewing, and accelerometer-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and overall SB. A higher frequency of talking to neighbors was associated with higher levels of self-reported walking for transport and for recreation. Moderation analyses showed that only in highly-walkable neighborhoods, higher social diversity of the neighborhood environment was associated with more transport walking; and talking to neighbors and social interactions among neighbors were negatively associated with overall SB and television viewing, respectively. Findings suggest that a combination of a favorable neighborhood social and physical environment are important to promote older adults’ PA and limit SB.

  4. Social Environment of Older People during the First Year in Senior Housing and Its Association with Physical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotvonen, Sinikka; Kyngäs, Helvi; Koistinen, Pentti; Bloigu, Risto; Elo, Satu

    2017-08-25

    Increasing numbers of older people relocate into senior housing when their physical performance declines. The change in social environment is known to affect their wellbeing, providing both challenges and opportunities, but more information on the relations between social and physical parameters is required. Thus, we elicited perceptions of the social environment of 81 older people (aged 59-93 years, living in northern Finland) and changes in it 3 and 12 months after relocation to senior housing. We also measured their physical performance, then analysed associations between the social and physical variables. Participants reported that they had freedom to do whatever they liked and generally had enough contact with close people (which have recognized importance for older people's wellbeing), but changes in their physical condition limited their social activity. Moreover, their usual walking speed, dominant hand's grip strength and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) significantly decreased. The pleasantness of the residential community, peer support, constraints on social activity imposed by changes in physical condition, meaningful activity at home and meeting close people all affected these physical performance parameters. Clearly, in addition to assessing physical performance and encouraging regular exercise, the complex interactions among social factors, physical performance and wellbeing should be considered when addressing individuals' needs.

  5. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in a Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hviid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants’ low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called “Make a Difference” designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom’s “readiness for cleaning”, and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners’ psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners’ experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  6. Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-12-24

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  7. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  8. HCBPM: An Idea toward a Social Learning Environment for Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady Alnajjar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To advance robotics toward real-world applications, a growing body of research has focused on the development of control systems for humanoid robots in recent years. Several approaches have been proposed to support the learning stage of such controllers, where the robot can learn new behaviors by observing and/or receiving direct guidance from a human or even another robot. These approaches require dynamic learning and memorization techniques, which the robot can use to reform and update its internal systems continuously while learning new behaviors. Against this background, this study investigates a new approach to the development of an incremental learning and memorization model. This approach was inspired by the principles of neuroscience, and the developed model was named “Hierarchical Constructive Backpropagation with Memory” (HCBPM. The validity of the model was tested by teaching a humanoid robot to recognize a group of objects through natural interaction. The experimental results indicate that the proposed model efficiently enhances real-time machine learning in general and can be used to establish an environment suitable for social learning between the robot and the user in particular.

  9. Family Social Environment and Parenting Predictors of Alcohol Use among Adolescents in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šumskas, Linas; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2017-09-08

    The role of the family as the social environment in shaping adolescent lifestyle has recently received substantial attention. This study was focused on investigating the association between familial and parenting predictors and alcohol use in school-aged children. Adolescents aged 13- and 15-year from a representative sample (N = 3715) of schools in Lithuania were surveyed during the spring of 2014. The methodology of the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study was applied. HBSC international questionnaires were completed in the classroom anonymously for obtaining information about drinking of alcoholic beverages and family characteristics-family's affluence and structure, style of communication in the family, parenting style, parental monitoring, family time together, etc. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied for assessment of the association between familial variables and weekly alcohol use. Analysis has demonstrated that adolescents from non-intact families tended to show significantly higher risk of being weekly drinkers (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.30-2.19). The following parenting factors were associated with weekly use of alcohol: father's and mother's low monitoring, father's authoritarian-repressive and mother's permissive-neglectful parenting style. Frequent family time together and frequent electronic media communication with parents showed an inverse negative effect than was predicted. The study suggests that alcohol misuse among adolescents could be associated with a non-intact family structure as well as with complex family and parenting determinants which should be investigated more thoroughly by further studies.

  10. Students' Adoption of Social Networks as Environments for Learning and Teaching: The Case of the Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the conditions and consequences of using the Facebook in learning. This research attempts to describe such conditions and consequences when teachers experiment using it as students in a second degree course. Fifteen students/teachers aged from 24 to 53 years old participated in the course in which they were required to attend mathematical Facebook sites. The research findings arrived at using the grounded theory show that the conditions which affected the teachers/students' work in the Facebook were: (1 causal conditions: the course's requirement; (2 intervening conditions: the participant's image of the Facebook, the participant's work characteristics and the participant's competence in computers and the internet; (3 contextual conditions: The site's subject and the environment's characteristics or conditions. These conditions influenced students' learning actions and interactions in the Facebook, especially their level of participation. The actions/interactions of the participants, together with the various conditions influenced the consequences of students' educational work in the social networking site. These consequences varied, starting from discovering how to utilize the Facebook for teaching and being aware of the advantages/ disadvantages of doing so, to proceeding with the use of the Facebook in contexts other than those being suggested in the course.

  11. Use of Unpalatable Forages by Ruminants: The Influence of Experience with the Biophysical and Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Distel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unpalatable forage resources (low nutrient density, potentially toxic metabolites are widespread and represent a challenge for ruminant nutrition, health, and welfare. Our objective was to synthesize the role of biophysical and social experience on the use of unpalatable forages by ruminants, and highlight derived behavioural solutions for the well-being of soils, plants, and animals. Environmental experiences early in life modulate gene expression and promote learning, which alters morpho-physiological and psychological mechanisms that modify behavioural responses and change food and habitat selection. In this process, ruminants can become better adapted to the habitat where they are reared. Moreover, experiential learning provides flexibility in diet selection, which is critical for changing foraging environments. Learned associations between unpalatable and palatable foods, if ingested in appropriate amounts, sequence, and close temporal association, induce the development of preference for the former type of food. In this way, a more uniform use of resources can be achieved from the landscape level down to the individual plant, with the associated benefits to ecosystem integrity and stability. Ruminants can also learn the medicinal benefits of ingesting foods with toxins (e.g., condensed tannins and saponins with antiparasitic properties. This knowledge on behavioural processes can be translated into behavioural applications that provide low-cost solutions to many challenges that producers face in managing sustainable livestock production systems.

  12. Development rate rather than social environment influences cognitive performance in Australian black field crickets, Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Caitlin L; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive functioning is vital for enabling animals of all taxa to optimise their chances of survival and reproductive success. Learning and memory in particular are drivers of many evolutionary processes. In this study, we examine how developmental plasticity can affect cognitive ability by exploring the role the early social environment has on problem solving ability and learning of female black field crickets, Teleogryllus commodus. We used two learning paradigms, an analog of the Morris water maze and a novel linear maze, to examine cognitive differences between individuals reared in two acoustic treatments: silence or calling. Although there was no evidence of learning or memory, individuals that took longer to mature solved the Morris water maze more quickly. Our results suggest that increased investment into cognitive development is likely associated with increased development time during immature stages. Inconsistent individual performance and motivation during the novel linear maze task highlights the difficulties of designing ecologically relevant learning tasks within a lab setting. The role of experimental design in understanding cognitive ability and learning in more natural circumstances is discussed.

  13. Development rate rather than social environment influences cognitive performance in Australian black field crickets, Teleogryllus commodus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin L. Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive functioning is vital for enabling animals of all taxa to optimise their chances of survival and reproductive success. Learning and memory in particular are drivers of many evolutionary processes. In this study, we examine how developmental plasticity can affect cognitive ability by exploring the role the early social environment has on problem solving ability and learning of female black field crickets, Teleogryllus commodus. We used two learning paradigms, an analog of the Morris water maze and a novel linear maze, to examine cognitive differences between individuals reared in two acoustic treatments: silence or calling. Although there was no evidence of learning or memory, individuals that took longer to mature solved the Morris water maze more quickly. Our results suggest that increased investment into cognitive development is likely associated with increased development time during immature stages. Inconsistent individual performance and motivation during the novel linear maze task highlights the difficulties of designing ecologically relevant learning tasks within a lab setting. The role of experimental design in understanding cognitive ability and learning in more natural circumstances is discussed.

  14. Interactive effects of sex, social environment, dietary restriction, and methionine on survival and reproduction in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajitschek, Felix; Zajitschek, Susanne R K; Friberg, Urban; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2013-08-01

    For the evolution of life histories, the trade-off between survival and reproduction is fundamental. Because sexes optimize fitness in different ways, this trade-off is expected to be resolved differently by males and females. Consequently, the sexes are predicted to respond differently to changes in resource availability. In fruit flies, research on dietary restriction has focused largely on females maintained in the absence of males, thereby neglecting sexual interactions that affect reproductive behavior of both sexes under more natural conditions. Here, we tested for the interactive effects of diet (40, 60, 100, and 300 % of standard yeast concentrations) and social environment (separate-sex vs. mixed-sex groups) on male and female Drosophila melanogaster life histories. Additionally, we evaluated the essential amino acid methionine as an agent that can uncouple the survival-reproduction trade-off. We show sex differences in the effect of social environment on survival patterns, but not on reproductive fitness. In females, yeast had a positive effect on reproduction and a negative effect on survival. In males, yeast had a negative effect on reproduction and the effect on survival depended on the social environment. Methionine reduced survival, but had no effect on reproduction. Our findings highlight the need to include both sexes and to vary social environments in research programs aimed at lifespan extension and call for further evaluation of the fecundity-restoring effect of methionine.

  15. Upgrading School Buildings in Mexico with Social Participation. "The Better Schools Programme". Centre for Effective Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Alastair; Almeida, Rodolfo; Forrester, David; Gorey, Ann; Chavez Zepeda, Juan Jose

    2012-01-01

    This review of Mexico's Better Schools Programme was conducted in 2012 by the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE). In 2008, the federal government created the Programme to repair and improve the physical infrastructure of schools for basic education throughout Mexico. A key characteristic of the programme is social participation…

  16. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Home Environment and Home Social Behavior Data from the Elementary School Success Profile for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Kate M.; Thompson, Aaron M.; Bowen, Natasha K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the factor structure and scale quality of data provided by caregivers about the home environment and child behavior at home using the Elementary School Success Profile (ESSP) for Families. The ESSP for Families is one component of the ESSP, an online social-environmental assessment that also collects…

  17. Toward a Sustainable Future: The Role of Student Affairs in Creating Healthy Environments, Social Justice, and Strong Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Toward a Sustainable Future: The Role of Student Affairs in Creating Healthy Environments, Social Justice, and Strong Economies" is a call to action for college student educators, articulating the crucial role they play in the international sustainability movement. It contains valuable information about educating self, educating students, and…

  18. A Virtual World Case Study--Quality, Social Justice, and Accountability in a Simulation-Based Educational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Susan; McNeeley, Terry

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the application of quality, social justice/equality and accountability/responsibility of teaching and learning in an online educational environment. Components addressed in this paper include a brief inspection of online teaching and learning methods, qualities of online teaching and learning, and the responsibility of teaching…

  19. An exploratory longitudinal study of social and language outcomes in children with autism in bilingual home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Vanessa; Munson, Jeffrey A; Greenson, Jessica; Hou, Yan; Rogers, Sally; Estes, Annette M

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about outcomes of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder reared in bilingual homes. There are concerns that social communication deficits among children with autism spectrum disorder may reduce the developmental benefits of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder raised in bilingual environments. We conducted an exploratory analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a larger study to explore associations between home language environment and language ability and social skills in response to early autism spectrum disorder intervention. Participants, aged 12-26 months when recruited, were a subset of a larger 2-year, randomized intervention trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00698997). Children from bilingual homes ( n = 13) began intervention with lower gesture use but otherwise demonstrated equal baseline language and social abilities as compared with age and nonverbal IQ-matched children from monolingual homes ( n = 24). Significant language growth was exhibited by children from both language groups and there was no moderating effect of home language environment. The bilingual home group demonstrated increased gesture use over the course of intervention as compared with the monolingual home group. Preliminary data revealed no basis for concerns regarding negative impact of a bilingual home environment on language or social development in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  20. Carry-over effects of the social environment on future divorce probability in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culina, Antica; Hinde, Camilla; Sheldon, B.C.

    2015-01-01

    Initial mate choice and re-mating strategies (infidelity and divorce) influence individual fitness. Both of these should be influenced by the social environment, which determines the number and availability of potential partners. While most studies looking at this relationship take a

  1. The Effects of Digital Storytelling on Student Achievement, Social Presence, and Attitude in Online Collaborative Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Chang Woo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of digital storytelling on student achievement, social presence, and attitude in online collaborative learning environments. Students in one middle school course were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups after they received initial general instruction regarding teamwork skills. The "digital…

  2. Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…

  3. Strategic exploitation of fluctuating asymmetry in male Endler’s guppy courtship displays is modulated by social environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řežucha, Radomil; Reichard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2015), s. 356-367 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : behavioural laterality * experience * Poecilia wingei * sidedness * sigmoid display * social environment Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.747, year: 2015

  4. Principals' Perceptions of Social Networking Access, Its Relationship to Cyberbullying, the Importance of Student Achievement, and the School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsel, Andrae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the principals' perceptions of social networking access and its relationship to cyberbullying, the importance of student achievement, and the school environment across the United States. This research provides some evidence on how principals perceive and understand the threat of cyberbullying and its…

  5. Sex-specific effects of the local social environment on juvenile post-fledging dispersal in great tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Nicolaus, Marion; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan; Both, Christiaan; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Gibson, R.

    2011-01-01

    An individual's decision to disperse from the natal habitat can affect its future fitness prospects. Especially in species with sex-biased dispersal, we expect the cost benefit balance for dispersal to vary according to the social environment (e.g., local sex ratio and density). However, little is

  6. The effect of social environment on alternative mating tactics in male Endler’s guppy, Poecilia wingei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řežucha, Radomil; Reichard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 2 (2014), s. 195-202 ISSN 0003-3472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * courtship * experience * Poecilia wingei * sneaking * social environment Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.137, year: 2014

  7. Mining Learning Social Networks for Cooperative Learning with Appropriate Learning Partners in a Problem-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Chang, Chia-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have identified web-based cooperative learning as an increasingly popular educational paradigm with potential to increase learner satisfaction and interactions. However, peer-to-peer interaction often suffers barriers owing to a failure to explore useful social interaction information in web-based cooperative learning environments.…

  8. vPELS: An E-Learning Social Environment for VLSI Design with Content Security Using DRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Jahangir; Chowdhury, Morshed; Batten, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a proposal for personal e-learning system (vPELS [where "v" stands for VLSI: very large scale integrated circuit])) architecture in the context of social network environment for VLSI Design. The main objective of vPELS is to develop individual skills on a specific subject--say, VLSI--and share resources with peers.…

  9. Climate, Environment and Early Human Innovation: Stable Isotope and Faunal Proxy Evidence from Archaeological Sites (98-59ka in the Southern Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Roberts

    Full Text Available The Middle Stone Age (MSA of southern Africa, and in particular its Still Bay and Howiesons Poort lithic traditions, represents a period of dramatic subsistence, cultural, and technological innovation by our species, Homo sapiens. Climate change has frequently been postulated as a primary driver of the appearance of these innovative behaviours, with researchers invoking either climate instability as a reason for the development of buffering mechanisms, or environmentally stable refugia as providing a stable setting for experimentation. Testing these alternative models has proved intractable, however, as existing regional palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental records remain spatially, stratigraphically, and chronologically disconnected from the archaeological record. Here we report high-resolution records of environmental shifts based on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in ostrich eggshell (OES fragments, faunal remains, and shellfish assemblages excavated from two key MSA archaeological sequences, Blombos Cave and Klipdrift Shelter. We compare these records with archaeological material remains in the same strata. The results from both sites, spanning the periods 98-73 ka and 72-59 ka, respectively, show significant changes in vegetation, aridity, rainfall seasonality, and sea temperature in the vicinity of the sites during periods of human occupation. While these changes clearly influenced human subsistence strategies, we find that the remarkable cultural and technological innovations seen in the sites cannot be linked directly to climate shifts. Our results demonstrate the need for scale-appropriate, on-site testing of behavioural-environmental links, rather than broader, regional comparisons.

  10. Climate, Environment and Early Human Innovation: Stable Isotope and Faunal Proxy Evidence from Archaeological Sites (98-59ka) in the Southern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Patrick; Henshilwood, Christopher S; van Niekerk, Karen L; Keene, Petro; Gledhill, Andrew; Reynard, Jerome; Badenhorst, Shaw; Lee-Thorp, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The Middle Stone Age (MSA) of southern Africa, and in particular its Still Bay and Howiesons Poort lithic traditions, represents a period of dramatic subsistence, cultural, and technological innovation by our species, Homo sapiens. Climate change has frequently been postulated as a primary driver of the appearance of these innovative behaviours, with researchers invoking either climate instability as a reason for the development of buffering mechanisms, or environmentally stable refugia as providing a stable setting for experimentation. Testing these alternative models has proved intractable, however, as existing regional palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental records remain spatially, stratigraphically, and chronologically disconnected from the archaeological record. Here we report high-resolution records of environmental shifts based on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in ostrich eggshell (OES) fragments, faunal remains, and shellfish assemblages excavated from two key MSA archaeological sequences, Blombos Cave and Klipdrift Shelter. We compare these records with archaeological material remains in the same strata. The results from both sites, spanning the periods 98-73 ka and 72-59 ka, respectively, show significant changes in vegetation, aridity, rainfall seasonality, and sea temperature in the vicinity of the sites during periods of human occupation. While these changes clearly influenced human subsistence strategies, we find that the remarkable cultural and technological innovations seen in the sites cannot be linked directly to climate shifts. Our results demonstrate the need for scale-appropriate, on-site testing of behavioural-environmental links, rather than broader, regional comparisons.

  11. Interação social no autismo em ambientes digitais de aprendizagem Social interaction in austim in learning virtual environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Maria Passerino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir sobre o desenvolvimento da interação social em ambientes digitais de aprendizagem, com sujeitos com Autismo. A revisão de literatura baseia-se na Teoria Sócio-Histórica e em teóricos do Autismo. Para tanto, parte-se de uma discussão mais ampla sobre Interação Social e seu desenvolvimento, assim como as características apresentadas no autismo, considerando a intencionalidade de comunicação como um dos principais construtos teóricos para análise da interação social de pessoas com autismo em ambientes digitais. Finalmente, apresentamos e discutimos dados coletados num estudo de caso com quatro sujeitos com diferentes níveis da síndrome que foi realizado ao longo de dois anos de pesquisa utilizando ambientes digitais diversos, assim como os resultados alcançados no estudo.The goal of this paper is to discuss the development of social interactions in virtual environments, specially considering the autism. The literature review is based on Sociohistorical Theory and main theoretical works about this condition. We start from a wide discussion about social interaction, its development and relation to autism characteristics, considering that the concept of intentional communication is fundamental to the analysis of social interaction of autistic subjects in virtual environments. Furthermore, we present and discuss the data obtained from a case of study carried out with four subjects that suffer from different levels of autism. The study was developed as a two years of research applying several virtual environments. We also discuss the main results of this research.

  12. Summary of presentation for research on social structure, agreement, and conflict in groups in extreme and isolated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Despite a vast amount of research, little is known concerning the effect of group structure, and individuals' understanding of that structure, on conflict in Antarctic groups. The overall objective of the research discussed is to determine the interrelationships of group structure, social cognition, and group function and conflict in isolated and extreme environments. In the two decades following WWII, a large body of research focused on the physiological, psychological, and social psychological factors affecting the functioning of individuals and groups in a variety of extreme and isolated environments in both the Arctic and Antarctic. There are two primary reasons for further research of this type. First, Antarctic polar stations are considered to be natural laboratories for the social and behavioral sciences and provide an opportunity to address certain theoretical and empirical questions concerned with agreement and conflict in social groups in general and group behavior in extreme, isolated environments in particular. Recent advances in the analysis of social networks and intracultural variation have improved the methods and have shifted the theoretical questions. The research is motivated by three classes of questions: (1) What are the characteristics of the social relations among individuals working and living together in extreme and isolated environments?; (2) What do individuals understand about their group, how does that understanding develop, and how is it socially distributed?; and (3) What is the relationship between that understanding and the functioning of the social group? Answers to these questions are important if we are to advance our knowledge of how individuals and groups adapt to extreme environments. Second, although Antarctic winter-over candidates may be evaluated as qualified on the basis of individual characteristics, they may fail to adapt because of certain characteristics of the social group. Consequently, the ability of winter

  13. Deviant burials and social identity in a postmedieval Polish cemetery: An analysis of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes from the "vampires" of Drawsko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoricka, Lesley A; Scott, Amy B; Betsinger, Tracy K; Polcyn, Marek

    2017-08-01

    Deviant burials can reveal important information about both social and individual identity, particularly when the mortuary record is supplemented by an examination of skeletal remains. At the postmedieval (17th to 18th c. AD) cemetery of Drawsko (Site 1), Poland, six individuals (of n = 285) received deviant, anti-vampiristic mortuary treatment. A previous study using radiogenic strontium isotope ratios ( x¯= 0.7112 ± 0.0006, 1σ, n = 60) found that these "vampires" were in fact locals, not migrants to the region targeted for deviant burial due to their status as immigrant outsiders. However, considerable geologic overlap in strontium isotope ratios across the North European Plain may have masked the identification of at least some nonlocal individuals. This study further contextualizes strontium isotope ratios using additional biogeochemical data to test the hypothesis that additional nonlocals were present in the Drawsko cemetery. Stable oxygen and carbon isotopes from the dental enamel of 58 individuals interred in both normative and atypical burials at Drawsko were analyzed. Both δ 18 O c(VPDB) ( x¯= -4.5 ± 0.7‰) and δ 13 C ap isotope values ( x¯= -13.6 ± 0.8‰) displayed little variability and were not significantly different between vampire and normative burials, supporting prior strontium results of a largely local population. Nevertheless, homogeneity in oxygen isotope values across other northern European sites makes it difficult to speculate about isotopic regional diversity, leaving open the possibility that additional migrants to the region remain undetected. Additionally, carbon isotope values point to a locally sourced diet dominated by C 3 resources but with some supplementation by C 4 goods that likely included millet, fitting with historic descriptions of postmedieval diet in Poland. Those interred as vampires appear local to the region and thus likely underwent deviant funerary treatment due to some other social

  14. Vitamin C impacts anxiety-like behavior and stress-induced anorexia relative to social environment in SMP30/GNL knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Miwako; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Isaka, Ayumi; Ishigami, Akihito; Suzuki, Emiko

    2016-12-01

    The role of endogenous vitamin C (VC) in emotion and psychiatric measures has long been uncertain. We aimed to investigate how an individual's VC status impacts his or her mental health. Our hypothesis is that body VC levels modulate anxiety, anorexia, and depressive phenotypes under the influence of psychosocial rearing environments and sex. The VC status of senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice, which lack the ability to synthesize VC, were continuously shifted from adequate (VC+) to depleted (VC-) by providing a water with or without VC. Despite weight loss in both sexes, suppressed feeding was specifically seen in males only during the VC- phase. Anxiety responses in the novelty-suppressed feeding paradigm were worse during the VC-, especially in females. Sensitivity to the forced swim test as determined by the initial latency was significantly shorter in the socially stable animals compared with socially unstable animals during the VC+ condition. The stress coping underlying depressive phenotypes was assessed by immobility duration in a series of forced swim tests. No significant differences were apparent between contrasting VC status. Homeostatic symptoms following stressful behavioral tests consisted of a great loss of appetite during the VC-. It should be noted that anorexia is extremely serious for the females. We conclude that endogenous VC status is critical for determining vulnerability to anxiety and anorexia in a sex-specific manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Impact of Neighborhood Environment, Social Support, and Avoidance Coping on Depressive Symptoms of Pregnant African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Templin, Thomas N; Engeland, Christopher G; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang Gi; Kavanaugh, Karen; Dieber, William; Misra, Dawn P

    2015-01-01

    Although depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been related to negative maternal and child health outcomes such as preterm birth, low birth weight infants, postpartum depression, and maladaptive mother-infant interactions, studies on the impact of neighborhood environment on depressive symptoms in pregnant women are limited. Pregnant women residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods reported higher levels of depressive symptoms and lower levels of social support. No researchers have examined the relationship between neighborhood environment and avoidance coping in pregnant women. Guided by the Ecological model and Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping, we examined whether social support and avoidance coping mediated associations between the neighborhood environment and depressive symptoms in pregnant African-American women. Pregnant African-American women (n = 95) from a medical center in Chicago completed the instruments twice during pregnancy between 15 and 25 weeks and between 25 and 37 weeks. The self-administered instruments measured perceived neighborhood environment, social support, avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms using items from existing scales. Objective measures of the neighborhood environment were derived using geographic information systems. Perceived neighborhood environment, social support, avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms were correlated significantly in the expected directions. Objective physical disorder and crime were negatively related to social support. Social support at time 1 (20 ± 2.6 weeks) mediated associations between the perceived neighborhood environment at time 1 and depressive symptoms at time 2 (29 ± 2.7 weeks). An increase in avoidance coping between times 1 and 2 also mediated the effects of perceived neighborhood environment at time 1 on depressive symptoms at time 2. Pregnant African-American women's negative perceptions of their neighborhoods in the second trimester were related to

  16. School environments and social risk factors for child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Linda; Howard, Andrew; Buliung, Ron; Macarthur, Colin; Richmond, Sarah A; Macpherson, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions (PMVCs) have decreased in Canada in the past 20 years. Many believe this trend is explained by the rise in automobile use for all travel. Initiatives to increase walking to school need to consider PMVC risk. Potential risk factors related to walking to school, the built environment and social factors were examined for schools with historically high child PMVC rates. Child PMVCs (age 4-12 years) from 2000 to 2013 and built environment features were mapped within school attendance boundaries in the City of Toronto, Canada. Case and control schools were in the highest and lowest PMVC quartiles respectively. Observational counts of travel mode to school were conducted. Logistic regression evaluated walking to school, built environment and social risk factors for higher PMVC rates, stratified by geographic location (downtown vs. inner suburbs). The mean PMVC rates were 18.8/10,000/year (cases) and 2.5/10,000/year (controls). One-way street density (OR=4.00), school crossing guard presence (OR=3.65) and higher social disadvantage (OR=1.37) were associated with higher PMVCs. Higher residential land use density had a protective effect (OR=0.56). More walking was not a risk factor. While several built environment risk factors were identified for the inner suburbs; only social disadvantage was a risk factor within older urban neighbourhoods. Several modifiable environmental risk factors were identified for child PMVCs. More walking to school was not associated with increased PMVCs after controlling for the environment. School social disadvantage was associated with higher PMVCs with differences by geographic location. These results have important implications for the design of roadways around schools. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of neighbourhood social environment and smoking behaviour: the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Stephanie L; Auchincloss, Amy H; Moore, Kari A; Michael, Yvonne L; Tabb, Loni Philip; Echeverria, Sandra E; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2017-04-01

    Social features of neighbourhood environments may influence smoking by creating a stressful environment or by buffering stress through social cohesion. However, the association of the overall neighbourhood social environment (NSE) with smoking, and the association of specific neighbourhood social factors with change in smoking behaviour over time, has rarely been examined. This study included 5856 adults aged 45-84 years from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012, average follow-up: 7.8 years). Outcomes included current smoking status and smoking intensity (average number of cigarettes smoked per day among baseline smokers). NSE was assessed as a composite score composed of aesthetic quality, safety and social cohesion scales (derived from neighbourhood surveys). Generalised linear mixed models evaluated the association of baseline NSE (composite score and individual scales) with current smoking (modified Poisson models) and smoking intensity (negative binomial models) cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Each SD increase in baseline NSE composite score was associated with 13% lower prevalence of smoking at baseline (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.87 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.98). Neighbourhood safety and aesthetic quality were similarly associated with lower smoking prevalence (aPR 0.87 (0.78 to 0.97) and aPR 0.87 (0.77 to 0.99), respectively) but the association with social cohesion was weaker or null. No significant associations were observed for smoking intensity among baseline smokers. Baseline NSE was not associated with changes in smoking risk or intensity over time. Results suggest that neighbourhood social context influences whether older adults smoke, but does not promote smoking cessation or reduction over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Social Presence and Interaction in Learning Environments: The Effect on Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kožuh, Ines; Jeremic, Zoran; Sarjaš, Andrej; Bele, Julija Lapuh; Devedžic, Vladan; Debevc, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    With the increased use of social media there is a growing interest in using social interaction and social presence in education. Despite this phenomenon, no appropriate methodology was found on effective integrating of both concepts into online learning. In this study, we propose integrating two different kinds of learning tools to provide social…

  19. An Evidence Review of Exclusion from Social Relations: From Genes to the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burholt, V.; Winter, B.; Aartsen, M.; Constantinou, C.; Dahlberg, E.; de Jong Gierveld, J.; van Regenmortel, S.; Waldegrave, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we synthesise the evidence on the risks for and outcomes of exclusion from social relations, and the connections with other spheres or domains of social exclusion. Drawing on a recent scoping review of social exclusion literature by Walsh, Scharf and Keating (2017) in this article we

  20. Social Environments, Writing Support Networks, and Academic Writing: A Study of First Year International Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglen, Daniel Justin

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation is an inquiry into the social experiences of first year international graduate students, and how those social experiences inform their academic writing development. Drawing from the sociocognitive perspective (Atkinson, 2002; Lantolf, 2000), this study recognizes that the university is social in nature, and language learning…

  1. ROMANIA’S FACTS ABOUT INTERNAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT OF EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND FINANCED PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogar Cristian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The malfunctioning of internal control system of European Social Fund (ESF financed interventions may prejudice the sound financial management principle. Incorporating COSO principles in the beneficiary’s internal control systems may provide some warranties about compliance to the above mentioned principle as described in the EC Regulation 1605-2002. This study aims to explore some facts in actual internal control environment, as a base for future improvements of Romanian ESF beneficiary’s internal control systems ESF financed interventions covers a large range of costs for implementing labor market related services. But supporting costs according to the sound financial management principle calls for best value for money in real and legal operations. Without some specifics from the donor or a mutual accepted best practice model, most of the ESF beneficiaries are reporting their efforts to actual researches and specialized literature regarding internal control system implementation in services. This study was realized in April 2012 by applying an investigation instrument, an on-line questionnaire collecting both opinions and factual data as well to a number of 962 members of a practice community for ESF interventions implementation. This technique was used to test hypotheses regarding the premises existence for a future improvement of the existing internal control system model. 100 members of this community: managers, accountants, auditors financial responsible and other team members answered anonymously, revealing a real concern for internal control, providing as well a different side image for this. Analyzing all stakeholder answers, we may consider that our hypothesis is correct and there is a real need for internal control environment improvements. This study is a part of a larger research “New models of the accounting and internal control systems of ESF financed interventions in Romania”, addressing a qualitative

  2. Cybersecurity and privacy issues for socially integrated mobile healthcare applications operating in a multi-cloud environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Shahzad, Basit; Saleem, Kashif; Jameel, Wasif; Orgun, Mehmet A

    2017-05-01

    Social media has enabled information-sharing across massively large networks of people without spending much financial resources and time that are otherwise required in the print and electronic media. Mobile-based social media applications have overwhelmingly changed the information-sharing perspective. However, with the advent of such applications at an unprecedented scale, the privacy of the information is compromised to a larger extent if breach mitigation is not adequate. Since healthcare applications are also being developed for mobile devices so that they also benefit from the power of social media, cybersecurity privacy concerns for such sensitive applications have become critical. This article discusses the architecture of a typical mobile healthcare application, in which customized privacy levels are defined for the individuals participating in the system. It then elaborates on how the communication across a social network in a multi-cloud environment can be made more secure and private, especially for healthcare applications.

  3. Conceptual shifts needed to understand the dynamic interactions of genes, environment, epigenetics, social processes, and behavioral choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Fatimah L C; Niculescu, Mihai D; Jackson, Robert T

    2013-10-01

    Social and behavioral research in public health is often intimately tied to profound, but frequently neglected, biological influences from underlying genetic, environmental, and epigenetic events. The dynamic interplay between the life, social, and behavioral sciences often remains underappreciated and underutilized in addressing complex diseases and disorders and in developing effective remediation strategies. Using a case-study format, we present examples as to how the inclusion of genetic, environmental, and epigenetic data can augment social and behavioral health research by expanding the parameters of such studies, adding specificity to phenotypic assessments, and providing additional internal control in comparative studies. We highlight the important roles of gene-environment interactions and epigenetics as sources of phenotypic change and as a bridge between the life and social and behavioral sciences in the development of robust interdisciplinary analyses.

  4. Social and environmental changes: universal peace possible solely through creating of job opportunities in environment industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dip Ing Mohamad Sani

    2006-01-01

    Until recent there was a speed gap in the traffic branches between the track bound wheel-on-rail systems and aircraft. But this gap is now closing by the super high speed MagLev train on the base of track bound Magnetic Levitation technology. This one may now become one of the key technologies for the 21st century, as it combines essential environmental and economic advantage: i] Its propulsion energy is electricity - which means that Renewable Energies may be applied without reservation, 2] Its ecological advance vice versa aircraft is huge - pollution of the higher atmosphere e.g. differs by a factor 40 per person x kilometer, 3] At a speed of more than 200 km per hour, energy consumption is lower than and maintenance costs range at ca. 3 of which have to be calculated for high speed wheel-on-rail systems, 4] Short distance flights which stress as well the budgets of the airlines as exceptionally the environment, become obsolete where MagLev relations exist. A MagLev connection can be regarded as the quickest relation for passengers at distances of less than ca. 1000 km, 5] Intermodal traffic network as well as airport connections, which enlarge their focus according to the radio telescope system well-known from astronomy, are supported by the super high speed MagLev with a velocity up to 550 km per hour, 6] Zones of excellence and high performance management may be created at MagLev terminals - with global market access provided. By these factors, social development and environmental advance may be well-combined on the base of Renewable Energy use in a modern traffic, distribution and logistic system network

  5. Anatomy and histology as socially networked learning environments: some preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafferty, Frederic W; Castellani, Brian; Hafferty, Philip K; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2013-09-01

    An exploratory study to better understand the "networked" life of the medical school as a learning environment. In a recent academic year, the authors gathered data during two six-week blocks of a sequential histology and anatomy course at a U.S. medical college. An eight-item questionnaire captured different dimensions of student interactions. The student cohort/network was 48 first-year medical students. Using social network analysis (SNA), the authors focused on (1) the initial structure and the evolution of informal class networks over time, (2) how informal class networks compare to formal in-class small-group assignments in influencing student information gathering, and (3) how peer assignment of professionalism role model status is shaped more by informal than formal ties. In examining these latter two issues, the authors explored not only how formal group assignment persisted over time but also how it functioned to prevent the tendency for groupings based on gender or ethnicity. The study revealed an evolving dynamic between the formal small-group learning structure of the course blocks and the emergence of informal student networks. For example, whereas formal group membership did influence in-class questions and did prevent formation of groups of like gender and ethnicity, outside-class questions and professionalism were influenced more by informal group ties where gender and, to a much lesser extent, ethnicity influence student information gathering. The richness of these preliminary findings suggests that SNA may be a useful tool in examining an array of medical student learning encounters.

  6. Modeling social dimensions of oral health among older adults in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Sara S; Northridge, Mary E; Widener, Michael J; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Marshall, Stephen E; Lamster, Ira B

    2013-10-01

    In both developed and developing countries, population aging has attained unprecedented levels. Public health strategies to deliver services in community-based settings are key to enhancing the utilization of preventive care and reducing costs for this segment of the population. Motivated by concerns of inadequate access to oral health care by older adults in urban environments, this article presents a portfolio of systems science models that have been developed on the basis of observations from the ElderSmile preventive screening program operated in northern Manhattan, New York City, by the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine. Using the methodology of system dynamics, models are developed to explore how interpersonal relationships influence older adults' participation in oral health promotion. Feedback mechanisms involving word of mouth about preventive screening opportunities are represented in relation to stocks that change continuously via flows, as well as agents whose states of health care utilization change discretely using stochastic transitions. Agent-based implementations illustrate how social networks and geographic information systems are integrated into dynamic models to reflect heterogeneous and proximity-based patterns of communication and participation in the ElderSmile program. The systems science approach builds shared knowledge among an interdisciplinary research team about the dynamics of access to opportunities for oral health promotion. Using "what if" scenarios to model the effects of program enhancements and policy changes, resources may be effectively leveraged to improve access to preventive and treatment services. Furthermore, since oral health and general health are inextricably linked, the integration of services may improve outcomes and lower costs.

  7. Family Social Environment and Parenting Predictors of Alcohol Use among Adolescents in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Šumskas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of the family as the social environment in shaping adolescent lifestyle has recently received substantial attention. This study was focused on investigating the association between familial and parenting predictors and alcohol use in school-aged children. Adolescents aged 13- and 15-year from a representative sample (N = 3715 of schools in Lithuania were surveyed during the spring of 2014. The methodology of the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study was applied. HBSC international questionnaires were completed in the classroom anonymously for obtaining information about drinking of alcoholic beverages and family characteristics—family’s affluence and structure, style of communication in the family, parenting style, parental monitoring, family time together, etc. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied for assessment of the association between familial variables and weekly alcohol use. Analysis has demonstrated that adolescents from non-intact families tended to show significantly higher risk of being weekly drinkers (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.30–2.19. The following parenting factors were associated with weekly use of alcohol: father’s and mother’s low monitoring, father’s authoritarian-repressive and mother’s permissive-neglectful parenting style. Frequent family time together and frequent electronic media communication with parents showed an inverse negative effect than was predicted. The study suggests that alcohol misuse among adolescents could be associated with a non-intact family structure as well as with complex family and parenting determinants which should be investigated more thoroughly by further studies.

  8. [Neuropsychological profile in cocaine addiction: issues about addict's social environment and predictive value of cognitive status in therapeutic outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Sánchez de León, José María; Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo; Llanero Luque, Marcos; Rojo Mota, Gloria; Olivar Arroyo, Alvaro; Bouso Saiz, José Carlos; Puerta García, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    This study analyses the neuropsychological profile of a sample of cocaine addicts and compares it with a control group from the same social environment. Also, it explores the predictive power of some neuropsychological tests on treatment outcome six months after the exploration. We administered a neuropsychological battery to 30 patients with a diagnosis of cocaine abuse or cocaine dependence, and to 30 control participants with no history of drug abuse from the same social environment. Verbal learning (pfunctions most affected by cocaine use. The alterations found in the addict participants were small and non-pathognomonic, though the deficits can be correlated with impact on quality of life and on everyday occupational performance. The neuropsychological exploration showed a certain predictive capacity of abstinence after 6 months (the addict participants with better verbal mnesic performance and greater mental flexibility at the beginning of the treatment seem to benefit more from this). Finally, the results suggest that addicts live in a cognitively poor social environment. It is suggested that drug use increases previous deficits, probably of an educational or environmental origin, that are common to their immediate social context.

  9. Rural Latinos' mental wellbeing: a mixed-methods pilot study of family, environment and social isolation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R; Smith, Rebekah; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Wiens, Brenda; Cottler, Linda B

    2015-05-01

    Upon immigration to the rural areas in the US, Latino families may experience cultural, geographic, linguistic and social isolation, which can detrimentally affect their wellbeing by acting as chronic stressors. Using a community engagement approach, this is a pilot mixed-method study with an embedded design using concurrent qualitative and quantitative data. The purpose of this study is to evaluate family and social environments in terms of protective factors and modifiable risks associated with mental well-being in Latino immigrants living in rural areas of Florida. Latino immigrant mother and adolescent dyads were interviewed by using in-depth ethnographic semistructured interviews and subsequent quantitative assessments, including a demographic questionnaire and three structured instruments: the Family Environment Scale Real Form, the SF-12v2™ Health Survey and the short version (eight items) of PROMIS Health Organization Social Isolation. This mixed-method pilot study highlighted how family, rural, and social environments can protect or impair wellbeing in rural Latino immigrant mother and adolescent dyads.

  10. Social Support Networks and HIV/STI Risk Behaviors Among Latino Immigrants in a New Receiving Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D; Theall, Katherine; Schmidt, Norine; Hembling, John; Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Thompson, Michelle M; Muth, Stephen Q; Friedman, Samuel R; Kissinger, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the quantity and quality of social support networks of Latino immigrants living in a new receiving environment, and (2) determine the role such networks play in their HIV/STI risk behaviors, including substance use. Double incentivized convenience sampling was used to collect egocentric social support network data on 144 Latino immigrants. Latent class analysis was used for data reduction and to identify items best suited to measure quality and quantity of social support. Moderate and high quantity and quality of social support were protective of HIV/STI sexual risk behavior compared to low quantity and quality of support, after adjustment for gender, years in New Orleans and residing with family. Neither measure of social support was associated with binge drinking. The findings suggest that increased quantity and quality of social support decrease HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors but do not influence binge drinking. Interventions that improve the quantity and quality of social support are needed for Latino immigrants.

  11. Social environment and weather during early life influence gastro-intestinal parasite loads in a group-living mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödel, Heiko G; Starkloff, Anett

    2014-10-01

    Conditions experienced during early life have been frequently shown to exert long-term consequences on an animal's fitness. In mammals and birds, the time around and shortly after weaning is one of the crucial periods early in life. However, little is known about how social and abiotic environmental conditions experienced around this time affect fitness-related traits such as endoparasite loads. We studied consequences of social interactions and rainy weather conditions around and after weaning on gastro-intestinal nematode loads in juvenile European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus. Infestations with the gastric nematode Graphidium strigosum and with the intestinal nematode Passalurus ambiguus were higher in animals experiencing more rain during early life. This might have been due to the higher persistence of nematodes' infective stages outside the host body together with the animals' lower energy allocation for immune defence under more humid and thus energetically challenging conditions. In contrast, infestations with P. ambiguus were lower in animals with more positive social interactions with mother and litter siblings. We propose that social support provided by familiar group members buffered negative stress effects on immune function, lowering endoparasite infestations. This is supported by the negative correlation between positive social behaviour and serum corticosterone concentrations, indicating lower stress in juveniles which integrated more successfully into the social network of their group. In conclusion, the findings offer a pathway showing how differences in the abiotic environment and social life conditions experienced early in life could translate into long-term fitness consequences via the effects on endoparasite loads.

  12. An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Where am I? Who am I? The Relation Between Spatial Cognition, Social Cognition and Individual Differences in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Michael J.; Todorov, Orlin S.; Taylor Aiken, Amanda; de Sousa, Alexandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing who we are, and where we are, are two fundamental aspects of our physical and mental experience. Although the domains of spatial and social cognition are often studied independently, a few recent areas of scholarship have explored the interactions of place and self. This fits in with increasing evidence for embodied theories of cognition, where mental processes are grounded in action and perception. Who we are might be integrated with where we are, and impact how we move through space. Individuals vary in personality, navigational strategies, and numerous cognitive and social competencies. Here we review the relation between social and spatial spheres of existence in the realms of philosophical considerations, neural and psychological representations, and evolutionary context, and how we might use the built environment to suit who we are, or how it creates who we are. In particular we investigate how two spatial reference frames, egocentric and allocentric, might transcend into the social realm. We then speculate on how environments may interact with spatial cognition. Finally, we suggest how a framework encompassing spatial and social cognition might be taken in consideration by architects and urban planners. PMID:26903893

  14. Where am I? Who am I? The relation between spatial cognition, social cognition and individual differences in the built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Proulx

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowing who we are, and where we are, are two fundamental aspects of our physical and mental experience. Although the domains of spatial and social cognition are often studied independently, a few recent areas of scholarship have explored the interactions of place and self. This fits in with increasing evidence for embodied theories of cognition, where mental processes are grounded in action and perception. Who we are might be integrated with where we are, and impact how we move through space. Individuals vary in personality, navigational strategies, and numerous cognitive and social competencies. Here we review the relation between social and spatial spheres of existence in the realms of philosophical considerations, neural and psychological representations, and evolutionary context, and how we might use the built environment to suit who we are, or how it creates who we are. In particular we investigate how two spatial reference frames, egocentric and allocentric, might transcend into the social realm. We then speculate on how environments may interact with spatial cognition. Finally, we suggest how a framework encompassing spatial and social cognition might be taken in consideration by architects and urban planners.

  15. Safety in numbers: does perceived safety mediate associations between the neighborhood social environment and physical activity among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timperio, Anna; Veitch, Jenny; Carver, Alison

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine associations between the neighborhood social environment and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA)(1) and walking among women, and whether these associations are mediated by perceived personal safety. Women (n = 3784) living in disadvantaged urban and rural neighborhoods within Victoria, Australia completed a self-administered survey on five social environment variables (neighborhood crime, neighborhood violence, seeing others walking and exercising in the neighborhood, social trust/cohesion), perceived personal safety, and their physical activity in 2007/8. Linear regression analyses examined associations between social environment variables and LTPA and walking. Potential mediating pathways were assessed using the product-of-coefficients test. Moderated mediation by urban/rural residence was examined. Each social environment variable was positively associated with engaging in at least 150 min/week of LTPA (OR = 1.16 to 1.56). Only two social environment variables, seeing others walking (OR = 1.45) and exercising (OR = 1.31), were associated with ≥ 150 min/week of walking. Perceived personal safety mediated all associations. Stronger mediation was found in urban areas for crime, violence and social trust/cohesion. The neighborhood social environment is an important influence on physical activity among women living in disadvantaged areas. Feelings of personal safety should not be included in composite or aggregate scores relating to the social environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Impacts of Network Centrality and Self-Regulation on an E-Learning Environment with the Support of Social Network Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Huang, Hsieh-Hong; Chuang, Yuh-Shy

    2015-01-01

    An e-learning environment that supports social network awareness (SNA) is a highly effective means of increasing peer interaction and assisting student learning by raising awareness of social and learning contexts of peers. Network centrality profoundly impacts student learning in an SNA-related e-learning environment. Additionally,…

  17. Social sustainability in healthcare facilities: a rating tool for analysing and improving social aspects in environments of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolongo, Stefano; Gola, Marco; di Noia, Michela; Nickolova, Maria; Nachiero, Dario; Rebecchi, Andrea; Settimo, Gaetano; Vittori, Gail; Buffoli, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays several rating systems exist for the evaluation of the sustainability of buildings, but often their focus is limited to environmental and efficiency aspects. Hospitals are complex constructions in which many variables affect hospital processes. Therefore, a research group has developed a tool for the evaluation of sustainability in healthcare facilities. The paper analyses social sustainability issues through a tool which evaluates users' perception from a the quality and well-being perspective. It presents a hierarchical structure composed of a criteria and indicators system which is organised through a weighing system calculated by using the Analytic Network Process. The output is the definition of a tool which evaluates how Humanisation, Comfort and Distribution criteria can affect the social sustainability of a building. Starting from its application, it is evident that the instrument enables the improvement of healthcare facilities through several design and organisational suggestions for achieving healing and sustainable architectures.

  18. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide via zero emissions—An alternative way to a stable global environment. Part 1: Examination of the traditional stabilization concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUNO, Taroh; MARUYAMA, Koki; TSUTSUI, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    The concept of “stabilization” of atmospheric CO2 concentration is re-examined in connection with climate-change mitigation strategies. A new “zero-emissions stabilization (Z-stabilization)” is proposed, where CO2 emissions are reduced to zero at some time and thereafter the concentration is decreased by natural removal processes, eventually reaching an equilibrated stable state. Simplified climate experiments show that, under Z-stabilization, considerably larger emissions are permissible in the near future compared with traditional stabilization, with the same constraint on temperature rise. Over longer time scales, the concentration and temperature decrease close to their equilibrium values, much lower than those under traditional stabilization. The smaller temperature rise at final state is essential to avoid longer-term risk of sea level rise, a significant concern under traditional stabilization. Because of these advantages a Z-stabilization pathway can be a candidate of practical mitigation strategies as treated in Part 2. PMID:22850727

  19. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide via zero emissions--an alternative way to a stable global environment. Part 1: examination of the traditional stabilization concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Taroh; Maruyama, Koki; Tsutsui, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "stabilization" of atmospheric CO(2) concentration is re-examined in connection with climate-change mitigation strategies. A new "zero-emissions stabilization (Z-stabilization)" is proposed, where CO(2) emissions are reduced to zero at some time and thereafter the concentration is decreased by natural removal processes, eventually reaching an equilibrated stable state. Simplified climate experiments show that, under Z-stabilization, considerably larger emissions are permissible in the near future compared with traditional stabilization, with the same constraint on temperature rise. Over longer time scales, the concentration and temperature decrease close to their equilibrium values, much lower than those under traditional stabilization. The smaller temperature rise at final state is essential to avoid longer-term risk of sea level rise, a significant concern under traditional stabilization. Because of these advantages a Z-stabilization pathway can be a candidate of practical mitigation strategies as treated in Part 2.

  20. Young adults' recreational social environment as a predictor of ecstasy use initiation: findings of a population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-10-01

    To examine prospectively the contribution of the recreational social environment to ecstasy initiation. Population-based retrospective/prospective cohort study. Data from screening an Australian young adult population to obtain samples of users and non-users of ecstasy. A sample of 204 ecstasy-naive participants aged 19-23 years was obtained, and a 6-month follow-up identified those who initiated ecstasy use. We assessed a range of predictors of ecstasy initiation, including elements of participants' social environment, such as ecstasy-using social contacts and involvement in recreational settings. More than 40% of ecstasy-naive young adults reported ever receiving ecstasy offers. Ecstasy initiation after 6 months was predicted independently by having, at recruitment, many ecstasy-using social contacts [adjusted relative risk (ARR) 3.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57, 6.34], attending electronic/dance music events (ARR 6.97, 95% CI: 1.99, 24.37), receiving an ecstasy offer (ARR 4.02, 95% CI: 1.23, 13.10), early cannabis use (ARR 4.04, 95% CI: 1.78, 9.17) and psychological distress (ARR 5.34, 95% CI: 2.31, 12.33). Adjusted population-attributable fractions were highest for ecstasy-using social contacts (17.7%) and event attendance (15.1%). In Australia, ecstasy initiation in early adulthood is associated predominantly with social environmental factors, including ecstasy-using social contacts and attendance at dance music events, and is associated less commonly with psychological distress and early cannabis use, respectively. A combination of universal and targeted education programmes may be appropriate for reducing rates of ecstasy initiation and associated harms. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. The Mobile Application Social Mode of Manufacturing Enterprise under the Environment of Mobile Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Cen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the mobile internet, mobile communication technology and mobile terminal stimulate demand of mobile application in manufacturing enterprises, which makes the enterprise implement the mobile ERP. The implementation of mobile ERP changes the internal application management of manufacturing enterprises to social applications. We analyse the driving factors of implementing the mobile application social mode considering the complexity of organization relations and business processes of manufacturing enterprise. And then the mobile application social mode of the manufacturing enterprise is built based on mobile internet. Finally, we present the management strategies of the mobile application social network to provide references for the manufacturing enterprise.

  2. Can convict Cichlids (Amatitlania siquia socially learn the degree of predation risk associated with novel visual cues in their environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Barks

    Full Text Available For many animals, the ability to distinguish cues indicative of predation risk from cues unrelated to predation risk is not entirely innate, but rather is learned and improved with experience. Two pathways to such learning are possible. First, an animal could initially express antipredator behaviour toward a wide range of cues and subsequently learn which of those cues are non-threatening. Alternatively, it could initially express no antipredator behaviour toward a wide range of cues and subsequently learn which of them are threatening. While the learned recognition of threatening cues may occur either through personal interaction with a cue (asocial learning or through observation of the behaviour of social companions toward a cue (social learning, the learned recognition of non-threatening cues seems to occur exclusively through habituation, a form of asocial learning. Here, we tested whether convict cichlid fish (Amatitlaniasiquia can socially learn to recognize visual cues in their environment as either threatening or non-threatening. We exposed juvenile convict cichlids simultaneously to a novel visual cue and one of three (visual social cues: a social cue indicative of non-risk (the sight of conspecifics that had previously been habituated to the novel cue, a social cue indicative of predation risk (the sight of conspecifics trained to fear the novel cue, or a control treatment with no social cue. The subsequent response of focal fish, when presented with the novel cue alone, was not influenced by the social cue that they had previously witnessed. We therefore did not find evidence that convict cichlids in our study could use social learning to recognize novel visual cues as either threatening or non-threatening. We consider alternative explanations for our findings.

  3. HIV-related social intolerance and risky sexual behavior in a high HIV prevalence environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavande, Adeline; Sampaio, Mafalda; Sood, Neeraj

    2014-06-01

    Although most countries state that fighting social intolerance against persons with HIV is part of their national HIV strategy, the impact of reducing intolerance on risky sexual behavior is largely unknown. In this paper, we estimate the effect of social intolerance against HIV+ persons on risky sexual behavior in rural Malawi using data from roughly 2000 respondents from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The effect of social intolerance on risky behavior is a priori ambiguous. On the one hand, higher social intolerance or stigma can lead people to disassociate from the stigmatized group and hence promote risky behavior. On the other hand, intolerance can be viewed as a social tax on being HIV+ and thus higher intolerance may reduce risky behavior. We find that a decrease in social intolerance is associated with a decrease in risky behavior, including fewer partners and a lower likelihood of having extra-marital relations. This effect is mainly driven by the impact of social intolerance on men. Overall the results suggests that reducing social intolerance might not only benefit the HIV positive but might also forestall the spread of HIV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Networking Sites as Communication, Interaction, and Learning Environments: Perceptions and Preferences of Distance Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Aras; Karadeniz, Abdulkadir; Kocdar, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    The advent of Web 2.0 technologies transformed online networks into interactive spaces in which user-generated content has become the core material. With the possibilities that emerged from Web 2.0, social networking sites became very popular. The capability of social networking sites promises opportunities for communication and interaction,…

  5. Utilizing Teaching Interactions to Facilitate Social Skills in the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassardjian, Alyne; Taubman, Mitchell; Rudrud, Eric; Leaf, Justin B.; Edwards, Andrew; McEachin, John; Leaf, Ron; Schulze, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often display deficits in social skills. While research has shown behavioral interventions to be effective in teaching and/or increasing a variety of appropriate social skills, limited research has shown generalization of these skills to the natural setting. The Teaching Interaction procedure…

  6. An Observation Tool for Monitoring Social Skill Implementation in Contextually Relevant Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Joseph John; Hsiao, Yun-Ju; Dobbins, Nicole; Brown, Nancy B.; Lyons, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Skills related to social-emotional learning (SEL) are essential for college and career readiness. Failure to use appropriate skills for SEL in school is often linked to several negative academic outcomes, including rejection by school community members, academic deficits, and higher rates of problematic behavior. Social skills interventions are…

  7. The Brazilian way of life : a pleasant living environment in social housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valpoort, Beryl; van der Wiel, Bert

    2008-01-01

    Design & built Brazil 2008 aims at the development of social housing. I wanted to be part of the first student team because of my interest in Tropical en Mediterranean architecture and an ambition to work in a country with such a climate. Furthermore I believe a house is a basic need and social

  8. Web-Based Social Work Courses: Guidelines for Developing and Implementing an Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Beverly Araujo; Fenster, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Although web-based courses in schools of social work have proliferated over the past decade, the literature contains few guidelines on steps that schools can take to develop such courses. Using Knowles's framework, which delineates tasks and themes involved in implementing e-learning in social work education, this article describes the cultivation…

  9. Socialization, Personality Development, and the Child's Environments: Comment on Vandell (2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Judith Rich

    2000-01-01

    Maintains that context effects and genetic effects are among the confounding factors that make it impossible to reject the null hypothesis of zero long-term parenting effects on child outcomes. Asserts that group socialization theory attributes outside-the-home socialization to identification with a peer group and assimilation of group norms, but…

  10. In situ unsaturated zone water stable isotope (2H and 18O) measurements in semi-arid environments: a soil water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaj, Marcel; Beyer, Matthias; Koeniger, Paul; Wanke, Heike; Hamutoko, Josefina; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Stable isotopes (deuterium, 2H, and oxygen-18, 18O) of soil water were measured in the field using a liquid water isotope analyzer (tunable off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscope, OA-ICOS, LGR) and commercially available soil gas probes (BGL-30, UMS, Munich) in the semi-arid Cuvelai-Etosha Basin (CEB), Namibia. Results support the applicability of an in situ measurement system for the determination of stable isotopes in soil pore water. High spatial and temporal resolution was achieved in the study area with reasonable accuracy and measurements were in agreement with laboratory-based cryogenic vacuum extraction and subsequent cavity ring-down laser spectroscopic isotope analysis (CRDS, L2120-i, Picarro Inc.). After drift and span correction of the in situ isotope data, precision for over 140 measurements taken during two consecutive field campaigns (June and November 2014) was 1.8 and 0.48 ‰ for δ2H and δ18O, respectively. Mean measurement trueness is determined using quality check standards and was 5 and 0.3 ‰ for δ2H and δ18O, respectively. The isotope depth profiles are used quantitatively to calculate a soil water balance. The contribution of transpiration to total evapotranspiration ranged between 72 and 92 %. Shortly after a rain event, the contribution of transpiration was much lower, at 35 to 50 %. Potential limitations of such an in situ system are related to environmental conditions which could be minimized by using a temperature-controlled chamber for the laser spectrometer. Further, the applicability of the system using previously oven-dried soil material might be limited by physicochemical soil properties (i.e., clay minerals). Uncertainty in the in situ system is suggested to be reduced by improving the calibration procedure and further studying fractionation effects influencing the isotope ratios in the soil water, especially at low water contents. Furthermore, the influence of soil-respired CO2 on isotope values within the root zone

  11. Residential Racial Composition and Black-White Obesity Risks: Differential Effects of Neighborhood Social and Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between neighborhood racial composition and adult obesity risks by race and gender, and explores whether neighborhood social and built environment mediates the observed protective or detrimental effects of racial composition on obesity risks. Cross-sectional data from the 2006 and 2008 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey are merged with census-tract profiles from 2005–2009 American Community Survey and Geographic Information System-based built-environment data. The analytical sample includes 12,730 whites and 4,290 blacks residing in 953 census tracts. Results from multilevel analysis suggest that black concentration is associated with higher obesity risks only for white women, and this association is mediated by lower neighborhood social cohesion and socioeconomic status (SES in black-concentrated neighborhoods. After controlling for neighborhood SES, black concentration and street connectivity are associated with lower obesity risks for white men. No association between black concentration and obesity is found for blacks. The findings point to the intersections of race and gender in neighborhood effects on obesity risks, and highlight the importance of various aspects of neighborhood social and built environment and their complex roles in obesity prevention by socio-demographic groups.

  12. Genomic Analysis of Genotype-by-Social Environment Interaction for Drosophila melanogaster Aggressive Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Gartner, Bryn; Ward, Kirsty

    2017-01-01

    Human psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder often include adverse behaviors including increased aggressiveness. Individuals with psychiatric disorders often exhibit social withdrawal, which can further increase the probability...... previously been associated with aggressive behavior in Drosophila and mice. Further, many of these genes have human orthologs that have been associated with neurological disorders, indicating partially shared genetic mechanisms underlying aggression in animal models and human psychiatric disorders....... behavior, as well as significant genotype-by-social environ- mental interaction (GSEI); i.e., variation among DGRP genotypes in the degree to which social isolation affected aggression. We performed genome-wide association (GWA) analyses to identify genetic variants associated with aggression within each...

  13. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals' experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience), environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice) and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (pSocial factors included number of animals functionally housed together (Social Experience) and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (psocial or housing differences between African (N = 138) and Asian (N = 117) species or between males (N = 54) and females (N = 201). The most notable exception was Total Space Experience, with African and male elephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-valuehousing and social variables evaluated herein have been used in a series of subsequent epidemiological analyses relating to various elephant welfare outcomes.

  14. Study of the geochemistry of the cosmogenic isotope 10Be and the stable isotope 9Be in oceanic environment. Application to marine sediment dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourles, D.

    1988-01-01

    The radioisotope 10 Be is formed by spallation reactions in the atmosphere. It is transferred to the oceans in soluble form by precipitation and dry deposition. The stable isotope 9 Be comes from erosion of soils and rocks in the Earth's crust. It is transported by wind and rivers and introduced to the oceans probably in both soluble and insoluble form. 9 Be was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry and 10 Be by A.M.S. The distribution of 10 Be and 9 Be between each phase extracted and the 10 Be/ 9 Be ratios associated were studied in recent marine sediments from Atlantic, Pacific, Indian oceans and Mediterranean sea. The results show that for beryllium the two essential constituent phases of marine sediments are: - the authigenic phase incorporates the soluble beryllium and the detritic phase. The 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio associated with the authigenic fraction varies with location. This suggests that the residence time of beryllium in the soluble phase is lower or comparable to the mixing time of the oceans. The evolution with time of the authigenic 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio is discussed [fr

  15. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of organic contaminants in natural environments: a critical review of the state of the art, prospects, and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Torsten C.; Haderlein, Stefan B.; Zwank, Luc; Elsner, Martin; Berg, Michael; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2004-01-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) has developed into a mature analytical method in many application areas over the last decade. This is in particular true for carbon isotope analysis, whereas measurements of the other elements amenable to CSIA (hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen) are much less routine. In environmental sciences, successful applications to date include (i) the allocation of contaminant sources on a local, regional, and global scale, (ii) the identification and quantification of (bio)transformation reactions on scales ranging from batch experiments to contaminated field sites, and (iii) the characterization of elementary reaction mechanisms that govern product formation. These three application areas are discussed in detail. The investigated spectrum of compounds comprises mainly n-alkanes, monoaromatics such as benzene and toluene, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and chlorinated hydrocarbons such as tetrachloromethane, trichloroethylene, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Future research directions are primarily set by the state of the art in analytical instrumentation and method development. Approaches to utilize HPLC separation in CSIA, the enhancement of sensitivity of CSIA to allow field investigations in the μg L -1 range, and the development of methods for CSIA of other elements are reviewed. Furthermore, an alternative scheme to evaluate isotope data is outlined that would enable estimates of position-specific kinetic isotope effects and, thus, allow one to extract mechanistic chemical and biochemical information. (orig.)

  16. Social Media in the Dental School Environment, Part A: Benefits, Challenges, and Recommendations for Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, Heiko; Turner, Sharon P; Donate-Bartfield, Evelyn; Chambers, David; McAndrew, Maureen; Zarkowski, Pamela; Karimbux, Nadeem

    2015-10-01

    Social media consist of powerful tools that impact not only communication but relationships among people, thus posing an inherent challenge to the traditional standards of who we are as dental educators and what we can expect of each other. This article examines how the world of social media has changed dental education. Its goal is to outline the complex issues that social media use presents for academic dental institutions and to examine these issues from personal, professional, and legal perspectives. After providing an update on social media, the article considers the advantages and risks associated with the use of social media at the interpersonal, professional, and institutional levels. Policies and legal issues of which academic dental institutions need to be aware from a compliance perspective are examined, along with considerations and resources needed to develop effective social media policies. The challenge facing dental educators is how to capitalize on the benefits that social media offer, while minimizing risks and complying with the various forms of legal constraint.

  17. The Role of Education for Democracy in Linking Social Justice to the "Built" Environment: The Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Paul R.; Pluim, Gary; Thésée, Gina

    2014-01-01

    The manner in which the built environment is constructed has a tremendous effect on the degree to which health, wealth and social outcomes are distributed within a society. This is particularly evident when a crisis of the natural environment affects the built environment, as was the case after the Haitian earthquake of 2010. Understanding the…

  18. The role of the family environment and computer-mediated social support on breast cancer patients' coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Woohyun; Shah, Dhavan V; Shaw, Bret R; Kim, Eunkyung; Smaglik, Paul; Roberts, Linda J; Hawkins, Robert P; Pingree, Suzanne; McDowell, Helene; Gustafson, David H

    2014-09-01

    Despite the importance of family environment and computer-mediated social support (CMSS) for women with breast cancer, little is known about the interplay of these sources of care and assistance on patients' coping strategies. To understand this relation, the authors examined the effect of family environment as a predictor of the use of CMSS groups as well as a moderator of the relation between group participation and forms of coping. Data were collected from 111 patients in CMSS groups in the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System "Living with Breast Cancer" intervention. Results indicate that family environment plays a crucial role in (a) predicting breast cancer patient's participation in CMSS groups and (b) moderating the effects of use of CMSS groups on breast cancer patients' coping strategies such as problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping.

  19. [Evaluation of the nurse working environment in health and social care intermediate care units in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullich-Marín, Ingrid; Miralles Basseda, Ramón; Torres Egea, Pilar; Planas-Campmany, Carme; Juvé-Udina, María Eulalia

    A favourable work environment contributes to greater job satisfaction and improved working conditions for nurses, a fact that could influence the quality of patient outcomes. The aim of the study is two-fold: Identifying types of centres, according to the working environment assessment made by nurses in intermediate care units, and describing the individual characteristics of nurses related to this assessment. An observational, descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional, and multicentre study was conducted in the last quarter of 2014. Nurses in intermediate care units were given a questionnaire containing the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) which assesses five factors of the work environment using 31 items. Sociodemographic, employment conditions, professional and educational variables were also collected. From a sample of 501 nurses from 14 centres, 388 nurses participated (77% response). The mean score on the PES-NWI was 84.75. Nine centres scored a "favourable" working environment and five "mixed". The best valued factor was "work relations" and the worst was "resource provision/adaptation". Rotating shift work, working in several units at the same time, having management responsibilities, and having a master degree were the characteristics related to a better perception of the nursing work environment. In most centres, the working environment was perceived as favourable. Some employment conditions, professional, and educational characteristics of nurses were related to the work environment assessment. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Using a computer learning environment for initial training in dealing with social - communicative problems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsbrink-Engels, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    The most widely practised instructional method for the development of interpersonal skills is role-play. Role-play is supposed to be a complex learning environment for novices to develop interpersonal skills. The learning environment is complex because of two factors. Firstly, the cognitive load is

  1. Social and Nonsocial Home Environments of Infants with Nonorganic Failure-to-Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Patrick H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Comparison of 23 infants with nonorganic failure to thrive (NOFT) and 23 controls revealed that scores on the total Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Scale and subscales of maternal acceptance, organization of physical environment, and emotional responsivity were significantly less favorable for NOFT Ss. (Author/CL)

  2. Methane oxidation in industrial biogas plants-Insights in a novel methanotrophic environment evidenced by pmoA gene analyses and stable isotope labelling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Tobias; Polag, Daniela; Keppler, Frank; Greule, Markus; Müller, Liane; König, Helmut

    2018-03-20

    A broad methanotrophic community consisting of 16 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was detected by particulate methane monooxygenase A (pmoA) gene analyses of reactor sludge samples obtained from an industrial biogas plant. Using a cloning-sequencing approach, 75% of the OTUs were affiliated to the group of type I methanotrophs (γ-Proteobacteria) and 25% to type II methanotrophs (α-Proteobacteria) with a distinct predominance of the genus Methylobacter. By database matching, half of the total OTUs may constitute entirely novel species. For evaluation of process conditions that support growth of methanotrophic bacteria, qPCR analyses of pmoA gene copy numbers were performed during a sampling period of 70 days at varying reactor feeding scenarios. During the investigation period, methanotrophic cell counts estimated by qPCR fluctuated between 3.4 × 10 4 and 2 × 10 5 cells/mL with no distinct correlation to the organic loading rate, the amount of CH 4 , O 2 and NH 4 -N. Methanotrophic activity was proofed even at low O 2 levels (1%) by using stable carbon isotope labelling experiments of CH 4 in batch experiments inoculated with reactor sludge. Supplementation of 13 C labelled CH 4 in the headspace of the reaction vials unambiguously confirmed the formation of 13 C labelled CO 2 . Thus, industrial biogas reactors can be considered as a further methanotrophic habitat that exhibits a unique methanotrophic community which is specifically adapted to high CH 4 and low O 2 concentrations. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first accurate detection and quantification of methanotrophic bacteria in industrial biogas reactors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Mobile Application Social Mode of Manufacturing Enterprise under the Environment of Mobile Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo Cen; Zhang Xumei; Wang Xingshan

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development of the mobile internet, mobile communication technology and mobile terminal stimulate demand of mobile application in manufacturing enterprises, which makes the enterprise implement the mobile ERP. The implementation of mobile ERP changes the internal application management of manufacturing enterprises to social applications. We analyse the driving factors of implementing the mobile application social mode considering the complexity of organization relations and business...

  4. TEAM EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE: LINKING TEAM SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL ENVIRONMENT TO TEAM EFFECTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Urch Druskat, Vanessa; Wolff, Steven B.; Messer, Tracey Eira; Stubbs Koman, Elizabeth; Batista-Foguet, Joan-Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Work teams are labelled “emotional incubators” because of the ubiquitous emotion generated as team members work together. Although this emotion affects team processes and effectiveness, little theory or research has provided practical information about how teams can manage emotion so that it supports, rather than hinders, team effectiveness. To solve this problem, we draw on social psychological theory suggesting that emotion in teams primarily comes from whether team members’ social and emot...

  5. Policy gaps and technological deficiencies in social networking environments: Implications for information sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Mutula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the growing adoption and acceptance of social networking, there are increased concerns about the violation of the users’ legitimate rights such as privacy, confidentiality, trust, security, safety, content ownership, content accuracy, integrity, access and accessibility to computer and digital networks amongst others.Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS.Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively.Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate.Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.

  6. The Good- & Socially Sustainable Street, from a Human Perspective : Focusing on the Relationship between Physical Environments and Social Life, with Hornsgatan in Stockholm as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Thurell, Erik

    2012-01-01

    With over 300 years serving as a traffic route it is no wonder that Hornsgatan has the role of a major ‘artery’ in today’s Stockholm. This thesis will analyze and investigate how the street environment on Hornsgatan is affecting the people spending time on the street, and how a better street life and street quality can be brought out when it comes to enhance the social aspects for the street and its people. Through methods such as observations of the street and interviews with business owners...

  7. Examining College Students' Social Environment, Normative Beliefs, and Attitudes in Subsequent Initiation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Deepti; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-01

    Although use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) is increasingly prevalent among young adults, little is known about predictors of ENDS initiation among this population. We examined the roles of the social environment (i.e., peer ENDS use and household ENDS use), normative beliefs (i.e., social acceptability of ENDS use), and attitudes (i.e., inclination to date someone who uses ENDS) in prospectively predicting initiation of ENDS over a 1-year period among 18- to 29-year-old college students. Participants were 2,110 (18- to 29-year-old) students ( M = 20.27, SD = 2.17) from 24 colleges in Texas who participated in a three-wave online survey, with 6 months between each wave. All participants reported never using ENDS at baseline. A multivariable, multilevel logistic regression model, accounting for clustering of students within colleges, was used to assess if students' social environment, normative beliefs, and attitudes predicted subsequent initiation of ENDS up to 1 year later, adjusting for various sociodemographic factors and number of other tobacco products used. In all, 329 college students (16%) initiated ENDS within 1 year. Results from the logistic regression indicated that college students who were younger (18-24 years old), ever used other tobacco products, indicated a more dense peer network of ENDS users, and had a higher inclination to date someone who uses ENDS had higher odds of initiating ENDS than their peers. Preventing ENDS initiation should be included in college health promotion programs, which should highlight the roles of students' social environment and attitudes regarding ENDS use.

  8. Contributions of a Child’s Built, Natural, and Social Environments to Their General Cognitive Ability: A Systematic Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jazmin Del Carmen; Quackenboss, James J.; Tulve, Nicolle S.

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of a child’s cognitive ability is complex, with research suggesting that it is not attributed to a single determinant or even a defined period of exposure. Rather, cognitive development is the product of cumulative interactions with the environment, both negative and positive, over the life course. The aim of this systematic scoping review was to collate evidence associated with children’s cognitive health, including inherent factors as well as chemical and non-chemical stressors from the built, natural, and social environments. Three databases were used to identify recent epidemiological studies (2003–2013) that examined exposure factors associated with general cognitive ability in children. Over 100 factors were evaluated from 258 eligible studies. We found that recent literature mainly assessed the hypothesized negative effects of either inherent factors or chemical exposures present in the physical environment. Prenatal growth, sleep health, lead and water pollutants showed consistent negative effects. Of the few studies that examined social stressors, results consistently showed cognitive development to be influenced by both positive and negative social interactions at home, in school or the community. Among behavioral factors related to diet and lifestyle choices of the mother, breastfeeding was the most studied, showing consistent positive associations with cognitive ability. There were mostly inconsistent results for both chemical and non-chemical stressors. The majority of studies utilized traditional exposure assessments, evaluating chemical and non-chemical stressors separately. Collective evidence from a limited number of studies revealed that cumulative exposure assessment that incorporates multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors over the life course may unravel the variability in effect on cognitive development and help explain the inconsistencies across studies. Future research examining the interactions of multiple stressors

  9. Contributions of a Child's Built, Natural, and Social Environments to Their General Cognitive Ability: A Systematic Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jazmin Del Carmen; Quackenboss, James J; Tulve, Nicolle S

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of a child's cognitive ability is complex, with research suggesting that it is not attributed to a single determinant or even a defined period of exposure. Rather, cognitive development is the product of cumulative interactions with the environment, both negative and positive, over the life course. The aim of this systematic scoping review was to collate evidence associated with children's cognitive health, including inherent factors as well as chemical and non-chemical stressors from the built, natural, and social environments. Three databases were used to identify recent epidemiological studies (2003-2013) that examined exposure factors associated with general cognitive ability in children. Over 100 factors were evaluated from 258 eligible studies. We found that recent literature mainly assessed the hypothesized negative effects of either inherent factors or chemical exposures present in the physical environment. Prenatal growth, sleep health, lead and water pollutants showed consistent negative effects. Of the few studies that examined social stressors, results consistently showed cognitive development to be influenced by both positive and negative social interactions at home, in school or the community. Among behavioral factors related to diet and lifestyle choices of the mother, breastfeeding was the most studied, showing consistent positive associations with cognitive ability. There were mostly inconsistent results for both chemical and non-chemical stressors. The majority of studies utilized traditional exposure assessments, evaluating chemical and non-chemical stressors separately. Collective evidence from a limited number of studies revealed that cumulative exposure assessment that incorporates multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors over the life course may unravel the variability in effect on cognitive development and help explain the inconsistencies across studies. Future research examining the interactions of multiple stressors within

  10. Constructing Media Artifacts in a Social Constructivist Environment to Enhance Students' Environmental Awareness and Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2015-02-01

    Current science education reforms and policy documents highlight the importance of environmental awareness and perceived need for activism. As "environmental problems are socially constructed in terms of their conceptualized effects on individuals, groups, other living things and systems research based on constructivist principles provides not only a coherent framework in which to theorize about learning, but also a context for understanding socially constructed issues" (Palmer and Suggate in Res Pap Educ 19(2), 2004, p. 208). This research study investigated the impacts of the learning processes structured based on the theories of constructionism and social constructivism on students' environmental awareness and perceived need for activism. Students constructed multimedia artifacts expressing their knowledge, attitudes, awareness, and activism about environmental issues through a constructionist design process. In addition, a social networking site was designed and used to promote social interaction among students. Twenty-two high school environmental science students participated in this study. A convergent mixed methods design was implemented to allow for the triangulation of methods by directly comparing and contrasting quantitative results with qualitative findings for corroboration and validation purposes. Using a mixed method approach, quantitative findings are supported with qualitative data (student video projects, writing prompts, blog entries, video projects of the students, observational field notes, and reflective journals) including spontaneous responses in both synchronous and asynchronous conversations on the social network to provide a better understanding of the change in students' environmental awareness and perceived need for activism. The findings of the study indicated that students' environmental awareness and perceived need for activism were improved at different scales (personal, community, global) throughout the constructionist and social

  11. Cognitive Performance Is Highly Stable over a 2-Year-Follow-Up in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients in a Dedicated Medical Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, Janine; Todica, Olga; Seidel, Ulla K; Volsek, Michaela; Kribben, Andreas; Bruck, Heike; Hermann, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    As kidney and brain functions decline with aging, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dementia are becoming increasing health burdens worldwide. Among the risk factors for cognitive impairment, CKD is increasingly recognized. The precise impact of CKD on the development of cognitive impairment is poorly understood. In the New Tools for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease (NTCVD) cohort, which was recruited in a dedicated nephrology department, we examined the 2-year course of cognitive performance in 120 patients (73 patients with CKD stages 3-5D, 47 control patients without CKD with similar vascular risk profile) using a comprehensive battery of 10 neuropsychological tests. Kidney function, vascular risk factors and cognitive performance were highly stable both in CKD and control patients. The summary score of cognitive performance in CKD patients was very similar at baseline (z = -0.63±0.76) and follow-up (z = -0.54±0.79, p = 0.113), as was cognitive performance in control patients (z = -0.01±0.59 and 0.01±0.70, p = 0.862, at baseline and follow-up, respectively). Total serum cholesterol (199.6±36.0 and 186.0±32.9, p = 0.005 in controls; 194.4±46.1 and 181.2±41.2, p = 0.008 in CKD) and common carotid intima-media thickness (0.87±0.18 and 0.84±0.17, p = 0.351 in controls; 0.88±0.21 and 0.82±0.16, p = 0.002 in CKD) moderately but significantly decreased during the follow-up. In multivariable regression analyses, high age (β = -0.28, 95%CI = -0.48 to 0.08, p = 0.007) predicted decrease in cognitive performance. In this well-defined cohort receiving state-of-the-art therapy, cognitive performance did not decrease over 2 years. Our data emphasize the aspect of risk factor control, suggesting that dedicated medical care might prevent cognitive decline in CKD patients.

  12. Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2008-06-05

    How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

  13. Policy gaps and technological deficiencies in social networking environments: Implications for information sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Mutula

    2013-06-01

    Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS. Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively. Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate. Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.

  14. The impact of green logistic based on financial economic, social and environment activities on sustainable monetary expansion indicators of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Alshubiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine green logistic activities by three axes (financial economic, social and environment activities and how these activities affect on sustainable monetary expansion indicators as an evidence of Sultanate of Oman. Design/methodology/approach: This study began by definition elements of logistic green and how evolution of this concept in recent years. This concept analyzed after survey of previous studies on green logistic. The independent variables of green logistic  are includes of three components of financial economic , social and environment and applies these components to clarify the impact on expansionary monetary policy indicators ( broad , narrow and reserve money as a important signals  in determining a country's economy. This study used data published in statistical annual report of central bank of Oman as representative of country economic of sultanate of Oman from the period 2008 to 2015.  Findings: The results found two variables of government support to electricity sector (GSE and subsidy on soft loans to private sector and housing (SSLPH based on environment activities are statistical significant 1% and 5%. Only one variable of transport and communication (TC in financial economic activates is statistical significant at 1% and 5% , but all variables community, social and personal (CSP , cultural and religious affairs (CRA and social security and welfare (SSW in social activities are statistical significant at 1% 5% and 10% , finally , also the multiple regression test run of all variables of green logistics activities and each monetary expansion indicators and found there are a statistical significant at 1% and 5%, .The study recommends that should be attention with financial economic activities as a quantitative standard contributes to build the green logistic by diagnosed the priorities and existing economic and financial system that contributes of  sustainable development system in

  15. Growing community: the impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the social and learning environment in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie

    2012-08-01

    This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has a positive impact on student engagement, social connections, and confidence within and beyond the school gates. Primary evidence for the research question came from qualitative data collected from students, parents, teachers, volunteers, school principals, and specialist staff through interviews, focus groups, and participant observations. This was supported by analyses of quantitative data on child quality of life, cooperative behaviors, teacher perceptions of the school environment, and school-level educational outcome and absenteeism data. Results showed that some of the program attributes valued most highly by study participants included increased student engagement and confidence, opportunities for experiential and integrated learning, teamwork, building social skills, and connections and links between schools and their communities. In this analysis, quantitative findings failed to support findings from the primary analysis. Limitations as well as benefits of a mixed-methods approach to evaluation of complex community interventions are discussed.

  16. From outer space to Earth-The social significance of isolated and confined environment research in human space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Koji; Tachibana, Shoichi; Inoue, Natsuhiko

    2017-11-01

    Human space exploration requires massive budgets every fiscal year. Especially under severe financial constraint conditions, governments are forced to justify to society why spending so much tax revenue for human space exploration is worth the cost. The value of human space exploration might be estimated in many ways, but its social significance and cost-effectiveness are two key ways to gauge that worth. Since these measures should be applied country by country because sociopolitical conditions differ in each country and must be taken into consideration, the study on the social significance of human space exploration must take the coloration of a case-study. This paper, focusing on the case of Japan with surveying Japanese literary and national documents as well as taking its sociopolitical conditions into account, examines the social significance of human space exploration. First, we give an overview of the circumstances surrounding Japan's human space exploration program. Derived from the statements of such relevant parties as scholars, journalists, policy makers, and astronauts, this overview indicates that the main concerns about human space exploration in Japan are its social significance and cost-effectiveness (Section 1). Next, an overview of behavioral science-an essential field for human space exploration (referred to in this paper as space behavioral science) that provides support for astronauts-is presented from the perspective of stress research in isolated and confined environments (Section 2). We then give two examples of where such knowledge from space behavioral science research has been applied to terrestrial isolated and confined environments. One is JAXA's support in 2009 for people who were vulnerable to infection by a new strain of flu and accordingly placed in an isolated and confined facility under the Infectious Disease Law and the Quarantine Law. The other is NASA's support in 2010 for Chilean mine workers who were trapped 700 m

  17. Socially Responsible Mining: the Relationship between Mining and Poverty, Human Health and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Raina M.; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Field, James A.; Hopkins, James; Klein, Bern; Poulton, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing global demand for metals is straining the ability of the mining industry to physically keep up with demand (physical scarcity). On the other hand, social issues including the environmental and human health consequences of mining as well as the disparity in income distribution from mining revenues are disproportionately felt at the local community level. This has created social rifts, particularly in the developing world, between affected communities and both industry and governments. Such rifts can result in a disruption of the steady supply of metals (situational scarcity). Here we discuss the importance of mining in relationship to poverty, identify steps that have been taken to create a framework for socially responsible mining, and then discuss the need for academia to work in partnership with communities, government, and industry to develop trans-disciplinary research-based step change solutions to the intertwined problems of physical and situational scarcity. PMID:24552962

  18. Evaluation of social interaction, task management, and trust among dental hygiene students in a collaborative learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Catherine D; Keselyak, Nancy T; Simmer-Beck, Melanie; Tira, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of collaborative learning on the development of social interaction, task management, and trust in dental hygiene students. These three traits were assessed with the Teamwork Assessment Scale in two different learning environments (traditional lecture/lab and collaborative learning environment). A convenience sample of fifty-six entry-level dental hygiene students taking an introductory/preclinic course at two metropolitan area dental hygiene programs provided comparable experimental and control groups. Factor scores were computed for the three traits, and comparisons were conducted using the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsh multiple comparison procedure among specific cell comparisons generated from a two-factor repeated measures ANOVA. The results indicate that the collaborative learning environment influenced dental hygiene students positively regarding the traits of social interaction, task management, and trust. However, comparing dental hygiene students to undergraduate students overall indicates that dental hygiene students already possess somewhat higher levels of these traits. Future studies on active learning strategies should examine factors such as student achievement and explore other possible active learning methodologies.

  19. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Meehan

    Full Text Available We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals' experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience, environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (p<0.001. Elephants spent an average of 55.1% of their time outdoors, 28.9% indoors, and 16% in areas with a choice between being in or out. Time spent on hard flooring substrate ranged from 0% to 66.7%, with Night values significantly greater than Day (p<0.001. Social factors included number of animals functionally housed together (Social Experience and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (p<0.001. There were few significant social or housing differences between African (N = 138 and Asian (N = 117 species or between males (N = 54 and females (N = 201. The most notable exception was Total Space Experience, with African and male elephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-value<0.05. The housing and social variables evaluated herein have been used in a series of subsequent epidemiological analyses relating to various elephant welfare outcomes.

  20. The Relationship of Built Environment to Perceived Social Support and Psychological Distress in Hispanic Elders: The Role of “Eyes on the Street”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Craig A.; Lombard, Joanna L.; Martinez, Frank; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Spokane, Arnold R.; Newman, Frederick L.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2009-01-01

    Background Research on contextual and neighborhood effects increasingly includes the built (physical) environment's influences on health and social well-being. A population-based study examined whether architectural features of the built environment theorized to promote observations and social interactions (e.g., porches, windows) predict Hispanic elders’ psychological distress. Methods Coding of built environment features of all 3,857 lots across 403 blocks in East Little Havana, Florida, and enumeration of elders in 16,000 households was followed by assessments of perceived social support and psychological distress in a representative sample of 273 low socioeconomic status (SES) Hispanic elders. Structural-equation modeling was used to assess relationships between block-level built environment features, elders’ perceived social support, and psychological distress. Results Architectural features of the front entrance such as porches that promote visibility from a building's exterior were positively associated with perceived social support. In contrast, architectural features such as window areas that promote visibility from a building's interior were negatively associated with perceived social support. Perceived social support in turn was associated with reduced psychological distress after controlling for demographics. Additionally, perceived social support mediated the relationship of built environment variables to psychological distress. Conclusions Architectural features that facilitate direct, in-person interactions may be beneficial for Hispanic elders’ mental health. PMID:19196696

  1. Internet Safety Gone Wild? Sacrificing the Educational and Psychosocial Benefits of Online Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynes, Brendesha M.

    2007-01-01

    Many Internet safety and parenting experts suggest that parents prohibit their teens from social networking sites and other online spaces where predators may lurk. But we may do adolescents a disservice when we curtail their participation in these spaces, because the educational and psychosocial benefits of this type of communication can far…

  2. Social roles and the evolution of networks in extreme and isolated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Boster, James S.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on the evolution of network structure as it relates to formal and informal social roles in well-bounded, isolated groups. Research was conducted at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Data were collected on crewmembers' networks of social interaction over each of three winter-over periods, when the station is completely isolated. In addition, data were collected on the informal roles played by crewmembers (e.g., instrumental leadership, expressive leadership). The study found that globally coherent networks in winter-over groups were associated with group consensus on the presence of critically important informal social roles (e.g., expressive leadership) where global coherence is the extent to which a network forms a single group composed of a unitary core and periphery as opposed to being factionalized into two or more subgroups. Conversely, the evolution of multiple subgroups was associated with the absence of consensus on critical informal social roles, above all the critically important role of instrumental leader.

  3. Moving beyond Green: Sustainable Development toward Healthy Environments, Social Justice, and Strong Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability initiatives in higher education in general and student affairs specifically must recognize the impact of one's present decisions on environmental health, social justice, and economic strength. Efforts must push beyond "green" ideas to identify solutions that move toward a future that is environmentally capable, more just and…

  4. Between the Social and the Selfish: Learner Autonomy in Online Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores what it means to be an autonomous learner in an online social context. Using distinctions originally drawn by Jürgen Habermas, it argues that classic accounts of learner autonomy as teleological action are inadequate to explain learner activity in group settings. It points out that learners in such settings display attitudes…

  5. Increasing Physical and Social Activity through Virtual Coaching in an Ambient Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breda, Ward; Brandenburgh, Arjen; van der Ham, Wim; Roelofsma, Peter; Klein, Michel; Moeskops, Lisette

    This paper describes the development and the validation of an ambient system (AAL-VU) that empowers its users in self-management of daily activities and social connectedness. The system combines state-of-the-art psychological knowledge on elderly user requirements for sustained behavior change with

  6. Social Network Analysis in E-Learning Environments: A Preliminary Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Karina L.; Sicilia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    E-learning occupies an increasingly prominent place in education. It provides the learner with a rich virtual network where he or she can exchange ideas and information and create synergies through interactions with other members of the network, whether fellow learners or teachers. Social network analysis (SNA) has proven extremely powerful at…

  7. Using Social Media to Improve Student-Instructor Communication in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong; Shen, Yide; Li, Lei

    2018-01-01

    The lack of effective faculty-student interaction has been identified as a main contributor to the high dropout rate in online education. For this paper, the authors conducted an empirical study using a social networking tool, specifically Facebook, to improve student-instructor communication and student performance in an online learning…

  8. Effects of iPod Touch™ Technology as Communication Devices on Peer Social Interactions across Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancil, G. Richmond; Lorah, Elizabeth R.; Whitby, Peggy Schaefer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of the iPod Touch™ as a Speech Generated Device (SGD) for Functional Communication Training (FCT). The evaluation of the effects on problem behavior, the effects on generalization and maintenance of the acquired communication repertoire, and the social initiations of peers between the new SGD (iPod…

  9. "The Social Network" and the Legal Environment of Business: An Opportunity for Student-Centered Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Aaron Sorkin has a passion for words--his signature movie and television scripts are fast talking, jargon laced, word pictures that are instantly recognizable. "The Social Network," Sorkin's 2011 Academy Award Winning movie about the founding of Facebook, Inc., offers more than just witty banter; it provides an ideal teaching platform for…

  10. Social environment and sex differentiation in the false clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Eri; Nagai, Yukiko; Hyoudou, Mai; Sasaki, Hideaki

    2008-02-01

    Plasticity in sex differentiation is known to be common in teleost fishes. Anemonefishes are protandrous; females are the largest and dominant members of social groups, displaying frequent aggressive behavior towards other members of groups. The second-ranked individuals become males and others remain as non-reproductive individuals. Here we examine the influence of social interaction in-group on sex differentiation in the false clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris, under laboratory conditions. Three juvenile anemonefish were kept in a tank for 180 days and their behaviors observed once a month. The social rank of individuals was distinguishable by their interactions in a group, with rank order clearly correlated with aggressive and appeasing behaviors. The dominant individuals occupied the shelter in the tank from the start to completion of the observation period. The body mass of dominant individuals increased compared to group-housed control fish, while third-ranked individuals showed growth suppression. The ratio of testicular tissue in gonads increased in dominant and second-ranked individuals but decreased in the third-ranked individuals. Differences in the plasma concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, and cortisol were not significant, but the concentration of 11-ketotestosterone was significantly higher in dominant individuals. These results suggest that, in false clown anemonefish, reproductive suppression of lower-ranked individuals becomes apparent in the first stage of group formation, and sex differentiation of upper-ranked individuals is gradually determined by long-term social interactions.

  11. Genetic monogamy despite variable ecological conditions and social environment in the cooperatively breeding apostlebird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Miyako H; Rollins, Lee Ann; Raihani, Nichola J; Russell, Andrew F; Griffith, Simon C

    2013-11-01

    Mating strategies may be context-dependent and may vary across ecological and social contexts, demonstrating the role of these factors in driving the variation in genetic polyandry within and among species. Here, we took a longitudinal approach across 5 years (2006-2010), to study the apostlebird (Struthidea cinerea), an Australian cooperatively breeding bird, whose reproduction is affected by ecological "boom and bust" cycles. Climatic variation drives variation in the social (i.e., group sizes, proportion of males and females) and ecological (i.e., plant and insect abundance) context in which mating occurs. By quantifying variation in both social and ecological factors and characterizing the genetic mating system across multiple years using a molecular parentage analysis, we found that the genetic mating strategy did not vary among years despite significant variation in rainfall, driving primary production, and insect abundance, and corresponding variation in social parameters such as breeding group size. Group sizes in 2010, an ecologically good year, were significantly smaller (mean = 5.8 ± 0.9, n = 16) than in the drought affected years, between 2006 and 2008, (mean = 9.1 ± 0.5, n = 63). Overall, apostlebirds were consistently monogamous with few cases of multiple maternity or paternity (8 of 78 nests) across all years.

  12. Wilderness social science responding to change in society, policy, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell

    2014-01-01

    Wilderness social science has changed over the 50 years since passage of the Wilderness Act. This research was initially heavily influenced by the need to operationalize definitions contained in the Wilderness Act, the desire to report use levels, and the need for better understanding of the important values American people attached to wilderness. Over the past three...

  13. Links between Preschool Children's Social Skills and Observed Pretend Play in Outdoor Childcare Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayao; Hestenes, Linda L.; Wang, Yudan C.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most advanced play forms in childhood, pretend play often demonstrates positive associations with children's development. However, results from research that examines the association between social skills and pretend play are mixed, especially when the complexity of pretend play is taken into account. Moreover, few studies on pretend…

  14. To Reach for the Stars: How Social/Affective Education Can Foster Truly Inclusive Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Trina; Elias, Maurice

    1996-01-01

    Deinstitutionalizing the mentally ill failed because proper implementation required large-scale societal changes. Dumping disabled kids into regular education without appropriate supports could mirror that fiasco. Inclusion can help create a sense of community through promoting acceptance and respect among classmates. The Social Awareness-Social…

  15. Continuity or Rupture? Roma/Gypsy Communities in Rural and Urban Environments under Post-Socialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the article is to contribute to existing research and debates on social change associated with the post-socialist transformation in Eastern and Central Europe. It does so by drawing attention to and examining the diversity of ways in which such change has been lived through and reflected upon by members of Roma (Gypsy) communities…

  16. Exploring the Social Benefits of Agri-Environment Schemes in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have seen sustainable development emerging as a core concern of European Union (EU) policy. In order to consider how policies can contribute more positively to the goals of sustainable development, major EU policies must undergo an assessment of their potential economic, environmental and social impacts. Within the agri-environment…

  17. A Comparison of Foreign Language Learning Social Environments, Motivation, and Beliefs between Chinese and American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinxiao; Chen, Dianbing

    2011-01-01

    For the purposes of revealing and comparing the social, cultural, and motivational differences between American and Chinese undergraduate students learning foreign language, a sample of 100 students at University of Wyoming was asked to fill out a Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Beliefs questionnaire and 61 respondents completed the…

  18. Social Marketing for the Environment: An Assessment of Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Social marketing has emerged in the last decades as a popular behavior change approach. Its application has produced mixed results, but the noticeable increase in its application in the environmental arena calls for an assessment of its development. This study presents an analysis of such development in both theory and practice. Results suggest…

  19. The Shared Pathoetiological Effects of Particulate Air Pollution and the Social Environment on Fetal-Placental Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders C. Erickson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to particulate air pollution and socioeconomic risk factors are shown to be independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, their confounding relationship is an epidemiological challenge that requires understanding of their shared etiologic pathways affecting fetal-placental development. The purpose of this paper is to explore the etiological mechanisms associated with exposure to particulate air pollution in contributing to adverse pregnancy outcomes and how these mechanisms intersect with those related to socioeconomic status. Here we review the role of oxidative stress, inflammation and endocrine modification in the pathoetiology of deficient deep placentation and detail how the physical and social environments can act alone and collectively to mediate the established pathology linked to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We review the experimental and epidemiological literature showing that diet/nutrition, smoking, and psychosocial stress share similar pathways with that of particulate air pollution exposure to potentially exasperate the negative effects of either insult alone. Therefore, socially patterned risk factors often treated as nuisance parameters should be explored as potential effect modifiers that may operate at multiple levels of social geography. The degree to which deleterious exposures can be ameliorated or exacerbated via community-level social and environmental characteristics needs further exploration.

  20. The shared pathoetiological effects of particulate air pollution and the social environment on fetal-placental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Anders C; Arbour, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to particulate air pollution and socioeconomic risk factors are shown to be independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, their confounding relationship is an epidemiological challenge that requires understanding of their shared etiologic pathways affecting fetal-placental development. The purpose of this paper is to explore the etiological mechanisms associated with exposure to particulate air pollution in contributing to adverse pregnancy outcomes and how these mechanisms intersect with those related to socioeconomic status. Here we review the role of oxidative stress, inflammation and endocrine modification in the pathoetiology of deficient deep placentation and detail how the physical and social environments can act alone and collectively to mediate the established pathology linked to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We review the experimental and epidemiological literature showing that diet/nutrition, smoking, and psychosocial stress share similar pathways with that of particulate air pollution exposure to potentially exasperate the negative effects of either insult alone. Therefore, socially patterned risk factors often treated as nuisance parameters should be explored as potential effect modifiers that may operate at multiple levels of social geography. The degree to which deleterious exposures can be ameliorated or exacerbated via community-level social and environmental characteristics needs further exploration.

  1. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Christine; Lee, Aaron; Steinman, Bernard A; Carrico, Catherine; Bourassa, Katelynn; Slosser, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the association of health status as well as social networks and resilience. We also examined health status as a moderator of the relationship between social networks and resilience. Results. Family networks (p = 0.024) and mental health status (p < 0.001) significantly predicted resilience. Mental health status moderated the relationship of family (p = 0.004) and friend (p = 0.021) networks with resilience. Smaller family and friend networks were associated with greater resilience when mental health status was low, but not when it was high. Conclusion. Efforts to increase mental health status may improve resilience among older adults in rural environments, particularly for those with smaller family and friends networks.

  2. Social network analysis as a method for analyzing interaction in collaborative online learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rice Doran

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis software such as NodeXL has been used to describe participation and interaction in numerous social networks, but it has not yet been widely used to examine dynamics in online classes, where participation is frequently required rather than optional and participation patterns may be impacted by the requirements of the class, the instructor’s activities, or participants’ intrinsic engagement with the subject matter. Such social network analysis, which examines the dynamics and interactions among groups of participants in a social network or learning group, can be valuable in programs focused on teaching collaborative and communicative skills, including teacher preparation programs. Applied to these programs, social network analysis can provide information about instructional practices likely to facilitate student interaction and collaboration across diverse student populations. This exploratory study used NodeXL to visualize students’ participation in an online course, with the goal of identifying (1 ways in which NodeXL could be used to describe patterns in participant interaction within an instructional setting and (2 identifying specific patterns in participant interaction among students in this particular course. In this sample, general education teachers demonstrated higher measures of connection and interaction with other participants than did those from specialist (ESOL or special education backgrounds, and tended to interact more frequently with all participants than the majority of participants from specialist backgrounds. We recommend further research to delineate specific applications of NodeXL within an instructional context, particularly to identify potential patterns in student participation based on variables such as gender, background, cultural and linguistic heritage, prior training and education, and prior experience so that instructors can ensure their practice helps to facilitate student interaction

  3. Social and built-environment factors related to children's independent mobility: The importance of neighbourhood cohesion and connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, En-Yi; Witten, Karen; Oliver, Melody; Carroll, Penelope; Asiasiga, Lanuola; Badland, Hannah; Parker, Karl

    2017-07-01

    This study examines aspects of neighbourhood social environments (namely, neighbourhood safety, cohesion and connection) and child-specific built environment attributes in relation to children's independent mobility. The results suggest that children aged 8-13 years with parents who perceive their neighbourhood as more cohesive and more connected, and are located closer to school, engaged in higher levels of independently mobile trips. The qualitative component of this research revealed that for NZ European, Māori, Samoan and other Pacific parents, 'people danger' was the most common concern for letting their children go out alone, whereas for Asian and Indian parents, 'traffic danger' was the most common reason for their concern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MODEL FOR FORMATION OF ENTREPRENEUR’S STYLE THINKING AMONG STUDENTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS PROVIDING GENERAL EDUCATION WHILE USING MEANS THAT DEVELOP SOCIAL AND PEDAGOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gorodovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper rises problems pertaining to formation of entrepreneur competence among students of secondary schools providing general education while using means that develop social and pedagogical environment.

  5. Research on Webbed Connectivity in a Web-Based Learning Environment: Online Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Dorinda; Russell, Amy Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary data and analysis of how students in an online MSW program perceive their experiences, interactions, and responses to learning structure, material, and technology in the Web environment. The student perceptions, which have been used to refine the online program, highlight how important it is to students to feel…

  6. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Students: Perceived Social Support in the High School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Plaza, Corrine; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Rounds, Kathleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth (LGBT) continue to face extreme discrimination within the school environment. Existing literature suggests that LGBT youth are at high risk for a number of health problems, including suicide ideation and attempts, harassment, substance abuse, homelessness, and declining school performance. This…

  7. Social movements, public spheres and the European politics of the environment: green power Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    This book examines how the European environmental movement, as part of an emerging European civil society, has impinged on the problem definitions and solution strategies in the European politics of the environment. Examining core case studies in European environmental policy - biodiversity politics

  8. Meaningful Engagement in Facebook Learning Environments: Merging Social and Academic Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jenny; Lin, Chun-Fu C.; Yu, Wei-Chieh W.; Wu, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of different learning environments between interactive Facebook instructional method and non-Facebook instructional method for undergraduate students. Two outcome dimensions were measured: student grades and learning engagement. A pre-test-posttest control group experimental design was used. The experimental…

  9. The Social And Economic Impacts Of The Mile 1 Rumuwoji Market In Port Harcourt On Its Immediate Environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibama Brown

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years the development of standard markets and its impact on the environs has become a burning issue in the minds of many governments and people alike. Consequently this paper is poised to take a comprehensive look at the location of the Rumuwoji Mile 1 Market in Port Harcourt with respect to the social and economic impacts on the environs. The State Government has shown considerable interest in the location of the market and other ancillary activities and facilities around it. This led to considerable emphasis being placed on the relationship between the various land-uses viz residential commercial recreational transportation etc in most urban centers in like Port Harcourt. This has become imperative as there seem to be palpable hazards and effects being exacted on the environs daily by different socio-economic activities within and around the market. In the same vein this paper has taken special interest in identifying different hazards and the real and potential effects the Mile 1 Rumuwoji market has on its immediate environs as a segment of an urban city of Port Harcourt. The methodology employed in conducting the research was the Hazard and Effect Management Process HEMP to ascertain the hazards and effects posed by the market. From the research it was discovered that the market serves as a central place because it attracts people from different origin to the area and that properties in the area are of mixed uses. The market provides employment in the area. Noise and unhealthy sanitary practices are allowed to thrive there and inadequate parking spaces. To mitigate these challenges some of the recommendations includes the adoption of the social impact mitigation and enhancement framework provision of basic facilities and services the creation of more parking spaces. Sanitary laws and effective refuse collection and disposal should be put in place. If these are done the living conditions of the people living in the area

  10. Coaching at-risk youth in a school within a socially challenging environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Knud Eske; Maar Andersen, Mie; Stelter, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement group coaching in a school setting and examine the participants’ experiences. Participants were all males (age 12–16 years), primarily with a Middle Eastern family background and from a socioeconomically deprived area. A 2-year intervention with regular...... coaching counselling during school hours was delivered. Qualitative longitudinal interviews (n = 6) and long-term fieldwork found that group coaching enhanced social cohesion and social resilience. The study concludes that group coaching can be a valid tool for addressing at-risk youth in schools. Even...... though this study was limited to one school in a certain context, the implications can be important knowledge in other settings. An important practical finding was that bodily experience incorporated as part of the coaching sessions was highlighted as beneficial, as well as the use of a group approach...

  11. First Steps Towards a University Social Network on Personal Learning Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica Marín-Díaz; Ana Isabel Vazquez Martinez; Karen Josephine McMullin

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the media and the Internet in education today is an unquestionable reality. At the university level, the use of Web 2.0 tools has become increasingly visible in the new resources that professors have been incorporating both into the classroom and into their research, reinforcing the methodological renewal that the implementation of the EHEA has demanded. The aim of this article is to introduce DIPRO 2.0, an educational social network for university professors to develop their...

  12. Saúde e ambiente no Brasil: desenvolvimento, território e iniqüidade social Health and environment in Brazil: development, territory, and social iniquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Maria Rigotto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As autoras apresentam uma abordagem das iniqüidades sócio-ambientais no Brasil, decorrentes do modelo de desenvolvimento, no contexto atual da globalização, e as perspectivas da luta social. A realização histórica da ideologia do desenvolvimento tem implicado em profundas transformações do território, com sérias repercussões sobre a saúde das populações e dos ecossistemas, as quais apenas muito recentemente começam a ser reconhecidas como problemas na agenda social. A tentativa de conciliar soluções para a crise social e a crise ambiental resultou na formulação da proposta de desenvolvimento sustentável - incorporada em alguns novos discursos no campo da saúde coletiva - cuja análise crítica é o ponto de partida deste artigo. O território foi examinado como um operador útil para analisar a expressão da ligação entre saúde, ambiente e desenvolvimento, revelador do paradoxo entre as potencialidades naturais e humanas do Brasil e sua pobreza, espelho da injustiça ambiental e da violação de direitos humanos. Trata-se de um conceito expandido de ordenação territorial, importante para criar a possibilidade de se compreender o contexto de modernização e de possibilidade das populações pobres conquistarem uma vida melhor.The present paper deals with the subject of socio-environmental injustice in Brazil as a consequence of the country's current development model in the context of globalization and from the perspective of social struggle. Over time the realization of the development ideology has introduced profound changes in the country's territory, with severe repercussions for population and ecosystem health that have only recently been included on the social agenda. Efforts to reconcile solutions to the social and environmental crises have converged in the concept of sustainable development, within new discourses in the field of collective health (and whose analysis provides the point of departure for this

  13. A Multidisciplinary Research Framework on Green Schools: Infrastructure, Social Environment, Occupant Health, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Mayer, Adam P; Barr, Stephanie; Bohren, Lenora; Dunbar, Brian; Manning, Dale; Reynolds, Stephen J; Schaeffer, Joshua W; Suter, Jordan; Cross, Jennifer E

    2017-05-01

    Sustainable school buildings hold much promise to reducing operating costs, improve occupant well-being and, ultimately, teacher and student performance. However, there is a scarcity of evidence on the effects of sustainable school buildings on health and performance indicators. We sought to create a framework for a multidisciplinary research agenda that links school facilities, health, and educational outcomes. We conducted a nonsystematic review of peer review publications, government documents, organizational documents, and school climate measurement instruments. We found that studies on the impact of physical environmental factors (air, lighting, and thermal comfort) on health and occupant performance are largely independent of research on the social climate. The current literature precludes the formation of understanding the causal relation among school facilities, social climate, occupant health, and occupant performance. Given the average age of current school facilities in the United States, construction of new school facilities or retrofits of older facilities will be a major infrastructure investment for many municipalities over the next several decades. Multidisciplinary research that seeks to understand the impact of sustainable design on the health and performance of occupants will need to include both an environmental science and social science perspective to inform best practices and quantification of benefits that go beyond general measures of costs savings from energy efficiencies. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  14. A Phenomenological Study of the Office Environments of Clinical Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jamie K

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning and uses of the office space among licensed clinical social workers in private practice. Previous research suggests the importance of the office space in clinical practice in regard to therapeutic alliance, client behavior, and the well-being of the therapist. However, therapist offices contain much variation in design. This study looked further into specifically how the therapy room is important through the perspective of the licensed clinical social workers in order to identify common themes. Seven licensed clinical social workers in private psychotherapy practice were interviewed in their offices. Phenomenological research methods were used to explore and analyze their experiences. While the offices contained many physical differences, the intentions behind the designs were similar. Three themes emerged regarding how participants used and designed their spaces. First, participants used their offices to provide care for clients and themselves. Second, participants used their spaces to communicate therapeutic messages and to reveal and/or conceal aspects of themselves. Third, participants also used their space in direct practice. This phenomenological study provided insight into the importance and use of the psychotherapy office space. These findings may be helpful for therapists designing or redesigning their own practice spaces.

  15. The Construction of Differences in the University Environment: A Study Using the Social Theories of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Victorio Pavan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, rising unemployment and low salaries have caused many to blame “the others” for the crisis, fostering a negative attitude in the population toward outsiders. In this situation, the immigrant is seen as a threat, an illegitimate appropriator of the few social resources still available. This study approaches the construction of “the other” as inferior and stigmatic, using the point of view from social theories of learning. The methodology was a qualitative study of a biographical account without a complete sequence, using the sample randomly. The ancestors of our subject come from the pre-Incaic culture, the Huancas (from which his fictitious name, Wanca, was derived. He is a student from Huancayo, Peru: olive-colored skin, short height, protruding cheeks and dark hair. Her account reveals the construction of cultural and racial stereotypes in the university space, showing as well how these stereotypes are attributable to certain situations. In addition, studying the stigmatization of the immigrant facilitates an analysis of the modes of exclusion of other social groups due to their poverty, lack of education, or age.

  16. Representações sociais de ambientes sociais complexos através de desenhos e textos Representaciones sociales de ambientes sociales complejos a traves de dibujos y textos Social representations of complex social environments through drawings and texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson de Souza Filho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi observar representações de ambientes sociais complexos por meio de desenhos e textos. Adotamos a teoria de Moscovici, que supõe o fenômeno das representações sociais como manifestação de sociedades modernas e democráticas. Para contornar constrangimentos/desigualdades existentes, adotamos o desenho como forma de expressão. Solicitamos a estudantes de ensino médio, autodefinidos como negros, morenos e brancos, que desenhassem a sala de aula. O material foi analisado segundo temas manifestos. Houve diferenciação estatística quanto a objetos, perspectivas espaciais, professor, colegas e estudante. Notamos, entre negros com desempenho acadêmico alto, mais referências a colegas e conflito/negociação com professores.El objetivo de este trabajo fue observar representaciones de ambientes sociales complejos por medio de dibujos y textos. Adoptamos la teoría de Moscovici, que considera el fenómeno de las representaciones sociales como manifestación de sociedades modernas y democráticas. Para contornear las coacciones/desigualdades existentes, adoptamos el dibujo como forma de expresión. Solicitamos a estudiantes de secundaria, autodefinidos como negros, morenos y blancos, que dibujasen la clase. El material fue analizado según temas manifiestos. Hubo diferenciación estadística en cuanto a objetos, perspectivas espaciales, profesor, colegas y estudiante. Entre negros con alto rendimiento académico notamos más referencias a los colegas y conflicto / negociación con profesores.The objective of this work was to observe representations of complex social environments through drawings and texts. We adopted Moscovici's theory, which supposes that the social representations phenomenon is a modern and democratic societies' manifestation. To overcame existing constraints/unequalities, we adopted drawings as a means of expression. We asked secondary students, self-defined as African-Brazilians, Mixeds and

  17. Alcohol Prevention on College Campuses: The Moderating Effect of the Alcohol Environment on the Effectiveness of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Richard A.; Theall, Katherine P.; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Method: Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N = 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. Results: There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets. PMID:21388596

  18. Alcohol prevention on college campuses: the moderating effect of the alcohol environment on the effectiveness of social norms marketing campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Richard A; Theall, Katherine P; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William

    2011-03-01

    Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N= 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets.

  19. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  20. Do Social Computing Make You Happy? A Case Study of Nomadic Children in Mixed Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I describe a perspective on ambient, ubiquitous, and pervasive computing called the happiness perspective. By using the happiness perspective, the application domain and how the technology is used and experienced, becomes a central and integral part of perceiving ambient technology. I...... will use the perspective in a case study on field test experiments with nomadic children in mixed environments using the eBag system....

  1. Citizen Science, Crowdsourcing and Big Data: A Scientific and Social Framework for Natural Resources and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Jones, J. W.; Liu, S. B.; Shapiro, C. D.; Jenter, H. L.; Hogan, D. M.; Govoni, D. L.; Poore, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    We describe a conceptual framework for Citizen Science that can be applied to improve the understanding and management of natural resources and environments. For us, Citizen Science represents an engagement from members of the public, usually volunteers, in collaboration with paid professionals and technical experts to observe and understand natural resources and environments for the benefit of science and society. Our conceptual framework for Citizen Science includes crowdsourcing of observations (or sampling). It considers a wide range of activities, including volunteer and professional monitoring (e.g. weather and climate variables, water availability and quality, phenology, biota, image capture and remote sensing), as well as joint fact finding and analyses, and participatory mapping and modeling. Spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of the biophysical processes that control natural resources and environments are taken into account within this conceptual framework, as are the availability, scaling and diversity of tools and efforts that are needed to properly describe these biophysical processes. Opportunities are sought within the framework to properly describe, QA/QC, archive, and make readily accessible, the large amounts of information and traceable knowledge required to better understand and manage natural resources and environments. The framework also considers human motivational needs, primarily through a modern version of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. We examine several USGS-based Citizen Science efforts within the context of our framework, including the project called "iCoast - Did the Coast Change?", to understand the utility of the framework, its costs and benefits, and to offer concrete examples of how to expand and sustain specific projects. We make some recommendations that could aid its implementation on a national or larger scale. For example, implementation might be facilitated (1) through greater engagement of paid professionals, and (2

  2. What Drives Students' Loyalty-Formation in Social Media Learning within a Personal Learning Environment Approach? The Moderating Role of Need for Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arquero, José L.; del Barrio-García, Salvador; Romero-Frías, Esteban

    2017-01-01

    Our study analyzes an educational experience based on the integrated use of social media within a higher education course under a personal learning environment approach and investigates the factors that determine students' loyalty to social media learning. We examined the moderating role of need for cognition (NFC) in students' formation of…

  3. Shaping a Favorable Environment in Line with Social Expectations on Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Agnieszka Pawłowicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The driving force behind the development of any city includes its residents. Hence, it is very important that they have the opportunity to live, work and rest in a friendly environment. The source of their well-being and positive aesthetic experience is a harmonious landscape shaped by a functional spatial arrangement of streets, shapes of buildings, as well as the accompanying nature, ensuring rational development of the city space. One of the key stages that developers and construction companies must take into consideration when planning new investments, is becoming familiar with people's expectations regarding their future place of residence. It is no secret that each square meter of building land is a potential source of profit for developers. The more apartments they build and sell, the more they earn. However, in order for apartments to be sold, they must meet the expectations of their potential buyers related not only to apartments and buildings themselves, but also to the environment surrounding them. Therefore, it is very important that residential estates be attractive and satisfy the needs of their dwellers, which substantially comes down to the comfort of living, rest and recreation within their place of residence. The primary objective behind meeting these needs is to stimulate the demand for new apartments among people, integrate the local community and increase the people' satisfaction with living in a friendly environment.

  4. [Food environment and space accessibility evaluation to perform physical activity in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garipe, Leila Yasmin; Gónzalez, Verónica; Biasizzo, Antonella; Soriano, Jennifer Laila; Perman, Gaston; Giunta, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental influences on health, the goal of this study was to describe and compare the built environment in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city.In 2011 a cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city: Recoleta (upper class), Almagro (middle class) and Constitución (lower class). Grocery stores and food stands were surveyed as well as all suitable spaces to perform physical activity. An analysis was conducted to assess the density of every food outlet per Km2 of each neighbourhood's area and per 10000 inhabitants. 2778 food stores and 149 outdoor physical activity facilities were surveyed. A higher density was observed in Constitución for fast food restaurants (Recoleta 3.6; Almagro 2.4; Constitución 6.7) and food stands (Recoleta 4.2; Almagro 1.2; Constitución 25.7) and a lower density for outdoor physical activity facilities. Population density and area density proved to be analogous. Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the dimension of each food outlet: grocery stores, fruit stands, pubs, restaurants and food stands, as well as in the number of food stores and outdoor physical activity facilities. The information gathered in this study could be highly useful for public health policies on healthy lifestyles, and could eventually redefine the built environment in order to improve the city's equality regarding outdoor physical activity facilities and food stores.

  5. Big Data and Population Health: Focusing on the Health Impacts of the Social, Physical, and Economic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Howard; Galea, Sandro; Rosella, Laura; Henry, David

    2017-11-01

    We are at the dawn of a data deluge in health that carries extraordinary promise for improving the health of populations. However, current associated efforts, which generally center on the 'precision medicine' agenda, may well fall short in terms of its overall impact. The main challenges, it is argued, are less technical than the following: (1) identifying the data that matter most; (2) ensuring that we make better use of existing data; and (3) extending our efforts from the individual to the population by exploiting new, complex, and sometimes unstructured, data sources. Advances in Epidemiology have shown that policies, features of institutions, characteristics of communities, living and environmental conditions, and social relationships all contribute, together with individual behaviors and factors such as poverty and race, to the production of health. Examples are discussed, leading to recommendations that focus on core priorities for data linkage, including those relating to marginalized populations, better data on socioeconomic status, micro- and macro-environments, collaborating with researchers in the fields of education, environment, and social sciences to ensure the validity and accuracy of multilevel data, aligning research aims with policy decisions that must be made, and heightening efforts to protect privacy.

  6. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Robertson, Lynette; Miller, David

    2016-04-22

    Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people's stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use) necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant's home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments.

  7. Individual Learner Differences In Web-based Learning Environments: From Cognitive, Affective and Social-cultural Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KOC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Individual Learner DifferencesIn Web-based Learning Environments:From Cognitive, Affective and Social-cultural Perspectives Mustafa KOCPh.D Candidate Instructional TechnologyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbana, IL - USA ABSTRACT Throughout the paper, the issues of individual differences in web-based learning, also known as online instruction, online training or distance education were examined and implications for designing distance education were discussed. Although the main purpose was to identify differences in learners’ characteristics such as cognitive, affective, physiological and social factors that affect learning in a web-enhanced environment, the questions of how the web could be used to reinforce learning, what kinds of development ideas, theories and models are currently being used to design and deliver online instruction, and finally what evidence for the effectiveness of using World Wide Web (WWW for learning and instruction has been reported, were also analyzed to extend theoretical and epistemogical understanding of web-based learning.

  8. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Robertson, Lynette; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people’s stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use) necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant’s home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments. PMID:27110803

  9. Linking the fine-scale social environment to mating decisions: a future direction for the study of extra-pair paternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Chaparro, Adriana A; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Forstmeier, Wolfgang; Kempenaers, Bart; Farine, Damien R

    2018-03-13

    Variation in extra-pair paternity (EPP) among individuals of the same population could result from stochastic demography or from individual differences in mating strategies. Although the adaptive value of EPP has been widely studied, much less is known about the characteristics of the social environment that drive the observed patterns of EPP. Here, we demonstrate how concepts and well-developed tools for the study of social behaviour (such as social network analysis) can enhance the study of extra-pair mating decisions (focussing in particular on avian mating systems). We present several hypotheses that describe how characteristics of the social environment in which individuals are embedded might influence the levels of EPP in a socially monogamous population. We use a multi-level social approach (Hinde, 1976) to achieve a detailed description of the social structure and social dynamics of individuals in a group. We propose that the pair-bond, the direct (local) social environment and the indirect (extended) social environment, can contribute in different ways to the variation observed in the patterns of EPP, at both the individual and the population level. A strength of this approach is that it integrates into the analysis (indirect) interactions with all potential mates in a population, thus extending the current framework to study extra-pair mating behaviour. We also encourage the application of social network methods such as temporal dynamic analysis to depict temporal changes in the patterns of interactions among individuals in a group, and to study how this affects mating behaviour. We argue that this new framework will contribute to a better understanding of the proximate mechanisms that drive variation in EPP within populations in socially monogamous species, and might ultimately provide insights into the evolution and maintenance of mating systems. © 2018 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  10. MODERN CONCEPTS OF CULTURAL INTEGRATION OF SCHOOL’S SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Maciąg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the case of school as a social institution, factors of cultural nature constitute one of more important aspects of integration. They provide, especially on the higher levels of education, rather strong identifications: with educational activity perceived as a certain form of social service, with a specific school and its traditions, with a professional community and the one of pupils. Those ties, the basis of which is formed by participation in common activities and acceptance for established goals and values – impact the degree of integration with school. An important role in the process of  enculturation  is played by an educational culture of a teacher, which stems  from rules and mechanisms of a scientific theory of work organisation understood as a system of values, methods of work and behavioral patterns  –  and which influences a specific standard of interpersonal relations. An increase in the level of educational culture may constitute a basis for increasing professional independence, expanding the scope of a teacher’s autonomy as well as appreciating the meaning of professional success – an essential factor in the process of shaping professionalism and increasing the effectiveness of teaching and educational activities57. It is particularly important in a period when reality constantly undergoes qualitative transformations. In a similar fashion, the ways of thinking, ethics and responsibility constantly acquire new contexts and meanings, and, at the same time, they require innovative methods of shaping as well as the processes of cultural integration. Key words: integration, culture, social system.57

  11. Searching new forms of social and discursive interaction in virtual learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Elena Turizo Arzuza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary society, the technology provides great benefits to the educational processes and knowledge management. Given the avalanche of media products, education in Latin America welcomes the virtuality, as a complementing to classroom activity or as distance methodology, whose distinguishing feature is the use of Information Technology and Communication (ICT. Thus, we have new forms of social and discursive interaction that give dynamic to academic and research processes, by strengthening collective intelligence enriched by the experiences of the users. As teachers or students, we must prepare to accept with responsibility, the technological tools available.

  12. Manual for the Use of Stable Isotopes in Entomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    result of problem driven inquisitiveness and technological advances, and are framed by the social and political environment. Although the external environment may mould the technological path, a technology will only become obsolete if there are viable substitution products or methods. Stable isotope methods are a substitute for many radionuclide methods. The progress made in stable isotope science over the past twenty years is a direct result of the interplay of the above factors. Stable isotopes are omnipresent in the environment and pose no health or environmental risks. Advances in isotope ratio mass spectrometry in terms of detection, accuracy and automation have broadened experimental possibilities immensely over the past twenty years. It was recognised that there was significant potential for answering many of the entomologist?s biological and ecological questions using stable isotopes, an expertise the Soil Science Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf had long fostered; therefore collaboration with the Entomology Unit at the same Laboratory was established. A number of collaborative experiments were carried and subsequently published. It was soon recognised that stable isotopes have tremendous potential in entomological research and although there were numerous studies using stable isotopes in ecology, their use in entomology per se was limited. Thus it was felt that a publication was required to make stable isotope techniques more widely known among entomologists. This manual will attempt to provide an introduction to the use of stable isotopes in entomological research. It will strive to communicate the basic principles and techniques of stable isotope science and provide a springboard for further interest and research in this area

  13. The impact of moving to a novel environment on social networks, activity and wellbeing in two new world primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, V; Sueur, C; Whiten, A; Buchanan-Smith, H M

    2011-08-01

    Among the stressors that can affect animal welfare in zoos, the immediate effect of relocation to a novel environment is one that has received little attention in the literature. Here, we compare the social network, daily activity and the expression of stress-related behavior in capuchins (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) before and just after they were relocated to a new enriched enclosure. Results showed similar immediate responses to the move in the two species. Both showed a substantial increase in the time spent resting and spent more time in the highest and "safest" part of their enclosure after relocation. Both capuchins and squirrel monkeys spent significantly more time in close proximity to other group members after relocation, compared to before. In squirrel monkeys, the structure of the social network, which was initially correlated to affiliation, was no longer so after the move. In capuchins, the network analysis showed that individuals regrouped by age, with the youngsters who were potentially more affected by stress being in the center of the network. Social network analysis helped to achieve a more complete picture of how individuals were affected by relocation. We suggest that this type of analysis should be used alongside traditional methods of observation and analysis to encompass the most complex aspects of animal behavior in times of stress and to improve welfare. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Neurogenesis Inhibition Prevents Enriched Environment to Prolong and Strengthen Social Recognition Memory, But Not to Increase BDNF Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Caixeta, Ana Raquel; Guarnieri, Leonardo O; Pena, Roberta R; Dias, Thomáz L; Pereira, Grace Schenatto

    2017-07-01

    Hippocampus-dependent memories, such as social recognition (SRM), are modulated by neurogenesis. However, the precise role of newborn neurons in social memory processing is still unknown. We showed previously that 1 week of enriched environment (EE) is sufficient to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus (HIP) and the olfactory bulb (OB) of mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that 1 week of EE would enhance SRM persistence and strength. In addition, as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate some of the neurogenesis effects on memory, we also tested if 1 week of EE would increase BDNF expression in the HIP and OB. We also predicted that neurogenesis inhibition would block the gain of function caused by EE on both SRM and BDNF expression. We found that EE increased BDNF expression in the HIP and OB of mice; at the same time, it allowed SRM to last longer. In addition, mice on EE had their SRM unaffected by memory consolidation interferences. As we predicted, treatment with the anti-mitotic drug AraC blocked EE effects on SRM. Surprisingly, neurogenesis inhibition did not affect the BDNF expression, increased by EE. Together, our results suggest that newborn neurons improve SRM persistence through a BDNF-independent mechanism. Interestingly, this study on social memory uncovered an unexpected dissociation between the effect of adult neurogenesis and BDNF expression on memory persistence, reassuring the idea that not all neurogenesis effects on memory are BDNF-dependent.

  15. Effect of Physical and Social Components of Enriched Environment on Astrocytes Proliferation in Rats After Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuping; Zhang, Xin; Liao, Weijing; Wan, Qi

    2017-05-01

    Treatment of enriched environment (EE) exerts neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, how the component of EE contributes to the functional recovery after brain ischemia remains unclear. Here we examined the effect of physical and social components of EE on poststroke astrocytes proliferation using an animal model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. Rats were divided into five groups: physical enrichment group (PE), social enrichment group (SE), physical and social enrichment group (PSE), ischemia + standard group (IS) and sham-operated + standard group (SS). In a set of behavioral tests, we demonstrated that animals in the enriched groups exhibited improved functional outcomes compared with those in standard group. Reduced infarct volume was only observed in PSE and PE groups. Double immunofluorescent labeling and western blot analysis revealed that rats in PSE and PE groups showed significantly more proliferated astrocytes and higher expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the periinfarct cortex, compared with those in SE group. Astrocytes proliferation and BDNF expression were significantly correlated with functional outcomes. Collectively, this study suggests that physical activity is a more important component of EE regarding the effect on astrocytes proliferation and BDNF expression, which may contribute to the improved neurological function of stroke animals.

  16. Syndrome-Related Stigma in the General Social Environment as Reported by Women with Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin A; Khuri, Jananne; Ehrhardt, Anke A; New, Maria I

    2017-02-01

    Stigma defined as "undesired differentness" (Goffman, 1963) and subtyped as "experienced" or "enacted," "anticipated," and "internalized" has been documented for patients with diverse chronic diseases. However, no systematic data exist on the association of stigma with somatic intersexuality. The current report concerns women with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), the most prevalent intersex syndrome, and provides descriptive data on CAH-related stigma as experienced in the general social environment (excluding medical settings and romantic/sexual partners) during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. A total of 62 adult women with classical CAH [41 with the salt-wasting (SW) variant and 21 with the simple-virilizing (SV) variant] underwent a qualitative retrospective interview, which focused on the impact of CAH and its medical treatment on many aspects of women's lives. Deductive content analysis was performed on the transcribed texts. The women's accounts of CAH-related stigma were identified and excerpted as vignettes, and the vignettes categorized according to social context, stigma type, and the associated features of the CAH condition. Nearly two-thirds of women with either variant of CAH provided stigma vignettes. The vignettes included all three stigma types, and most involved some somatic or behavioral feature related to sex or gender. Stigma situations were reported for all ages and all social contexts of everyday life: family, peers, colleagues at work, strangers, and the media. We conclude that there is a need for systematic documentation of stigma in intersexuality as a basis for the development of improved approaches to prevention and intervention.

  17. Integrating natural and social sciences to manage sustainably vectors of change in the marine environment: Dogger Bank transnational case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Daryl; Boyes, Suzanne J.; Elliott, Michael; Smyth, Katie; Atkins, Jonathan P.; Barnes, Richard A.; Wurzel, Rüdiger K.

    2018-02-01

    The management of marine resources is a complex process driven by the dynamics of the natural system and the influence of stakeholders including policy-makers. An integration of natural and social sciences research is required by policy-makers to better understand, and manage sustainably, natural changes and anthropogenic activities within particular marine systems. Given the uncertain development of activities in the marine environment, future scenarios assessments can be used to investigate whether marine policy measures are robust and sustainable. This paper develops an interdisciplinary framework, which incorporates future scenarios assessments, and identifies four main types of evaluation needed to integrate natural and social sciences research to support the integrated management of the marine environment: environmental policy and governance assessments; ecosystem services, indicators and valuation; modelling tools for management evaluations, and risk assessment and risk management. The importance of stakeholder engagement within each evaluation method is highlighted. The paper focuses on the transnational spatial marine management of the Dogger Bank, in the central North Sea, a site which is very important ecologically, economically and politically. Current management practices are reviewed, and research tools to support future management decisions are applied and discussed in relation to two main vectors of change affecting the Dogger Bank, namely commercial fisheries and offshore wind farm developments, and in relation to the need for nature conservation. The input of local knowledge through stakeholder engagement is highlighted as a necessary requirement to produce site-specific policy recommendations for the future management of the Dogger Bank. We present wider policy recommendations to integrate natural and social sciences in a global marine context.

  18. Acoustic and social design of schools-ways to improve the school listening environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Mechthild

    2005-04-01

    Results of noise research indicate that communication, and as a result, teaching, learning and the social atmosphere are impeded by noise in schools. The development of strategies to reduce noise levels has often not been effective. A more promising approach seems to be to pro-actively support the ability to listen and to understand. The presentation describes the approach to an acoustic and social school design developed and explored within the project ``GanzOhrSein'' by the Education Department of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich. The scope includes an analysis of the current ``school soundscape,'' an introduction to the concept of the project to improve individual listening abilities and the conditions for listening, as well as practical examples and relevant research results. We conclude that an acoustic school design should combine acoustic changes in classrooms with educational activities to support listening at schools and thus contribute to improving individual learning conditions and to reducing stress on both pupils and teachers.

  19. Exploring social sensing techniques for measuring rainfall and flood response in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Wouter; Sips, Robert-Jan; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire

    2016-04-01

    Extreme rainfall is expected to occur more often in the future as a result of climate change. To be able to react to this, urban water managers need to accurately know vulnerable spots in the city, as well as the potential impact to society. Currently, detailed information about rainfall intensities in cities, and effects of intense storm events on urban societies is lacking. In this study, we will present first results of social sensing experiments to measure rainfall and flooding using a smartphone app. Users of the app are asked to submit rainfall reports by selecting an rainfall class from a pre-defined list of (6) classes, to register time and location and to make a photo of the rainfall. Rainfall photos will be used in a future experiment for automated retrieval of rainfall classes using computer vision techniques. With the experiments we aim to validate rainfall observations made by lay people and to evaluate factors that influence the willingness of users to contribute observations. The results show that users consistently distinguish heavy and extreme rainfall from drizzle and mild rainfall, but have difficulty in making more detailed distinctions. The main factor driving willingness to contribute to the social rainfall sensing experiments is the perceived usefulness of rainfall reporting.

  20. Educating in socially vulnerable environments: the value of teacher’s training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Beatriz Oros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Assuming that teachers who work with marginalized populations need appropriate knowledge and strategies based on educational psychology to promote, effectively, learning in this group of children, a teacher’s training proposal was developed. It was based on the following objectives: (a increase teachers knowledge about social and emotional needs in children at risk; (b generate awareness of the importance of attending this needs in the learning process and in the consolidation of the knowledge proposed by the designed curriculum; (c instruct teachers in the implementation of concrete actions to strengthen the resources that optimize learning; and (d train teachers as multiplier agents to transfer to the rest of the educative staff this acquired knowledge and practices. The purpose of this paper is a descriptive analysis of the teachers’ opinions about the utility value of the implemented training. This study was developed with a sample of 83 teachers of the kindergarten and primary levels, who participated in the training, executed in the provinces of Entre Rios,Santa FeandBuenos Aires,Argentina. An Assessment Questionnaire developed ad hoc (a = 0.96 was used, whereby was found favorable evidence about the value of implementing these instances of teacher’s training in the practice of teaching in socially vulnerable enviroments.