WorldWideScience

Sample records for stable robust building

  1. Occupant behaviour and robustness of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buso, Tiziana; Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2015-01-01

    in a dynamic building energy simulation tool (IDA ICE). The analysis was carried out by simulating 15 building envelope designs in different thermal zones of an Office Reference Building in 3 climates: Stockholm, Frankfurt and Athens.In general, robustness towards changes in occupants' behaviour increased...... with increasing thermal mass and with decreasing transparent area of the envelope. The importance of the robustness' evaluation is highlighted in this paper, in order to obtain optimized buildings' designs for more accurate and realistic energy predictions.......Occupant behaviour can cause major discrepancies between the designed and the real total energy use in buildings. A possible solution to reduce the differences between predictions and actual performances is designing robust buildings, i.e. buildings whose performances show little variations...

  2. Robustness Assessment of Building Structures under Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Waggoner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, much research has focused on the behaviour of structures following the failure of a key structural component. Particular attention has been given to sudden column loss, though questions remain as to whether this event-independent scenario is relevant to actual extreme events such as explosion. Few studies have been conducted to assess the performance of floor slabs above a failed column, and the computational tools used have not been validated against experimental results. The research program presented in this paper investigates the adequacy of sudden column loss as an idealisation of local damage caused by realistic explosion events, and extends prior work by combining the development of accurate computational models with large-scale testing of a typical floor system in a prototypical steel-framed structure. The floor system consists of corrugated decking topped by a lightly reinforced concrete slab that is connected to the floor beams through shear studs. The design is consistent with typical building practices in the US. The first test has been completed, and subsequent tests are currently being planned. This paper addresses the importance of robustness design for localized damage and includes a detailed description regarding how the research program advances the current state of knowledge for assessing robustness of compositely constructed steel-framed buildings.

  3. Building Robust Systems with Fallible Construction (Elaboration de systemes informatiques robustes a l’architecutre faillible)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    IST-047 Building Robust Systems with Fallible Construction (Elaboration de systèmes informatiques robustes à l’architecture faillible) Final...IST-047 Building Robust Systems with Fallible Construction (Elaboration de systèmes informatiques robustes à l’architecture faillible...and cost investments. ES - 2 RTO-TR-IST-047 Elaboration de systèmes informatiques robustes à l’architecture faillible (RTO-TR-IST-047

  4. Stable isotope deltas: tiny, yet robust signatures in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A; Coplen, Tyler B

    2012-09-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including (14)C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. (13)C, (2)H, and (18)O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as-25 per mil can be written as-25 mUr (or-2.5 cUr or-0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg 'units' are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  5. Stable isotope deltas: Tiny, yet robust signatures in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including 14C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. 13C, 2H, and 18O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as−25 per mil can be written as−25 mUr (or−2.5 cUr or−0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg ‘units’ are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  6. Robust chaos synchronization using input-to-state stable control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we propose a new input-to-state stable (ISS) synchronization method for a general class of chaotic systems with disturbances. Based on Lyapunov theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, for the first time, the ISS synchronization controller is presented not only to guarantee the asymptotic ...

  7. Building a robust vehicle detection and classification module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, Anton; Khanipov, Timur; Koptelov, Ivan; Bocharov, Dmitry; Postnikov, Vassily; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    The growing adoption of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and autonomous driving requires robust real-time solutions for various event and object detection problems. Most of real-world systems still cannot rely on computer vision algorithms and employ a wide range of costly additional hardware like LIDARs. In this paper we explore engineering challenges encountered in building a highly robust visual vehicle detection and classification module that works under broad range of environmental and road conditions. The resulting technology is competitive to traditional non-visual means of traffic monitoring. The main focus of the paper is on software and hardware architecture, algorithm selection and domain-specific heuristics that help the computer vision system avoid implausible answers.

  8. Robust and Air-Stable Sandwiched Organo-Lead Halide Perovskites for Photodetector Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Omar F.

    2016-02-25

    We report the simplest possible method to date for fabricating robust, air-stable, sandwiched perovskite photodetectors. Our proposed sandwiched structure is devoid of electron or hole transporting layers and also the expensive electrodes. These simpler architectures may have application in the perovskite-only class of solar cells scaling up towards commercialization.

  9. Robust blind identification of room acoustic channels in symmetric alpha-stable distributed noise environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongsen; Lu, Jing; Chen, Jingdong; Qiu, Xiaojun; Benesty, Jacob

    2014-08-01

    Blind multichannel identification is generally sensitive to background noise. Although there have been some efforts in the literature devoted to improving the robustness of blind multichannel identification with respect to noise, most of those works assume that the noise is Gaussian distributed, which is often not valid in real room acoustic environments. This paper deals with the more practical scenario where the noise is not Gaussian. To improve the robustness of blind multichannel identification to non-Gaussian noise, a robust normalized multichannel frequency-domain least-mean M-estimate algorithm is developed. Unlike the traditional approaches that use the squared error as the cost function, the proposed algorithm uses an M-estimator to form the cost function, which is shown to be immune to non-Gaussian noise with a symmetric α-stable distribution. Experiments based on the identification of a single-input/multiple-output acoustic system demonstrate the robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Building Robust Planning and Execution Systems for Virtual Worlds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dini, Don M; van Lent, Michael; Carpenter, Paul; Iyer, Kumar

    2006-01-01

    .... To enable future researchers to build more complete systems, and avoid possible serious system failure, we identify the major technical problems any implementer of such a system would have to face...

  11. Local Geometrically Enriched Mixtures for Stable and Robust Human Tracking in Detecting Falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Kokkinos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting a fall through visual cues is emerging as a hot research agenda for improving the independence of the elderly. However, the traditional motion-based algorithms are very sensitive to noise, reducing fall detection accuracy. Another approach is to efficiently localize and then track the foreground object followed by measurements that aid the identification of a fall. However, to perform robust and stable tracking over a long time is a challenging research aspect in computer vision society. In this paper, we introduce a stable human tracker able to efficiently cope with the trade-off between model stability (accurate tracking performance and adaptability (model evolution to visual changes. In particular, we introduce local geometrically enriched mixture models for background modelling. Then, we incorporate iterative motion information methods, constrained by shape and time properties, to estimate high confidence image regions for background model updating. This way, we are able to detect and track the foreground objects even when visual conditions are dynamically changed over time (luminosity or background/foreground changes or active cameras.

  12. Robust and stable gene selection via Maximum-Minimum Correntropy Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Majid; Sharifi Noghabi, Hossein; Abed Hodtani, Ghosheh; Rajabi Mashhadi, Habib

    2016-03-01

    One of the central challenges in cancer research is identifying significant genes among thousands of others on a microarray. Since preventing outbreak and progression of cancer is the ultimate goal in bioinformatics and computational biology, detection of genes that are most involved is vital and crucial. In this article, we propose a Maximum-Minimum Correntropy Criterion (MMCC) approach for selection of informative genes from microarray data sets which is stable, fast and robust against diverse noise and outliers and competitively accurate in comparison with other algorithms. Moreover, via an evolutionary optimization process, the optimal number of features for each data set is determined. Through broad experimental evaluation, MMCC is proved to be significantly better compared to other well-known gene selection algorithms for 25 commonly used microarray data sets. Surprisingly, high accuracy in classification by Support Vector Machine (SVM) is achieved by less than 10 genes selected by MMCC in all of the cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust Building Automation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernier, F.; Ploennigs, J.; Pesch, D.; Lesecq, S.; Basten, T.; Boubekeur, M.; Denteneer, D.; Oltmanns, F.; Bonnard, F.; Lehmann, M.; Mai, T.L.; McGibney, A.; Rea, S.; Pacull, F.; Guyon-Gardeux, C.; Ducreux, L.F.; Thior, S.; Hendriks, M.; Verriet, J.; Fedor, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust Building Automation Systems (BAS) proposed by the EC funded FP7 SCUBA1 project. We describe the current situation in monitoring and control systems and outline the typical stakeholders involved in the

  14. A Robust Gradient Based Method for Building Extraction from LiDAR and Photogrammetric Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasahat Ullah Siddiqui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing automatic building extraction methods are not effective in extracting buildings which are small in size and have transparent roofs. The application of large area threshold prohibits detection of small buildings and the use of ground points in generating the building mask prevents detection of transparent buildings. In addition, the existing methods use numerous parameters to extract buildings in complex environments, e.g., hilly area and high vegetation. However, the empirical tuning of large number of parameters reduces the robustness of building extraction methods. This paper proposes a novel Gradient-based Building Extraction (GBE method to address these limitations. The proposed method transforms the Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR height information into intensity image without interpolation of point heights and then analyses the gradient information in the image. Generally, building roof planes have a constant height change along the slope of a roof plane whereas trees have a random height change. With such an analysis, buildings of a greater range of sizes with a transparent or opaque roof can be extracted. In addition, a local colour matching approach is introduced as a post-processing stage to eliminate trees. This stage of our proposed method does not require any manual setting and all parameters are set automatically from the data. The other post processing stages including variance, point density and shadow elimination are also applied to verify the extracted buildings, where comparatively fewer empirically set parameters are used. The performance of the proposed GBE method is evaluated on two benchmark data sets by using the object and pixel based metrics (completeness, correctness and quality. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in eliminating trees, extracting buildings of all sizes, and extracting buildings with and without transparent roof. When compared with current state

  15. A Robust Gradient Based Method for Building Extraction from LiDAR and Photogrammetric Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Fasahat Ullah; Teng, Shyh Wei; Awrangjeb, Mohammad; Lu, Guojun

    2016-07-19

    Existing automatic building extraction methods are not effective in extracting buildings which are small in size and have transparent roofs. The application of large area threshold prohibits detection of small buildings and the use of ground points in generating the building mask prevents detection of transparent buildings. In addition, the existing methods use numerous parameters to extract buildings in complex environments, e.g., hilly area and high vegetation. However, the empirical tuning of large number of parameters reduces the robustness of building extraction methods. This paper proposes a novel Gradient-based Building Extraction (GBE) method to address these limitations. The proposed method transforms the Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) height information into intensity image without interpolation of point heights and then analyses the gradient information in the image. Generally, building roof planes have a constant height change along the slope of a roof plane whereas trees have a random height change. With such an analysis, buildings of a greater range of sizes with a transparent or opaque roof can be extracted. In addition, a local colour matching approach is introduced as a post-processing stage to eliminate trees. This stage of our proposed method does not require any manual setting and all parameters are set automatically from the data. The other post processing stages including variance, point density and shadow elimination are also applied to verify the extracted buildings, where comparatively fewer empirically set parameters are used. The performance of the proposed GBE method is evaluated on two benchmark data sets by using the object and pixel based metrics (completeness, correctness and quality). Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in eliminating trees, extracting buildings of all sizes, and extracting buildings with and without transparent roof. When compared with current state-of-the-art building

  16. Building stable customer relationships that stand the test of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M; Hines, J D

    1996-05-01

    This article shows how Baldor Electric Company is using training to build a foundation for improving service in all areas of the business. It covers the background that led to Baldor Electric's decision to develop service training in-house, the steps that Baldor took in putting the course together, and the actual principles taught in the Baldor service course. The Baldor service course teaches basic principles that can be used by all employees to improve customer service, no matter what job they do.

  17. Evaluation of Structural Robustness against Column Loss: Methodology and Application to RC Frame Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yihai; Main, Joseph A; Noh, Sam-Young

    2017-08-01

    A computational methodology is presented for evaluating structural robustness against column loss. The methodology is illustrated through application to reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings, using a reduced-order modeling approach for three-dimensional RC framing systems that includes the floor slabs. Comparisons with high-fidelity finite-element model results are presented to verify the approach. Pushdown analyses of prototype buildings under column loss scenarios are performed using the reduced-order modeling approach, and an energy-based procedure is employed to account for the dynamic effects associated with sudden column loss. Results obtained using the energy-based approach are found to be in good agreement with results from direct dynamic analysis of sudden column loss. A metric for structural robustness is proposed, calculated by normalizing the ultimate capacities of the structural system under sudden column loss by the applicable service-level gravity loading and by evaluating the minimum value of this normalized ultimate capacity over all column removal scenarios. The procedure is applied to two prototype 10-story RC buildings, one employing intermediate moment frames (IMFs) and the other employing special moment frames (SMFs). The SMF building, with its more stringent seismic design and detailing, is found to have greater robustness.

  18. Building Robust Systems with Fallible Construction (Batir des Systemes surs Partir de Constructions Faillibles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    IEEE TF on Engineering of Computer Based Systems, Tucson, 1995. [9] G.-C. Roman , H.C. Cunningham, “Mixed Programming Metaphors in a Shared Dataspace...based Robustness strategy. But we also need bricks allowing us building the walls. SOA strategy offers a plenty of ways how to assembly SOA services...assure empirically, or by calculation, that messages are passed quickly enough for proper working of the system. Usually, passing time- stamped

  19. The robustness of buildings and installations. Part 2; Robuustheid van gebouwen en installaties. Deel 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijten, J.L. [Afdeling Climate Design and Environment, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Kurvers, S.R. [Apogeum Indoor Environment Consult, Gouda (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    In a previous article of this magazine (January 2007) attention was paid to the hypothesis of the robustness of a building. Since then, the hypothesis has been extended and refined. The robustness of an office building was defined as the measure by which the building lives up to its design purpose in a real life situation. In the refined hypothesis more attention is given to the way occupants react to the indoor environment as a whole. Robustness is expected to be particularly increased when the environmental 'Gestalt', the total working environment as perceived by occupants, promotes acceptance of the indoor environment. [Dutch] Een voorgaand artikel in dit tijdschrift (januari 2007) behandelde de gebouwrobuustheidshypothese, waarin de robuustheid van een kantoorgebouw werd gedefinieerd als de mate waarin het binnenmileu in het gerealiseerde gebouw in de praktijk voldoet aan zijn ontwerpdoelstelling. Sindsdien is de hypothese uitgebreid en verfijnd met speciale aandacht voor de manier waarop gebruikers reageren op het binnenmilieu als geheel. De verwachting is dat de robuustheid van een gebouw verder zal toenemen wanneer de omgevings-Gestalt de acceptatie van het binnenmilieu bevordert. De omgevings-Gestalt is het geheel van de werkomgeving zoals de gebruikers die ervaren.

  20. Robust Building Energy Load Forecasting Using Physically-Based Kernel Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Krishnan Prakash

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Robust and accurate building energy load forecasting is important for helping building managers and utilities to plan, budget, and strategize energy resources in advance. With recent prevalent adoption of smart-meters in buildings, a significant amount of building energy consumption data became available. Many studies have developed physics-based white box models and data-driven black box models to predict building energy consumption; however, they require extensive prior knowledge about building system, need a large set of training data, or lack robustness to different forecasting scenarios. In this paper, we introduce a new building energy forecasting method based on Gaussian Process Regression (GPR that incorporates physical insights about load data characteristics to improve accuracy while reducing training requirements. The GPR is a non-parametric regression method that models the data as a joint Gaussian distribution with mean and covariance functions and forecast using the Bayesian updating. We model the covariance function of the GPR to reflect the data patterns in different forecasting horizon scenarios, as prior knowledge. Our method takes advantage of the modeling flexibility and computational efficiency of the GPR while benefiting from the physical insights to further improve the training efficiency and accuracy. We evaluate our method with three field datasets from two university campuses (Carnegie Mellon University and Stanford University for both short- and long-term load forecasting. The results show that our method performs more accurately, especially when the training dataset is small, compared to other state-of-the-art forecasting models (up to 2.95 times smaller prediction error.

  1. A robust and rapid method of producing soluble, stable, and functional G-protein coupled receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Corin

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins, particularly G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, are notoriously difficult to express. Using commercial E. coli cell-free systems with the detergent Brij-35, we could rapidly produce milligram quantities of 13 unique GPCRs. Immunoaffinity purification yielded receptors at >90% purity. Secondary structure analysis using circular dichroism indicated that the purified receptors were properly folded. Microscale thermophoresis, a novel label-free and surface-free detection technique that uses thermal gradients, showed that these receptors bound their ligands. The secondary structure and ligand-binding results from cell-free produced proteins were comparable to those expressed and purified from HEK293 cells. Our study demonstrates that cell-free protein production using commercially available kits and optimal detergents is a robust technology that can be used to produce sufficient GPCRs for biochemical, structural, and functional analyses. This robust and simple method may further stimulate others to study the structure and function of membrane proteins.

  2. Unconditionally stable and robust adjacent-cell diffusive preconditioning of weighted-difference particle transport methods is impossible

    CERN Document Server

    Azmy, Y Y

    2002-01-01

    We construct a particle transport problem for which there exists no preconditioner with a cell-centered diffusion coupling stencil that is unconditionally stable and robust. In particular we consider an asymptotic limit of the periodic horizontal interface (PHI) configuration wherein the cell height in both layers approaches zero like sigma sup 2 while the total cross section vanishes like sigma in one layer and diverges like sigma sup - sup 1 as sigma->0 in the other layer. In such cases we show that the conditions for stability and robustness of the flat eigenmodes of the iteration residual imply instability of the modes flat in the y-dimension and rapidly varying in the x-dimension. Two assumptions are made in the proof. (i) Only cell-centered adjacent-cell preconditioners (AP) are considered; nevertheless numerical experiments with face-centered preconditioners of the diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) type on problem configurations with sharp material discontinuities suffer similar deterioration in s...

  3. Robust and Stable Disturbance Observer of Servo System for Low-Speed Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    A new scheme to estimate the moment of inertia in the servo motor drive system in very low speed is proposed in this paper. The speed estimation scheme in most servo drive systems for low-speed operation is sensitive to the variation of machine parameter, especially the moment of inertia....... To estimate the motor inertia value, the observer using the Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) is applied. A control law for stabilizing the system and adaptive laws for updating both of the weights in the RBFN and a bounding constant are established so that the whole closed-loop system is stable...

  4. Fabrication of robust and thermally stable superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings based on thermoplastic polyurethane and silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfi, Javad [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, Seyed Hassan, E-mail: shjafari@ut.ac.ir [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khonakdar, Hossein Ali [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Sadeghi, Gity Mir Mohamad [Department of Polymer Engineering & Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zohuri, Gholamhossein [Polymer Group, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hejazi, Iman [Department of Polymer Engineering & Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simon, Frank [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic coatings were prepared from an intrinsically hydrophilic polymer. • The superhydrophobicity remained intact at elevated temperatures. • Polyurethane plays a key role in improving the mechanical robustness of the coatings. • A complete surface coverage of nanosilica is necessary for superhydrophobicity. - Abstract: In this paper, superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings based on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and modified nanosilica were fabricated using a simple solution-based method. The main challenge was to impart superhydrophobicity to an intrinsically hydrophilic polymer substrate. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, it was proved that in order to achieve superhydrophobicity, no TPU macromolecule should be present on the coating's top layer, thus a complete coverage of coating's top layer by nanosilica particles was necessary for achieving ultra water repellent coatings. Mechanical and thermal resistance of the coatings, which are the main challenges in commercializing superhydrophobic surfaces, were also studied by drop impact and thermal annealing tests, respectively. It was proved that using TPU as a sublayer results in improving mechanical resistance of the coatings as compared with the pure silica nanocoating. Moreover, the samples showed an excellent resistance against elevated temperatures (150 °C) and remained superhydrophobic; however, further increment of the annealing temperatures to 200 °C caused the TPU macromolecules to migrate onto the top layer of the coatings significantly reducing the water repellency, which was visually proved by SEM.

  5. Nano-electromechanical Switch Based on a Physical Unclonable Function for Highly Robust and Stable Performance in Harsh Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyu-Man; Park, Jun-Young; Bae, Hagyoul; Lee, Seung-Wook; Kim, Choong-Ki; Seo, Myungsoo; Im, Hwon; Kim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Seong-Yeon; Lee, Geon-Beom; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2017-12-26

    A physical unclonable function (PUF) device using a nano-electromechanical (NEM) switch was demonstrated. The most important feature of the NEM-switch-based PUF is its use of stiction. Stiction is one of the chronic problems associated with micro- and nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) devices; however, here, it was utilized to intentionally implement a PUF for hardware-based security. The stiction is caused by capillary and van der Waals forces, producing strong adhesion, which can be utilized to design a highly robust and stable PUF. The probability that stiction will occur on either of two gates in the NEM switch is the same, and consequently, the occurrence of the stiction is random and unique, which is critical to its PUF performance. This uniqueness was evaluated by measuring the interchip Hamming distance (interchip HD), which characterizes how different responses are made when the same challenge is applied. Uniformity was also evaluated by the proportion of "1" or "0" in the response bit-string. The reliability of the proposed PUF device was assessed by stress tests under harsh environments such as high temperature, high dose radiation, and microwaves.

  6. From model building to validation and back: a plea for robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houwelingen, Hans C

    2014-12-30

    This paper is the written version of the President's invited lecture speaker at the International Society for Clinical Biostatistics conference in Munich in 2013. The paper takes the stand of clinician and patient who are in need of a reliable prognostic model for the planning of treatment and patient care during the follow-up after the initial treatment. The paper discusses (i) the need for grouping of data; (ii) the lack of robustness of the Cox model; (iii) the robust approach to repeated measures; and (iv) the robust handling of time-dependent covariates (biomarkers) in dynamic survival analysis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Robustness of building design with respect to energy related occupant behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Buso, Tiziana; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2013-01-01

    Occupant behaviour is often the first reason for the discrepancy between designed and real total energy use in buildings. A possible solution to bridge this gap is designing buildings whose performances show little variations despite of alternating occupants' behaviour. The aim of this work was t...

  8. A robust optimization model for agile and build-to-order supply chain planning under uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lalmazloumian, Morteza; Wong, Kuan Yew; Govindan, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain planning as one of the most important processes within the supply chain management concept, has a great impact on firms' success or failure. This paper considers a supply chain planning problem of an agile manufacturing company operating in a build-to-order environment under various...

  9. Increasing security of supply: The search for stable models of financing for new nuclear build in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffron, Raphael James

    2009-01-01

    Full text: This research assesses models for financing of new nuclear build in European Union (EU) member states to find the most stable form. The countries examined in this study are France, the United Kingdom, Finland and Romania. The results attest that due to various historical, political, competition, and electricity market structural conditions Romania has emerged with the most secure and stable model for financing of new nuclear projects. This paper begins with an assessment of the effects on the nuclear sector from energy, environment and competition legislation in the EU. Then the political and economic climate of the afore mentioned EU member states is completed. Following this an overview of the market structure of the electricity sector in those respective countries is conducted. Then the key research on the models of financing of new nuclear build is explored, contrasted and analysed. The research concludes that there are four main models for financing new nuclear projects in Europe. Each model has transcended from different political and economic forces, and consequently each model has met with varied levels of success. Electricity market structures while operating to the same legal requirements, have been dissimilar in their evolution. The combination of the above factors has led to different models for financing new nuclear build. Upon further analysis it is concluded and demonstrated that the Romanian financing model is the most suitable and provides an example for any new nuclear build aspiring nations in the EU and beyond. (author)

  10. Multi-scale clustering by building a robust and self correcting ultrametric topology on data points.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Fushing

    Full Text Available The advent of high-throughput technologies and the concurrent advances in information sciences have led to an explosion in size and complexity of the data sets collected in biological sciences. The biggest challenge today is to assimilate this wealth of information into a conceptual framework that will help us decipher biological functions. A large and complex collection of data, usually called a data cloud, naturally embeds multi-scale characteristics and features, generically termed geometry. Understanding this geometry is the foundation for extracting knowledge from data. We have developed a new methodology, called data cloud geometry-tree (DCG-tree, to resolve this challenge. This new procedure has two main features that are keys to its success. Firstly, it derives from the empirical similarity measurements a hierarchy of clustering configurations that captures the geometric structure of the data. This hierarchy is then transformed into an ultrametric space, which is then represented via an ultrametric tree or a Parisi matrix. Secondly, it has a built-in mechanism for self-correcting clustering membership across different tree levels. We have compared the trees generated with this new algorithm to equivalent trees derived with the standard Hierarchical Clustering method on simulated as well as real data clouds from fMRI brain connectivity studies, cancer genomics, giraffe social networks, and Lewis Carroll's Doublets network. In each of these cases, we have shown that the DCG trees are more robust and less sensitive to measurement errors, and that they provide a better quantification of the multi-scale geometric structures of the data. As such, DCG-tree is an effective tool for analyzing complex biological data sets.

  11. Assembly of Robust Bacterial Microcompartment Shells Using Building Blocks from an Organelle of Unknown Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassila, JK; Bernstein, SL; Kinney, JN; Axen, SD; Kerfeld, CA

    2014-05-29

    Bacterial microconnpartnnents (BMCs) sequester enzymes from the cytoplasmic environment by encapsulation inside a selectively permeable protein shell. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that many bacteria encode BMC clusters of unknown function and with diverse combinations of shell proteins. The genome of the halophilic myxobacterium Haliangium ochraceum encodes one of the most atypical sets of shell proteins in terms of composition and primary structure. We found that microconnpartnnent shells could be purified in high yield when all seven H. ochraceum BMC shell genes were expressed from a synthetic operon in Escherichia coll. These shells differ substantially from previously isolated shell systems in that they are considerably smaller and more homogeneous, with measured diameters of 39 2 nm. The size and nearly uniform geometry allowed the development of a structural model for the shells composed of 260 hexagonal units and 13 hexagons per icosahedral face. We found that new proteins could be recruited to the shells by fusion to a predicted targeting peptide sequence, setting the stage for the use of these remarkably homogeneous shells for applications such as three-dimensional scaffolding and the construction of synthetic BMCs. Our results demonstrate the value of selecting from the diversity of BMC shell building blocks found in genomic sequence data for the construction of novel compartments. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Robust and Stable Disturbance Observer of Servo System for Low Speed Operation Using the Radial Basis Function Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    A new scheme to estimate the moment of inertia in the servo motor drive system in very low speed is proposed in this paper. The speed estimation scheme in most servo drive systems for low speed operation is sensitive to the variation of machine parameter, especially the moment of inertia....... To estimate the motor inertia value, the observer using the Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) is applied. A control law for stabilizing the system and adaptive laws for updating both of the weights in the RBFN and a bounding constant are established so that the whole closed-loop system is stable...... in the sense of Lyapunov. The effectiveness of the proposed inertia estimation is verified by simulations and experiments. It is concluded that the speed control performance in low speed region is improved with the proposed disturbance observer using RBFN....

  13. A rapid method for the production of robust millennial length stable isotope tree ring series for climate reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagen, M.; McCarroll, D.; Jalkanen, R.; Loader, N. J.; Robertson, I.; Young, G. H. F.

    2012-02-01

    We developed a millennial length tree ring δ13C chronology from Pinus sylvestris at a site known as Laanila, in northern Finnish Lapland. In order to measure this series rapidly and with adequate replication, we adapted a multiple year pooling system. Using a combination of offset cut 5-year blocks, plus a novel method of joining tree cohorts together without the loss of a reliable absolute mean, allowed for the preservation of low frequency information in the series. Our 'Join-Point' method addressed systematic error in δ13C between trees and allowed the development of a robust millennial length chronology with a considerably lower number of measurements when compared to annual sampling. Our pooled chronology retains a replication at each year of n = 5 such that it is produced from just ~ 1000 mass spectrometry measurements. The Join-Point verification of the absolute δ13C value, at periods where cohorts of different aged trees meet, requires the analysis of a much larger number of trees at 8 Join-Points. We term this methodology offset-pool plus Join-Point, and describe the characteristics of the series it produces. Use of this method required an assessment of age-related trends in δ13C at the site and an investigation of potential differences between the living and sub-fossil wood material used, prior to the implementation of the method. With the assumption that δ13C series produce robust climate reconstructions, the emphasis has shifted to producing well-replicated series for palaeoclimate purposes. With this aim the analytical precision of a single measurement is considerably less important than the confidence attached to the mean value for each time step. The most efficient way to increase the precision of the estimate of mean δ13C is by increasing replication. Here we have demonstrated a novel method for doing this without the analysis of an unrealistic number of measurements and without the offset in δ13C between trees causing error to accrue back in

  14. Large Sample Hydrology : Building an international sample of watersheds to improve consistency and robustness of model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevet, Thibault; Kumar, Rohini; Gupta, Hoshin; Vaze, Jai; Andréassian, Vazken

    2015-04-01

    This poster introduces the aims of the Large Sample Hydrology working group (LSH-WG) of the new IAHS Panta Rhei decade (2013-2022). The aim of the LSH-WG is to promote large sample hydrology, as discussed by Gupta et al. (2014) and to invite the community to collaborate on building and sharing a comprehensive and representative world-wide sample of watershed datasets. By doing so, LSH will allow the community to work towards 'hydrological consistency' (Martinez and Gupta, 2011) as a basis for hydrologic model development and evaluation, thereby increasing robustness of the model evaluation process. Classical model evaluation metrics based on 'robust statistics' are needed, but clearly not sufficient: multi-criteria assessments based on multiple hydrological signatures can help to better characterize hydrological functioning. Further, large-sample data sets can greatly facilitate: (i) improved understanding through rigorous testing and comparison of competing model hypothesis and structures, (ii) improved robustness of generalizations through statistical analyses that minimize the influence of outliers and case-specific studies, (iii) classification, regionalization and model transfer across a broad diversity of hydrometeorological contexts, and (iv) estimation of predictive uncertainties at a location and across locations (Mathevet et al., 2006; Andréassian et al., 2009; Gupta et al., 2014) References Andréassian, V., Perrin, C., Berthet, L., Le Moine, N., Lerat, J., Loumagne, C., Oudin, L., Mathevet, T., Ramos, M. H., and Valéry, A.: Crash tests for a standardized evaluation of hydrological models, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 1757-1764, 2009. Gupta, H. V., Perrin, C., Blöschl, G., Montanari, A., Kumar, R., Clark, M., and Andréassian, V.: Large-sample hydrology: a need to balance depth with breadth, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 463-477, doi:10.5194/hess-18-463-2014, 2014. Martinez, G. F., and H. V.Gupta (2011), Hydrologic consistency as a basis for

  15. Building calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Christian; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion......Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion...

  16. Assigning Robust Default Values in Building Performance Simulation Software for Improved Decision-Making in the Initial Stages of Building Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Kyosuke

    2015-01-01

    Applying data mining techniques on a database of BIM models could provide valuable insights in key design patterns implicitly present in these BIM models. The architectural designer would then be able to use previous data from existing building projects as default values in building performance simulation software for the early phases of building design. The author has proposed the method to minimize the magnitude of the variation in these default values in subsequent design stages. This approach maintains the accuracy of the simulation results in the initial stages of building design. In this study, a more convincing argument is presented to demonstrate the significance of the new method. The variation in the ideal default values for different building design conditions is assessed first. Next, the influence of each condition on these variations is investigated. The space depth is found to have a large impact on the ideal default value of the window to wall ratio. In addition, the presence or absence of lighting control and natural ventilation has a significant influence on the ideal default value. These effects can be used to identify the types of building conditions that should be considered to determine the ideal default values.

  17. Avoiding the Possible Impact of Climate Change on the Built Environment: The Importance of the Building’s Energy Robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Coch; Antoni Isalgué; Massimo Palme

    2013-01-01

    Following years of research and design in architecture under bio-climatic, sustainable and passive-energy concepts, today’s buildings are often well designed and constructed, responding to determined climate conditions and the user’s requirements for comfort and, in some cases, they are integrated into the urban environment. However, the lifetime of a building can be over 100 years and the climate is changing rapidly. This work investigates the impact of climate change fut...

  18. Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani kumar

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses existing development scenario and issues to accommodate future development in hill towns located in Indian Himalayan region, also highlights the state of existing building regulations through an in-depth study of building regulations in major hill towns, and briefly discuses possible approaches to change existing building regulations for achieving contextually appropriate development.

  19. Building a Robust Tumor Profiling Program: Synergy between Next-Generation Sequencing and Targeted Single-Gene Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Hiemenz

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS is a powerful platform for identifying cancer mutations. Routine clinical adoption of NGS requires optimized quality control metrics to ensure accurate results. To assess the robustness of our clinical NGS pipeline, we analyzed the results of 304 solid tumor and hematologic malignancy specimens tested simultaneously by NGS and one or more targeted single-gene tests (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, NPM1, FLT3, and JAK2. For samples that passed our validated tumor percentage and DNA quality and quantity thresholds, there was perfect concordance between NGS and targeted single-gene tests with the exception of two FLT3 internal tandem duplications that fell below the stringent pre-established reporting threshold but were readily detected by manual inspection. In addition, NGS identified clinically significant mutations not covered by single-gene tests. These findings confirm NGS as a reliable platform for routine clinical use when appropriate quality control metrics, such as tumor percentage and DNA quality cutoffs, are in place. Based on our findings, we suggest a simple workflow that should facilitate adoption of clinical oncologic NGS services at other institutions.

  20. Solving the Puzzle of Recruitment and Retention-Strategies for Building a Robust Clinical and Translational Research Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Kathryn A; Hunt, Cerise; Presley, Jessica H; Nuechterlein, Bridget M; Moss, Marc; Manson, Spero M

    2015-10-01

    This paper is the first in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline and presents strategies to support recruitment and retention to create diverse pathways into clinical and translational research (CTR). The strategies address multiple levels or contexts of persistence decisions and include: (1) creating a seamless pipeline by forming strategic partnerships to achieve continuity of support for scholars and collective impact; (2) providing meaningful research opportunities to support identity formation as a scientist and sustain motivation to pursue and persist in CTR careers; (3) fostering an environment for effective mentorship and peer support to promote academic and social integration; (4) advocating for institutional policies to alleviate environmental pull factors; and, (5) supporting program evaluation-particularly, the examination of longitudinal outcomes. By combining institutional policies that promote a culture and climate for diversity with quality, evidence-based programs and integrated networks of support, we can create the environment necessary for diverse scholars to progress successfully and efficiently through the pipeline to achieve National Institutes of Health's vision of a robust CTR workforce. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Building a Robust Tumor Profiling Program: Synergy between Next-Generation Sequencing and Targeted Single-Gene Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemenz, Matthew C; Kadauke, Stephan; Lieberman, David B; Roth, David B; Zhao, Jianhua; Watt, Christopher D; Daber, Robert D; Morrissette, Jennifer J D

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful platform for identifying cancer mutations. Routine clinical adoption of NGS requires optimized quality control metrics to ensure accurate results. To assess the robustness of our clinical NGS pipeline, we analyzed the results of 304 solid tumor and hematologic malignancy specimens tested simultaneously by NGS and one or more targeted single-gene tests (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, NPM1, FLT3, and JAK2). For samples that passed our validated tumor percentage and DNA quality and quantity thresholds, there was perfect concordance between NGS and targeted single-gene tests with the exception of two FLT3 internal tandem duplications that fell below the stringent pre-established reporting threshold but were readily detected by manual inspection. In addition, NGS identified clinically significant mutations not covered by single-gene tests. These findings confirm NGS as a reliable platform for routine clinical use when appropriate quality control metrics, such as tumor percentage and DNA quality cutoffs, are in place. Based on our findings, we suggest a simple workflow that should facilitate adoption of clinical oncologic NGS services at other institutions.

  2. The National Opportunity for Interoperability and its Benefits for a Reliable, Robust, and Future Grid Realized Through Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2016-02-01

    Today, increasing numbers of intermittent generation sources (e.g., wind and photovoltaic) and new mobile intermittent loads (e.g., electric vehicles) can significantly affect traditional utility business practices and operations. At the same time, a growing number of technologies and devices, from appliances to lighting systems, are being deployed at consumer premises that have more sophisticated controls and information that remain underused for anything beyond basic building equipment operations. The intersection of these two drivers is an untapped opportunity and underused resource that, if appropriately configured and realized in open standards, can provide significant energy efficiency and commensurate savings on utility bills, enhanced and lower cost reliability to utilities, and national economic benefits in the creation of new markets, sectors, and businesses being fueled by the seamless coordination of energy and information through device and technology interoperability. Or, as the Quadrennial Energy Review puts it, “A plethora of both consumer-level and grid-level devices are either in the market, under development, or at the conceptual stage. When tied together through the information technology that is increasingly being deployed on electric utilities’ distribution grids, they can be an important enabling part of the emerging grid of the future. However, what is missing is the ability for all of these devices to coordinate and communicate their operations with the grid, and among themselves, in a common language — an open standard.” In this paper, we define interoperability as the ability to exchange actionable information between two or more systems within a home or building, or across and within organizational boundaries. Interoperability relies on the shared meaning of the exchanged information, with agreed-upon expectations and consequences, for the response to the information exchange.

  3. Switching slips. Building blocks for a robust environmental policy for the 21st century; Wissels omzetten. Bouwstenen voor een robuust milieubeleid voor de 21e eeuw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogervorst, N.; Hajer, M.; Dietz, F.; Timmerhuis, J.; Kruitwagen, S.

    2013-06-15

    With this 'signal report', PBL (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency) offers building blocks for a robust environmental policy for the twentyfirst century, such as changes in consumer behavior, new coalitions of interests and stakeholders, and the establishment of an investment fund for eco-innovation. Which track does the Netherlands want to follow? With this essay, PBL is calling for a broad public debate on this issue [Dutch] In dit signalenrapport reikt het PBL (Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving) bouwstenen aan voor een robuust milieubeleid voor de eenentwintigste eeuw, zoals gedragsverandering van consumenten, nieuwe coalities van belangen en betrokkenen, en de oprichting van een investeringsfonds voor eco-innovatie. Welk spoor wil Nederland bewandelen? Met dit essay roept het PBL op tot een breed maatschappelijk debat over deze vraag.

  4. Assessment of long-term transgene expression in barley: Ds-mediated delivery of bar results in robust, stable, and heritable expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of transgenic plants for both experimental and practical agronomic purposes is highly dependent on stable, predictable, and heritable expression of the introduced genes. This requirement is frequently unfulfilled, and transgenes are frequently subject to silencing. Studies of the charact...

  5. Form-Stable Phase Change Materials Based on Eutectic Mixture of Tetradecanol and Fatty Acids for Building Energy Storage: Preparation and Performance Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Lu, Shilei; Kong, Xiangfei; Liu, Shangbao; Li, Yiran

    2013-10-22

    This paper is focused on preparation and performance analysis of a series of form-stable phase change materials (FSPCMs), based on eutectic mixtures as phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage and high-density polyethylene (HDPE)-ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) polymer as supporting materials. The PCMs were eutectic mixtures of tetradecanol (TD)-capric acid (CA), TD-lauric acid (LA), and TD-myristic acid (MA), which were rarely explored before. Thermal properties of eutectic mixtures and FSPCMs were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The onset melting/solidification temperatures of form-stable PCMs were 19.13 °C/13.32 °C (FS TD-CA PCM), 24.53 °C/24.92 °C (FS TD-LA PCM), and 33.15 °C/30.72 °C (FS TD-MA PCM), respectively, and latent heats were almost greater than 90 J/g. The surface morphologies and chemical stability of form-stable PCM were surveyed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. The thermal cycling test revealed that the thermal reliability of these three form-stable PCMs was good. Thermal storage/release experiment indicated melting/solidification time was shortened by introducing 10 wt % aluminum powder (AP). It is concluded that these FSPCMs can act as potential building thermal storage materials in terms of their satisfactory thermal properties.

  6. Form-Stable Phase Change Materials Based on Eutectic Mixture of Tetradecanol and Fatty Acids for Building Energy Storage: Preparation and Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on preparation and performance analysis of a series of form-stable phase change materials (FSPCMs, based on eutectic mixtures as phase change materials (PCMs for thermal energy storage and high-density polyethylene (HDPE-ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA polymer as supporting materials. The PCMs were eutectic mixtures of tetradecanol (TD–capric acid (CA, TD–lauric acid (LA, and TD–myristic acid (MA, which were rarely explored before. Thermal properties of eutectic mixtures and FSPCMs were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The onset melting/solidification temperatures of form-stable PCMs were 19.13 °C/13.32 °C (FS TD–CA PCM, 24.53 °C/24.92 °C (FS TD–LA PCM, and 33.15 °C/30.72 °C (FS TD–MA PCM, respectively, and latent heats were almost greater than 90 J/g. The surface morphologies and chemical stability of form-stable PCM were surveyed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, respectively. The thermal cycling test revealed that the thermal reliability of these three form-stable PCMs was good. Thermal storage/release experiment indicated melting/solidification time was shortened by introducing 10 wt % aluminum powder (AP. It is concluded that these FSPCMs can act as potential building thermal storage materials in terms of their satisfactory thermal properties.

  7. Form-Stable Phase Change Materials Based on Eutectic Mixture of Tetradecanol and Fatty Acids for Building Energy Storage: Preparation and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Lu, Shilei; Kong, Xiangfei; Liu, Shangbao; li, Yiran

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focused on preparation and performance analysis of a series of form-stable phase change materials (FSPCMs), based on eutectic mixtures as phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage and high-density polyethylene (HDPE)-ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) polymer as supporting materials. The PCMs were eutectic mixtures of tetradecanol (TD)–capric acid (CA), TD–lauric acid (LA), and TD–myristic acid (MA), which were rarely explored before. Thermal properties of eutectic mixtures and FSPCMs were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The onset melting/solidification temperatures of form-stable PCMs were 19.13 °C/13.32 °C (FS TD–CA PCM), 24.53 °C/24.92 °C (FS TD–LA PCM), and 33.15 °C/30.72 °C (FS TD–MA PCM), respectively, and latent heats were almost greater than 90 J/g. The surface morphologies and chemical stability of form-stable PCM were surveyed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. The thermal cycling test revealed that the thermal reliability of these three form-stable PCMs was good. Thermal storage/release experiment indicated melting/solidification time was shortened by introducing 10 wt % aluminum powder (AP). It is concluded that these FSPCMs can act as potential building thermal storage materials in terms of their satisfactory thermal properties. PMID:28788358

  8. Mechanisms for Robust Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Matthew M.; Gluck, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    To function well in an unpredictable environment using unreliable components, a system must have a high degree of robustness. Robustness is fundamental to biological systems and is an objective in the design of engineered systems such as airplane engines and buildings. Cognitive systems, like biological and engineered systems, exist within…

  9. Air-Stable Surface-Passivated Perovskite Quantum Dots for Ultra-Robust, Single- and Two-Photon-Induced Amplified Spontaneous Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate ultra-air- and photostable CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) by using an inorganic–organic hybrid ion pair as the capping ligand. This passivation approach to perovskite QDs yields high photoluminescence quantum yield with unprecedented operational stability in ambient conditions (60 ± 5% lab humidity) and high pump fluences, thus overcoming one of the greatest challenges impeding the development of perovskite-based applications. Due to the robustness of passivated perovskite QDs, we were able to induce ultrastable amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in solution processed QD films not only through one photon but also through two-photon absorption processes. The latter has not been observed before in the family of perovskite materials. More importantly, passivated perovskite QD films showed remarkable photostability under continuous pulsed laser excitation in ambient conditions for at least 34 h (corresponds to 1.2 × 108 laser shots), substantially exceeding the stability of other colloidal QD systems in which ASE has been observed.

  10. Stable, low-cost phase change material for building applications: The eutectic mixture of decanoic acid and tetradecanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahwaji, Samer; Johnson, Michel B.; Kheirabadi, Ali C.; Groulx, Dominic; White, Mary Anne

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Decanoic/tetradecanoic acid eutectic at 0.82 ± 0.02 mole fraction (78 ± 2 mass%) decanoic acid. • Melting of eutectic at 20.5 ± 1.5 °C, useful for building applications. • High enthalpy change, 153 ± 15 J g −1 , is promising. • Negligible change in stability after 3000 melt–freeze cycles. - Abstract: We present a thorough characterization of the thermal properties and thermal reliability of the eutectic mixture of decanoic acid with tetradecanoic acid, as a phase change material (PCM) of potential interest for passive temperature control in buildings. From the temperature-composition binary phase diagram we found that the eutectic composition is 0.82 ± 0.02 mole fraction (78 ± 2 mass%) decanoic acid. We thoroughly characterized the thermal properties of the eutectic mixture. The eutectic composition has a high latent heat of fusion Δ fus H = 153 ± 15 J g −1 and a melting temperature T onset = 20.5 ± 1.5 °C. The heat capacity measured as a function of temperature for the solid and liquid phases just below and above the melting point is 1.9 and 2.1 ± 0.2 J K −1 g −1 , respectively. The average value of the thermal conductivity of the solid phase measured between −33 and 9 °C is κ s = 0.20 ± 0.02 W m −1 K −1 and for the liquid phase, the thermal conductivity is κ l = 0.23 ± 0.03 W m −1 K −1 for 28 and 38 °C. The mixture has a good long-term thermal stability as indicated by negligible changes in Δ fus H and T onset after 3000 melt–freeze cycles. The parameters determined in this work allow more accurate modeling and optimization of the behavior of the eutectic mixture in preparation for implementation as a thermal energy storage PCM.

  11. HGSYSTEM/UF6 model enhancements for plume rise and dispersion around buildings, lift-off of buoyant plumes, and robustness of numerical solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.R.; Chang, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The HGSYSTEM/UF 6 model was developed for use in preparing Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) by estimating the consequences of possible accidental releases of UF 6 to the atmosphere at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) located in Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky. Although the latter report carries a 1996 date, the work that is described was completed in late 1994. When that report was written, the primary release scenarios of interest were thought to be gas pipeline and liquid tank ruptures over open terrain away from the influence of buildings. However, upon further analysis of possible release scenarios, the developers of the SARs decided it was necessary to also consider accidental releases within buildings. Consequently, during the fall and winter of 1995-96, modules were added to HGSYSTEM/UF 6 to account for flow and dispersion around buildings. The original HGSYSTEM/UF 6 model also contained a preliminary method for accounting for the possible lift-off of ground-based buoyant plumes. An improved model and a new set of wind tunnel data for buoyant plumes trapped in building recirculation cavities have become available that appear to be useful for revising the lift-off algorithm and modifying it for use in recirculation cavities. This improved lift-off model has been incorporated in the updated modules for dispersion around buildings

  12. Robust Scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    their core i nterests, 2) developing a selfsupply of industry interests by becoming entrepreneurs and thus creating their own compliant industry partner and 3) balancing resources within a larger collective of researchers, thus countering changes in the influx of funding caused by shifts in political...... knowledge", Danish research policy seems to have helped develop politically and economically "robust scientists". Scientific robustness is acquired by way of three strategies: 1) tasting and discriminating between resources so as to avoid funding that erodes academic profiles and push scientists away from...

  13. Towards building a robust computational framework to simulate multi-physics problems - a solution technique for three-phase (gas-liquid-solid) interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lucy

    In this talk, we show a robust numerical framework to model and simulate gas-liquid-solid three-phase flows. The overall algorithm adopts a non-boundary-fitted approach that avoids frequent mesh-updating procedures by defining independent meshes and explicit interfacial points to represent each phase. In this framework, we couple the immersed finite element method (IFEM) and the connectivity-free front tracking (CFFT) method that model fluid-solid and gas-liquid interactions, respectively, for the three-phase models. The CFFT is used here to simulate gas-liquid multi-fluid flows that uses explicit interfacial points to represent the gas-liquid interface and for its easy handling of interface topology changes. Instead of defining different levels simultaneously as used in level sets, an indicator function naturally couples the two methods together to represent and track each of the three phases. Several 2-D and 3-D testing cases are performed to demonstrate the robustness and capability of the coupled numerical framework in dealing with complex three-phase problems, in particular free surfaces interacting with deformable solids. The solution technique offers accuracy and stability, which provides a means to simulate various engineering applications. The author would like to acknowledge the supports from NIH/DHHS R01-2R01DC005642-10A1 and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) 11550110185.

  14. Extraordinary Separation of Acetylene-Containing Mixtures with Microporous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Open O Donor Sites and Tunable Robustness through Control of the Helical Chain Secondary Building Units

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Zizhu

    2016-03-02

    Acetylene separation is a very important but challenging industrial separation task. Here, through the solvothermal reaction of CuI and 5-triazole isophthalic acid in different solvents, two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, FJU-21 and FJU-22) with open O donor sites and controllable robustness have been obtained for acetylene separation. They contain the same paddle-wheel {Cu2(COO2)4} nodes and metal-ligand connection modes, but with different helical chains as secondary building units (SBUs), leading to different structural robustness for the MOFs. FJU-21 and FJU-22 are the first examples in which the MOFs\\' robustness is controlled by adjusting the helical chain SBUs. Good robustness gives the activated FJU-22 a, which has higher surface area and gas uptakes than the flexible FJU-21 a. Importantly, FJU-22 a shows extraordinary separation of acetylene mixtures under ambient conditions. The separation capacity of FJU-22 a for 50:50 C2H2/CO2 mixtures is about twice that of the high-capacity HOF-3, and its actual separation selectivity for C2H2/C2H4 mixtures containing 1 % acetylene is the highest among reported porous materials. Based on first-principles calculations, the extraordinary separation performance of C2H2 for FJU-22 a was attributed to hydrogen-bonding interactions between the C2H2 molecules with the open O donors on the wall, which provide better recognition ability for C2H2 than other functional sites, including open metal sites and amino groups. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. In silico robustness testing of a compendial HPLC purity method by using of a multidimensional design space build by chromatography modeling-Case study pramipexole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander H; Stanic, Mijo; Molnár, Imre

    2014-03-01

    Purity testing of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) pramipexole is performed using an official (compendial) and harmonized method published in the European Pharmacopeia (E.P.) and United States Pharmacopeia (USP). According to this monograph the successful chromatographic separation of the API from impurities is achieved on a C18 column with gradient elution of an ion pairing buffer of pH 3.0 (mobile phase A) and acetonitrile (mobile phase B). Although not recommended in general, compendial methods are often adapted for purity testing of generic formulations. In this paper a novel approach to evaluate method robustness of an adapted method - prior of full method validation - is described. Based on Quality-by-Design (QbD) principles, a small number of experiments are performed, which after entering them into a chromatography modeling software allow to visualize a multidimensional "Design Space", a region, in which changes in method parameters will not significantly affect the results as defined in the ICH guideline Q8(R2) leading to a more flexible method handling in routine analysis. For two different recommended C18 columns a multidimensional Design Space (Method Operating Design Region, MODR) was constructed to study the robustness of the adapted method with a newly developed Robustness Module. In a full factorial design the following six parameters were varied at three levels (low, nominal, high): gradient time, temperature, pH of the aqueous eluent (A), flow rate, start- and end concentration of the organic mobile phase component (eluent B). The resulting 3(6)=729 experiments were performed in silico from the previously constructed models for Design Space in less than 1min and showed that the required resolution of 2.0 could not be reached in all experiments for the two columns which were recommended by the E.P. (failure rate 25% and 16%, respectively). However, by adjusting the gradient time, we were able to fulfill the requirements with a failure

  16. Building a robust 21st century chemical testing program at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: recommendations for strengthening scientific engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Jennifer; Dantzker, Heather C; Portier, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Biological pathway-based chemical testing approaches are central to the National Research Council's vision for 21st century toxicity testing. Approaches such as high-throughput in vitro screening offer the potential to evaluate thousands of chemicals faster and cheaper than ever before and to reduce testing on laboratory animals. Collaborative scientific engagement is important in addressing scientific issues arising in new federal chemical testing programs and for achieving stakeholder support of their use. We present two recommendations specifically focused on increasing scientific engagement in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast™ initiative. Through these recommendations we seek to bolster the scientific foundation of federal chemical testing efforts such as ToxCast™ and the public health decisions that rely upon them. Environmental Defense Fund works across disciplines and with diverse groups to improve the science underlying environmental health decisions. We propose that the U.S. EPA can strengthen the scientific foundation of its new chemical testing efforts and increase support for them in the scientific research community by a) expanding and diversifying scientific input into the development and application of new chemical testing methods through collaborative workshops, and b) seeking out mutually beneficial research partnerships. Our recommendations provide concrete actions for the U.S. EPA to increase and diversify engagement with the scientific research community in its ToxCast™ initiative. We believe that such engagement will help ensure that new chemical testing data are scientifically robust and that the U.S. EPA gains the support and acceptance needed to sustain new testing efforts to protect public health.

  17. The GLOBAL Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Collaboration System. Building a robust international collaboration environment for teachers, scientists and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overoye, D.; Lewis, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Program is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education program founded on Earth Day 1995. Implemented in 117 countries, GLOBE promotes the teaching and learning of science, supporting students, teachers and scientists worldwide to collaborate with each other on inquiry-based investigations of the Earth system. As an international platform supporting a large number and variety of stakeholders, the GLOBE Data Information System (DIS) was re-built with the goal of providing users the support needed to foster and develop collaboration between teachers, students and scientists while supporting the collection and visualization of over 50 different earth science investigations (protocols). There have been many challenges to consider as we have worked to prototype and build various tools to support collaboration across the GLOBE community - language, security, time zones, user roles and the Child Online Protection Act (COPA) to name a few. During the last 3 years the re-built DIS has been in operation we have supported user to user collaboration, school to school collaboration, project/campaign to user collaboration and scientist to scientist collaboration. We have built search tools to facilitate finding collaboration partners. The tools and direction continue to evolve based on feedback, evolving needs and changes in technology. With this paper we discuss our approach for dealing with some of the collaboration challenges, review tools built to encourage and support collaboration, and analyze which tools have been successful and which have not. We will review new ideas for collaboration in the GLOBE community that are guiding upcoming development.

  18. Theoretical Framework for Robustness Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for evaluation of robustness of structural systems, incl. bridges and buildings. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, although...... the importance of robustness for structural design is widely recognized the code requirements are not specified in detail, which makes the practical use difficult. This paper describes a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines...

  19. Source Partitioning Using Stable Isotopes: Coping with Too Much Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Andrew C.; Inger, Richard; Bearhop, Stuart; Jackson, Andrew L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Stable isotope analysis is increasingly being utilised across broad areas of ecology and biology. Key to much of this work is the use of mixing models to estimate the proportion of sources contributing to a mixture such as in diet estimation. Methodology By accurately reflecting natural variation and uncertainty to generate robust probability estimates of source proportions, the application of Bayesian methods to stable isotope mixing models promises to enable researchers to address an array of new questions, and approach current questions with greater insight and honesty. Conclusions We outline a framework that builds on recently published Bayesian isotopic mixing models and present a new open source R package, SIAR. The formulation in R will allow for continued and rapid development of this core model into an all-encompassing single analysis suite for stable isotope research. PMID:20300637

  20. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  1. Structural and robustness properties of smart-city transportation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen-Gang; Ding Zhuo; Fan Jing-Fang; Chen Xiao-Song; Meng Jun; Ye Fang-Fu; Ding Yi-Min

    2015-01-01

    The concept of smart city gives an excellent resolution to construct and develop modern cities, and also demands infrastructure construction. How to build a safe, stable, and highly efficient public transportation system becomes an important topic in the process of city construction. In this work, we study the structural and robustness properties of transportation networks and their sub-networks. We introduce a complementary network model to study the relevance and complementarity between bus network and subway network. Our numerical results show that the mutual supplement of networks can improve the network robustness. This conclusion provides a theoretical basis for the construction of public traffic networks, and it also supports reasonable operation of managing smart cities. (rapid communication)

  2. Robust efficient video fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Manika; Lubin, Jeffrey

    2009-02-01

    We have developed a video fingerprinting system with robustness and efficiency as the primary and secondary design criteria. In extensive testing, the system has shown robustness to cropping, letter-boxing, sub-titling, blur, drastic compression, frame rate changes, size changes and color changes, as well as to the geometric distortions often associated with camcorder capture in cinema settings. Efficiency is afforded by a novel two-stage detection process in which a fast matching process first computes a number of likely candidates, which are then passed to a second slower process that computes the overall best match with minimal false alarm probability. One key component of the algorithm is a maximally stable volume computation - a three-dimensional generalization of maximally stable extremal regions - that provides a content-centric coordinate system for subsequent hash function computation, independent of any affine transformation or extensive cropping. Other key features include an efficient bin-based polling strategy for initial candidate selection, and a final SIFT feature-based computation for final verification. We describe the algorithm and its performance, and then discuss additional modifications that can provide further improvement to efficiency and accuracy.

  3. Building Stable MMP2-Responsive Multifunctional Polymeric Micelles by an All-in-One Polymer-Lipid Conjugate for Tumor-Targeted Intracellular Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qing; Dai, Zhi; Hoon Choi, Jong; Kim, Dongin; Zhu, Lin

    2017-09-27

    In this study, we described an "all-in-one" polymer-lipid conjugate (PEG2k-ppTAT-PEG1k-PE) that could self-assemble to matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2)-sensitive multifunctional micelles. The assembled micelles had several key features, including a protective long chain poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG2k) (the outer shell), an MMP2-sensitive peptide linker (pp) (the tumor-targeting middle layer), a trans-activating transcriptional activator (TAT) peptide (the cell-penetrating middle layer), and a stable PEG1k-PE micelle for drug loading (the inner core). In the absence of MMP2, the PEG2k-ppTAT-PEG1k-PE micelles were intact and showed low bioactivity due to the surface-anchored PEG2k, whereas in the presence of MMP2, the pp was cleaved, resulting in the PEG2k deshielding and exposure of the previously hidden TAT for enhanced intracellular drug delivery. Even if completely cleaved by MMP2, the remaining PEG1k-PE micelles were stable and the micelles' particle size and drug release were not significantly influenced. The paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded PEG2k-ppTAT-PEG1k-PE micelles showed significant MMP2-dependent cellular uptake, tumor penetration, and anticancer activity in various cancer cells and three-dimensional multicellular spheroids. Because of the enhanced intracellular drug accumulation, these multifunctional micelles were able to sensitize the drug-resistant cancer cells and their spheroids to PTX treatments. Furthermore, in vivo tumor uptake and retention data indicated that the PEG2k-ppTAT-PEG1k-PE micelles could dramatically increase the residence time of their payloads in the tumor.

  4. Prophylactic Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Vaccines Adjuvanted with Stable Emulsion and Toll-Like Receptor 9 Agonist Induce a Robust HSV-2-Specific Cell-Mediated Immune Response, Protect against Symptomatic Disease, and Reduce the Latent Viral Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Michael T; Marshall, Jason D; Dorwart, Michael R; Heeke, Darren S; Rao, Eileen; Tummala, Padmaja; Yu, Li; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Sloan, Derek D

    2017-05-01

    Several prophylactic vaccines targeting herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) have failed in the clinic to demonstrate sustained depression of viral shedding or protection from recurrences. Although these vaccines have generated high titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), their induction of robust CD8 T cells has largely been unreported, even though evidence for the importance of HSV-2 antigen-specific CD8 T cells is mounting in animal models and in translational studies involving subjects with active HSV-2-specific immune responses. We developed a subunit vaccine composed of the NAb targets gD and gB and the novel T cell antigen and tegument protein UL40, and we compared this vaccine to a whole-inactivated-virus vaccine (formaldehyde-inactivated HSV-2 [FI-HSV-2]). We evaluated different formulations in combination with several Th1-inducing Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in vivo In mice, the TLR9 agonist cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotide formulated in a squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion promoted most robust, functional HSV-2 antigen-specific CD8 T cell responses and high titers of neutralizing antibodies, demonstrating its superiority to vaccines adjuvanted by monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)-alum. We further established that FI-HSV-2 alone or in combination with adjuvants as well as adjuvanted subunit vaccines were successful in the induction of NAbs and T cell responses in guinea pigs. These immunological responses were coincident with a suppression of vaginal HSV-2 shedding, low lesion scores, and a reduction in latent HSV-2 DNA in dorsal root ganglia to undetectable levels. These data support the further preclinical and clinical development of prophylactic HSV-2 vaccines that contain appropriate antigen and adjuvant components responsible for programming elevated CD8 T cell responses. IMPORTANCE Millions of people worldwide are infected with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and to date, an efficacious prophylactic vaccine has not met the rigors

  5. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  6. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  7. Robust control of UAVs using the parameter space approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelmoeti, Samer; Carloni, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a robust PID controller for quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles is proposed that uses the pa- rameter space approach. Stability and robustness analyses are carried out in the controller parameter space to determine a set of stable controller gains that guarantee also robustness against

  8. Global robust stability for shunting inhibitory CNNs with delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingna; Lin, Yiping

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, the problem of global robust stability for shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks (SICNNs) is studied. A sufficient condition guaranteeing the network's global robust stability is established. The result can easily be used to verify globally robust stable networks. An example is given to illustrate that the conditions of our results are feasible.

  9. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  10. Robust Decentralized Formation Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Weihua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of multiplexed model predictive control (MMPC, this paper introduces a new framework for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs formation flight and coordination. Formulated using MMPC approach, the whole centralized formation flight system is considered as a linear periodic system with control inputs of each UAV subsystem as its periodic inputs. Divided into decentralized subsystems, the whole formation flight system is guaranteed stable if proper terminal cost and terminal constraints are added to each decentralized MPC formulation of the UAV subsystem. The decentralized robust MPC formulation for each UAV subsystem with bounded input disturbances and model uncertainties is also presented. Furthermore, an obstacle avoidance control scheme for any shape and size of obstacles, including the nonapriorily known ones, is integrated under the unified MPC framework. The results from simulations demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully achieve robust collision-free formation flights.

  11. Antecedents and Dimensions of Supply Chain Robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Durach, Christian F.; Wieland, Andreas; Machuca, Jose A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide groundwork for an emerging theory of supply chain robustness – which has been conceptualized as a dimension of supply chain resilience – through reviewing and synthesizing related yet disconnected studies. The paper develops a formal definition of supply chain robustness to build a framework that captures the dimensions, antecedents and moderators of the construct as discussed in the literature. Design/methodology/approach – The...

  12. Robustness of Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canisius, T.D.G.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Baker, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of robustness as a property of structural systems has been recognised following several structural failures, such as that at Ronan Point in 1968,where the consequenceswere deemed unacceptable relative to the initiating damage. A variety of research efforts in the past decades have ...... will be proposed. The document adopts a probabilistic risk assessment framework and includes guidance for decision-making related to robustness....... attempted to quantify aspects of robustness such as redundancy and identify design principles that can improve robustness. This paper outlines the progress of recent work by the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) to develop comprehensive guidance on assessing and providing robustness in structural...... systems. Guidance is provided regarding the assessment of robustness in a framework that considers potential hazards to the system, vulnerability of system components, and failure consequences. Several proposed methods for quantifying robustness are reviewed, and guidelines for robust design...

  13. Network Robustness: the whole story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longjas, A.; Tejedor, A.; Zaliapin, I. V.; Ambroj, S.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2014-12-01

    A multitude of actual processes operating on hydrological networks may exhibit binary outcomes such as clean streams in a river network that may become contaminated. These binary outcomes can be modeled by node removal processes (attacks) acting in a network. Network robustness against attacks has been widely studied in fields as diverse as the Internet, power grids and human societies. However, the current definition of robustness is only accounting for the connectivity of the nodes unaffected by the attack. Here, we put forward the idea that the connectivity of the affected nodes can play a crucial role in proper evaluation of the overall network robustness and its future recovery from the attack. Specifically, we propose a dual perspective approach wherein at any instant in the network evolution under attack, two distinct networks are defined: (i) the Active Network (AN) composed of the unaffected nodes and (ii) the Idle Network (IN) composed of the affected nodes. The proposed robustness metric considers both the efficiency of destroying the AN and the efficiency of building-up the IN. This approach is motivated by concrete applied problems, since, for example, if we study the dynamics of contamination in river systems, it is necessary to know both the connectivity of the healthy and contaminated parts of the river to assess its ecological functionality. We show that trade-offs between the efficiency of the Active and Idle network dynamics give rise to surprising crossovers and re-ranking of different attack strategies, pointing to significant implications for decision making.

  14. Robustness and Eurocodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulvanessian, H.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The topic of robustness is essentially covered by two Eurocodes, EN 1990: Euro-code: Basis of Structural Design [5] which provides the high level principles for achieving robustness and EN 1991-1-7 Eurocode 1: Part 1-7 Accidental Actions [6] which provides strategies and methods to obtain robustness

  15. Robust highly stable multi-resonator refractive index sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfies, Myles; Kalantarov, Dmitriy; Search, Christopher P.

    2018-03-01

    Here we show that a serial array of three evanescently coupled microring resonators can achieve detection limits for refractive index changes in the surrounding environment that are more than 40% better than a single resonator. The improved performance of the three rings occurs when only the central resonator is exposed to the refractive index change and is due to the narrower linewidth that results from the off-resonant coupling to the adjacent resonators. Unlike a single resonator sensor that is usually operated close to critical coupling to maximize the sensitivity, the three resonator configuration is able to achieve superior detection limits over a wide range of inter-resonator couplings. We use this to show that random variations of the couplings resulting from manufacturing variations has a minimal impact on the performance of the three ring system.

  16. Robust chaos synchronization using input-to-state stable control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    function vector satisfying the global Lipschitz condition with Lipschitz constant. Lg > 0. The system (5) is considered as a drive system. The synchronization problem of system (5) is considered by using the drive- response configuration. According to the drive-response concept, the controlled response system is given by.

  17. Robust chaos synchronization using input-to-state stable control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... be obtained by solving a convex optimization problem represented by the. LMI. Simulation studies are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ... one is the linear state feedback controller and the other is the nonlinear feedback controller. By the proposed control scheme, the closed-loop error system is ...

  18. Robustness of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    the development of a joint European project on structural robustness under the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) programme and the decision to develop a more elaborate document on structural robustness in collaboration between experts from the JCSS and the IABSE. Accordingly, a project titled...... ‘COST TU0601: Robustness of Structures’ was initiated in February 2007, aiming to provide a platform for exchanging and promoting research in the area of structural robustness and to provide a basic framework, together with methods, strategies and guidelines enhancing robustness of structures...

  19. Stability and robustness analysis of acyclic timetable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Yan, F.

    2015-01-01

    o satisfy the growing passenger transportation demands and improve the service quality n railway system, a more stable and robust timetable needs to be designed while considering highly utilized capacity. Acyclic timetable is extensively applied in large ailway networks. In order to acquire the

  20. Robust multivariate analysis

    CERN Document Server

    J Olive, David

    2017-01-01

    This text presents methods that are robust to the assumption of a multivariate normal distribution or methods that are robust to certain types of outliers. Instead of using exact theory based on the multivariate normal distribution, the simpler and more applicable large sample theory is given.  The text develops among the first practical robust regression and robust multivariate location and dispersion estimators backed by theory.   The robust techniques  are illustrated for methods such as principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, and factor analysis.  A simple way to bootstrap confidence regions is also provided. Much of the research on robust multivariate analysis in this book is being published for the first time. The text is suitable for a first course in Multivariate Statistical Analysis or a first course in Robust Statistics. This graduate text is also useful for people who are familiar with the traditional multivariate topics, but want to know more about handling data sets with...

  1. A Fast and Robust Method for Measuring Optical Channel Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob; Villemoes, L.F.

    2000-01-01

    We present a numerically stable and computational simple method for fast and robust measurement of optical channel gain. By transmitting adaptively designed signals through the channel, good accuracy is possible even in severe noise conditions......We present a numerically stable and computational simple method for fast and robust measurement of optical channel gain. By transmitting adaptively designed signals through the channel, good accuracy is possible even in severe noise conditions...

  2. Determining the Most Robust Dimensional Structure of Categories from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Across Subgroups of Persons With Spinal Cord Injury to Build the Basis for Future Clinical Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballert, Carolina S; Stucki, Gerold; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the most robust dimensional structure of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories relevant to spinal cord injury (SCI) across subgroups of lesion level, health care context, sex, age, and resources of the country. DESIGN: A mu...... one. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that a 2-dimensional structure separating body functions and body structures from the activity and participation categories should serve as a basis for developing clinical measures in SCI in the future....

  3. A network approach for power grid robustness against cascading failures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Koc, Y.; Kooij, R.E.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2015-01-01

    Cascading failures are one of the main reasons for blackouts in electrical power grids. Stable power supply requires a robust design of the power grid topology. Currently, the impact of the grid structure on the grid robustness is mainly assessed by purely topological metrics, that fail to capture

  4. Iterative robust multiprocessor scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adyanthaya, S.; Geilen, M.; Basten, T.; Voeten, J.; Schiffelers, R.

    2015-01-01

    General purpose platforms are characterized by unpredictable timing behavior. Real-time schedules of tasks on general purpose platforms need to be robust against variations in task execution times. We define robustness in terms of the expected number of tasks that miss deadlines. We present an

  5. Robustness to strategic uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, O.; Argenton, C.; Weibull, J.W.

    We introduce a criterion for robustness to strategic uncertainty in games with continuum strategy sets. We model a player's uncertainty about another player's strategy as an atomless probability distribution over that player's strategy set. We call a strategy profile robust to strategic uncertainty

  6. Robustness - theoretical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Faber, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    not be disproportional to the causes of the damages'. However, despite the importance of robustness for structural design such requirements are not substantiated in more detail, nor have the engineering profession been able to agree on an interpretation of robustness which facilitates for its quantification. The ain...

  7. Robust nonlinear control of vectored thrust aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John C.; Murray, Richard; Morris, John

    1993-01-01

    An interdisciplinary program in robust control for nonlinear systems with applications to a variety of engineering problems is outlined. Major emphasis will be placed on flight control, with both experimental and analytical studies. This program builds on recent new results in control theory for stability, stabilization, robust stability, robust performance, synthesis, and model reduction in a unified framework using Linear Fractional Transformations (LFT's), Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI's), and the structured singular value micron. Most of these new advances have been accomplished by the Caltech controls group independently or in collaboration with researchers in other institutions. These recent results offer a new and remarkably unified framework for all aspects of robust control, but what is particularly important for this program is that they also have important implications for system identification and control of nonlinear systems. This combines well with Caltech's expertise in nonlinear control theory, both in geometric methods and methods for systems with constraints and saturations.

  8. Software-defined network abstractions and configuration interfaces for building programmable quantum networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasari, Venkat [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD; Sadlier, Ronald J [ORNL; Geerhart, Mr. Billy [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD; Snow, Nikolai [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD; Williams, Brian P [ORNL; Humble, Travis S [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Well-defined and stable quantum networks are essential to realize functional quantum applications. Quantum networks are complex and must use both quantum and classical channels to support quantum applications like QKD, teleportation, and superdense coding. In particular, the no-cloning theorem prevents the reliable copying of quantum signals such that the quantum and classical channels must be highly coordinated using robust and extensible methods. We develop new network abstractions and interfaces for building programmable quantum networks. Our approach leverages new OpenFlow data structures and table type patterns to build programmable quantum networks and to support quantum applications.

  9. Robust feedback linearization for nonlinear processes control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, José de Jesús

    2018-03-01

    In this research, a robust feedback linearization technique is studied for nonlinear processes control. The main contributions are described as follows: 1) Theory says that if a linearized controlled process is stable, then nonlinear process states are asymptotically stable, it is not satisfied in applications because some states converge to small values; therefore, a theorem based on Lyapunov theory is proposed to prove that if a linearized controlled process is stable, then nonlinear process states are uniformly stable. 2) Theory says that all the main and crossed states feedbacks should be considered for the nonlinear processes regulation, it makes more difficult to find the controller gains; consequently, only the main states feedbacks are utilized to obtain a satisfactory result in applications. This introduced strategy is applied in a fuel cell and a manipulator. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Robust multi-objective control of hybrid renewable microgeneration systems with energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, John

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid energy system of micro-CHP, solar PV, and battery storage is presented. • Possible to exploit synergy of systems to fulfil the thermal and electrical demands. • Can control to minimise the interaction with the local electrical network. • Three different control approaches were compared. • The nonlinear inversion-based control strategy exhibits optimum performance. - Abstract: Microgeneration technologies are positioned to address future building energy efficiency requirements and facilitate the integration of renewables into buildings to ensure a sustainable, energy-secure future. This paper explores the development of a robust multi-input multi-output (MIMO) controller applicable to the control of hybrid renewable microgeneration systems with the objective of minimising the electrical grid utilisation of a building while fulfilling the thermal demands. The controller employs the inverse dynamics of the building, servicing systems, and energy storage with a robust control methodology. These inverse dynamics provides the control system with knowledge of the complex cause and effect relationships between the system, the controlled inputs, and the external disturbances, while an outer-loop control ensures robust, stable control in the presence of modelling deficiencies/uncertainty and unknown disturbances. Variable structure control compensates for the physical limitations of the systems whereby the control strategy employed switches depending on the current utilisation and availability of the energy supplies. Preliminary results presented for a system consisting of a micro-CHP unit, solar PV, and battery storage indicate that the control strategy is effective in minimising the interaction with the local electrical network and maximising the utilisation of the available renewable energy.

  11. Robustness Beamforming Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Dehghani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive beamforming methods are known to degrade in the presence of steering vector and covariance matrix uncertinity. In this paper, a new approach is presented to robust adaptive minimum variance distortionless response beamforming make robust against both uncertainties in steering vector and covariance matrix. This method minimize a optimization problem that contains a quadratic objective function and a quadratic constraint. The optimization problem is nonconvex but is converted to a convex optimization problem in this paper. It is solved by the interior-point method and optimum weight vector to robust beamforming is achieved.

  12. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  13. Perceptual Robust Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Nygaard

    are just a few examples of cost drivers. In general, the earlier quality issues are addressed the less costs they impose. Robust design methodology seeks to anticipate many of these quality issues by making product designs less sensitive to variation. The approach was first introduced by Genichi Taguchi......The research presented in this PhD thesis has focused on a perceptual approach to robust design. The results of the research and the original contribution to knowledge is a preliminary framework for understanding, positioning, and applying perceptual robust design. Product quality is a topic...... in the 1980s and has since been expanded and refined. In more recent contributions, the notion of visual robustness has been introduced to the field of design research. However, contributions have only addressed the visual domain and no underlying theory on which to position or understand these studies have...

  14. Robust Microarray Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Novikov, Eugene; Barillot, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    In this work we have presented a complete solution for robust, high-throughput, two-color microarray image processing comprising procedures for automatic spot localization, spot quantification and spot quality control. The spot localization algorithm is fully automatic and robust with respect to deviations from perfect spot alignment and contamination. As an input, it requires only the common array design parameters: number of blocks and number of spots in the x and y directions of the array....

  15. Robust Crane Control

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Hičár; Juraj Ritók

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents robust crane design by asynchronnous motor with frequencyconvertor at ensuring system robustness against load weight and rope length variation.Exact position control and elimination of swinging in the final position are required too.Firstly were assemblied mathematical models of main crane components: crab, bridge anduplift by real model of double beamed bridge experimental crane. Was designed robustcontrol for defined interval variation of weight and rope length for real c...

  16. Optimization for getting stable plasma initiation in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Ryuji; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Abe, T.

    1988-06-01

    This paper analyses the plasma current build-up just after the breakdown, and investigates the method for obtaining more stable plasma initiation with reduced Volt-second consumption. Control of the amount of particles contained in the wall is necessary for getting the optimum plasma density just after the breakdown, and is essential for obtaining the stable current build-up. (author)

  17. Mould growth on building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog Nielsen, K.

    Mould growth in buildings is associated with adverse health effects among the occupants of the building. However actual growth only occurs in damp and water-damaged materials, and is an increasing problem in Denmark, due to less robust constructions, inadequate maintenance, and too little...

  18. Homeostasis control of building environment using sensor agent robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Eri; Mita, Akira

    2012-04-01

    A human centered system for building is demanded to meet variety of needs due to the diversification and maturation of society. Smart buildings and smart houses have been studied to satisfy this demand. However, it is difficult for such systems to respond flexibly to unexpected events and needs that are caused by aging and complicate emotion changes. With this regards, we suggest "Biofied Buildings". The goal for this research is to realize buildings that are safer, more comfortable and more energy-efficient by embedding adaptive functions of life into buildings. In this paper, we propose a new control system for building environments, focused on physiological adaptation, particularly homeostasis, endocrine system and immune system. Residents are used as living sensors and controllers in the control loop. A sensor agent robot is used to acquire resident's discomfort feeling, and to output hormone-like signals to activate devices to control the environments. The proposed system could control many devices without establishing complicated scenarios. Results obtained from some simulations and the demonstration experiments using an LED lighting system showed that the proposed system were able to achieve robust and stable control of environments without complicated scenarios.

  19. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  20. Robustness in econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Sriboonchitta, Songsak; Huynh, Van-Nam

    2017-01-01

    This book presents recent research on robustness in econometrics. Robust data processing techniques – i.e., techniques that yield results minimally affected by outliers – and their applications to real-life economic and financial situations are the main focus of this book. The book also discusses applications of more traditional statistical techniques to econometric problems. Econometrics is a branch of economics that uses mathematical (especially statistical) methods to analyze economic systems, to forecast economic and financial dynamics, and to develop strategies for achieving desirable economic performance. In day-by-day data, we often encounter outliers that do not reflect the long-term economic trends, e.g., unexpected and abrupt fluctuations. As such, it is important to develop robust data processing techniques that can accommodate these fluctuations.

  1. Robust Manufacturing Control

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...

  2. Robust Object Tracking Using Valid Fragments Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Li, Bo; Tian, Peng; Luo, Gang

    Local features are widely used in visual tracking to improve robustness in cases of partial occlusion, deformation and rotation. This paper proposes a local fragment-based object tracking algorithm. Unlike many existing fragment-based algorithms that allocate the weights to each fragment, this method firstly defines discrimination and uniqueness for local fragment, and builds an automatic pre-selection of useful fragments for tracking. Then, a Harris-SIFT filter is used to choose the current valid fragments, excluding occluded or highly deformed fragments. Based on those valid fragments, fragment-based color histogram provides a structured and effective description for the object. Finally, the object is tracked using a valid fragment template combining the displacement constraint and similarity of each valid fragment. The object template is updated by fusing feature similarity and valid fragments, which is scale-adaptive and robust to partial occlusion. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is accurate and robust in challenging scenarios.

  3. Robust plasmonic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Tamulevicius, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Robustness is a key issue for the applications of plasmonic substrates such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced spectroscopies, enhanced optical biosensing, optical and optoelectronic plasmonic nanosensors and others. A novel approach for the fabrication of robust plasmonic...... substrates is presented, which relies on the coverage of gold nanostructures with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films of thicknesses 25, 55 and 105 nm. DLC thin films were grown by direct hydrocarbon ion beam deposition. In order to find the optimum balance between optical and mechanical properties...

  4. Robust Self Tuning Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...... has several operation modes and a detector for controlling the mode. A special self tuning controller has been developed to regulate plant with changing time delay.......The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...

  5. Robust surgery loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Kazemier, Geert

    2008-01-01

    We consider the robust surgery loading problem for a hospital’s operating theatre department, which concerns assigning surgeries and sufficient planned slack to operating room days. The objective is to maximize capacity utilization and minimize the risk of overtime, and thus cancelled patients. This

  6. Robustness of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrouwenvelder, T.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    robustness is still an issue of controversy and poses difficulties in regard to interpretation as well as regulation. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages'. However, despite the importance...

  7. Robustness of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) together with Working Commission (WC) 1 of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) organized a workshop on robustness of structures. Two important decisions resulted from this workshop, namely the developm...

  8. Robustness of spatial micronetworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Thomas C.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Bagrow, James P.

    2015-04-01

    Power lines, roadways, pipelines, and other physical infrastructure are critical to modern society. These structures may be viewed as spatial networks where geographic distances play a role in the functionality and construction cost of links. Traditionally, studies of network robustness have primarily considered the connectedness of large, random networks. Yet for spatial infrastructure, physical distances must also play a role in network robustness. Understanding the robustness of small spatial networks is particularly important with the increasing interest in microgrids, i.e., small-area distributed power grids that are well suited to using renewable energy resources. We study the random failures of links in small networks where functionality depends on both spatial distance and topological connectedness. By introducing a percolation model where the failure of each link is proportional to its spatial length, we find that when failures depend on spatial distances, networks are more fragile than expected. Accounting for spatial effects in both construction and robustness is important for designing efficient microgrids and other network infrastructure.

  9. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  10. Robustness Assessment of RC Framed Structures against Progressive Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Antonio; Chiaia, Bernardino; De Biagi, Valerio

    2017-10-01

    The structural behaviour of buildings under overloading or extraordinary events like impacts, explosions or human errors is extensively admitted to be an influential feature of structural design. Structural robustness is a requirement provided by many current design codes. However, the problem is often recognized in a qualitative manner without referring to a specific process for the evaluation or the achievement of the robustness of constructions. In this paper, a novel procedure derived from dynamic and non-linear static analyses is provided for evaluating and comparing the relative robustness of reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings against progressive collapse. The developed methodology offers a formal way to compute “robustness curves” following the sudden loss of one or more vertical load carrying member/s. This method suggests a strategy for the definition of the robustness indices, which are applied to two RC frame buildings. The first building was designed for gravity load and earthquake resistance in accordance with Eurocode 8 and the second was the same structure, modified according to the tie force (TF) method. The TF method is one of the major design quantitative procedures for enhancing resistance to progressive collapse and it is currently recommended by the codes of practice. In an attempt to demonstrate the suitability of the procedure, the structural robustness and resistance to progressive collapse of the two schemes is compared.

  11. Robust Affine Invariant Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach is developed for the extraction of affine invariant descriptors by cutting object into slices. Gray values associated with every pixel in each slice are summed up to construct affine invariant descriptors. As a result, these descriptors are very robust to additive noise. In order to establish slices of correspondence between an object and its affine transformed version, general contour (GC of the object is constructed by performing projection along lines with different polar angles. Consequently, affine in-variant division curves are derived. A slice is formed by points fall in the region enclosed by two adjacent division curves. To test and evaluate the proposed method, several experiments have been conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed method is very robust to noise.

  12. Robustness in Feedback Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    Horowitz [1%3]). A central focus of robust control theory over the years has been an attempt to generalize these results to multiinput. multioutput ... multioutput systems. These include uniformly (or li.-) optimal control (see Zames [1981]. Zames and Francis [19831. Francis and Zames [1984], and...describes a computable upper bound for multiinput multioutput two-disk problems which requires only the solution of several one-disk prob!ems. To begin

  13. Robust Airline Schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Eggenberg, Niklaus; Salani, Matteo; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Due to economic pressure industries, when planning, tend to focus on optimizing the expected profit or the yield. The consequence of highly optimized solutions is an increased sensitivity to uncertainty. This generates additional "operational" costs, incurred by possible modifications of the original plan to be performed when reality does not reflect what was expected in the planning phase. The modern research trend focuses on "robustness" of solutions instead of yield or profit. Although ro...

  14. Robustness for Dummies

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Verardi; Marjorie Gassner; Darwin Ugarte Ontiveros

    2012-01-01

    In the robust statistics literature, a wide variety of models have been devel- oped to cope with outliers in a rather large number of scenarios. Nevertheless, a recurrent problem for the empirical implementation of these estimators is that optimization algorithms generally do not perform well when dummy vari- ables are present. What we propose in this paper is a simple solution to this involving the replacement of the sub-sampling step of the maximization procedures by a projection-based meth...

  15. Robustness of metabolic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hawoong

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the robustness of cellular metabolism by simulating the system-level computational models, and also performed the corresponding experiments to validate our predictions. We address the cellular robustness from the ``metabolite''-framework by using the novel concept of ``flux-sum,'' which is the sum of all incoming or outgoing fluxes (they are the same under the pseudo-steady state assumption). By estimating the changes of the flux-sum under various genetic and environmental perturbations, we were able to clearly decipher the metabolic robustness; the flux-sum around an essential metabolite does not change much under various perturbations. We also identified the list of the metabolites essential to cell survival, and then ``acclimator'' metabolites that can control the cell growth were discovered. Furthermore, this concept of ``metabolite essentiality'' should be useful in developing new metabolic engineering strategies for improved production of various bioproducts and designing new drugs that can fight against multi-antibiotic resistant superbacteria by knocking-down the enzyme activities around an essential metabolite. Finally, we combined a regulatory network with the metabolic network to investigate its effect on dynamic properties of cellular metabolism.

  16. The Crane Robust Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Hicar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about a control design for complete structure of the crane: crab, bridge and crane uplift.The most important unknown parameters for simulations are burden weight and length of hanging rope. We will use robustcontrol for crab and bridge control to ensure adaptivity for burden weight and rope length. Robust control will be designed for current control of the crab and bridge, necessary is to know the range of unknown parameters. Whole robust will be splitto subintervals and after correct identification of unknown parameters the most suitable robust controllers will be chosen.The most important condition at the crab and bridge motion is avoiding from burden swinging in the final position. Crab and bridge drive is designed by asynchronous motor fed from frequency converter. We will use crane uplift with burden weightobserver in combination for uplift, crab and bridge drive with cooperation of their parameters: burden weight, rope length and crab and bridge position. Controllers are designed by state control method. We will use preferably a disturbance observerwhich will identify burden weight as a disturbance. The system will be working in both modes at empty hook as well asat maximum load: burden uplifting and dropping down.

  17. Communicating via robust synchronization of chaotic lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Gutierrez, R.M. [Engineering Faculty, Baja California Autonomous University (UABC), Km. 103 Carret. Tij-Ens., 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Posadas-Castillo, C. [Engineering Faculty, Baja California Autonomous University (UABC), Km. 103 Carret. Tij-Ens., 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); FIME, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon (UANL), Pedro de Alba, S.N., Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, NL (Mexico); Lopez-Mancilla, D. [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Universidad de Guadalajara (CULagos-UdeG), Enrique Diaz de Leon s/n, 47460 Lagos de Moreno, Jal. (Mexico); Cruz-Hernandez, C. [Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Scientific Research and Advanced Studies of Ensenada (CICESE), Km. 107 Carret. Tij-Ens., 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)], E-mail: ccruz@cicese.mx

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, the robust synchronization problem for coupled chaotic Nd:YAG lasers is addressed. We resort to complex systems theory to achieve chaos synchronization. Based on stability theory, it is shown that the state trajectories of the perturbed error synchronization are ultimately bounded, provided the unperturbed synchronization error system is exponentially stable, and some conditions on the bounds of the perturbation terms are satisfied. So that, encoding, transmission, and decoding in chaotic optical communications are presented. We analyze the transmission and recovery of encrypted information when parameter mismatches are considered. Computer simulations are provided to show the effectiveness of this robustness synchronization property, we present the encrypted transmission of image messages, and we show that, the transmitted image is faithfully recovered.

  18. Communicating via robust synchronization of chaotic lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Gutierrez, R.M.; Posadas-Castillo, C.; Lopez-Mancilla, D.; Cruz-Hernandez, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the robust synchronization problem for coupled chaotic Nd:YAG lasers is addressed. We resort to complex systems theory to achieve chaos synchronization. Based on stability theory, it is shown that the state trajectories of the perturbed error synchronization are ultimately bounded, provided the unperturbed synchronization error system is exponentially stable, and some conditions on the bounds of the perturbation terms are satisfied. So that, encoding, transmission, and decoding in chaotic optical communications are presented. We analyze the transmission and recovery of encrypted information when parameter mismatches are considered. Computer simulations are provided to show the effectiveness of this robustness synchronization property, we present the encrypted transmission of image messages, and we show that, the transmitted image is faithfully recovered.

  19. Generalized Correntropy for RobustAdaptive Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Badong; Xing, Lei; Zhao, Haiquan; Zheng, Nanning; Principe, Jose C.

    2016-07-01

    As a robust nonlinear similarity measure in kernel space, correntropy has received increasing attention in domains of machine learning and signal processing. In particular, the maximum correntropy criterion (MCC) has recently been successfully applied in robust regression and filtering. The default kernel function in correntropy is the Gaussian kernel, which is, of course, not always the best choice. In this work, we propose a generalized correntropy that adopts the generalized Gaussian density (GGD) function as the kernel (not necessarily a Mercer kernel), and present some important properties. We further propose the generalized maximum correntropy criterion (GMCC), and apply it to adaptive filtering. An adaptive algorithm, called the GMCC algorithm, is derived, and the mean square convergence performance is studied. We show that the proposed algorithm is very stable and can achieve zero probability of divergence (POD). Simulation results confirm the theoretical expectations and demonstrate the desirable performance of the new algorithm.

  20. Robust hydraulic position controller by a fuzzy state controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T.; Van der Wal, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    In nuclear industry, one of the most important design considerations of controllers is their robustness. Robustness in this context is defined as the ability of a system to be controlled in a stable way over a wide range of system parameters. Generally the systems to be controlled are linearized, and stability is subsequently proven for this idealized system. By combining classical control theory and fuzzy set theory, a new kind of state controller is proposed and successfully applied to a hydraulic position servo with excellent robustness against variation of system parameters

  1. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  2. Robust Cultural Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Shweder

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this wide ranging interview, Professor Richard A. Shweder from the Department of Comparative Human Development at the University of Chicago, discusses whether it is or is not possible to be a robust cultural pluralist and a dedicated political liberal at the same time. In this discussion, Professor Shweder offers his insights - based on over 40 years of research - on issues related to the history and re-emergence of cultural psychology; moral anthropology and psychology; the experimental method in psychological investigation and its philosophical basis; contemporary and historical cultural collisions – most notably conflicting representations of female genital surgeries; cultural diversity and inequality; and the dissemination of ideas through open access publishing and Twitter. Professor Shweder ends by offering valuable advice to young researchers in the field of cultural psychology as well as a glimpse into the larger themes of his forthcoming book, which seeks to provide answers to the question of what forms of political liberalism are most compatible with robust cultural pluralism and which are not.

  3. Neuromorphic Configurable Architecture for Robust Motion Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Botella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The robustness of the human visual system recovering motion estimation in almost any visual situation is enviable, performing enormous calculation tasks continuously, robustly, efficiently, and effortlessly. There is obviously a great deal we can learn from our own visual system. Currently, there are several optical flow algorithms, although none of them deals efficiently with noise, illumination changes, second-order motion, occlusions, and so on. The main contribution of this work is the efficient implementation of a biologically inspired motion algorithm that borrows nature templates as inspiration in the design of architectures and makes use of a specific model of human visual motion perception: Multichannel Gradient Model (McGM. This novel customizable architecture of a neuromorphic robust optical flow can be constructed with FPGA or ASIC device using properties of the cortical motion pathway, constituting a useful framework for building future complex bioinspired systems running in real time with high computational complexity. This work includes the resource usage and performance data, and the comparison with actual systems. This hardware has many application fields like object recognition, navigation, or tracking in difficult environments due to its bioinspired and robustness properties.

  4. Robustness Metrics: Consolidating the multiple approaches to quantify Robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göhler, Simon Moritz; Eifler, Tobias; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    determined to be conceptually different from one another. The metrics were classified by their meaning and interpretation based on the types of information necessary to calculate the metrics. Four different classes were identified: 1) Sensitivity robustness metrics; 2) Size of feasible design space......, this ambiguity can have significant influence on the strategies used to combat variability, the way it is quantified and ultimately, the quality of the final design. In this contribution the literature for robustness metrics was systematically reviewed. From the 108 relevant publications found, 38 metrics were...... robustness metrics; 3) Functional expectancy and dispersion robustness metrics; and 4) Probability of conformance robustness metrics. The goal was to give a comprehensive overview of robustness metrics and guidance to scholars and practitioners to understand the different types of robustness metrics...

  5. Reliability and Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In the last few decades there have been intensely research concerning reliability of timber structures. This is primarily because there is an increased focus on society on sustainability and environmental aspects. Modern timber as a building material is also being competitive compared to concrete...... and steel. However, reliability models applied to timber were always related to individual components but not the systems. as any real structure is a complex system, system behaviour must be of a particular interest. In the chapter 1 of this document an overview of stochastic models for strength and loads...... (deterministic, probabilistic and risk based approaches) of the robustness are given. Chapter 3 deals more detailed with the robustness of timber structures....

  6. Robust Design of Motor PWM Control using Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Wei

    A robust design method is developed for Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) motor speed control. A first principle model for DC permanent magnetic motor is used to build a Simulink model for simulation and analysis. Based on the simulation result, the main factors that contributed to the average speed variation are identified using Design of Experiment (DOE). A robust solution is derived to reduce the aver age speed control variation using Response Surface Method (RSM). The robustness of the new design is verified using the simulation model.

  7. LHCb Dockerized Build Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemencic, M.; Belin, M.; Closier, J.; Couturier, B.

    2017-10-01

    Used as lightweight virtual machines or as enhanced chroot environments, Linux containers, and in particular the Docker abstraction over them, are more and more popular in the virtualization communities. The LHCb Core Software team decided to investigate how to use Docker containers to provide stable and reliable build environments for the different supported platforms, including the obsolete ones which cannot be installed on modern hardware, to be used in integration builds, releases and by any developer. We present here the techniques and procedures set up to define and maintain the Docker images and how these images can be used to develop on modern Linux distributions for platforms otherwise not accessible.

  8. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  9. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  10. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  11. International Conference on Robust Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Filzmoser, Peter; Gather, Ursula; Rousseeuw, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Aspects of Robust Statistics are important in many areas. Based on the International Conference on Robust Statistics 2001 (ICORS 2001) in Vorau, Austria, this volume discusses future directions of the discipline, bringing together leading scientists, experienced researchers and practitioners, as well as younger researchers. The papers cover a multitude of different aspects of Robust Statistics. For instance, the fundamental problem of data summary (weights of evidence) is considered and its robustness properties are studied. Further theoretical subjects include e.g.: robust methods for skewness, time series, longitudinal data, multivariate methods, and tests. Some papers deal with computational aspects and algorithms. Finally, the aspects of application and programming tools complete the volume.

  12. Robust procedures in chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotwa, Ewelina

    -way chemometrical methods, such as PCA and PARAFAC models for analysing spatial and depth profiles of sea water samples, defined by three data modes: depth, variables and geographical location. Emphasis was also put on predicting fluorescence values, as being a natural measure of biological activity, by applying...... if contamination in the data is present. For this becoming a standard procedure, further work is required, aiming at implementing reliable robust algorithms into standard statistical programs.......The general aim of the thesis was to contribute to the improvement of data analytical techniques within the chemometric field. Regardless the multivariate structure of the data, it is still common in some fields to perform uni-variate data analysis using only simple statistics such as sample mean...

  13. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  14. Robust Optical Flow Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez Pérez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available n this work, we describe an implementation of the variational method proposed by Brox etal. in 2004, which yields accurate optical flows with low running times. It has several benefitswith respect to the method of Horn and Schunck: it is more robust to the presence of outliers,produces piecewise-smooth flow fields and can cope with constant brightness changes. Thismethod relies on the brightness and gradient constancy assumptions, using the information ofthe image intensities and the image gradients to find correspondences. It also generalizes theuse of continuous L1 functionals, which help mitigate the effect of outliers and create a TotalVariation (TV regularization. Additionally, it introduces a simple temporal regularizationscheme that enforces a continuous temporal coherence of the flow fields.

  15. Robust snapshot interferometric spectropolarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daesuk; Seo, Yoonho; Yoon, Yonghee; Dembele, Vamara; Yoon, Jae Woong; Lee, Kyu Jin; Magnusson, Robert

    2016-05-15

    This Letter describes a Stokes vector measurement method based on a snapshot interferometric common-path spectropolarimeter. The proposed scheme, which employs an interferometric polarization-modulation module, can extract the spectral polarimetric parameters Ψ(k) and Δ(k) of a transmissive anisotropic object by which an accurate Stokes vector can be calculated in the spectral domain. It is inherently strongly robust to the object 3D pose variation, since it is designed distinctly so that the measured object can be placed outside of the interferometric module. Experiments are conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed system. The proposed snapshot scheme enables us to extract the spectral Stokes vector of a transmissive anisotropic object within tens of msec with high accuracy.

  16. Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Bourrelle, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    clear and consistent definition and a commonly agreed energy calculation methodology. The most important issues that should be given special attention before developing a new ZEB definition are: (1) the metric of the balance, (2) the balancing period, (3) the type of energy use included in the balance...... on the review of the most of the existing ZEB definitions and the various approaches towards possible ZEB calculation methodologies. It presents and discusses possible answers to the abovementioned issues in order to facilitate the development of a consistent ZEB definition and a robust energy calculation......The concept of Zero Energy Building (ZEB) has gained wide international attention during last few years and is now seen as the future target for the design of buildings. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires...

  17. A Symbolic Algorithm for the Analysis of Robust Timed Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordy, P.T.; Langerak, Romanus; Mauw, Sjouke; Polderman, Jan W.; Jones, C.; Pihlajasaari, P.; Sun, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for the analysis of robustness of timed automata, that is, the correctness of a model in the presence of small drifts of the clocks. The algorithm is an extension of the region based algorithm of Puri and uses the idea of stable zones as introduced by Daws and Kordy.

  18. see Solanki GK 813 Ahn Choon Ki Robust chaos synchronization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adegoke Kunle. Continuous quantum phase transitions in the one-dimensional spin-1/2 axial next- nearest-neighbour Ising model in two or- thogonal magnetic fields. 293. Agarwal M K see Solanki G K. 813. Ahn Choon Ki. Robust chaos synchronization using input-to-state stable control. 705. Ahuja B L see Dashora Alpa.

  19. Robust Design of Sounds in Mechanical Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegedal Jensen, Annemette; Munch, Natasja; Howard, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Current practices for creating a desired sound by a mechanical mechanism are irrelative design-build-test processes. It seems that very little guidance is available relating design to the sound output. The focus of this study was to identify, which parameters that affect the sound output of a click...... mechanism consisting of a toothed rack and a click arm. First several geometries of the teeth and the click arm’s head were investigated to identify the most robust and repeatable design. It was found that a flat surface in the valleys between the teeth is very beneficial in relation to repeatability...... mechanisms....

  20. Robust Nonnegative Patch Alignment for Dimensionality Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xinge; Ou, Weihua; Chen, Chun Lung Philip; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Ziqi; Tang, Yuanyan

    2015-11-01

    Dimensionality reduction is an important method to analyze high-dimensional data and has many applications in pattern recognition and computer vision. In this paper, we propose a robust nonnegative patch alignment for dimensionality reduction, which includes a reconstruction error term and a whole alignment term. We use correntropy-induced metric to measure the reconstruction error, in which the weight is learned adaptively for each entry. For the whole alignment, we propose locality-preserving robust nonnegative patch alignment (LP-RNA) and sparsity-preserviing robust nonnegative patch alignment (SP-RNA), which are unsupervised and supervised, respectively. In the LP-RNA, we propose a locally sparse graph to encode the local geometric structure of the manifold embedded in high-dimensional space. In particular, we select large p -nearest neighbors for each sample, then obtain the sparse representation with respect to these neighbors. The sparse representation is used to build a graph, which simultaneously enjoys locality, sparseness, and robustness. In the SP-RNA, we simultaneously use local geometric structure and discriminative information, in which the sparse reconstruction coefficient is used to characterize the local geometric structure and weighted distance is used to measure the separability of different classes. For the induced nonconvex objective function, we formulate it into a weighted nonnegative matrix factorization based on half-quadratic optimization. We propose a multiplicative update rule to solve this function and show that the objective function converges to a local optimum. Several experimental results on synthetic and real data sets demonstrate that the learned representation is more discriminative and robust than most existing dimensionality reduction methods.

  1. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  2. Robust Schur Stability and Robust H^2 Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Zhao, K.-Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we address the problems of robust stability androbust QTR H^2 performance for uncertain discrete time systemswith nonlinear parametric uncertainties. We consider two families ofsystems with parametric uncertainties described by state space modelswhich offer a fairly general...... providea line search algorithm for the these two problems in case of two parameters.Both for the robust stability and the robust performance probelm, explicitnecessary and sufficient conditions are derived. An illustrative exampledemonstrates the algorithms....

  3. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  4. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  5. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  6. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  7. Auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, I.; Lestyan, E.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear power station represents a complicated and a particular industrial project. Consequently, the design of the auxiliary buildings serving the power station (offices, kitchen, refreshment room, workshops, depots, water treatment plant building, boiler houses, etc.) requires more attention than usual. This chapter gives a short survey of the auxiliary buildings already completed and discusses the problems of their design, location and structure. (author)

  8. Robust cognitive change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthouse, Timothy A

    2012-07-01

    Two major challenges facing researchers interested in cognitive change are that measures of change are often not very reliable, and they may reflect effects of prior test experience in addition to the factors of primary interest. One approach to dealing with these problems is to obtain multiple measures of change on parallel versions of the same tests in a measurement burst design. A total of 783 adults performed three parallel versions of cognitive tests on two occasions separated by an average of 2.6 years. Performance increased substantially across the three sessions within each occasion, and for all but vocabulary ability these within-occasion improvements were considerably larger than the between-occasion changes. Reliabilities of the changes in composite scores were low, but averages of the three changes had larger, albeit still quite modest, reliabilities. In some cognitive abilities individual differences were evident in the relation of prior test experience and the magnitude of longitudinal change. Although multiple assessments are more time consuming than traditional measurement procedures, the resulting estimates of change are more robust than those from conventional methods, and also allow the influence of practice on change to be systematically investigated.

  9. Robust continuous clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sohil Atul; Koltun, Vladlen

    2017-09-12

    Clustering is a fundamental procedure in the analysis of scientific data. It is used ubiquitously across the sciences. Despite decades of research, existing clustering algorithms have limited effectiveness in high dimensions and often require tuning parameters for different domains and datasets. We present a clustering algorithm that achieves high accuracy across multiple domains and scales efficiently to high dimensions and large datasets. The presented algorithm optimizes a smooth continuous objective, which is based on robust statistics and allows heavily mixed clusters to be untangled. The continuous nature of the objective also allows clustering to be integrated as a module in end-to-end feature learning pipelines. We demonstrate this by extending the algorithm to perform joint clustering and dimensionality reduction by efficiently optimizing a continuous global objective. The presented approach is evaluated on large datasets of faces, hand-written digits, objects, newswire articles, sensor readings from the Space Shuttle, and protein expression levels. Our method achieves high accuracy across all datasets, outperforming the best prior algorithm by a factor of 3 in average rank.

  10. Nacre-inspired design of mechanical stable coating with underwater superoleophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ping; Peng, Jitao; Liu, Yibiao; Wen, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xueji; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Shutao

    2013-06-25

    Because of the frequent oil spill accidents in marine environment, stable superoleophobic coatings under seawater are highly desired. Current underwater superoleophobic surfaces often suffer from mechanical damages and lose their superoleophobicity gradually. It remains a challenge to fabricate a stable and robust underwater superoleophobic film which can endure harsh conditions in practical application. Nacre is one of most extensively studied rigid biological materials. Inspired by the outstanding mechanical property of seashell nacre and those underwater superoleophobic surfaces from nature, we fabricated a polyelectrolyte/clay hybrid film via typical layer-by-layer (LBL) method based on building blocks with high surface energy. 'Bricks-and-mortar' structure of seashell nacre was conceptually replicated into the prepared film, which endows the obtained film with excellent mechanical property and great abrasion resistance. In addtion, the prepared film also exhibits stable underwater superoleophobicity, low oil adhesion, and outstanding environment durability in artificial seawater. We anticipate that this work will provide a new method to design underwater low-oil-adhesion film with excellent mechanical property and improved stability, which may advance the practical applications in marine antifouling and microfluidic devices.

  11. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  12. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness evaluation of a Norwegian sports arena with a structural system of glulam frames. The robustness evaluation is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety of Structures and a probabilistic modelling...... of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). The results show that the requirements for robustness of the structure are highly related to the modelling of the snow load used on the structures when ‘removal of a limited part...

  13. Robust domain decomposition preconditioners for abstract symmetric positive definite bilinear forms

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin

    2012-02-22

    An abstract framework for constructing stable decompositions of the spaces corresponding to general symmetric positive definite problems into "local" subspaces and a global "coarse" space is developed. Particular applications of this abstract framework include practically important problems in porous media applications such as: the scalar elliptic (pressure) equation and the stream function formulation of its mixed form, Stokes\\' and Brinkman\\'s equations. The constant in the corresponding abstract energy estimate is shown to be robust with respect to mesh parameters as well as the contrast, which is defined as the ratio of high and low values of the conductivity (or permeability). The derived stable decomposition allows to construct additive overlapping Schwarz iterative methods with condition numbers uniformly bounded with respect to the contrast and mesh parameters. The coarse spaces are obtained by patching together the eigenfunctions corresponding to the smallest eigenvalues of certain local problems. A detailed analysis of the abstract setting is provided. The proposed decomposition builds on a method of Galvis and Efendiev [Multiscale Model. Simul. 8 (2010) 1461-1483] developed for second order scalar elliptic problems with high contrast. Applications to the finite element discretizations of the second order elliptic problem in Galerkin and mixed formulation, the Stokes equations, and Brinkman\\'s problem are presented. A number of numerical experiments for these problems in two spatial dimensions are provided. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2012.

  14. Robust and distributed hypothesis testing

    CERN Document Server

    Gül, Gökhan

    2017-01-01

    This book generalizes and extends the available theory in robust and decentralized hypothesis testing. In particular, it presents a robust test for modeling errors which is independent from the assumptions that a sufficiently large number of samples is available, and that the distance is the KL-divergence. Here, the distance can be chosen from a much general model, which includes the KL-divergence as a very special case. This is then extended by various means. A minimax robust test that is robust against both outliers as well as modeling errors is presented. Minimax robustness properties of the given tests are also explicitly proven for fixed sample size and sequential probability ratio tests. The theory of robust detection is extended to robust estimation and the theory of robust distributed detection is extended to classes of distributions, which are not necessarily stochastically bounded. It is shown that the quantization functions for the decision rules can also be chosen as non-monotone. Finally, the boo...

  15. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure....

  16. Robustness of IPTV business models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, H.; Zhengjia, M.; Duin, P. van der; Limonard, S.

    2008-01-01

    The final stage in the STOF method is an evaluation of the robustness of the design, for which the method provides some guidelines. For many innovative services, the future holds numerous uncertainties, which makes evaluating the robustness of a business model a difficult task. In this chapter, we

  17. Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness of kinetic structures. Robustness of structures has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. Especially for these types of structural syst...... systems, it is of interest to investigate how robust the structures are, or what happens if a structural element is added to or removed from the original structure. The present paper discusses this issue for kinetic structures in architecture.......The present paper considers robustness of kinetic structures. Robustness of structures has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. Especially for these types of structural...

  18. Comparison of robust input shapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Joshua; Yano, Aika; Singhose, William

    2008-09-01

    The rapid movement of machines is a challenging control problem because it often results in high levels of vibration. As a result, flexible machines are typically moved relatively slowly. Input shaping is a control method that allows much higher speeds of motion by limiting vibration induced by the reference command. To design an input-shaping controller, estimates of the system natural frequency and damping ratio are required. However, real world systems cannot be modeled exactly, making the robustness to modeling errors an important consideration. Many robust input shapers have been developed, but robust shapers typically have longer durations that slow the system response. This creates a compromise between shaper robustness and rise time. This paper analyzes the compromise between rapidity of motion and shaper robustness for several input-shaping methods. Experimental results from a portable bridge crane verify the theoretical predictions.

  19. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available have controllable internal blinds and external solar shading which can be used to maximise internal daylight quality and avoid glare and solar gain. • Ecological: Green building envelopes aim to support the development of ecosystems and plant... problems such as large solar heat gains which can only be solved through mechanical plant. • Large sections: 1:10 sections of building envelopes are very useful in understanding the design of a building envelope and should be developed early...

  20. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  1. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  2. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  3. Robustness Analysis of Visual QA Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-09-14

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  4. Robust Hammerstein Adaptive Filtering under Maximum Correntropy Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongze Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The maximum correntropy criterion (MCC has recently been successfully applied to adaptive filtering. Adaptive algorithms under MCC show strong robustness against large outliers. In this work, we apply the MCC criterion to develop a robust Hammerstein adaptive filter. Compared with the traditional Hammerstein adaptive filters, which are usually derived based on the well-known mean square error (MSE criterion, the proposed algorithm can achieve better convergence performance especially in the presence of impulsive non-Gaussian (e.g., α-stable noises. Additionally, some theoretical results concerning the convergence behavior are also obtained. Simulation examples are presented to confirm the superior performance of the new algorithm.

  5. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  6. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  7. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  8. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  9. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  10. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  11. On the Robustness of Poverty Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Nhate, Virgulino; Silva, Patricia Castro Da

    Monitoring of poverty requires timely household budget data. However, such data are not available as frequently as needed for policy purposes. Recently, statistical methods have emerged to predict poverty overtime by combining detailed household consumption and expenditure data with more frequent...... data collected from other surveys. In this paper we compare poverty predictions for Mozambique using different source data to test the robustness of the predicted poverty statistics. A critical element in this exercise of predicting poverty overtime is the stability of the parameters that determine...... household consumption. We find that the assumption of stable consumption determinants does not hold for Mozambique during the time period examined. We also examine what drives the resulting predicted poverty statistics. The paper then considers the policy implications of these findings for Mozambique...

  12. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  13. Robust methods for data reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Farcomeni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Robust Methods for Data Reduction gives a non-technical overview of robust data reduction techniques, encouraging the use of these important and useful methods in practical applications. The main areas covered include principal components analysis, sparse principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, factor analysis, clustering, double clustering, and discriminant analysis.The first part of the book illustrates how dimension reduction techniques synthesize available information by reducing the dimensionality of the data. The second part focuses on cluster and discriminant analy

  14. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae.

    1990-01-01

    At least one valve rack is disposed in a reactor building, on which pipeways to a main closure valve, valves and bypasses of turbines are placed and contained. The valve rack is fixed to the main body of the building or to a base mat. Since the reactor building is designed as class A earthquake-proofness and for maintaining the S 1 function, the valve rack can be fixed to the building main body or to the base mat. With such a constitution, the portions for maintaining the S 1 function are concentrated to the reactor building. As a result, the dispersion of structures of earthquake-proof portion corresponding to the reference earthquake vibration S 1 can be prevented. Accordingly, the conditions for the earthquake-proof design of the turbine building and the turbine/electric generator supporting rack are defined as only the class B earthquake-proof design conditions. In view of the above, the amount of building materials can be saved and the time for construction can be shortened. (I.S.)

  15. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which......, which gives the book a challenging contribution to the existing body of knowledge....

  16. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  17. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  18. Building Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — Explore real estate information about buildings in the Town of Cary.This file is created by the Town of Cary GIS Group. It contains data from both the Wake, Chatham...

  19. Robust Transfer Metric Learning for Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhengming; Fu, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Metric learning has attracted increasing attention due to its critical role in image analysis and classification. Conventional metric learning always assumes that the training and test data are sampled from the same or similar distribution. However, to build an effective distance metric, we need abundant supervised knowledge (i.e., side/label information), which is generally inaccessible in practice, because of the expensive labeling cost. In this paper, we develop a robust transfer metric learning (RTML) framework to effectively assist the unlabeled target learning by transferring the knowledge from the well-labeled source domain. Specifically, RTML exploits knowledge transfer to mitigate the domain shift in two directions, i.e., sample space and feature space. In the sample space, domain-wise and class-wise adaption schemes are adopted to bridge the gap of marginal and conditional distribution disparities across two domains. In the feature space, our metric is built in a marginalized denoising fashion and low-rank constraint, which make it more robust to tackle noisy data in reality. Furthermore, we design an explicit rank constraint regularizer to replace the rank minimization NP-hard problem to guide the low-rank metric learning. Experimental results on several standard benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed RTML by comparing it with the state-of-the-art transfer learning and metric learning algorithms.

  20. Improving building energy efficiency in India: State-level analysis of building energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  1. Robustness Analysis of Big Span Glulam Truss Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajčié, V.; čizmar, D.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    (Eurocode 0 &1, Probabilistic model code etc.) Based on a project of big span glulam truss structure, build in Croatia few years ago, a probabilistic model is made with four failure elements. Reliability analysis of components is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed. It can......A progressive collapse of a building is defined as a catastrophic partial or total failure that starts from local damage, caused by a certain event, that can’t be absorbed by the structural system itself. In this paper an overview of principles, provisions and methods are given based on the codes...

  2. Robustness Analysis of Gene Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadelka, Claus T.

    Cells generally manage to maintain stable phenotypes in the face of widely varying environmental conditions. This fact is particularly surprising since the key step of gene expression is fundamentally a stochastic process. Many hypotheses have been suggested to explain this robustness. First, the special topology of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) seems to be an important factor as they possess feedforward loops and certain other topological features much more frequently than expected. Second, genes often regulate each other in a canalizing fashion: there exists a dominance order amidst the regulators of a gene, which in silico leads to very robust phenotypes. Lastly, an entirely novel gene regulatory mechanism, discovered and studied during the last two decades, which is believed to play an important role in cancer, is shedding some light on how canalization may in fact take place as part of a cell's gene regulatory program. Short segments of single-stranded RNA, so-called microRNAs, which are embedded in several different types of feedforward loops, help smooth out noise and generate canalizing effects in gene regulation by overriding the effect of certain genes on others. Boolean networks and their multi-state extensions have been successfully used to model GRNs for many years. In this dissertation, GRNs are represented in the time- and state-discrete framework of Stochastic Discrete Dynamical Systems (SDDS), which captures the cell-inherent stochasticity. Each gene has finitely many different concentration levels and its concentration at the next time step is determined by a gene-specific update rule that depends on the current concentration of the gene's regulators. The update rules in published gene regulatory networks are often nested canalizing functions. In Chapter 2, this class of functions is introduced, generalized and analyzed with respect to its potential to confer robustness. Chapter 3 describes a simulation study, which supports the hypothesis that

  3. Efficient and Robust Paramyxoviridae Reverse Genetics Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Shannon M.; Won, Sohui T.; Hong, Patrick; Lyons, Michael; Vigant, Frederic; Freiberg, Alexander N.; tenOever, Benjamin R.; Duprex, W. Paul

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The notoriously low efficiency of Paramyxoviridae reverse genetics systems has posed a limiting barrier to the study of viruses in this family. Previous approaches to reverse genetics have utilized a wide variety of techniques to overcome the technical hurdles. Although robustness (i.e., the number of attempts that result in successful rescue) has been improved in some systems with the use of stable cell lines, the efficiency of rescue (i.e., the proportion of transfected cells that yield at least one successful rescue event) has remained low. We have substantially increased rescue efficiency for representative viruses from all five major Paramyxoviridae genera (from ~1 in 106-107 to ~1 in 102-103 transfected cells) by the addition of a self-cleaving hammerhead ribozyme (Hh-Rbz) sequence immediately preceding the start of the recombinant viral antigenome and the use of a codon-optimized T7 polymerase (T7opt) gene to drive paramyxovirus rescue. Here, we report a strategy for robust, reliable, and high-efficiency rescue of paramyxovirus reverse genetics systems, featuring several major improvements: (i) a vaccinia virus-free method, (ii) freedom to use any transfectable cell type for viral rescue, (iii) a single-step transfection protocol, and (iv) use of the optimal T7 promoter sequence for high transcription levels from the antigenomic plasmid without incorporation of nontemplated G residues. The robustness of our T7opt-HhRbz system also allows for greater latitude in the ratios of transfected accessory plasmids used that result in successful rescue. Thus, our system may facilitate the rescue and interrogation of the increasing number of emerging paramyxoviruses. IMPORTANCE The ability to manipulate the genome of paramyxoviruses and evaluate the effects of these changes at the phenotypic level is a powerful tool for the investigation of specific aspects of the viral life cycle and viral pathogenesis. However, reverse genetics systems for paramyxoviruses

  4. Building a capacity building manual

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clinton, DD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available ? Capacity building in developed nations ? renewal stage HOW can capacity be developed and maintained? Through mentoring , training, education, physical projects, the infusion of financial and other resources and more importantly the motivation...

  5. Robustness of steel joints with stainless steel bolts in fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheeskumar, N.; Davison, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The robustness of steel joints in fire is important for steel building structures because of the need to prevent progressive collapse. Stainless steel is widely used in building construction mainly because of its corrosion resistance, but it also possesses improved fire resistance compared with conventional non-alloy, fine grain structural steels. Extensive research performed on the robustness of steel joints in fire has revealed that failure at elevated temperature may be controlled by bolt shear for fin plate and web cleat connections. Hence, this study focussed on the use of stainless steel in experimental tests conducted on fin plate and web cleat connections at high temperatures. In addition, this study investigated the use of a component-based model to predict connection performance at elevated temperature.

  6. Robust Watermarking of Cartographic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Barni

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a method (Text-Based Geometric Normalization—TBGN which, by exploiting the particular content of cartographic images, namely text content, permits to cope with global geometric transformations. First, text is extracted from the to-be-marked map, then text orientation and size are exploited to normalize the image geometry prior to watermark insertion. Watermarking is performed by means of any of the existing algorithms ensuring good robustness against image processing tools. At the decoder side, text is extracted again from the map and used to normalize image geometry. Owing to the robustness of text features with respect to common image manipulations, and to the likely spreading of text all across the digital map, the proposed system exhibits an excellent robustness.

  7. Robust estimation and hypothesis testing

    CERN Document Server

    Tiku, Moti L

    2004-01-01

    In statistical theory and practice, a certain distribution is usually assumed and then optimal solutions sought. Since deviations from an assumed distribution are very common, one cannot feel comfortable with assuming a particular distribution and believing it to be exactly correct. That brings the robustness issue in focus. In this book, we have given statistical procedures which are robust to plausible deviations from an assumed mode. The method of modified maximum likelihood estimation is used in formulating these procedures. The modified maximum likelihood estimators are explicit functions of sample observations and are easy to compute. They are asymptotically fully efficient and are as efficient as the maximum likelihood estimators for small sample sizes. The maximum likelihood estimators have computational problems and are, therefore, elusive. A broad range of topics are covered in this book. Solutions are given which are easy to implement and are efficient. The solutions are also robust to data anomali...

  8. Attractive ellipsoids in robust control

    CERN Document Server

    Poznyak, Alexander; Azhmyakov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    This monograph introduces a newly developed robust-control design technique for a wide class of continuous-time dynamical systems called the “attractive ellipsoid method.” Along with a coherent introduction to the proposed control design and related topics, the monograph studies nonlinear affine control systems in the presence of uncertainty and presents a constructive and easily implementable control strategy that guarantees certain stability properties. The authors discuss linear-style feedback control synthesis in the context of the above-mentioned systems. The development and physical implementation of high-performance robust-feedback controllers that work in the absence of complete information is addressed, with numerous examples to illustrate how to apply the attractive ellipsoid method to mechanical and electromechanical systems. While theorems are proved systematically, the emphasis is on understanding and applying the theory to real-world situations. Attractive Ellipsoids in Robust Control will a...

  9. Advances in robust fractional control

    CERN Document Server

    Padula, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents design methodologies for (robust) fractional control systems. It shows the reader how to take advantage of the superior flexibility of fractional control systems compared with integer-order systems in achieving more challenging control requirements. There is a high degree of current interest in fractional systems and fractional control arising from both academia and industry and readers from both milieux are catered to in the text. Different design approaches having in common a trade-off between robustness and performance of the control system are considered explicitly. The text generalizes methodologies, techniques and theoretical results that have been successfully applied in classical (integer) control to the fractional case. The first part of Advances in Robust Fractional Control is the more industrially-oriented. It focuses on the design of fractional controllers for integer processes. In particular, it considers fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers, becau...

  10. Robustness of digital artist authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Robert; Nielsen, Morten

    is in focus, while the robustness has not been considered, i.e. the degree to which the data collection process influences the decision of the method. However, in order for an authentication method to be successful in practice, it needs to be robust to plausible error sources from the data collection....... In this paper we investigate the robustness of the newly proposed authenticity method introduced by the authors based on second generation multiresolution analysis. This is done by modelling a number of realistic factors that can occur in the data collection.......In many cases it is possible to determine the authenticity of a painting from digital reproductions of the paintings; this has been demonstrated for a variety of artists and with different approaches. Common to all these methods in digital artist authentication is that the potential of the method...

  11. A Robust Enough Virtue Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    What is the nature of knowledge? A popular answer to that long-standing question comes from robust virtue epistemology, whose key idea is that knowing is just a matter of succeeding cognitively—i.e., coming to believe a proposition truly—due to an exercise of cognitive ability. Versions of robust...... virtue epistemology further developing and systematizing this idea offer different accounts of the relation that must hold between an agent’s cognitive success and the exercise of her cognitive abilities as well as of the very nature of those abilities. This paper aims to give a new robust virtue...... epistemological account of knowledge based on a different understanding of the nature and structure of the kind of abilities that give rise to knowledge....

  12. Integrating robust timetabling in line plan optimization for railway systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burggraeve, Sofie; Bull, Simon Henry; Vansteenwegen, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    , but is constrained by limited shunt capacity. While the operator and passenger cost remain close to those of the initially and (for these costs) optimally built line plan, the timetable corresponding to the finally developed robust line plan significantly improves the minimum buffer time, and thus the robustness......We propose a heuristic algorithm to build a railway line plan from scratch that minimizes passenger travel time and operator cost and for which a feasible and robust timetable exists. A line planning module and a timetabling module work iteratively and interactively. The line planning module...... creates an initial line plan. The timetabling module evaluates the line plan and identifies a critical line based on minimum buffer times between train pairs. The line planning module proposes a new line plan in which the time length of the critical line is modified in order to provide more flexibility...

  13. Critical cooperation range to improve spatial network robustness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H P Louzada

    Full Text Available A robust worldwide air-transportation network (WAN is one that minimizes the number of stranded passengers under a sequence of airport closures. Building on top of this realistic example, here we address how spatial network robustness can profit from cooperation between local actors. We swap a series of links within a certain distance, a cooperation range, while following typical constraints of spatially embedded networks. We find that the network robustness is only improved above a critical cooperation range. Such improvement can be described in the framework of a continuum transition, where the critical exponents depend on the spatial correlation of connected nodes. For the WAN we show that, except for Australia, all continental networks fall into the same universality class. Practical implications of this result are also discussed.

  14. An Integrated Model for Robust Multisensor Data Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Bo; Liu, Yun; Fu, Jun-Song

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated model aimed at obtaining robust and reliable results in decision level multisensor data fusion applications. The proposed model is based on the connection of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory and an extreme learning machine. It includes three main improvement aspects: a mass constructing algorithm to build reasonable basic belief assignments (BBAs); an evidence synthesis method to get a comprehensive BBA for an information source from several mass functions or...

  15. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences...... on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  16. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  17. Robust Portfolio Optimization Using Pseudodistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The presence of outliers in financial asset returns is a frequently occurring phenomenon which may lead to unreliable mean-variance optimized portfolios. This fact is due to the unbounded influence that outliers can have on the mean returns and covariance estimators that are inputs in the optimization procedure. In this paper we present robust estimators of mean and covariance matrix obtained by minimizing an empirical version of a pseudodistance between the assumed model and the true model underlying the data. We prove and discuss theoretical properties of these estimators, such as affine equivariance, B-robustness, asymptotic normality and asymptotic relative efficiency. These estimators can be easily used in place of the classical estimators, thereby providing robust optimized portfolios. A Monte Carlo simulation study and applications to real data show the advantages of the proposed approach. We study both in-sample and out-of-sample performance of the proposed robust portfolios comparing them with some other portfolios known in literature. PMID:26468948

  18. On Robustness of Power Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koç, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Current and future trends in environmental, economical, and human-caused factors (such as power demand growth, over-ageing of assets in power grids, and extreme weather conditions) challenge power grid robustness in the near future, necessitating research to better analyse and understand the notion

  19. Approximability of Robust Network Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olver, N.K.; Shepherd, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    We consider robust (undirected) network design (RND) problems where the set of feasible demands may be given by an arbitrary convex body. This model, introduced by Ben-Ameur and Kerivin [Ben-Ameur W, Kerivin H (2003) New economical virtual private networks. Comm. ACM 46(6):69-73], generalizes the

  20. Mental Models: A Robust Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of a mental model has been described by theorists from diverse disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to offer a robust definition of an individual mental model for use in organisational management. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted involves an interdisciplinary literature review of disciplines, including…

  1. Robust Optimization of Database Queries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JAYANT

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... join order [ ((S R) C) or ((R C) S) ? ] join techniques [ Nested-Loops or Sort-Merge or Hash ? ] ○ DBMS query optimizer identifies the optimal. ○ DBMS query optimizer identifies the optimal evaluation strategy: “query execution plan”. July 2011. Robust Query Optimization (IASc Mid-year Meeting). 6 ...

  2. Robust control design with MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Da-Wei; Konstantinov, Mihail M

    2013-01-01

    Robust Control Design with MATLAB® (second edition) helps the student to learn how to use well-developed advanced robust control design methods in practical cases. To this end, several realistic control design examples from teaching-laboratory experiments, such as a two-wheeled, self-balancing robot, to complex systems like a flexible-link manipulator are given detailed presentation. All of these exercises are conducted using MATLAB® Robust Control Toolbox 3, Control System Toolbox and Simulink®. By sharing their experiences in industrial cases with minimum recourse to complicated theories and formulae, the authors convey essential ideas and useful insights into robust industrial control systems design using major H-infinity optimization and related methods allowing readers quickly to move on with their own challenges. The hands-on tutorial style of this text rests on an abundance of examples and features for the second edition: ·        rewritten and simplified presentation of theoretical and meth...

  3. A robust adaptive robot controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Harry; Berghuis, Harry; Ortega, Romeo; Nijmeijer, Henk

    1993-01-01

    A globally convergent adaptive control scheme for robot motion control with the following features is proposed. First, the adaptation law possesses enhanced robustness with respect to noisy velocity measurements. Second, the controller does not require the inclusion of high gain loops that may

  4. Facial Symmetry in Robust Anthropometrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2012), s. 691-698 ISSN 0022-1198 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : forensic science * anthropology * robust image analysis * correlation analysis * multivariate data * classification Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.244, year: 2012

  5. Robust multiplatform RF emitter localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Issa, Huthaifa; Ordóñez, Raúl

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, position based services has increase. Thus, recent developments in communications and RF technology have enabled system concept formulations and designs for low-cost radar systems using state-of-the-art software radio modules. This research is done to investigate a novel multi-platform RF emitter localization technique denoted as Position-Adaptive RF Direction Finding (PADF). The formulation is based on the investigation of iterative path-loss (i.e., Path Loss Exponent, or PLE) metrics estimates that are measured across multiple platforms in order to autonomously adapt (i.e. self-adjust) of the location of each distributed/cooperative platform. Experiments conducted at the Air-Force Research laboratory (AFRL) indicate that this position-adaptive approach exhibits potential for accurate emitter localization in challenging embedded multipath environments such as in urban environments. The focus of this paper is on the robustness of the distributed approach to RF-based location tracking. In order to localize the transmitter, we use the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) data to approximate distance from the transmitter to the revolving receivers. We provide an algorithm for on-line estimation of the Path Loss Exponent (PLE) that is used in modeling the distance based on Received Signal Strength (RSS) measurements. The emitter position estimation is calculated based on surrounding sensors RSS values using Least-Square Estimation (LSE). The PADF has been tested on a number of different configurations in the laboratory via the design and implementation of four IRIS wireless sensor nodes as receivers and one hidden sensor as a transmitter during the localization phase. The robustness of detecting the transmitters position is initiated by getting the RSSI data through experiments and then data manipulation in MATLAB will determine the robustness of each node and ultimately that of each configuration. The parameters that are used in the functions are

  6. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...

  7. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...

  8. Building Sandcastles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø; Korsgaard, Steffen; Shumar, Wes

    of entrepreneurship education. Our theoretical and methodological approach builds on Actor-Network Theory. The empirical settings of our study consist of two entrepreneurship courses which differ in terms of temporal extension and physical setting. Data is collected using observation and interview techniques. Our...

  9. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  10. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement...

  11. Achieving and Maintaining Existing Building Sustainability Certification at Georgetown University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payant, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is the promotion of high performance, healthful, energy-efficient, and environmentally stable buildings. Buildings intended for sustainable certification must meet guidelines developed by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) of the U.S. Green Building Council. The problem is that LEED certification often fails to…

  12. Stable isotope labeling strategy based on coding theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Takuma; Koshiba, Seizo; Yokoyama, Jun; Kigawa, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy for stable isotope-aided protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, called stable isotope encoding. The basic idea of this strategy is that amino-acid selective labeling can be considered as “encoding and decoding” processes, in which the information of amino acid type is encoded by the stable isotope labeling ratio of the corresponding residue and it is decoded by analyzing NMR spectra. According to the idea, the strategy can diminish the required number of labelled samples by increasing information content per sample, enabling discrimination of 19 kinds of non-proline amino acids with only three labeled samples. The idea also enables this strategy to combine with information technologies, such as error detection by check digit, to improve the robustness of analyses with low quality data. Stable isotope encoding will facilitate NMR analyses of proteins under non-ideal conditions, such as those in large complex systems, with low-solubility, and in living cells

  13. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  14. Robust Reliability or reliable robustness? - Integrated consideration of robustness and reliability aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemmler, S.; Eifler, Tobias; Bertsche, B.

    2015-01-01

    products are and vice versa. For a comprehensive understanding and to use existing synergies between both domains, this paper discusses the basic principles of Reliability- and Robust Design theory. The development of a comprehensive model will enable an integrated consideration of both domains...

  15. Robust Cylinder Fitting in Three-Dimensional Point Cloud Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurunnabi, A.; Sadahiro, Y.; Lindenbergh, R.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the problems of cylinder fitting in laser scanning three-dimensional Point Cloud Data (PCD). Most existing methods require full cylinder data, do not study the presence of outliers, and are not statistically robust. But especially mobile laser scanning often has incomplete data, as street poles for example are only scanned from the road. Moreover, existence of outliers is common. Outliers may occur as random or systematic errors, and may be scattered and/or clustered. In this paper, we present a statistically robust cylinder fitting algorithm for PCD that combines Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) with robust regression. Robust principal components as obtained by RPCA allow estimating cylinder directions more accurately, and an existing efficient circle fitting algorithm following robust regression principles, properly fit cylinder. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method on artificial and real PCD. Results show that the proposed method provides more accurate and robust results: (i) in the presence of noise and high percentage of outliers, (ii) for incomplete as well as complete data, (iii) for small and large number of points, and (iv) for different sizes of radius. On 1000 simulated quarter cylinders of 1m radius with 10% outliers a PCA based method fit cylinders with a radius of on average 3.63 meter (m); the proposed method on the other hand fit cylinders of on average 1.02 m radius. The algorithm has potential in applications such as fitting cylindrical (e.g., light and traffic) poles, diameter at breast height estimation for trees, and building and bridge information modelling.

  16. ROBUST CYLINDER FITTING IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nurunnabi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problems of cylinder fitting in laser scanning three-dimensional Point Cloud Data (PCD. Most existing methods require full cylinder data, do not study the presence of outliers, and are not statistically robust. But especially mobile laser scanning often has incomplete data, as street poles for example are only scanned from the road. Moreover, existence of outliers is common. Outliers may occur as random or systematic errors, and may be scattered and/or clustered. In this paper, we present a statistically robust cylinder fitting algorithm for PCD that combines Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA with robust regression. Robust principal components as obtained by RPCA allow estimating cylinder directions more accurately, and an existing efficient circle fitting algorithm following robust regression principles, properly fit cylinder. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method on artificial and real PCD. Results show that the proposed method provides more accurate and robust results: (i in the presence of noise and high percentage of outliers, (ii for incomplete as well as complete data, (iii for small and large number of points, and (iv for different sizes of radius. On 1000 simulated quarter cylinders of 1m radius with 10% outliers a PCA based method fit cylinders with a radius of on average 3.63 meter (m; the proposed method on the other hand fit cylinders of on average 1.02 m radius. The algorithm has potential in applications such as fitting cylindrical (e.g., light and traffic poles, diameter at breast height estimation for trees, and building and bridge information modelling.

  17. Robust network topologies for generating switch-like cellular responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf A Shah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Signaling networks that convert graded stimuli into binary, all-or-none cellular responses are critical in processes ranging from cell-cycle control to lineage commitment. To exhaustively enumerate topologies that exhibit this switch-like behavior, we simulated all possible two- and three-component networks on random parameter sets, and assessed the resulting response profiles for both steepness (ultrasensitivity and extent of memory (bistability. Simulations were used to study purely enzymatic networks, purely transcriptional networks, and hybrid enzymatic/transcriptional networks, and the topologies in each class were rank ordered by parametric robustness (i.e., the percentage of applied parameter sets exhibiting ultrasensitivity or bistability. Results reveal that the distribution of network robustness is highly skewed, with the most robust topologies clustering into a small number of motifs. Hybrid networks are the most robust in generating ultrasensitivity (up to 28% and bistability (up to 18%; strikingly, a purely transcriptional framework is the most fragile in generating either ultrasensitive (up to 3% or bistable (up to 1% responses. The disparity in robustness among the network classes is due in part to zero-order ultrasensitivity, an enzyme-specific phenomenon, which repeatedly emerges as a particularly robust mechanism for generating nonlinearity and can act as a building block for switch-like responses. We also highlight experimentally studied examples of topologies enabling switching behavior, in both native and synthetic systems, that rank highly in our simulations. This unbiased approach for identifying topologies capable of a given response may be useful in discovering new natural motifs and in designing robust synthetic gene networks.

  18. Robust Cyclic MUSIC Algorithm for Finding Directions in Impulsive Noise Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of direction finding of a cyclostationary signal under impulsive noise environments modeled by α-stable distribution. Since α-stable distribution does not have finite second-order statistics, the conventional cyclic correlation-based signal-selective direction finding algorithms do not work effectively. To resolve this problem, we define two robust cyclic correlation functions which are derived from robust statistics property of the correntropy and the nonlinear transformation, respectively. The MUSIC algorithm with the robust cyclic correlation matrix of the received signals of arrays is then used to estimate the direction of cyclostationary signal in the presence of impulsive noise. The computer simulation results demonstrate that the two proposed robust cyclic correlation-based algorithms outperform the conventional cyclic correlation and the fractional lower order cyclic correlation based methods.

  19. Robust ISS-satisficing variable universe indirect fuzzy control for chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiang; Si Wenjie; Li Huiyan

    2009-01-01

    In the conventional robust input to state stable (ISS)-satisficing control system, all parameters of the system must be known beforehand, so the application area is limited. In this paper, an attempt is made to create a bridge between two important design techniques, i.e., the robust ISS-satisficing control strategy and the fuzzy control strategy, and the new control method we first proposed has both the inverse optimality of robust ISS-satisficing control and the robust and predictive performance of fuzzy control. By control Lyapunov method, the overall closed-loop system is shown to be stable. In this work, we combine these two control methods, make them learn from the other's strong points, offset its weakness. The simulation results are given to confirm the control algorithm is feasible and performances well

  20. A Robust Design Applicability Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebro, Martin; Lars, Krogstie; Howard, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a model for assessing the applicability of Robust Design (RD) in a project or organisation. The intention of the Robust Design Applicability Model (RDAM) is to provide support for decisions by engineering management considering the relevant level of RD activities...... to be applicable in organisations assigning a high importance to one or more factors that are known to be impacted by RD, while also experiencing a high level of occurrence of this factor. The RDAM supplements existing maturity models and metrics to provide a comprehensive set of data to support management....... The applicability assessment is based on two considerations: 1) Whether there is a correlation between the factors that are important to the project or organisation and the factors that impact from the use of RD and 2) What is the occurrence level of the given factor in the organisation. The RDAM defines RD...

  1. Robust statistics for image deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. A.; Budavári, T.; White, R. L.; Gulian, C.

    2017-10-01

    We present a blind multiframe image-deconvolution method based on robust statistics. The usual shortcomings of iterative optimization of the likelihood function are alleviated by minimizing the M-scale of the residuals, which achieves more uniform convergence across the image. We focus on the deconvolution of astronomical images, which are among the most challenging due to their huge dynamic ranges and the frequent presence of large noise-dominated regions in the images. We show that high-quality image reconstruction is possible even in super-resolution and without the use of traditional regularization terms. Using a robust ρ-function is straightforward to implement in a streaming setting and, hence our method is applicable to the large volumes of astronomy images. The power of our method is demonstrated on observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (Stripe 82) and we briefly discuss the feasibility of a pipeline based on Graphical Processing Units for the next generation of telescope surveys.

  2. Testing Heteroscedasticity in Robust Regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (2011), s. 25-28 ISSN 2045-3345 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : robust regression * heteroscedasticity * regression quantiles * diagnostics Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics , Operational Research http://www.researchjournals.co.uk/documents/Vol4/06%20Kalina.pdf

  3. Robust power system frequency control

    CERN Document Server

    Bevrani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition of the industry standard reference on power system frequency control provides practical, systematic and flexible algorithms for regulating load frequency, offering new solutions to the technical challenges introduced by the escalating role of distributed generation and renewable energy sources in smart electric grids. The author emphasizes the physical constraints and practical engineering issues related to frequency in a deregulated environment, while fostering a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and robust control techniques. The resulting control strategi

  4. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  5. Robust flight control of rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechner, Adam Daniel

    With recent design improvement in fixed wing aircraft, there has been a considerable interest in the design of robust flight control systems to compensate for the inherent instability necessary to achieve desired performance. Such systems are designed for maximum available retention of stability and performance in the presence of significant vehicle damage or system failure. The rotorcraft industry has shown similar interest in adopting these reconfigurable flight control schemes specifically because of their ability to reject disturbance inputs and provide a significant amount of robustness for all but the most catastrophic of situations. The research summarized herein focuses on the extension of the pseudo-sliding mode control design procedure interpreted in the frequency domain. Application of the technique is employed and simulated on two well known helicopters, a simplified model of a hovering Sikorsky S-61 and the military's Black Hawk UH-60A also produced by Sikorsky. The Sikorsky helicopter model details are readily available and was chosen because it can be limited to pitch and roll motion reducing the number of degrees of freedom and yet contains two degrees of freedom, which is the minimum requirement in proving the validity of the pseudo-sliding control technique. The full order model of a hovering Black Hawk system was included both as a comparison to the S-61 helicopter design system and as a means to demonstrate the scaleability and effectiveness of the control technique on sophisticated systems where design robustness is of critical concern.

  6. Mechanically Robust Polymer-Graphene Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Heonjoo; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Ellison, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Graphene has been intensely studied for the past several years due to its many attractive properties. Graphene oxide (GO) aerogels are particularly interesting due to their light weight and excellent performance in various applications, such as environmental remediation, super-hydrophobic and super-oleophilic materials, energy storage, etc. However, GO aerogels are generally weak and delicate which complicates their handling and potentially limits their application outside the research lab. The focus of this work is to synthesize mechanically stable aerogels that are robust and easy to handle without substantially sacrificing their low density. To overcome this challenge, we found that by intermixing a small amount of readily available and thermally crosslinkable polymer can enhance the mechanical properties without disrupting other characteristic intrinsic properties of the aerogel itself. This method is a simple straight-forward procedure that does not include any tedious chemical reactions or harsh chemicals. Furthermore, we will demonstrate the performance of these materials as a super-absorbent and pressure sensor.

  7. Sustainable building versus ecological building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available and sensitivity to a site that are required to efficiently meet the energy needs of a building and occupants with renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, etc), designers must apply holistic design principles and take advantage of the free, naturally... monumental waste: the product which they deliver requires resources such as energy and water to operate over its entire life-cycle, a period measured in decades, and often in centuries. Throughout this process, construction activities often result...

  8. Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness...... evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed....

  9. Dynamical attraction to stable processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Albert M.; Talet, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We apply dynamical ideas within probability theory, proving an almost-sure invariance principle in log density for stable processes. The familiar scaling property (self-similarity) of the stable process has a stronger expression, that the scaling flow on Skorokhod path space is a Bernoulli flow. We prove that typical paths of a random walk with i.i.d. increments in the domain of attraction of a stable law can be paired with paths of a stable process so that, after applying a non-random regula...

  10. Comparative Analysis for Robust Penalized Spline Smoothing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoothing noisy data is commonly encountered in engineering domain, and currently robust penalized regression spline models are perceived to be the most promising methods for coping with this issue, due to their flexibilities in capturing the nonlinear trends in the data and effectively alleviating the disturbance from the outliers. Against such a background, this paper conducts a thoroughly comparative analysis of two popular robust smoothing techniques, the M-type estimator and S-estimation for penalized regression splines, both of which are reelaborated starting from their origins, with their derivation process reformulated and the corresponding algorithms reorganized under a unified framework. Performances of these two estimators are thoroughly evaluated from the aspects of fitting accuracy, robustness, and execution time upon the MATLAB platform. Elaborately comparative experiments demonstrate that robust penalized spline smoothing methods possess the capability of resistance to the noise effect compared with the nonrobust penalized LS spline regression method. Furthermore, the M-estimator exerts stable performance only for the observations with moderate perturbation error, whereas the S-estimator behaves fairly well even for heavily contaminated observations, but consuming more execution time. These findings can be served as guidance to the selection of appropriate approach for smoothing the noisy data.

  11. Decentralized adaptive control of robot manipulators with robust stabilization design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bau-San; Book, Wayne J.

    1988-01-01

    Due to geometric nonlinearities and complex dynamics, a decentralized technique for adaptive control for multilink robot arms is attractive. Lyapunov-function theory for stability analysis provides an approach to robust stabilization. Each joint of the arm is treated as a component subsystem. The adaptive controller is made locally stable with servo signals including proportional and integral gains. This results in the bound on the dynamical interactions with other subsystems. A nonlinear controller which stabilizes the system with uniform boundedness is used to improve the robustness properties of the overall system. As a result, the robot tracks the reference trajectories with convergence. This strategy makes computation simple and therefore facilitates real-time implementation.

  12. LLCL-Filtered Grid Converter with Improved Stability and Robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Huang; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    LLCL-filter has been proven to introduce more filtering at the converter switching frequency, while using smaller passive components. However, like other higher order filters, it introduces resonance to the grid when used with a grid converter. Its stability and robustness are also affected by grid...... impedance variations, making its design more challenging. To address these concerns, a new parameter design method for LLCL-filter has been formulated in the paper, which when enforced, guarantees robust and stable grid current control regardless of how the grid conditions change. It is thus an enhanced...... method even with no damping added to the grid converter. The method has been applied to the development of an LLCL-filter for testing in the laboratory with a 5-kW, 400-V, and 50-Hz grid converter. The method can also be applied to the lower order LCL-filter with only a slight modification needed....

  13. Robust guaranteed cost tracking control of quadrotor UAV with uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Nian, Xiaohong; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yinsheng

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a robust guaranteed cost controller (RGCC) is proposed for quadrotor UAV system with uncertainties to address set-point tracking problem. A sufficient condition of the existence for RGCC is derived by Lyapunov stability theorem. The designed RGCC not only guarantees the whole closed-loop system asymptotically stable but also makes the quadratic performance level built for the closed-loop system have an upper bound irrespective to all admissible parameter uncertainties. Then, an optimal robust guaranteed cost controller is developed to minimize the upper bound of performance level. Simulation results verify the presented control algorithms possess small overshoot and short setting time, with which the quadrotor has ability to perform set-point tracking task well. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impossibility of unconditional stability and robustness of diffusive acceleration schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1998-01-01

    The authors construct a problem for which exists no preconditioner with a cell-centered diffusion coupling stencil that is unconditionally stable and robust. In particular they consider an asymptotic limit of the Periodic Horizontal Interface (PHI) configuration wherein the cell height in both layers approaches zero like σ 2 while the total cross section varies like a in one layer and like 1/σ in the other layer. In such case they show that the conditions for stability and robustness of the flat eigenmodes of the iteration residual imply instability of the modes flat in the y-dimension and rapidly varying in the x-dimension. This paper is important for radiation transport studies

  15. Observer-Based Robust Control for Hydraulic Velocity Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problems of robust stabilization and robust control for the secondary component speed control system with parameters uncertainty and load disturbance. The aim is to enhance the control performance of hydraulic system based on Common Pressure Rail (CPR. Firstly, a mathematical model is presented to describe the hydraulic control system. Then a novel observer is proposed, and an observed-based control strategy is designed such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and satisfies the disturbance attenuation level. The condition for the existence of the developed controller can by efficiently solved by using the MATLAB software. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Engineering the robustness of industrial microbes through synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2012-02-01

    Microbial fermentations and bioconversions play a central role in the production of pharmaceuticals, enzymes and chemicals. To meet the demands of industrial production, it is desirable that microbes maintain a maximized carbon flux towards target metabolites regardless of fluctuations in intracellular or extracellular environments. This requires cellular systems that maintain functional stability and dynamic homeostasis in a given physiological state, or manipulate transitions between different physiological states. Stable maintenance or smooth transition can be achieved through engineering of dynamic controllability, modular and hierarchical organization, or functional redundancy, three key features of biological robustness in a cellular system. This review summarizes how synthetic biology can be used to improve the robustness of industrial microbes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Designing robust control-based HIV-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Andrés Olarte Dussán

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing a robust control-based treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients was studied. The dynamics of the immune system’s response to infection was modelled using a 5th order nonlinear model with separate efficacy coefficients for protease inhibitor (PIs and reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs. The immune res-ponse has been represented as an uncertain system due to errors in parameter estimation and the existence of un-modelled dynamics. A polytopic system was constructed incorporating all possible system parameter values. A con-trol system was designed using robust pole location techniques stabilising the polytopic system around an equilibrium point having a low viral load. Numerical simulation results (including the organism’s pharmacokinetical response to anti-retroviral drugs showed that the control law could lead to long-term stable conditions, even in extreme cases.

  18. Urban building recognition during significant temporal variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    In literature, existing researches on building recognition mainly concentrate on scales, rotations, and viewpoints variance. In urban environment, large temporal variations of weather and lighting conditions should also be considered as major challenges for robust recognition. For instances...... on constructing a system that deals with the temporal difference factors in recognizing urban buildings. In order to build such a system, two main criteria are raised, namely the efficiency of the recognition algorithm and the speed for interactive search purpose. For recognition purpose, we exploit the MOPS...

  19. Sustainable Resilient, Robust & Resplendent Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick

    to their impact. Resplendent enterprises are introduced with resplendence referring not to some sort of public or private façade, but instead refers to organizations marked by dual brilliance and nobility of strategy, governance and comportment that yields superior and sustainable triple bottom line performance....... Herein resilience, robustness, and resplendence (R3) are integrated with sustainable enterprise excellence (Edgeman and Eskildsen, 2013) or SEE and social-ecological innovation (Eskildsen and Edgeman, 2012) to aid progress of a firm toward producing continuously relevant performance that proceed from...

  20. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper outlines results from working group 3 (WG3) in the EU COST Action E55 – ‘Modelling of the performance of timber structures’. The objectives of the project are related to the three main research activities: the identification and modelling of relevant load and environmental expos...... exposure scenarios, the improvement of knowledge concerning the behaviour of timber structural elements and the development of a generic framework for the assessment of the life-cycle vulnerability and robustness of timber structures....

  1. Robust Software Architecture for Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazanian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Garrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Robust Real-Time Reconfigurable Robotics Software Architecture (R4SA) is the name of both a software architecture and software that embodies the architecture. The architecture was conceived in the spirit of current practice in designing modular, hard, realtime aerospace systems. The architecture facilitates the integration of new sensory, motor, and control software modules into the software of a given robotic system. R4SA was developed for initial application aboard exploratory mobile robots on Mars, but is adaptable to terrestrial robotic systems, real-time embedded computing systems in general, and robotic toys.

  2. Nonlinear robust control of hypersonic aircrafts with interactions between flight dynamics and propulsion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoying; Zhou, Wenjie; Liu, Hao

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the nonlinear robust tracking controller design problem for hypersonic vehicles. This problem is challenging due to strong coupling between the aerodynamics and the propulsion system, and the uncertainties involved in the vehicle dynamics including parametric uncertainties, unmodeled model uncertainties, and external disturbances. By utilizing the feedback linearization technique, a linear tracking error system is established with prescribed references. For the linear model, a robust controller is proposed based on the signal compensation theory to guarantee that the tracking error dynamics is robustly stable. Numerical simulation results are given to show the advantages of the proposed nonlinear robust control method, compared to the robust loop-shaping control approach. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Indirect field oriented control of induction motors is robustly globally stable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Paul; de Wit, P.A.S.; Ortega, Romeo; Mareels, Iven

    1995-01-01

    For induction motors indirect field oriented control is a simple and highly reliable scheme which has become an industry standard. We have previously shown that, in speed regulation tasks with constant load torque and current fed machines, indirect field oriented control is globally asymptotically

  4. Indirect Field Oriented Control of Induction Motors is Robustly Globally Stable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, P.A.S.; de Wit, Paul A.S.; Ortega, Romeo; Mareels, Iven; Mareels, I.M.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Field orientation, in one of its many forms, is an established control method for high dynamic performance AC drives. In particular, for induction motors, indirect fieldoriented control is a simple and highly reliable scheme which has become the de facto industry standard. In spite of its widespread

  5. A stable and robust calibration scheme of the log-periodic power law model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, V.; Sornette, D.

    2013-09-01

    We present a simple transformation of the formulation of the log-periodic power law formula of the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of financial bubbles that reduces it to a function of only three nonlinear parameters. The transformation significantly decreases the complexity of the fitting procedure and improves its stability tremendously because the modified cost function is now characterized by good smooth properties with in general a single minimum in the case where the model is appropriate to the empirical data. We complement the approach with an additional subordination procedure that slaves two of the nonlinear parameters to the most crucial nonlinear parameter, the critical time tc, defined in the JLS model as the end of the bubble and the most probable time for a crash to occur. This further decreases the complexity of the search and provides an intuitive representation of the results of the calibration. With our proposed methodology, metaheuristic searches are not longer necessary and one can resort solely to rigorous controlled local search algorithms, leading to a dramatic increase in efficiency. Empirical tests on the Shanghai Composite index (SSE) from January 2007 to March 2008 illustrate our findings.

  6. Fabrication of robust and thermally stable superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings based on thermoplastic polyurethane and silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfi, Javad; Jafari, Seyed Hassan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Sadeghi, Gity Mir Mohamad; Zohuri, Gholamhossein; Hejazi, Iman; Simon, Frank

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings based on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and modified nanosilica were fabricated using a simple solution-based method. The main challenge was to impart superhydrophobicity to an intrinsically hydrophilic polymer substrate. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on the obtained results, it was proved that in order to achieve superhydrophobicity, no TPU macromolecule should be present on the coating's top layer, thus a complete coverage of coating's top layer by nanosilica particles was necessary for achieving ultra water repellent coatings. Mechanical and thermal resistance of the coatings, which are the main challenges in commercializing superhydrophobic surfaces, were also studied by drop impact and thermal annealing tests, respectively. It was proved that using TPU as a sublayer results in improving mechanical resistance of the coatings as compared with the pure silica nanocoating. Moreover, the samples showed an excellent resistance against elevated temperatures (150 °C) and remained superhydrophobic; however, further increment of the annealing temperatures to 200 °C caused the TPU macromolecules to migrate onto the top layer of the coatings significantly reducing the water repellency, which was visually proved by SEM.

  7. Topology and robustness in the Drosophila segment polarity network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T Ingolia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A complex hierarchy of genetic interactions converts a single-celled Drosophila melanogaster egg into a multicellular embryo with 14 segments. Previously, von Dassow et al. reported that a mathematical model of the genetic interactions that defined the polarity of segments (the segment polarity network was robust (von Dassow et al. 2000. As quantitative information about the system was unavailable, parameters were sampled randomly. A surprisingly large fraction of these parameter sets allowed the model to maintain and elaborate on the segment polarity pattern. This robustness is due to the positive feedback of gene products on their own expression, which induces individual cells in a model segment to adopt different stable expression states (bistability corresponding to different cell types in the segment polarity pattern. A positive feedback loop will only yield multiple stable states when the parameters that describe it satisfy a particular inequality. By testing which random parameter sets satisfy these inequalities, I show that bistability is necessary to form the segment polarity pattern and serves as a strong predictor of which parameter sets will succeed in forming the pattern. Although the original model was robust to parameter variation, it could not reproduce the observed effects of cell division on the pattern of gene expression. I present a modified version that incorporates recent experimental evidence and does successfully mimic the consequences of cell division. The behavior of this modified model can also be understood in terms of bistability in positive feedback of gene expression. I discuss how this topological property of networks provides robust pattern formation and how large changes in parameters can change the specific pattern produced by a network.

  8. Robust Instrumentation[Water treatment for power plant]; Robust Instrumentering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wik, Anders [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    Cementa Slite Power Station is a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with moderate steam data; 3.0 MPa and 420 deg C. The heat is recovered from Cementa, a cement industry, without any usage of auxiliary fuel. The Power station commenced operation in 2001. The layout of the plant is unusual, there are no similar in Sweden and very few world-wide, so the operational experiences are limited. In connection with the commissioning of the power plant a R and D project was identified with the objective to minimise the manpower needed for chemistry management of the plant. The lean chemistry management is based on robust instrumentation and chemical-free water treatment plant. The concept with robust instrumentation consists of the following components; choice of on-line instrumentation with a minimum of O and M and a chemical-free water treatment. The parameters are specific conductivity, cation conductivity, oxygen and pH. In addition to that, two fairly new on-line instruments were included; corrosion monitors and differential pH calculated from specific and cation conductivity. The chemical-free water treatment plant consists of softening, reverse osmosis and electro-deionisation. The operational experience shows that the cycle chemistry is not within the guidelines due to major problems with the operation of the power plant. These problems have made it impossible to reach steady state and thereby not viable to fully verify and validate the concept with robust instrumentation. From readings on the panel of the online analysers some conclusions may be drawn, e.g. the differential pH measurements have fulfilled the expectations. The other on-line analysers have been working satisfactorily apart from contamination with turbine oil, which has been noticed at least twice. The corrosion monitors seem to be working but the lack of trend curves from the mainframe computer system makes it hard to draw any clear conclusions. The chemical-free water treatment has met all

  9. Perspective: Evolution and detection of genetic robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de J.A.G.M.; Hermisson, J.; Wagner, G.P.; Ancel Meyers, L.; Bagheri-Chaichian, H.; Blanchard, J.L.; Chao, L.; Cheverud, J.M.; Elena, S.F.; Fontana, W.; Gibson, G.; Hansen, T.F.; Krakauer, D.; Lewontin, R.C.; Ofria, C.; Rice, S.H.; Dassow, von G.; Wagner, A.; Whitlock, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Robustness is the invariance of phenotypes in the face of perturbation. The robustness of phenotypes appears at various levels of biological organization, including gene expression, protein folding, metabolic flux, physiological homeostasis, development, and even organismal fitness. The mechanisms

  10. Robust distributed cognitive relay beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Pandarakkottilil, Ubaidulla

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed relay beamformer design for a cognitive radio network in which a cognitive (or secondary) transmit node communicates with a secondary receive node assisted by a set of cognitive non-regenerative relays. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) node, and each node is assumed to be equipped with a single transmit/receive antenna. The interference to the PU resulting from the transmission from the cognitive nodes is kept below a specified limit. The proposed robust cognitive relay beamformer design seeks to minimize the total relay transmit power while ensuring that the transceiver signal-to-interference- plus-noise ratio and PU interference constraints are satisfied. The proposed design takes into account a parameter of the error in the channel state information (CSI) to render the performance of the beamformer robust in the presence of imperfect CSI. Though the original problem is non-convex, we show that the proposed design can be reformulated as a tractable convex optimization problem that can be solved efficiently. Numerical results are provided and illustrate the performance of the proposed designs for different network operating conditions and parameters. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Robust quantum network architectures and topologies for entanglement distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Siddhartha; Khatri, Sumeet; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2018-01-01

    Entanglement distribution is a prerequisite for several important quantum information processing and computing tasks, such as quantum teleportation, quantum key distribution, and distributed quantum computing. In this work, we focus on two-dimensional quantum networks based on optical quantum technologies using dual-rail photonic qubits for the building of a fail-safe quantum internet. We lay out a quantum network architecture for entanglement distribution between distant parties using a Bravais lattice topology, with the technological constraint that quantum repeaters equipped with quantum memories are not easily accessible. We provide a robust protocol for simultaneous entanglement distribution between two distant groups of parties on this network. We also discuss a memory-based quantum network architecture that can be implemented on networks with an arbitrary topology. We examine networks with bow-tie lattice and Archimedean lattice topologies and use percolation theory to quantify the robustness of the networks. In particular, we provide figures of merit on the loss parameter of the optical medium that depend only on the topology of the network and quantify the robustness of the network against intermittent photon loss and intermittent failure of nodes. These figures of merit can be used to compare the robustness of different network topologies in order to determine the best topology in a given real-world scenario, which is critical in the realization of the quantum internet.

  12. A facile building-block synthesis of multifunctional lanthanide MOFs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanase, S.; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, M.C.; Rothenberg, G.; Mathonière, C.; Jubera, V.; Smits, J.M.M.; de Gelder, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a building blocks approach providing a direct route to multifunctional MOFs, that display photoluminescent properties, robustness, porosity and in some cases unique magnetic properties. The self-assembly of [Mo(CN)8]4− with several in situ prepared lanthanide building blocks gives 3D

  13. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, G.

    1999-01-01

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements

  14. Methodology in robust and nonparametric statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Jurecková, Jana; Picek, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and SynopsisIntroductionSynopsisPreliminariesIntroductionInference in Linear ModelsRobustness ConceptsRobust and Minimax Estimation of LocationClippings from Probability and Asymptotic TheoryProblemsRobust Estimation of Location and RegressionIntroductionM-EstimatorsL-EstimatorsR-EstimatorsMinimum Distance and Pitman EstimatorsDifferentiable Statistical FunctionsProblemsAsymptotic Representations for L-Estimators

  15. High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.

  16. Next Generation Robust Low Noise Seismometer for Nuclear Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramovich, Igor A.

    2013-06-20

    Implementation of the proposed seismometers turned out to be much more challenging than anticipated. The noise levels achieved are indeed well below those ever featured by any electrochemical sensor and just very nearly miss reaching the original objectives. However, while noise-wise the instruments could still prove their usefulness, especially considering their robustness and no-maintenance operation, the implementation of the proposed noise-reduction concept resulted in much larger and heavier devices than originally expected. Moreover, these large dimensions relate only to single-component vertical sensors. While building similar horizontal component is possible, the resulting three-component instrument would be way too large and heavy to be of any practical use. The prototype instruments developed and built retained the inherent advantages of the electrochemical seismometers: no maintenance operation; ability to perform with large installation tilts; and, unfortunately, to a much lesser extent in terms of robustness.

  17. An Integrated Model for Robust Multisensor Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Shen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated model aimed at obtaining robust and reliable results in decision level multisensor data fusion applications. The proposed model is based on the connection of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory and an extreme learning machine. It includes three main improvement aspects: a mass constructing algorithm to build reasonable basic belief assignments (BBAs; an evidence synthesis method to get a comprehensive BBA for an information source from several mass functions or experts; and a new way to make high-precision decisions based on an extreme learning machine (ELM. Compared to some universal classification methods, the proposed one can be directly applied in multisensor data fusion applications, but not only for conventional classifications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model is able to yield robust and reliable results in multisensor data fusion problems. In addition, this paper also draws some meaningful conclusions, which have significant implications for future studies.

  18. An integrated model for robust multisensor data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Liu, Yun; Fu, Jun-Song

    2014-10-22

    This paper presents an integrated model aimed at obtaining robust and reliable results in decision level multisensor data fusion applications. The proposed model is based on the connection of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory and an extreme learning machine. It includes three main improvement aspects: a mass constructing algorithm to build reasonable basic belief assignments (BBAs); an evidence synthesis method to get a comprehensive BBA for an information source from several mass functions or experts; and a new way to make high-precision decisions based on an extreme learning machine (ELM). Compared to some universal classification methods, the proposed one can be directly applied in multisensor data fusion applications, but not only for conventional classifications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model is able to yield robust and reliable results in multisensor data fusion problems. In addition, this paper also draws some meaningful conclusions, which have significant implications for future studies.

  19. A robust dataset-agnostic heart disease classifier from Phonocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rohan; Dutta Choudhury, Anirban; Deshpande, Parijat; Bhattacharya, Sakyajit; Pal, Arpan; Mandana, K M

    2017-07-01

    Automatic classification of normal and abnormal heart sounds is a popular area of research. However, building a robust algorithm unaffected by signal quality and patient demography is a challenge. In this paper we have analysed a wide list of Phonocardiogram (PCG) features in time and frequency domain along with morphological and statistical features to construct a robust and discriminative feature set for dataset-agnostic classification of normal and cardiac patients. The large and open access database, made available in Physionet 2016 challenge was used for feature selection, internal validation and creation of training models. A second dataset of 41 PCG segments, collected using our in-house smart phone based digital stethoscope from an Indian hospital was used for performance evaluation. Our proposed methodology yielded sensitivity and specificity scores of 0.76 and 0.75 respectively on the test dataset in classifying cardiovascular diseases. The methodology also outperformed three popular prior art approaches, when applied on the same dataset.

  20. New Concept for Museum Storage Buildings – Evaluation of Building Performance Model for Simulation of Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Knudsen, Lise Ræder; Kollias, Christos Georgios

    2016-01-01

    is close to be CO2 neutral. The analysis shows very good agreement between simulations and measurements, meaning that the proposed methods can be used for designing museum storage buildings. The analysis also shows, that the weather conditions of previous years, affect the indoor environment...... and physical decay of the objects as low as possible. Museum storage buildings should be able to provide a considerable stable indoor environment in terms of temperature and relative humidity. This paper explores how to simulate and build low energy museums storage buildings, and the paper shows...... that it is possible to make a building of low building expenses, very low running expenses and very high quality. In addition it is described that the energy consumption is only 2% compared to normal HVAC solutions, and the 2% can be delivered by excess wind power from Danish windmills resulting in that the building...

  1. Picosecond pulse generated supercontinuum as a stable seed for OPCPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indra, Lukáš; Batysta, František; Hříbek, Petr; Novák, Jakub; Hubka, Zbyněk; Green, Jonathan T; Antipenkov, Roman; Boge, Robert; Naylon, Jack A; Bakule, Pavel; Rus, Bedřich

    2017-02-15

    We present a stable supercontinuum (SC) generated in a bulk YAG crystal, pumped by 3 ps chirped pulses at 1030 nm. The SC is generated in a loose focus geometry in a 13 cm long YAG crystal, allowing for stable and robust single-filament generation. The SC energy stability exceeds that of the pump laser by almost a factor of 3. Additionally, we show that the SC spectrum has long-term stability and that the SC is coherent and compressible by compressing the portions of SC spectra close to the corresponding Fourier limit. This makes the picosecond-pulse-driven SC a suitable stable seed for OPCPA amplifiers.

  2. Stable solitons of quadratic ginzburg-landau equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasovan; Malomed; Mihalache; Mazilu; Lederer

    2000-07-01

    We present a physical model based on coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations that supports stable temporal solitary-wave pulses. The system consists of two parallel-coupled cores, one having a quadratic nonlinearity, the other one being effectively linear. The former core is active, with bandwidth-limited amplification built into it, while the latter core has only losses. Parameters of the model can be easily selected so that the zero background is stable. The model has nongeneric exact analytical solutions in the form of solitary pulses ("dissipative solitons"). Direct numerical simulations, using these exact solutions as initial configurations, show that they are unstable; however, the evolution initiated by the exact unstable solitons ends up with nontrivial stable localized pulses, which are very robust attractors. Direct simulations also demonstrate that the presence of group-velocity mismatch (walkoff) between the two harmonics in the active core makes the pulses move at a constant velocity, but does not destabilize them.

  3. Robustness Analysis of Hybrid Stochastic Neural Networks with Neutral Terms and Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the robustness of global exponential stability of hybrid stochastic neural networks subject to neutral terms and time-varying delays simultaneously. Given globally exponentially stable hybrid stochastic neural networks, we characterize the upper bounds of contraction coefficients of neutral terms and time-varying delays by using the transcendental equation. Moreover, we prove theoretically that, for any globally exponentially stable hybrid stochastic neural networks, if additive neutral terms and time-varying delays are smaller than the upper bounds arrived, then the perturbed neural networks are guaranteed to also be globally exponentially stable. Finally, a numerical simulation example is given to illustrate the presented criteria.

  4. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put......There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  5. Robust switched PI controller design for a simple hysteretic mechanical system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardhana, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the design of a robust switched PI controller for a simple hysteretic mechanical system. The design procedure ensures that the closed-loop system remains inputto-state stable under arbitrary switching signals among a family of PI controllers, it has an exponential

  6. Robust Multivariable Feedback Control of Natural Gas-Diesel RCCI Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Indrajuana, A.; Bekdemir, C.; Luo, X.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced combustion concepts such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) demonstrate very high thermal efficiencies combined with ultra low NOx emissions. As RCCI is sensitive for operating conditions, closed-loop control is a crucial enabler for stable and robust combustion. The

  7. Light field reconstruction robust to signal dependent noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kun; Bian, Liheng; Suo, Jinli; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-11-01

    Capturing four dimensional light field data sequentially using a coded aperture camera is an effective approach but suffers from low signal noise ratio. Although multiplexing can help raise the acquisition quality, noise is still a big issue especially for fast acquisition. To address this problem, this paper proposes a noise robust light field reconstruction method. Firstly, scene dependent noise model is studied and incorporated into the light field reconstruction framework. Then, we derive an optimization algorithm for the final reconstruction. We build a prototype by hacking an off-the-shelf camera for data capturing and prove the concept. The effectiveness of this method is validated with experiments on the real captured data.

  8. A Bicriteria Approach for Robust Timetabling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Anita; Kratz, Albrecht

    Finding robust solutions of an optimization problem is an important issue in practice. Various concepts on how to define the robustness of an algorithm or of a solution have been suggested. However, there is always a trade-off between the best possible solution and a robust solution, called the price of robustness. In this paper, we analyze this trade-off using the following bicriteria approach. We treat an optimization problem as a bicriteria problem adding the robustness of its solution as an additional objective function. We demonstrate this approach at the aperiodic timetabling problem in which a timetable which is robust under delays is sought. We are able to derive necessary conditions for the resulting Pareto-optimal timetables. For the case in which the robustness is defined as the largest delay for which all connections are maintained we show the bicriteria problem can be solved with the same time complexity as the original single-criteria problem.

  9. Audit, Control and Monitoring Design Patterns (ACMDP) for Autonomous Robust Systems (ARS)

    OpenAIRE

    C. Trad; A. Trad

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes the Audit, Control and Monitoring Design Patterns (ACMDP) for building Autonomous and Robust Systems (ARS) such as Mobile Robot Systems (MRS). These patterns are also applicable to other Mission Critical and Complex Systems (MCCS). This paper presents a proposal which will help ARS project managers and engineers design, build and estimate the probability that an ARS will succeed or fail. Furthermore, this proposal offers the possibility to ARS problems with...

  10. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  11. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an MRE? Is an MRE shelf stable? What foods are packaged in retort packages? What is aseptic ... type of package is used for aseptic processing? What foods are packaged in aseptic packages? Can I microwave ...

  12. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  13. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  14. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  15. Building Detection in SAR Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Ryan Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koch, Mark William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moya, Mary M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goold, Jeremy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Current techniques for building detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery can be computationally expensive and/or enforce stringent requirements for data acquisition. The desire is to present a technique that is effective and efficient at determining an approximate building location. This approximate location can be used to extract a portion of the SAR image to then perform a more robust detection. The proposed technique assumes that for the desired image, bright lines and shadows, SAR artifact effects, are approximately labeled. These labels are enhanced and utilized to locate buildings, only if the related bright lines and shadows can be grouped. In order to find which of the bright lines and shadows are related, all of the bright lines are connected to all of the shadows. This allows the problem to be solved from a connected graph viewpoint. Where the nodes are the bright lines and shadows and the arcs are the connections between bright lines and shadows. Constraints based on angle of depression and the relationship between connected bright lines and shadows are applied to remove unrelated arcs. Once the related bright lines and shadows are grouped, their locations are combined to provide an approximate building location. Experimental results are provided showing the outcome of the technique.

  16. Building trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Meriel

    1995-01-01

    'Activate' is the energy magazine for secondary schools and is part of the Education Programme which is managed on behalf of the British Nuclear Industry Forum by AEA Technology. activate is the flagship communication device between the British Nuclear Industry Forum's Education Programme and secondary schools in the UK. It was developed from a previous publication, Nuclear Bulletin. There is a need for the nuclear industry to build trust with teachers and students in the UK, where for a long time, everything that the industry has said, written or printed has been disregarded by school teachers as propaganda. Over the last few years the industry has put in a great deal of effort to position itself as a provider of educationally sound and socially acceptable information. 'Activate' was an evolution of this idea and there was a hole in the market for a lively, activity and article based magazine that could be used in the classroom. The target audience is principally teachers of science, mathematics and geography, but also includes teachers of art,, English and history with students of between 11 and 18. The results were very positive in that teachers appreciated the colourful and lively nature of activate and they felt that it provided information and opinions in an un biased and non-propagandist way. Their comments about layout, number of activities style of presentation were taken into account and during the summer of 1994 activate was remodelled ready for re launch in September. The feedback so far is good with more teachers signing up every week to receive their own free copy

  17. A Robust Trust Establishment Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farruh Ishmanov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Security techniques like cryptography and authentication can fail to protect a network once a node is compromised. Hence, trust establishment continuously monitors and evaluates node behavior to detect malicious and compromised nodes. However, just like other security schemes, trust establishment is also vulnerable to attack. Moreover, malicious nodes might misbehave intelligently to trick trust establishment schemes. Unfortunately, attack-resistance and robustness issues with trust establishment schemes have not received much attention from the research community. Considering the vulnerability of trust establishment to different attacks and the unique features of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks, we propose a lightweight and robust trust establishment scheme. The proposed trust scheme is lightweight thanks to a simple trust estimation method. The comprehensiveness and flexibility of the proposed trust estimation scheme make it robust against different types of attack and misbehavior. Performance evaluation under different types of misbehavior and on-off attacks shows that the detection rate of the proposed trust mechanism is higher and more stable compared to other trust mechanisms.

  18. Robust stabilization of nonlinear systems: The LMI approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šiljak D. D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to robust quadratic stabilization of nonlinear systems within the framework of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI. The systems are composed of a linear constant part perturbed by an additive nonlinearity which depends discontinuously on both time and state. The only information about the nonlinearity is that it satisfies a quadratic constraint. Our major objective is to show how linear constant feedback laws can be formulated to stabilize this type of systems and, at the same time, maximize the bounds on the nonlinearity which the system can tolerate without going unstable. We shall broaden the new setting to include design of decentralized control laws for robust stabilization of interconnected systems. Again, the LMI methods will be used to maximize the class of uncertain interconnections which leave the overall system connectively stable. It is useful to learn that the proposed LMI formulation “recognizes” the matching conditions by returning a feedback gain matrix for any prescribed bound on the interconnection terms. More importantly, the new formulation provides a suitable setting for robust stabilization of nonlinear systems where the nonlinear perturbations satisfy the generalized matching conditions.

  19. Robust control of resistive wall modes using pseudospectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sempf, M; Merkel, P; Strumberger, E; Tichmann, C; Guenter, S

    2009-01-01

    A novel methodology to design robust feedback controllers for the stabilization of resistive wall modes (RWMs) in tokamaks is presented. A linear state space model is used that describes the system composed of the plasma, the resistive wall, the active coils and the magnetic field sensors. The full three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the wall and the coils is taken into account. The control system is represented by a parametrized matrix whose robust stability properties are optimized under variations of the parameters. To make the optimization process feasible, a reduced state space model is constructed by means of a novel technique involving an orthogonal projection. The orthogonality is essential to the robust stability concept used. The latter is based upon the idea of matrix pseudospectra and therefore accounts for the sensitivity of eigenvalues. Furthermore, the transient growth of perturbations is investigated. Namely, in some theoretically stable linear systems, initial perturbations can grow by large factors before they eventually decay, rendering them practically unstable. A detailed analysis of a simple, ITER-like test case provides the following general, conceptual insights into the RWM stabilization problem: (i) it is important to consider not only the eigenvalues themselves, but also their sensitivity, (ii) transient amplification might be an issue requiring consideration and (iii) the transient peak can be substantially reduced by a careful choice of the optimization objective and the sensor configuration.

  20. Environmentally Benign Production of Stretchable and Robust Superhydrophobic Silicone Monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexander; Surdo, Salvatore; Caputo, Gianvito; Bayer, Ilker S; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2018-01-24

    Superhydrophobic materials hold an enormous potential in sectors as important as aerospace, food industries, or biomedicine. Despite this great promise, the lack of environmentally friendly production methods and limited robustness remain the two most pertinent barriers to the scalability, large-area production, and widespread use of superhydrophobic materials. In this work, highly robust superhydrophobic silicone monoliths are produced through a scalable and environmentally friendly emulsion technique. It is first found that stable and surfactantless water-in-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) emulsions can be formed through mechanical mixing. Increasing the internal phase fraction of the precursor emulsion is found to increase porosity and microtexture of the final monoliths, rendering them superhydrophobic. Silica nanoparticles can also be dispersed in the aqueous internal phase to create micro/nanotextured monoliths, giving further improvements in superhydrophobicity. Due to the elastomeric nature of PDMS, superhydrophobicity can be maintained even while the material is mechanically strained or compressed. In addition, because of their self-similarity, the monoliths show outstanding robustness to knife-scratch, tape-peel, and finger-wipe tests, as well as rigorous sandpaper abrasion. Superhydrophobicity was also unchanged when exposed to adverse environmental conditions including corrosive solutions, UV light, extreme temperatures, and high-energy droplet impact. Finally, important properties for eventual adoption in real-world applications including self-cleaning, stain-repellence, and blood-repellence are demonstrated.

  1. Robust Visual Tracking Using the Bidirectional Scale Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Object tracking with robust scale estimation is a challenging task in computer vision. This paper presents a novel tracking algorithm that learns the translation and scale filters with a complementary scheme. The translation filter is constructed using the ridge regression and multidimensional features. A robust scale filter is constructed by the bidirectional scale estimation, including the forward scale and backward scale. Firstly, we learn the scale filter using the forward tracking information. Then the forward scale and backward scale can be estimated using the respective scale filter. Secondly, a conservative strategy is adopted to compromise the forward and backward scales. Finally, the scale filter is updated based on the final scale estimation. It is effective to update scale filter since the stable scale estimation can improve the performance of scale filter. To reveal the effectiveness of our tracker, experiments are performed on 32 sequences with significant scale variation and on the benchmark dataset with 50 challenging videos. Our results show that the proposed tracker outperforms several state-of-the-art trackers in terms of robustness and accuracy.

  2. Efficient robust conditional random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongjin; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Tianyi; Tao, Dacheng; Meyer, David A

    2015-10-01

    Conditional random fields (CRFs) are a flexible yet powerful probabilistic approach and have shown advantages for popular applications in various areas, including text analysis, bioinformatics, and computer vision. Traditional CRF models, however, are incapable of selecting relevant features as well as suppressing noise from noisy original features. Moreover, conventional optimization methods often converge slowly in solving the training procedure of CRFs, and will degrade significantly for tasks with a large number of samples and features. In this paper, we propose robust CRFs (RCRFs) to simultaneously select relevant features. An optimal gradient method (OGM) is further designed to train RCRFs efficiently. Specifically, the proposed RCRFs employ the l1 norm of the model parameters to regularize the objective used by traditional CRFs, therefore enabling discovery of the relevant unary features and pairwise features of CRFs. In each iteration of OGM, the gradient direction is determined jointly by the current gradient together with the historical gradients, and the Lipschitz constant is leveraged to specify the proper step size. We show that an OGM can tackle the RCRF model training very efficiently, achieving the optimal convergence rate [Formula: see text] (where k is the number of iterations). This convergence rate is theoretically superior to the convergence rate O(1/k) of previous first-order optimization methods. Extensive experiments performed on three practical image segmentation tasks demonstrate the efficacy of OGM in training our proposed RCRFs.

  3. Robustness Validation in Service-Oriented Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeiro, Nuno; Vieira, Marco; Madeira, Henrique

    The use of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) in enterprise applications development is increasing very quickly. In a SOA environment providers supply a set of services that must be robust. Although SOA is being used in business-critical environments, there is no practical means to measure or compare the robustness of services. Robustness failures in such environments are dangerous, as they can be maliciously exploited with severe consequences for the attacked systems. This chapter addresses the problem of robustness validation in SOA environments. The approach proposed is based on a set of robustness tests that is used to discover both programming and design errors. Two concrete examples are presented: one focusing on web services and the other targeting Java Message Service (JMS) middleware. The proposed approach is useful for both providers (to validate the robustness of deployed services) and consumers (to select the services that best fit architectural requirements).

  4. Robustness of Long Span Reciprocal Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balfroid, Nathalie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sassone, Mario SASSONE

    2011-01-01

    engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper makes a discussion of such robustness issues related to the future development of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kind of structures can have...... a potential as long span timber structures in real projects if they are carefully designed with respect to the overall robustness strategies....

  5. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

  6. Sequential improvement for robust optimization using an uncertainty measure for radial basis functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Gosse Tjipke; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Klaseboer, G.

    The performance of the sequential metamodel based optimization procedure depends strongly on the chosen building blocks for the algorithm, such as the used metamodeling method and sequential improvement criterion. In this study, the effect of these choices on the efficiency of the robust

  7. Molecular mechanisms of robustness in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempe, Janne; Lachowiec, Jennifer; Sullivan, Alessandra M; Queitsch, Christine

    2013-02-01

    Robustness, the ability of organisms to buffer phenotypes against perturbations, has drawn renewed interest among developmental biologists and geneticists. A growing body of research supports an important role of robustness in the genotype to phenotype translation, with far-reaching implications for evolutionary processes and disease susceptibility. Similar to animals and fungi, plant robustness is a function of genetic network architecture. Most perturbations are buffered; however, perturbation of network hubs destabilizes many traits. Here, we review recent advances in identifying molecular robustness mechanisms in plants that have been enabled by a combination of classical genetics and population genetics with genome-scale data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Survey on Robustness in Railway Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Bull, Simon Henry

    2018-01-01

    in the quality of solutions to individual planning problems, and of operations in general. Robustness in general is the capacity for some system to absorb or resist changes. In the context of railway robustness it is often taken to be the capacity for operations to continue at some level when faced...... with a disruption such as delay or failure. This has resulted in more attention given to the inclusion of robustness measures and objectives in individual planning problems, and to the providing of tools to ensure operations continue under disrupted situations. In this paper we survey the literature on robustness...

  9. Robustness: confronting lessons from physics and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesne, Annick

    2008-11-01

    The term robustness is encountered in very different scientific fields, from engineering and control theory to dynamical systems to biology. The main question addressed herein is whether the notion of robustness and its correlates (stability, resilience, self-organisation) developed in physics are relevant to biology, or whether specific extensions and novel frameworks are required to account for the robustness properties of living systems. To clarify this issue, the different meanings covered by this unique term are discussed; it is argued that they crucially depend on the kind of perturbations that a robust system should by definition withstand. Possible mechanisms underlying robust behaviours are examined, either encountered in all natural systems (symmetries, conservation laws, dynamic stability) or specific to biological systems (feedbacks and regulatory networks). Special attention is devoted to the (sometimes counterintuitive) interrelations between robustness and noise. A distinction between dynamic selection and natural selection in the establishment of a robust behaviour is underlined. It is finally argued that nested notions of robustness, relevant to different time scales and different levels of organisation, allow one to reconcile the seemingly contradictory requirements for robustness and adaptability in living systems.

  10. Building Energy Asset Score for Building Owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2015-01-01

    The Building Energy Asset Score is a national standardized tool for evaluating the physical and structural energy efficiency of commercial and multifamily residential buildings. The Asset Score generates a simple energy efficiency rating that enables comparison among buildings, and identifies opportunities for users to invest in energy efficiency upgrades. It is web-based and free to use. This fact sheet discusses the value of the score for building owners.

  11. Robust visual tracking via multiscale deep sparse networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Hou, Zhiqiang; Yu, Wangsheng; Xue, Yang; Jin, Zefenfen; Dai, Bo

    2017-04-01

    In visual tracking, deep learning with offline pretraining can extract more intrinsic and robust features. It has significant success solving the tracking drift in a complicated environment. However, offline pretraining requires numerous auxiliary training datasets and is considerably time-consuming for tracking tasks. To solve these problems, a multiscale sparse networks-based tracker (MSNT) under the particle filter framework is proposed. Based on the stacked sparse autoencoders and rectifier linear unit, the tracker has a flexible and adjustable architecture without the offline pretraining process and exploits the robust and powerful features effectively only through online training of limited labeled data. Meanwhile, the tracker builds four deep sparse networks of different scales, according to the target's profile type. During tracking, the tracker selects the matched tracking network adaptively in accordance with the initial target's profile type. It preserves the inherent structural information more efficiently than the single-scale networks. Additionally, a corresponding update strategy is proposed to improve the robustness of the tracker. Extensive experimental results on a large scale benchmark dataset show that the proposed method performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods in challenging environments.

  12. Embedded Controller Design for Pig Stable Ventilation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob

    present an early result for performing system identification for zone based climate dynamics, based on an idea of guaranteed internal flow directions. Paper 6 presents a verified stable distributed temperature controller for pig stables divided into zones. Paper 7 is an expanded journal version of paper 6......This thesis focuses on zone based climate control in pig stables and how to implement climate controllers in a new range of products. The presented controllers are based on simple models of climate dynamics and simple models of actuators. The implementation uses graphical point and click features...... from the Mathworks' range of products and automatic code generation. It is furthermore shown how to build new climate control systems based on cheap and readily available hardware and software. An early result for performing system identification for zone based climate dynamics is also presented...

  13. Reimagining Building Sensing and Control (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polese, L.

    2014-06-01

    Buildings are responsible for 40% of US energy consumption, and sensing and control technologies are an important element in creating a truly sustainable built environment. Motion-based occupancy sensors are often part of these control systems, but are usually altered or disabled in response to occupants' complaints, at the expense of energy savings. Can we leverage commodity hardware developed for other sectors and embedded software to produce more capable sensors for robust building controls? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) 'Image Processing Occupancy Sensor (IPOS)' is one example of leveraging embedded systems to create smarter, more reliable, multi-function sensors that open the door to new control strategies for building heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting control. In this keynote, we will discuss how cost-effective embedded systems are changing the state-of-the-art of building sensing and control.

  14. Urban building recognition during significant temporal variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    In literature, existing researches on building recognition mainly concentrate on scales, rotations, and viewpoints variance. In urban environment, large temporal variations of weather and lighting conditions should also be considered as major challenges for robust recognition. For instances......, there are differences between images captured during daytime and nighttime, especially significant changes in building appearances between seasons because of the differences in light setting. To date, these large temporal variation issues have not been fully investigated. In this paper, we therefore focus...... on constructing a system that deals with the temporal difference factors in recognizing urban buildings. In order to build such a system, two main criteria are raised, namely the efficiency of the recognition algorithm and the speed for interactive search purpose. For recognition purpose, we exploit the MOPS...

  15. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  16. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  17. Optimal design of modular cogeneration plants for hospital facilities and robustness evaluation of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimelli, A.; Muccillo, M.; Sannino, R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A specific methodology has been set up based on genetic optimization algorithm. • Results highlight a tradeoff between primary energy savings (TPES) and simple payback (SPB). • Optimized plant configurations show TPES exceeding 18% and SPB of approximately three years. • The study aims to identify the most stable plant solutions through the robust design optimization. • The research shows how a deterministic definition of the decision variables could lead to an overestimation of the results. - Abstract: The widespread adoption of combined heat and power generation is widely recognized as a strategic goal to achieve significant primary energy savings and lower carbon dioxide emissions. In this context, the purpose of this research is to evaluate the potential of cogeneration based on reciprocating gas engines for some Italian hospital buildings. Comparative analyses have been conducted based on the load profiles of two specific hospital facilities and through the study of the cogeneration system-user interaction. To this end, a specific methodology has been set up by coupling a specifically developed calculation algorithm to a genetic optimization algorithm, and a multi-objective approach has been adopted. The results from the optimization problem highlight a clear trade-off between total primary energy savings (TPES) and simple payback period (SPB). Optimized plant configurations and management strategies show TPES exceeding 18% for the reference hospital facilities and multi–gas engine solutions along with a minimum SPB of approximately three years, thereby justifying the European regulation promoting cogeneration. However, designing a CHP plant for a specific energetic, legislative or market scenario does not guarantee good performance when these scenarios change. For this reason, the proposed methodology has been enhanced in order to focus on some innovative aspects. In particular, this study proposes an uncommon and effective approach

  18. In Silico Design of Robust Bolalipid Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulacu, Monica; Periole, Xavier; Marrink, Siewert J.; Périole, Xavier

    The robustness of microorganisms used in industrial fermentations is essential for the efficiency and yield of the production process. A viable tool to increase the robustness is through engineering of the cell membrane and especially by incorporating lipids from species that survive under harsh

  19. Robust bayesian inference of generalized Pareto distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In this work, robust Bayesian estimation of the generalized Pareto distribution is proposed. The methodology is presented in terms of oscillation of posterior risks of the Bayesian estimators. By using a Monte Carlo simulation study, we show that, under a suitable generalized loss function, we can obtain a robust ...

  20. Globalized robust optimization for nonlinear uncertain inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Tal, A.; Brekelmans, Ruud; den Hertog, Dick; Vial, J.P.

    Robust optimization is a methodology that can be applied to problems that are affected by uncertainty in their parameters. The classical robust counterpart of a problem requires the solution to be feasible for all uncertain parameter values in a so-called uncertainty set and offers no guarantees for

  1. Implicitly Weighted Methods in Robust Image Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2012), s. 449-462 ISSN 0924-9907 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : robustness * high breakdown point * outlier detection * robust correlation analysis * template matching * face recognition Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.767, year: 2012

  2. Extending the Scope of Robust Quadratic Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marandi, Ahmadreza; Ben-Tal, A.; den Hertog, Dick; Melenberg, Bertrand

    In this paper, we derive tractable reformulations of the robust counterparts of convex quadratic and conic quadratic constraints with concave uncertainties for a broad range of uncertainty sets. For quadratic constraints with convex uncertainty, it is well-known that the robust counterpart is, in

  3. A practical guide to robust optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Bram; Yanikoglu, Ihsan; den Hertog, Dick

    Robust optimization is a young and active research field that has been mainly developed in the last 15 years. Robust optimization is very useful for practice, since it is tailored to the information at hand, and it leads to computationally tractable formulations. It is therefore remarkable that

  4. Robust dissipativity for uncertain impulsive dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the robust dissipativity with respect to the quadratic supply rate for uncertain impulsive dynamical systems. By employing the Hamilton-Jacobi inequality approach, some sufficient conditions of robust dissipativity for this kind of system are established. Finally, we specialize the obtained results to the case of uncertain linear impulsive dynamical systems.

  5. What is it to be sturdy (robust)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niss Skov; Zwisler, Lars Pagter; Bojsen, Ann Kristina Mikkelsen

    Purpose: This paper intends to give a first insight into the concept of being "sturdy/robust"; To develop and test a Danish model of how to measure sturdi-ness/robustness; To test the scale's ability to identify people in emergency situa-tions who have high risk of developing psychological illness....

  6. Applying Robust Design in an Industrial Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Ebro

    mechanical architectures. Furthermore a set of 15 robust design principles for reducing the variation in functional performance is compiled in a format directly supporting the work of the design engineer. With these foundational methods in place, the existing tools, methods and KPIs of Robust Design...

  7. Recoverable Robustness in Shunting and Timetabling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerone, Serafino; D'Angelo, Gianlorenzo; di Stefano, Gabriele; Frigioni, Daniele; Navarra, Alfredo; Schachtebeck, Michael; Schöbel, Anita

    In practical optimization problems, disturbances to a given instance are unavoidable due to unpredictable events which can occur when the system is running. In order to face these situations, many approaches have been proposed during the last years in the area of robust optimization. The basic idea of robustness is to provide a solution which is able to keep feasibility even if the input instance is disturbed, at the cost of optimality. However, the notion of robustness in every day life is much broader than that pursued in the area of robust optimization so far. In fact, robustness is not always suitable unless some recovery strategies are introduced. Recovery strategies are some capabilities that can be used when disturbing events occur, in order to keep the feasibility of the pre-computed solution. This suggests to study robustness and recoverability in a unified framework. Recently, a first tentative of unifying the notions of robustness and recoverability into a new integrated notion of recoverable robustness has been done in the context of railway optimization.

  8. Generalized framework for robust design of tuned mass damper systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtat, Arash; Dehghan-Niri, Ehsan

    2011-02-01

    The primary purpose of this contribution is to develop a novel framework for generalized robust design of tuned mass damper (TMD) systems as passive vibration controllers for uncertain structures. This versatile strategy is intended to be free of any restriction on the structure-TMD system configuration, the performance criterion, and the number of uncertain parameters. The main idea pursued is to adopt methods and concepts from the robust control literature, including: (1) the linear fractional transformation (LFT) formulation pertaining to the structured singular value ( μ) framework; (2) the concept of weighted multi-input multi-output (MIMO) norms for characterizing performance; and (3) a worst-case performance assessment method to avoid the unacceptable computation burden involved with exhaustive search or Monte Carlo methods in the presence of multiple uncertainties. Based on these, the robust design framework is organized into four steps: (1) modeling and casting the overall dynamics into the proposed LFT framework that isolates the TMD system as the controller, and the uncertainties as a structured perturbation to the nominal dynamics; (2) setting up the optimization problem based on generalized indices of nominal performance, robustness, and worst-case performance; (3) implementing a genetic algorithm (GA) for solution of the optimization problem; and (4) post-processing the results for systematic visualization, validation, and selection of preferred designs. This strategy has been implemented on several illustrative design examples involving a seismically excited multi-story building with different combinations of assumptions on the uncertainty, TMD configuration, excitation scenarios, and performance criteria. The resulting solution sets have been studied through various post-processing methods, including visualization of Pareto fronts, uncertain frequency response plots, time-domain simulations, and random vibration analysis.

  9. Boolean networks with robust and reliable trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmal, Christoph; Peixoto, Tiago P; Drossel, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    We construct and investigate Boolean networks that follow a given reliable trajectory in state space, which is insensitive to fluctuations in the updating schedule and which is also robust against noise. Robustness is quantified as the probability that the dynamics return to the reliable trajectory after a perturbation of the state of a single node. In order to achieve high robustness, we navigate through the space of possible update functions by using an evolutionary algorithm. We constrain the networks to those having the minimum number of connections required to obtain the reliable trajectory. Surprisingly, we find that robustness always reaches values close to 100% during the evolutionary optimization process. The set of update functions can be evolved such that it differs only slightly from that of networks that were not optimized with respect to robustness. The state space of the optimized networks is dominated by the basin of attraction of the reliable trajectory.

  10. International Conference on Robust Statistics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Ayanendranath; Filzmoser, Peter; Mukherjee, Diganta

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a collection of recent contributions and emerging ideas in the areas of robust statistics presented at the International Conference on Robust Statistics 2015 (ICORS 2015) held in Kolkata during 12–16 January, 2015. The book explores the applicability of robust methods in other non-traditional areas which includes the use of new techniques such as skew and mixture of skew distributions, scaled Bregman divergences, and multilevel functional data methods; application areas being circular data models and prediction of mortality and life expectancy. The contributions are of both theoretical as well as applied in nature. Robust statistics is a relatively young branch of statistical sciences that is rapidly emerging as the bedrock of statistical analysis in the 21st century due to its flexible nature and wide scope. Robust statistics supports the application of parametric and other inference techniques over a broader domain than the strictly interpreted model scenarios employed in classical statis...

  11. How Robust is Your System Resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayounfar, M.; Muneepeerakul, R.

    2017-12-01

    Robustness and resilience are concepts in system thinking that have grown in importance and popularity. For many complex social-ecological systems, however, robustness and resilience are difficult to quantify and the connections and trade-offs between them difficult to study. Most studies have either focused on qualitative approaches to discuss their connections or considered only one of them under particular classes of disturbances. In this study, we present an analytical framework to address the linkage between robustness and resilience more systematically. Our analysis is based on a stylized dynamical model that operationalizes a widely used concept framework for social-ecological systems. The model enables us to rigorously define robustness and resilience and consequently investigate their connections. The results reveal the tradeoffs among performance, robustness, and resilience. They also show how the nature of the such tradeoffs varies with the choices of certain policies (e.g., taxation and investment in public infrastructure), internal stresses and external disturbances.

  12. Construction of energy-stable Galerkin reduced order models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalashnikova, Irina; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf

    2013-05-01

    This report aims to unify several approaches for building stable projection-based reduced order models (ROMs). Attention is focused on linear time-invariant (LTI) systems. The model reduction procedure consists of two steps: the computation of a reduced basis, and the projection of the governing partial differential equations (PDEs) onto this reduced basis. Two kinds of reduced bases are considered: the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) basis and the balanced truncation basis. The projection step of the model reduction can be done in two ways: via continuous projection or via discrete projection. First, an approach for building energy-stable Galerkin ROMs for linear hyperbolic or incompletely parabolic systems of PDEs using continuous projection is proposed. The idea is to apply to the set of PDEs a transformation induced by the Lyapunov function for the system, and to build the ROM in the transformed variables. The resulting ROM will be energy-stable for any choice of reduced basis. It is shown that, for many PDE systems, the desired transformation is induced by a special weighted L2 inner product, termed the %E2%80%9Csymmetry inner product%E2%80%9D. Attention is then turned to building energy-stable ROMs via discrete projection. A discrete counterpart of the continuous symmetry inner product, a weighted L2 inner product termed the %E2%80%9CLyapunov inner product%E2%80%9D, is derived. The weighting matrix that defines the Lyapunov inner product can be computed in a black-box fashion for a stable LTI system arising from the discretization of a system of PDEs in space. It is shown that a ROM constructed via discrete projection using the Lyapunov inner product will be energy-stable for any choice of reduced basis. Connections between the Lyapunov inner product and the inner product induced by the balanced truncation algorithm are made. Comparisons are also made between the symmetry inner product and the Lyapunov inner product. The performance of ROMs constructed

  13. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  14. Monitoring of stable glaucoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Holtzer-Goor (Kim); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T. Plochg; E. van Sprundel (Esther)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA high workload for ophthalmologists and long waiting lists for patients challenge the organization of ophthalmic care. Tasks that require less specialized skills, like the monitoring of stable (well controlled) glaucoma patients could be substituted from ophthalmologists to other

  15. Multi-axial active isolation for seismic protection of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ming

    Structural control technology has been widely accepted as an effective means for the protection of structures against seismic hazards. Passive base isolation is one of the common structural control techniques used to enhance the performance of structures subjected to severe earthquake excitations. Isolation bearings employed at the base of a structure naturally increase its flexibility, but concurrently result in large base displacements. The combination of base isolation with active control, i.e., active base isolation, creates the possibility of achieving a balanced level of control performance, reducing both floor accelerations as well as base displacements. Many theoretical papers have been written by researchers regarding active base isolation, and a few experiments have been performed to verify these theories; however, challenges in appropriately scaling the structural system and modeling the complex nature of control-structure interaction have limited the applicability of these results. Moreover, most experiments only focus on the implementation of active base isolation under unidirectional excitations. Earthquakes are intrinsically multi-dimensional, resulting in out-of-plane responses, including torsional responses. Therefore, an active isolation system for buildings using multi-axial active control devices against multi-directional excitations must be considered. The focus of this dissertation is the development and experimental verification of active isolation strategies for multi-story buildings subjected to bi-directional earthquake loadings. First, a model building is designed to match the characteristics of a representative full-scale structure. The selected isolation bearings feature low friction and high vertical stiffness, providing stable behavior. In the context of the multi-dimensional response control, three, custom-manufactured actuators are employed to mitigate both in-plane and out-of-plane responses. To obtain a high-fidelity model of the

  16. Self-adjusting entropy-stable scheme for compressible Euler equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiao-Han; Nie Yu-Feng; Cai Li; Feng Jian-Hu; Luo Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a self-adjusting entropy-stable scheme is proposed for solving compressible Euler equations. The entropy-stable scheme is constructed by combining the entropy conservative flux with a suitable diffusion operator. The entropy has to be preserved in smooth solutions and be dissipated at shocks. To achieve this, a switch function, which is based on entropy variables, is employed to make the numerical diffusion term be automatically added around discontinuities. The resulting scheme is still entropy-stable. A number of numerical experiments illustrating the robustness and accuracy of the scheme are presented. From these numerical results, we observe a remarkable gain in accuracy. (paper)

  17. Deriving robust and globalized robust solutions of uncertain linear programs having general convex uncertainty sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, B.L.; Blanc, J.P.C.; den Hertog, D.; Ben-Tal, A.

    We propose a new way to derive tractable robust counterparts of a linear program based on the duality between the robust (“pessimistic”) primal problem and its “optimistic” dual. First we obtain a new convex reformulation of the dual problem of a robust linear program, and then show how to construct

  18. Evaluating the Maturity of Cybersecurity Programs for Building Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Somasundaram, Sriram; Mylrea, Michael E.; Underhill, Ronald M.; Nicholls, Andrew K.

    2016-08-29

    The cyber-physical security threat to buildings is complex, non-linear, and rapidly evolving as operational and information technologies converge and connect buildings to cyberspace. Cyberattacks on buildings can exploit smart building controls and breach corporate networks, causing financial and reputational damage. This may result in the loss of sensitive building information or the disruption of, or damage to, the systems necessary for the safe and efficient operation of buildings. For the buildings and facility infrastructure, there is a need for a robust national cybersecurity strategy for buildings, guidance on the selection and implementation of appropriate cybersecurity controls for buildings, an approach to evaluate the maturity and adequacy of the cybersecurity programs. To provide an approach for evaluating the maturity of the cybersecurity programs for building control systems, the US Department of Energy’s widely used Cybersecurity Capability and Maturity Model (C2M2) has been adapted into a building control systems version. The revised model, the Buildings-C2M2 (B-C2M2) provides maturity level indicators for cybersecurity programmatic domains. A “B-C2M2 Lite” version allows facility managers and building control system engineers, or information technology personnel to perform rapid self-assessments of their cybersecurity program. Both tools have been pilot tested on several facilities. This paper outlines the concept of a maturity model, describes the B-C2M2 tools, presents results and observations from the pilot assessments, and lays out plans for future work.

  19. Actuator Saturation and Control Design for Buildings Structural Systems with Improved Uncertainty Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C. Ding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of robustly active vibration control for a class of earthquake-excited structural systems with time-delay and saturation in the control input channel and parameter uncertainties appearing in all the mass, damping and stiffness matrices is concerned in this paper. The objective of the designing controllers is to guarantee the robust stability of the closed-loop system and attenuate the disturbance from earthquake excitation. Firstly, by using the linear combination of some matrices to deal with the system's uncertainties, a new system uncertainties description, namely rank-1 uncertainty description, is presented. Then, by introducing a linear varying parameter, the input saturation model is described as a linear parameter varying model. Furthermore, based on parameter-dependent Lyapunov theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI technique, the LMIs-based conditions for the closed-loop system to be stable are deduced. By solving those conditions, the controller, considering the actuator saturation, input delay and parameters uncertainties, is obtained. Finally, a three-storey linear building structure under earthquake excitation is considered and simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  20. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  1. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...

  2. Robust Multiobjective Controllability of Complex Neuronal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Gao, Huijun; Du, Wei; Lu, Jianquan; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Kurths, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses robust multiobjective identification of driver nodes in the neuronal network of a cat's brain, in which uncertainties in determination of driver nodes and control gains are considered. A framework for robust multiobjective controllability is proposed by introducing interval uncertainties and optimization algorithms. By appropriate definitions of robust multiobjective controllability, a robust nondominated sorting adaptive differential evolution (NSJaDE) is presented by means of the nondominated sorting mechanism and the adaptive differential evolution (JaDE). The simulation experimental results illustrate the satisfactory performance of NSJaDE for robust multiobjective controllability, in comparison with six statistical methods and two multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs): nondominated sorting genetic algorithms II (NSGA-II) and nondominated sorting composite differential evolution. It is revealed that the existence of uncertainties in choosing driver nodes and designing control gains heavily affects the controllability of neuronal networks. We also unveil that driver nodes play a more drastic role than control gains in robust controllability. The developed NSJaDE and obtained results will shed light on the understanding of robustness in controlling realistic complex networks such as transportation networks, power grid networks, biological networks, etc.

  3. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper...

  4. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...

  5. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    component systems that are accessed and integrated in the real world of building use in different contexts. The ICT systems may be physically or virtually embedded in the building. Already in 1982 AT&T established the 'intelligent buildings', IB, concept due to marketing reasons and the Informart building...... with focus on virtual building models support, new services and user environment definitions and development, virtual spaces and augmented reality, intelligent building components, application ontologies, and ICT systems integration to illustrate ICT enhanced buildings potentials and R&D needs.  ...

  6. Shadow Areas Robust Matching Among Image Sequence in Planetary Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoyan, Wei; Xiaogang, Ruan; Naigong, Yu; Xiaoqing, Zhu; Jia, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an approach for robust matching shadow areas in autonomous visual navigation and planetary landing is proposed. The approach begins with detecting shadow areas, which are extracted by Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (MSER). Then, an affine normalization algorithm is applied to normalize the areas. Thirdly, a descriptor called Multiple Angles-SIFT (MA-SIFT) that coming from SIFT is proposed, the descriptor can extract more features of an area. Finally, for eliminating the influence of outliers, a method of improved RANSAC based on Skinner Operation Condition is proposed to extract inliers. At last, series of experiments are conducted to test the performance of the approach this paper proposed, the results show that the approach can maintain the matching accuracy at a high level even the differences among the images are obvious with no attitude measurements supplied.

  7. Towards distortion-free robust image authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltuc, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates a general framework for distortion-free robust image authentication by multiple marking. First, by robust watermarking a subsampled version of image edges is embedded. Then, by reversible watermarking the information needed to recover the original image is inserted, too. The hiding capacity of the reversible watermarking is the essential requirement for this approach. Thus in case of no attacks not only image is authenticated but also the original is exactly recovered. In case of attacks, reversibility is lost, but image can still be authenticated. Preliminary results providing very good robustness against JPEG compression are presented

  8. Robust statistics and geochemical data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Advantages of robust procedures over ordinary least-squares procedures in geochemical data analysis is demonstrated using NURE data from the Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota, USA. Robust principal components analysis with 5% multivariate trimming successfully guarded the analysis against perturbations by outliers and increased the number of interpretable factors. Regression with SINE estimates significantly increased the goodness-of-fit of the regression and improved the correspondence of delineated anomalies with known uranium prospects. Because of the ubiquitous existence of outliers in geochemical data, robust statistical procedures are suggested as routine procedures to replace ordinary least-squares procedures

  9. Danish Requirements for Robustness of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Christensen, H. H.

    2006-01-01

    Increased use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious failure consequences combined with strengthened requirements to efficiency in design and execution as well as increased risk of human errors necessitates requirements for the robustness of new structures, essential....... This paper describes the background of the revised robustness requirements implemented in the Danish Code of Practice for Safety of Structures in 2003 [1, 2, 3]. According to the Danish design rules robustness shall be documented for all structures where consequences of failure are serious. This paper...

  10. Robust Structured Control Design via LMI Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new procedure for discrete-time robust structured control design. Parameter-dependent nonconvex conditions for stabilizable and induced L2-norm performance controllers are solved by an iterative linear matrix inequalities (LMI) optimization. A wide class of controller...... structures including decentralized of any order, fixed-order dynamic output feedback, static output feedback can be designed robust to polytopic uncertainties. Stability is proven by a parameter-dependent Lyapunov function. Numerical examples on robust stability margins shows that the proposed procedure can...

  11. Evolution of robust and efficient system topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netotea, Sergiu; Pongor, Sándor

    2006-12-01

    Mutation/selection algorithms were applied to increase the efficiency and the robustness of sparse random networks. Selection for better efficiency leads to the well-known star topology, while selection for robustness only results in a relatively dense core and a small periphery. Concomitant selection for both efficiency and robustness leads to networks with intermittent center/periphery values. Networks evolving under multiple attack regimes develop distinct topologies with larger cores, and are characterized by parameter distributions different from those developing under single-attack regimes.

  12. Robustness-related issues in speaker recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Thomas Fang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an overview of speaker recognition technologies with an emphasis on dealing with robustness issues. Firstly, the book gives an overview of speaker recognition, such as the basic system framework, categories under different criteria, performance evaluation and its development history. Secondly, with regard to robustness issues, the book presents three categories, including environment-related issues, speaker-related issues and application-oriented issues. For each category, the book describes the current hot topics, existing technologies, and potential research focuses in the future. The book is a useful reference book and self-learning guide for early researchers working in the field of robust speech recognition.

  13. A Survey on Robustness in Railway Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Bull, Simon Henry

    2018-01-01

    Planning problems in passenger railway range from long term strategic decision making to the detailed planning of operations.Operations research methods have played an increasing role in this planning process. However, recently more attention has been given to considerations of robustness...... with a disruption such as delay or failure. This has resulted in more attention given to the inclusion of robustness measures and objectives in individual planning problems, and to the providing of tools to ensure operations continue under disrupted situations. In this paper we survey the literature on robustness...

  14. Robust recognition via information theoretic learning

    CERN Document Server

    He, Ran; Yuan, Xiaotong; Wang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief represents a comprehensive review of information theoretic methods for robust recognition. A variety of information theoretic methods have been proffered in the past decade, in a large variety of computer vision applications; this work brings them together, attempts to impart the theory, optimization and usage of information entropy.The?authors?resort to a new information theoretic concept, correntropy, as a robust measure and apply it to solve robust face recognition and object recognition problems. For computational efficiency,?the brief?introduces the additive and multip

  15. Design Robust Controller for Rotary Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar D. Hernández-Arboleda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a robust controller for a rotary kiln. The designed controller is a combination of a fractional PID and linear quadratic regulator (LQR, these are not used to control the kiln until now, in addition robustness criteria are evaluated (gain margin, phase margin, strength gain, rejecting high frequency noise and sensitivity applied to the entire model (controller-plant, obtaining good results with a frequency range of 0.020 to 90 rad/s, which contributes to the robustness of the system.

  16. Assessment of Process Robustness for Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    robustness and their capability to develop it. Through literature study and analysis of robust process design characteristics a number of metrics are described which can be used for assessment. The metrics are evaluated and analyzed to be applied as KPI’s to help MC companies prioritize efforts in business......In mass customization, the capability Robust Process Design defined as the ability to reuse or recombine existing organizational and value-chain resources is essential to deliver a high variety cost effectively. We argue that there is a need for methods which can assess a company’s process...

  17. Robust Stability and H∞ Stabilization of Switched Systems with Time-Varying Delays Using Delta Operator Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problems of the robust stability and robust H∞ controller design for time-varying delay switched systems using delta operator approach. Based on the average dwell time approach and delta operator theory, a sufficient condition of the robust exponential stability is presented by choosing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional candidate. Then, a state feedback controller is designed such that the resulting closed-loop system is exponentially stable with a guaranteed H∞ performance. The obtained results are formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Finally, a numerical example is provided to explicitly illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  19. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  20. Robust exponential stability and domains of attraction in a class of interval neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaofan; Liao Xiaofeng; Bai Sen; Evans, David J

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses robust exponential stability as well as domains of attraction in a class of interval neural networks. A sufficient condition for an equilibrium point to be exponentially stable is established. And an estimate on the domains of attraction of exponentially stable equilibrium points is presented. Both the condition and the estimate are formulated in terms of the parameter intervals, the neurons' activation functions and the equilibrium point. Hence, they are easily checkable. In addition, our results neither depend on monotonicity of the activation functions nor on coupling conditions between the neurons. Consequently, these results are of practical importance in evaluating the performance of interval associative memory networks

  1. Efficient reanalysis techniques for robust topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Sigmund, Ole; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2012-01-01

    The article focuses on the reduction of the computational effort involved in robust topology optimization procedures. The performance of structures designed by means of topology optimization may be seriously degraded due to fabrication errors. Robust formulations of the optimization problem were...... shown to yield optimized designs that are tolerant with respect to such manufacturing uncertainties. The main drawback of such procedures is the added computational cost associated with the need to evaluate a set of designs by performing multiple finite element analyses. In this article, we propose...... efficient robust topology optimization procedures based on reanalysis techniques. The approach is demonstrated on two compliant mechanism design problems where robust design is achieved by employing either a worst case formulation or a stochastic formulation. It is shown that the time spent on finite...

  2. Robust Tracking Control for a Piezoelectric Actuator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salah, M; McIntyre, M; Dawson, D; Wagner, J

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a hysteresis model-based nonlinear robust controller is developed for a piezoelectric actuator, utilizing a Lyapunov-based stability analysis, which ensures that a desired displacement...

  3. Multifidelity Robust Aeroelastic Design, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nielsen Engineering & Research (NEAR) proposes a new method to generate mathematical models of wind-tunnel models and flight vehicles for robust aeroelastic...

  4. Robust entangled qutrit states in atmospheric turbulence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brunner, T

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The entangled quantum state of a photon pair propagating through atmospheric turbulence suffers decay of entanglement due to the scintillation it experiences. Here we investigate the robustness against this decay for different qutrit states. We use...

  5. Design principles for robust oscillatory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Hair, Sebastian M; Villota, Elizabeth R; Coronado, Alberto M

    2015-09-01

    Oscillatory responses are ubiquitous in regulatory networks of living organisms, a fact that has led to extensive efforts to study and replicate the circuits involved. However, to date, design principles that underlie the robustness of natural oscillators are not completely known. Here we study a three-component enzymatic network model in order to determine the topological requirements for robust oscillation. First, by simulating every possible topological arrangement and varying their parameter values, we demonstrate that robust oscillators can be obtained by augmenting the number of both negative feedback loops and positive autoregulations while maintaining an appropriate balance of positive and negative interactions. We then identify network motifs, whose presence in more complex topologies is a necessary condition for obtaining oscillatory responses. Finally, we pinpoint a series of simple architectural patterns that progressively render more robust oscillators. Together, these findings can help in the design of more reliable synthetic biomolecular networks and may also have implications in the understanding of other oscillatory systems.

  6. Robust resource allocation in future wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Parsaeefard, Saeedeh; Mokari, Nader

    2017-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art research on robust resource allocation in current and future wireless networks. The authors describe the nominal resource allocation problems in wireless networks and explain why introducing robustness in such networks is desirable. Then, depending on the objectives of the problem, namely maximizing the social utility or the per-user utility, cooperative or competitive approaches are explained and their corresponding robust problems are considered in detail. For each approach, the costs and benefits of robust schemes are discussed and the algorithms for reducing their costs and improving their benefits are presented. Considering the fact that such problems are inherently non-convex and intractable, a taxonomy of different relaxation techniques is presented, and applications of such techniques are shown via several examples throughout the book. Finally, the authors argue that resource allocation continues to be an important issue in future wireless networks, and propose spec...

  7. Robust logic gates and realistic quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Li; Jones, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    The composite rotation approach has been used to develop a range of robust quantum logic gates, including single qubit gates and two qubit gates, which are resistant to systematic errors in their implementation. Single qubit gates based on the BB1 family of composite rotations have been experimentally demonstrated in a variety of systems, but little study has been made of their application in extended computations, and there has been no experimental study of the corresponding robust two qubit gates to date. Here we describe an application of robust gates to nuclear magnetic resonance studies of approximate quantum counting. We find that the BB1 family of robust gates is indeed useful, but that the related NB1, PB1, B4, and P4 families of tailored logic gates are less useful than initially expected

  8. Robust control of robots fault tolerant approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Siqueira, Adriano A G; Bergerman, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Bridging the divide between robust control theory and its application, this volume focuses on robotic manipulators and illustrates the mathematical concepts through experimental results in reproducible detail, obtained with a two-manipulator system.

  9. 2D Vector Field Simplification Based on Robustness

    KAUST Repository

    Skraba, Primoz

    2014-03-01

    Vector field simplification aims to reduce the complexity of the flow by removing features in order of their relevance and importance, to reveal prominent behavior and obtain a compact representation for interpretation. Most existing simplification techniques based on the topological skeleton successively remove pairs of critical points connected by separatrices, using distance or area-based relevance measures. These methods rely on the stable extraction of the topological skeleton, which can be difficult due to instability in numerical integration, especially when processing highly rotational flows. These geometric metrics do not consider the flow magnitude, an important physical property of the flow. In this paper, we propose a novel simplification scheme derived from the recently introduced topological notion of robustness, which provides a complementary view on flow structure compared to the traditional topological-skeleton-based approaches. Robustness enables the pruning of sets of critical points according to a quantitative measure of their stability, that is, the minimum amount of vector field perturbation required to remove them. This leads to a hierarchical simplification scheme that encodes flow magnitude in its perturbation metric. Our novel simplification algorithm is based on degree theory, has fewer boundary restrictions, and so can handle more general cases. Finally, we provide an implementation under the piecewise-linear setting and apply it to both synthetic and real-world datasets. © 2014 IEEE.

  10. Pathological Bases for a Robust Application of Cancer Molecular Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador J. Diaz-Cano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Any robust classification system depends on its purpose and must refer to accepted standards, its strength relying on predictive values and a careful consideration of known factors that can affect its reliability. In this context, a molecular classification of human cancer must refer to the current gold standard (histological classification and try to improve it with key prognosticators for metastatic potential, staging and grading. Although organ-specific examples have been published based on proteomics, transcriptomics and genomics evaluations, the most popular approach uses gene expression analysis as a direct correlate of cellular differentiation, which represents the key feature of the histological classification. RNA is a labile molecule that varies significantly according with the preservation protocol, its transcription reflect the adaptation of the tumor cells to the microenvironment, it can be passed through mechanisms of intercellular transference of genetic information (exosomes, and it is exposed to epigenetic modifications. More robust classifications should be based on stable molecules, at the genetic level represented by DNA to improve reliability, and its analysis must deal with the concept of intratumoral heterogeneity, which is at the origin of tumor progression and is the byproduct of the selection process during the clonal expansion and progression of neoplasms. The simultaneous analysis of multiple DNA targets and next generation sequencing offer the best practical approach for an analytical genomic classification of tumors.

  11. Online Hierarchical Sparse Representation of Multifeature for Robust Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghong Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Object tracking based on sparse representation has given promising tracking results in recent years. However, the trackers under the framework of sparse representation always overemphasize the sparse representation and ignore the correlation of visual information. In addition, the sparse coding methods only encode the local region independently and ignore the spatial neighborhood information of the image. In this paper, we propose a robust tracking algorithm. Firstly, multiple complementary features are used to describe the object appearance; the appearance model of the tracked target is modeled by instantaneous and stable appearance features simultaneously. A two-stage sparse-coded method which takes the spatial neighborhood information of the image patch and the computation burden into consideration is used to compute the reconstructed object appearance. Then, the reliability of each tracker is measured by the tracking likelihood function of transient and reconstructed appearance models. Finally, the most reliable tracker is obtained by a well established particle filter framework; the training set and the template library are incrementally updated based on the current tracking results. Experiment results on different challenging video sequences show that the proposed algorithm performs well with superior tracking accuracy and robustness.

  12. Robust adaptive backstepping control for reentry reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Wu, Zhong; Du, Yijiang

    2016-09-01

    During the reentry process of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), the large range of flight envelope will not only result in high nonlinearities, strong coupling and fast time-varying characteristics of the attitude dynamics, but also result in great uncertainties in the atmospheric density, aerodynamic coefficients and environmental disturbances, etc. In order to attenuate the effects of these problems on the control performance of the reentry process, a robust adaptive backstepping control (RABC) strategy is proposed for RLV in this paper. This strategy consists of two-loop controllers designed via backstepping method. Both the outer and the inner loop adopt a robust adaptive controller, which can deal with the disturbances and uncertainties by the variable-structure term with the estimation of their bounds. The outer loop can track the desired attitude by the design of virtual control-the desired angular velocity, while the inner one can track the desired angular velocity by the design of control torque. Theoretical analysis indicates that the closed-loop system under the proposed control strategy is globally asymptotically stable. Even if the boundaries of the disturbances and uncertainties are unknown, the attitude can track the desired value accurately. Simulation results of a certain RLV demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategy.

  13. Robust CDMA multiuser detection using a neural-network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Teong Chee; Sharif, B S; Hinton, O R

    2002-01-01

    Abstract-Recently, a robust version of the linear decorrelating detector (LDD) based on the Huber's M-estimation technique has been proposed. In this paper, we first demonstrate the use of a three-layer recurrent neural network (RNN) to implement the LDD without requiring matrix inversion. The key idea is based on minimizing an appropriate computational energy function iteratively. Second, it will be shown that the M-decorrelating detector (MDD) can be implemented by simply incorporating sigmoidal neurons in the first layer of the RNN. A proof of the redundancy of the matrix inversion process is provided and the computational saving in realistic network is highlighted. Third, we illustrate how further performance gain could be achieved for the subspace-based blind MDD by using robust estimates of the signal subspace components in the initial stage. The impulsive noise is modeled using non-Gaussian alpha-stable distributions, which do not include a Gaussian component but facilitate the use of the recently proposed geometric signal-to-noise ratio (G-SNR). The characteristics and performance of the proposed neural-network detectors are investigated by computer simulation.

  14. Robust Satellite Communications Under Hostile Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    or elimination of required feedback signals, jammer herding, multi-source signalling, and interference alignment . In the case of the replace with...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0079 TR-2016-0079 ROBUST SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS UNDER HOSTILE INTERFERENCE Marc Lichtman and Jeffrey Reed...FA9453-14-1-0222 Robust Satellite Communications Under Hostile Interference 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  15. Three Contributions to Robust Regression Diagnostics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2015), s. 69-78 ISSN 1336-9180 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-01930S; Nadační fond na podporu vědy(CZ) Neuron Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : robust regression * robust econometrics * hypothesis testing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jamsi.2015.11.issue-2/jamsi-2015-0013/jamsi-2015-0013. xml ?format=INT

  16. Framework for Robustness Assessment of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for the design and analysis of robustness of timber structures. This is actualized by a more4 frequent use of advanced types of timber structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in the case of failure. Combined with increased requirements...... are not specified in detail, which makes the practical use difficult. This paper describes a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....

  17. Robust Planning for Effects-Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    hypothesis or options [56]. Recency tends to trump primacy in complex problems. "* Elimination by aspect: When trying to choose among several options...THESIS 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS ROBUST PLANNING FOR EFFECTS BASED OPERATIONS 6. AUTHOR(S) 2D LT BRYANT CORBAN H 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...EG) escribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 DesgJned using Perform Pro, WHS/DIOR, Oct 94 Robust Planning for Effects -Based Operations by Corban Harrell Bryant

  18. Interrogating the topological robustness of gene regulatory circuits by randomization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important roles of cells is performing their cellular tasks properly for survival. Cells usually achieve robust functionality, for example, cell-fate decision-making and signal transduction, through multiple layers of regulation involving many genes. Despite the combinatorial complexity of gene regulation, its quantitative behavior has been typically studied on the basis of experimentally verified core gene regulatory circuitry, composed of a small set of important elements. It is still unclear how such a core circuit operates in the presence of many other regulatory molecules and in a crowded and noisy cellular environment. Here we report a new computational method, named random circuit perturbation (RACIPE, for interrogating the robust dynamical behavior of a gene regulatory circuit even without accurate measurements of circuit kinetic parameters. RACIPE generates an ensemble of random kinetic models corresponding to a fixed circuit topology, and utilizes statistical tools to identify generic properties of the circuit. By applying RACIPE to simple toggle-switch-like motifs, we observed that the stable states of all models converge to experimentally observed gene state clusters even when the parameters are strongly perturbed. RACIPE was further applied to a proposed 22-gene network of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT, from which we identified four experimentally observed gene states, including the states that are associated with two different types of hybrid Epithelial/Mesenchymal phenotypes. Our results suggest that dynamics of a gene circuit is mainly determined by its topology, not by detailed circuit parameters. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for circuit-based systems biology modeling. We anticipate RACIPE to be a powerful tool to predict and decode circuit design principles in an unbiased manner, and to quantitatively evaluate the robustness and heterogeneity of gene expression.

  19. Robust biomimetic-structural superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingjie; Huang, Tao; Lei, Jinglei; He, Jianxin; Qu, Linfeng; Huang, Peiling; Zhou, Wei; Li, Nianbing; Pan, Fusheng

    2015-01-28

    The following facile approach has been developed to prepare a biomimetic-structural superhydrophobic surface with high stabilities and strong resistances on 2024 Al alloy that are robust to harsh environments. First, a simple hydrothermal treatment in a La(NO3)3 aqueous solution was used to fabricate ginkgo-leaf like nanostructures, resulting in a superhydrophilic surface on 2024 Al. Then a low-surface-energy compound, dodecafluoroheptyl-propyl-trimethoxylsilane (Actyflon-G502), was used to modify the superhydrophilic 2024 Al, changing the surface character from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity. The water contact angle (WCA) of such a superhydrophobic surface reaches up to 160°, demonstrating excellent superhydrophobicity. Moreover, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface shows high stabilities in air-storage, chemical and thermal environments, and has strong resistances to UV irradiation, corrosion, and abrasion. The WCAs of such a surface almost remain unchanged (160°) after storage in air for 80 days, exposure in 250 °C atmosphere for 24 h, and being exposed under UV irradiation for 24 h, are more than 144° whether in acidic or alkali medium, and are more than 150° after 48 h corrosion and after abrasion under 0.98 kPa for 1000 mm length. The remarkable durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface can be attributed to its stable structure and composition, which are due to the existence of lanthanum (hydr)oxides in surface layer. The robustness of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface to harsh environments will open their much wider applications. The fabricating approach for such robust superhydrophobic surface can be easily extended to other metals and alloys.

  20. Dynamic robustness of knowledge collaboration network of open source product development community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2018-01-01

    As an emergent innovative design style, open source product development communities are characterized by a self-organizing, mass collaborative, networked structure. The robustness of the community is critical to its performance. Using the complex network modeling method, the knowledge collaboration network of the community is formulated, and the robustness of the network is systematically and dynamically studied. The characteristics of the network along the development period determine that its robustness should be studied from three time stages: the start-up, development and mature stages of the network. Five kinds of user-loss pattern are designed, to assess the network's robustness under different situations in each of these three time stages. Two indexes - the largest connected component and the network efficiency - are used to evaluate the robustness of the community. The proposed approach is applied in an existing open source car design community. The results indicate that the knowledge collaboration networks show different levels of robustness in different stages and different user loss patterns. Such analysis can be applied to provide protection strategies for the key users involved in knowledge dissemination and knowledge contribution at different stages of the network, thereby promoting the sustainable and stable development of the open source community.

  1. H∞ Robust Control of a Large-Piston MEMS Micromirror for Compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huipeng; Li, Mengyuan; Zhang, Yi; Xie, Huikai; Chen, Chang; Peng, Zhangming; Su, Shaohui

    2018-02-08

    Incorporating linear-scanning micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) micromirrors into Fourier transform spectral acquisition systems can greatly reduce the size of the spectrometer equipment, making portable Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) possible. How to minimize the tilting of the MEMS mirror plate during its large linear scan is a major problem in this application. In this work, an FTS system has been constructed based on a biaxial MEMS micromirror with a large-piston displacement of 180 μm, and a biaxial H∞ robust controller is designed. Compared with open-loop control and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) closed-loop control, H∞ robust control has good stability and robustness. The experimental results show that the stable scanning displacement reaches 110.9 μm under the H∞ robust control, and the tilting angle of the MEMS mirror plate in that full scanning range falls within ±0.0014°. Without control, the FTS system cannot generate meaningful spectra. In contrast, the FTS yields a clean spectrum with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) spectral linewidth of 96 cm -1 under the H∞ robust control. Moreover, the FTS system can maintain good stability and robustness under various driving conditions.

  2. Environmental noise, genetic diversity and the evolution of evolvability and robustness in model gene networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Steiner

    Full Text Available The ability of organisms to adapt and persist in the face of environmental change is accepted as a fundamental feature of natural systems. More contentious is whether the capacity of organisms to adapt (or "evolvability" can itself evolve and the mechanisms underlying such responses. Using model gene networks, I provide evidence that evolvability emerges more readily when populations experience positively autocorrelated environmental noise (red noise compared to populations in stable or randomly varying (white noise environments. Evolvability was correlated with increasing genetic robustness to effects on network viability and decreasing robustness to effects on phenotypic expression; populations whose networks displayed greater viability robustness and lower phenotypic robustness produced more additive genetic variation and adapted more rapidly in novel environments. Patterns of selection for robustness varied antagonistically with epistatic effects of mutations on viability and phenotypic expression, suggesting that trade-offs between these properties may constrain their evolutionary responses. Evolution of evolvability and robustness was stronger in sexual populations compared to asexual populations indicating that enhanced genetic variation under fluctuating selection combined with recombination load is a primary driver of the emergence of evolvability. These results provide insight into the mechanisms potentially underlying rapid adaptation as well as the environmental conditions that drive the evolution of genetic interactions.

  3. H∞ Robust Control of a Large-Piston MEMS Micromirror for Compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyuan; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Chang; Peng, Zhangming; Su, Shaohui

    2018-01-01

    Incorporating linear-scanning micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) micromirrors into Fourier transform spectral acquisition systems can greatly reduce the size of the spectrometer equipment, making portable Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) possible. How to minimize the tilting of the MEMS mirror plate during its large linear scan is a major problem in this application. In this work, an FTS system has been constructed based on a biaxial MEMS micromirror with a large-piston displacement of 180 μm, and a biaxial H∞ robust controller is designed. Compared with open-loop control and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) closed-loop control, H∞ robust control has good stability and robustness. The experimental results show that the stable scanning displacement reaches 110.9 μm under the H∞ robust control, and the tilting angle of the MEMS mirror plate in that full scanning range falls within ±0.0014°. Without control, the FTS system cannot generate meaningful spectra. In contrast, the FTS yields a clean spectrum with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) spectral linewidth of 96 cm−1 under the H∞ robust control. Moreover, the FTS system can maintain good stability and robustness under various driving conditions. PMID:29419765

  4. H∞ Robust Control of a Large-Piston MEMS Micromirror for Compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating linear-scanning micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS micromirrors into Fourier transform spectral acquisition systems can greatly reduce the size of the spectrometer equipment, making portable Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS possible. How to minimize the tilting of the MEMS mirror plate during its large linear scan is a major problem in this application. In this work, an FTS system has been constructed based on a biaxial MEMS micromirror with a large-piston displacement of 180 μm, and a biaxial H∞ robust controller is designed. Compared with open-loop control and proportional-integral-derivative (PID closed-loop control, H∞ robust control has good stability and robustness. The experimental results show that the stable scanning displacement reaches 110.9 μm under the H∞ robust control, and the tilting angle of the MEMS mirror plate in that full scanning range falls within ±0.0014°. Without control, the FTS system cannot generate meaningful spectra. In contrast, the FTS yields a clean spectrum with a full width at half maximum (FWHM spectral linewidth of 96 cm−1 under the H∞ robust control. Moreover, the FTS system can maintain good stability and robustness under various driving conditions.

  5. Adaptive Critic Nonlinear Robust Control: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ding; He, Haibo; Liu, Derong

    2017-10-01

    Adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) and reinforcement learning are quite relevant to each other when performing intelligent optimization. They are both regarded as promising methods involving important components of evaluation and improvement, at the background of information technology, such as artificial intelligence, big data, and deep learning. Although great progresses have been achieved and surveyed when addressing nonlinear optimal control problems, the research on robustness of ADP-based control strategies under uncertain environment has not been fully summarized. Hence, this survey reviews the recent main results of adaptive-critic-based robust control design of continuous-time nonlinear systems. The ADP-based nonlinear optimal regulation is reviewed, followed by robust stabilization of nonlinear systems with matched uncertainties, guaranteed cost control design of unmatched plants, and decentralized stabilization of interconnected systems. Additionally, further comprehensive discussions are presented, including event-based robust control design, improvement of the critic learning rule, nonlinear H ∞ control design, and several notes on future perspectives. By applying the ADP-based optimal and robust control methods to a practical power system and an overhead crane plant, two typical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results. Overall, this survey is beneficial to promote the development of adaptive critic control methods with robustness guarantee and the construction of higher level intelligent systems.

  6. HIGHLY ROBUST METHODS IN DATA MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kalina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to highly robust methods for information extraction from data, with a special attention paid to methods suitable for management applications. The sensitivity of availabledata mining methods to the presence of outlying measurements in the observed data is discussed as a major drawback of available data mining methods. The paper proposes several newhighly robustmethods for data mining, which are based on the idea of implicit weighting of individual data values.Particularly it propose a novel robust method of hierarchical cluster analysis, which is a popular data mining method of unsupervised learning. Further, a robust method for estimating parameters in thelogistic regression was proposed. This idea is extended to a robust multinomial logistic classification analysis. Finally, the sensitivity of neural networks to the presence of noise and outlying measurements in the data was discussed. The method for robust training of neural networks for the task of function approximation, which has the form of a robust estimator in nonlinear regression, was proposed.

  7. Robust and Cooperative Image-Based Visual Servoing System Using a Redundant Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Badesa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The reliability and robustness of image-based visual servoing systems is still unsolved by the moment. In order to address this issue, a redundant and cooperative 2D visual servoing system based on the information provided by two cameras in eye-in-hand/eye-to-hand configurations is proposed. Its control law has been defined to assure that the whole system is stable if each subsystem is stable and to allow avoiding typical problems of image-based visual servoing systems like task singularities, features extraction errors, disappearance of image features, local minima, etc. Experimental results with an industrial robot manipulator based on Schunk modular motors to demonstrate the stability, performance and robustness of the proposed system are presented.

  8. Robust and cooperative image-based visual servoing system using a redundant architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Aracil, Nicolas; Perez-Vidal, Carlos; Sabater, Jose Maria; Morales, Ricardo; Badesa, Francisco J

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and robustness of image-based visual servoing systems is still unsolved by the moment. In order to address this issue, a redundant and cooperative 2D visual servoing system based on the information provided by two cameras in eye-in-hand/eye-to-hand configurations is proposed. Its control law has been defined to assure that the whole system is stable if each subsystem is stable and to allow avoiding typical problems of image-based visual servoing systems like task singularities, features extraction errors, disappearance of image features, local minima, etc. Experimental results with an industrial robot manipulator based on Schunk modular motors to demonstrate the stability, performance and robustness of the proposed system are presented.

  9. The Rationality of Four Metrics of Network Robustness: A Viewpoint of Robust Growth of Generalized Meshes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Yang

    Full Text Available There are quite a number of different metrics of network robustness. This paper addresses the rationality of four metrics of network robustness (the algebraic connectivity, the effective resistance, the average edge betweenness, and the efficiency by investigating the robust growth of generalized meshes (GMs. First, a heuristic growth algorithm (the Proximity-Growth algorithm is proposed. The resulting proximity-optimal GMs are intuitively robust and hence are adopted as the benchmark. Then, a generalized mesh (GM is grown up by stepwise optimizing a given measure of network robustness. The following findings are presented: (1 The algebraic connectivity-optimal GMs deviate quickly from the proximity-optimal GMs, yielding a number of less robust GMs. This hints that the rationality of the algebraic connectivity as a measure of network robustness is still in doubt. (2 The effective resistace-optimal GMs and the average edge betweenness-optimal GMs are in line with the proximity-optimal GMs. This partly justifies the two quantities as metrics of network robustness. (3 The efficiency-optimal GMs deviate gradually from the proximity-optimal GMs, yielding some less robust GMs. This suggests the limited utility of the efficiency as a measure of network robustness.

  10. Robust infrared filters for X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, N.A.; Ullom, J.N.; Beall, J.A.; Hilton, G.C.; Deiker, S.; Doriese, W.B.; Irwin, K.D.; Reintsema, C.D.; Vale, L.R.; Xu, Y.

    2004-01-01

    One challenge to using cryogenic detectors for X-ray spectroscopy on a scanning electron microscope is the implementation of infrared blocking filters. In order to achieve high X-ray transmission, these filters can be as thin as 250 nm and consequently are extremely fragile. To avoid breaking the filters, the cryostat must be evacuated slowly and by a trained operator. In this presentation, we describe the filter system currently used at NIST. In addition, we describe recent efforts to build a more robust and easy-to-use filter system. We present initial efforts to strengthen conventional aluminum-parylene filters with micromachined silicon grids that only reduce X-ray transmission by 2%. We also describe an automated pump-out system based on a commercial mass-flow controller

  11. Adaptive and Robust Sliding Mode Position Control of IPMSM Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAKY, M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive and robust sliding mode control (SMC for the position control of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM drives. A switching surface of SMC is designed using a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR technique to simultaneously control the tracking trajectory and load torque changes. The quadratic optimal control method is used to select the state feedback control gain that constitutes the system dynamic performance under uncertainties and disturbances. Feedback and switching gains are selected to satisfy both stability and fast convergence of the IPMSM. Matlab/Simulink is used to build the drive system. Experimental implementation of the IPMSM drive is carried out using DSP-DS1102 control board. The efficacy of the proposed position control method is validated using theoretical analysis and simulation and experimental results.

  12. Reconstructing building mass models from UAV images

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Minglei

    2015-07-26

    We present an automatic reconstruction pipeline for large scale urban scenes from aerial images captured by a camera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle. Using state-of-the-art Structure from Motion and Multi-View Stereo algorithms, we first generate a dense point cloud from the aerial images. Based on the statistical analysis of the footprint grid of the buildings, the point cloud is classified into different categories (i.e., buildings, ground, trees, and others). Roof structures are extracted for each individual building using Markov random field optimization. Then, a contour refinement algorithm based on pivot point detection is utilized to refine the contour of patches. Finally, polygonal mesh models are extracted from the refined contours. Experiments on various scenes as well as comparisons with state-of-the-art reconstruction methods demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  13. Applied building physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hens, Hugo S L C

    2012-01-01

    The energy crises of the 1970s, persisting moisture problems, complaints about sick buildings, thermal, visual and olfactory discomfort, and the move towards more sustainability in building construction have pushed Building Physics to the forefront of building innovation. The societal pressure to diminish energy consumption in buildings without impairing usability acted as a trigger to activate the whole notion of performance based design and construction. As with all engineering sciences, Building Physics is oriented towards application, which is why, after a first book on fundamentals this s

  14. Robust enzyme design: bioinformatic tools for improved protein stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Voevodin, Vladimir; Švedas, Vytas

    2015-03-01

    The ability of proteins and enzymes to maintain a functionally active conformation under adverse environmental conditions is an important feature of biocatalysts, vaccines, and biopharmaceutical proteins. From an evolutionary perspective, robust stability of proteins improves their biological fitness and allows for further optimization. Viewed from an industrial perspective, enzyme stability is crucial for the practical application of enzymes under the required reaction conditions. In this review, we analyze bioinformatic-driven strategies that are used to predict structural changes that can be applied to wild type proteins in order to produce more stable variants. The most commonly employed techniques can be classified into stochastic approaches, empirical or systematic rational design strategies, and design of chimeric proteins. We conclude that bioinformatic analysis can be efficiently used to study large protein superfamilies systematically as well as to predict particular structural changes which increase enzyme stability. Evolution has created a diversity of protein properties that are encoded in genomic sequences and structural data. Bioinformatics has the power to uncover this evolutionary code and provide a reproducible selection of hotspots - key residues to be mutated in order to produce more stable and functionally diverse proteins and enzymes. Further development of systematic bioinformatic procedures is needed to organize and analyze sequences and structures of proteins within large superfamilies and to link them to function, as well as to provide knowledge-based predictions for experimental evaluation. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Cellular Silica Encapsulation for Development of Robust Cell Based Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert; Rogelj, Snezna; Harper, Jason; Tartis, Michaelann

    2014-03-01

    In order to detect chemical and biological threats both on the battlefield and in civilian life, development of portable, robust detection systems capable of real-time identification of the chemical and biological agents are needed. Living cell-based sensors have proven effective as sensitive, specific, near real-time detectors; however, living cell-based sensors require frequent cell replenishment due to cell sensitivity to the ex-vivo environment, which limits sensor stability. Incorporation of living cells within a biocompatible matrix that provides mechanical protection and maintains access to the external environment may facilitate the development of long-term stable cell-based biosensors. We are exploring the use of a novel Chemical Vapor into Liquid (CViL) deposition process for whole cell encapsulation in silica. In CViL, the high vapor pressure of common silica alkoxides is utilized to deliver silica into an aqueous medium, creating a silica sol. Mixing of cells with the resulting silica sol facilitates encapsulation of cells in silica while minimizing cell contact with the cytotoxic products of silica generating reactions. Using fluorescence microscopy analysis with multiple silica specific markers, encapsulation of multiple eukaryotic cell types (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Jurkat, HeLa, and U87 cells) with CViL generated silica is shown, providing a foundation for development of long -term stable cell-based biosensors with diverse sensing capabilities.

  16. A robust multi-model predictive controller for distributed parameter systems

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Miriam R.; Vilas, Carlos; Santos, Lino O.; Alonso, Antonio A.

    2012-01-01

    In this work a robust nonlinear model predictive controller for nonlinear convection–diffusion-reaction systems is presented. The controller makes use of a collection of reduced order approximations of the plant (models) reconstructed on-line by projection methods on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) basis functions. The model selection and model update step is based on a sufficient condition that determines the maximum allowable process-model mismatch to guarantee stable control performa...

  17. Robust Design of H-infinity Controller for a Launch Vehicle Autopilot against Disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Graells, Antonio; Carrabina, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric flight phase of a launch vehicle is utilized to evaluate the performance of an H-infinity controller in the presence of disturbances. Dynamics of the vehicle is linearly modeled using time-varying parameters. An operating point was found to design a robust command tracker using H-infinity control theory that guarantees a stable maneuver. At the end, the controller was employed on the launch vehicle to assess the capability of control design on the linearized aerospace vehicle. Exp...

  18. A Better Banana. IAEA Research Helps Produce Higher-Yielding Robust Variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durczok, Alessia

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 7 billion people live on our planet today and populations continue to grow. Some of us enjoy better nutrition, longer lives and more robust health than our grandparents did a century ago. At the same time, the UN forecasts an increase of mal- or undernourished people, especially in the developing world. More and better food is essential to combat and overcome malnutrition and hunger. Larger and more stable food supplies will need to be developed for food-deficient areas

  19. Decision of Lead-Time Compression and Stable Operation of Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A cost optimization strategy and a robust control strategy were studied to realize the low-cost robust operation of the supply chain with lead times. Firstly, for the multiple production lead times which existed in the supply chain, a corresponding inventory state model and a supply chain cost model were constructed based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control system. Then, by considering the actual inventory level, the lead-time compression cost, and the stock-out cost, a cost optimization strategy was proposed. Furthermore, a fuzzy robust control strategy was proposed to realize the flexible switching among the models. Finally, the simulation results show that the total cost of the supply chain could be reduced effectively by the cost optimization strategy, and the stable operation of the supply chain could be realized by the proposed fuzzy robust control strategy.

  20. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Buildings The worst case approach

    CERN Document Server

    Takewaki, Izuru; Fujita, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Engineers are always interested in the worst-case scenario. One of the most important and challenging missions of structural engineers may be to narrow the range of unexpected incidents in building structural design. Redundancy, robustness and resilience play an important role in such circumstances. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Buildings: The worst case approach discusses the importance of worst-scenario approach for improved earthquake resilience of buildings and nuclear reactor facilities. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Buildings: The worst case approach consists of two parts. The first part deals with the characterization and modeling of worst or critical ground motions on inelastic structures and the related worst-case scenario in the structural design of ordinary simple building structures. The second part of the book focuses on investigating the worst-case scenario for passively controlled and base-isolated buildings. This allows for detailed consideration of a range of topics includin...

  1. Robust Unit Commitment Considering the Temporal and Spatial Correlations of Wind Farms Using a Data-Adaptive Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yipu; Ai, Xiaomeng; Wen, Jinyu

    2018-01-01

    In robust optimization problems, building a proper uncertainty set for the stochastic variables plays an important role. Due to the restricted mathematical formulations of the uncertainty sets, the results derived from conventional two-stage robust optimization are usually over conservative....... In this paper, a novel data-adaptive robust optimization method for the unit commitment is proposed for the power system with wind farms integrated. The extreme scenario extraction and the two stage robust optimization are combined in the proposed method. The data-adaptive set consisting of a few extreme...... scenarios is derived to reduce the conservativeness by considering the temporal and spatial correlations of multiple wind farms. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed data-adaptive robust optimization algorithm is less conservative than the current two-stage optimization approaches while maintains...

  2. Stable dissipative optical vortex clusters by inhomogeneous effective diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huishan; Lai, Shiquan; Qui, Yunli; Zhu, Xing; Xie, Jianing; Mihalache, Dumitru; He, Yingji

    2017-10-30

    We numerically show the generation of robust vortex clusters embedded in a two-dimensional beam propagating in a dissipative medium described by the generic cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with an inhomogeneous effective diffusion term, which is asymmetrical in the two transverse directions and periodically modulated in the longitudinal direction. We show the generation of stable optical vortex clusters for different values of the winding number (topological charge) of the input optical beam. We have found that the number of individual vortex solitons that form the robust vortex cluster is equal to the winding number of the input beam. We have obtained the relationships between the amplitudes and oscillation periods of the inhomogeneous effective diffusion and the cubic gain and diffusion (viscosity) parameters, which depict the regions of existence and stability of vortex clusters. The obtained results offer a method to form robust vortex clusters embedded in two-dimensional optical beams, and we envisage potential applications in the area of structured light.

  3. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  4. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  5. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  6. TsuPy: Computational robustness in Tsunami hazard modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Andreas M.; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2017-05-01

    Modelling wave propagation is the most essential part in assessing the risk and hazard of tsunami and storm surge events. For the computational assessment of the variability of such events, many simulations are necessary. Even today, most of these simulations are generally run on supercomputers due to the large amount of computations necessary. In this study, a simulation framework, named TsuPy, is introduced to quickly compute tsunami events on a personal computer. It uses the parallelized power of GPUs to accelerate computation. The system is tailored to the application of robust tsunami hazard and risk modelling. It links up to geophysical models to simulate event sources. The system is tested and validated using various benchmarks and real-world case studies. In addition, the robustness criterion is assessed based on a sensitivity study comparing the error impact of various model elements e.g. of topo-bathymetric resolution, knowledge of Manning friction parameters and the knowledge of the tsunami source itself. This sensitivity study is tested on inundation modelling of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, showing that the major contributor to model uncertainty is in fact the representation of earthquake slip as part of the tsunami source profile. TsuPy provides a fast and reliable tool to quickly assess ocean hazards from tsunamis and thus builds the foundation for a globally uniform hazard and risk assessment for tsunamis.

  7. A Robust Crowdsourcing-Based Indoor Localization System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Baoding; Li, Qingquan; Mao, Qingzhou; Tu, Wei

    2017-04-14

    WiFi fingerprinting-based indoor localization has been widely used due to its simplicity and can be implemented on the smartphones. The major drawback of WiFi fingerprinting is that the radio map construction is very labor-intensive and time-consuming. Another drawback of WiFi fingerprinting is the Received Signal Strength (RSS) variance problem, caused by environmental changes and device diversity. RSS variance severely degrades the localization accuracy. In this paper, we propose a robust crowdsourcing-based indoor localization system (RCILS). RCILS can automatically construct the radio map using crowdsourcing data collected by smartphones. RCILS abstracts the indoor map as the semantics graph in which the edges are the possible user paths and the vertexes are the location where users may take special activities. RCILS extracts the activity sequence contained in the trajectories by activity detection and pedestrian dead-reckoning. Based on the semantics graph and activity sequence, crowdsourcing trajectories can be located and a radio map is constructed based on the localization results. For the RSS variance problem, RCILS uses the trajectory fingerprint model for indoor localization. During online localization, RCILS obtains an RSS sequence and realizes localization by matching the RSS sequence with the radio map. To evaluate RCILS, we apply RCILS in an office building. Experiment results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of RCILS.

  8. Improving Shadow Suppression for Illumination Robust Face Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wuming

    2017-10-13

    2D face analysis techniques, such as face landmarking, face recognition and face verification, are reasonably dependent on illumination conditions which are usually uncontrolled and unpredictable in the real world. An illumination robust preprocessing method thus remains a significant challenge in reliable face analysis. In this paper we propose a novel approach for improving lighting normalization through building the underlying reflectance model which characterizes interactions between skin surface, lighting source and camera sensor, and elaborates the formation of face color appearance. Specifically, the proposed illumination processing pipeline enables the generation of Chromaticity Intrinsic Image (CII) in a log chromaticity space which is robust to illumination variations. Moreover, as an advantage over most prevailing methods, a photo-realistic color face image is subsequently reconstructed which eliminates a wide variety of shadows whilst retaining the color information and identity details. Experimental results under different scenarios and using various face databases show the effectiveness of the proposed approach to deal with lighting variations, including both soft and hard shadows, in face recognition.

  9. Robust dynamic output feedback control for switched polytopic systems under asynchronous switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tingting

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The robust controller design problem for switched polytopic systems under asynchronous switching is addressed. These systems exist in many aviation applications, such as dynamical systems involving rapid variations. A switched polytopic system is established to describe the highly maneuverable technology vehicle within the full flight envelope and a robust dynamic output feedback control method is designed for the switched polytopic system. Combining the Lyapunov-like function method and the average dwell time method, a sufficient condition is derived for the switched polytopic system with asynchronous switching and data dropout to be globally, uniformly and asymptotically stable in terms of linear matrix inequality. The robust dynamic output feedback controller is then applied to the highly maneuverable technology vehicle to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The simulation results show that the angle of attack tracking performance is acceptable over the time history and the control surface responses are all satisfying along the full flight trajectory.

  10. Robust Adaptive Control of a Free-Floating Space Robot System in Cartesian Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhai Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel, robust, adaptive trajectory-tracking control scheme for the free-floating space robot system in Cartesian space. The dynamic equation of the free-floating space robot system in Cartesian space is derived from the augmented variable method. The proposed basic robust adaptive controller is able to deal with parametric and non-parametric uncertainties simultaneously. Another advantage of the control scheme is that the known and unknown external disturbance bounds can be considered using a modification of the parameter-estimation law. In addition, three cases are certified to achieve robustness for both parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. The simulation results show that the control scheme can ensure stable tracking of the desired trajectory of the end-effector.

  11. Network robustness assessed within a dual connectivity framework: joint dynamics of the Active and Idle Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Zaliapin, Ilya; Ambroj, Samuel; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-08-17

    Network robustness against attacks has been widely studied in fields as diverse as the Internet, power grids and human societies. But current definition of robustness is only accounting for half of the story: the connectivity of the nodes unaffected by the attack. Here we propose a new framework to assess network robustness, wherein the connectivity of the affected nodes is also taken into consideration, acknowledging that it plays a crucial role in properly evaluating the overall network robustness in terms of its future recovery from the attack. Specifically, we propose a dual perspective approach wherein at any instant in the network evolution under attack, two distinct networks are defined: (i) the Active Network (AN) composed of the unaffected nodes and (ii) the Idle Network (IN) composed of the affected nodes. The proposed robustness metric considers both the efficiency of destroying the AN and that of building-up the IN. We show, via analysis of well-known prototype networks and real world data, that trade-offs between the efficiency of Active and Idle Network dynamics give rise to surprising robustness crossovers and re-rankings, which can have significant implications for decision making.

  12. Ground state robustness as an evolutionary design principle in signaling networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Kartal

    Full Text Available The ability of an organism to survive depends on its capability to adapt to external conditions. In addition to metabolic versatility and efficient replication, reliable signal transduction is essential. As signaling systems are under permanent evolutionary pressure one may assume that their structure reflects certain functional properties. However, despite promising theoretical studies in recent years, the selective forces which shape signaling network topologies in general remain unclear. Here, we propose prevention of autoactivation as one possible evolutionary design principle. A generic framework for continuous kinetic models is used to derive topological implications of demanding a dynamically stable ground state in signaling systems. To this end graph theoretical methods are applied. The index of the underlying digraph is shown to be a key topological property which determines the so-called kinetic ground state (or off-state robustness. The kinetic robustness depends solely on the composition of the subdigraph with the strongly connected components, which comprise all positive feedbacks in the network. The component with the highest index in the feedback family is shown to dominate the kinetic robustness of the whole network, whereas relative size and girth of these motifs are emphasized as important determinants of the component index. Moreover, depending on topological features, the maintenance of robustness differs when networks are faced with structural perturbations. This structural off-state robustness, defined as the average kinetic robustness of a network's neighborhood, turns out to be useful since some structural features are neutral towards kinetic robustness, but show up to be supporting against structural perturbations. Among these are a low connectivity, a high divergence and a low path sum. All results are tested against real signaling networks obtained from databases. The analysis suggests that ground state robustness may

  13. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically

  14. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  15. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  16. Introduction: Green Building Handbook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By recognising the specific environmental challenges facing South Africa, mindful of the government‘s commitment to reducing South Africa‘s Greenhouse gas emissions, and acknowledging the need to build social cohesion, the Green Building Handbook...

  17. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  18. Building the Korogwe Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Richard, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania.......An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania....

  19. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  20. Building Blueprints: Making Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Depicts how Cornell University renovated its civil engineering and architecture building to include space for musical performances, teaching, and rehearsals. The article highlights the facility's contemporary design, which also compliments the form and massing of the original building. (GR)

  1. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-11-01

    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  2. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...

  3. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    , and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... for the possibilities of a sustainable building design: orientation and access to infrastructure are important factor. And the building design is decisive in making the city truly compact: dense in activities. In future, the interaction between the technical infrastructure, the buildings and their users will become......The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark...

  4. State Capitol Buildings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This shapefile will display the locations of the fifty state capitol buildings as well as the territorial capitol buildings for the US Virgin Islands, Guam, Northern...

  5. Energy performance in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'O, Giuliano; Galante, Annalisa; Pitera, Luca

    2006-01-01

    The adoption of the building sector regulations strongly oriented to the energy sustainability becomes more effective, also on the economic plan, if placed by one spread of the energetic certification of the buildings [it

  6. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    2004-01-01

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  7. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  8. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    for the possibilities of a sustainable building design: orientation and access to infrastructure are important factor. And the building design is decisive in making the city truly compact: dense in activities. In future, the interaction between the technical infrastructure, the buildings and their users will become......The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...

  9. The comparison of robust partial least squares regression with robust principal component regression on a real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Esra; Gunay, Suleyman

    2013-10-01

    One of the problems encountered in Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) is multicollinearity, which causes the overestimation of the regression parameters and increase of the variance of these parameters. Hence, in case of multicollinearity presents, biased estimation procedures such as classical Principal Component Regression (CPCR) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) are then performed. SIMPLS algorithm is the leading PLSR algorithm because of its speed, efficiency and results are easier to interpret. However, both of the CPCR and SIMPLS yield very unreliable results when the data set contains outlying observations. Therefore, Hubert and Vanden Branden (2003) have been presented a robust PCR (RPCR) method and a robust PLSR (RPLSR) method called RSIMPLS. In RPCR, firstly, a robust Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method for high-dimensional data on the independent variables is applied, then, the dependent variables are regressed on the scores using a robust regression method. RSIMPLS has been constructed from a robust covariance matrix for high-dimensional data and robust linear regression. The purpose of this study is to show the usage of RPCR and RSIMPLS methods on an econometric data set, hence, making a comparison of two methods on an inflation model of Turkey. The considered methods have been compared in terms of predictive ability and goodness of fit by using a robust Root Mean Squared Error of Cross-validation (R-RMSECV), a robust R2 value and Robust Component Selection (RCS) statistic.

  10. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  11. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  12. A Unifying Mathematical Framework for Genetic Robustness, Environmental Robustness, Network Robustness and their Trade-off on Phenotype Robustness in Biological Networks Part I: Gene Regulatory Networks in Systems and Evolutionary Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Lin, Ying-Po

    2013-01-01

    Robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are ubiquitous systematic properties observed in biological systems at different levels. The underlying principles for robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are universal to both complex biological systems and sophisticated engineering systems. In many biological networks, network robustness should be enough to confer intrinsic robustness in order to tolerate intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic robustness for buffering genetic variations, and environmental robustness for resisting environmental disturbances. With this, the phenotypic stability of biological network can be maintained, thus guaranteeing phenotype robustness. This paper presents a survey on biological systems and then develops a unifying mathematical framework for investigating the principles of both robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation in systems and evolutionary biology. Further, from the unifying mathematical framework, it was discovered that the phenotype robustness criterion for biological networks at different levels relies upon intrinsic robustness + genetic robustness + environmental robustness ≦ network robustness. When this is true, the phenotype robustness can be maintained in spite of intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental disturbances. Therefore, the trade-offs between intrinsic robustness, genetic robustness, environmental robustness, and network robustness in systems and evolutionary biology can also be investigated through their corresponding phenotype robustness criterion from the systematic point of view.

  13. Information theory perspective on network robustness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, Tiago A. [Departmento de Engenharia de Produção, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Carpi, Laura [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, Terrassa, 08222, Barcelona (Spain); Frery, Alejandro C. [Laboratório de Computação Científica e Análise Numérica (LaCCAN), Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); Rosso, Osvaldo A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires (ITBA), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pardalos, Panos M. [Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ravetti, Martín G., E-mail: martin.ravetti@dep.ufmg.br [Departmento de Engenharia de Produção, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Departament de Física Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-28

    A crucial challenge in network theory is the study of the robustness of a network when facing a sequence of failures. In this work, we propose a dynamical definition of network robustness based on Information Theory, that considers measurements of the structural changes caused by failures of the network's components. Failures are defined here as a temporal process defined in a sequence. Robustness is then evaluated by measuring dissimilarities between topologies after each time step of the sequence, providing a dynamical information about the topological damage. We thoroughly analyze the efficiency of the method in capturing small perturbations by considering different probability distributions on networks. In particular, we find that distributions based on distances are more consistent in capturing network structural deviations, as better reflect the consequences of the failures. Theoretical examples and real networks are used to study the performance of this methodology. - Highlights: • A novel methodology to measure the robustness of a network to component failure or targeted attacks is proposed. • The use of the network's distance PDF allows a precise analysis. • The method provides a dynamic robustness profile showing the response of the topology to each failure event. • The measure is capable to detect network's critical elements.

  14. Non-Hermitian bidirectional robust transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Transport of quantum or classical waves in open systems is known to be strongly affected by non-Hermitian terms that arise from an effective description of system-environment interaction. A simple and paradigmatic example of non-Hermitian transport, originally introduced by Hatano and Nelson two decades ago [N. Hatano and D. R. Nelson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 570 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.570], is the hopping dynamics of a quantum particle on a one-dimensional tight-binding lattice in the presence of an imaginary vectorial potential. The imaginary gauge field can prevent Anderson localization via non-Hermitian delocalization, opening up a mobility region and realizing robust transport immune to disorder and backscattering. Like for robust transport of topologically protected edge states in quantum Hall and topological insulator systems, non-Hermitian robust transport in the Hatano-Nelson model is unidirectional. However, there is not any physical impediment to observe robust bidirectional non-Hermitian transport. Here it is shown that in a quasi-one-dimensional zigzag lattice, with non-Hermitian (imaginary) hopping amplitudes and a synthetic gauge field, robust transport immune to backscattering can occur bidirectionally along the lattice.

  15. Information theory perspective on network robustness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, Tiago A.; Carpi, Laura; Frery, Alejandro C.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.; Pardalos, Panos M.; Ravetti, Martín G.

    2016-01-01

    A crucial challenge in network theory is the study of the robustness of a network when facing a sequence of failures. In this work, we propose a dynamical definition of network robustness based on Information Theory, that considers measurements of the structural changes caused by failures of the network's components. Failures are defined here as a temporal process defined in a sequence. Robustness is then evaluated by measuring dissimilarities between topologies after each time step of the sequence, providing a dynamical information about the topological damage. We thoroughly analyze the efficiency of the method in capturing small perturbations by considering different probability distributions on networks. In particular, we find that distributions based on distances are more consistent in capturing network structural deviations, as better reflect the consequences of the failures. Theoretical examples and real networks are used to study the performance of this methodology. - Highlights: • A novel methodology to measure the robustness of a network to component failure or targeted attacks is proposed. • The use of the network's distance PDF allows a precise analysis. • The method provides a dynamic robustness profile showing the response of the topology to each failure event. • The measure is capable to detect network's critical elements.

  16. Emergence of robustness in networks of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Kevin; Morone, Flaviano; Min, Byungjoon; Makse, Hernán A.

    2017-06-01

    A model of interdependent networks of networks (NONs) was introduced recently [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 114, 3849 (2017), 10.1073/pnas.1620808114] in the context of brain activation to identify the neural collective influencers in the brain NON. Here we investigate the emergence of robustness in such a model, and we develop an approach to derive an exact expression for the random percolation transition in Erdös-Rényi NONs of this kind. Analytical calculations are in agreement with numerical simulations, and highlight the robustness of the NON against random node failures, which thus presents a new robust universality class of NONs. The key aspect of this robust NON model is that a node can be activated even if it does not belong to the giant mutually connected component, thus allowing the NON to be built from below the percolation threshold, which is not possible in previous models of interdependent networks. Interestingly, the phase diagram of the model unveils particular patterns of interconnectivity for which the NON is most vulnerable, thereby marking the boundary above which the robustness of the system improves with increasing dependency connections.

  17. Robustness analysis of chiller sequencing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yundan; Sun, Yongjun; Huang, Gongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertainties with chiller sequencing control were systematically quantified. • Robustness of chiller sequencing control was systematically analyzed. • Different sequencing control strategies were sensitive to different uncertainties. • A numerical method was developed for easy selection of chiller sequencing control. - Abstract: Multiple-chiller plant is commonly employed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system to increase operational feasibility and energy-efficiency under part load condition. In a multiple-chiller plant, chiller sequencing control plays a key role in achieving overall energy efficiency while not sacrifices the cooling sufficiency for indoor thermal comfort. Various sequencing control strategies have been developed and implemented in practice. Based on the observation that (i) uncertainty, which cannot be avoided in chiller sequencing control, has a significant impact on the control performance and may cause the control fail to achieve the expected control and/or energy performance; and (ii) in current literature few studies have systematically addressed this issue, this paper therefore presents a study on robustness analysis of chiller sequencing control in order to understand the robustness of various chiller sequencing control strategies under different types of uncertainty. Based on the robustness analysis, a simple and applicable method is developed to select the most robust control strategy for a given chiller plant in the presence of uncertainties, which will be verified using case studies

  18. Primal and dual approaches to adjustable robust optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, Frans

    2018-01-01

    Robust optimization has become an important paradigm to deal with optimization under uncertainty. Adjustable robust optimization is an extension that deals with multistage problems. This thesis starts with a short but comprehensive introduction to adjustable robust optimization. Then the two

  19. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  20. Management Of Building Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Niko Majdandzic; Tadija Lovric; Vido Peric

    2006-01-01

    In this work we have shown the concept of logistic support in management in building production and in building of objects, which is realised in Enterprise resource Planning – ERP system ERPINSG, developed in Informatic firm Informatic engineering – ININ in Slavonski Brod, and in cooperation with scientists of catedra for informatics of Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and users from building firms.

  1. Dutch Building Decree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    On the 1 October 1992 a change in the Dutch building legislation took effect: the revised Housing Act, the Building Decree and the technical documents related to this legislation came into force. This publication contains an English translation of the Building Decree. In order to give an idea of the

  2. Library Buildings and Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oringdulph, Robert E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Six articles discuss library buildings and construction: (1) library buildings and their parts; (2) the North Campus Library of California State University at Long Beach in 1995; (3) new structures for teaching libraries; (4) construction standards for California public libraries; (5) Sick (Library) Building Syndrome; and (6) using focus-group…

  3. Concepts in Building Firesafety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, M. David

    The goal of this book is to present in a graphical format the principles of design for building firesafety. The book's more than 270 illustrations represent the core of its coverage of factors affecting fire ignition and spread in buildings, building site planning for fire suppression and occupant rescue operations, protection by building…

  4. Building founding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Seiya; Hirako, Shizuka.

    1996-01-01

    The lower portion of a reactor building is buried at a level of a base rock. In the step of building construction, the base rock around the building is dug of keeping a construction space. The base rock present between the digging line and the building is replaced with an artificial base rock comprising aggregates and cement having a building constraining force substantially equal with that of the lower supporting base rock to obtain constraining force for the side portion of the building. The building itself is made of concrete steels. As the material for replacing the base rock between the digging line and the building, non-reinforced concrete having no steels may provide sufficient function. The burying depth is determined so as to align the surface of the base rock with the level of the base floor of the building. With such procedures, since it is not necessary to increase the area of the lower portion of the building, the amount of the materials for the building can be reduced. In addition, the earthquakes stability can be ensured without changing the shape of the building. (I.N.)

  5. Audit, Control and Monitoring Design Patterns (ACMDP for Autonomous Robust Systems (ARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Trad

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the Audit, Control and Monitoring Design Patterns (ACMDP for building Autonomous and Robust Systems (ARS such as Mobile Robot Systems (MRS. These patterns are also applicable to other Mission Critical and Complex Systems (MCCS. This paper presents a proposal which will help ARS project managers and engineers design, build and estimate the probability that an ARS will succeed or fail. Furthermore, this proposal offers the possibility to ARS problems with the help of audit, monitoring and controlling components, adjust the project management pathways, and define the problem sources as well as their possible solutions, in order to deliver an ARS or an MRS.

  6. Audit, Control and Monitoring Design Patterns (ACMDP for Autonomous Robust Systems (ARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Trad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the Audit, Control and Monitoring Design Patterns (ACMDP for building Autonomous and Robust Systems (ARS such as Mobile Robot Systems (MRS. These patterns are also applicable to other Mission Critical and Complex Systems (MCCS. This paper presents a proposal which will help ARS project managers and engineers design, build and estimate the probability that an ARS will succeed or fail. Furthermore, this proposal offers the possibility to ARS problems with the help of audit, monitoring and controlling components, adjust the project management pathways, and define the problem sources as well as their possible solutions, in order to deliver an ARS or an MRS.

  7. Robust membrane systems for actinide separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Bluhm, Elizabeth A.; Abney, Kent D.; Ehler, Deborah S.; Bauer, Eve; Le, Quyen T.; Young, Jennifer S.; Ford, Doris K.; Pesiri, David R.; Dye, Robert C.; Robison, Thomas W.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Redondo, Antonio; Pratt, Lawrence R.; Rempe, Susan L.

    2000-01-01

    Our objective in this project is to develop very stable thin membrane structures containing ionic recognition sites that facilitate the selective transport of target metal ions, especially the actinides

  8. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  9. Creating a robust public health infrastructure for physical activity promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Antronette K; Fielding, Jonathan E; Flores, George R; Sallis, James F; McCarthy, William J; Breslow, Lester

    2007-01-01

    The essential role of physical activity both as an independent protective factor against numerous common chronic diseases and as a means to maintain a healthy weight is gaining increasing scientific recognition. Although the science of physical activity promotion is advancing rapidly, the practice of promoting physical activity at a population level is in its infancy. The virtual absence of a public health practice infrastructure for the promotion of physical activity at the local level presents a critical challenge to control policy for chronic disease, and particularly obesity. To translate the increasing evidence of the value of physical activity into practice will require systemic, multilevel, and multisectoral intervention approaches that build individual capability and organizational capacity for behavior change, create new social norms, and promote policy and environmental changes that support higher levels of energy expenditure across the population. This paper highlights societal changes contributing to inactivity; describes the evolution and current status of population-based public health physical activity promotion efforts in research and practice settings; suggests strategies for engaging decision makers, stakeholders, and the general public in building the necessary infrastructure to effectively promote physical activity; and identifies specific recommendations to spur the creation of a robust public health infrastructure for physical activity.

  10. Danish building typologies and building stock analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    energy savings in residential buildings. The intension with this analysis was to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach had been taken for the entire Danish building stock. The report concludes that the ZeroHome initiative clearly results in energy savings, but far from......This report provides a summary of the national input from Denmark to the EPISCOPE project supported by Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the EU. The strategic objective of EPISCOPE was to make the energy refurbishment processes in the European housing sector more transparent and effective...... enough to meet the government’s plan to make Danish buildings free from use of fossil fuels by 2035. This will probably require around 50 % energy savings in the Danish building stock as a whole. However, the project has proven that dedicated engagement of locals can speed up market penetration...

  11. Robust control systems theory and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Mackenroth, Uwe

    2004-01-01

    "Robust Control Systems" gives a self-contained introduction to modern Control Theory. It thus adds a textbook to the existing research-oriented literature on Robust Control. The author lays emphasis on the modern aspects of the design of controllers with prescribed performance and robustness properties. Different to the classical engineering approach, a rigorous mathematical treatment is essential for the full understanding and applicability of the modern methods such as H2 or H8 control or methods based on the structured singular value µ. Nevertheless, no prior knowledge of Control Theory is required as the classical fundamentals are introduced within the first few chapters. Subsequently a large part of the text provides elementary examples and industrial case studies, which are developed in full detail to show how modern methods can be applied to advanced problems. They make intensive use of MATLAB, especially the Control Systems Toolbox and the µ-Analysis and Synthesis Toolbox.

  12. Robust Portfolio Optimization using CAPM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohsen gharakhani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new robust model of multi-period portfolio problem has been developed. One of the key concerns in any asset allocation problem is how to cope with uncertainty about future returns. There are some approaches in the literature for this purpose including stochastic programming and robust optimization. Applying these techniques to multi-period portfolio problem may increase the problem size in a way that the resulting model is intractable. In this paper, a novel approach has been proposed to formulate multi-period portfolio problem as an uncertain linear program assuming that asset return follows the single-index factor model. Robust optimization technique has been also used to solve the problem. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed model, a numerical example has been applied using simulated data.

  13. Clustering Incomplete Spectral Data with Robust Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äyrämö, S.; Pölönen, I.; Eskelinen, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Missing value imputation is a common approach for preprocessing incomplete data sets. In case of data clustering, imputation methods may cause unexpected bias because they may change the underlying structure of the data. In order to avoid prior imputation of missing values the computational operations must be projected on the available data values. In this paper, we apply a robust nan-K-spatmed algorithm to the clustering problem on hyperspectral image data. Robust statistics, such as multivariate medians, are more insensitive to outliers than classical statistics relying on the Gaussian assumptions. They are, however, computationally more intractable due to the lack of closed-form solutions. We will compare robust clustering methods on the bands incomplete data cubes to standard K-means with full data cubes.

  14. Blebbishields and mitotic cells exhibit robust macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinesh, Goodwin G; Kamat, Ashish M

    2017-03-01

    Cancer stem cells can survive and undergo transformation after apoptosis by initiating robust endocytosis. Endocytosis in-turn drives formation of serpentine filopodia, which promote construction of blebbishields from apoptotic bodies. However, the status and role of macropinocytosis in blebbishields is not known. Here, we show by scanning electron microscopy and by macropinocytosis assays that blebbishields exhibit robust macropinocytosis. Inhibiting dynamin-mediated endocytosis does not affect macropinocytosis in blebbishields or in mitotic cells. In addition, inhibiting macropinocytosis did not inhibit construction of blebbishields from apoptotic bodies. Thus, although apoptotic cancer stem cells exhibit robust macropinocytosis, macropinocytosis is not essential to generate blebbishields, although it may play other roles in blebbishield biology. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(2):181-186, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. Robust optimization in electromagnetic scattering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsimas, Dimitris; Nohadani, Omid; Teo, Kwong Meng

    2007-04-01

    In engineering design, the physical properties of a system can often only be described by numerical simulation. Optimization of such systems is usually accomplished heuristically without taking into account that there are implementation errors that lead to very suboptimal, and often, infeasible solutions. We present a robust optimization method for electromagnetic scattering problems with large degrees of freedom and report on results when this technique is applied to optimization of aperiodic dielectric structures. The spatial configuration of 50 dielectric scattering cylinders is optimized to match a desired target function such that the optimal arrangement is robust against placement and prototype errors. Our optimization method inherently improves the robustness of the optimized solution with respect to relevant errors and is suitable for real-world design of materials with unconventional electromagnetic functionalities, as relevant to nanophotonics.

  16. Robust Optimization of Aperiodic Photonic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohadani, Omid; Meng Teo, Kwong; Bertsimas, Dimitris

    2007-03-01

    In engineering design, the physical properties of a system can often only be described by numerical simulation. Optimization of such systems is usually accomplished heuristically without taking into account that there are implementation errors that lead to very suboptimal, and often, infeasible solutions. We present a novel robust optimization method for electromagnetic scattering problems with large degrees of freedom, and report on results when this technique is applied to optimization of aperiodic dielectric structures. The spatial configuration of 50 dielectric scattering cylinders is optimized to match a desired target function such that the optimal arrangement is robust against placement and prototype errors. Our optimization method inherently improves the robustness of the optimized solution with respect to relevant errors and is suitable for real-world design of materials with novel electromagnetic functionalities.

  17. Robust fuzzy logic stabilization with disturbance elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A

    2014-01-01

    A robust fuzzy logic controller is proposed for stabilization and disturbance rejection in nonlinear control systems of a particular type. The dynamic feedback controller is designed as a combination of a control law that compensates for nonlinear terms in a control system and a dynamic fuzzy logic controller that addresses unknown model uncertainties and an unmeasured disturbance. Since it is challenging to derive a highly accurate mathematical model, the proposed controller requires only nominal functions of a control system. In this paper, a mathematical derivation is carried out to prove that the controller is able to achieve asymptotic stability by processing state measurements. Robustness here refers to the ability of the controller to asymptotically steer the state vector towards the origin in the presence of model uncertainties and a disturbance input. Simulation results of the robust fuzzy logic controller application in a magnetic levitation system demonstrate the feasibility of the control design.

  18. Robust estimation procedure in panel data model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariff, Nurul Sima Mohamad [Faculty of Science of Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), 71800, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Hamzah, Nor Aishah [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Malaya, 50630, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    The panel data modeling has received a great attention in econometric research recently. This is due to the availability of data sources and the interest to study cross sections of individuals observed over time. However, the problems may arise in modeling the panel in the presence of cross sectional dependence and outliers. Even though there are few methods that take into consideration the presence of cross sectional dependence in the panel, the methods may provide inconsistent parameter estimates and inferences when outliers occur in the panel. As such, an alternative method that is robust to outliers and cross sectional dependence is introduced in this paper. The properties and construction of the confidence interval for the parameter estimates are also considered in this paper. The robustness of the procedure is investigated and comparisons are made to the existing method via simulation studies. Our results have shown that robust approach is able to produce an accurate and reliable parameter estimates under the condition considered.

  19. Robust Mediation Analysis Based on Median Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis has many applications in psychology and the social sciences. The most prevalent methods typically assume that the error distribution is normal and homoscedastic. However, this assumption may rarely be met in practice, which can affect the validity of the mediation analysis. To address this problem, we propose robust mediation analysis based on median regression. Our approach is robust to various departures from the assumption of homoscedasticity and normality, including heavy-tailed, skewed, contaminated, and heteroscedastic distributions. Simulation studies show that under these circumstances, the proposed method is more efficient and powerful than standard mediation analysis. We further extend the proposed robust method to multilevel mediation analysis, and demonstrate through simulation studies that the new approach outperforms the standard multilevel mediation analysis. We illustrate the proposed method using data from a program designed to increase reemployment and enhance mental health of job seekers. PMID:24079925

  20. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidi Madjid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  1. Robust C-Loss Kernel Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guibiao; Hu, Bao-Gang; Principe, Jose C

    2018-03-01

    The correntropy-induced loss (C-loss) function has the nice property of being robust to outliers. In this paper, we study the C-loss kernel classifier with the Tikhonov regularization term, which is used to avoid overfitting. After using the half-quadratic optimization algorithm, which converges much faster than the gradient optimization algorithm, we find out that the resulting C-loss kernel classifier is equivalent to an iterative weighted least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). This relationship helps explain the robustness of iterative weighted LS-SVM from the correntropy and density estimation perspectives. On the large-scale data sets which have low-rank Gram matrices, we suggest to use incomplete Cholesky decomposition to speed up the training process. Moreover, we use the representer theorem to improve the sparseness of the resulting C-loss kernel classifier. Experimental results confirm that our methods are more robust to outliers than the existing common classifiers.

  2. Integration of Stable Droplet Formation on a CD Microfluidic Device for Extreme Point of Care Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Shruthi Vatsyayani

    With the advent of microfluidic technologies for molecular diagnostics, a lot of emphasis has been placed on developing diagnostic tools for resource poor regions in the form of Extreme Point of Care devices. To ensure commercial viability of such a device there is a need to develop an accurate sample to answer system, which is robust, portable, isolated yet highly sensitive and cost effective. This need has been a driving force for research involving integration of different microsystems like droplet microfluidics, Compact-disc (CD)microfluidics along with sample preparation and detection modules on a single platform. This work attempts to develop a proof of concept prototype of one such device using existing CD microfluidics tools to generate stable droplets used in point of care diagnostics (POC diagnostics). Apart from using a fairly newer technique for droplet generation and stabilization, the work aims to develop this method focused towards diagnostics for rural healthcare. The motivation for this work is first described with an emphasis on the current need for diagnostic testing in rural health-care and the general guidelines prescribed by WHO for such a sample to answer system. Furthermore, a background on CD and droplet microfluidics is presented to understand the merits and de-merits of each system and the need for integrating the two. This phase of the thesis also includes different methods employed/demonstrated to generate droplets on a spinning platform. An overview on the detection platforms is also presented to understand the challenges involved in building an extreme point of care device. In the third phase of the thesis, general manufacturing techniques and materials used to accomplish this work is presented. Lastly, design trials for droplet generation is presented. The shortcomings of these trials are solved by investigating mechanisms pertaining to design modification and use of agarose based droplet generation to ensure a more robust sample

  3. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  4. An Extensible Sensing and Control Platform for Building Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Anthony [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Berges, Mario [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Martin, Christopher [Robert Bosch LLC, Anderson, SC (United States)

    2016-04-03

    The goal of this project is to develop Mortar.io, an open-source BAS platform designed to simplify data collection, archiving, event scheduling and coordination of cross-system interactions. Mortar.io is optimized for (1) robustness to network outages, (2) ease of installation using plug-and-play and (3) scalable support for small to large buildings and campuses.

  5. Courthouse Prototype Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    As part of DOE's support of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 and IECC, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) apply a suite of prototype buildings covering 80% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S. for new construction. Efforts have started on expanding the prototype building suite to cover 90% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S., by developing prototype models for additional building types including place of worship, public order and safety, public assembly. Courthouse is courthouse is a sub-category under the “Public Order and Safety" building type category; other sub-categories include police station, fire station, and jail, reformatory or penitentiary.ORNL used building design guides, databases, and documented courthouse projects, supplemented by personal communication with courthouse facility planning and design experts, to systematically conduct research on the courthouse building and system characteristics. This report documents the research conducted for the courthouse building type and proposes building and system characteristics for developing a prototype building energy model to be included in the Commercial Building Prototype Model suite. According to the 2012 CBECS, courthouses occupy a total of 436 million sqft of floor space or 0.5% of the total floor space in all commercial buildings in the US, next to fast food (0.35%), grocery store or food market (0.88%), and restaurant or cafeteria (1.2%) building types currently included in the Commercial Prototype Building Model suite. Considering aggregated average, courthouse falls among the larger with a mean floor area of 69,400 sqft smaller fuel consumption intensity building types and an average of 94.7 kBtu/sqft compared to 77.8 kBtu/sqft for office and 80 kBtu/sqft for all commercial buildings.Courthouses range in size from 1000 sqft to over a million square foot building gross square feet and 1 courtroom to over 100 courtrooms. Small courthouses

  6. Uses of stable isotopes in fish ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of fish tissues (other than otoliths) for stable isotope ratios can provide substantial information on fish ecology, including physiological ecology. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon frequently are used to determine the mix of diet sources for consumers. Stable i...

  7. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  8. Theory of stable allocations II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Shapley provided the fundamental theoretical contribution to this field of research, whereas Roth, a professor at the Harvard University in Boston, developed and upgraded these theoretical investigations by applying them to the American market of medical doctors. Namely, their research helps explain the market processes at work, for instance, when doctors are assigned to hospitals, students to schools and human organs for transplant to recipients.

  9. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  10. Robustness of Distance-to-Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine; Lando, David

    2013-01-01

    . A notable exception is a model with stochastic volatility of assets. In this case both the ranking of firms and the estimated default probabilities using distance-to-default perform significantly worse. We therefore propose a volatility adjustment of the distance-to-default measure, that significantly...... simulations to investigate the robustness of the distance-to-default measure to different model specifications. Overall we find distance-to-default to be robust to a number of deviations from the simple Merton model that involve different asset value dynamics and different default triggering mechanisms...

  11. Design of Robust Neural Network Classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan; Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Hintz-Madsen, Mads

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses a new framework for designing robust neural network classifiers. The network is optimized using the maximum a posteriori technique, i.e., the cost function is the sum of the log-likelihood and a regularization term (prior). In order to perform robust classification, we present...... a modified likelihood function which incorporates the potential risk of outliers in the data. This leads to the introduction of a new parameter, the outlier probability. Designing the neural classifier involves optimization of network weights as well as outlier probability and regularization parameters. We...

  12. Robust Inference with Multi-way Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    A. Colin Cameron; Jonah B. Gelbach; Douglas L. Miller; Doug Miller

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a variance estimator for the OLS estimator as well as for nonlinear estimators such as logit, probit and GMM. This variance estimator enables cluster-robust inference when there is two-way or multi-way clustering that is non-nested. The variance estimator extends the standard cluster-robust variance estimator or sandwich estimator for one-way clustering (e.g. Liang and Zeger (1986), Arellano (1987)) and relies on similar relatively weak distributional assumptions. Our...

  13. Robustness and modular structure in networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagrow, James P.; Lehmann, Sune; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    -12]. Many complex systems, from power grids and the Internet to the brain and society [13-15], can be modeled using modular networks comprised of small, densely connected groups of nodes [16, 17]. These modules often overlap, with network elements belonging to multiple modules [18, 19]. Yet existing work...... on robustness has not considered the role of overlapping, modular structure. Here we study the robustness of these systems to the failure of elements. We show analytically and empirically that it is possible for the modules themselves to become uncoupled or non-overlapping well before the network disintegrates...

  14. Introduction to Robust Estimation and Hypothesis Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2012-01-01

    This revised book provides a thorough explanation of the foundation of robust methods, incorporating the latest updates on R and S-Plus, robust ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and regression. It guides advanced students and other professionals through the basic strategies used for developing practical solutions to problems, and provides a brief background on the foundations of modern methods, placing the new methods in historical context. Author Rand Wilcox includes chapter exercises and many real-world examples that illustrate how various methods perform in different situations.Introduction to R

  15. Robust median estimator in logisitc regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, T.; Pardo, L.; Vajda, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 12 (2008), s. 3822-3840 ISSN 0378-3758 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:Instituto Nacional de Estadistica(ES) MPO FI - IM3/136; GA MŠk(CZ) MTM 2006-06872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Logistic regression * Median * Robustness * Consistency and asymptotic normality * Morgenthaler * Bianco and Yohai * Croux and Hasellbroeck Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/SI/vajda-robust%20median%20estimator%20in%20logistic%20regression.pdf

  16. Robust-mode analysis of hydrodynamic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R.; Hua, Jia-Chen; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2017-04-01

    The emergence of techniques to extract high-frequency high-resolution data introduces a new avenue for modal decomposition to assess the underlying dynamics, especially of complex flows. However, this task requires the differentiation of robust, repeatable flow constituents from noise and other irregular features of a flow. Traditional approaches involving low-pass filtering and principle components analysis have shortcomings. The approach outlined here, referred to as robust-mode analysis, is based on Koopman decomposition. Three applications to (a) a counter-rotating cellular flame state, (b) variations in financial markets, and (c) turbulent injector flows are provided.

  17. The Robustness of High Danish National Happiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar

    2014-01-01

    Denmark’s top position in various rankings of country happiness is well-documented. This study goes beyond the national average comparisons and investigates whether Denmark’s top position is also found when we disaggregate data in line with social categories often used within the social sciences...... of the five rounds are included in this study. The results show that Denmark’s position at the top of the happiness scale is also robust when we look at population subgroups, but not in the sense that Denmark dominates all countries for all years. Instead, a modified version of robustness is necessary...

  18. Return Predictability, Model Uncertainty, and Robust Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel

    Stock return predictability is subject to great uncertainty. In this paper we use the model confidence set approach to quantify uncertainty about expected utility from investment, accounting for potential return predictability. For monthly US data and six representative return prediction models, we...... find that confidence sets are very wide, change significantly with the predictor variables, and frequently include expected utilities for which the investor prefers not to invest. The latter motivates a robust investment strategy maximizing the minimal element of the confidence set. The robust investor...... allocates a much lower share of wealth to stocks compared to a standard investor....

  19. Toward a Robust Method of Presenting a Rich, Interconnected Deceptive Network Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    connections, and correspond to the Data Link and Network Layer of the Open Systems Interconnection ( OSI ) model . The OSI model is an abstraction that...research project to build a model for our network [39]. • Another option is to have a separate node in our network with a real, physical link that we...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS TOWARD A ROBUST METHOD OF PRESENTING A RICH, INTERCONNECTED DECEPTIVE NETWORK TOPOLOGY

  20. Towards robust experimental design for user studies in security and privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Krol, K.; Spring, J. M.; Parkin, S.; Sasse, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human beings are an integral part of computer security, whether we actively participate or simply build the systems. Despite this importance, understanding users and their interaction with security is a blind spot for most security practitioners and designers. / Aim: Define principles for conducting experiments into usable security and privacy, to improve study robustness and usefulness. / Data: The authors’ experiences conducting several research projects com...

  1. Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System

    CERN Document Server

    Undrus, A

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Builds and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, test...

  2. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  3. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    building operation as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green accounting', by applying policies for sustainability etc. The paper is based on case studies...... of sustainable building operation and a survey amongst building administrators from the private and the social housing sector. Our results show that there are many good examples on sustainable building operation in Danish housing estates, where local building managers, residents etc. have gained impressive...... results. In the broader sense, however, there is a limited used of available methods and technologies. Barriers for the use of sustainable building operation have been identified, and related to different types of ownership (social housing, private rented, owner-occupied and private co-ops). The survey...

  4. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  5. Retrofitting Listed Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a case study where the energy demand for a listed building constructed in 1900 is reduced. Many older buildings are listed and have restrictions that include the entire building or that include only its exterior. For the building presented, only its exterior facade is listed....... The paper demonstrates measures for the improvement of the thermal insulation of the building with solid brick walls. Durable customised measures are shown. The customised measures are required not to change the overall exterior architecture as the building is considered to contribute to the uniqueness...... of the local urban environment and therefore listed. The reduced energy demand, related to individual measures, is estimated and building physics requirements are addressed together with the economic options for evaluating the profitability....

  6. Passive hygrothermal control of a museum storage building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Janssen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    of C02 emission. The purpose for this paper is to show that it is possible to reach the goal of using renewable energy for museum storage buildings by rethinking the strategy for the dehumidification design and in this way contribute to a C02 neutral environment. The solution is to construct a very......For optimal conservation of the stored objects, museum storage buildings require a very stable interior climate, with only minimal and slow variations in temperature and relative humidity. Often extensive HVAC is installed to provide such stable indoor conditions, which results in a great amout...

  7. Depth-weighted robust multivariate regression with application to sparse data

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Subhajit

    2017-04-05

    A robust method for multivariate regression is developed based on robust estimators of the joint location and scatter matrix of the explanatory and response variables using the notion of data depth. The multivariate regression estimator possesses desirable affine equivariance properties, achieves the best breakdown point of any affine equivariant estimator, and has an influence function which is bounded in both the response as well as the predictor variable. To increase the efficiency of this estimator, a re-weighted estimator based on robust Mahalanobis distances of the residual vectors is proposed. In practice, the method is more stable than existing methods that are constructed using subsamples of the data. The resulting multivariate regression technique is computationally feasible, and turns out to perform better than several popular robust multivariate regression methods when applied to various simulated data as well as a real benchmark data set. When the data dimension is quite high compared to the sample size it is still possible to use meaningful notions of data depth along with the corresponding depth values to construct a robust estimator in a sparse setting.

  8. Design of a robust controller on stabilization of stochastic neural networks with time varying delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, R.; Karthik Raja, U.; Mathiyalagan, K.; Leelamani, A.

    2012-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of robust stabilization and H∞ control for a class of uncertain stochastic neural networks with time-varying delays and time-varying norm-bounded parameter uncertainties. The delay is of a time-varying nature, and the activation functions are assumed to be neither differentiable nor strictly monotonic. Moreover, the description of the activation functions is more general than the commonly used Lipschitz conditions. By using the Lyapunov function approach together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, for the robust stabilization we propose a state feedback controller to ensure that the closed loop system is robustly asymptotically stable in the mean square for all admissible parameter uncertainties. For the robust H∞ control problem, a state feedback controller is designed such that in addition to the requirement of robust stability, a prescribed H∞ performance level is to be satisfied. The results obtained are formulated in terms of LMIs which can be easily checked by the MATLAB LMI control toolbox. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained method and the improvement over some existing results.

  9. Robust quantum memory via quantum control

    OpenAIRE

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Schirmer, S. G.; Solomon, A. I.

    2001-01-01

    A general scheme for building a quantum memory by transferring quantum information to an essentially decoherence-free memory transition using quantum control is presented and illustrated by computer simulations.

  10. Robust fitting of diurnal brightness temperature cycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Udahemuka, G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper, diurnal brightness temperatures received from the METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG) satellite were interpolated for missing data based on a model, and a performance test was performed by comparing a new approach based on robust modelling...

  11. Robust and Adaptive Control With Aerospace Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lavretsky, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Robust and Adaptive Control shows the reader how to produce consistent and accurate controllers that operate in the presence of uncertainties and unforeseen events. Driven by aerospace applications the focus of the book is primarily on continuous-dynamical systems.  The text is a three-part treatment, beginning with robust and optimal linear control methods and moving on to a self-contained presentation of the design and analysis of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) for nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems. Recent extensions and modifications to MRAC design are included, as are guidelines for combining robust optimal and MRAC controllers. Features of the text include: ·         case studies that demonstrate the benefits of robust and adaptive control for piloted, autonomous and experimental aerial platforms; ·         detailed background material for each chapter to motivate theoretical developments; ·         realistic examples and simulation data illustrating key features ...

  12. Robust control charts in statistical process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazir, H.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of outliers and contaminations in the output of the process highly affects the performance of the design structures of commonly used control charts and hence makes them of less practical use. One of the solutions to deal with this problem is to use control charts which are robust

  13. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen; Mnif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle

  14. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoussi, Anis, E-mail: anis.matoussi@univ-lemans.fr [Université du Maine, Risk and Insurance institut of Le Mans Laboratoire Manceau de Mathématiques (France); Mezghani, Hanen, E-mail: hanen.mezghani@lamsin.rnu.tn; Mnif, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.mnif@enit.rnu.tn [University of Tunis El Manar, Laboratoire de Modélisation Mathématique et Numérique dans les Sciences de l’Ingénieur, ENIT (Tunisia)

    2015-04-15

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle.

  15. Finite Algorithms for Robust Linear Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1990-01-01

    The Huber M-estimator for robust linear regression is analyzed. Newton type methods for solution of the problem are defined and analyzed, and finite convergence is proved. Numerical experiments with a large number of test problems demonstrate efficiency and indicate that this kind of approach may...

  16. Robust topology optimization accounting for geometric imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schevenels, M.; Jansen, M.; Lombaert, Geert

    2013-01-01

    performance. As a consequence, the actual structure may be far from optimal. In this paper, a robust approach to topology optimization is presented, taking into account two types of geometric imperfections: variations of (1) the crosssections and (2) the locations of structural elements. The first type...

  17. Regularized robust coding for face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jian; Zhang, David

    2013-05-01

    Recently the sparse representation based classification (SRC) has been proposed for robust face recognition (FR). In SRC, the testing image is coded as a sparse linear combination of the training samples, and the representation fidelity is measured by the l2-norm or l1 -norm of the coding residual. Such a sparse coding model assumes that the coding residual follows Gaussian or Laplacian distribution, which may not be effective enough to describe the coding residual in practical FR systems. Meanwhile, the sparsity constraint on the coding coefficients makes the computational cost of SRC very high. In this paper, we propose a new face coding model, namely regularized robust coding (RRC), which could robustly regress a given signal with regularized regression coefficients. By assuming that the coding residual and the coding coefficient are respectively independent and identically distributed, the RRC seeks for a maximum a posterior solution of the coding problem. An iteratively reweighted regularized robust coding (IR(3)C) algorithm is proposed to solve the RRC model efficiently. Extensive experiments on representative face databases demonstrate that the RRC is much more effective and efficient than state-of-the-art sparse representation based methods in dealing with face occlusion, corruption, lighting, and expression changes, etc.

  18. Robustness of Long Span Reciprocal Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balfroid, Nathalie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. The interest has also been facilitated due to recently severe structural failures such as that at R...

  19. Robust classification using mixtures of dependency networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gámez, José A.; Mateo, Juan L.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2008-01-01

    -ups are often obtained at the expense of accuracy. In this paper we try to address this issue through the use of mixtures of dependency networks. To reduce learning time and improve robustness when dealing with data sparse classes, we outline methods for reusing calculations across mixture components. Finally...

  20. Robustness of dynamic systems with parameter uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Balemi, S; Truöl, W

    1992-01-01

    Robust Control is one of the fastest growing and promising areas of research today. In many practical systems there exist uncertainties which have to be considered in the analysis and design of control systems. In the last decade methods were developed for dealing with dynamic systems with unstructured uncertainties such as HOO_ and £I-optimal control. For systems with parameter uncertainties, the seminal paper of V. L. Kharitonov has triggered a large amount of very promising research. An international workshop dealing with all aspects of robust control was successfully organized by S. P. Bhattacharyya and L. H. Keel in San Antonio, Texas, USA in March 1991. We organized the second international workshop in this area in Ascona, Switzer­ land in April 1992. However, this second workshop was restricted to robust control of dynamic systems with parameter uncertainties with the objective to concentrate on some aspects of robust control. This book contains a collection of papers presented at the International W...

  1. Robust tensor estimation in diffusion tensor imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximov, Ivan I.; Grinberg, Farida; Jon Shah, N.

    2011-12-01

    The signal response measured in diffusion tensor imaging is subject to detrimental influences caused by noise. Noise fields arise due to various contributions such as thermal and physiological noise and sources related to the hardware imperfection. As a result, diffusion tensors estimated by different linear and non-linear least squares methods in absence of a proper noise correction tend to be substantially corrupted. In this work, we propose an advanced tensor estimation approach based on the least median squares method of the robust statistics. Both constrained and non-constrained versions of the method are considered. The performance of the developed algorithm is compared to that of the conventional least squares method and of the alternative robust methods proposed in the literature. Two examples of simulated diffusion attenuations and experimental in vivo diffusion data sets were used as a basis for comparison. The robust algorithms were shown to be advantageous compared to the least squares method in the cases where elimination of the outliers is desirable. Additionally, the constraints were applied in order to prevent generation of the non-positive definite tensors and reduce related artefacts in the maps of fractional anisotropy. The developed method can potentially be exploited also by other MR techniques where a robust regression or outlier localisation is required.

  2. Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Feragen, Aasa; Black, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    to vectors (subspaces) or elements of vectors; we focus on the latter and use a trimmed average. The resulting Trimmed Grassmann Average (TGA) is particularly appropriate for computer vision because it is robust to pixel outliers. The algorithm has low computational complexity and minimal memory requirements...

  3. Robust control investigations for equipment loaded panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aglietti, G.S.; Langley, R.S.; Rogers, E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a modelling technique for equipment load panels which directly produces (adequate) models of the underlying dynamics on which to base robust controller design/evaluations. This technique is based on the use of the Lagrange's equations of motion and the resulting models are ver...... are verified against those produced by a finite Element Method Model...

  4. Robust balance shift control with posture optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavafoglu, Z.; Kavafoglu, Ersan; Egges, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a control framework which creates robust and natural balance shifting behaviours during standing. Given high-level features such as the position of the center of mass projection and the foot configurations, a kinematic posture satisfying these features is synthesized using

  5. Robust giant magnetoresistive effect type multilayer sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssen, K.M.H.; Kuiper, A.E.T.; Roozeboom, F.

    2002-01-01

    A robust Giant Magneto Resistive effect type multilayer sensor comprising a free and a pinned ferromagnetic layer, which can withstand high temperatures and strong magnetic fields as required in automotive applications. The GMR multi-layer has an asymmetric magneto-resistive curve and enables

  6. Robustness of river basin water quality models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blois, Chris; Wind, H.G.; de Kok, Jean-Luc; Koppeschaar, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the concept of robustness is introduced and applied to a model for the analysis of the impacts of spatially distributed policy measures on the surface water quality on a river basin scale. In this model the influence of precipitation on emissions and resuspension of pollutants in the

  7. Chromatin regulators, phenotypic robustness and autism risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reut eSuliman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Though extensively characterized clinically, the causes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD remain a mystery. ASD is known to have a strong genetic basis, but it is genetically very heterogeneous. Recent studies have estimated that de novo disruptive mutations in hundreds of genes may contribute to ASD. However, it is unclear how it is possible for mutations in so many different genes to contribute to ASD. Recent findings suggest that many of the mutations disrupt genes involved in transcription regulation that are expressed prenatally in the developing brain. De novo disruptive mutations are also more frequent in girls with ASD, despite the fact that ASD is more prevalent in boys. In this paper, we hypothesize that loss of robustness may contribute to ASD. Loss of phenotypic robustness may be caused by mutations that disrupt capacitors that operate in the developing brain. This may lead to the release of cryptic genetic variation that contributes to ASD. Reduced robustness is consistent with the observed variability in expressivity and incomplete penetrance. It is also consistent with the hypothesis that the development of the female brain is more robust, and it may explain the higher rate and severity of disruptive de novo mutations in girls with ASD.

  8. Robust Satisfiability of Systems of Equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franek, Peter; Krčál, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 4 (2015), Article 26 ISSN 0004-5411 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LL1201 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : nonlinear equations * satisfability * undecibility * topological extensions * uncertainty * robustness Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.803, year: 2015

  9. New solutions for NPP robustness improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Fukushima accident has triggered a major re-assessment of robustness of nuclear stations. First round of evaluations has been Finished. Improvement areas and strategies have been identified. Implementation of upgrades has started world-wide. New solutions can provide substantial benefits

  10. Robust unit commitment with dispatchable wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Espana, G.; Lorca, Álvaro; de Weerdt, M.M.

    The increasing penetration of uncertain generation such as wind and solar in power systems imposes new challenges to the unit commitment (UC) problem, one of the most critical tasks in power systems operations. The two most common approaches to address these challenges — stochastic and robust

  11. Quantifying the robustness of metro networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Koç, Y.; Derrible, S.; Nasir Ahmad, Sk.; Kooij, R.E.

    2015-01-01

    Metros (heavy rail transit systems) are integral parts of urban transportation systems. Failures in their operations can have serious impacts on urban mobility, and measuring their robustness is therefore critical. Moreover, as physical networks, metros can be viewed as network topological entities,

  12. Robustness of Distance-to-Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine; Lando, David

    2013-01-01

    Distance-to-default is a remarkably robust measure for ranking firms according to their risk of default. The ranking seems to work despite the fact that the Merton model from which the measure is derived produces default probabilities that are far too small when applied to real data. We use simul...

  13. Robust Geometric Control of a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kymmel, Mogens; Andersen, Henrik Weisberg

    1987-01-01

    A frequency domain method, which makes it possible to adjust multivariable controllers with respect to both nominal performance and robustness, is presented. The basic idea in the approach is that the designer assigns objectives such as steady-state tracking, maximum resonance peaks, bandwidth, m...... is used to examine and improve geometric control of a binary distillation column....

  14. Structurally robust control of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, Jose C.; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Robust control theory has been successfully applied to numerous real-world problems using a small set of devices called controllers. However, the real systems represented by networks contain unreliable components and modern robust control engineering has not addressed the problem of structural changes on complex networks including scale-free topologies. Here, we introduce the concept of structurally robust control of complex networks and provide a concrete example using an algorithmic framework that is widely applied in engineering. The developed analytical tools, computer simulations, and real network analyses lead herein to the discovery that robust control can be achieved in scale-free networks with exactly the same order of controllers required in a standard nonrobust configuration by adjusting only the minimum degree. The presented methodology also addresses the probabilistic failure of links in real systems, such as neural synaptic unreliability in Caenorhabditis elegans, and suggests a new direction to pursue in studies of complex networks in which control theory has a role.

  15. Highly Robust Methods in Data Mining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), s. 9-24 ISSN 1452-4864 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data mining * robust statistics * high-dimensional data * cluster analysis * logistic regression * neural networks Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  16. Automatic Synthesis of Robust and Optimal Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassez, Franck; Jessen, Jan Jacob; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show how to apply recent tools for the automatic synthesis of robust and near-optimal controllers for a real industrial case study. We show how to use three different classes of models and their supporting existing tools, Uppaal-TiGA for synthesis, phaver for verification...

  17. A robust adaptive controller for robot manipulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Harry; Berghuis, Harry; Ortega, Romeo; Nijmeijer, Henk

    1992-01-01

    The authors propose a globally convergent adaptive control scheme for robot motion control with the following features: first, the adaptation law processes enhanced robustness with respect to noisy velocity measurements; secondly, the controller does not require the inclusion of high-gain loops that

  18. Robust weighted scan matching with quadtrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Slamet, B.A.; Pfingsthorn, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the improvement of the robustness and accuracy of the weighted scan matching algorithm matching against the union of earlier acquired scans. The approach allows to reduce the correspondence error, which is explicitly modeled in the weighted scan matching algorithm, by providing a

  19. Robust Pedestrian Navigation for Challenging Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gilliéron, PY; Renaudin, V

    2009-01-01

    Presentation of a concept for robust indoor navigation. The concept is based on three key elements: - the use of an absolute geographical reference - the hybridisation of complementary technologies - specific motion models. This concept is illustrated by the means of two applications: the urban displacement of blind people and the indoor guidance of fire-fighters

  20. Robust inference in sample selection models

    KAUST Repository

    Zhelonkin, Mikhail

    2015-11-20

    The problem of non-random sample selectivity often occurs in practice in many fields. The classical estimators introduced by Heckman are the backbone of the standard statistical analysis of these models. However, these estimators are very sensitive to small deviations from the distributional assumptions which are often not satisfied in practice. We develop a general framework to study the robustness properties of estimators and tests in sample selection models. We derive the influence function and the change-of-variance function of Heckman\\'s two-stage estimator, and we demonstrate the non-robustness of this estimator and its estimated variance to small deviations from the model assumed. We propose a procedure for robustifying the estimator, prove its asymptotic normality and give its asymptotic variance. Both cases with and without an exclusion restriction are covered. This allows us to construct a simple robust alternative to the sample selection bias test. We illustrate the use of our new methodology in an analysis of ambulatory expenditures and we compare the performance of the classical and robust methods in a Monte Carlo simulation study.