WorldWideScience

Sample records for stable operating states

  1. Temporally stable coherent states for a free magnetic Schroedinger operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirulogasanthar, K.; Saad, Nasser; Keviczky, Attila B. von

    2004-01-01

    Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the free magnetic Schroedinger operator, describing a spinless particle confined to an infinite layer of fixed width, are discussed in detail. The eigenfunctions are realized as an orthonormal basis of a suitable Hilbert space. Four different classes of temporally stable coherent states associated with the operator are presented. The first two classes are derived as coherent states with one degree of freedom and the last two classes are derived with two degrees of freedom. The dynamical algebra of each class is found. Statistical quantities associated to each class of coherent states are calculated explicitly

  2. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  3. SU(2 and SU(1,1 Approaches to Phase Operators and Temporally Stable Phase States: Applications to Mutually Unbiased Bases and Discrete Fourier Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice R. Kibler

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a group-theoretical approach to the generalized oscillator algebra Aκ recently investigated in J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 2010, 43, 115303. The case κ ≥ 0 corresponds to the noncompact group SU(1,1 (as for the harmonic oscillator and the Pöschl-Teller systems while the case κ < 0 is described by the compact group SU(2 (as for the Morse system. We construct the phase operators and the corresponding temporally stable phase eigenstates for Aκ in this group-theoretical context. The SU(2 case is exploited for deriving families of mutually unbiased bases used in quantum information. Along this vein, we examine some characteristics of a quadratic discrete Fourier transform in connection with generalized quadratic Gauss sums and generalized Hadamard matrices.

  4. Stable states in a strong IR field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, Francis

    2015-05-01

    It is found that 10% of atoms stay in the quasi-stable states after being exposed to intense laser or microwave (MW) pulses, even though the pulses' intensity is much stronger than that needed for static fields ionization. The reason why atoms survive those strong pulses has attracted growing attentions. A. Arakelyan et al. have observed the optical spectra of the surviving Lithium atoms after interaction with intense 38-GHz MW fields for more than 1000 cycles, and the spectra exhibit a periodic train of peaks 38 GHz apart. It suggests that those weakly bound Rydberg electrons seldom go back to the ionic core, where the cycle average energy exchange happens. In this study, we are interested in the electron behavior in the presence of intense infrared fields with a much shorter wavelength (1000 nm). By solving the full 3D time dependent Schrodinger equation, we calculate the spectra of the surviving atoms under intense IR fields. Our numerical calculations show atoms survive the intense field in quasi-stable states for a long time, and the optical spectra are obviously modulated by the IR frequency. Through tuning the ponderomotive energy, we see how field parameters affect the behavior of electrons. Different atoms, such as Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, and Sodium, are tested to see how atom's energy structures influence the results.

  5. Linear operator inequalities for strongly stable weakly regular linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, RF

    2001-01-01

    We consider the question of the existence of solutions to certain linear operator inequalities (Lur'e equations) for strongly stable, weakly regular linear systems with generating operators A, B, C, 0. These operator inequalities are related to the spectral factorization of an associated Popov

  6. Two stable steady states in the Hodgkin-Huxley axons

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, K.; Matsumoto, G.

    1983-01-01

    Two stable steady states were found in the numerical solution of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations for the intact squid axon bathed in potassium-rich sea water with an externally applied inward current. Under the conditions the two stable steady-states exist, the Hodgkin-Huxley equations have a complex bifurcation structure including, in addition to the two stable steady-states, a stable limit cycle, two unstable equilibrium points, and one asymptotically stable equilibrium point. It was also conc...

  7. Stability properties of nonlinear dynamical systems and evolutionary stable states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleria, Iram, E-mail: iram@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió-AL (Brazil); Brenig, Leon [Faculté des Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Rocha Filho, Tarcísio M.; Figueiredo, Annibal [Instituto de Física and International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Universidade de Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil)

    2017-03-18

    Highlights: • We address the problem of equilibrium stability in a general class of non-linear systems. • We link Evolutionary Stable States (ESS) to stable fixed points of square quasi-polynomial (QP) systems. • We show that an interior ES point may be related to stable interior fixed points of QP systems. - Abstract: In this paper we address the problem of stability in a general class of non-linear systems. We establish a link between the concepts of asymptotic stable interior fixed points of square Quasi-Polynomial systems and evolutionary stable states, a property of some payoff matrices arising from evolutionary games.

  8. Advanced steady-state operating scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevins, W.M.; Bulmer, R.H.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Haney, S.W.; Manickam, J.

    1993-01-01

    The goal for advanced steady-state operation in ITER should be to demonstrate the operation of the plasma core for a steady-state fusion reactor. To accomplish this the authors must develop steady-state operating scenarios at high beta for high fusion power density, low auxiliary power requirements (Q CD ≥ 25, where Q CD triple-bond P fusion/P CD and P DC is the power required for sustaining the plasma current) for low recirculating power requirements, and at moderate safety factor (q ψ ≤ 4.5) to minimize the cost for the tokamak core of a steady-state demonstration power reactor based on the operating modes demonstrated in ITER. The key to achieving steady-state operation at high fusion power in ITER will be the development of operating scenarios with very high bootstrap current fractions (f BS ≥ 90%) in which the radial profile of the bootstrap current density is well aligned with that of the total plasma current density, and for which the MHD β-limit exceeds β n * = 0.05 T-m/MA. They are in the process of developing such operating modes for ITER. In section 1 they propose two advanced steady-state operating points; a preliminary operating point that was the basis for the MHD studies reported in section 2, and a second operating point that has been optimized based on the authors studies to date. In section 2 they present calculations indicating that the initial operating point is stable to MHD ballooning and low-n kink modes (with a conducting wall at r = 1.25a) up to β n * ∼ 6 x 10 -2 T - m/MA. In section 3 they present a free-boundary MHD equilibrium, and show that advanced steady-state operating modes are compatible with the ITER poloidal field system and diverter

  9. Floating plant dominance as a stable state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Szabo, S.; Gragnani, A.; Nes, van E.H.; Rinaldi, S.; Kautsky, N.; Norberg, J.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Franken, R.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The authors demonstrate that floating-plant dominance can be a self-stabilizing ecosystem state, which may explain its notorious persistence in many situations. Their results, based on experiments, field data, and models (in Dutch ditches and Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe), represent evidence for

  10. State Energy Program Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs

    1999-03-17

    The State Energy Program Operations Manual is a reference tool for the states and the program officials at the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and Regional Support Offices as well as State Energy Offices. The Manual contains information needed to apply for and administer the State Energy Program, including program history, application rules and requirements, and program administration and monitoring requirements.

  11. Robust chaos synchronization using input-to-state stable control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we propose a new input-to-state stable (ISS) synchronization method for a general class of chaotic systems with disturbances. Based on Lyapunov theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, for the first time, the ISS synchronization controller is presented not only to guarantee the asymptotic ...

  12. Towards more stable operation of the Tokyo Tier2 center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Mashimo, T.; Matsui, N.; Sakamoto, H.; Ueda, I.

    2014-06-01

    (Tokyo to New York and Tokyo to Los Angeles). The new line will be connected to LHCONE for the more improvement of the connectivity. In this circumstance, we are working for the further stable operation. For instance, we have newly introduced GPFS (IBM) for the non-grid disk storage, while Disk Pool Manager (DPM) are continued to be used as Tier2 disk storage from the previous system. Since the number of files stored in a DPM pool will be increased with increasing the total amount of data, the development of stable database configuration is one of the crucial issues as well as scalability. We have started some studies on the performance of asynchronous database replication so that we can take daily full backup. In this report, we would like to introduce several improvements in terms of the performances and stability of our new system and possibility of the further improvement of local I/O performance in the multi-core worker node. We also present the status of the wide area network connectivity from Japan to US and/or EU with LHCONE.

  13. Control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units within a microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrasa, Majid; Pouresmaeil, Edris; Mehrjerdi, Hasan; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Catalão, João P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units is proposed. • Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors. • The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components is considered. • Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid. - Abstract: This paper describes a control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation (DG) units based on renewable energy sources, during islanding and grid-connected modes. The Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors of DG units during integration and power sharing with loads and/or power grid, which is an appropriate tool to analyze and define a stable operating condition for DG units in microgrid technology. The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components of DG units in ac-side, and dc-link voltage variations in dc-side of interfaced converters, are considered properly in the control loop of DG units, which is the main contribution and novelty of this control technique over other control strategies. By using the proposed control technique, DG units can provide the continuous injection of active power from DG sources to the local loads and/or utility grid. Moreover, by setting appropriate reference current components in the control loop of DG units, reactive power and harmonic current components of loads can be supplied during the islanding and grid-connected modes with a fast dynamic response. Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid during dynamic and steady-state operating conditions

  14. The stable nonequilibrium state of bicarbonate aqueous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeikov, V. L.; Vilenskaya, N. D.; Ha, Do Minh; Malyshenko, S. I.; Buravleva, E. V.; Yablonskaya, O. I.; Timofeev, K. N.

    2012-09-01

    Data obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and chemiluminescence analysis indicate that in aqueous solutions of bicarbonates, superoxide radical and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced. The stationary level of the superoxide radical is found to increase when a solution is illuminated. Reactions involving ROS are shown to be accompanied by the generation of electron excitation energy, keeping bicarbonate solutions in a stable nonequilibrium state. The system can emit part of this energy. Variations in emitting activity are found to correlate with variations in the cosmophysical factors. The emitting activity of solutions is found to vary in the presence of low and ultralow concentrations of hydrated fullerenes. It is noted that the phenomenon of spontaneous charge separation in aqueous systems (G. H. Pollack) could play a role in maintaining a stable nonequilibrium state in bicarbonate systems where the reactions with ROS participation are catalyzed by forms of carbonate. It is concluded that the abovementioned properties of bicarbonate aqueous systems most likely keep living matter whose structural basis is formed by these systems in a stable excited state, thereby making it highly sensitive to the action of external factors with low and ultralow intensities.

  15. Stable corrugated state of the two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Moreno, R.M.; Moreno, M.; Ortiz, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    A corrugated and stable ground state is found for the two-dimensional electron gas in both the normal paramagnetic and the fully polarized phases. The self-consistent Hartree-Fock method is used with a modulated set of trial wave functions within the deformable jellium model. The results for high metallic densities reproduce the usual noncorrugated ferromagnetic electron-gas behavior. A transition to a paramagnetic corrugated state for values of r s ∼6.5 is predicted. At lower densities r s ∼30, a second transition to a corrugated ferromagnetic phase is suggested

  16. STABLE STATIONARY STATES OF NON-LOCAL INTERACTION EQUATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    FELLNER, KLEMENS

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the large-time behaviour of a solution to a non-local interaction equation, where a density of particles/individuals evolves subject to an interaction potential and an external potential. It is known that for regular interaction potentials, stable stationary states of these equations are generically finite sums of Dirac masses. For a finite sum of Dirac masses, we give (i) a condition to be a stationary state, (ii) two necessary conditions of linear stability w.r.t. shifts and reallocations of individual Dirac masses, and (iii) show that these linear stability conditions imply local non-linear stability. Finally, we show that for regular repulsive interaction potential Wε converging to a singular repulsive interaction potential W, the Dirac-type stationary states ρ̄ ε approximate weakly a unique stationary state ρ̄ ∈ L∞. We illustrate our results with numerical examples. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  17. Ferroelectric nanostructure having switchable multi-stable vortex states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Ivan I [Fayetteville, AR; Bellaiche, Laurent M [Fayetteville, AR; Prosandeev, Sergey A [Fayetteville, AR; Ponomareva, Inna V [Fayetteville, AR; Kornev, Igor A [Fayetteville, AR

    2009-09-22

    A ferroelectric nanostructure formed as a low dimensional nano-scale ferroelectric material having at least one vortex ring of polarization generating an ordered toroid moment switchable between multi-stable states. A stress-free ferroelectric nanodot under open-circuit-like electrical boundary conditions maintains such a vortex structure for their local dipoles when subject to a transverse inhomogeneous static electric field controlling the direction of the macroscopic toroidal moment. Stress is also capable of controlling the vortex's chirality, because of the electromechanical coupling that exists in ferroelectric nanodots.

  18. Decision of Lead-Time Compression and Stable Operation of Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A cost optimization strategy and a robust control strategy were studied to realize the low-cost robust operation of the supply chain with lead times. Firstly, for the multiple production lead times which existed in the supply chain, a corresponding inventory state model and a supply chain cost model were constructed based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control system. Then, by considering the actual inventory level, the lead-time compression cost, and the stock-out cost, a cost optimization strategy was proposed. Furthermore, a fuzzy robust control strategy was proposed to realize the flexible switching among the models. Finally, the simulation results show that the total cost of the supply chain could be reduced effectively by the cost optimization strategy, and the stable operation of the supply chain could be realized by the proposed fuzzy robust control strategy.

  19. Plant operation state monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Masanori; Babuchi, Katsumi; Arato, Toshiaki

    1994-01-01

    The system of the present invention accurately monitors a plant operation state of a plant, such as a nuclear power plant and a thermal power plant by using high temperature water, based on water quality informations. That is, water quality informations for the objective portion by using an electrochemical water quality sensor disposed in the objective portion to be monitored in the plant are continuously extracted for a predetermined period of time. Water quality is evaluated based on the extracted information. Obtained results for water quality evaluation and predetermined reference values of the plant operation handling are compared. Necessary part among the results of the measurement is displayed or recorded. The predetermined period of time described above is a period that the water quality information reaches at least a predetermined value or a period that the predetermined value is estimated by the water quality information, and it is defined as a period capable of measuring the information for three months continuously. The measurement is preferably conducted continuously in a period up to each periodical inspection on about every one year. (I.S.)

  20. Vegetation engineers marsh morphology through multiple competing stable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marani, Marco; Da Lio, Cristina; D’Alpaos, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Marshes display impressive biogeomorphic features, such as zonation, a mosaic of extensive vegetation patches of rather uniform composition, exhibiting sharp transitions in the presence of extremely small topographic gradients. Although generally associated with the accretion processes necessary for marshes to keep up with relative sea level rise, competing environmental constraints, and ecologic controls, zonation is still poorly understood in terms of the underlying biogeomorphic mechanisms. Here we find, through observations and modeling interpretation, that zonation is the result of coupled geomorphological–biological dynamics and that it stems from the ability of vegetation to actively engineer the landscape by tuning soil elevation within preferential ranges of optimal adaptation. We find multiple peaks in the frequency distribution of observed topographic elevation and identify them as the signature of biologic controls on geomorphodynamics through competing stable states modulated by the interplay of inorganic and organic deposition. Interestingly, the stable biogeomorphic equilibria correspond to suboptimal rates of biomass production, a result coherent with recent observations. The emerging biogeomorphic structures may display varying degrees of robustness to changes in the rate of sea level rise and sediment availability, with implications for the overall resilience of marsh ecosystems to climatic changes. PMID:23401529

  1. Operator properties of generalized coherent state systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main properties of standard quantum mechanical coherent states and the two generalizations of Klauder and of Perelomov are reviewed. For a system of generalized coherent states in the latter sense, necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of a diagonal coherent stable representation for all Hilbert-Schmidt ...

  2. An experimental study of the stable and unstable operation of an LPP gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanuka, Sulabh Kumar

    A study was performed to better understand the stable operation of an LPP combustor and formulate a mechanism behind the unstable operation. A unique combustor facility was developed at the University of Michigan that incorporates the latest injector developed by GE Aircraft Engines and enables operation at elevated pressures with preheated air at flow-rates reflective of actual conditions. The large optical access has enabled the use of a multitude of state-of-the-art laser diagnostics such as PIV and PLIF, and has shed invaluable light not only into the GE injector specifically but also into gas turbine combustors in general. Results from Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) have illustrated the role of velocity, instantaneous vortices, and key recirculation zones that are all critical to the combustor's operation. It was found that considerable differences exist between the iso-thermal and reacting flows, and between the instantaneous and mean flow fields. To image the flame, Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) of the formaldehyde radical was successfully utilized for the first time in a Jet-A flame. Parameters regarding the flame's location and structure have been obtained that assist in interpreting the velocity results. These results have also shown that some of the fuel injected from the main fuel injectors actually reacts in the diffusion flame of the pilot. The unstable operation of the combustor was studied in depth to obtain the stability limits of the combustor, behavior of the flame dynamics, and frequencies of the oscillations. Results from simultaneous pressure and high speed chemiluminescence images have shown that the low frequency dynamics can be characterized as flashback oscillations. The results have also shown that the stability of the combustor can be explained by simple and well established premixed flame stability mechanisms. This study has allowed the development of a model that describes the instability mechanism and accurately

  3. Nonlinear theory of stable, efficient operation of a gyrotron at cyclotron harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraph, G.P.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Nusinovich, G.S.; Levush, B.

    1993-01-01

    One of the main obstacles in achieving stable, efficient operation at the cyclotron harmonics in a gyrotron is mode competition with parasitic modes at the fundamental frequency. In this article, the nonlinear dynamics of mode interactions in such a system are studied using a multifrequency, time-dependent model. The results of numerical simulations for a second harmonic gyrotron are presented by considering two starting scenarios: (a) fast voltage rise or an instant turn-on case, and (b) slow voltage rise case. For the first case, it is demonstrated that for a certain range of operating parameters, the presence of a parasitic mode at the fundamental can be helpful in the excitation of the second harmonic operating mode. In the second case, it is found that the unstable operating region increases with the value of the rise time constant of the electrode voltages. Stable, efficient gyrotron operation at the second harmonic is demonstrated using the numerical study

  4. Extension properties of states on operator algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamhalter, Jan

    1995-08-01

    We summarize and deepen some recent results concerning the extension problem for states on operator algebras and general quantum logics. In particular, we establish equivalence between the Gleason extension property, the Hahn-Banach extension property, and the universal state extension property of projection logics. Extensions of Jauch-Piron states are investigated.

  5. States on algebras of unbounded operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermann, W.

    1985-01-01

    There are reviewed some of the fundamental results on normal states on algebras of unbounded operators. It is ndicated how these results are related with ideal theory. Few known facts concerning perturbation of normal states are included. There are contained some new results on singular states

  6. Affine coherent states and Toeplitz operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutníková, Mária; Hutník, Ondrej

    2012-06-01

    We study a parameterized family of Toeplitz operators in the context of affine coherent states based on the Calderón reproducing formula (= resolution of unity on L_2( {R})) and the specific admissible wavelets (= affine coherent states in L_2( {R})) related to Laguerre functions. Symbols of such Calderón-Toeplitz operators as individual coordinates of the affine group (= upper half-plane with the hyperbolic geometry) are considered. In this case, a certain class of pseudo-differential operators, their properties and their operator algebras are investigated. As a result of this study, the Fredholm symbol algebras of the Calderón-Toeplitz operator algebras for these particular cases of symbols are described. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.

  7. Missouri commercial vehicle operations : state business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-15

    This business plan is intended to assist this state in improving its commercial vehicle operation regulation, guide the deployment and installation of intelligent transportation systems and to implement these systems in an efficient and cost effectiv...

  8. Switching behavior and novel stable states of magnetic hexagonal nanorings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasir Rafique, M., E-mail: myasir.rafique@ciitlahore.edu.pk [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Pan, Liqing; Guo, Zhengang [College of Science and Research Institute for New Energy, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Micromagnetic simulations for Cobalt hexagonal shape nanorings show onion (O) and vortex state (V) along with new state named “tri-domain state”. The tri-domain state is observed in sufficiently large width of ring. The magnetic reversible mechanism and transition of states are explained with help of vector field display. The transitions from one state to other occur by propagation of domain wall. The vertical parts of hexagonal rings play important role in developing the new “tri-domain” state. The behaviors of switching fields from onion to tri-domain (HO-Tr), tri-domain to vortex state (HTr-V) and vortex to onion state and “states size” are discussed in term of geometrical parameter of ring.

  9. On States and State Operators on Certain Basic Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botur, Michal; Kühr, Jan; Rachůnek, Jiří

    2014-10-01

    The paper is based on the authors' talks given at the 11th IQSA Meeting in Cagliari; it deals with states and state operators (internal states) on basic algebras which are a generalization of MV-algebras and orthomodular lattices, also including lattice effect algebras. On the one hand, the paper is a survey of some previous results on states and state operators on commutative basic algebras, and on the other one, an extension of these results to the much larger class of basic algebras where the addition ⊕ distributes over the lattice meet ∧.

  10. On quantum operations as quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrighi, Pablo; Patricot, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    We formalize Jamiolkowski's correspondence between quantum states and quantum operations isometrically, and harness its consequences. This correspondence was already implicit in Choi's proof of the operator sum representation of Completely Positive-preserving linear maps; we go further and show that all of the important theorems concerning quantum operations can be derived directly from those concerning quantum states. As we do so the discussion first provides an elegant and original review of the main features of quantum operations. Next (in the second half of the paper) we find more results stemming from our formulation of the correspondence. Thus, we provide a factorizability condition for quantum operations, and give two novel Schmidt-type decompositions of bipartite pure states. By translating the composition law of quantum operations, we define a group structure upon the set of totally entangled states. The question whether the correspondence is merely mathematical or can be given a physical interpretation is addressed throughout the text: we provide formulae which suggest quantum states inherently define a quantum operation between two of their subsystems, and which turn out to have applications in quantum cryptography

  11. New Tore Supra steady state operating scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Parlange, F.; van Houtte, D.; Wijnands, T.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with plasma control in steady state conditions. A new plasma control systems enabling feedback control of global plasma equilibrium parameters has been developed. It also enables to operate plasma discharge in steady state regime. (TEC). 4 refs., 5 figs

  12. A thermodynamic study for the optimization of stable operation of free piston Stirling engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogdakis, E.D.; Bormpilas, N.A.; Koniakos, I.K.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most novel applications of the Stirling cycle is in the free piston configuration that was initially designed by W. Beale. In free piston Stirling engines (FPSEs), there are no mechanical linkages coupling the pistons or displacers, the motions of the reciprocating components follow the working gas pressure variations. Fillipo de Monte and G. Benvenuto have recently proposed a linearization technique of the dynamic balance equations. The aim of this paper is to predict the thermodynamic conditions for stable operation of FPSEs and their modeling. The equations of the angular velocity are solved analytically in terms of the working gas mass and the displacer-piston phase angle of the machine. Using the criterion of stable engine cyclic steady operation, a mathematically rigorous form is obtained for the main parameters of the engine. Furthermore, for simplicity reasons, thermodynamic magnitudes are obtained using the Schmidt analysis (isothermal model)

  13. Doppler wind lidar using a MOPA semiconductor laser at stable single-frequency operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    A compact master-oscillator power-amplifier semiconductor laser (MOPA-SL) is a good candidate for a coherent light source (operating at 1550 nm) in a Doppler wind Lidar. The MOPA-SL requires two injection currents: Idfb for the distributed-feedback (DFB) laser section (master oscillator) and Iamp...... for the tapered amplifier section. The specified maximum current values are 0.7 A and 4.0 A for Idfb and Iamp. Although the MOPA-SL has been proven capable of producing single-frequency CW output beam, stable operation at this spectral condition has also been known to highly depend on the drive currents...... to the laser. This was done by observing the spectral characteristic of the laser using an optical spectrum at different drive current combinations. When using the laser for a Doppler wind Lidar application, a combination of (Idfb, Iamp) which is close to the center of an identified stable single...

  14. Robust chaos synchronization using input-to-state stable control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... be obtained by solving a convex optimization problem represented by the. LMI. Simulation studies are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ... one is the linear state feedback controller and the other is the nonlinear feedback controller. By the proposed control scheme, the closed-loop error system is ...

  15. Critical issues for steady state operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi

    1994-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the toroidal magnetic fusion research, achieving high quality plasmas which satisfy the breakeven condition. As the next step, such plasmas need to be maintained in a steady state or a longer period. Critical issues for the steady state operation have been discussed briefly, such as high heat load on the divertor plates, deterioration of the energy confinement with increasing power, impurity contamination, including helium (ash), maintaining of the magnetic configuration, erosion of the plasma facing material. (author)

  16. UNITED STATES SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES IN AFRICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    reduce human suffering, disease, hunger , or privation. DOS and the United States Agency for International Development would typically support the...Operations (MISO). MISO are planned to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions , motives, objective

  17. Simulating ITER steady-state operation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Casper, T.A.; Campbell, D.J.; Snipes, J.A.; Bulmer, R.; LoDestro, L.L.; Meyer, W.H.; Pearlstein, L.D.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. ITER steady-state operation aims at demonstrating fully non-inductive plasma operation at a moderate fusion power multiplication factor (Q) of about 5, for long burn durations of up to 3000 s. In this work, this operational capability is studied using an advanced free-boundary transport simulation code, CORSICA [1-3], including relevant physics and engineering constraints. The tokamak discharge modelling capability of the CORSICA code has been improved by integrating realistic source modules for heating and current drive and a parameterized EPED1 pedestal model. The electro-magnetic ITER machine description is computed using the recent design parameters and the latest source configurations are taken into account. This work has been performed to study the feasibility of the ITER steady-state operation. Although the evolution of internal transport barriers (ITBs) are not yet included in this study, a higher energy confinement over the H-mode confinement (H98>1) is assumed by maintaining a reversed safety factor (q) profile during the flat-top phase. This paper presents several ITER steady-state operation scenarios, including a reference 9 MA case, and also suggests a potential approach for achieving fully non-inductive ITER steady-state operation with Q>5. References: [1] Crotinger, J.A. et al, 1997 LLNL Report UCRL-ID-126284; NTIS PB2005-102154; [2] Casper, T.A. et al, 2010 23. Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy (Daejeon, Korea) ITR/P1-19 accepted for publication in Nuclear Fusion; [3] Kim, S.H. et al, 2012 24. Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy (San Diego, USA) ITR/P1-13. (authors)

  18. SiC Field Effect Transistor Technology Demonstrating Prolonged Stable Operation at 500 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Okojie, Robert S.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Meredith, Roger; Ferrier, Terry

    2006-01-01

    While there have been numerous reports of short-term transistor operation at 500 degree C or above, these devices have previously not demonstrated sufficient long-term operational durability at 500 degree C to be considered viable for most envisioned applications. This paper reports the development of Silicone Carbi field effect transistors capable of long-term electrical operation at 500 degree C. A 6H-SiC MESFET was packaged and subjected to continuous electrical operation while residing in a 500 degree C oven in oxidizing air atmosphere for over 2400 hours. The transistor gain, saturation current (IDSS), and on-resistance (RDS) changed by less than 20% from initial values throughout the duration of the biased 500 degree C test. Another high-temperature packaged 6H-SiC MESFET was employed to form a simple one-stage high-temperature low-frequency voltage amplifier. This single-stage common-source amplifier demonstrated stable continuous electrical operation (negligible changes to gain and operating biases) for over 600 hours while residing in a 500 degree C air ambient oven. In both cases, increased leakage from annealing of the Schottky gate-to-channel diode was the dominant transistor degradation mechanism that limited the duration of 500 degree C electrical operation.

  19. Hematopoietic differentiation: a coordinated dynamical process towards attractor stable states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Simona

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differentiation process, proceeding from stem cells towards the different committed cell types, can be considered as a trajectory towards an attractor of a dynamical process. This view, taking into consideration the transcriptome and miRNome dynamics considered as a whole, instead of looking at few 'master genes' driving the system, offers a novel perspective on this phenomenon. We investigated the 'differentiation trajectories' of the hematopoietic system considering a genome-wide scenario. Results We developed serum-free liquid suspension unilineage cultures of cord blood (CB CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells through erythroid (E, megakaryocytic (MK, granulocytic (G and monocytic (Mo pathways. These cultures recapitulate physiological hematopoiesis, allowing the analysis of almost pure unilineage precursors starting from initial differentiation of HPCs until terminal maturation. By analyzing the expression profile of protein coding genes and microRNAs in unilineage CB E, MK, G and Mo cultures, at sequential stages of differentiation and maturation, we observed a coordinated, fully interconnected and scalable character of cell population behaviour in both transcriptome and miRNome spaces reminiscent of an attractor-like dynamics. MiRNome and transcriptome space differed for a still not terminally committed behaviour of microRNAs. Conclusions Consistent with their roles, the transcriptome system can be considered as the state space of a cell population, while the continuously evolving miRNA space corresponds to the tuning system necessary to reach the attractor. The behaviour of miRNA machinery could be of great relevance not only for the promise of reversing the differentiated state but even for tumor biology.

  20. Robust and Stable Disturbance Observer of Servo System for Low-Speed Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    A new scheme to estimate the moment of inertia in the servo motor drive system in very low speed is proposed in this paper. The speed estimation scheme in most servo drive systems for low-speed operation is sensitive to the variation of machine parameter, especially the moment of inertia....... To estimate the motor inertia value, the observer using the Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) is applied. A control law for stabilizing the system and adaptive laws for updating both of the weights in the RBFN and a bounding constant are established so that the whole closed-loop system is stable...

  1. A stable numerical inversion of Abel's integral equation using almost Bernstein operational matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Om P.; Singh, Vineet K.; Pandey, Rajesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Many problems in physics like reconstruction of the radially distributed emissivity from the line-of-sight projected intensity, the 3-D image reconstruction from cone-beam projections in computerized tomography, etc. lead naturally, in the case of radial symmetry, to the study of Abel's type integral equation. The aim of this communication is to modify the stable algorithm proposed in [Singh VK, Pandey RK, Singh OP. New stable numerical solution of singular integral equations of Abel type by using normalized Bernstein polynomials. Applied Mathematical Sciences 2009;3(5):241-255] which is based on normalized Bernstein polynomial approximation of the projected intensity profile. So, first we construct an orthonormal family {b i5 } i=0 5 of polynomials of degree 5 from the 5th degree Bernstein polynomials B i5 and use them as a basis to approximate the projected intensity profile. Then, a 6x6 matrix P, named as almost Bernstein operational matrix of integration is constructed and used to reduce the integral equation to a system of algebraic equation which can be solved easily. The method is quite accurate and stable even though the approximations are performed by polynomials of degree 5, as illustrated by applying the method to intensity data with and without random noise to invert and compare it with those obtained by the other methods or with the known analytical inverse. Thus it is good method for applying to experimental intensities distorted by noise.

  2. Looking for chemical reaction networks exhibiting a drift along a manifold of marginally stable states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogioli, Doriano

    2013-02-07

    I recently reported some examples of mass-action equations that have a continuous manifold of marginally stable stationary states [Brogioli, D., 2010. Marginally stable chemical systems as precursors of life. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 058102; Brogioli, D., 2011. Marginal stability in chemical systems and its relevance in the origin of life. Phys. Rev. E 84, 031931]. The corresponding chemical reaction networks show nonclassical effects, i.e. a violation of the mass-action equations, under the effect of the concentration fluctuations: the chemical system drifts along the marginally stable states. I proposed that this effect is potentially involved in abiogenesis. In the present paper, I analyze the mathematical properties of mass-action equations of marginally stable chemical reaction networks. The marginal stability implies that the mass-action equations obey some conservation law; I show that the mathematical properties of the conserved quantity characterize the motion along the marginally stable stationary state manifold, i.e. they allow to predict if the fluctuations give rise to a random walk or a drift under the effect of concentration fluctuations. Moreover, I show that the presence of the drift along the manifold of marginally stable stationary-states is a critical property, i.e. at least one of the reaction constants must be fine tuned in order to obtain the drift. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bio-geomorphic feedback causes alternative stable landscape states: insights from coastal marshes and tidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, Stijn; Wang, Chen

    2014-05-01

    Many bio-geomorphic systems, such as hill slopes, river floodplains, tidal floodplains and dune areas, seem to be vulnerable to shifts between alternative bare and vegetated landscape states, and these shifts seem to be driven by bio-geomorphic feedbacks. Here we search for empirical evidence for alternative stable state behavior in intertidal flats and marshes, where bio-geomorphic interactions are known to be intense. Large-scale transitions have been reported worldwide between high-elevation vegetated marshes and low-elevation bare flats in intertidal zones of deltas, estuaries, and coastal embayments. It is of significant importance to understand and predict such transitions, because vegetated marshes provide significant services to coastal societies. Previous modeling studies suggest that the ecological theory of catastrophic shifts between alternative stable ecosystem states potentially explains the transition between bare flats and vegetated marshes. However, up to now only few empirical evidence exists. In our study, the hypothesis is empirically tested that vegetated marshes and bare tidal flats can be considered as alternative stable landscape states with rapid shifts between them. We studied historical records (1930s - 2000s) of intertidal elevation surveys and aerial pictures from the Westerschelde estuary (SW Netherlands). Our results demonstrated the existence of: (1) bimodality in the intertidal elevation distribution, i.e., the presence of two peaks in the elevation frequency distribution corresponding to a completely bare state and a densely vegetated state; (2) the relatively rapid transition in elevation when intertidal flats evolve from bare to vegetated states, with sedimentation rates that are 2 to 8 times faster than during the stable states; (3) a threshold elevation above which the shift from bare to vegetated state has a high chance to occur. Our observations demonstrate the abrupt non-linear shift between low-elevation bare flats and high

  4. In vivo absorption spectra of the two stable states of the Euglena photoreceptor photocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsanti, Laura; Coltelli, Primo; Evangelista, Valtere; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Vesentini, Nicoletta; Santoro, Fabrizio; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Euglena gracilis possesses a simple but sophisticated light detecting system, consisting of an eyespot formed by carotenoids globules and a photoreceptor. The photoreceptor of Euglena is characterized by optical bistability, with two stable states. In order to provide important and discriminating information on the series of structural changes that Euglena photoreceptive protein(s) undergoes inside the photoreceptor in response to light, we measured the in vivo absorption spectra of the two stable states A and B of photoreceptor photocycle. Data were collected using two different devices, i.e. a microspectrophotometer and a digital microscope. Our results show that the photocycle and the absorption spectra of the photoreceptor possess strong spectroscopic similarities with a rhodopsin-like protein. Moreover, the analysis of the absorption spectra of the two stable states of the photoreceptor and the absorption spectrum of the eyespot suggests an intriguing hypothesis for the orientation of microalgae toward light.

  5. Thermal-Hydraulic Experiment To Test The Stable Operation Of A PIUS Type Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irianto, Djoko; Kanji, T.; Kukita, Y.

    1996-01-01

    An advanced type of reaktor concept as the Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor was based on intrinsically passive safety considerations. The stable operation of a PIUS type reactor is based on the automation of circulation pump speed. An automatic circulation pump speed control system by using a measurement of the temperature distribution in the lower density lock is proposed the PIUS-type reactor. In principle this control system maintains the fluid temperature at the axial center of the lower density lock at average of the fluid temperatures below and above the lower density lock. This control system will prevent the poison water from penetrating into the core during normal operation. The effectiveness of this control system was successfully confirmed by a series of experiments using atmospheric pressure thermal-hydraulic test loop which simulated the PIUS principle. The experiments such as: start-up and power ramping tests for normal operation simulation and loss of feedwater test for an accident condition simulation, carried out in JAERI

  6. Small scale thermal-hydraulic experiment for stable operation of a pius-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, K.; Tamaki, M.; Imai, S.; Irianto, I.D.; Tsuji, Y.; Kukita, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic experiments using a small-scale atmospheric pressure test loop have been performed for the Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS)-type reactor to develop the new pump speed feedback control system. Three feedback control systems based on the measurement of flow rate, differential pressure, and fluid temperature distribution in the lower density lock have been proposed and confirmed by a series of experiments. Each of the feedback control systems had been verified in the simulation experiment such as a start-up simulation test. The automatic pump speed control based on the fluid temperature at the lower density lock was quite effective to maintain the stratified interface between primary water and borated pool water for stable operation of the reactor. (author)

  7. Positive feedback and alternative stable states in inbreeding, cooperation, sex roles and other evolutionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Kokko, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of studies in systems science focus on processes involving a mixture of positive and negative feedbacks, which are also common themes in evolutionary ecology. Examples of negative feedback are density dependence (population regulation) and frequency-dependent selection (polymorphisms). Positive feedback, in turn, plays a role in Fisherian ‘runaway’ sexual selection, the evolution of cooperation, selfing and inbreeding tolerance under purging of deleterious alleles, and the evolution of sex differences in parental care. All these examples feature self-reinforcing processes where the increase in the value of a trait selects for further increases, sometimes via a coevolutionary feedback loop with another trait. Positive feedback often leads to alternative stable states (evolutionary endpoints), making the interpretation of evolutionary predictions challenging. Here, we discuss conceptual issues such as the relationship between self-reinforcing selection and disruptive selection. We also present an extension of a previous model on parental care, focusing on the relationship between the operational sex ratio and sexual selection, and the influence of this relationship on the evolution of biparental or uniparental care. PMID:22144384

  8. Positive feedback and alternative stable states in inbreeding, cooperation, sex roles and other evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Kokko, Hanna

    2012-01-19

    A large proportion of studies in systems science focus on processes involving a mixture of positive and negative feedbacks, which are also common themes in evolutionary ecology. Examples of negative feedback are density dependence (population regulation) and frequency-dependent selection (polymorphisms). Positive feedback, in turn, plays a role in Fisherian 'runaway' sexual selection, the evolution of cooperation, selfing and inbreeding tolerance under purging of deleterious alleles, and the evolution of sex differences in parental care. All these examples feature self-reinforcing processes where the increase in the value of a trait selects for further increases, sometimes via a coevolutionary feedback loop with another trait. Positive feedback often leads to alternative stable states (evolutionary endpoints), making the interpretation of evolutionary predictions challenging. Here, we discuss conceptual issues such as the relationship between self-reinforcing selection and disruptive selection. We also present an extension of a previous model on parental care, focusing on the relationship between the operational sex ratio and sexual selection, and the influence of this relationship on the evolution of biparental or uniparental care.

  9. Design techniques for a stable operation of cryogenic field-programmable gate arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homulle, Harald; Visser, Stefan; Patra, Bishnu; Charbon, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we show how a deep-submicron field-programmable gate array (FPGA) can be operated more stably at extremely low temperatures through special firmware design techniques. Stability at low temperatures is limited through long power supply wires and reduced performance of various printed circuit board components commonly employed at room temperature. Extensive characterization of these components shows that the majority of decoupling capacitor types and voltage regulators are not well behaved at cryogenic temperatures, asking for an ad hoc solution to stabilize the FPGA supply voltage, especially for sensitive applications. Therefore, we have designed a firmware that enforces a constant power consumption, so as to stabilize the supply voltage in the interior of the FPGA. The FPGA is powered with a supply at several meters distance, causing significant resistive voltage drop and thus fluctuations on the local supply voltage. To achieve the stabilization, the variation in digital logic speed, which directly corresponds to changes in supply voltage, is constantly measured and corrected for through a tunable oscillator farm, implemented on the FPGA. The impact of the stabilization technique is demonstrated together with a reconfigurable analog-to-digital converter (ADC), completely implemented in the FPGA fabric and operating at 15 K. The ADC performance can be improved by at most 1.5 bits (effective number of bits) thanks to the more stable supply voltage. The method is versatile and robust, enabling seamless porting to other FPGA families and configurations.

  10. Design techniques for a stable operation of cryogenic field-programmable gate arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homulle, Harald; Visser, Stefan; Patra, Bishnu; Charbon, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we show how a deep-submicron field-programmable gate array (FPGA) can be operated more stably at extremely low temperatures through special firmware design techniques. Stability at low temperatures is limited through long power supply wires and reduced performance of various printed circuit board components commonly employed at room temperature. Extensive characterization of these components shows that the majority of decoupling capacitor types and voltage regulators are not well behaved at cryogenic temperatures, asking for an ad hoc solution to stabilize the FPGA supply voltage, especially for sensitive applications. Therefore, we have designed a firmware that enforces a constant power consumption, so as to stabilize the supply voltage in the interior of the FPGA. The FPGA is powered with a supply at several meters distance, causing significant resistive voltage drop and thus fluctuations on the local supply voltage. To achieve the stabilization, the variation in digital logic speed, which directly corresponds to changes in supply voltage, is constantly measured and corrected for through a tunable oscillator farm, implemented on the FPGA. The impact of the stabilization technique is demonstrated together with a reconfigurable analog-to-digital converter (ADC), completely implemented in the FPGA fabric and operating at 15 K. The ADC performance can be improved by at most 1.5 bits (effective number of bits) thanks to the more stable supply voltage. The method is versatile and robust, enabling seamless porting to other FPGA families and configurations.

  11. Biogeomorphic feedback between plant growth and flooding causes alternative stable states in an experimental floodplain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Wang, Q.; Meire, D.; Ma, W.; Wu, C.; Meng, Z.; van de Koppel, J.; Troch, P.; Verhoeven, R.; De Mulder, T.; Temmerman, S.

    2016-01-01

    It is important to understand the mechanisms of vegetation establishment on bare substrate in a disturbance-driven ecosystem because of many valuable ecosystem services. This study tested for empirical indications of local alternative stable states controlled by biogeomorphic feedbacks using flume

  12. Soluble and stable heptazethrenebis(dicarboximide) with a singlet open-shell ground state

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Zhe

    2011-08-10

    A soluble and stable heptazethrene derivative was synthesized and characterized for the first time. This molecule exhibits a singlet biradical character in the ground state, which is the first case among zethrene homologue series. Exceptional stability of this heptazethrenebis(dicarboximide) raises the likelihood of its practical applications in materials science. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Study on the flow reduction of forced flow superconducting magnet and its stable operation condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The forced flow superconducting coil especially made from a Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) is applied for large-scale devices such as fusion magnets and superconducting magnet energy storage (SMES) because it has high mechanical and electrical performance potential. The flow reduction phenomena caused by AC loss generation due to the pulsed operation was found based on the experimental results of three forced flow superconducting coils. And relation between the AC loss generation and flow reduction was defined from viewpoint of the engineering design and operation of the coils. Also the mechanism of flow reduction was investigated and stable operation condition under the flow reduction was clarified for forced flow superconducting coils. First, experiments of three different large-scale superconducting coils were carried out and experimental database of the flow reduction by AC loss generation was established. It was found experimentally that the flow reduction depends on the AC loss generation (W/m{sup 3}) in all of coils. It means the stable operation condition is defined not only the electro magnetism of superconducting coil but also flow condition. Mechanism of the flow reduction was investigated based on the experimental database. Hydraulics was applied to supercritical helium as a coolant. Also performances of the cryogenic pump by which coolant are supplied to the coil and friction of the superconductor as cooling path is considered for hydraulic estimation. The flow reduction of the coil is clarified and predictable by the equations of continuity, momentum and energy balance. Also total mass flow rate of coolant was discussed. The estimation method in the design phase was developed for total mass flow rate which are required under the flow reduction by AC losses. The friction of the superconductor and performance of cryogenic pump should be required for precise prediction of flow reduction. These values were obtained by the experiment data of coil and

  14. Continuous control of asymmetric forebody vortices in a bi-stable state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-te; Cheng, Ke-ming; Gu, Yun-song; Li, Zhuo-qi

    2018-02-01

    Aiming at the problem of continuous control of asymmetric forebody vortices at a high angle of attack in a bi-stable regime, a dual synthetic jet actuator embedded in an ogive forebody was designed. Alternating unsteady disturbance with varying degree asymmetrical flow fields near the nozzles is generated by adjusting the duty cycle of the drive signal of the actuator, specifically embodying the asymmetric time-averaged pattern of jet velocity, vorticity, and turbulent kinetic energy. Experimental results show that within the range of relatively high angles of attack, including the angle-of-attack region in a bi-stable state, the lateral force of the ogive forebody is continuously controlled by adjusting the duty cycle of the drive signal; the position of the forebody vortices in space, the vorticity magnitude, the total pressure coefficient near the vortex core, and the vortex breakdown location are continuously changed with the duty cycle increased observed from the time-averaged flow field. Instantaneous flow field results indicate that although the forebody vortices are in an unsteady oscillation state, a continuous change in the forebody vortices' oscillation balance position as the duty cycle increases leads to a continuous change in the model's surface pressure distribution and time-averaged lateral force. Different from the traditional control principle, in this study, other different degree asymmetrical states of the forebody vortices except the bi-stable state are obtained using the dual synthetic jet control technology.

  15. Split degenerate states and stable p+ip phases from holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Zhang-Yu; Zeng, Hui [Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Pan, Qiyuan [Hunan Normal Univ., Key Lab. of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Dept. of Physics, Changsha (China); Zeng, Hua-Bi [Yangzhou University, College of Physics Science and Technology, Yangzhou, Jiangsu (China); National Central University, Department of Physics, Chungli (China)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, we investigate the p+ip superfluid phases in the complex vector field holographic p-wave model. We find that in the probe limit, the p+ip phase and the p-wave phase are equally stable, hence the p and ip orders can be mixed with an arbitrary ratio to form more general p+λip phases, which are also equally stable with the p-wave and p+ip phases. As a result, the system possesses a degenerate thermal state in the superfluid region. We further study the case on considering the back-reaction on the metric, and we find that the degenerate ground states will be separated into p-wave and p+ip phases, and the p-wave phase is more stable. Finally, due to the different critical temperature of the zeroth order phase transitions from p-wave and p+ip phases to the normal phase, there is a temperature region where the p+ip phase exists but the p-wave phase does not. In this region we find the stable holographic p+ip phase for the first time. (orig.)

  16. On Nash Equilibrium and Evolutionarily Stable States That Are Not Characterised by the Folk Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawei; Kendall, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In evolutionary game theory, evolutionarily stable states are characterised by the folk theorem because exact solutions to the replicator equation are difficult to obtain. It is generally assumed that the folk theorem, which is the fundamental theory for non-cooperative games, defines all Nash equilibria in infinitely repeated games. Here, we prove that Nash equilibria that are not characterised by the folk theorem do exist. By adopting specific reactive strategies, a group of players can be better off by coordinating their actions in repeated games. We call it a type-k equilibrium when a group of k players coordinate their actions and they have no incentive to deviate from their strategies simultaneously. The existence and stability of the type-k equilibrium in general games is discussed. This study shows that the sets of Nash equilibria and evolutionarily stable states have greater cardinality than classic game theory has predicted in many repeated games. PMID:26288088

  17. A 2015 comparison of operational performance : Washington state ferries to ferry operators worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides an update to the 2010 report A Comparison of Operational Performance: : Washington State Ferries to Ferry Operators Worldwide, observing changes in Washington State : Ferries, 23 other ferry systems, and the ferry industry ...

  18. Transition of Facilities at Hanford to a Stable and Low Cost State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAILEY, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will discuss the implications of focusing on end states and interim end points in the deactivation planning process and managing the budget and personnel to achieve these end points as a ''project,'' not another phase of operations

  19. State of the Art: Blood Biomarkers for Risk Stratification in Patients with Stable Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omland, Torbjørn; White, Harvey D

    2017-01-01

    Multiple circulating biomarkers have been associated with the incidence of cardiovascular events and proposed as potential tools for risk stratification in stable ischemic heart disease (IHD), yet current guidelines do not make any firm recommendations concerning the use of biomarkers for risk stratification in this setting. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of biomarkers for risk stratification in stable IHD. Circulating biomarkers associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with stable IHD reflect different pathophysiological processes, including myocardial injury, myocardial stress and remodeling, metabolic status, vascular inflammation, and oxidative stress. Compared to the primary prevention setting, biomarkers reflecting end-organ damage and future risk of heart failure development and cardiovascular death may play more important roles in the stable IHD setting. Accordingly, biomarkers that reflect chronic, low-grade myocardial injury, and stress, i.e., high-sensitivity cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides, provide graded and incremental prognostic information to conventional risk markers. In contrast, in stable IHD patients the prognostic value of traditional metabolic biomarkers, including serum lipids, is limited. Among several novel biomarkers, growth-differentiation factor-15 may provide the most robust prognostic information, whereas most inflammatory markers provide limited incremental prognostic information to risk factor models that include conventional risk factors, natriuretic peptides, and high-sensitivity troponins. Circulating biomarkers hold promise as useful tools for risk stratification in stable IHD, but their future incorporation into clinically useful risk scores will depend on prospective, rigorously performed clinical trials that document enhanced risk prediction. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  20. Stable π-Extended p -Quinodimethanes: Synthesis and Tunable Ground States

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Zebing

    2014-12-18

    © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. p-Quinodimethane (p-QDM) is a highly reactive hydrocarbon showing large biradical character in the ground state. It has been demonstrated that incorporation of the p-QDM moiety into an aromatic hydrocarbon framework could lead to new π-conjugated systems with significant biradical character and unique optical, electronic and magnetic properties. On the other hand, the extension of p-QDM is expected to result in molecules with even larger biradical character and higher reactivity. Therefore, the synthesis of stable π-extended p-QDMs is very challenging. In this Personal Account we will briefly discuss different stabilizing strategies and synthetic methods towards stable π-extended p-QDMs with tunable ground states and physical properties, including two types of polycyclic hydrocarbons: (1) tetrabenzo-Tschitschibabin\\'s hydrocarbons, and (2) tetracyano-rylenequinodimethanes. We will discuss how the aromaticity, substituents and steric hindrance play important roles in determining their ground states and properties. Incorporation of the p-quinodimethane moiety into aromatic hydrocarbon frameworks can lead to new π-conjugated systems with significant biradical character and unique optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Furthermore, the extension of p-QDM is expected to result in molecules with even larger biradical character and higher reactivity. In this Personal Account, different stabilizing strategies and synthetic methods towards stable π-extended p-QDMs with tunable ground states and physical properties are briefly discussed, including the roles of aromaticity, substituents and steric hindrance.

  1. 2014 Highlights of Ferry Operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Based on information provided by operators who responded to the 2014 National Census of Ferry Operators (NCFO), the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) conservatively estimates that ferries in the United States carried just over 115 million pas...

  2. Operator properties of generalized coherent state systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Generalized coherent states; diagonal representation; induced representation theory. PACS Nos 03.65.-w; 03.65.Ca; 02.20.Qs. 1. Introduction ... sations of the coherent state concept due respectively to Klauder [1] and to Perelomov [2]; ..... ½ ¾, namely in the defining UIR of SU(2), for any choice of ¼ we have: А¼.

  3. A study of a stable Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal in solid and liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lifan; Chen Xishen

    1992-01-01

    A stable Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 quasicrystal with an icosahedral structure is studied in solid and liquid state. It is found that the icosahedral phase in Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 alloy does not grow directly from the pure liquid state, but rather forms between monoclinic Al 13 Fe 4 and residual liquid state at 865degC. The melting point of the Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 icosahedral quasicrystal occurs at 865degC and that of the Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 alloy occurs at 1008degC. Moreover, the monoclinic Al 13 Fe 4 is transformed into the icosahedral phase easily at the temperature of 845degC. The icosahedral quasicrystal in Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 alloy has a high thermal stability even at 950degC. Above 950degC, the icosahedral structure tends to an amorphous structure. (orig.)

  4. Muon-Substituted Malonaldehyde: Transforming a Transition State into a Stable Structure by Isotope Substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Mohammad; Shahbazian, Shant

    2016-02-12

    Isotope substitutions are usually conceived to play a marginal role on the structure and bonding pattern of molecules. However, a recent study [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 13706-13709; Angew. Chem. 2014, 126, 13925-13929] further demonstrates that upon replacing a proton with a positively charged muon, as the lightest radioisotope of hydrogen, radical changes in the nature of the structure and bonding of certain species may take place. The present report is a primary attempt to introduce another example of structural transformation on the basis of the malonaldehyde system. Accordingly, upon replacing the proton between the two oxygen atoms of malonaldehyde with the positively charged muon a serious structural transformation is observed. By using the ab initio nuclear-electronic orbital non-Born-Oppenheimer procedure, the nuclear configuration of the muon-substituted species is derived. The resulting nuclear configuration is much more similar to the transition state of the proton transfer in malonaldehyde rather than to the stable configuration of malonaldehyde. The comparison of the "atoms in molecules" (AIM) structure of the muon-substituted malonaldehyde and the AIM structure of the stable and the transition-state configurations of malonaldehyde also unequivocally demonstrates substantial similarities of the muon-substituted malonaldehyde to the transition state. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Changes of Respiratory Mechanics in COPD Patients from Stable State to Acute Exacerbations with Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriana, Piero; Vitacca, Michele; Carlucci, Annalisa; Paneroni, Mara; Pisani, Lara; Nava, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    Symptoms, clinical course, functional and biological data during an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EXCOPD) have been investigated, but data on physiological changes of respiratory mechanics during a severe exacerbation with respiratory acidosis requiring noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) are scant. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes of respiratory mechanics in COPD patients comparing data observed during EXCOPD with those observed during stable state in the recovery phase. In 18 COPD patients having severe EXCOPD requiring NIMV for global respiratory failure, we measured respiratory mechanics during both EXCOPD (T0) and once the patients achieved a stable state (T1). The diaphragm and inspiratory muscles effort was significantly increased under relapse, as well as the pressure-time product of the diaphragm and the inspiratory muscle (PTPdi and PTPes). The resistive loads to breathe (i.e., PEEPi,dyn, compliance and inspiratory resistances) were also markedly increased, while the maximal pressures generated by the diaphragm and the inspiratory muscles, together with forced expired volumes were decreased. All these indices statistically improved but with a great intrasubject variability in stable condition. Moreover, tension-time index (TTdi) significantly improved from the EXCOPD state to the condition of clinical stability (0.156 ± 0.04 at T0 vs. 0.082 ± 0.02 at T1 p < 0.001). During an EXCOPD, the load/capacity of the respiratory pump is impaired, and although the patients exhibit a rapid shallow breathing pattern, this does not necessarily correlate with a TTdi ≥ 0.15. These changes are reverted once they recover from the EXCOPD, despite a large variability between patients.

  6. Laws and regulations of laser operation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiorgio, Catherine M; Avram, Mathew M

    2018-02-05

    The laws and regulations governing laser operation in the United States are vague, complex, and vary state-to-state. The objective of this study is to present an overview of the laws and regulations of laser operation in each of the 50 states. We performed an extensive online search of the law in each of the 50 states by examining multiple state cosmetology boards, state legislative boards, state nursing boards, and state medical boards. Laser regulations are best divided into three categories: delegation, supervision, and operation. Our findings demonstrate the complicated nature of the regulations covering this issue and identify a lack of regulation in numerous states. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Solid State Circuits for Cryogenic Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrac, D.; Spencer, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Tests confirm operation of five commercial semiconductor devices at cryogenic temperatures. The five devices - one tunnel diode, one field-effect transistor, and three CMOS integrated circuits - all perform well in circuits immersed in liquid-helium bath. For some tests, bath temperature was reduced to 1,25K by pumping.

  8. Spatial variations in food web structures with alternative stable states: evidence from stable isotope analysis in a large eutrophic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunkai; Zhang, Yuying; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Shuo

    2017-05-01

    Food web structures are well known to vary widely among ecosystems. Moreover, many food web studies of lakes have generally attempted to characterize the overall food web structure and have largely ignored internal spatial and environmental variations. In this study, we hypothesize that there is a high degree of spatial heterogeneity within an ecosystem and such heterogeneity may lead to strong variations in environmental conditions and resource availability, in turn resulting in different trophic pathways. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were employed for the whole food web to describe the structure of the food web in different sub-basins within Taihu Lake. This lake is a large eutrophic freshwater lake that has been intensively managed and highly influenced by human activities for more than 50 years. The results show significant isotopic differences between basins with different environmental characteristics. Such differences likely result from isotopic baseline differences combining with a shift in food web structure. Both are related to local spatial heterogeneity in nutrient loading in waters. Such variation should be explicitly considered in future food web studies and ecosystem-based management in this lake ecosystem.

  9. Present state of Tevatron lower temperature operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, B.L.

    1996-09-01

    Fermilab continues to work on raising the particle energy of the Tevatron by lowering magnet temperatures using cold vapor compressors. In 1995, another two rounds of power tests were completed. These power tests, although showing significant improvement over the initial tests of 1993-94, have led to the conclusion that 1000 GeV operation cannot be attained without replacing/rearranging magnets with lower quench currents before the next Collider Run in 1999. Development of more cold compressor control strategies also continues

  10. A State Cyber Hub Operations Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    all National Guard equities are considered, represented, and factored into all Cyber Hub decisions .) V. TIMELINE: Effective on date of signature...Analyses (IDA) under contract HQ0034-14-D-0001, Task BK-5-3889, “Creating an Affordable Strategy for Policy Issuance and Buying Power for the DoD CIO...structures and organizations. The framework presented in this document is the culmination of discussions and decisions regarding state cyber

  11. Operational Efficiency of Public Transport System in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the operations of Public Transport in Nigeria using the Kwara State Transport Service as a case study. Public transportation service in Nigeria is provided by both the public and private operators. While the public Corporations are established by governments, private service operations are ...

  12. Steady-state Operational Characteristics of Ghana Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steady state operational characteristics of the 30 kW tank-in-pool type reactor named Ghana Research Reactor-1 were investigated after a successful on-site zero power critical experiments. The steadystate operational character-istics determined were the thermal neutron fluxes, maximum period of operation at nominal ...

  13. Operator functional state assessment for adaptive automation implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Glenn F.

    2005-05-01

    Mission success in military operations depends upon optimal functioning of all system components, including the human operator. The cognitive demands of current systems can exceed the capabilities of the human operator. In some situations, such as Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) operations, one operator may be required to supervise several vehicles simultaneously. The functional state of the human operator is not currently considered in the overall system assessment. It has been assumed that the operator could "manage" any situation given a well designed system. However, with the requirement to monitor and remotely monitor several vehicles simultaneously during combat comes the possibility of cognitive overload. This increases the probability of committing errors. We have developed on-line measures of operator functional state using psychophysiological measures. These measures provide estimates of how well an operator can deal with the current task demands. When the operator is cognitively overloaded the system may be able to implement adaptive aiding procedures. This will reduce the task demands on the operator thereby improving mission success. We have demonstrated correct assessment of the functional state of the operator with accuracies of 95% or better. Psychophysiological measures were used with classifiers such as artificial neural networks. In one study, adaptive aiding was applied when the classifier determined operator overload. The aiding resulted in significantly improved performance.

  14. Recent advancement in research and planning toward high beta steady state operation in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeon Keo; Hong, S.; Humphreys, D.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) research is to explore stable improved confinement regimes and technical challenge for superconducting tokamak operation and thus, to establish the basis for predictable high beta steady state tokamak plasma operation. To fulfil the goal, the current KSTAR research program is composed of three elements: 1) Exploration of anticipated engineering and technology for a stable long pulse operation of high beta plasmas including Edge Localized Mode (ELM) control with the low n (=1, 2) Resonant Magnetic Perturbation (RMP) using in-vessel control coils and innovative non-inductive current drives. The achieved long pulse operation up to ∼50s and fully non-inductive current drive will be combined in the future. Study of efficient heat exhaust will be combined with an innovative divertor design/operation. 2) Exploration of the operation boundary through establishment of true stability limits of the harmful MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) instabilities and confinement of the tokamak plasmas in KSTAR, making use of the lowest error field and magnetic ripple simultaneously achieved among all tokamaks ever built. The intrinsic machine error field has a long history of research as the source of MHD instabilities and magnetic ripple is known to be a cause of energy loss in the plasma. The achieved high beta discharges at β N ∼4 and stable discharges at q 95 (∼2) will be further improved. 3) Validation of theoretical modeling of MHD instabilities and turbulence toward predictive capability of stable high beta plasmas. In support of these research goals, the state of the art diagnostic systems, such as Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) system in addition to accurate profile diagnostics, are deployed not only to provide precise 2D/3D information of the MHD instabilities and turbulence but also to challenge unresolved physics problems such as the nature of ELMs, ELM-crash dynamics and the role of the core

  15. Enhancing the Art of Space Operations - Progress in JHU/APL Ultra-Stable Oscillator Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    solution for robust extraterrestrial clocks with an operational life requirement greater than 10 years. Disciplined USO systems could be placed in very...timing system needs for future robotic science missions and human exploration. These recommendations include the notional deployment of a solar system ...valuable to the operations of space communication and navigation systems . Ultimately, we expect that the call for expanded mission requirements

  16. Stable Isotope Identification of Nitrogen Sources for United States (U.S.) Pacific Coast Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. A.; Kaldy, J. E.; Fong, P.; Fong, C.; Mochon Collura, T.; Clinton, P.

    2016-02-01

    Nutrients are the leading cause of water quality impairments in the United States, and as a result tools are needed to identify the sources of nutrients. We used natural abundance stable isotope data to evaluate nitrogen sources to U.S. west coast estuaries. We collected macroalgae and analyzed these samples for natural abundance of stable isotopes (δ15N) and supplemented this with available data from the literature for estuaries from Mexico to Alaska. Stable isotope ratios of green macroalgae were compared to δ15N of dissolved inorganic nitrogen of oceanic and watershed end members. There was a latitudinal gradient in δ15N of macroalgae with southern estuaries being 7 per mil heavier than northern estuaries. Gradients in isotope data were compared to nitrogen sources estimated by the USGS using the SPARROW model. In California estuaries, the elevation of isotope data appeared to be related to anthropogenic nitrogen sources. In Oregon systems, the nitrogen levels of streams flowing into the estuaries are related to forest cover, rather than to developed land classes. In Oregon estuaries, the δ15N of macroalgae suggested that the ocean and nitrogen-fixing trees in the watersheds were the dominant nitrogen sources with heavier sites located near the estuary mouth. In California estuaries, the gradient was reversed with heavier sites located upriver. In some Oregon estuaries, there was an elevation an elevation of δ15N above marine end members in the vicinity of wastewater treatment facility discharge locations, suggesting isotopes may be useful for distinguishing inputs along an estuarine gradient.

  17. Effects of marine protected areas on overfished fishing stocks with multiple stable states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashina, Nao; Mougi, Akihiko

    2014-01-21

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have attracted much attention as a tool for sustainable fisheries management, restoring depleted fisheries stocks and maintaining ecosystems. However, even with total exclusion of fishing effort, depleted stocks sometimes show little or no recovery over a long time period. Here, using a mathematical model, we show that multiple stable states may hold the key to understanding the tendency for fisheries stocks to recover because of MPAs. We find that MPAs can have either a positive effect or almost no effect on the recovery of depleted fishing stocks, depending on the fish migration patterns and the fishing policies. MPAs also reinforce ecological resilience, particularly for migratory species. In contrast to previous reports, our results show that MPAs have small or sometimes negative effects on the recovery of sedentary species. Unsuitable MPA planning might result in low effectiveness or even deterioration of the existing condition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mowing Submerged Macrophytes in Shallow Lakes with Alternative Stable States: Battling the Good Guys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Jan J.; Verhofstad, Michiel J. J. M.; Louwers, Evelien L. M.; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Brederveld, Robert J.; van Gerven, Luuk P. A.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; de Klein, Jeroen J. M.; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2017-04-01

    Submerged macrophytes play an important role in maintaining good water quality in shallow lakes. Yet extensive stands easily interfere with various services provided by these lakes, and harvesting is increasingly applied as a management measure. Because shallow lakes may possess alternative stable states over a wide range of environmental conditions, designing a successful mowing strategy is challenging, given the important role of macrophytes in stabilizing the clear water state. In this study, the integrated ecosystem model PCLake is used to explore the consequences of mowing, in terms of reducing nuisance and ecosystem stability, for a wide range of external nutrient loadings, mowing intensities and timings. Elodea is used as a model species. Additionally, we use PCLake to estimate how much phosphorus is removed with the harvested biomass, and evaluate the long-term effect of harvesting. Our model indicates that mowing can temporarily reduce nuisance caused by submerged plants in the first weeks after cutting, particularly when external nutrient loading is fairly low. The risk of instigating a regime shift can be tempered by mowing halfway the growing season when the resilience of the system is highest, as our model showed. Up to half of the phosphorus entering the system can potentially be removed along with the harvested biomass. As a result, prolonged mowing can prevent an oligo—to mesotrophic lake from becoming eutrophic to a certain extent, as our model shows that the critical nutrient loading, where the lake shifts to the turbid phytoplankton-dominated state, can be slightly increased.

  19. Stable Single-Mode Operation of Distributed Feedback Quantum Cascade Laser by Optimized Reflectivity Facet Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Jin-Chuan; Cheng, Feng-Min; Zhao, Yue; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Shu-Man; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2018-02-02

    In this work, quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based on strain compensation combined with two-phonon resonance design are presented. Distributed feedback (DFB) laser emitting at ~ 4.76 μm was fabricated through a standard buried first-order grating and buried heterostructure (BH) processing. Stable single-mode emission is achieved under all injection currents and temperature conditions without any mode hop by the optimized antireflection (AR) coating on the front facet. The AR coating consists of a double layer dielectric of Al 2 O 3 and Ge. For a 2-mm laser cavity, the maximum output power of the AR-coated DFB-QCL was more than 170 mW at 20 °C with a high wall-plug efficiency (WPE) of 4.7% in a continuous-wave (CW) mode.

  20. Operational State Complexity of Deterministic Unranked Tree Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Piao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the state complexity of basic operations on tree languages recognized by deterministic unranked tree automata. For the operations of union and intersection the upper and lower bounds of both weakly and strongly deterministic tree automata are obtained. For tree concatenation we establish a tight upper bound that is of a different order than the known state complexity of concatenation of regular string languages. We show that (n+1 ( (m+12^n-2^(n-1 -1 vertical states are sufficient, and necessary in the worst case, to recognize the concatenation of tree languages recognized by (strongly or weakly deterministic automata with, respectively, m and n vertical states.

  1. [Startup, stable operation and process failure of EBPR system under the low temperature and low dissolved oxygen condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Juan; Li, Lu; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Wei, Xue-Fen; Liu, Juan-Li

    2015-02-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was started up and operated with alternating anaerobic/oxic (An/O) to perform enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) under the condition of 13-16 degrees C. The results showed that under the condition of low temperature, the EBPR system was successfully started up in a short time (<6 d). The reactor achieved a high and stable phosphorus removal performance with an influent phosphate concentration of 20 mg x L(-1) and the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of 2 mg x L(-1). The effluent phosphate concentration was lower than 0.5 mg x L(-1). It was found that decreasing DO had an influence on the steady operation of EBPR system. As DO concentration of aerobic phase decreased from 2 mg x L(-1) to 1 mg x L(-1), the system could still perform EBPR and the phosphorus removal efficiency was greater than 97.4%. However, the amount of phosphate released during anaerobic phase was observed to decrease slightly compared with that of 2 mg x L(-1) DO condition. Moreover, the phosphorus removal performance of the system deteriorated immediately and the effluent phosphate concentration couldn't meet the national integrated wastewater discharge standard when DO concentration was further lowered to 0.5 mg x L(-1). The experiments of increasing DO to recover phosphorus removal performance of the EBPR suggested the process failure resulted from low DO was not reversible in the short-term. It was also found that the batch tests of anoxic phosphorus uptake using nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors had an impact on the stable operation of EBPR system, whereas the resulting negative influence could be recovered within 6 cycles. In addition, the mixed liquid suspended solids (MLSS) of the EBPR system remained stable and the sludge volume index (SVI) decreased to a certain extend in a long run, implying long-term low temperature and low DO condition favored the sludge sedimentation.

  2. Interconversion of pure Gaussian states requiring non-Gaussian operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Michael G.; García-Patrón, Raúl; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the conditions under which local operations and classical communication enable entanglement transformations between bipartite pure Gaussian states. A set of necessary and sufficient conditions had been found [G. Giedke et al., Quant. Inf. Comput. 3, 211 (2003)] for the interconversion between such states that is restricted to Gaussian local operations and classical communication. Here, we exploit majorization theory in order to derive more general (sufficient) conditions for the interconversion between bipartite pure Gaussian states that goes beyond Gaussian local operations. While our technique is applicable to an arbitrary number of modes for each party, it allows us to exhibit surprisingly simple examples of 2 ×2 Gaussian states that necessarily require non-Gaussian local operations to be transformed into each other.

  3. Numerical analysis of Markov-perfect equilibria with multiple stable steady states : A duopoly application with innovative firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawid, H.; Keoula, M.Y.; Kort, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical method for the characterization of Markov-perfect equilibria of symmetric differential games exhibiting coexisting stable steady states. The method relying on the calculation of ‘local value functions’ through collocation in overlapping parts of the state space, is

  4. Thermal-hydraulic experiment for safe and stable operation of a PIUS-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, K.; Imai, S.; Masaoka, H.; Irianto, I.D.; Kohketsu, H.; Tamaki, M.; Anoda, Y.; Murata, H.; Kukita, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A new automatic pump speed control system by using a measurement of the temperature distribution in the lower density lock is proposed for the PIUS-type reactor. This control system maintains the fluid temperature at the axial center of the lower density lock at the average of the fluid temperatures below and above the density lock in order to prevent the poison water from penetrating into the core during normal operation. The effectiveness of this control system was successfully confirmed by a series of experiments such as start-up and power ramping tests for normal operation simulation and a loss of feedwater test for an accident condition simulation, using a small scale atmospheric pressure test loop which simulated the PIUS principle. (author)

  5. New newspaper printing control system in stable operation; Shin shinbun insatsu shirei system antei kadochu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Toshiba delivered the integrated operation data (ordered number of copies, negative plate information, printing number of copies, delivery number of copies) management system to the newspaper printing division of Tonichi Printing Co. The system adopts WindowsNT{sup reg sign} as OS, industrial PC FA3100 as key component, optical control communication LAN (TOSLINE{sub TM}- S20(optical)) for realtime data transmission, and de facto standard Ethernet for transmission of tremendous event operation data. Two FA3100 connected with each other for backup by distributed processing were prepared for monitoring and direction to reduce system load. This system is an open extendible system applicable to other industrial fields. (translated by NEDO)

  6. The Domain of Normal Attraction of an Operator-Stable Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, William N.; Mason, J. David; Veeh, Jerry Alan

    1983-01-01

    The idea of the domain of normal attraction was earlier extended to probabilities on a finite-dimensional inner-product space. We obtain a necessary and sufficient condition that a probability be in the domain of normal attraction of a given probability in terms of their covariance operators and of a limit involving the Levy measure. This condition appears to be the natural generalization of the corresponding univariate condition. We also show that the domains of normal attraction of two prob...

  7. Design optimization of MR-compatible rotating anode x-ray tubes for stable operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Mihye; Lillaney, Prasheel; Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Hybrid x-ray/MR systems can enhance the diagnosis and treatment of endovascular, cardiac, and neurologic disorders by using the complementary advantages of both modalities for image guidance during interventional procedures. Conventional rotating anode x-ray tubes fail near an MR imaging system, since MR fringe fields create eddy currents in the metal rotor which cause a reduction in the rotation speed of the x-ray tube motor. A new x-ray tube motor prototype has been designed and built to be operated close to a magnet. To ensure the stability and safety of the motor operation, dynamic characteristics must be analyzed to identify possible modes of mechanical failure. In this study a 3D finite element method (FEM) model was developed in order to explore possible modifications, and to optimize the motor design. The FEM provides a valuable tool that permits testing and evaluation using numerical simulation instead of building multiple prototypes.Methods: Two experimental approaches were used to measure resonance characteristics: the first obtained the angular speed curves of the x-ray tube motor employing an angle encoder; the second measured the power spectrum using a spectrum analyzer, in which the large amplitude of peaks indicates large vibrations. An estimate of the bearing stiffness is required to generate an accurate FEM model of motor operation. This stiffness depends on both the bearing geometry and adjacent structures (e.g., the number of balls, clearances, preload, etc.) in an assembly, and is therefore unknown. This parameter was set by matching the FEM results to measurements carried out with the anode attached to the motor, and verified by comparing FEM predictions and measurements with the anode removed. The validated FEM model was then used to sweep through design parameters [bearing stiffness (1×10 5 –5×10 7 N/m), shaft diameter (0.372–0.625 in.), rotor diameter (2.4–2.9 in.), and total length of motor (5.66–7.36 in.)] to increase

  8. Design optimization of MR-compatible rotating anode x-ray tubes for stable operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Mihye [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Lillaney, Prasheel [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Hybrid x-ray/MR systems can enhance the diagnosis and treatment of endovascular, cardiac, and neurologic disorders by using the complementary advantages of both modalities for image guidance during interventional procedures. Conventional rotating anode x-ray tubes fail near an MR imaging system, since MR fringe fields create eddy currents in the metal rotor which cause a reduction in the rotation speed of the x-ray tube motor. A new x-ray tube motor prototype has been designed and built to be operated close to a magnet. To ensure the stability and safety of the motor operation, dynamic characteristics must be analyzed to identify possible modes of mechanical failure. In this study a 3D finite element method (FEM) model was developed in order to explore possible modifications, and to optimize the motor design. The FEM provides a valuable tool that permits testing and evaluation using numerical simulation instead of building multiple prototypes.Methods: Two experimental approaches were used to measure resonance characteristics: the first obtained the angular speed curves of the x-ray tube motor employing an angle encoder; the second measured the power spectrum using a spectrum analyzer, in which the large amplitude of peaks indicates large vibrations. An estimate of the bearing stiffness is required to generate an accurate FEM model of motor operation. This stiffness depends on both the bearing geometry and adjacent structures (e.g., the number of balls, clearances, preload, etc.) in an assembly, and is therefore unknown. This parameter was set by matching the FEM results to measurements carried out with the anode attached to the motor, and verified by comparing FEM predictions and measurements with the anode removed. The validated FEM model was then used to sweep through design parameters [bearing stiffness (1×10{sup 5}–5×10{sup 7} N/m), shaft diameter (0.372–0.625 in.), rotor diameter (2.4–2.9 in.), and total length of motor (5.66–7.36 in.)] to

  9. Feedback control of a primary pump for safe and stable operation of a PIUS-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, K.; Imai, S.; Masaoka, H.; Tamaki, M.; Kukita, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A new automatic pump speed control system by using a measurement of the temperature distribution in the lower density lock is proposed for the PIUS-type reactor. This control system maintains the fluid temperature at the axial center of the lower density lock at the average of the fluid temperatures below and above the density lock in order to prevent the poison water from penetrating into the core during normal operation. The effectiveness of this control system was successfully confirmed by a series of experiments such as start-up and power ramping tests for the stable normal operation and a loss-of-feedwater test for the safe shutdown in an accident condition, using a small scale atmospheric pressure test loop which simulated the PIUS principle. (orig.)

  10. Plant operational states analysis in low power and shutdown PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiandong; Qiu Yongping; Zhang Qinfang; An Hongzhen; Li Maolin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of Plant Operational States (POS) analysis is to disperse the continuous and dynamic process of low power and shutdown operation, which is the basis of developing event tree models for accident sequence analysis. According to the design of a 300 MW Nuclear Power Plant Project, operating experience and procedures of the reference plant, a detailed POS analysis is carried out based on relative criteria. Then, several kinds of POS are obtained, and the duration of each POS is calculated according to the operation records of the reference plant. The POS analysis is an important element in low power and shutdown PSA. The methodology and contents provide reference for POS analysis. (authors)

  11. Experimental evaluation of stable long term operation of semiconductor magnetic sensors at ITER relevant environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bolshakova, I.; Belyaev, S.; Bulavin, M.; Brudnyi, V.; Chekanov, V.; Coccorese, V.; Ďuran, Ivan; Gerasimov, S.; Holyaka, R.; Kargin, N.; Konopleva, R.; Kost, Ya.; Kuech, T.; Kulikov, S.; Makido, O.; Moreau, Ph.; Murari, A.; Quercia, A.; Shurygin, F.; Strikhanov, M.; Timoshyn, S.; Vasil’evskii, I.; Vinichenko, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 8 (2015), 083006-083006 ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2055 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Hall sensors * 3D probes * steady state * magnetic measurement instrumentation * tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2015 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0029-5515/55/8/083006/meta;jsessionid=534DB19F0353E8F68E6E558F2A324088.c2.iopscience.cld.iop.org

  12. Present state and problems of the measures for securing stable supply of uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Fumishige

    1982-01-01

    The long-term stable supply of uranium resources must be secured in order to accelerate the development and utilization of nuclear power in Japan. All uranium required in Japan is imported from foreign countries, and depends on small number of suppliers. On the use of uranium, various restrictions have been imposed by bilateral agreements from the viewpoint of nuclear non-proliferation policy. At present, the demand-supply relation in uranium market is not stringent, but in the latter half of 1980s, it is feared that it will be stringent. The prospect of the demand and supply of uranium resources, the state of securing uranium resources, the present policy on uranium resources, the necessity of establishing the new policy, and the active promotion of uranium resource measures are described. The measures to be taken are the promotion of exploration and development of mines, the participation in the management of such foreign projects, the promotion of diversifying the supply sources, the establishment of the structure to accept uranium resources, the promotion of the storage of uranium, and the rearrangement of general coordination and promotion functions for uranium resource procurement. (Kako, I.)

  13. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of sirolimus in stable adult Chinese renal transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huifen Faye; Qiu, Feng; Wu, Xiongfe; Fang, Juanzhi; Crownover, Penelope; Korth-Bradley, Joan; Schulman, Seth

    2014-05-01

    This open-label, nonrandomized study was conducted to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics of sirolimus in 24 stable Chinese renal transplant patients receiving daily oral maintenance doses of sirolimus (1-4 mg). Repeated trough and serial whole blood sirolimus concentrations over a 24-hour dosing interval were collected and assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). Non-compartmental analysis (NCA) was employed to calculate sirolimus pharmacokinetic parameters. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A5 genotyping was performed. Cyclosporine (CsA) levels were determined for patients who took concomitant CsA. Mean (±SD) sirolimus maximum concentration (Cmax ), area under the concentration-time curve within a dosing interval of τ (AUCτ ), oral clearance (CL/F), and trough concentration (Ctrough ) at steady state were: 14.1 ± 13.4 ng/mL, 199 ± 210 ng · h/mL, 10.1 ± 4.4 L/h, and 5.9 ± 6.3 ng/mL, respectively. Median tmax (range) was 2.49 hours (1-12 hours). A strong correlation was observed between Ctrough and AUCτ . Pharmacokinetics of sirolimus in patients with and without concomitant CsA were comparable. Allele frequency of CYP3A5*3 was 70.9% and a trend of higher oral clearance was observed in CYP3A5 expressers compared with non-expressers although the number of subjects in each genotype was small. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  14. Estimation of pump operational state with model-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, Tero; Tamminen, Jussi; Ahola, Jero; Viholainen, Juha; Aranto, Niina; Kestilae, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Pumps are widely used in industry, and they account for 20% of the industrial electricity consumption. Since the speed variation is often the most energy-efficient method to control the head and flow rate of a centrifugal pump, frequency converters are used with induction motor-driven pumps. Although a frequency converter can estimate the operational state of an induction motor without external measurements, the state of a centrifugal pump or other load machine is not typically considered. The pump is, however, usually controlled on the basis of the required flow rate or output pressure. As the pump operational state can be estimated with a general model having adjustable parameters, external flow rate or pressure measurements are not necessary to determine the pump flow rate or output pressure. Hence, external measurements could be replaced with an adjustable model for the pump that uses estimates of the motor operational state. Besides control purposes, modelling the pump operation can provide useful information for energy auditing and optimization purposes. In this paper, two model-based methods for pump operation estimation are presented. Factors affecting the accuracy of the estimation methods are analyzed. The applicability of the methods is verified by laboratory measurements and tests in two pilot installations. Test results indicate that the estimation methods can be applied to the analysis and control of pump operation. The accuracy of the methods is sufficient for auditing purposes, and the methods can inform the user if the pump is driven inefficiently.

  15. Position of nuclear power generation in the public and further enhancement of safe and stable operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Yozo

    1996-01-01

    In Japan, the first commercial light water reactor (LWR) started operation in 1970 when the International Exposition was held in Osaka, and now 50 nuclear power plants supply about 30 % of the total electricity and nuclear power plays the important role as a 'major power source'. Meanwhile, with the international transportation of plutonium and return shipment of vitrified HLW reprocessed abroad, nuclear power has closer relationship with the public in these days. We will review the history of nuclear power generation in Japan from the viewpoint of the safety culture and consider the safety culture under the present situation. The team of 'safety Charlotte's fixed its position since the occurrence of Chernobyl accident though the concept existed as expressed in words such as 'safety-first principle' and 'enhancement of morale'. The safety culture is a concept: high level 'safety Culture' cab be expected when 'the management of the organization' and 'individual consciousness concerning safety' are well balanced. The 'safety culture' has experienced various changes along with the development of nuclear power in Japan: at the initial period of the development, the management side invested excellent talents and funds to the nuclear division based on the 'safety-first principle' from the beginning. At the same time, the world of atom filled with dream appealed to those who had enthusiasm as pioneers and they were engaged in the development with enhanced morale

  16. Nonclassicality by Local Gaussian Unitary Operations for Gaussian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A measure of nonclassicality N in terms of local Gaussian unitary operations for bipartite Gaussian states is introduced. N is a faithful quantum correlation measure for Gaussian states as product states have no such correlation and every non product Gaussian state contains it. For any bipartite Gaussian state ρ A B , we always have 0 ≤ N ( ρ A B < 1 , where the upper bound 1 is sharp. An explicit formula of N for ( 1 + 1 -mode Gaussian states and an estimate of N for ( n + m -mode Gaussian states are presented. A criterion of entanglement is established in terms of this correlation. The quantum correlation N is also compared with entanglement, Gaussian discord and Gaussian geometric discord.

  17. Bayesian network modeling of operator's state recognition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Naoki; Furuta, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays we are facing a difficult problem of establishing a good relation between humans and machines. To solve this problem, we suppose that machine system need to have a model of human behavior. In this study we model the state cognition process of a PWR plant operator as an example. We use a Bayesian network as an inference engine. We incorporate the knowledge hierarchy in the Bayesian network and confirm its validity using the example of PWR plant operator. (author)

  18. Robust and Stable Disturbance Observer of Servo System for Low Speed Operation Using the Radial Basis Function Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    A new scheme to estimate the moment of inertia in the servo motor drive system in very low speed is proposed in this paper. The speed estimation scheme in most servo drive systems for low speed operation is sensitive to the variation of machine parameter, especially the moment of inertia....... To estimate the motor inertia value, the observer using the Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) is applied. A control law for stabilizing the system and adaptive laws for updating both of the weights in the RBFN and a bounding constant are established so that the whole closed-loop system is stable...... in the sense of Lyapunov. The effectiveness of the proposed inertia estimation is verified by simulations and experiments. It is concluded that the speed control performance in low speed region is improved with the proposed disturbance observer using RBFN....

  19. Operational Research to Improve HIV Prevention in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Glassman, Marlene; Carey, James W.; Painter, Thomas M.; Gelaude, Deborah J.; Fasula, Amy M.; Raiford, Jerris L.; Freeman, Arin E.; Harshbarger, Camilla; Viall, Abigail H.; Purcell, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States continues despite several recent noteworthy advances in HIV prevention. Contemporary approaches to HIV prevention involve implementing combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions in novel ways to achieve high levels of impact on the epidemic. Methods are needed to develop optimal combinations of approaches for improving efficiency, effectiveness, and scalability. This article argues that operational research offers promise as a valuable tool for addressing these issues. We define operational research relative to domestic HIV prevention, identify and illustrate how operational research can improve HIV prevention, and pose a series of questions to guide future operational research. Operational research can help achieve national HIV prevention goals of reducing new infections, improving access to care and optimization of health outcomes of people living with HIV, and reducing HIV-related health disparities. PMID:22217681

  20. Mapping Precipitation Patterns from the Stable Isotopic Composition of Surface Waters: Olympic Peninsula, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, A. M.; Brandon, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    Available data indicate that large and persistent precipitation gradients are tied to topography at scales down to a few kilometers, but precipitation patterns in the majority of mountain ranges are poorly constrained at scales less than tens of kilometers. A lack of knowledge of precipitation patterns hampers efforts to understand the processes of orographic precipitation and identify the relationships between geomorphic evolution and climate. A new method for mapping precipitation using the stable isotopic composition of surface waters is tested in the Olympic Mountains of Washington State. Measured δD and δ18O of 97 samples of surface water are linearly related and nearly inseparable from the global meteoric water line. A linear orographic precipitation model extended to include in effects of isotopic fractionation via Rayleigh distillation predicts precipitation patterns and isotopic composition of surface water. Seven parameters relating to the climate and isotopic composition of source water are used. A constrained random search identifies the best-fitting parameter set. Confidence intervals for parameter values are defined and precipitation patterns are determined. Average errors for the best-fitting model are 4.8 permil in δD. The difference between the best fitting model and other models within the 95% confidence interval was less than 20%. An independent high-resolution precipitation climatology documents precipitation gradients similar in shape and magnitude to the model derived from surface water isotopic composition. This technique could be extended to other mountain ranges, providing an economical and fast assessment of precipitation patterns requiring minimal field work.

  1. Displaced Tibial Shaft Fractures With Intact Fibula in Children: Nonoperative Management Versus Operative Treatment With Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavese, Federico; Botnari, Alexei; Andreacchio, Antonio; Marengo, Lorenza; Samba, Antoine; Dimeglio, Alain; Pereira, Bruno; Mansour, Mounira; Rousset, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of displaced tibial shaft fractures with intact fibula in children after nonoperative management and operative treatment by elastic stable intramedullary nailing. A study was performed on 80 consecutive children, 56 males, 24 females from 2 Institutions, with displaced and closed tibial shaft fracture with intact fibula. All patients underwent regular clinical and radiographic follow-up visits for at least 2 years after injury. In total, 26 patients (group A-Institution I) were treated surgically by elastic stable intramedullary nailing and 54 patients (18 patients from group B-Institution I and 36 patients from group C-Institution II) were treated nonoperatively with closed reduction and casting. groups A, B, and C did not significantly differ on sex (P=0.37), side (P=0.54), and fracture site (P=0.14).Valgus deformity was significantly controlled in group A patients only (P=0.001); during follow-up in group B patients (P=0.017), and showed no significant change between pretreatment images and last follow-up in group C patients (P=0.71). Procurvatum deformity was significantly controlled in group A patients only (P=0.001); it showed no significant improvement after conservative treatment in group B (P=0.73) and C patients (P=0.8). Recurvatum was significantly improved in group A (Pfracture of tibial diaphysis without associated fibula fracture.On the basis of the findings reported here, it is not contraindicated to operate skeletally immature patients with displaced fracture of tibial diaphysis without associated fibula fracture. However, results were essentially the same and either method is a satisfactory choice for pediatric tibia shaft fractures with an intact fibula. In particular, we found that conservative treatment was as efficacious as surgical treatment apart from the length of time for immobilization. Level III.

  2. Afghanistan: Challenges and Options for Reconstructing a Stable and Moderate State

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Richard P

    2002-01-01

    The U.S.-led effort to end Afghanistan's role as host to Osarna bin Laden and other anti-western Islamic terrorists requires not only the defeat of the Taliban but also the reconstmction of a stable...

  3. Afghanistan: Challenges and Options for Reconstructing a Stable and Moderate State

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Richard P

    2002-01-01

    The U.S.-led effort to end Afghanistan's role as host to Osama bin Laden and other anti-western Islamic terrorists requires not only the defeat of the Taliban but also the reconstruction of a stable...

  4. Thermomechanical responses of nonlinear torsional vibration with NiTi shape memory alloy - Alternative stable states and their jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minglu; Sun, Qingping

    2017-05-01

    The dynamic response of nonlinear torsional vibration system with phase transformable NiTi Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wire is investigated by experiment in this paper. The thermomechanical responses of the NiTi wire as a softening nonlinear damping spring in the torsional vibration system are measured by synchronized acquisition of rotational angle and temperature under external excitation. Frequency Response Curves (FRCs) at fixed excitation amplitude and Amplitude Response Curves (ARCs) at fixed frequency are obtained in the frequency and amplitude domains respectively. It is found that, as the deformation of NiTi wire goes into the softening nonlinear phase transition region, the smooth and stable dynamic responses along one branch of FRC or ARC will gradually enter into metastable region and eventually become unstable and drastically switch to a new contrasting alternative stable state along the other branch. The jump phenomenon between the alternative stable states on the lower and upper branches of the FRC or ARC and the hysteresis between the jump-up and jump-down are identified by experiments. In addition, the effects of external disturbance (both magnitude and direction) on triggering the jumps between the alternative stable states along the two metastable branches are examined in the time domain. The stability of the nonlinear dynamic response is analyzed by the Duffing oscillator model and interpreted via the stability landscape. For the first time, we directly reveal the alternative stable states and jump phenomena of thermomechanical responses by experiments in the frequency, amplitude and time domains. The results not only show the important roles of phase transition nonlinearity in bringing multiple equilibrium states and their fast switches, but also provide a solid experimental base for the identification of metastable regions as well as further management of the undesired dynamic responses of vibration system where NiTi is used as a nonlinear

  5. Remote operations and interactions for systems of arbitrary-dimensional Hilbert space: State-operator approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznik, Benni; Groisman, Berry; Aharonov, Yakir

    2002-01-01

    We present a systematic simple method for constructing deterministic remote operations on single and multiple systems of arbitrary discrete dimensionality. These operations include remote rotations, remote interactions, and measurements. The resources needed for an operation on a two-level system are one ebit and a bidirectional communication of two cbits, and for an n-level system, a pair of entangled n-level particles and two classical 'nits'. In the latter case, there are n-1 possible distinct operations per n-level entangled pair. Similar results apply for generating interaction between a pair of remote systems, while for remote measurements only one-directional classical communication is needed. We further consider remote operations on N spatially distributed systems, and show that the number of possible distinct operations increases here exponentially, with the available number of entangled pairs that are initially distributed between the systems. Our results follow from the properties of a hybrid state-operator object (stator), which describes quantum correlations between states and operations

  6. Extended SUSY quantum mechanics, intertwining operators and coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagarello, F.

    2008-01-01

    We propose an extension of supersymmetric quantum mechanics which produces a family of isospectral Hamiltonians. Our procedure slightly extends the idea of intertwining operators. Several examples of the construction are given. Further, we show how to build up vector coherent states of the Gazeau-Klauder type associated to our Hamiltonians

  7. Progress and prospect of true steady state operation with RF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquinot Jean

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of fusion confinement experiments in full steady state is a major challenge for the development towards fusion energy. Critical to achieving this goal is the availability of actively cooled plasma facing components and auxiliary systems withstanding the very harsh plasma environment. Equally challenging are physics issues related to achieving plasma conditions and current drive efficiency required by reactor plasmas. RF heating and current drive systems have been key instruments for obtaining the progress made until today towards steady state. They hold all the records of long pulse plasma operation both in tokamaks and in stellarators. Nevertheless much progress remains to be made in particular for integrating all the requirements necessary for maintaining in steady state the density and plasma pressure conditions of a reactor. This is an important stated aim of ITER and of devices equipped with superconducting magnets. After considering the present state of the art, this review will address the key issues which remain to be solved both in physics and technology for reaching this goal. They constitute very active subjects of research which will require much dedicated experimentation in the new generation of superconducting devices which are now in operation or becoming close to it.

  8. Operational safety experience reporting in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfield, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Licensees of nuclear power plants in the United States have many reporting requirements included in their technical specifications and the code of federal regulations, title 10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commisson receives these reports and utilizes them in its regulatory program. Part of this usage includes collecting and publishing this operating experience data in various reports and storing information in various data systems. This paper will discuss the data systems and reports on operating experience published and used by the NRC. In addition, some observations on operating experience will be made. Subjects included will be the Licensee Event Report (LER) Data File, the Operating Unit Status Report (Gray Book), Radiation Exposure Reports, Effluents Reports, the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, Current Events, Bulletin Wrapups and Annual Summaries. Some of the uses of the reports and systems will be discussed. The Abnormal Occurence Report to the US Congress will also be described and discussed. (author)

  9. State machine operation of the MICE cooling channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlet, Pierrick

    2014-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a demonstration experiment to prove the feasibility of cooling a beam of muons for use in a Neutrino Factory and/or Muon Collider. The MICE cooling channel is a section of a modified Study II cooling channel which will provide a 10% reduction in beam emittance. In order to ensure a reliable measurement, MICE will measure the beam emittance before and after the cooling channel at the level of 1%, a relative measurement of 0.001. This renders MICE a precision experiment which requires strict controls and monitoring of all experimental parameters in order to control systematic errors. The MICE Controls and Monitoring system is based on EPICS and integrates with the DAQ, Data monitoring systems, and a configuration database. The cooling channel for MICE has between 12 and 18 superconductnig solenoid coils in 3 to 7 magnets, depending on the staged development of the experiment. The magnets are coaxial and in close proximity which requires coordinated operation of the magnets when ramping, responding to quench conditions, and quench recovery. To reliably manage the operation of the magnets, MICE is implementing state machines for each magnet and an over-arching state machine for the magnets integrated in the cooling channel. The state machine transitions and operating parameters are stored/restored to/from the configuration database and coupled with MICE Run Control. Proper implementation of the state machines will not only ensure safe operation of the magnets, but will help ensure reliable data quality. A description of MICE, details of the state machines, and lessons learned from use of the state machines in recent magnet training tests will be discussed.

  10. Effect of Built-Up Edge Formation during Stable State of Wear in AISI 304 Stainless Steel on Machining Performance and Surface Integrity of the Machined Part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yassmin Seid; Fox-Rabinovich, German; Paiva, Jose Mario; Wagg, Terry; Veldhuis, Stephen Clarence

    2017-10-25

    During machining of stainless steels at low cutting -speeds, workpiece material tends to adhere to the cutting tool at the tool-chip interface, forming built-up edge (BUE). BUE has a great importance in machining processes; it can significantly modify the phenomenon in the cutting zone, directly affecting the workpiece surface integrity, cutting tool forces, and chip formation. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 304 stainless steel has a high tendency to form an unstable BUE, leading to deterioration of the surface quality. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nature of the surface integrity induced during machining operations. Although many reports have been published on the effect of tool wear during machining of AISI 304 stainless steel on surface integrity, studies on the influence of the BUE phenomenon in the stable state of wear have not been investigated so far. The main goal of the present work is to investigate the close link between the BUE formation, surface integrity and cutting forces in the stable sate of wear for uncoated cutting tool during the cutting tests of AISI 304 stainless steel. The cutting parameters were chosen to induce BUE formation during machining. X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was used for measuring superficial residual stresses of the machined surface through the stable state of wear in the cutting and feed directions. In addition, surface roughness of the machined surface was investigated using the Alicona microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to reveal the surface distortions created during the cutting process, combined with chip undersurface analyses. The investigated BUE formation during the stable state of wear showed that the BUE can cause a significant improvement in the surface integrity and cutting forces. Moreover, it can be used to compensate for tool wear through changing the tool geometry, leading to the protection of the cutting tool from wear.

  11. Effect of Built-Up Edge Formation during Stable State of Wear in AISI 304 Stainless Steel on Machining Performance and Surface Integrity of the Machined Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Rabinovich, German; Wagg, Terry

    2017-01-01

    During machining of stainless steels at low cutting -speeds, workpiece material tends to adhere to the cutting tool at the tool–chip interface, forming built-up edge (BUE). BUE has a great importance in machining processes; it can significantly modify the phenomenon in the cutting zone, directly affecting the workpiece surface integrity, cutting tool forces, and chip formation. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 304 stainless steel has a high tendency to form an unstable BUE, leading to deterioration of the surface quality. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nature of the surface integrity induced during machining operations. Although many reports have been published on the effect of tool wear during machining of AISI 304 stainless steel on surface integrity, studies on the influence of the BUE phenomenon in the stable state of wear have not been investigated so far. The main goal of the present work is to investigate the close link between the BUE formation, surface integrity and cutting forces in the stable sate of wear for uncoated cutting tool during the cutting tests of AISI 304 stainless steel. The cutting parameters were chosen to induce BUE formation during machining. X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was used for measuring superficial residual stresses of the machined surface through the stable state of wear in the cutting and feed directions. In addition, surface roughness of the machined surface was investigated using the Alicona microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to reveal the surface distortions created during the cutting process, combined with chip undersurface analyses. The investigated BUE formation during the stable state of wear showed that the BUE can cause a significant improvement in the surface integrity and cutting forces. Moreover, it can be used to compensate for tool wear through changing the tool geometry, leading to the protection of the cutting tool from wear. PMID:29068405

  12. Effect of Built-Up Edge Formation during Stable State of Wear in AISI 304 Stainless Steel on Machining Performance and Surface Integrity of the Machined Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassmin Seid Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During machining of stainless steels at low cutting -speeds, workpiece material tends to adhere to the cutting tool at the tool–chip interface, forming built-up edge (BUE. BUE has a great importance in machining processes; it can significantly modify the phenomenon in the cutting zone, directly affecting the workpiece surface integrity, cutting tool forces, and chip formation. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 304 stainless steel has a high tendency to form an unstable BUE, leading to deterioration of the surface quality. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nature of the surface integrity induced during machining operations. Although many reports have been published on the effect of tool wear during machining of AISI 304 stainless steel on surface integrity, studies on the influence of the BUE phenomenon in the stable state of wear have not been investigated so far. The main goal of the present work is to investigate the close link between the BUE formation, surface integrity and cutting forces in the stable sate of wear for uncoated cutting tool during the cutting tests of AISI 304 stainless steel. The cutting parameters were chosen to induce BUE formation during machining. X-ray diffraction (XRD method was used for measuring superficial residual stresses of the machined surface through the stable state of wear in the cutting and feed directions. In addition, surface roughness of the machined surface was investigated using the Alicona microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was used to reveal the surface distortions created during the cutting process, combined with chip undersurface analyses. The investigated BUE formation during the stable state of wear showed that the BUE can cause a significant improvement in the surface integrity and cutting forces. Moreover, it can be used to compensate for tool wear through changing the tool geometry, leading to the protection of the cutting tool from wear.

  13. Self-similar decay to the marginally stable ground state in a model for film flow over inclined wavy bottoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hacker

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The integral boundary layer system (IBL with spatially periodic coefficients arises as a long wave approximation for the flow of a viscous incompressible fluid down a wavy inclined plane. The Nusselt-like stationary solution of the IBL is linearly at best marginally stable; i.e., it has essential spectrum at least up to the imaginary axis. Nevertheless, in this stable case we show that localized perturbations of the ground state decay in a self-similar way. The proof uses the renormalization group method in Bloch variables and the fact that in the stable case the Burgers equation is the amplitude equation for long waves of small amplitude in the IBL. It is the first time that such a proof is given for a quasilinear PDE with spatially periodic coefficients.

  14. Reliability of predictive models for non-operative healing potential of stable juvenile osteochondritis dissecans knee lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppstrom, Tyler J; Haskel, Jonathan D; Gausden, Elizabeth B; Meyer, Russel; Shin, Yong-Woon; Nguyen, Joseph T; Green, Daniel W

    2016-08-01

    While juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) lesions have greater healing potential than equivalent lesions in adults, only 50% of JOCD lesions demonstrate radiographic healing after six months of non-operative treatment. Two previous studies have produced nomograms to predict a patient's probability of healing with non-operative treatment based on patient and lesion characteristics. The purpose of this study was to determine inter- and intra-observer reliability of the predictive nomograms. A consecutive series of 34 skeletally immature patients (40 knees), who underwent non-operative treatment for stable JOCD lesions was retrospectively reviewed. At two time points at least one week apart, two medical students, two orthopaedic surgeons, and a radiologist made measurements of the JOCD lesions. These measurements, along with patient ages and pain type, were used to generate a point value for each lesion based on both nomograms. Intra-class correlations (ICCs) were calculated to determine inter- and intra-rater reliability. We found near perfect intra-rater correlation (ICC) for all raters' individual OCD measurements, as well as total point score for the two nomograms (ICC range, 0.780-0.929). Additionally, there was near perfect inter-rater reliability among raters for total scores and individual components of each nomogram (ICC range, 0.721-0.974). There is high inter- and intra-rater reliability for both point systems for predicting healing of JOCD lesions. Clinicians should be aware of these as tools to help guide decision making in patients with JOCD lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 'Memristive' switches enable 'stateful' logic operations via material implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghetti, Julien; Snider, Gregory S; Kuekes, Philip J; Yang, J Joshua; Stewart, Duncan R; Williams, R Stanley

    2010-04-08

    The authors of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors-the industry consensus set of goals established for advancing silicon integrated circuit technology-have challenged the computing research community to find new physical state variables (other than charge or voltage), new devices, and new architectures that offer memory and logic functions beyond those available with standard transistors. Recently, ultra-dense resistive memory arrays built from various two-terminal semiconductor or insulator thin film devices have been demonstrated. Among these, bipolar voltage-actuated switches have been identified as physical realizations of 'memristors' or memristive devices, combining the electrical properties of a memory element and a resistor. Such devices were first hypothesized by Chua in 1971 (ref. 15), and are characterized by one or more state variables that define the resistance of the switch depending upon its voltage history. Here we show that this family of nonlinear dynamical memory devices can also be used for logic operations: we demonstrate that they can execute material implication (IMP), which is a fundamental Boolean logic operation on two variables p and q such that pIMPq is equivalent to (NOTp)ORq. Incorporated within an appropriate circuit, memristive switches can thus perform 'stateful' logic operations for which the same devices serve simultaneously as gates (logic) and latches (memory) that use resistance instead of voltage or charge as the physical state variable.

  16. 40 CFR 72.72 - Criteria for State operating permit program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operating permit program. A State operating permit program (including a State Acid Rain program) shall meet... Administrator. (a) Non-Interference with Acid Rain Program. The State operating permit program shall not include... operation of the Acid Rain Program. (b) The State operating permit program shall require the following...

  17. Remote state preparation using positive operator-valued measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Siendong, E-mail: sdhuang@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-04

    We consider the process of remote state preparation using a pure state |ψ〉 with the maximal Schmidt number n. For any given state σ, pure or mixed, a construction of a positive operator-valued measure {M_j}{sub j=0}{sup n} is provided. The classical outcome j=0 indicates the failure of a remote preparation of σ. All other classical outcomes j>0 correspond to unitary transformations of the receiver system such that σ can be prepared. The total probability of successful remote preparation depends on the state σ. Our protocol is a variation of conclusive teleportation and the classical bits required for this protocol are given by log{sub 2}(n+1), which is nearly half that of conclusive teleportation.

  18. Input-to-State Stabilizing MPC for Neutrally Stable Linear Systems subject to Input Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Jung-Su; Yoon, Tae-Woong; Jadbabaie, Ali; Persis, Claudio De

    2004-01-01

    MPC(Model Predictive Control) is representative of control methods which are able to handle physical constraints. Closed-loop stability can therefore be ensured only locally in the presence of constraints of this type. However, if the system is neutrally stable, and if the constraints are imposed

  19. Towards long-term stable solid state electrolyzers with infiltrated catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovtar, Simona; Chen, Ming; Brodersen, Karen

    Renewable energy sources like wind and solar are widely considered as the key technologies to cover our growing demands. However, the fluctuating nature of these sources requires a flexible energy system and storage technologies to ensure that energy supply can be covered in a stable and affordable...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Special Operating Rules for Air Tour Operators in the State of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Operators in the State of Hawaii A Appendix A to Part 136 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Appendix A to Part 136—Special Operating Rules for Air Tour Operators in the State of Hawaii Section 1... flights conducted in the State of Hawaii under 14 CFR parts 91, 121, and 135. This appendix does not apply...

  1. Definition and density operator for unpolarized fermion state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, H.

    1981-04-01

    The unpolarized state of fermions is defined as one which does not change in rotations in the spin space. It is shown that, for a fermion field with a specified value of momentum of particles, the density operator is of the form, rho = (1-2a-b)|0,0> 1 , n 2 > is the occupation number state having occupancies n 1 and n 2 in the two spin modes, and a and b are positive quantities which are less than one and give 1-2a-b>=0. (author)

  2. Steady State Dynamic Operating Behavior of Universal Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan Burdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the universal motor is developed and used for various dynamic steady state and transient operating conditions of loads. In the investigation, output torque, motor speed, input current, input/output power and efficiency are computed, compared and analyzed for different loads. While this paper discusses the steady-state behavior of the universal motor, another companion paper, ?Transient dynamic behavior of universal motor?, will discuss its transient behavior in detail. A non-linear generalized electric machine model of the motor is considered for the analysis. This study was essential to investigate effect of output load on input current, power, speed and efficiency of the motor during operations. Previously such investigation is not known

  3. Kelp Forests versus Urchin Barrens: Alternate Stable States and Their Effect on Sea Otter Prey Quality in the Aleutian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan L. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgal and urchin barren communities are alternately stable and persist in the Aleutians due to sea otter presence and absence. In the early 1990s a rapid otter population decline released urchins from predation and caused a shift to the urchin-dominated state. Despite increases in urchin abundance, otter numbers continued to decline. Although debated, prey quality changes have been implicated in current otter population status. This study examined otter prey abundance, size, biomass, and potential energy density in remnant kelp forest and urchin-dominated communities to determine if alternate stable states affect prey quality. Findings suggest that although urchin barrens provide more abundant urchin prey, individual urchins are smaller and provide lower biomass and potential energy density compared to kelp forests. Shifts to urchin barrens do affect prey quality but changes are likely compensated by increased prey densities and are insufficient in explaining current otter population status in the Aleutians.

  4. Skinner boxes for psychotics: Operant conditioning at Metropolitan state hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named “Studies in Behavior Therapy,” was renamed “Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory” in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavio...

  5. Action–angle variables, ladder operators and coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Gadella, M.; Kuru, Ş.; Negro, J.

    2012-01-01

    This Letter is devoted to the building of coherent states from arguments based on classical action–angle variables. First, we show how these classical variables are associated to an algebraic structure in terms of Poisson brackets. In the quantum context these considerations are implemented by ladder type operators and a structure known as spectrum generating algebra. All this allows to generate coherent states and thereby the correspondence of classical–quantum properties by means of the aforementioned underlying structure. This approach is illustrated with the example of the one-dimensional Pöschl–Teller potential system. -- Highlights: ► We study the building of coherent states from classical action–angle variables arguments. ► The classical variables are associated to an algebraic structure in terms of Poisson brackets. ► In the quantum context these considerations are implemented by ladder type operators. ► All this allows to formulate coherent states and the correspondence of classical–quantum properties.

  6. Development of new S-band RF window for stable high-power operation in linear accelerator RF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Youngdo; Lee, Byung-Joon; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kong, Hyung-Sup; Hwang, Woonha; Roh, Sungjoo; Ryu, Jiwan

    2017-09-01

    For stable high-power operation, a new RF window is developed in the S-band linear accelerator (Linac) RF systems of the Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II) and the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free-Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL). The new RF window is designed to mitigate the strength of the electric field at the ceramic disk and also at the waveguide-cavity coupling structure of the conventional RF window. By replacing the pill-box type cavity in the conventional RF window with an overmoded cavity, the electric field component perpendicular to the ceramic disk that caused most of the multipacting breakdowns in the ceramic disk was reduced by an order of magnitude. The reduced electric field at the ceramic disk eliminated the Ti-N coating process on the ceramic surface in the fabrication procedure of the new RF window, preventing the incomplete coating from spoiling the RF transmission and lowering the fabrication cost. The overmoded cavity was coupled with input and output waveguides through dual side-wall coupling irises to reduce the electric field strength at the waveguide-cavity coupling structure and the possibility of mode competitions in the overmoded cavity. A prototype of the new RF window was fabricated and fully tested with the Klystron peak input power, pulse duration and pulse repetition rate of 75 MW, 4.5 μs and 10 Hz, respectively, at the high-power test stand. The first mass-produced new RF window installed in the PLS-II Linac is running in normal operation mode. No fault is reported to date. Plans are being made to install the new RF window to all S-band accelerator RF modules of the PLS-II and PAL-XFEL Linacs. This new RF window may be applied to the output windows of S-band power sources like Klystron as wells as the waveguide windows of accelerator facilities which operate in S-band.

  7. Association Between Pathogens Detected Using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction With Airway Inflammation in COPD at Stable State and Exacerbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Bethan L.; Haldar, Koirobi; Patel, Hemu; Pavord, Ian D.; Barer, Michael R.; Brightling, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relationships between airway inflammation and respiratory potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in subjects with COPD are unclear. Our aim was to evaluate mediators of airway inflammation and their association with PPMs in subjects with COPD at stable state and during exacerbations. METHODS: Sputum from 120 stable subjects with COPD was analyzed for bacteriology (colony-forming units; total 16S; and qPCR targeting Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae), differential cell counts, and inflammatory mediators using the Meso-Scale Discovery Platform. Subjects were classified as colonized if any PPM was identified above the threshold of detection by qPCR. Symptoms were quantified using the visual analog scale. RESULTS: At stable state, 60% of subjects were qPCR positive for H influenzae, 48% for M catarrhalis, and 28% for S pneumoniae. Elevated sputum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected in samples qPCR positive for either H influenzae or M catarrhalis. Bacterial loads of H influenzae positively correlated with IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and symptoms; and M catarrhalis correlated with IL-10 and TNF-α. H influenzae qPCR bacterial load was an independent predictor of sputum TNF-α and IL-1β. In 55 subjects with paired exacerbation data, qPCR bacterial load fold change at exacerbation in M catarrhalis but not H influenzae correlated to changes in sputum TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: At stable state, H influenzae is associated with increased airway inflammation in COPD. The relationship between bacterial load changes of specific pathogens and airway inflammation at exacerbation and recovery warrants further investigation. PMID:25103335

  8. The United States national volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albersheim, Steven; Guffanti, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic-ash clouds are a known hazard to aviation, requiring that aircraft be warned away from ash-contaminated airspace. The exposure of aviation to potential hazards from volcanoes in the United States is significant. In support of existing interagency operations to detect and track volcanic-ash clouds, the United States has prepared a National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation to strengthen the warning process in its airspace. The US National Plan documents the responsibilities, communication protocols, and prescribed hazard messages of the Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Geological Survey, and Air Force Weather Agency. The plan introduces a new message format, a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation, to provide clear, concise information about volcanic activity, including precursory unrest, to air-traffic controllers (for use in Notices to Airmen) and other aviation users. The plan is online at http://www.ofcm.gov/p35-nvaopa/pdf/FCM-P35-2007-NVAOPA.pdf. While the plan provides general operational practices, it remains the responsibility of the federal agencies involved to implement the described procedures through orders, directives, etc. Since the plan mirrors global guidelines of the International Civil Aviation Organization, it also provides an example that could be adapted by other countries.

  9. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition and Operator Functional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanson, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of human error in safety-critical occupations remains a major challenge to mission success despite increasing automation in control processes. Although various methods have been proposed to prevent incidences of human error, none of these have been developed to employ the detection and regulation of Operator Functional State (OFS), or the optimal condition of the operator while performing a task, in work environments due to drawbacks such as obtrusiveness and impracticality. A video-based system with the ability to infer an individual's emotional state from facial feature patterning mitigates some of the problems associated with other methods of detecting OFS, like obtrusiveness and impracticality in integration with the mission environment. This paper explores the utility of facial expression recognition as a technology for inferring OFS by first expounding on the intricacies of OFS and the scientific background behind emotion and its relationship with an individual's state. Then, descriptions of the feedback loop and the emotion protocols proposed for the facial recognition program are explained. A basic version of the facial expression recognition program uses Haar classifiers and OpenCV libraries to automatically locate key facial landmarks during a live video stream. Various methods of creating facial expression recognition software are reviewed to guide future extensions of the program. The paper concludes with an examination of the steps necessary in the research of emotion and recommendations for the creation of an automatic facial expression recognition program for use in real-time, safety-critical missions

  10. Operational classification and quantification of multipartite entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigolin, Gustavo; Oliveira, Thiago R. de; Oliveira, Marcos C. de

    2006-01-01

    We formalize and extend an operational multipartite entanglement measure introduced by T. R. Oliveira, G. Rigolin, and M. C. de Oliveira, Phys. Rev. A 73, 010305(R) (2006), through the generalization of global entanglement (GE) [D. A. Meyer and N. R. Wallach, J. Math. Phys. 43, 4273 (2002)]. Contrarily to GE the main feature of this measure lies in the fact that we study the mean linear entropy of all possible partitions of a multipartite system. This allows the construction of an operational multipartite entanglement measure which is able to distinguish among different multipartite entangled states that GE failed to discriminate. Furthermore, it is also maximum at the critical point of the Ising chain in a transverse magnetic field, being thus able to detect a quantum phase transition

  11. Performance and microbial population dynamics during stable operation and reactivation after extended idle conditions in an aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiulai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shilu; Zou, Zhuocheng; Wang, Hongyu

    2017-08-01

    The evolution of removal performance and bacterial population dynamics of an aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor were investigated during stable operation and reactivation after prolonged storage. The system was run for a period of 130days including the stable condition phase, storage period and the subsequent reactivation process. Excellent removal performance was obtained during the stable operation period, which was decayed by the extended idle conditions. The removal efficiencies for both carbon and nitrogen decayed while phosphorus removal remained unaffected. Both granules structure and physical properties could be fully restored. Microbial populations shifted sharply and the storage perturbations irreversibly altered the microbial communities at different levels. Extracellular polymeric substances (especially protein) and key groups were identified as contributors for storage and re-startup of the aerobic granular system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A group property for the coherent state representation of fermionic squeezing operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-yi; Li, Chao

    2004-06-01

    For the two-mode fermionic squeezing operators we find that their coherent state projection operator representation make up a loyal representation, which is homomorphic to an SO(4) group, though the fermionic coherent states are not mutual orthogonal. Thus the result of successively operating with many fermionic squeezing operators on a state can be equivalent to a single operation. The fermionic squeezing operators are mappings of orthogonal transformations in Grassmann number pseudo-classical space in the fermionic coherent state representation.

  13. A group property for the coherent state representation of fermionic squeezing operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Hongyi; Li Chao

    2004-01-01

    For the two-mode fermionic squeezing operators we find that their coherent state projection operator representation make up a loyal representation, which is homomorphic to an SO(4) group, though the fermionic coherent states are not mutual orthogonal. Thus the result of successively operating with many fermionic squeezing operators on a state can be equivalent to a single operation. The fermionic squeezing operators are mappings of orthogonal transformations in Grassmann number pseudo-classical space in the fermionic coherent state representation

  14. The nucleotide-free state of heterotrimeric G proteins α-subunit adopts a highly stable conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andhirka, Sai Krishna; Vignesh, Ravichandran; Aradhyam, Gopala Krishna

    2017-08-01

    Deciphering the mechanism of activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by their cognate receptors continues to be an intriguing area of research. The recently solved crystal structure of the ternary complex captured the receptor-bound α-subunit in an open conformation, without bound nucleotide has improved our understanding of the activation process. Despite these advancements, the mechanism by which the receptor causes GDP release from the α-subunit remains elusive. To elucidate the mechanism of activation, we studied guanine nucleotide-induced structural stability of the α-subunit (in response to thermal/chaotrope-mediated stress). Inherent stabilities of the inactive (GDP-bound) and active (GTP-bound) forms contribute antagonistically to the difference in conformational stability whereas the GDP-bound protein is able to switch to a stable intermediate state, GTP-bound protein loses this ability. Partial perturbation of the protein fold reveals the underlying influence of the bound nucleotide providing an insight into the mechanism of activation. An extra stable, pretransition intermediate, 'empty pocket' state (conformationally active-state like) in the unfolding pathway of GDP-bound protein mimics a gating system - the activation process having to overcome this stable intermediate state. We demonstrate that a relatively more complex conformational fold of the GDP-bound protein is at the core of the gating system. We report capturing this threshold, 'metastable empty pocket' conformation (the gate) of α-subunit of G protein and hypothesize that the receptor activates the G protein by enabling it to achieve this structure through mild structural perturbation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. A steady state tokamak operation by use of magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narihara, K.

    1991-12-01

    A steady state tokamak operation based on a magnetic monopole circuit is considered. Circulation of a chain of iron cubes which trap magnetic monopoles generates the needed loop voltage. The monopole circuit is enclosed by a series of solenoid coils in which magnetic field is feedback controlled so that the force on the circuit balance against the mechanical friction. The driving power is supplied through the current sources of poloidal, ohmic and solenoid coils. The current drive efficiency is same as that of the ohmic current drive. (author)

  16. Tailoring Multiqubit Measurement Operators Through Dynamic Cavity States (Part 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumoff, J.; Chou, K.; Nigg, S.; Reed, M.; Vlastakis, B.; Heeres, R.; Frunzio, L.; Girvin, S.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2014-03-01

    Recent improvements in resonator coherence times in the field of superconducting qubits have allowed access to a rich new toolbox which takes advantage of their large and long-lived Hilbert space. In this talk, I introduce several techniques utilizing the cavity state and protocols built from these techniques. We condition the evolution of a cavity state via dispersive interactions with multiple qubits, and manipulate the system to implement quantum erasure, selectively reducing the space of the resulting entanglement. This can be tailored to create a spectrum of measurement operators including measurements on a selectable subset of the system. This ability is a prerequisite for most approaches to quantum error correction. The following talk will cover the experimental implementation. Work supported by IARPA and ARO.

  17. Stress-Testing South Africa: The Tenuous Foundations of One of Africa’s Stable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    head of the ANC Youth League, Julius Malema, led students at a University of Johannesburg rally in singing a song including the lyrics “shoot the boer...positions of influence for self-aggrandizement and financial gain are severely harming the image of the state and fuelling resentment. State resources are

  18. A potential new, stable state of the E-cadherin strand-swapped dimer in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann-Gillett, Alexandra; Mark, Alan E; Deplazes, Evelyne; O'Mara, Megan L

    2018-01-01

    E-cadherin is a transmembrane glycoprotein that facilitates inter-cellular adhesion in the epithelium. The ectodomain of the native structure is comprised of five repeated immunoglobulin-like domains. All E-cadherin crystal structures show the protein in one of three alternative conformations: a monomer, a strand-swapped trans homodimer and the so-called X-dimer, which is proposed to be a kinetic intermediate to forming the strand-swapped trans homodimer. However, previous studies have indicated that even once the trans strand-swapped dimer is formed, the complex is highly dynamic and the E-cadherin monomers may reorient relative to each other. Here, molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the stability and conformational flexibility of the human E-cadherin trans strand-swapped dimer. In four independent, 100 ns simulations, the dimer moved away from the starting structure and converged to a previously unreported structure, which we call the Y-dimer. The Y-dimer was present for over 90% of the combined simulation time, suggesting that it represents a stable conformation of the E-cadherin dimer in solution. The Y-dimer conformation is stabilised by interactions present in both the trans strand-swapped dimer and X-dimer crystal structures, as well as additional interactions not found in any E-cadherin dimer crystal structures. The Y-dimer represents a previously unreported, stable conformation of the human E-cadherin trans strand-swapped dimer and suggests that the available crystal structures do not fully capture the conformations that the human E-cadherin trans homodimer adopts in solution.

  19. Top-down influences on ambiguous perception: the role of stable and transient states of the observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocchia, Lisa; Valsecchi, Matteo; Triesch, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The world as it appears to the viewer is the result of a complex process of inference performed by the brain. The validity of this apparently counter-intuitive assertion becomes evident whenever we face noisy, feeble or ambiguous visual stimulation: in these conditions, the state of the observer may play a decisive role in determining what is currently perceived. On this background, ambiguous perception and its amenability to top-down influences can be employed as an empirical paradigm to explore the principles of perception. Here we offer an overview of both classical and recent contributions on how stable and transient states of the observer can impact ambiguous perception. As to the influence of the stable states of the observer, we show that what is currently perceived can be influenced (1) by cognitive and affective aspects, such as meaning, prior knowledge, motivation, and emotional content and (2) by individual differences, such as gender, handedness, genetic inheritance, clinical conditions, and personality traits and by (3) learning and conditioning. As to the impact of transient states of the observer, we outline the effects of (4) attention and (5) voluntary control, which have attracted much empirical work along the history of ambiguous perception. In the huge literature on the topic we trace a difference between the observer's ability to control dominance (i.e., the maintenance of a specific percept in visual awareness) and reversal rate (i.e., the switching between two alternative percepts). Other transient states of the observer that have more recently drawn researchers' attention regard (6) the effects of imagery and visual working memory. (7) Furthermore, we describe the transient effects of prior history of perceptual dominance. (8) Finally, we address the currently available computational models of ambiguous perception and how they can take into account the crucial share played by the state of the observer in perceiving ambiguous displays. PMID

  20. Top-down influences on ambiguous perception: the role of stable and transient states of the observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eScocchia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The world as it appears to the viewer is the result of a complex process of inference performed by the brain. The validity of this apparently counter-intuitive assertion becomes evident whenever we face noisy, feeble or ambiguous visual stimulation: in these conditions, the state of the observer may play a decisive role in determining what is currently perceived. On this background, ambiguous perception and its amenability to top-down influences can be employed as an empirical paradigm to explore the principles of perception. Here we offer an overview of both classical and recent contributions on how stable and transient states of the observer can impact ambiguous perception. As to the influence of the stable states of the observer, we show that what is currently perceived can be influenced (1 by cognitive and affective aspects, such as meaning, prior knowledge, motivation and emotional content and (2 by individual differences, such as gender, handedness, genetic inheritance, clinical conditions and personality traits and by (3 learning and conditioning. As to the impact of transient states of the observer, we outline the effects of (4 attention and (5 voluntary control, which have attracted much empirical work along the history of ambiguous perception. In the huge literature on the topic we trace a difference between the observer’s ability to control dominance (i.e: the maintenance of a specific percept in visual awareness and reversal rate (i.e: the switching between two alternative percepts. Other transient states of the observer that have more recently drawn researchers’ attention regard (6 the effects of imagery and visual working memory. (7 Furthermore, we describe the transient effects of prior history of perceptual dominance. (8 Finally, we address the currently available computational models of ambiguous perception and how they can take into account the crucial share played by the state of the observer in perceiving ambiguous

  1. Can we use redox sensitive elements to indicate past stable state transitions? Preliminary results from three shallow lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeck, B. C.; Deschamp, M. L.; Hagen, S.; Theissen, K. M.; Hobbs, W.

    2010-12-01

    Shallow lakes are known to exist in two distinct stable states; either a clear-water state which is dominated by macrophytes or a turbid state which is dominated by algae. Results of past studies suggest that when lakes exist in the clear-water state they are more efficient at sequestering organic carbon. This is because lakes in the clear-water state generally have longer periods of low oxygen conditions which prevent the decomposition of organic matter, allowing lakes in this state to bury more organic carbon. With this in mind we decided to test redox sensitive elements’ ability to distinguish trends in the redox status of the lakes through time. We performed acid digestions to extract the environmentally available metals from the sediments of three shallow lakes in West-Central Minnesota. We used an ICP-AES to analyze 11 metals (Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Th, U, V and Zn) while using Al as an indicator of the erosion of weathered materials. 210-Pb age dates were determined for cores from all three lakes, providing strong chronologies for each record. Near the time of settlement there is an overall increase in metal concentrations other than Th and U, which show an overall decrease. The accumulation rates of metals show similar trends to the sedimentation rates for each lake. After normalizing against Al, both Pb and Co have sharp increases around the time of settlement and Pb:Al doubles. Most other elements show a decrease in concentrations after settlement, suggesting that something other than erosion of weathered materials is a factor in the concentrations of metals in the lake. We attempt to determine whether this signal is due to changes in redox status or another factor. Elemental and stable isotopic values for C and N were also analyzed to get a better understanding of the source of organic matter and how productive the lakes have been through time.

  2. An underdamped stochastic resonance method with stable-state matching for incipient fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yaguo; Qiao, Zijian; Xu, Xuefang; Lin, Jing; Niu, Shantao

    2017-09-01

    Most traditional overdamped monostable, bistable and even tristable stochastic resonance (SR) methods have three shortcomings in weak characteristic extraction: (1) their potential structures characterized by single stable-state type are insufficient to match with the complicated and diverse mechanical vibration signals; (2) they vulnerably suffer the interference from multiscale noise and largely depend on the help of highpass filters whose parameters are selected subjectively, probably resulting in false detection; and (3) their rescaling factors are fixed as constants generally, thereby ignoring the synergistic effect among vibration signals, potential structures and rescaling factors. These three shortcomings have limited the enhancement ability of SR. To explore the SR potential, this paper initially investigates the SR in a multistable system by calculating its output spectral amplification, further analyzes its output frequency response numerically, then examines the effect of both damping and rescaling factors on output responses and finally presents a promising underdamped SR method with stable-state matching for incipient bearing fault diagnosis. This method has three advantages: (1) the diversity of stable-state types in a multistable potential makes it easy to match with various vibration signals; (2) the underdamped multistable SR, equivalent to a moving nonlinear bandpass filter that is dependent on the rescaling factors, is able to suppress the multiscale noise; and (3) the synergistic effect among vibration signals, potential structures and rescaling and damping factors is achieved using quantum genetic algorithms whose fitness functions are new weighted signal-to-noise ratio (WSNR) instead of SNR. Therefore, the proposed method is expected to possess good enhancement ability. Simulated and experimental data of rolling element bearings demonstrate its effectiveness. The comparison results show that the proposed method is able to obtain higher

  3. Self-similarly evolving and minimally dissipated stable states of plasmas realized after relaxation and self-organization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Hakoiwa, Toru; Okada, Akihito; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Takahashi, Toshiki

    2006-01-01

    A novel set of simultaneous eigenvalue equations having dissipative terms are derived to find self-similarly evolving and minimally dissipated stable states of plasmas realized after relaxation and self-organization processes. By numerically solving the set of eigenvalue equations in a cylindrical model, typical spatial profiles of plasma parameters, electric and magnetic fields and diffusion factors are presented, all of which determine self-consistently with each other by physical laws and mutual relations among them, just as in experimental plasmas. (author)

  4. Ensemble Kalman Filtering with Residual Nudging: An Extension to State Estimation Problems with Nonlinear Observation Operators

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is an efficient algorithm for many data assimilation problems. In certain circumstances, however, divergence of the EnKF might be spotted. In previous studies, the authors proposed an observation-space-based strategy, called residual nudging, to improve the stability of the EnKF when dealing with linear observation operators. The main idea behind residual nudging is to monitor and, if necessary, adjust the distances (misfits) between the real observations and the simulated ones of the state estimates, in the hope that by doing so one may be able to obtain better estimation accuracy. In the present study, residual nudging is extended and modified in order to handle nonlinear observation operators. Such extension and modification result in an iterative filtering framework that, under suitable conditions, is able to achieve the objective of residual nudging for data assimilation problems with nonlinear observation operators. The 40-dimensional Lorenz-96 model is used to illustrate the performance of the iterative filter. Numerical results show that, while a normal EnKF may diverge with nonlinear observation operators, the proposed iterative filter remains stable and leads to reasonable estimation accuracy under various experimental settings.

  5. Coherence and quasi-stable states in a strong infrared field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, Francis

    2016-05-01

    We study the quasi-stability of UV-pulse-train-excited H atoms in a strong infrared (IR) laser as a function of the phase delay of the UV-pulse-train relative to the IR laser. The UV-pulse-train contains two frequency components. When the two components have frequencies separated by two IR photons, the population of surviving electrons is modulated by up to ten percent. When electrons are excited to right above or below the threshold, the survival probabilities have inverted phase delay dependence which can be explained classically. When the two frequencies are one IR-photon apart, the angular symmetry of the quasi-stable electrons is broken, and the asymmetry is also controlled by the phase delay. The asymmetrical distribution can be observed while the IR is on and smoothly evolves to a nonzero asymmetry that only weakly depends on the duration of the IR field. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award No. DE-SC0012193.

  6. Skinner boxes for psychotics: operant conditioning at Metropolitan State Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named "Studies in Behavior Therapy," was renamed "Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory" in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis is discussed. A case is made for viewing Lindsley's early work as foundational for the subfield of the experimental analysis of human behavior that formally coalesced in the early 1980s. The laboratory's work is also contextualized with reference to the psychopharmacological revolution of the 1950s. Finally, a four-stage framework for studying the historical and conceptual development of behavior analysis is proposed.

  7. Population of Metastable States in Stable Hafnium and Ytterbium Nuclei via Beam Break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malwela, T.; Ntshangase, S.S.; Shirinda, O.; Bark, R.A.; Gueorguieva, E.; Lawrie, J.J.; Mullins, S.M.; Murray, S.H.T.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Gal, J.; Kalinka, G.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Molnar, J.; Nyako, B.M.; Timar, J.; Zolnai, L.; Hlatshwayo, T.; Juhasz, K.; Komati, F.S.; Scheurer, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    The ''Chessboard'' section of the DIAMANT charged-particle array has been coupled with the AFRODITE γ-ray spectrometer at the iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences. Charged-particle-γ-ray coincidence data were recorded during the bombardment of a 176Yb target with a 13C beam at an energy of 90 MeV. The purpose of the investigation was to study the population of metastable states in hafium nuclei via incomplete fusion reactions in which the beam breaks up due to its α-cluster character. Of note was the observation of the band based on the Kπ = 16+, T1/2 = 31 year isomer in 178Hf to its 19+ member. Also, decays from the high-K isomeric states in 174Yb and 176Yb. which were populated via 3αxn channels, indicative of complete break-up of the 13C beam

  8. Stable Operation and Small-Signal Analysis of Multiple Parallel DG Inverters Based on a Virtual Synchronous Generator Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For a high penetration level of distributed energy resources (DERs in the grid, virtual synchronous generator (VSG control is applied to the power electronic converters to mimic the rotating mass and damping property of a conventional synchronous generator (SG, which can support virtual inertia and damping for the power system. For VSG control, a phase locked loop (PLL is needed to estimate the angular frequency of the point of common coupling (PCC; however, the deviation of PLL will affect the accuracy of the active power reference, and even the VSG stability control. From this perspective, an enhanced active power controller without PLL was proposed for VSG control. Furthermore, an accurate small-signal model of the multiple parallel VSGs system that considers the dynamic characteristics and the changing of a steady state operation point was derived for system analysis and parameter design. Based on this model, the influence rules of the eigenvalues by droop and virtual inertia were acquired. The simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed active power controller and parameter design rules.

  9. Trend analysis of nuclear reactor automatic trip events subjected to operator's human error at United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagawa, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    Trends in nuclear reactor automatic trip events due to human errors during plant operating mode have been analyzed by extracting 20 events which took place in the United States during the period of seven years from 2002 to 2008, cited in the LERs (Licensee Event Reports) submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It was shown that the yearly number of events was relatively large before 2005, and thereafter the number decreased. A period of stable operation, in which the yearly number was kept very small, continued for about three years, and then the yearly number turned to increase again. Before 2005, automatic trip events occurred more frequently during periodic inspections or start-up/shut-down operations. The recent trends, however, indicate that trip events became more frequent due to human errors during daily operations. Human errors were mostly caused by the self-conceit and carelessness of operators through the whole period. The before mentioned trends in the yearly number of events might be explained as follows. The decrease in the automatic trip events is attributed to sharing trouble information, leading as a consequence to improvement of the manual and training for the operations which have a higher potential risk of automatic trip. Then, while the period of stable operation continued, some operators came to pay less attention to preventing human errors and not interest in the training, leading to automatic trip events in reality due to miss-operation. From these analyses on trouble experiences in the US, we learnt the followings to prevent the occurrence similar troubles in Japan: Operators should be thoroughly skilled in basic actions to prevent human errors as persons concerned. And it should be further emphasized that they should elaborate by imaging actual plant operations even though the simulator training gives them successful experiences. (author)

  10. Effects of tree harvest on the stable-state dynamics of savanna and forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredennick, Andrew T; Hanan, Niall P

    2015-05-01

    Contemporary theory on the maintenance and stability of the savanna biome has focused extensively on how climate and disturbances interact to affect tree growth and demography. In particular, the role of fire in reducing tree cover from climatic maxima is now well appreciated, and in certain cases, herbivory also strongly affects tree cover. However, in African savannas and forests, harvest of trees by humans for cooking and heating is an oft overlooked disturbance. Thus, we incorporate tree harvest into a population dynamic model of grasses, savanna saplings, savanna trees, and forest trees. We use assumptions about the differential demographic responses of savanna trees and forest trees to harvest to show how tree harvest influences tree cover, demography, and community composition. Tree harvest can erode the intrinsic basin of attraction for forest and make a state transition via fire to savanna more likely. The savanna state is generally resilient to all but high levels of tree harvest because of the resprouting abilities of savanna trees. In the absence of active fire suppression, our analysis suggests that we can expect to see large and potentially irreversible shifts from forest to savanna as demand increases for charcoal in sub-Saharan Africa. On the other hand, savanna tree species' traits promote savanna stability in the face of low to moderate harvest pressure.

  11. High-Speed and Low-Energy Flip-Flop Operation of Asymmetric Active-Multimode Interferometer Bi-Stable Laser Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Haisong; Chaen, Yutaka; Hagio, Takuma

    2011-01-01

    High-speed (121/25 ps rise/fall time) and low-switching energy (7.1 and 3.4 fJ) alloptical flip-flop operation of single-wavelength high-mesa asymmetric active-MMI bi-stable laser diodes is demonstrated for the first time using 25 ps long switching pulses.......High-speed (121/25 ps rise/fall time) and low-switching energy (7.1 and 3.4 fJ) alloptical flip-flop operation of single-wavelength high-mesa asymmetric active-MMI bi-stable laser diodes is demonstrated for the first time using 25 ps long switching pulses....

  12. OPERATIONAL EARTHQUAKE FORECASTING. State of Knowledge and Guidelines for Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshun Yamaoka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, the Dipartimento della Protezione Civile Italiana (DPC, appointed an International Commission on Earthquake Forecasting for Civil Protection (ICEF to report on the current state of knowledge of short-term prediction and forecasting of tectonic earthquakes and indicate guidelines for utilization of possible forerunners of large earthquakes to drive civil protection actions, including the use of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis in the wake of a large earthquake. The ICEF reviewed research on earthquake prediction and forecasting, drawing from developments in seismically active regions worldwide. A prediction is defined as a deterministic statement that a future earthquake will or will not occur in a particular geographic region, time window, and magnitude range, whereas a forecast gives a probability (greater than zero but less than one that such an event will occur. Earthquake predictability, the degree to which the future occurrence of earthquakes can be determined from the observable behavior of earthquake systems, is poorly understood. This lack of understanding is reflected in the inability to reliably predict large earthquakes in seismically active regions on short time scales. Most proposed prediction methods rely on the concept of a diagnostic precursor; i.e., some kind of signal observable before earthquakes that indicates with high probability the location, time, and magnitude of an impending event. Precursor methods reviewed here include changes in strain rates, seismic wave speeds, and electrical conductivity; variations of radon concentrations in groundwater, soil, and air; fluctuations in groundwater levels; electromagnetic variations near and above Earth's surface; thermal anomalies; anomalous animal behavior; and seismicity patterns. The search for diagnostic precursors has not yet produced a successful short-term prediction scheme. Therefore, this report focuses on operational

  13. Water uptake in woody riparian phreatophytes of the southwestern United States: a stable isotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, D.E.; Ingraham, N.L.; Smith, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Alluvial forest associations are often dominated by woody phreatophytes, plants that are tightly linked to aquifers for water uptake. Anthropogenic hydrological alterations (e.g., water impoundment or diversion) are of clear importance to riparian ecosystem function. Because decreased frequency of flooding and depression of water tables may, in effect, sever riparian plants from their natural water sources, research was undertaken to determine water uptake patterns for the dominant native and introduced woody taxa of riparian plant communities of the southwestern United States. At floodplain study sites along the Bill Williams and lower Colorado Rivers (Arizona, USA), naturally occurring D and 18 O were used to distinguish among potential water sources. Isotopic ratios from potential uptake locations were compared to water extracted from the dominant woody taxa of the study area (Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii, and Tamarix ramosissima) to elucidate patterns of water absorption. Isotopic composition of water obtained from sapwood cores did not differ significantly from heartwood or branch water, suggesting that heartwood water exchange, stem capacitance, and phloem sap mixing may be inconsequential in actively transpiring Salix and Populus. There was evidence for close hydrologic linkage of river, ground, and soil water during the early part of the growing season. Surface soils exhibited D enrichment due to cumulative exposure to evaporation as the growing season progressed. Isotopic ratios of water extracted from Populus and Salix did not exhibit isotopic enrichment and were not significantly different from groundwater or saturated soil water sources, indicating a phreatophytic uptake pattern. Associations of isotopic ratios with water relations parameters indicated high levels of canopy evaporation and possible use of moisture from unsaturated alluvial soils in addition to groundwater in Tamarix. (author)

  14. Constitutive activation of Nrf2 induces a stable reductive state in the mouse myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinath Shanmugam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Redox homeostasis regulates key cellular signaling pathways in both physiology and pathology. The cell's antioxidant response provides a defense against oxidative stress and establishes a redox tone permissive for cell signaling. The molecular regulation of the well-known Keap1/Nrf2 system acts as sensor responding to changes in redox homeostasis and is poorly studied in the heart. Importantly, it is not yet known whether Nrf2 alone can serve as a master regulator of cellular redox homeostasis without compensation of the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant response element (ARE genes through alternate mechanisms. Here, we addressed this question using cardiac-specific transgenic expression at two different levels of constitutively active nuclear erythroid related factor 2 (caNrf2 functioning independently of Keap1. The caNrf2 mice showed augmentation of glutathione (GSH, the key regulator of the cellular thiol redox state. The Trans-AM assay for Nrf2-binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE showed a dose-dependent increase associated with upregulation of several major antioxidant genes and proteins. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in dihydroethidium staining and malondialdehyde (MDA in the caNrf2-TG mice myocardium. Interestingly, caNrf2 gene-dosage dependent redox changes were noted resulting in generation of a multi-stage model of pro-reductive and reductive conditions in the myocardium of TG-low and TG-high mice, respectively. These data clearly show that Nrf2 levels alone are capable of serving as the master regulator of the ARE. These models provide an important platform to investigate the impact of the Nrf2 system independent of the need to regulate the activity of Keap1 and the consequent exposure to pro-oxidants or electrophiles, which have numerous off-target effects.

  15. Investigation of defect states in organic semiconductors. Towards long term stable materials for organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafferhans, Julia

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the trap states in the conjugated polymer P3HT, often used as electron donor in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, three commonly used fullerene based electron acceptors and P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM blends were investigated. Concerning the lifetime of organic solar cells the influence of oxygen on P3HT and P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM blends was studied. Fractional TSC measurements on P3HT diodes revealed a quasi-continuous trap distribution. The deeper traps exhibited a strong dependence on oxygen. Exposure of the P3HT diodes to oxygen, ambient air and synthetic (dry) air all revealed an increase of the deeper traps density with exposure time in the same manner. While the lower limit of the trap density in non aged P3HT samples was in the range of (1.0-1.2) x 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}, it was more than doubled after an exposure of 50 h to air. An increase of the trap density with oxygen exposure time was also seen in the Q-DLTS measurements accompanied with an increase of the temperature dependence of the emission rates. Due to the raise in density of the deeper traps, the charge carrier mobility in P3HT significantly decreased, as revealed by photo-CELIV measurements, resulting in a loss in mobility of about two orders of magnitude after 100 h exposure to synthetic air. This effect was partially reversible by applying vacuum to the sample for several hours or, more significantly, by a thermal treatment of the devices in nitrogen atmosphere. The trap states in the methanofullerenes PC{sub 61}BM, bisPC{sub 61}BM and PC71BM were investigated by TSC measurements. PC{sub 61}BM yielded a broad quasi-continuous trap distribution with the maximum of the distribution at about 75 meV. The comparison of the TSC spectra of the three methanofullerenes exhibited significant differences in the trap states with higher activation energies of the most prominent traps in bisPC{sub 61}BM and PC71BM compared to PC{sub 61}BM. The lower limit of the trap density of all of the three

  16. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  17. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  18. Bioprocess optimization for production of thermoalkali-stable protease from Bacillus subtilis K-1 under solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satbir; Bajaj, Bijender Kumar

    2016-10-02

    Cost-effective production of proteases, which are robust enough to function under harsh process conditions, is always sought after due to their wide industrial application spectra. Solid-state production of enzymes using agro-industrial wastes as substrates is an environment-friendly approach, and it has several advantages such as high productivity, cost-effectiveness, being less labor-intensive, and less effluent production, among others. In the current study, different agro-wastes were employed for thermoalkali-stable protease production from Bacillus subtilis K-1 under solid-state fermentation. Agricultural residues such as cotton seed cake supported maximum protease production (728 U ml(-1)), which was followed by gram husk (714 U ml(-1)), mustard cake (680 U ml(-1)), and soybean meal (653 U ml(-1)). Plackett-Burman design of experiment showed that peptone, moisture content, temperature, phosphates, and inoculum size were the significant variables that influenced the protease production. Furthermore, statistical optimization of three variables, namely peptone, moisture content, and incubation temperature, by response surface methodology resulted in 40% enhanced protease production as compared to that under unoptimized conditions (from initial 728 to 1020 U ml(-1)). Thus, solid-state fermentation coupled with design of experiment tools represents a cost-effective strategy for production of industrial enzymes.

  19. Furosemide Prescription During the Dry State Is a Predictor of Long-Term Survival of Stable, Optimally Medicated Patients With Systolic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargento, Luis; Simões, Andre Vicente; Longo, Susana; Lousada, Nuno; Reis, Roberto Palma Dos

    2017-05-01

    Furosemide is associated with poor prognosis in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). To evaluate the association between daily furosemide dose prescribed during the dry state and long-term survival in stable, optimally medicated outpatients with HFrEF. Two hundred sixty-six consecutive outpatients with left ventricular ejection fraction failure therapy, were followed up for 3 years in a heart failure unit. The end point was all-cause death. There were no changes in New York Heart Association class and therapeutics, including diuretics, and no decompensation or hospitalization during 6 months. Furosemide doses were categorized as low or none (0-40 mg/d), intermediate (41-80 mg/d), and high (>80 mg). Cox regression was adjusted for significant confounders. The 3-year mortality rate was 33.8%. Mean dose of furosemide was 57.3 ± 21.4 mg/d. A total of 47.6% of patients received the low dose, 42.1% the intermediate dose, and 2.3% the high dose. Receiver operating characteristics for death associated with furosemide dose showed an area under the curve of 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68-0.79; P 40 mg/d. An increasing daily dose of furosemide was associated with worse prognosis. Those receiving the intermediate dose (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.1; 95% CI: 2.57-6.64; P 40 mg/d, in a propensity score-matched cohort, had a greater risk of mortality than those receiving a low dose (HR = 4.02; 95% CI: 1.8-8.8; P = .001) and those not receiving furosemide (HR = 3.9; 95% CI: 0.07-14.2; P = .039). Furosemide administration during the dry state in stable, optimally medicated outpatients with HFrEF is unfavorably associated with long-term survival. The threshold dose was 40 mg/d.

  20. Experimental studies towards long pulse steady state operation in LHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noda, N.; Nakamura, Y.; Takeiri, Y.; Mutoh, T.; Kumazawa, R.; Sato, M.; Kawahata, K.; Yamada, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Oka, Y.; Iiyoshi, A.; Sakamoto, R.; Kubota, Y.; Masuzaki, S.; Inagaki, S.; Morisaki, T.; Suzuki, H.; Ohyabu, N.; Adachi, K.; Akaishi, K.; Ashikawa, N.; Chikaraishi, H.; de Vries, P. C.; Emoto, M.; Funaba, H.; Goto, M.; Hamaguchi, S.; Ida, K.; Idei, H.; Ikeda, K.; Imagawa, S.; Inoue, N.; Isobe, M.; Iwamoto, A.; Kado, S.; Kaneko, O.; Kitagawa, S.; Khlopenkov, K.; Kobuchi, T.; Komori, A.; Kubo, S.; Liang, Y.; Maekawa, R.; Minami, T.; Mito, T.; Miyazawa, J.; Morita, S.; Murai, K.; Murakami, S.; Muto, S.; Nagayama, Y.; Nakanishi, H.; Narihara, K.; Nishimura, A.; Nishimura, K.; Nishizawa, A.; Notake, T.; Ohdachi, S.; Okamoto, M.; Osakabe, M.; Ozaki, T.; Pavlichenko, R. O.; Peterson, B. J.; Sagara, A.; Saito, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Sasao, H.; Sasao, M.; Sato, K.; Seki, T.; Shoji, M.; Sugama, H.; Takahata, K.; Takechi, M.; Tamura, H.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, K.; Toi, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Torii, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Watanabe, T.; Watari, T.; Yanagi, N.; Yamada, I.; Yamada, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Ohtake, I.; Akiyama, R.; Haba, K.; Iima, M.; Kodaira, J.; Tsuzuki, K.; Itoh, K.; Matsuoka, K.; Ohkubo, K.; Satoh, S.; Satow, T.; Sudo, S.; Tanahashi, S.; Yamazaki, K.; Motojima, O.; Hamada, Y.; Fujiwara, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the Large Helical Device, stable discharges lasting longer than one minute have been obtained using the complete heating scheme, including ECH. The plasma is sustained with NBI or ICRF of 0.5-1 MW. The central plasma temperature is higher than 1.5 keV with a density of (1-2) x 10(19) m(-3)

  1. 2016 Highlights of Ferry Operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This publication highlights data collected by the 2016 NCFO. The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) conducted the NCFO from April through November 2016, collecting the operational characteristics of the 2015 calendar year ferry operations.

  2. Small-State Special Operations in a Comprehensive Stabilisation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anton Asklund

    takeaways were: Special operations as a force multiplier: Can special operations enable other stabilisation agents, locals as well as internationals, to accomplish their missions more effectively? This includes NGOs, diplomats or other officials, other military units, etc. How can the mindset required...... to enable ‘whole-of-government’ approaches be promoted? Economy of force considerations: Are special operations truly a cheaper means of reaching certain ends? When are small and indirect approaches involving special operations forces effective and when are they not? Special operations as expansion...

  3. Flood effects provide evidence of an alternate stable state from dam management on the Upper Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, Katherine; Benthem, Adam J.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Schenk, Edward R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

    2017-01-01

    We examine how historic flooding in 2011 affected the geomorphic adjustments created by dam regulation along the approximately 120 km free flowing reach of the Upper Missouri River bounded upstream by the Garrison Dam (1953) and downstream by Lake Oahe Reservoir (1959) near the City of Bismarck, ND, USA. The largest flood since dam regulation occurred in 2011. Flood releases from the Garrison Dam began in May 2011 and lasted until October, peaking with a flow of more than 4200 m3 s−1. Channel cross-section data and aerial imagery before and after the flood were compared with historic rates of channel change to assess the relative impact of the flood on the river morphology. Results indicate that the 2011 flood maintained trends in island area with the loss of islands in the reach just below the dam and an increase in island area downstream. Channel capacity changes varied along the Garrison Segment as a result of the flood. The thalweg, which has been stable since the mid-1970s, did not migrate. And channel morphology, as defined by a newly developed shoaling metric, which quantifies the degree of channel braiding, indicates significant longitudinal variability in response to the flood. These results show that the 2011 flood exacerbates some geomorphic trends caused by the dam while reversing others. We conclude that the presence of dams has created an alternate geomorphic and related ecological stable state, which does not revert towards pre-dam conditions in response to the flood of record. This suggests that management of sediment transport dynamics as well as flow modification is necessary to restore the Garrison Segment of the Upper Missouri River towards pre-dam conditions and help create or maintain habitat for endangered species. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. A Tri-Layer Proton-Conducting Electrolyte for Chemically Stable Operation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei

    2013-10-07

    Two BaZr0.7Pr0.1Y0.2O3-δ (BZPY) layers were used to sandwich a BaCe0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BCY) layer to produce a tri-layer electrolyte consisting of BZPY/BCY/BZPY. The BZPY layers significantly improved the chemical stability of the BCY electrolyte layer, which was not stable when tested alone, suggesting that the BZPY layer effectively protected the BCY layer from CO2 reaction, which is the major problem of BCY-based materials. A fuel cell with this sandwiched electrolyte supported on a Ni-based composite anode showed a reasonable cell performance, reaching 185 mW cm-2 at 700 oC, in spite of the relatively large electrolyte thickness (about 65 µm).

  5. 78 FR 6817 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Wisconsin Public Service Corporation--JP Pulliam Plant. Pursuant to section 505(b)(2) of the Act, a... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 9774-6] Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Wisconsin Public Service Corporation--JP Pulliam Plant AGENCY...

  6. All-optical flip-flop operation based on asymmetric active-multimode interferometer bi-stable laser diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, H.; Chaen, Y.; Hagio, T.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate fast and low energy all optical flip-flop devices based on asymmetric active-multimode interferometer using high-mesa waveguide structure. The implemented devices showed high speed alloptical flip-flop operation with 25ps long pulses. The rising and falling times of the output sign...

  7. Robust and Stable Disturbance Observer of Servo System for Low Speed Operation Using the Radial Basis Function Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    A new scheme to estimate the moment of inertia in the servo motor drive system in very low speed is proposed in this paper. The speed estimation scheme in most servo drive systems for low speed operation is sensitive to the variation of machine parameter, especially the moment of inertia. To esti...

  8. Effect of steady-state faldaprevir on the pharmacokinetics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone in subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, David; Schobelock, Michael J; Riesenberg, Robert R; Vince, Bradley D; Webster, Lynn R; Adeniji, Abidemi; Elgadi, Mabrouk; Huang, Fenglei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of steady-state faldaprevir on the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone were assessed in 34 healthy male and female subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy. Subjects continued receiving a stable oral dose of either methadone (up to a maximum dose of 180 mg per day) or buprenorphine-naloxone (up to a maximum dose of 24 mg-6 mg per day) and also received oral faldaprevir (240 mg) once daily (QD) for 8 days following a 480-mg loading dose. Serial blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacodynamics of the opioid maintenance regimens were evaluated by the objective and subjective opioid withdrawal scales. Coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone resulted in geometric mean ratios for the steady-state area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24,ss)), the steady-state maximum concentration of the drug in plasma (C(max,ss)), and the steady-state concentration of the drug in plasma at 24 h (C(24,ss)) of 0.92 to 1.18 for (R)-methadone, (S)-methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and naloxone, with 90% confidence intervals including, or very close to including, 1.00 (no effect), suggesting a limited overall effect of faldaprevir. Although individual data showed moderate variability in the exposures between subjects and treatments, there was no evidence of symptoms of opiate overdose or withdrawal either during the coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone or after faldaprevir dosing was stopped. Similar faldaprevir exposures were observed in the methadone- and buprenorphine-naloxone-treated subjects. In conclusion, faldaprevir at 240 mg QD can be coadministered with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone without dose adjustment, although given the relatively narrow therapeutic windows of these agents, monitoring for opiate overdose and withdrawal may still be appropriate. (This

  9. Long Term Operation in the United States – Subsequent License Renewal for Plant Operation Beyond 60 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.

    2016-01-01

    To date, renewed operating licenses have been issued for 78 of the operating nuclear power plant units in the United States of America (USA), enabling these plants to operate for up to 60 years. License renewal applications for another 14 units are currently under review. With 38 of these units in the operating period beyond 40 years, there is growing interest by the industry for subsequent license renewal, wherein plants would be relicensed to operate for an additional 20-year period, out to 80 years. The NRC is currently evaluating technical issues for 80 years of plant operation, to enable development of guidance documents such as a Generic Aging Lessons Learned Report and a Standard Review Plan that would apply to subsequent license renewal. This paper describes the status of license renewal in the USA, including the prognosis for plant operation out to 80 years. (author)

  10. Proposed Continental Operations Range. United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    would be expressed over possible disruptive effects on the activities people might be pursuing. For example, the Utah a State Archeologist, David S...are cantered in this area, including water sports and camping, since Cathedral Gorge State Park, Echo Valley State Park, and Eagle Valley Dam would be...evaluation facilities. The study results, approved by Deputy Secretary of Defense David Packard on 29 October 1971, included a proposal for the

  11. An Examination of the United States Air Service's Logistics Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    This historical study details the U.S. Air Service's logistics operations at home and abroad in an attempt to determine the relationship between the process and more recently established logistic principles...

  12. Electrophysiological Features of Single Store-Operated Calcium Channels in HEK S4 Cell Line with Stable STIM1 Protein Knockdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalygin, A V; Vigont, V A; Glushankova, L N; Zimina, O A; Kolesnikov, D O; Skopin, A Yu; Kaznacheeva, E V

    2017-07-01

    An important role in intracellular calcium signaling is played by store-operated channels activated by STIM proteins, calcium sensors of the endoplasmic reticulum. In stable STIM1 knockdown HEK S4 cells, single channels activated by depletion of intracellular calcium stores were detected by cell-attached patch-clamp technique and their electrophysiological parameters were described. Comparison of the properties of single channels in HEK293 and HEK S4 cells revealed no significant differences in their current-voltage curves, while regulation of store-operated calcium channels in these cell lines depended on the level of STIM1 expression. We can conclude that electrophysiological peculiarities of store-regulated calcium entry observed in different cells can be explained by differences in STIM1 expression.

  13. High-Order Entropy Stable Formulations for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Fisher, Travis C.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented for developing entropy stable (SS) formulations of any order for the Navier-Stokes equations. These SS formulations discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows provided sufficient dissipation is added at shocks and discontinuities. Entropy stable formulations exist for all diagonal norm, summation-by-parts (SBP) operators, including all centered finite-difference operators, Legendre collocation finite-element operators, and certain finite-volume operators. Examples are presented using various entropy stable formulations that demonstrate the current state-of-the-art of these schemes.

  14. Operating System Support for High-Performance Solid State Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørling, Matias

    of the operating system in reducing the gap, and enabling new forms of communication and even co-design between applications and high-performance SSDs. More specifically, we studied the storage layers within the Linux kernel. We explore the following issues: (i) what are the limitations of the legacy block...... a form of application-SSD co-design? What are the impacts on operating system design? (v) What would it take to provide quality of service for applications requiring millions of I/O per second? The dissertation consists of six publications covering these issues. Two of the main contributions...

  15. Stability Operations and State-Building: Continuities and Contingencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browder, Dewey A; Kaufmann, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this academic colloquium was to identify principles and supporting policies of state-building that will enhance America's ability "to win the peace" while stabilizing chaotic regions...

  16. The CRESST-III iStick veto. Stable operation of multiple transition edge sensors in one readout circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut f. Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: CRESST-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    To enable complete rejection of holder-related events in the upcoming CRESST-III dark matter search experiment, the scintillating target crystals are held by calcium tungstate sticks (iSticks) instrumented with tungsten transition edge sensors (TESs). Since the iStick signals are used exclusively for vetoing, it is sufficient to register if an event happened in any stick, without knowing which one. This allows the operation of all iSticks in a single readout circuit, requiring just one SQUID magnetometer. The talk describes the effect of bias current heating and corresponding hysteresis phenomena known in single-TES circuits, and the resulting conditions for stability in multiple-TES circuits. The fundamentally different behaviour of parallel and series circuits and resulting design choices are explored.

  17. Optimizing Resources of United States Navy for Humanitarian Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-26

    teaching and developing master’s students and executives in the U.S. and Europe in principles of supply chain management and manufacturing operations. He...critical capabilities. Large number of deaths and injuries Population dispersion, homelessness , and large number of missing persons Increased

  18. Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis of Aiternative Force Structures for Fulfillment of the United States Marine Corps Operational Support Airlift and Search and Rescue Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chase, Eric

    2000-01-01

    This thesis provides a preliminary cost and operational effectiveness analysis of alternative force structures for the United States Marine Corps operational support airlift and search and rescue missions...

  19. Sulfur poisoning of Ni/Gadolinium-doped ceria anodes: A long-term study outlining stable solid oxide fuel cell operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegraf, Matthias; Zekri, Atef; Knipper, Martin; Costa, Rémi; Schiller, Günter; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2018-03-01

    This work presents an analysis of the long-term behavior of nickel/gadolinium-doped ceria (CGO) anode-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under sulfur poisoning conditions. A parameter study of sulfur-induced irreversible long-term degradation of commercial, high-performance single cells was carried out at 900 °C for different H2/N2/H2S fuel gas atmospheres, current densities and Ni/CGO anodes. The poisoning periods of the cells varied from 200 to 1500 h. The possibility of stable long-term Ni/CGO anode operation under sulfur exposure is established and the critical operating regime is outlined. Depending on the operating conditions, two degradation phenomena can be observed. Small degradation of the ohmic resistance was witnessed for sulfur exposure times of approximately 1000 h. Moreover, degradation of the anode charge transfer resistance was observed to be triggered by the combination of a small anodic potential step and high sulfur coverage on Ni. The microstructural evolution of altered Ni/CGO anodes was examined post-mortem by means of SEM and FIB/SEM, and is correlated to the anode performance degradation under critical operating conditions, establishing Ni depletion, porosity increase and a tripe phase boundary density decrease in the anode functional layer. It is shown that short-term sulfur poisoning behavior can be used to assess long-term stability.

  20. Relationships of stable isotopes, water-rock interaction and salinization in fractured aquifers, Petrolina region, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila Sousa, E-mail: priscila.silva@cprm.gov.br [Serviço Geológico do Brasil (CPRM), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Campos, José Eloi Guimarães; Cunha, Luciano Soares; Mancini, Luís Henrique, E-mail: eloi@unb.br, E-mail: lucianosc@unb.br, E-mail: lmancini@unb.br [Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2018-01-15

    The Petrolina County, Pernambuco State, Brazil, presents specificities that make it unique from a hydrogeological point of view. Water resource scarcity is both a quantitative and qualitative issue. The climate is classified as semiarid, having low precipitation, along with high temperatures and evapotranspiration rates. Aquifer zones are related to low connected fractures resulting in a restricted water flow in the aquifer. The recharge is limited and the groundwater salinity is high. Stable isotope analyses of H and O were developed in groundwater samples (with different electrical conductivity) and surface water collected in a bypass channel flowing from the São Francisco River. The results were plotted in a δD ‰ versus δ{sup 18}O ‰ graph along with the curves of the global and local meteoric water line. Groundwater samples showed unexpected results showing a lighter sign pattern when compared to the meteoric waters. More negative δD and δ{sup 18}O values indicate an enrichment in light isotopes, which show that this process is not influenced by surface processes, where the enrichment occurs in heavy isotopes due to evaporation. The isotopic signature observed is interpreted either as resulting from the water-rock interaction, or as resulting from recharge from paleo rains. The waters are old and show restricted flow. So the water-rock contact time is extended. In the rock weathering processes, through the hydration of feldspars, there is preferential assimilation of heavy isotopes at the expense of the lighter ones that remain in the water. Analyses of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio and isotopic groundwater dating assist in the interpretations. (author)

  1. Stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using ionic gel electrolyte with low molecular mass organogelator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Li [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huo, Zhipeng, E-mail: zhipenghuo@163.com [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Dai, Songyuan, E-mail: sydai@ncepu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Changneng; Pan, Xu; Huang, Yang [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Division of Solar Energy Materials and Engineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Yang, Shangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Bing; Yao, Jianxi [Beijing Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Long-term stability is essential for the application and commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A quasi-solid-state DSC (QS-DSC) with excellent long-term stability is fabricated using ionic gel electrolyte (IGE) with N,N′-methylenebisdodecanamide as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG). The gel to solution transition temperature (T{sub gel}) of this IGE is 127 °C, well above the working temperature of the device, which contributes to the thermal properties of the IGE and the device. The electrochemical properties of the IGE and the kinetic processes of electron transport and recombination of the QS-DSC are investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). Due to the obstructed diffusion of redox species caused by the network of IGE, the electron recombination at the TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode/electrolyte interface in the QS-DSC is accelerated. More importantly, compared with the ionic liquid electrolyte (ILE) based DSC, the QS-DSC based on the IGE exhibits excellent thermal and light-soaking stabilities during the accelerated aging tests for 1000 h. Especially, there is almost no degradation in the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) in the IGE based QS-DSC, while the J{sub sc} of the ILE based DSC decreased to 85–94% of their initial values. - Highlights: • A novel IGE with high T{sub gel} is obtained by using a diamide derivative as LMOG. • The IGE based QS-DSC is very stable during the accelerated aging tests. • The influences of gelation on the electron kinetic processes are investigated.

  2. Stable Operation and Electricity Generating Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Free Piston Engine Linear Generator: Simulation and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel design of a single-cylinder free piston engine linear generator (FPELG incorporating a linear motor as a rebound device. A systematic simulation model of this FPELG system was built containing a kinematic and dynamic model of the piston and mover, a magneto-electric model of the linear generator, a thermodynamic model of the single-cylinder engine, and a friction model between the piston ring and cylinder liner. Simulations were performed to understand the relationships between pre-set motor parameters and the running performance of the FPELG. From the simulation results, it was found that a motor rebound force with a parabolic profile had clear advantages over a force with a triangular profile, such as a higher running frequency and peak cylinder pressure, faster piston motion, etc. The rebound position and the amplitude of rebound force were also determined by simulations. The energy conversion characteristics of the generator were obtained from our FPELG test rig. The parameters of intake pressure, motor frequency, and load resistance were varied over certain ranges, and relationships among these three parameters were obtained. The electricity-generating characteristic parameters include output power and system efficiency, which can measure the quality of matching the controllable parameters. The output power can reach 25.9 W and the system efficiency can reach 13.7%. The results in terms of matching parameters and electricity-generating characteristics should be useful to future research in adapting these engines to various operating modes.

  3. The United States Army Operating Concept, 2016-2028

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) to Director, TRADOC ARCIC (ATFC-ED), 20 Whistler Lane, Fort Monroe, Virginia 23651-1046...Corps-Iraq, established a Counter IED Operations Intelligence Center (COIC), directed by Colonel James Hickey, to focus, integrate, and synchronize...71. 44 James A. Dewar, Carl H. Builder, William M. Hix, Morlie H. Levin, Assumption-based planning, RAND 1993. 45 Drilling for certainty http

  4. Operating tokamaks with steady-state toroidal current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1981-04-01

    Continuous operation of a tokamak requires, among other things, a means of continuously providing the toroidal current. Various methods have been proposed to provide this current including methods which utilize radio-frequency waves in any of several frequency regimes. Here we elaborate on the prospects of incorporating these current-drive techniques in tokamak reactors, concentrating on the theoretical minimization of the power requirements

  5. Preliminary Exploration of Adaptive State Predictor Based Human Operator Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2012-01-01

    Control-theoretic modeling of the human operator dynamic behavior in manual control tasks has a long and rich history. In the last two decades, there has been a renewed interest in modeling the human operator. There has also been significant work on techniques used to identify the pilot model of a given structure. The purpose of this research is to attempt to go beyond pilot identification based on collected experimental data and to develop a predictor of pilot behavior. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of changing aircraft dynamics on an operator s ability to track a signal in order to eventually model a pilot adapting to changing aircraft dynamics. A gradient descent estimator and a least squares estimator with exponential forgetting used these data to predict pilot stick input. The results indicate that individual pilot characteristics and vehicle dynamics did not affect the accuracy of either estimator method to estimate pilot stick input. These methods also were able to predict pilot stick input during changing aircraft dynamics and they may have the capability to detect a change in a subject due to workload, engagement, etc., or the effects of changes in vehicle dynamics on the pilot.

  6. Structural Operational Semantics for Continuous State Stochastic Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacci, Giorgio; Miculan, Marino

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we show how to model syntax and semantics of stochastic processes with continuous states, respectively as algebras and coalgebras of suitable endofunctors over the category of measurable spaces Meas. Moreover, we present an SOS-like rule format, called MGSOS , representing abstract ...

  7. Utility Wind Integration and Operating Impact - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. C.; Milligan, M. R.; DeMeo, E. A.; Parsons, B.

    2007-08-01

    At the end of 2005, the Power Engineering Society (PES) published a special issue of its Power & Energy Magazine that focused on integrating wind into the power system. This paper provides a summary and update on many of the salient points from that special issue about the current state of knowledge regarding utility wind integration issues.

  8. Operation States Analysis of the Series-Parallel resonant Converter Working Above Resonance Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dzurko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation states analysis of a series-parallel converter working above resonance frequency is described in the paper. Principal equations are derived for individual operation states. On the basis of them the diagrams are made out. The diagrams give the complex image of the converter behaviour for individual circuit parameters. The waveforms may be utilised at designing the inverter individual parts.

  9. Coherent State Projection Operator Representation of Symplectic Transformations as a Loyal Representation of Symplectic Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-Yi; Chen, Jun-Hua

    2002-08-01

    We find that the coherent state projection operator representation of symplectic transformation constitutes a loyal group representation of symplectic group. The result of successively applying squeezing operators on number state can be easily derived. The project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10575057 and the President Foundation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

  10. Power system state correction for on-line operation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanov, N.R.; Rahmanov, R.R.; Meshkini, B.

    2001-01-01

    The experience of power systems operation shows that the system functioning effectiveness basically is provided by its regime stabilization in frame of on-line control. It is determined that stabilization is attained by regime correction of controlled effects in a short period of time. In the paper there are shown algorithms of optimal effects selection on controlled energy-system parameters. Which are enough for eliminating the permissibility and economy of resume. There was shown an example of energy system active power correction algorithm, what permits to determine optimal values of power plants and power changing for covering extraordinary load deviations

  11. Generating continuous variable entangled states for quantum teleportation using a superposition of number-conserving operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar Dhar, Himadri; Chatterjee, Arpita; Ghosh, Rupamanjari

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the states generated in continuous variable (CV) optical fields by operating them with a number-conserving operator of the type s\\hat{a}{\\hat{a}}\\dagger +t{\\hat{a}}\\dagger \\hat{a}, formed by the generalized superposition of products of field annihilation (\\hat{a}) and creation ({\\hat{a}}\\dagger ) operators, with {s}2+{t}2=1. Such an operator is experimentally realizable and can be suitably manipulated to generate nonclassical optical states when applied on single- and two-mode coherent, thermal and squeezed input states. At low intensities, these nonclassical states can interact with a secondary mode via a linear optical device to generate two-mode discrete entangled states, which can serve as a resource in quantum information protocols. The advantage of these operations are tested by applying the generated entangled states as quantum channels in CV quantum teleportation, under the Braunstein and Kimble protocol. We observe that, under these operations, while the average fidelity of CV teleportation is enhanced for the nonclassical channel formed using input squeezed states, it remains at the classical threshold for input coherent and thermal states. This is due to the fact that though these operations can introduce discrete entanglement in all input states, it enhances the Einstein-Podolosky-Rosen correlations only in the nonclassical squeezed state inputs, leading to an advantage in CV teleportation. This shows that nonclassical optical states generated using the above operations on classical coherent and thermal state inputs are not useful for CV teleportation. This investigation could prove useful for the efficient implementation of noisy non-Gaussian channels, formed by linear operations, in future teleportation protocols.

  12. Theoretical analysis of steady state operating forces in control valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Hubballi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The controlling components, such as valves are used to regulate controlled fluid power. It is not always possible to calculate valve forces accurately, and with some types of valves even the existence of certain types of forces cannot be predicted with certainty. In many cases, however, the analysis can be made fairly completely and accurately. The assumption of steady state conditions is valid for the valve alone, but transient effects in the rest of the system may be large. These effects are particularly important with regard to the instability of valves, where the system may react on the valve in such a way as to make it squeal or oscillate, sometimes with large amplitude. The origin of the steady state flow force understood from a brief qualitative explanation. The following paper will summarize much of what is known about valve forces in the spool type controlling element.

  13. Evolution of United States Army Deployment Operations: The Santiago Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-03

    the leader of the campaign. Secretary of War Russell Alger; Adjutant General of the United States Army, Colonel Henry Corbin ; and Commanding...Military Studies Henry A. Arnold III, COL Accepted this 23rd day of May 2015 by: _________________________________________, Director...stores and one telegraph office. The main attraction was the Tampa Bay Hotel that rested on six acres with a silver dome covering a small casino. Henry B

  14. 14 CFR 375.41 - Agricultural and industrial operations within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural and industrial operations... Agricultural and industrial operations within the United States. Foreign civil aircraft shall not be used for such commercial air operations as crop dusting, pest control, pipeline patrol, mapping, surveying...

  15. Army Solid State Laser Program: Design, Operation, and Mission Analysis for a Heat-Capacity Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane, C B; Flath, L; Rotter, M; Fochs, S; Brase, J; Bretney, K

    2001-01-01

    scenario including a dense attack of rockets, mortars, and artillery has indicated that multiple HEL weapon systems, based on the solid state, heat capacity laser concept, can provide significantly improved protection of high value battlefield assets. We will present EADSIM results for two government-supplied scenarios, one with temporally high threat density over a fairly large defended area, and one with fewer threats concentrating on a single defended asset. Implications for weapon system requirements will be presented. In order to demonstrate the operation of a high average power heat-capacity laser system, we have developed a flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass laser with output energies in the range of 500-1000J/pulse in a 10 x 10cm 2 beam. With a repetition frequency of 20Hz, an average power of 13kW has been demonstrated for operational periods of up to 10s using a stable optical resonator (see enclosed figure). Using an M=1.4 unstable resonator, a beam divergence of 5X diffraction-limited has been measured with no active wavefront correction. An adaptively corrected unstable resonator that incorporates an intracavity deformable mirror controlled by feedback from an external wavefront sensor will provide <2X diffraction-limited output integrated over an entire 10s run at an average power of 10kW. A very similar laser architecture in which the Nd:glass is replaced by Nd:GGG and the flashlamps are replaced by large diode-laser arrays will enable the scaling of the output average power from the demonstrated 10kW to 100kW (500J/pulse at 200Hz). Risk reduction experiments for diode-pumped Nd:GGG, the fabrication of large Nd:GGG amplifier slabs, as well as the progress toward a sub-scale amplifier testbed pumped by diode arrays with total of 1MW peak power will also be presented

  16. IAEA technical co-operation with least developed Member States. Special evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The main purposes of this evaluation were to: Review the overall situation with regard to IAEA technical co-operation with least developed Member States, including specific conditions in nuclear-related activities prevailing in these countries, approaches and practices used by the IAEA in providing assistance to LDCs, and the main results of the co-operation in question. Identify any adjustments to technical co-operation with LDC Member States that may strengthen this activity

  17. On the effect of emotional states on operator thinking. [psychological test for operator selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodkova, A. V.

    1975-01-01

    A combination sonic and electrical skin stimuli stress test is reported that is suitable for the psychological selection of individuals to perform operator functions. The behavior of these people is characterized by a fighting spirit, increased work capacity, minimum expenditure of strength and insignificant fatigue.

  18. United States Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, completion report Operation KLAXON, Fiscal Year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Completion Report provides a summary of activities conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between October 1, 1992, and September 30, 1993, associated with Operation KLAXON. (In the past, each annual Completion Report dealt with a series of underground nuclear detonations; however, because no nuclear tests were conducted during FY 1993, this Report summarizes continuing nonnuclear and nuclear test readiness activities at the NTS sponsored by DOE/NV.) The report serves as a reference for those involved with the planning and execution of Operation KLAXON and also serves as a planning guide for future operations. Information in the report covers the logistics and management of activities. Scientific information and data associated with NTS activities are presented in technical documents published by participating agencies. In September 1992, Congress legislated a nine-month moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons. The bill also provided for a resumption of testing (with no more than five tests per year, or a total of 15 during the next three years) in July 1993, and mandated an end to nuclear testing, entirely, by 1996. President Bush signed the bill into law in October 1992

  19. United States Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, completion report Operation KLAXON, Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Completion Report provides a summary of activities conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between October 1, 1992, and September 30, 1993, associated with Operation KLAXON. (In the past, each annual Completion Report dealt with a series of underground nuclear detonations; however, because no nuclear tests were conducted during FY 1993, this Report summarizes continuing nonnuclear and nuclear test readiness activities at the NTS sponsored by DOE/NV.) The report serves as a reference for those involved with the planning and execution of Operation KLAXON and also serves as a planning guide for future operations. Information in the report covers the logistics and management of activities. Scientific information and data associated with NTS activities are presented in technical documents published by participating agencies. In September 1992, Congress legislated a nine-month moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons. The bill also provided for a resumption of testing (with no more than five tests per year, or a total of 15 during the next three years) in July 1993, and mandated an end to nuclear testing, entirely, by 1996. President Bush signed the bill into law in October 1992.

  20. Computer simulation of the free energy of peptides with the local states method: analogues of gonadotropin releasing hormone in the random coil and stable states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirovitch, H; Koerber, S C; Rivier, J E; Hagler, A T

    1994-07-01

    The Helmholtz free energy F (rather than the energy) is the correct criterion for stability; therefore, calculation of F is important for peptides and proteins that can populate a large number of metastable states. The local states (LS) method proposed by H. Meirovitch [(1977) Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 45, p. 389] enables one to obtain upper and lower bounds of the conformational free energy, FB (b,l) and FA (b,l), respectively, from molecular dynamics (MD) or Monte Carlo samples. The correlation parameter b is the number of consecutive dihedral or valence angles along the chain that are taken into account explicitly. The continuum angles are approximated by a discretization parameter l; the larger are b and l, the better the approximations; while FA can be estimated efficiently, it is more difficult to estimate FB. The method is further developed here by applying it to MD trajectories of a relatively large molecule (188 atoms), the potent "Asp4-Dpr10" antagonist [cyclo(4/10)-(Ac-delta 3Pro1-D-pFPhe2-D-Trp3-Asp4-Tyr5-D-Nal6-Leu7-Arg8 -Pro9- Dpr10-NH2)] of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). The molecule was simulated in vacuo at T = 300 K in two conformational states, previously investigated [J. Rizo et al. Journal of the American Chemical Society, (1992) Vol. 114, p. 2860], which differ by the orientation of the N-terminal tail, above (tail up, TU) and below (tail down, TD) the cyclic heptapeptide ring. As in previous applications of the LS method, we have found the following: (1) While FA is a crude approximation for the correct F, results for the difference, delta FA = FA (TD)-FA (TU) converge rapidly to 5.6 (1) kcal/mole as the approximation is improved (i.e., as b and l are increased), which suggests that this is the correct value for delta F; therefore TD is more stable than TU. (The corresponding difference in entropy, T delta SA = 1.3(2) kcal/mole, is equal to the value obtained by the harmonic approximation.) (2) The lowest approximation, which has

  1. Characterising of solid state electrochemical cells under operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Compared to significant progress in PEMFC especially regarding the utilization of complex fuels such as methanol significant progress has been made by applying spectroscopic / differential IR and spectrometric techniques to working fuel cells, the processes in solid state high temperature....... This relates to interrelation between NOx/ O2 on cathodes but also to sulfur and carbon exposure at the anode. Past and recent activities on SOFC anodes and cathodes will be presented as well as perspectives and gaps discussed for these systems. Especially interaction between sulfur interactions with solids...

  2. 77 FR 58988 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... Objection to State Operating Permit for Cheyenne Light, Fuel & Power, Wygen II Power Plant AGENCY... to Cheyenne Light, Fuel & Power (CLF&P) for their Wygen II power plant (Wygen II). Pursuant to... final Order, the Petition, and other supporting information. You may view the hard copies Monday through...

  3. Graphical description of the action of Clifford operators on stabilizer states

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Matthew B.; Eastin, Bryan; Caves, Carlton M.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a graphical representation of stabilizer states and translate the action of Clifford operators on stabilizer states into graph operations on the corresponding stabilizer-state graphs. Our stabilizer graphs are constructed of solid and hollow nodes, with (undirected) edges between nodes and with loops and signs attached to individual nodes. We find that local Clifford transformations are completely described in terms of local complementation on nodes and along edges, loop compleme...

  4. Modular first wall concept for steady state operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzlowski, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of the limiter design proposed for ZEPHYR a first wall concept has been developed which can also be used as a large area limiter, heat shield or beam pump. Its specific feature is the thermal contact of the wall armour elements with the water-cooled base plates. The combination of radiation and contact cooling, compared with radiation only, helps to lower the steady state temperatures of the first wall by approximately 50 % and to reduce the cooling-time between discharges. Particulary the lower wall temperature give a larger margin for additional heating of the wall by plasma disruption or neutral beams until excessive erosion or damage of the armour takes place

  5. Stable isotopic analysis of fossil chironomids as an approach to environmental reconstruction: state of development and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Heiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Remains of chironomid larvae, especially their strongly sclerotized head capsules, can be found abundantly and well preserved in most lake sediment records. These remains mainly consist of chitin and proteins and, since their chemical composition does not seem to be strongly affected by decompositional processes, they can be used to develop palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on their stable isotopic composition. Here we review available stable isotope studies based on fossil chironomids and indicate future research necessary to further develop this still relatively new research approach. Efforts to produce stable isotope records based on fossil chironomids have mainly examined the elements H, N, C, and O. They have focussed on (1 developing the methodology for preparing samples for isotopic analysis, (2 laboratory studies cultivating chironomid larvae under controlled conditions to determine the factors affecting their stable isotopic composition, (3 ecosystem-scale studies relating stable isotopic measurements of fossil chironomid assemblages to environmental conditions, and (4 developing first down-core records describing past changes in the stable isotopic composition of chironomid assemblages. These studies have shown that chemical sample pretreatment may affect the isotopic composition for some elements. Laboratory runs suggest that the diet of the larvae influences their stable isotopic composition for H, N, C and O, whereas stable isotopes in the ambient water also strongly influence their oxygen and to a lesser extent hydrogen isotopic composition. These experiments also indicate only minor offsets between the nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of chironomid soft tissue and the fossilizing head capsules, whereas for hydrogen and oxygen this offset remains to be explored. Though few datasets have been published, the available ecosystem studies and developed down-core sediment records indicate that stable isotopes in

  6. A comparison of operational performance : Washington state ferries to ferry operators worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This project compares eight measures of performance related to transit service quality (e.g. trip reliability, on-time departures) and cost-efficiency (e.g. farebox recovery, subsidy per passenger) between Washington State Ferries (WSF) and 23 ferry ...

  7. 20 CFR 601.3 - Findings with respect to State laws and plans of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Findings with respect to State laws and plans..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE Approval, Certification and Findings With Respect to State Laws... respect to State laws and plans of operation. For purposes of grants, findings are made regarding the...

  8. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  9. Energy of surface states for 3D magnetic Schrödinger operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrallah, Marwa

    In this dissertation, we study the Schrödinger operator with magnetic field in a three dimensional domain with compact smooth boundary. Functions in the domain of the operator satisfy (magnetic) Neumann condition on the boundary. The operator depends on the semi-classical parameter....... As this parameter becomes small, certain eigenfunctions of the operator are localized near the boundary of the domain, hence they will be called surface states. The main result of this dissertation is the calculation of the leading order terms of the energy and the number of surface states when the semi-classical...

  10. Stable tetrabenzo-Chichibabin's hydrocarbons: Tunable ground state and unusual transition between their closed-shell and open-shell resonance forms

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Zebing

    2012-09-05

    Stable open-shell polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of fundamental interest due to their unique electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and promising applications in materials sciences. Chichibabin\\'s hydrocarbon as a classical open-shell PAH has been investigated for a long time. However, most of the studies are complicated by their inherent high reactivity. In this work, two new stable benzannulated Chichibabin\\'s hydrocarbons 1-CS and 2-OS were prepared, and their electronic structure and geometry in the ground state were studied by various experiments (steady-state and transient absorption spectra, NMR, electron spin resonance (ESR), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), FT Raman, X-ray crystallographic etc.) and density function theory (DFT) calculations. 1-CS and 2-OS exhibited tunable ground states, with a closed-shell quinoidal structure for 1-CS and an open-shell biradical form for 2-OS. Their corresponding excited-state forms 1-OS and 2-CS were also chemically approached and showed different decay processes. The biradical 1-OS displayed an unusually slow decay to the ground state (1-CS) due to a large energy barrier (95 ± 2.5 kJ/mol) arising from severe steric hindrance during the transition from an orthogonal biradical form to a butterfly-like quinoidal form. The quick transition from the quinoidal 2-CS (excited state) to the orthogonal biradicaloid 2-OS (ground state) happened during the attempted synthesis of 2-CS. Compounds 1-CS and 2-OS can be oxidized into stable dications by FeCl 3 and/or concentrated H 2SO 4. The open-shell 2-OS also exhibited a large two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section (760 GM at 1200 nm). © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. State of radionuclides in seawater. Comparison of natural stable and artificial radioactive isotope s of mercury and zinc in natural waters of the arid zone of the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhmatov, U; Khikmatov, K; Kist, A.A.; Kulmatov, R.A.; Teshabaev, S.T.; Volkov, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the state of stable and artificial radioactive isotopes of merury and zinc in natural waters of the arid zone of the USSR by radioactivity and radiochemical methods. Convergent results have been obtained for the dissolved forms of mercury and zinc in natural waters of the arid zone in a comparison of the results of radioactivation analysis and laboratory simulation using the radionuclides mercury-203 and zinc-65

  12. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Georg; George, E. Victor; Krupke, William F.; Sooy, Walter; Sutton, Steven B.

    1996-01-01

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

  13. Continuity of operations/continuity of government for state-level transportation organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The Homeland Security Presidential Directive 20 (HSPD-20) requires all local, state, tribal and territorial government agencies, : and private sector owners of critical infrastructure and key resources (CI/KR) to create a Continuity of Operations/Con...

  14. Military Operations Against Terrorist Groups Abroad: Implications for the United States Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ochmanek, David

    2003-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study is to help defense planners anticipate the types of demands that future operations against terrorists will place on the armed forces of the United States, particularly...

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL STATE AND OPTIMISATION OF OPERATION OF TRANSPORT-HANDLING EQUIPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Peter BIGOŠ; Martin MANTIČ; Melichar KOPAS

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a real example from the practice concerning an analysis of technical state and operational optimisation of the given transport-handling equipment, which is installed in a trans-shipment station specified for transport and handling of bulk materials. By means of identification of a faulty technical state of this transport equipment there was determined the main cause of a damage process, which occurred during current operation. Consequently, it was possible ...

  16. Conceptualising the Impact of Arousal and Affective State on Training Outcomes of Operant Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. McGreevy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal training relies heavily on an understanding of species-specific behaviour as it integrates with operant conditioning principles. Following on from recent studies showing that affective states and arousal levels may correlate with behavioural outcomes, we explore the contribution of both affective state and arousal in behavioural responses to operant conditioning. This paper provides a framework for assessing how affective state and arousal may influence the efficacy of operant training methods. It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours. These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal. Knowledge gaps are discussed and suggestions made for bridging them.

  17. The Establishment and Administration of Operant Conditioning Programs in a State Hospital for the Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Thomas S., Ed.

    Seven articles treat the establishment of operant conditioning programs for the mentally retarded at Pacific State Hospital in California. Emphasis is on the administrative rather than the demonstration of research aspects of operant conditioning programs. Following an introduction and overview, the medical director's point of view on operant…

  18. Multiple dual mode counter-current chromatography with periodic sample injection: Steady-state and non-steady-state operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanyan, Artak E

    2014-12-19

    The multiple dual mode (MDM) counter-current chromatography (CCC) separation consists of a succession of two isocratic counter-current steps and is carried out in series alternating between normal phase and reversed phase operation. The performance of the MDM technique can be improved by the sample re-injection between each of the dual-mode steps. The objective of this work was to develop analytical expressions to describe the MDM CCC with periodic sample injection, which can be used to simulate these processes and select optimal operating conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture. Two possible methods of the MDM separation with periodic sample injection are considered: 1 - steady-state separation: the duration of the flow periods of the phases is kept constant for all the cycles and the steady-state regime is achieved after a certain number of cycles. 2 - non-steady-state separation with variable duration of phase elution steps. It is shown that proper selection of the duration of phase flow times allows to reach complete separation of solutes in continuous steady-state operation mode even in a low efficiency column. This mode of operation provides both high productivity and high resolution. The non-steady-state method with variable duration of phase elution steps offers several options to split a mixture into groups of compounds and/or concentrate target compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Geochemical and stable isotopic evolution of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sracek, Ondra; Hirata, Ricardo

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to explain geochemical and stable isotopes trends in the Brazilian unit of the Guarani Aquifer System (Botucatu and Piramboia aquifers) in São Paulo State, Brazil. Trends of dissolved species concentrations and geochemical modeling indicated a significant role of cation exchange and dissolution of carbonates in downgradient evolution of groundwater chemistry. Loss of calcium by the exchange for sodium drives dissolution of carbonates and results in Na-HCO3 type of groundwater. The cation-exchange front moves downgradient at probably much slower rate compared to the velocity of groundwater flow and at present is located near to the cities of Sertãozinho and Águas de Santa Barbara (wells PZ-34 and PZ-148, respectively) in a shallow confined area, 50-70 km from the recharge zone. Part of the sodium probably enters the Guarani Aquifer System. together with chloride and sulfate from the underlying Piramboia Formation by diffusion related to the dissolution of evaporates like halite and gypsum. High concentrations of fluorine (up to 13.3 mg/L) can be explained by dissolution of mineral fluoride also driven by cation exchange. However, it is unclear if the dissolution takes place directly in the Guarani Aquifer System or in the overlying basaltic Serra Geral Formation. There is depletion in δ2H and δ18O values in groundwater downgradient. Values of δ13C(DIC) are enriched downgradient, indicating dissolution of calcite under closed system conditions. Values of δ13C(DIC) in deep geothermal wells are very high (>-6.0‰) and probably indicate isotopic exchange with carbonates with δ13C about -3.0‰. Future work should be based on evaluation of vertical fluxes and potential for penetration of contamination to the Guarani Aquifer System. Résumé. Cet article a pour objet d'expliquer l'évolution de la géochimie et des isotopes stables dans l'unité brésilienne du système aquifère du Guarani (aquifères de Botucatu et Piramboia), dans

  20. Symplectic Group Representation of the Two-Mode Squeezing Operator in the Coherent State Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-Yi; Chen, Jun-Hua

    2003-11-01

    We find that the coherent state projection operator representation of the two-mode squeezing operator constitutes a loyal group representation of symplectic group, which is a remarkable property of the coherent state. As a consequence, the resultant effect of successively applying two-mode squeezing operators are equivalent to a single squeezing in the two-mode Fock space. Generalization of this property to the 2n-mode case is also discussed. The project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10575057

  1. Differences in liquor prices between control state-operated and license-state retail outlets in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to compare the average price of liquor in the United States between retail alcohol outlets in states that have a monopoly ('control' states) with those that do not ('licence' states). A cross-sectional study of brand-specific alcohol prices in the United States. We determined the average prices in February 2012 of 74 brands of liquor among the 13 control states that maintain a monopoly on liquor sales at the retail level and among a sample of 50 license-state liquor stores, using their online-available prices. We calculated average prices for 74 brands of liquor by control versus license state. We used a random-effects regression model to estimate differences between control and license state prices-overall and by alcoholic beverage type. We also compared prices between the 13 control states. The overall mean price for the 74 brands was $27.79 in the license states [95% confidence interval (CI): $25.26-30.32] and $29.82 in the control states (95% CI: $26.98-32.66). Based on the random-effects linear regression model, the average liquor price was approximately $2 lower (6.9% lower) in license states. In the United States monopoly of alcohol retail outlets appears to be associated with slightly higher liquor prices. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. State operator, constants of the motion, and Wigner functions: The two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens Peder; Schleich, W. P.

    2009-01-01

    For a closed quantum system the state operator must be a function of the Hamiltonian. When the state is degenerate, additional constants of the motion enter the play. But although it is the Weyl transform of the state operator, the Wigner function is not necessarily a function of the Weyl...... transforms of the constants of the motion. We derive conditions for which this is actually the case. The Wigner functions of the energy eigenstates of a two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator serve as an important illustration....

  3. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1xM bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a, uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes

  4. Mortality on grower/finisher-only swine operations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losinger W.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available For 53 grower/finisher-only swine operations that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study, mortality among finisher pigs ranged from 0 to 12.0% over a 6-month period. Twenty-six (49.1% had 2% mortality. Nine (17.0% operations experienced >4% mortality. Fisher's exact test revealed that operations with all-in all-out management were significantly more likely to have 1 grower/finisher pig came from another source. Larger operations (where >900 pigs entered the grower/finisher phase practiced all-in, all-out management more frequently than smaller operations, and had a lower mean percent mortality than smaller operations. Diagnosis of Salmonella in finisher pigs performed at a laboratory or by a veterinarian in the 12 months prior to interview was associated with both increased percent mortality and increased percent mortality per day.

  5. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  6. Determination of Model Kinetics for Forced Unsteady State Operation of Catalytic CH4 Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effendy Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic oxidation of methane for abating the emission vented from coal mine or natural gas transportation has been known as most reliable method. A reverse flow reactor operation has been widely used to oxidize this methane emission due to its capability for autothermal operation and heat production. The design of the reverse flow reactor requires a proper kinetic rate expression, which should be developed based on the operating condition. The kinetic rate obtained in the steady state condition cannot be applied for designing the reactor operated under unsteady state condition. Therefore, new approach to develop the dynamic kinetic rate expression becomes indispensable, particularly for periodic operation such as reverse flow reactor. This paper presents a novel method to develop the kinetic rate expression applied for unsteady state operation. The model reaction of the catalytic methane oxidation over Pt/-Al2O3 catalyst was used with kinetic parameter determined from laboratory experiments. The reactor used was a fixed bed, once-through operation, with a composition modulation in the feed gas. The switching time was set at 3 min by varying the feed concentration, feed flow rate, and reaction temperature. The concentrations of methane in the feed and product were measured and analysed using gas chromatography. The steady state condition for obtaining the kinetic rate expression was taken as a base case and as a way to judge its appropriateness to be applied for dynamic system. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction rate model was developed. The time period during one cycle was divided into some segments, depending on the ratio of CH4/O2. The experimental result shows that there were kinetic regimes occur during one cycle: kinetic regime controlled by intrinsic surface reaction and kinetic regime controlled by external diffusion. The kinetic rate obtained in the steady state operation was not appropriate when applied for unsteady state operation

  7. Highly Conductive Solid-State Hybrid Electrolytes Operating at Subzero Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taeyoung; Choi, Ilyoung; Park, Moon Jeong

    2017-07-19

    We report a unique, highly conductive, dendrite-inhibited, solid-state polymer electrolyte platform that demonstrates excellent battery performance at subzero temperatures. A design based on functionalized inorganic nanoparticles with interconnected mesopores that contain surface nitrile groups is the key to this development. Solid-state hybrid polymer electrolytes based on succinonitrile (SN) electrolytes and porous nanoparticles were fabricated via a simple UV-curing process. SN electrolytes were effectively confined within the mesopores. This stimulated favorable interactions with lithium ions, reduced leakage of SN electrolytes over time, and improved mechanical strength of membranes. Inhibition of lithium dendrite growth and improved electrochemical stability up to 5.2 V were also demonstrated. The hybrid electrolytes exhibited high ionic conductivities of 2 × 10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature and >10 -4 S cm -1 at subzero temperatures, leading to stable and improved battery performance at subzero temperatures. Li cells made with lithium titanate anodes exhibited stable discharge capacities of 151 mAh g -1 at temperatures below -10 °C. This corresponds to 92% of the capacity achieved at room temperature (164 mAh g -1 ). Our work represents a significant advance in solid-state polymer electrolyte technology and far exceeds the performance available with conventional polymeric battery separators.

  8. Method development for detecting divertor failures during steady state operation of Wendelstein 7X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodatos, Alexander; Jakubowski, Marcin; Sunn Pedersen, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Wendelsteinstr. 1, Greifswald (Germany); Greuner, Henri [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is stellarator fusion experiment, which will start operation in 2015. One of its goals is the demonstration of the stellarator concepts steady state capability while operating with fusion relevant plasma parameters. For particle and heat exhaust from the plasma a set of 10 island divertor units is installed in the machine. During the steady state operation they are exposed to a heat flux of up to 10MW/m{sup 2} for up to 30 min. Transient, even higher heat fluxes are possible. To guarantee the save operation of W7-X a continues surveillance of the divertor is mandatory, which is realized by a set of 10 infrared cameras observing the divertor surface. These data needs to be evaluated during the experiment identifying defects, surface layers and actual hot spots caused by overheating.

  9. Sensor Data Fusion for Body State Estimation in a Bipedal Robot and Its Feedback Control Application for Stable Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Pei Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a sensor data fusion algorithm via an extended Kalman filter for estimating the spatial motion of a bipedal robot. Through fusing the sensory information from joint encoders, a 6-axis inertial measurement unit and a 2-axis inclinometer, the robot’s body state at a specific fixed position can be yielded. This position is also equal to the CoM when the robot is in the standing posture suggested by the detailed CAD model of the robot. In addition, this body state is further utilized to provide sensory information for feedback control on a bipedal robot with walking gait. The overall control strategy includes the proposed body state estimator as well as the damping controller, which regulates the body position state of the robot in real-time based on instant and historical position tracking errors. Moreover, a posture corrector for reducing unwanted torque during motion is addressed. The body state estimator and the feedback control structure are implemented in a child-size bipedal robot and the performance is experimentally evaluated.

  10. Wheat bran as a substrate for thermo stable alpha-amylase production by gamma irradiated bacillus megaterium in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElVatal, A.I.; Khalaf, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Thermo stable alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) production from cheap agriculture-industrial waste wheat bran (WB) medium by superior potent gamma irradiated locally isolated strain of Bacillus megaterium in solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. A highly yielding, stable enhanced isolated strain of bacillus megaterium in solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. A highly yielding stable enhanced isolate B. megaterium- gamma 21F derived from the 10 kGy, treatment, exhibited the highest alpha-amylase activity under SSF, with 2.8 fold more enzyme titer as compared to the unirradiated wild strain. A vancomycin (Vm) resistant gamma irradiated enhanced isolate B. megaterium-gamma 21F2 (which was selected throughout the subsequent work) secreted (1.27 and 3.58) folds superior titers of alpha-amylase than the gamma irradiated parent isolate (B.megaterium -gamma21F) and unirradiated wild strain, respectively under SSF process. The effects of various parameters, such as moistening agent, initial moisture content level, initial ph, incubation temperature, inoculum size and incubation time on thermo stable alpha-amylase production by B.megaterium-gamma 21F2 under SSF were studied. Maximum enzyme production was recorded in WB medium moistened with (1:2, w/v) distilled water at initial ph (7.0) and inoculated with (2.24 x 10 8 cells/g WB) after 48 h incubation at 40 C degree. Between different solvents used for enzyme extraction from fermented WB mass, distilled water at ph (7.0) was the superior efficient leaching solvent. The specific activity of the precipitated partially purified crude thermo stable enzyme was (258.7 U/mg protein) with ph optima (6.5-7.0), at optimal temperatures (65-70 c degree) and it retained about 53% of its maximum activity after 12 h incubation at 70 c degree. The partially purified crude enzyme was used for starch digestion (5%0 under optimized reaction conditions, wherein (98.2%) starch hydrolysis was attained after 6 h

  11. 7. IAEA Technical Meeting on Steady State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices - Booklet of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This meeting has provided an appropriate forum to discuss current issues covering a wide range of technical topics related to the steady state operation issues and also to encourage forecast of the ITER performances. The technical meeting includes invited and contributed papers. The topics that have been dealt with are: 1) Superconducting devices (ITER, KSTAR, Tore-Supra, HT-7U, EAST, LHD, Wendelstein-7-X,...); 2) Long-pulse operation and advanced tokamak physics; 3) steady state fusion technologies; 4) Long pulse heating and current drive; 5) Particle control and power exhaust, and 6) ITER-related research and development issues. This document gathers the abstracts

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL STATE AND OPTIMISATION OF OPERATION OF TRANSPORT-HANDLING EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter BIGOŠ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a real example from the practice concerning an analysis of technical state and operational optimisation of the given transport-handling equipment, which is installed in a trans-shipment station specified for transport and handling of bulk materials. By means of identification of a faulty technical state of this transport equipment there was determined the main cause of a damage process, which occurred during current operation. Consequently, it was possible to perform an optimisation of the relevant technical parameters in order to eliminate the negative phenomena.

  13. Surface/state correspondence and bulk local operators in pp-wave holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakwoo Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We apply the surface/state correspondence proposal of Miyaji et al. to IIB pp-waves and propose that the bulk local operators should be instantonic D-branes. In line with ordinary AdS/CFT correspondence, the bulk local operators in pp-waves also create a hole, or a boundary, in the dual gauge theory as pointed out by H. Verlinde, and by Y. Nakayama and H. Ooguri. We also present simple calculations which illustrate how to extract the spacetime metric of pp-waves from instantonic D-branes in boundary state formalism.

  14. Optimizing resource consumption, operation complexity and efficiency in quantum-state sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hao; Zhang Wen; Zhang Zhanjun; Liu Yimin

    2008-01-01

    An original idea is proposed for constructing optimal schemes of quantum-state sharing with respect to resource consumption, operation complexity and efficiency. To elucidate it, a specific tripartite scheme for securely sharing an arbitrary two-qubit quantum information (i.e., a quantum state) is shown. Compared with the three schemes proposed recently (Deng et al 2005 Phys. Rev. A 72 044301, 2006 Eur. Phys. J. D 39 459), the optimal scheme has the distinct advantages of consuming fewer quantum and classical resources, lessening the difficulty and intensity of necessary operations, and having higher intrinsic efficiency

  15. Sensor Data Fusion for Body State Estimation in a Bipedal Robot and Its Feedback Control Application for Stable Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ching-Pei; Chen, Jing-Yi; Huang, Chun-Kai; Lu, Jau-Ching; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    We report on a sensor data fusion algorithm via an extended Kalman filter for estimating the spatial motion of a bipedal robot. Through fusing the sensory information from joint encoders, a 6-axis inertial measurement unit and a 2-axis inclinometer, the robot’s body state at a specific fixed position can be yielded. This position is also equal to the CoM when the robot is in the standing posture suggested by the detailed CAD model of the robot. In addition, this body state is further utilized...

  16. A multi-state model for wind farms considering operational outage probability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Lin; Liu, Manjun; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2013-01-01

    developed by considering the following factors: running time, operating environment, operating conditions, and wind speed fluctuations. A multi-state model for wind farms is also established. Numerical results illustrate that the proposed model can be well applied to power system reliability assessment...... power penetration levels. Therefore, a more comprehensive analysis toward WECS as well as an appropriate reliability assessment model are essential for maintaining the reliable operation of power systems. In this paper, the impact of wind turbine outage probability on system reliability is firstly...

  17. Operating Experience with Nuclear Power Stations in Member States in 2011. 2012 Edition (CD-ROM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    This CD contains the 43rd edition of the IAEA's series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power plants in Member States. It is a direct output from the IAEA's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and contains information on electricity production and overall performance of individual operational plants during 2011. In addition to annual information, the report contains a historical summary of performance during the lifetime of individual plants and figures illustrating worldwide performance of the nuclear industry. The CD contains also an overview of design characteristics and dashboards of all operating nuclear power plants worldwide.

  18. Kinetically blocked stable heptazethrene and octazethrene: Closed-shell or open-shell in the ground state?

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuan

    2012-09-12

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with an open-shell singlet biradical ground state are of fundamental interest and have potential applications in materials science. However, the inherent high reactivity makes their synthesis and characterization very challenging. In this work, a convenient synthetic route was developed to synthesize two kinetically blocked heptazethrene (HZ-TIPS) and octazethrene (OZ-TIPS) compounds with good stability. Their ground-state electronic structures were systematically investigated by a combination of different experimental methods, including steady-state and transient absorption spectroscopy, variable temperature NMR, electron spin resonance (ESR), superconducting quantum interfering device (SQUID), FT Raman, and X-ray crystallographic analysis, assisted by unrestricted symmetry-broken density functional theory (DFT) calculations. All these demonstrated that the heptazethrene derivative HZ-TIPS has a closed-shell ground state while its octazethrene analogue OZ-TIPS with a smaller energy gap exists as an open-shell singlet biradical with a large measured biradical character (y = 0.56). Large two-photon absorption (TPA) cross sections (σ(2)) were determined for HZ-TIPS (σ(2)max = 920 GM at 1250 nm) and OZ-TIPS (σ(2)max = 1200 GM at 1250 nm). In addition, HZ-TIPS and OZ-TIPS show a closely stacked 1D polymer chain in single crystals. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Power Transformer Operating State Prediction Method Based on an LSTM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The state of transformer equipment is usually manifested through a variety of information. The characteristic information will change with different types of equipment defects/faults, location, severity, and other factors. For transformer operating state prediction and fault warning, the key influencing factors of the transformer panorama information are analyzed. The degree of relative deterioration is used to characterize the deterioration of the transformer state. The membership relationship between the relative deterioration degree of each indicator and the transformer state is obtained through fuzzy processing. Through the long short-term memory (LSTM network, the evolution of the transformer status is extracted, and a data-driven state prediction model is constructed to realize preliminary warning of a potential fault of the equipment. Through the LSTM network, the quantitative index and qualitative index are organically combined in order to perceive the corresponding relationship between the characteristic parameters and the operating state of the transformer. The results of different time-scale prediction cases show that the proposed method can effectively predict the operation status of power transformers and accurately reflect their status.

  20. The cryogenic operation of the superconducting magnet system in the HERA proton storage ring: Cool down, steady state operation, quench recovery processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlitz, G.; Clausen, M.; Lierl, H.; Lange, R.; Herzog, H.

    1991-01-01

    The 6.4 km long superconducting proton storage ring of HERA was completed in 1990. In October the first halfring was cooled, in December the second one. Steady state operation could be established after about 200 hours. The authors report on the cryogenic operation of the system during cooldown and steady state operation and give values for thermal losses. One octant was excited up to values exceeding the design current. Some results of quench tests in this octant are presented

  1. Operational diagnostics of thermal state and efficiency of steam turbines of TPP and NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhko, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. N.; Lyapunov, V. M.; Khomenok, L. A.

    2016-05-01

    Various ways for solving complex problems of the strength and operating life of steam turbines of TPP and NPP are studied. Diagnostic characters and technical possibilities for their control during the steam turbine operation are determined. It is shown that the effect of various factors on the reliability, maneuverability, and service life of power installations of TPP and NPP is generally determined by the thermal state of steam-electric generating sets. Leading foreign and domestic manufacturers give major attention to the organization of the control of the thermal state of facilities and the development of systems for accounting ("counter") the service life depletion. Zones of high-temperature sites of shafts and disks with maximum parameters of operating environment are determined. A model for on-line computation of thermal stresses with the diagnostic evaluation of the service life depletion (fatigue accumulation) and forecasting of optimum heating conditions for thermostressed turbine units is briefly stated. An example of a program for diagnostics of the quality of the facility operation is given. The program provides the operative control of thermal stresses and the service life depletion in main units of the turbine under various operation conditions, operates in the real-time mode, calculates and represents currents values of thermal stresses in turbine units, and forms and transmits into the industrial control signals on the occurrence of restrictions with respect to thermal stresses and prohibition of an increase or decrease in the vapor temperature and the load in the case of approaching pressures to maximum permissible ones. In the case of stationary operation conditions, the program computed the current efficiency in high (HPC) and mean (MPC) pressure cylinders.

  2. Characterization of memory states of the Preisach operator with stochastic inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, A.; Brokate, M.; McCarthy, S.; Rachinskii, D.; Temnov, G.

    2012-05-01

    The Preisach operator with inputs defined by a Markov process xt is considered. The question we address is: what is the distribution of the random memory state of the Preisach operator at a given time moment t0 in the limit r→∞ of infinitely long input history xt, t0-r≤t≤t0? In order to answer this question, we introduce a Markov chain (called the memory state Markov chain) where the states are pairs (mk,Mk) of elements from the monotone sequences of the local minimum input values mk and the local maximum input values Mk recorded in the memory state and the index k of the elements plays the role of time. We express the transition probabilities of this Markov chain in terms of the transition probabilities of the input stochastic process and show that the memory state Markov chain and the input process generate the same distribution of the memory states. These results are illustrated by several examples of stochastic inputs such as the Wiener and Bernoulli processes and their mixture (we first discuss a discrete version of these processes and then the continuous time and state setting). The memory state Markov chain is then used to find the distribution of the random number of elements in the memory state sequence. We show that this number has the Poisson distribution for the Wiener and Bernoulli processes inputs. In particular, in the discrete setting, the mean value of the number of elements in the memory state scales as ln N, where N is the number of the input states, while the mean time it takes the input to generate this memory state scales as N2 for the Wiener process and as N for the Bernoulli process. A similar relationship between the dimension of the memory state vector and the number of iterations in the numerical realization of the input is shown for the mixture of the Wiener and Bernoulli processes, thus confirming that the memory state Markov chain is an efficient tool for generating the distribution of the Preisach operator memory states

  3. Characterization of memory states of the Preisach operator with stochastic inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, A.; Brokate, M.; McCarthy, S.; Rachinskii, D.; Temnov, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Preisach operator with inputs defined by a Markov process x t is considered. The question we address is: what is the distribution of the random memory state of the Preisach operator at a given time moment t 0 in the limit r→∞ of infinitely long input history x t , t 0 -r≤t≤t 0 ? In order to answer this question, we introduce a Markov chain (called the memory state Markov chain) where the states are pairs (m k ,M k ) of elements from the monotone sequences of the local minimum input values m k and the local maximum input values M k recorded in the memory state and the index k of the elements plays the role of time. We express the transition probabilities of this Markov chain in terms of the transition probabilities of the input stochastic process and show that the memory state Markov chain and the input process generate the same distribution of the memory states. These results are illustrated by several examples of stochastic inputs such as the Wiener and Bernoulli processes and their mixture (we first discuss a discrete version of these processes and then the continuous time and state setting). The memory state Markov chain is then used to find the distribution of the random number of elements in the memory state sequence. We show that this number has the Poisson distribution for the Wiener and Bernoulli processes inputs. In particular, in the discrete setting, the mean value of the number of elements in the memory state scales as lnN, where N is the number of the input states, while the mean time it takes the input to generate this memory state scales as N 2 for the Wiener process and as N for the Bernoulli process. A similar relationship between the dimension of the memory state vector and the number of iterations in the numerical realization of the input is shown for the mixture of the Wiener and Bernoulli processes, thus confirming that the memory state Markov chain is an efficient tool for generating the distribution of the Preisach operator memory

  4. A minimal model of fire-vegetation feedbacks and disturbance stochasticity generates alternative stable states in grassland-shrubland-woodland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batllori, Enric; Ackerly, David D.; Moritz, Max A.

    2015-03-01

    Altered disturbance regimes in the context of global change are likely to have profound consequences for ecosystems. Interactions between fire and vegetation are of particular interest, as fire is a major driver of vegetation change, and vegetation properties (e.g., amount, flammability) alter fire regimes. Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) constitute a paradigmatic example of temperate fire-prone vegetation. Although these ecosystems may be heavily impacted by global change, disturbance regime shifts and the implications of fire-vegetation feedbacks in the dynamics of such biomes are still poorly characterized. We developed a minimal modeling framework incorporating key aspects of fire ecology and successional processes to evaluate the relative influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on disturbance and vegetation dynamics in systems composed of grassland, shrubland, and woodland mosaics, which characterize many MTEs. In this theoretical investigation, we performed extensive simulations representing different background rates of vegetation succession and disturbance regime (fire frequency and severity) processes that reflect a broad range of MTE environmental conditions. Varying fire-vegetation feedbacks can lead to different critical points in underlying processes of disturbance and sudden shifts in the vegetation state of grassland-shrubland-woodland systems, despite gradual changes in ecosystem drivers as defined by the environment. Vegetation flammability and disturbance stochasticity effectively modify system behavior, determining its heterogeneity and the existence of alternative stable states in MTEs. Small variations in system flammability and fire recurrence induced by climate or vegetation changes may trigger sudden shifts in the state of such ecosystems. The existence of threshold dynamics, alternative stable states, and contrasting system responses to environmental change has broad implications for MTE management.

  5. A minimal model of fire-vegetation feedbacks and disturbance stochasticity generates alternative stable states in grassland–shrubland–woodland systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batllori, Enric; Ackerly, David D; Moritz, Max A

    2015-01-01

    Altered disturbance regimes in the context of global change are likely to have profound consequences for ecosystems. Interactions between fire and vegetation are of particular interest, as fire is a major driver of vegetation change, and vegetation properties (e.g., amount, flammability) alter fire regimes. Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) constitute a paradigmatic example of temperate fire-prone vegetation. Although these ecosystems may be heavily impacted by global change, disturbance regime shifts and the implications of fire-vegetation feedbacks in the dynamics of such biomes are still poorly characterized. We developed a minimal modeling framework incorporating key aspects of fire ecology and successional processes to evaluate the relative influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on disturbance and vegetation dynamics in systems composed of grassland, shrubland, and woodland mosaics, which characterize many MTEs. In this theoretical investigation, we performed extensive simulations representing different background rates of vegetation succession and disturbance regime (fire frequency and severity) processes that reflect a broad range of MTE environmental conditions. Varying fire-vegetation feedbacks can lead to different critical points in underlying processes of disturbance and sudden shifts in the vegetation state of grassland–shrubland–woodland systems, despite gradual changes in ecosystem drivers as defined by the environment. Vegetation flammability and disturbance stochasticity effectively modify system behavior, determining its heterogeneity and the existence of alternative stable states in MTEs. Small variations in system flammability and fire recurrence induced by climate or vegetation changes may trigger sudden shifts in the state of such ecosystems. The existence of threshold dynamics, alternative stable states, and contrasting system responses to environmental change has broad implications for MTE management. (letter)

  6. Interrelation of structure and operational states in cascading failure of overloading lines in power grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Bompard, Ettore; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Lin; Lu, Shaofeng; Zhu, Huaiying

    2017-09-01

    As the modern power system is expected to develop to a more intelligent and efficient version, i.e. the smart grid, or to be the central backbone of energy internet for free energy interactions, security concerns related to cascading failures have been raised with consideration of catastrophic results. The researches of topological analysis based on complex networks have made great contributions in revealing structural vulnerabilities of power grids including cascading failure analysis. However, existing literature with inappropriate assumptions in modeling still cannot distinguish the effects between the structure and operational state to give meaningful guidance for system operation. This paper is to reveal the interrelation between network structure and operational states in cascading failure and give quantitative evaluation by integrating both perspectives. For structure analysis, cascading paths will be identified by extended betweenness and quantitatively described by cascading drop and cascading gradient. Furthermore, the operational state for cascading paths will be described by loading level. Then, the risk of cascading failure along a specific cascading path can be quantitatively evaluated considering these two factors. The maximum cascading gradient of all possible cascading paths can be used as an overall metric to evaluate the entire power grid for its features related to cascading failure. The proposed method is tested and verified on IEEE30-bus system and IEEE118-bus system, simulation evidences presented in this paper suggests that the proposed model can identify the structural causes for cascading failure and is promising to give meaningful guidance for the protection of system operation in the future.

  7. New York State intelligent transportation system commercial vehicle operations (CVO) : business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this Business Plan is to describe the major Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) initiatives and projects in the area of Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) that have recently been or are planned to be undertaken in New York State b...

  8. Stress state of thin – walled member of the structure with operation damages under nonuniform loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.В. Астанін

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication is dedicated to determining of stress state in particular the stress concentration factors for thin – walled members of the structures subject to nonuniform tension. A structure member has obtained the operation damage generation by corrosion and other causes.

  9. On the bound states of Schrodinger operators with -interactions on conical surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lotoreichik, Vladimir; Ourmieres-Bonafos, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2016), s. 999-1028 ISSN 0360-5302 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : conical and hyperconical surfaces * delta-interaction * existence of bound states * Schrodinger operator * spectral asymptotics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2016

  10. 41 CFR Appendix B to Part 102 - 37-Elements of a State Plan of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to use a management control and accounting system that effectively governs the utilization, inventory... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 37-Elements of a State Plan of Operation B Appendix B to Part 102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  11. State Regulatory responses to acid rain: Implications for electric utility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagelhout, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the state regulatory responses to acid rain legislation and how this will affect electric utility operations. Topics discusses include planning and fuel procurement practices, least-cost planning, long-term supply contracts, fuel mix, cogeneration and small power production, qualifying facility contracts, avoided costs, environmental impact, lobbying expense, bill inserts, and forecasting models

  12. Generating Generalized Bessel Equations by Virtue of Bose Operator Algebra and Entangled State Representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Hongyi; Wang Yong

    2006-01-01

    With the help of Bose operator identities and entangled state representation and based on our previous work [Phys. Lett. A 325 (2004) 188] we derive some new generalized Bessel equations which also have Bessel function as their solution. It means that for these intricate higher-order differential equations, we can get Bessel function solutions without using the expatiatory power-series expansion method.

  13. Ultra-High Temperature Solid State Ultracapacitor Operating at 300C For Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FastCAP proposes a novel solid state ultracapacitor ("ultracap") capable of reliable operation from 0°C to 300°C, with survival at a temperature range of -55°C to...

  14. Operating Experience with Nuclear Power Stations in Member States in 2012. 2013 Edition (CD-ROM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    This report is the forty-fourth in the IAEA’s series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States. This report provides annual performance data and outage information for individual nuclear power plants from around the world. Summaries of historical performance and outages during the lifetimes of those plants are also included. Additionally, in order to provide a broad picture of nuclear power usage, this report contains six figures that illustrate global operational statistics through 2012. The report is a direct output from the IAEA’s Power Reactor Information System (PRIS), whose databank contains all operating experience data published in the IAEA’s operating experience annual reports since 1970 and basic information on power reactors, including design data. It presents operating experience data for all worldwide nuclear power plants after starting commercial operation. The PRIS databank is available free of charge to IAEA Member States through its public website and on-line application PRIS-Statistics. The web-site www.iaea.org/pris contains publicly available information about reactor units and nuclear industry results. The PRIS-Statistics (http://pris.iaea.org) allows direct access to the database through the Internet. This application allows registered users report generation through pre-designed reports and filters

  15. The Soft State of Cygnus X-1 Observed With NuSTAR: A Variable Corona and a Stable Inner Disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Tomsick, J. A.; Madsen, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-epoch hard X-ray analysis of Cygnus X-1 in its soft state based on four observations with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Despite the basic similarity of the observed spectra, there is clear spectral variability between epochs. To investigate this variability...... degrees. This level of misalignment does not significantly change (and may even improve) the agreement between our reflection results and the thermal continuum results regarding the black hole spin. The spectral variability observed by NuSTAR is dominated by the primary continuum, implying variability...... companion star....

  16. An analysis of post-traumatic stress symptoms in United States Air Force drone operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Wayne; Goodman, Tanya; Reardon, Laura; Thompson, William

    2014-06-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), commonly referred to as "drones," have emerged over the past decade as an innovative warfighting tool. Given there is a paucity of empirical research assessing drone operators, the purpose of this study was to assess for the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among this cohort. Of the 1084 United States Air Force (USAF) drone operators that participated, a total of 4.3% endorsed a pattern of symptoms of moderate to extreme level of severity meeting criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition. The incidence of PTSD among USAF drone operators in this study was lower than rates of PTSD (10-18%) among military personnel returning from deployment but higher than incidence rates (less than 1%) of USAF drone operators reported in electronic medical records. Although low PTSD rates may be promising, limitations to this study are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cryogenic system of steady state superconducting Tokamak SST-1: Operational experience and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, B. [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India)]. E-mail: sarkar@ipr.res.in; Tank, Jignesh [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India); Panchal, Pradip [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India); Sahu, A.K. [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India); Bhattacharya, Ritendra [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India); Phadke, Gaurang [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India); Gupta, N.C. [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India); Gupta, Girish [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India); Shah, Nitin [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India); Shukla, Pawan [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India); Singh, Manoj [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India); Sonara, Dasarath [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India); Sharma, Rajiv [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India); Saradha, S. [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India); Patel, J.C. [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India); Saxena, Y.C. [Institue For Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar382 428 (India)

    2006-11-15

    The cryogenic system of SST-1 consists of the helium cryogenic system and the nitrogen cryogenic system. The main components of the helium cryogenic system are (a) 1.3 kW helium refrigerator/liquefier (HRL) and (b) warm gas management system (WGM), where as, the nitrogen cryogenic system called as liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) management system consists of storage tanks and a distribution system. The helium flow distribution and control to different sub-systems is achieved by the integrated flow distribution and control (IFDC) system. The HRL has been commissioned and operated for performing a single toroidal field coil test as well as for the first commissioning of SST-1 superconducting-magnets up to 68 K. Analysis of the results shows that the compressor and turbine parameters of the HRL, namely, the speed and pressure are very stable during operation of the HRL, confirming to the reliability in control of thermo-dynamic parameters of the system. The thermal shield of the SST-1 cryostat consists of ten different types of panels, which have been cooled down to the minimum temperature of 80 K and maintained during the first commissioning of SST-1. The operation and controls of the LN2 management system have been found to be as per the design consideration.

  18. Operational Stress Control and Readiness (OSCAR): The United States Marine Corps Initiative to Deliver Mental Health Services to Operating Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nash, William P

    2006-01-01

    Combat/operational stress control, defined as programs and policies to prevent, identify, and manage adverse combat/operational stress reactions, is the primary responsibility of military commanders...

  19. Operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    This report is the thirty-fourth in the Agency's series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States. The report is a direct output from the Agency's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS), whose database contains all operating experience data published in the Agency's operating experience annual reports since 1971 and basic information on power reactors, including design data. It presents operating experience data for all worldwide nuclear power plants after starting commercial operation. The PRIS databank is available free of charge to IAEA Member States through its two services: PRIS-PC and MicroPRIS. The PRIS-PC allows direct access to the database via telephone lines or through the Internet. The MicroPRIS contains a subset of the PRIS database and is a personal computer version of PRIS data available on diskette in a form readily accessible by standard, commercially available personal computer packages. PRIS is also available in the Internet at http://www.iaea.org/programmes/a2. Load, operation and availability factors are used as the basic performance factors. Energy unavailability factors, separate for planned and unplanned unavailability, due either to causes in the plant or causes external to the plant, are used as a measure of energy lost through a unit not being available. However, some ambiguity remains in the operator reports of the unavailability data, resulting in inconsistencies in these factors. It is recognized that there is an inherent difficulty in reporting unavailability in energy with relation to a maximum capacity which may change several times during the year. In addition, there are different practices in reporting planned and unplanned unavailability among Member States. The unavailability factors in this report should therefore be used with caution. It should be noted that, for load, operation and unavailability factors, there might be differences between the data of this report and those

  20. Operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    This report is the thirty-third in the Agency's series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States. The report is a direct output from the Agency's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS), whose database contains all operating experience data published in the Agency;s operating experience annual reports since 1971 and basic information on power reactors, including design data. It presents operating experience data for all worldwide nuclear power plants after starting commercial operation. The PRIS databank is available free of charge to IAEA Member States through its two services: PRIS-PC and Micr0PRIS. The PRIS-PC allows direct access to the database via telephone lines or through the Internet. The MicroPRIS contains a subset of the PRIS database and is a personal computer version of PRIS data available on diskette in a form readily accessible by standard, commercially available personal computer packages. PRIS is also available in the Internet at http://www.iaea.org/programmes/a2. Load, operation and availability factors are used as the basic performance factors. Energy unavailability factors, separate for planned and unplanned unavailability, due either to causes in the plant or causes external to the plant, are used as a measure of energy lost through a unit not being available. However, some ambiguity remains in the operator reports of the unavailability data, resulting in inconsistencies in these factors. It is recognized that there is an inherent difficulty in reporting unavailability in energy with relation to a maximum capacity which may change several times during the year. In addition, there are different practices in reporting planned and unplanned unavailability among Member States. The unavailability factors in this report should therefore be used with caution. It should be noted that, for load, operation and unavailability factors, there might be differences between the data of this report and those

  1. Best Practices for the Application of Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Operator State Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Hylton, Alan G.; Hearn, Tristan A.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neuronal measurement technique with many advantages for application in operational and training contexts. Instrumentation and protocol improvements, however, are required to obtain useful signals and produce expeditiously self-applicable, comfortable and unobtrusive headgear. Approaches for improving the validity and reliability of fNIRS data for the purpose of sensing the mental state of commercial aircraft operators are identified, and an exemplary system design for attentional state monitoring is outlined. Intelligent flight decks of the future can be responsive to state changes to optimally support human performance. Thus, the identification of cognitive performance decrement, such as lapses in operator attention, may be used to predict and avoid error-prone states. We propose that attentional performance may be monitored with fNIRS through the quantification of hemodynamic activations in cortical regions which are part of functionally-connected attention and resting state networks. Activations in these regions have been shown to correlate with behavioral performance and task engagement. These regions lie beneath superficial tissue in head regions beyond the forehead. Headgear development is key to reliably and robustly accessing locations beyond the hair line to measure functionally-connected networks across the whole head. Human subject trials using both fNIRS and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) will be used to test this system. Data processing employs Support Vector Machines for state classification based on the fNIRS signals. If accurate state classification is achieved based on sensed activation patterns, fNIRS will be shown to be useful for monitoring attentional performance.

  2. Passivation of interstitial and vacancy mediated trap-states for efficient and stable triple-cation perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Md Arafat; Elumalai, Naveen Kumar; Upama, Mushfika Baishakhi; Wang, Dian; Gonçales, Vinicius R.; Wright, Matthew; Xu, Cheng; Haque, Faiazul; Uddin, Ashraf

    2018-04-01

    The current work reports the concurrent passivation of interstitial and oxygen vacancy mediated defect states in low temperature processed ZnO electron transport layer (ETL) via Ultraviolet-Ozone (UVO) treatment for fabricating highly efficient (maximum efficiency: 16.70%), triple cation based MA0.57FA0.38Rb0.05PbI3 (MA: methyl ammonium, FA: formamidinium, Rb: rubidium) perovskite solar cell (PSC). Under UV exposure, ozone decomposes to free atomic oxygen and intercalates into the interstitial and oxygen vacancy induced defect sites in the ZnO lattice matrix, which contributes to suppressed trap-assisted recombination phenomena in perovskite device. UVO treatment also reduces the content of functional hydroxyl group on ZnO surface, that increases the inter-particle connectivity and grain size of perovskite film on UVO treated ZnO ETL. Owing to this, the perovskite film atop UVO treated ZnO film exhibits reduced micro-strain and dislocation density values, which contribute to the enhanced photovoltaic performance of PSC with modified ZnO ETL. The modified PSCs exhibit higher recombination resistance (RRec) ∼40% compared to pristine ZnO ETL based control devices. Adding to the merit, the UVO treated ZnO PSC also demonstrates superior device stability, retaining about 88% of its initial PCE in the course of a month-long, systematic degradation study.

  3. Entropy stable modeling of non-isothermal multi-component diffuse-interface two-phase flows with realistic equations of state

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2018-02-25

    In this paper, we consider mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of non-isothermal compressible multi-component diffuse-interface two-phase flows with realistic equations of state. A general model with general reference velocity is derived rigorously through thermodynamical laws and Onsager\\'s reciprocal principle, and it is capable of characterizing compressibility and partial miscibility between multiple fluids. We prove a novel relation among the pressure, temperature and chemical potentials, which results in a new formulation of the momentum conservation equation indicating that the gradients of chemical potentials and temperature become the primary driving force of the fluid motion except for the external forces. A key challenge in numerical simulation is to develop entropy stable numerical schemes preserving the laws of thermodynamics. Based on the convex-concave splitting of Helmholtz free energy density with respect to molar densities and temperature, we propose an entropy stable numerical method, which solves the total energy balance equation directly, and thus, naturally satisfies the first law of thermodynamics. Unconditional entropy stability (the second law of thermodynamics) of the proposed method is proved by estimating the variations of Helmholtz free energy and kinetic energy with time steps. Numerical results validate the proposed method.

  4. Hyper production of alkali stable xylanase in lesser duration by Bacillus pumilus SV-85S using wheat bran under solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Sushil; Mittal, Anuradha; Kumar, Davender; Kumar, Lalit; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2011-10-01

    High level production of an extracellular cellulase-poor alkali stable xylanase has been conceded from newly isolated Bacillus pumilus SV-85S under solid state fermentation using wheat bran as a substrate. Optimization of the fermentation conditions enhanced the enzyme production to 73,000 ± 1,000 IU/g dry substrate, which was 13.8-fold higher than unoptimized conditions (5,300 IU/g). The enzyme titre was highest after 48 h of incubation at 30°C with 1:3 ratios of substrate to moistening agent using wheat bran as a carbon source. The enzyme could be produced in significant levels by using either tap water or distilled water alone as a moistening agent. An elevated production of xylanase by B. pumilus SV-85S in the presence of wheat bran, a cheap and easily available agro-residue, in shorter duration would apparently reduce the enzyme cost substantially. The enzyme was completely stable over a broad pH (5-11) range and retained 52% of its activity at a temperature of 70°C for 30 min. The desired characteristics of this enzyme together with economic production would be important for its application in paper and pulp industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of component failure rates for pulsed versus steady state tokamak operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-07-01

    This report presents component failure rate data sources applicable to magnetic fusion systems, and defines multiplicative factors to adjust these data for specific use on magnetic fusion experiment designs. The multipliers address both long pulse and steady state tokamak operation. Thermal fatigue and radiation damage are among the leading reasons for large multiplier values in pulsed operation applications. Field failure rate values for graphite protective tiles are presented, and beryllium tile failure rates in laboratory testing are also given. All of these data can be used for reliability studies, safety analyses, design tradeoff studies, and risk assessments

  6. Operating Experience with Nuclear Power Stations in Member States. 2016 Edition (CD-ROM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    This CD-ROM contains the 47th edition of the IAEA’s series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power plants in Member States. It is a direct output from the IAEA’s Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and contains information on electricity production and overall performance of individual plants during 2015. In addition to annual information, the report contains a historical summary of performance during the lifetime of individual plants and figures illustrating worldwide performance of the nuclear industry. The CD-ROM contains also an overview of design characteristics and dashboards of all operating nuclear power plants worldwide

  7. Operating Experience with Nuclear Power Stations in Member States in 2013. 2014 Edition (CD-ROM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    This CD-ROM contains the 45th edition of the IAEA's series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power plants in Member States. It is a direct output from the IAEA's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and contains information on electricity production and overall performance of individual plants during 2013. In addition to annual information, the report contains a historical summary of performance during the lifetime of individual plants and figures illustrating worldwide performance of the nuclear industry. The CD-ROM contains also an overview of design characteristics and dashboards (not included into the web version) of all operating nuclear power plants worldwide

  8. Constructing local composite operators for glueball states from a confining Gribov propagator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capri, M.A.L. [UFRRJ - Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica - Grupo de Fisica Teorica e Matematica Fisica, BR 465-07, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Gomez, A.J.; Guimaraes, M.S.; Lemes, V.E.R.; Sorella, S.P.; Tedesco, D.G. [UERJ - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica - Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The construction of BRST invariant local operators with the quantum numbers of the lightest glueball states, J {sup PC}=0{sup ++},2{sup ++},0{sup -+}, is worked out by making use of an Euclidean confining renormalizable gauge theory. The correlation functions of these operators are evaluated by employing a confining gluon propagator of the Gribov type and shown to display a spectral representation with positive spectral densities. An attempt to provide a first qualitative analysis of the ratios of the masses of the lightest glueballs is also discussed. (orig.)

  9. Operating Experience with Nuclear Power Stations in Member States in 2014. 2015 Edition (CD-ROM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains the 46th edition of the IAEA’s series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power plants in Member States. It is a direct output from the IAEA’s Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and contains information on electricity production and overall performance of individual plants during 2014. In addition to annual information, the report contains a historical summary of performance during the lifetime of individual plants and figures illustrating worldwide performance of the nuclear industry. The CD-ROM contains also an overview of design characteristics and dashboards of all operating nuclear power plants worldwide

  10. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  11. Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Support to Humanitarian Relief Operations within the United States: Where Everyone is in Charge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sovada, Jennifer P

    2008-01-01

    ... the leadership of the military, federal government, and state governments since Hurricane Katrina. These organizations have deemed ISR support essential to conducting timely, effective, and responsive relief operations...

  12. State Operator Correspondence and Entanglement in AdS2/CFT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashoke Sen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Since Euclidean global AdS2 space represented as a strip has two boundaries, the state-operator correspondence in the dual CFT1 reduces to the standard map from the operators acting on a single copy of the Hilbert space to states in the tensor product of two copies of the Hilbert space. Using this picture we argue that the corresponding states in the dual string theory living on AdS2 × K are described by the twisted version of the Hartle–Hawking states, the twists being generated by a large unitary group of symmetries that this string theory must possess. This formalism makes natural the dual interpretation of the black hole entropy—as the logarithm of the degeneracy of ground states of the quantum mechanics describing the low energy dynamics of the black hole, and also as an entanglement entropy between the two copies of the same quantum theory living on the two boundaries of global AdS2 separated by the event horizon.

  13. Experimental methods to validate measures of emotional state and readiness for duty in critical operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, Louise Marie

    2007-01-01

    A recent report on criticality accidents in nuclear facilities indicates that human error played a major role in a significant number of incidents with serious consequences and that some of these human errors may be related to the emotional state of the individual. A pre-shift test to detect a deleterious emotional state could reduce the occurrence of such errors in critical operations. The effectiveness of pre-shift testing is a challenge because of the need to gather predictive data in a relatively short test period and the potential occurrence of learning effects due to a requirement for frequent testing. This report reviews the different types of reliability and validity methods and testing and statistical analysis procedures to validate measures of emotional state. The ultimate value of a validation study depends upon the percentage of human errors in critical operations that are due to the emotional state of the individual. A review of the literature to identify the most promising predictors of emotional state for this application is highly recommended

  14. Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries Using Fast, Stable, Glassy Nanocomposite Electrolytes for Good Safety and Long Cycle-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guoqiang; Wu, Feng; Zhan, Chun; Wang, Jing; Mu, Daobin; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2016-03-09

    The development of safe, stable, and long-life Li-ion batteries is being intensively pursued to enable the electrification of transportation and intelligent grid applications. Here, we report a new solid-state Li-ion battery technology, using a solid nanocomposite electrolyte composed of porous silica matrices with in situ immobilizing Li(+)-conducting ionic liquid, anode material of MCMB, and cathode material of LiCoO2, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, or LiFePO4. An injection printing method is used for the electrode/electrolyte preparation. Solid nanocomposite electrolytes exhibit superior performance to the conventional organic electrolytes with regard to safety and cycle-life. They also have a transparent glassy structure with high ionic conductivity and good mechanical strength. Solid-state full cells tested with the various cathodes exhibited high specific capacities, long cycling stability, and excellent high temperature performance. This solid-state battery technology will provide new avenues for the rational engineering of advanced Li-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices.

  15. Seventh meeting of the ITER physics expert group on energetic particles, heating and steady state operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormezano, C.

    1999-01-01

    The seventh meeting of the ITER Physics Group on energetic particles, heating and steady state operation was held at CEN/Cadarache from 14 to 18 September 1999. This was the first meeting following the redefinition of the Expert Group structure and it was also the first meeting without participation of US physicists. The main topics covered were: 1. Energetic Particles, 2. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating, 3. Lower Hybrid Current Drive, 4. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating and Current Drive, 5. Neutral Beam Injection, 6. Steady-State Aspects

  16. Manipulations with qubit states by short control pulses: the interpolation method for evolution operator and fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisenko, M. V.; Klenov, N. V.; Satanin, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    In this article the dynamics of the qubits states based on solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is investigated. Using the Magnus method we obtain an explicit interpolation representation for the propagator, which allows to find wave function at an arbitrary time. To illustrate the effectiveness of the approach, the population of the levels a single and two coupled qubits have been calculated by applying the Magnus propagator and the result have been compared with the numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation. As a measure of the approximation of the wave function, we calculate fidelity, which indicates proximity when the exact and approximate evolution operator acts on the initial state. We discuss the possibility of extending the developed methods to multi-qubits system, when high-speed calculation methods of the operators of evolution is particularly relevant.

  17. Steam generator tube integrity requirements and operating experience in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwoski, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Steam generator tube integrity is important to the safe operation of pressurized-water reactors. For ensuring tube integrity, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses a regulatory framework that is largely performance based. This performance-based framework is supplemented with some prescriptive requirements. The framework recognizes that there are three combinations of tube materials and heat treatments currently used in the United States and that the operating experience depends, in part, on the type of material used. This paper summarizes the regulatory framework for ensuring steam generator tube integrity, it highlights the current status of steam generators, and it highlights some of the steam generator issues and challenges that exist in the United States. (author)

  18. Loop Quantization of Polarized Gowdy Model on $T^3$: Kinematical States and Constraint Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Kinjal; Date, Ghanashyam

    2007-01-01

    In this second paper on loop quantization of Gowdy model, we introduce the kinematical Hilbert space on which appropriate holonomies and fluxes are well represented. The quantization of the volume operator and the Gauss constraint is straightforward. Imposition of the Gauss constraint can be done on the kinematical Hilbert space to select subspace of gauge invariant states. We carry out the quantization of the Hamiltonian constraint making specific choices. Alternative choices are briefly dis...

  19. Continuity of Operations Plans: Policy and Strategy for K-12 Schools in the State of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Standard Operating Procedure TT&E Test, Training and Exercise USDOE United States Department of Education WTC World Trade Center x THIS...Prior to September 11, 2001, no one considered such an attack on the World Trade Center ( WTC ) occurring, much less utilizing fueled aircraft as manned...cruise missiles. The fact that a terrorist attack had occurred in 1993 on the WTC was still fresh in the memories of New York citizens; somehow

  20. Closing the Door Behind You: How the United States Army Conducts Logistical Withdrawals after Lengthy Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    AirLand Battle doctrine. It remains an active Field Manual. FM 100-9 details the steps to regenerate combat power after extensive attrition by enemy...peace talks in Paris . After a heavy bombing campaign against North Vietnam forced a resumption of negotiations, the United States agreed to a cease-fire...march to Baghdad, hindered mobility throughout urban areas and stability operations. CJTF-7 leaders saw that additional forces would be required to

  1. Assessment Of The Effectiveness Of Telecommunication Delivery Among Operators Of GSM In Ekiti State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumuyiwa Oludare Fagbohun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Data survey on the service delivery of the three principal Global System for Mobile Communications GSM Operators in Ekiti State Nigeria was conducted with a questionnaire administered among its citizens. Three locations Ado Ekiti 7o381 5o131 Ikere Ekiti 7o301 5o141 and Aramoko Ekiti 7o431 5o31were selected. Based on the responses from various subscribers using the networks the performance analyses of the operators were assessed using the descriptive statistical method. The assessment was based on the coverage area interconnectivity call quality number of subscribers growth and other supplementary services to assist the various GSM operators know the area of weakness and improve on the quality of the service delivery. It was discovered that the users have more complaints to offer with the performance generally rated below average and a need for fast and better network optimization for needed improvements for an effective telecommunication delivery.

  2. Quantitative, steady-state properties of Catania's computational model of the operant reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, John P; McDowell, J J

    2011-05-01

    Catania (2005) found that a computational model of the operant reserve (Skinner, 1938) produced realistic behavior in initial, exploratory analyses. Although Catania's operant reserve computational model demonstrated potential to simulate varied behavioral phenomena, the model was not systematically tested. The current project replicated and extended the Catania model, clarified its capabilities through systematic testing, and determined the extent to which it produces behavior corresponding to matching theory. Significant departures from both classic and modern matching theory were found in behavior generated by the model across all conditions. The results suggest that a simple, dynamic operant model of the reflex reserve does not simulate realistic steady state behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulating manure application discharges from concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, Terence J.; Feitshans, Theodore A.

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, reducing pollution from agriculture has received attention due to data suggesting that this is the leading source of impairment of many waterbodies. The federal government revised its regulations governing concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to enhance governmental oversight over sources of pollution. For the application of manure resulting in pollutant discharges, CAFOs need to implement nutrient management plans. A federal court affirmed the ability of the US federal government to oversee the application of manure from CAFOs that have discharges. Simultaneously, owners and operators of CAFOs who have implemented an appropriate nutrient management plan may forgo securing a permit if their discharges qualify under the agricultural stormwater discharge exemption. - New rules applying to the application of manure by large concentrated animal feeding operations should reduce water contamination

  4. Integrated performance and critical issues towards steady-state operation in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yoshiteru

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the integrated performance, achieved in JT-60U, towards the steady-state operation foreseen in ITER and DEMO reactor. Advanced tokamak plasmas with weak shear or reversed shear have been optimized to confront the critical issues such as the high-beta operation with high confinement, the compatibility of high-density operation with high confinement, and long sustainment with high non-inductive current drive. As a result, high-integrated performances were achieved in both plasma regimes. For example, high confinement reversed shear plasmas with high bootstrap current fraction exceeding no-wall beta limit are obtained in reactor relevant regime, where β N -2.7, β p -2.3 is achieved with reversed q profile with q min -2.3, and then HH 98y2 -1.7, n e /n GW -0.87 and f BS -0.9 are also obtained at q 95 -5.3. (author)

  5. The nuclear industry's transition to risk-informed regulation and operation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadak, Andrew C.; Matsuo, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study of the transition of the United States nuclear industry from a prescriptive regulatory structure to a more risk informed approach to operations and regulations. The transition occurred over a 20 yr period in which gradual changes were made in the fundamental regulations and to the approach to nuclear safety and operations. While the number of actual regulatory changes were few, they are continuing. The utilities that embraced risk informed operations made dramatic changes in the way they approached operations and outage management. Those utilities that used risk in operations showed dramatic improvement in safety based on Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) performance indicators. It was also shown that the use of risk did not negatively affect safety performance of the plants compared to standard prescriptive approaches. This was despite having greater flexibility in compliance to regulatory standards and the use of the newly instituted risk-informed reactor oversight process. Key factors affecting the successful transition to a more risk-informed approach to regulations and operations are: strong top management support and leadership both at the regulator and the utility; education and training in risk principles and probabilistic risk Assessment tools for engineers, operators and maintenance staff; a slow and steady introduction of risk initiatives in areas that can show value to both the regulator and the industry; a transparent regulatory foundation built around a safety goal policy and the development of a strong safety culture at the utility to allow for more independence in safety compliance and risk management. The experience of the United States shows positive results in both safety and economics. The INPO and NRC metrics presented show that the use of risk information in operations and regulation is marginally better with no degradation in safety when plants that have embraced risk-informed approaches are compared

  6. Tetraquark operators in lattice QCD and exotic flavour states in the charm sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Gavin K. C.; Thomas, Christopher E.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2017-11-01

    We present a general class of operators resembling compact tetraquarks which have a range of colour-flavour-spin structures, transform irreducibly under the symmetries of the lattice and respect other relevant symmetries. These constructions are demonstrated in lattice QCD calculations with light quarks corresponding to m π = 391 MeV. Using the distillation framework, correlation functions involving large bases of meson-meson and tetraquark operators are computed in the isospin-1 hidden-charm and doubly-charmed sectors, and finite-volume spectra are extracted with the variational method. We find the spectra are insensitive to the addition of tetraquark operators to the bases of meson-meson operators. For the first time, through using diverse bases of meson-meson operators, the multiple energy levels associated with meson-meson levels which would be degenerate in the non-interacting limit are extracted reliably. The number of energy levels in each spectrum is found to be equal to the number of expected non-interacting meson-meson levels in the energy region considered and the majority of energies lie close to the non-interacting levels. Therefore, there is no strong indication for any bound state or narrow resonance in the channels we study.

  7. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  8. Innovative enterprises operating in the Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Baruk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary enterprises should be innovative to survive on a competitive market. Innovations are the basic factor of development of each firm. They must be systematically developed and implemented in all areas of socio-economic activity. The base for the creation of such a system can be a complex diagnosis of the current state of the commonness of introduction of the innovations in particular enterprises. This diagnosis can be conducted on the base of results of the empirical researches, conducted in February 2016 by TNS Political & Social in 28 EU Member States, Switzerland and the United States. These researches, among other things, refered to commonness of introduction of innovations in enterprises. In this publication an attempt to achieve the following objectives is undertaken: 1. conducting of statistical-comparative analysis of the empirical researches on the commonness of introduction of specific types of innovations in enterprises operating in the Member States of the European Union and the United States, 2. verification of the thesis that the commonness of implementation of certain types of innovations in enterprises functioning in the EU Member States is relatively low and varied. The analysis of empirical material allowed to achieve these objectives.

  9. Variation in the cost of 5 common operations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeam, Elliot; Molina, George; Shah, Neel; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Chang, David C; Gawande, Atul A; Haynes, Alex B

    2017-09-01

    Health care costs are an important policy focus in the United States. The magnitude and drivers of variation in the costs of common operative procedures are not well understood. We sought to characterize variation in costs across hospitals. We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2001-2011 for 5 elective operations: colectomy, coronary artery bypass graft, total knee arthroplasty, cesarean section, and lung resection. Hospitals were benchmarked for each using hierarchical risk- and reliability-adjustment methods to generate an observed-to-expected cost ratio, which was adjusted for patient demographics, comorbidity, wage index, and procedure complexity. Hospitals were divided into quintiles. Characteristics of high- and low-quintile hospitals and their adjusted outcomes were examined. Cost observed-to-expected ratios ranged widely for all 5 procedures: 14.9-fold for colectomy, 5.5-fold for coronary artery bypass graft, 12.5-fold for lung resection, 10.6-fold for total knee arthroplasty, and 28.0-fold for cesarean section. Comparing highest to lowest cost quintiles of hospitals, high-cost hospitals were more likely to serve minority and Medicaid patients. Mortality was elevated significantly in high-cost hospitals for colectomy, coronary artery bypass graft, and lung resection (adjusted odds ratio 1.99, 1.32, 2.57; respectively). Service lines were correlated at low-cost hospitals. There was a significant association between greater procedure volume and low-cost hospitals for colectomy, coronary artery bypass graft, and total knee arthroplasty. Despite robust adjustment, there is wide cost variation for common operative procedures in the United States. High-cost hospitals may need to focus on cost reduction at the hospital level to reduce cost across service lines. Benchmarking costs may identify significant opportunities to promote value, or the balance between cost and quality, in operative care in the United States. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  10. A stochastic global identification framework for aerospace structures operating under varying flight states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsaftopoulos, Fotis; Nardari, Raphael; Li, Yu-Hung; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a novel data-based stochastic "global" identification framework is introduced for aerospace structures operating under varying flight states and uncertainty. In this context, the term "global" refers to the identification of a model that is capable of representing the structure under any admissible flight state based on data recorded from a sample of these states. The proposed framework is based on stochastic time-series models for representing the structural dynamics and aeroelastic response under multiple flight states, with each state characterized by several variables, such as the airspeed, angle of attack, altitude and temperature, forming a flight state vector. The method's cornerstone lies in the new class of Vector-dependent Functionally Pooled (VFP) models which allow the explicit analytical inclusion of the flight state vector into the model parameters and, hence, system dynamics. This is achieved via the use of functional data pooling techniques for optimally treating - as a single entity - the data records corresponding to the various flight states. In this proof-of-concept study the flight state vector is defined by two variables, namely the airspeed and angle of attack of the vehicle. The experimental evaluation and assessment is based on a prototype bio-inspired self-sensing composite wing that is subjected to a series of wind tunnel experiments under multiple flight states. Distributed micro-sensors in the form of stretchable sensor networks are embedded in the composite layup of the wing in order to provide the sensing capabilities. Experimental data collected from piezoelectric sensors are employed for the identification of a stochastic global VFP model via appropriate parameter estimation and model structure selection methods. The estimated VFP model parameters constitute two-dimensional functions of the flight state vector defined by the airspeed and angle of attack. The identified model is able to successfully represent the wing

  11. Assessing anthropogenic pressures on coastal marine ecosystems using stable CNS isotopes: State of the art, knowledge gaps, and community-scale perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, the analysis of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur stable isotopes (SIA) has emerged as a powerful, viable methodology for examining food web structure and dynamics, as well as addressing a number of applied issues. Here, we provide a state-of-the-art review of the use of SIA for assessing anthropogenic pressures on natural ecosystems, in order to establish current knowledge gaps and identify promising applications for evaluating the ecological status of marine coastal waters. Specifically, the potential of SIA to provide food web-scale indicators for estimating cumulative anthropogenic pressures is addressed. The review indicates that the methodology has been used for virtually the whole spectrum of human pressures known to influence marine ecosystems. However, only the effects of chemical pollution, release of dissolved and particulate nutrients, and invasive species have been extensively investigated. For the first two pressures, substantial efforts have been made to implement isotopic quantitative approaches and metrics for inter-system comparisons; however, with the exception of nutrient release, the majority of aquatic studies have been carried out in freshwater systems, and only limited information is available on marine environments. In particular, the effects of invasive species on coastal habitats have received scant attention. Trophic position of indicator species emerges as the isotopic metric most ubiquitously adopted for measuring the impact of anthropogenic pressures. Conversely, the application of other recently implemented metrics, proven to be highly effective in integrating information on the spatial-temporal dynamics of aquatic food webs, is to date still limited. The potential of stable isotope analysis to provide a unifying methodological-theoretical framework for effective, inter-ecosystem comparisons of both single and multiple anthropogenic pressures is emphasised. Additionally, a plea for the implementation and intercalibration

  12. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.23 Section 122.23 Protection of Environment... Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). (a) Scope... owner or operator (see § 122.21(b)); (ii) The CAFO name and address, the county name and the latitude...

  13. The technology and science of steady-state operation in magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, A; Hoang, G T

    2008-01-01

    The steady-state operation of magnetically confined fusion plasmas is considered as one of the 'grand challenges' of future decades, if not the ultimate goal of the research and development activities towards a new source of energy. Reaching such a goal requires the high-level integration of both science and technology aspects of magnetic fusion into self-consistent plasma regimes in fusion-grade devices. On the physics side, the first constraint addresses the magnetic confinement itself which must be made persistent. This means to either rely on intrinsically steady-state configurations, like the stellarator one, or turn the inductively driven tokamak configuration into a fully non-inductive one, through a mix of additional current sources. The low efficiency of the external current drive methods and the necessity to minimize the re-circulating power claim for a current mix strongly weighted by the internal 'pressure driven' bootstrap current, itself strongly sensitive to the heat and particle transport properties of the plasma. A virtuous circle may form as the heat and particle transport properties are themselves sensitive to the current profile conditions. Note that several other factors, e.g. plasma rotation profile, magneto-hydro-dynamics activity, also influence the equilibrium state. In the present tokamak devices, several examples of such 'advanced tokamak' physics research demonstrate the feasibility of steady-state regimes, though with a number of open questions still under investigation. The modelling activity also progresses quite fast in this domain and supports understanding and extrapolation. This high level of physics sophistication of the plasma scenario however needs to be combined with steady-state technological constraints. The technology constraints for steady-state operation are basically twofold: the specific technologies required to reach the steady-state plasma conditions and the generic technologies linked to the long pulse operation of a

  14. The covariant-evolution-operator method in bound-state QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, Ingvar; Salomonson, Sten; Aasen, Bjoern

    2004-01-01

    The methods of quantum-electrodynamical (QED) calculations on bound atomic systems are reviewed with emphasis on the newly developed covariant-evolution-operator method. The aim is to compare that method with other available methods and also to point out possibilities to combine that with standard many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) in order to perform accurate numerical QED calculations, including quasi-degeneracy, also for light elements, where the electron correlation is relatively strong. As a background, the time-independent many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) is briefly reviewed, particularly the method with extended model space. Time-dependent perturbation theory is discussed in some detail, introducing the time-evolution operator and the Gell-Mann-Low relation, generalized to an arbitrary model space. Three methods of treating the bound-state QED problem are discussed. The standard S-matrix formulation, which is restricted to a degenerate model space, is discussed only briefly. Two methods applicable also to the quasi-degenerate problem are treated in more detail, the two-times Green's-function and the covariant-evolution-operator techniques. The treatment is concentrated on the latter technique, which has been developed more recently and which has not been discussed in more detail before. A comparison of the two-times Green's-function and the covariant-evolution-operator techniques, which have great similarities, is performed. In the appendix a simple procedure is derived for expressing the evolution-operator diagrams of arbitrary order. The possibilities of merging QED in the covariant evolution-operator formulation with MBPT in a systematic way is indicated. With such a technique it might be feasible to perform accurate QED calculations also on light elements, which is presently not possible with the techniques available

  15. Operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    This report is the thirty-fifth in the Agency's series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States. The report is a direct output from the Agency's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS), whose databank contains all operating experience data published in the Agency's operating experience annual reports since 1971 and basic information on power reactors, including design data. It presents operating experience data for all worldwide nuclear power plants after starting commercial operation. The PRIS databank is available free of charge to IAEA Member States through its two services: PRIS-PC, MicroPRIS and PRIS CD-ROM. The PRIS-PC allows direct access to the database through the Internet. The MicroPRIS contains a subset of the PRIS database and is available in a form readily accessible by standard, commercially available personal computer packages. Since 1999 the IAEA offers PRIS on CDROM version. The PRIS-PC on CD-ROM only includes data for reactors in operation, under construction and shutdown. It keeps the same feature as in the current front-end-tool PRIS-PC interface. This front-end-tool interface allows to search and query through pre-designed statistics. The PRIS-PC on CD-ROM contains mapping interface including a view of the world map with zooming features to country, region and site map and links to PRIS database to retrieve related (nuclear power plant) information. PRIS is also available in the Internet at http://www.iaea.org/programmes/a2. Load, operation and availability factors are used as the basic performance factors. Energy unavailability factors, separate for planned and unplanned unavailability, due either to causes in the plant or causes external to the plant, are used as a measure of energy lost through a unit not being available. However, some ambiguity remains in the operators' reports of the unavailability data, resulting in inconsistencies in these factors. It is recognized that there is an inherent

  16. A Systematic Approach for Real-Time Operator Functional State Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangfan; Wang, Wei; Pepe, Aaron; Xu, Roger; Schnell, Thomas; Anderson, Nick; Heitkamp, Dean; Li, Jiang; Li, Feng; McKenzie, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    A task overload condition often leads to high stress for an operator, causing performance degradation and possibly disastrous consequences. Just as dangerous, with automated flight systems, an operator may experience a task underload condition (during the en-route flight phase, for example), becoming easily bored and finding it difficult to maintain sustained attention. When an unexpected event occurs, either internal or external to the automated system, the disengaged operator may neglect, misunderstand, or respond slowly/inappropriately to the situation. In this paper, we discuss an approach for Operator Functional State (OFS) monitoring in a typical aviation environment. A systematic ground truth finding procedure has been designed based on subjective evaluations, performance measures, and strong physiological indicators. The derived OFS ground truth is continuous in time compared to a very sparse estimation of OFS based on an expert review or subjective evaluations. It can capture the variations of OFS during a mission to better guide through the training process of the OFS assessment model. Furthermore, an OFS assessment model framework based on advanced machine learning techniques was designed and the systematic approach was then verified and validated with experimental data collected in a high fidelity Boeing 737 simulator. Preliminary results show highly accurate engagement/disengagement detection making it suitable for real-time applications to assess pilot engagement.

  17. Continuity and Change in the Operational Dynamics of the Islamic State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Regens

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we estimate the influence of leadership changes on the operational dynamics associated with terrorist attacks conducted by the Islamic State and its predecessors. Because the focus of our research is empirical, the study uses data for 2,131 successful attacks between October 2002 and December 2014 to examine differentials in operational tempo, attack severity, primary tactics employed, and principal targets. The data are aggregated on a monthly basis to estimate the probabilities associated with specific attack sequences in terms of the following primary tactics: (1 firearms, (2 explosives, (3 hostage-taking/kidnapping, and (4 attacks involving combinations of (1, (2, and/or (3. The analysis is placed in a broad historical and strategic context in order to explore two key issues: (1 The effect of leadership change on terrorist group activity and (2 The implications for counterterrorism and counterinsurgency efforts. Our analysis reveals a myriad of conceptual, theoretical, and policy implications.

  18. On a decomposition theorem for density operators of a pure quantum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannoni, M.J.

    1979-03-01

    Conditions for the existence of a decomposition of a hermitian projector rho into two hermitian and time reversal invariant operators r/rho 0 and chi under the form rho=esup(i,chi)rho 0 esup(-i,chi) are investigated. Sufficient conditions are given, and an explicit construction of a decomposition is performed when they are fulfilled. A stronger theorem of existence and unicity is studied. All the proofs are valid for any p-body reduced density operator of a pure state of a system of bosons as well as fermions. The decomposition studied in this work has already been used in Nuclear Physics, and may be of interest in other fields of Physics

  19. Robustness of Operational Matrices of Differentiation for Solving State-Space Analysis and Optimal Control Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emran Tohidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of approximation by monomials together with the collocation technique over a uniform mesh for solving state-space analysis and optimal control problems (OCPs has been proposed in this paper. After imposing the Pontryagins maximum principle to the main OCPs, the problems reduce to a linear or nonlinear boundary value problem. In the linear case we propose a monomial collocation matrix approach, while in the nonlinear case, the general collocation method has been applied. We also show the efficiency of the operational matrices of differentiation with respect to the operational matrices of integration in our numerical examples. These matrices of integration are related to the Bessel, Walsh, Triangular, Laguerre, and Hermite functions.

  20. Object relations, defensive operations, and affective states in narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R; Berg, J L

    1992-08-01

    Rorschach data were used to psychometrically "map" the internal psychological operations of three Cluster B personality disorders, listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev. [DSM-III-R]; American Psychiatric Association, 1987), all of which may be organized at a borderline level. Psychopathic antisocial subjects (P-APDs) and narcissistic subjects (NPDs) were highly narcissistic. NPD subjects, however, produced more indices of anxiety and attachment capacity and fewer scores related to borderline object relations and damaged identity. P-APDs and borderline subjects (BPDs) produced similar mean numbers of borderline object relations; however, the BPDs were more anxious, produced more unsublimated aggressive and libidinal drive material, and evidenced greater potential for attachment. BPDs were also less narcissistic than both P-APDs and NPDs. Nonpsychopathic antisocial subjects (NP-APDs) were less borderline than P-APDs and BPDs, less narcissistic in terms of a stable grandiose self-structure than NPD and P-APDs, produced less evidence of attachment capacity than NPDs and BPDs but more than P-APDs, and were similar to BPDs in their proneness to anxiety. The outpatient NPDs and BPDs produced more idealization responses than the incarcerated antisocial personality disorder (APD) groups. We conclude that the behavioral descriptions offered for these three Cluster B personality disorders, when used in conjunction with information such as level of personality organization (Kernberg, 1984), level of psychopathy (Hare, 1980, 1985), and outpatient versus inpatient research settings, may have greater intrapsychic specificity than previously thought.

  1. Impact of electric vehicles in the steady state operation of distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Erasmo Saraiva de Castro

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to quantify the impact in the steady state operation of a distribution system when electric vehicles are connected. It is worth noting that the connection of them may cause significant changes in the voltage profile, in the degree of voltage unbalance and in the electrical losses of the system. In order to make this analysis, a three-phase power flow program was developed in MATLAB language. This program is based on the Ladder Iterative Technique and it contains models of overh...

  2. Generalizations of the pseudospin operator to test the Bell inequality for the TMSV state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorantes, M M; Lucio M, J L

    2009-01-01

    Chen et al (2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 040406) proposed a method to measure the entanglement of a bipartite quantum system involving continuous variables. The approach is based upon the construction of a pseudospin operator. An important difference with the spin case is an infinite degeneracy of the eigenkets associated with the pseudospin. In this paper, we analyze the role played by such a degeneracy in the study of the locality of the two-mode-squeezed vacuum state. We construct other representations for the pseudospin and study the corresponding Bell inequalities.

  3. Generalizations of the pseudospin operator to test the Bell inequality for the TMSV state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorantes, M. M.; Lucio M, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Chen et al (2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 040406) proposed a method to measure the entanglement of a bipartite quantum system involving continuous variables. The approach is based upon the construction of a pseudospin operator. An important difference with the spin case is an infinite degeneracy of the eigenkets associated with the pseudospin. In this paper, we analyze the role played by such a degeneracy in the study of the locality of the two-mode-squeezed vacuum state. We construct other representations for the pseudospin and study the corresponding Bell inequalities.

  4. Generalizations of the pseudospin operator to test the Bell inequality for the TMSV state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorantes, M M; Lucio M, J L [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Loma del Bosque 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)], E-mail: mmdorantes@gmail.com

    2009-07-17

    Chen et al (2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 040406) proposed a method to measure the entanglement of a bipartite quantum system involving continuous variables. The approach is based upon the construction of a pseudospin operator. An important difference with the spin case is an infinite degeneracy of the eigenkets associated with the pseudospin. In this paper, we analyze the role played by such a degeneracy in the study of the locality of the two-mode-squeezed vacuum state. We construct other representations for the pseudospin and study the corresponding Bell inequalities.

  5. Operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States in 2008. 2009 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-08-01

    This edition is the fortieth in the IAEA's series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power plants in Member States. It is a direct output from the IAEA's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and contains information on electricity production and overall performance of individual plants during 2008. In addition to annual information, the report contains a historical summary of performance during the lifetime of individual plants and figures illustrating worldwide performance of the nuclear industry. The CD-ROM provides enhanced features for data search and analysis

  6. A heuristic for the synthesis of credible operating states in the presence of renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Experience has shown the limitations of deterministic criteria when accommodating the intrinsic uncertainties associated to modern power systems. Hereof, probabilistic risk assessment represent a powerful enhancement in order to ensure the overall power system reliability rather than a worst......-case scenario analysis. This paper presents a general-purpose methodology intended to generate plausible operating states. The main focus lies on the generation of correlated random samples using a heuristic of the NORmal-to-Anything (NORTA) method. The proposed methodology was applied to model wind generation...... in the Danish Western power system, analyzing the effect of the marginal distributions and errors in the correlation matrix definition....

  7. Tailoring multi-qubit measurement operators through dynamic cavity states (Part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K.; Blumoff, J.; Nigg, S.; Reed, M.; Vlastakis, B.; Heeres, R.; Frunzio, L.; Girvin, S.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2014-03-01

    Recent improvements in cavity coherence in cQED have allowed high precision manipulation of photonic cavity states, illustrating a powerful toolbox for manipulating and encoding quantum information in either superconducting qubits or cavity states. In order for this architecture to become a viable system for computation, it will be necessary to have the flexibility to probe both global as well as limited properties of a register of qubits. In particular, the ability to tailor measurement operators is a technology that will be required for error correction. Extending the theoretical framework discussed in the previous talk, we will show experimental work toward realizing this goal. Our design consists of a register of qubits coupled to a high Q storage cavity and ancilla qubit enabled fast readout through a low Q cavity. Work supported by IARPA and ARO.

  8. Exact finite volume expectation values of local operators in excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozsgay, B. [MTA-BME “Momentum” Statistical Field Theory Research Group,Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Szécsényi, I.M. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Eötvös Loránd University,Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, 1117 Budapest (Hungary); Takács, G. [MTA-BME “Momentum” Statistical Field Theory Research Group,Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Theoretical Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics,Budafoki út 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-04-07

    We present a conjecture for the exact expression of finite volume expectation values in excited states in integrable quantum field theories, which is an extension of an earlier conjecture to the case of general diagonal factorized scattering with bound states and a nontrivial bootstrap structure. The conjectured expression is a spectral expansion which uses the exact form factors and the excited state thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz as building blocks. The conjecture is proven for the case of the trace of the energy-moment tensor. Concerning its validity for more general operators, we provide numerical evidence using the truncated conformal space approach. It is found that the expansion fails to be well-defined for small values of the volume in cases when the singularity structure of the TBA equations undergoes a non-trivial rearrangement under some critical value of the volume. Despite these shortcomings, the conjectured expression is expected to be valid for all volumes for most of the excited states, and as an expansion above the critical volume for the rest.

  9. Unconditionally stable methods for simulating multi-component two-phase interface models with Peng-Robinson equation of state and various boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we consider multi-component dynamic two-phase interface models, which are formulated by the Cahn-Hilliard system with Peng-Robinson equation of state and various boundary conditions. These models can be derived from the minimum problems of Helmholtz free energy or grand potential in the realistic thermodynamic systems. The resulted Cahn-Hilliard systems with various boundary conditions are fully coupled and strongly nonlinear. A linear transformation is introduced to decouple the relations between different components, and as a result, the models are simplified. From this, we further propose a semi-implicit unconditionally stable time discretization scheme, which allows us to solve the Cahn-Hilliard system by a decoupled way, and thus, our method can significantly reduce the computational cost and memory requirements. The mixed finite element methods are employed for the spatial discretization, and the approximate errors are also analyzed for both space and time. Numerical examples are tested to demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed methods. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of organic contaminants in natural environments: a critical review of the state of the art, prospects, and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Torsten C.; Haderlein, Stefan B.; Zwank, Luc; Elsner, Martin; Berg, Michael; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2004-01-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) has developed into a mature analytical method in many application areas over the last decade. This is in particular true for carbon isotope analysis, whereas measurements of the other elements amenable to CSIA (hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen) are much less routine. In environmental sciences, successful applications to date include (i) the allocation of contaminant sources on a local, regional, and global scale, (ii) the identification and quantification of (bio)transformation reactions on scales ranging from batch experiments to contaminated field sites, and (iii) the characterization of elementary reaction mechanisms that govern product formation. These three application areas are discussed in detail. The investigated spectrum of compounds comprises mainly n-alkanes, monoaromatics such as benzene and toluene, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and chlorinated hydrocarbons such as tetrachloromethane, trichloroethylene, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Future research directions are primarily set by the state of the art in analytical instrumentation and method development. Approaches to utilize HPLC separation in CSIA, the enhancement of sensitivity of CSIA to allow field investigations in the μg L -1 range, and the development of methods for CSIA of other elements are reviewed. Furthermore, an alternative scheme to evaluate isotope data is outlined that would enable estimates of position-specific kinetic isotope effects and, thus, allow one to extract mechanistic chemical and biochemical information. (orig.)

  11. Operational Stress Control and Readiness (OSCAR): The United States Marine Corps Initiative to Deliver Mental Health Services to Operating Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nash, William P

    2006-01-01

    .... The role of military mental health professionals in combat/operational stress control is to adapt scientific tools for prevention, identification, and treatment for use by military leaders at all levels...

  12. Modeling and control of operator functional state in a unified framework of fuzzy inference petri nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Xia, Jia-Jun; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Groumpos, Petros P; Wang, Ru-Bin

    2017-06-01

    In human-machine (HM) hybrid control systems, human operator and machine cooperate to achieve the control objectives. To enhance the overall HM system performance, the discrete manual control task-load by the operator must be dynamically allocated in accordance with continuous-time fluctuation of psychophysiological functional status of the operator, so-called operator functional state (OFS). The behavior of the HM system is hybrid in nature due to the co-existence of discrete task-load (control) variable and continuous operator performance (system output) variable. Petri net is an effective tool for modeling discrete event systems, but for hybrid system involving discrete dynamics, generally Petri net model has to be extended. Instead of using different tools to represent continuous and discrete components of a hybrid system, this paper proposed a method of fuzzy inference Petri nets (FIPN) to represent the HM hybrid system comprising a Mamdani-type fuzzy model of OFS and a logical switching controller in a unified framework, in which the task-load level is dynamically reallocated between the operator and machine based on the model-predicted OFS. Furthermore, this paper used a multi-model approach to predict the operator performance based on three electroencephalographic (EEG) input variables (features) via the Wang-Mendel (WM) fuzzy modeling method. The membership function parameters of fuzzy OFS model for each experimental participant were optimized using artificial bee colony (ABC) evolutionary algorithm. Three performance indices, RMSE, MRE, and EPR, were computed to evaluate the overall modeling accuracy. Experiment data from six participants are analyzed. The results show that the proposed method (FIPN with adaptive task allocation) yields lower breakdown rate (from 14.8% to 3.27%) and higher human performance (from 90.30% to 91.99%). The simulation results of the FIPN-based adaptive HM (AHM) system on six experimental participants demonstrate that the FIPN

  13. Current status and prospect of plasma control system for steady-state operation on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Makoto, E-mail: hasegawa@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, Kazuo; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Overall configuration of plasma control system on QUEST are presented. • Multi core system and reflective memories are used for the real-time control. • Hall sensors are used for the identification of plasma current and its position. • Repetitive gas fueling with the feed-back control of Hα signal is implemented. - Abstract: The plasma control system (PCS) of QUEST is developed according to the progress of QUEST project. Since one of the critical goals of the project is to achieve the steady-state operation with high temperature vacuum vessel wall, the PCS is also required to have the capability to control the plasma for a long period. For the increase of the loads to processing power of the PCS, the PCS is decentralized with the use of reflective memories (RFMs). The PCS controls the plasma edge position with the real-time identification of plasma current and its position. This identification is done with not only flux loops but also hall sensors. The gas fueling method by piezo valve with monitoring the Hα signal filtered by a digital low-pass filter are proposed and suitable for the steady-state operation on QUEST. The present status and prospect of the PCS are presented with recent topics.

  14. Operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-08-01

    This report is the thirty-eighth in the Agency's series of annual reports on operating experience with nuclear power stations in Member States. For the second time it is issued purely in an electronic version. The report is a direct output from the Agency's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS), whose databank contains all operating experience data published in the Agency's operating experience annual reports since 1970 and basic information on power reactors, including design data. It presents operating experience data for all worldwide nuclear power plants after starting commercial operation. The PRIS databank is available free of charge to IAEA Member States through its services: web-based PRIS-Statistics (http://prisweb.iaea.org/statistics/), PRIS-PC, PRIS CD-ROM and PRIS Website. The PRIS-Statistics and PRIS-PC allow direct access to the database through the Internet. The PRIS-PC on CD-ROM only includes data for reactors in operation, under construction and shutdown. It keeps the same feature as in the current front-end-tool PRIS-PC interface. This front-endtool interface allows to search and query through pre-designed statistics. PRIS data and related indicators are also available on the PRIS Website: www.iaea.org/programmes/a2. It contains publicly available information about reactor units and nuclear industry results. Load, operation and availability factors are used as the basic performance indicators. Energy unavailability factors, separate for planned and unplanned unavailability, due either to causes under plant management control or external causes out of plant management control, are used as a measure of energy lost through a unit not being available. However, some ambiguity remains in the operators' reports of the unavailability data, resulting in inconsistencies in these factors. It is recognized that there is an inherent difficulty in reporting unavailability in energy due to external causes with relation to energy losses due to load following

  15. A Function-Behavior-State Approach to Designing Human Machine Interface for Nuclear Power Plant Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Zhang, W. J.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents an approach to human-machine interface design for control room operators of nuclear power plants. The first step in designing an interface for a particular application is to determine information content that needs to be displayed. The design methodology for this step is called the interface design framework (called framework ). Several frameworks have been proposed for applications at varying levels, including process plants. However, none is based on the design and manufacture of a plant system for which the interface is designed. This paper presents an interface design framework which originates from design theory and methodology for general technical systems. Specifically, the framework is based on a set of core concepts of a function-behavior-state model originally proposed by the artificial intelligence research community and widely applied in the design research community. Benefits of this new framework include the provision of a model-based fault diagnosis facility, and the seamless integration of the design (manufacture, maintenance) of plants and the design of human-machine interfaces. The missing linkage between design and operation of a plant was one of the causes of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor incident. A simulated plant system is presented to explain how to apply this framework in designing an interface. The resulting human-machine interface is discussed; specifically, several fault diagnosis examples are elaborated to demonstrate how this interface could support operators' fault diagnosis in an unanticipated situation.

  16. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's process to evaluate licensee operational safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes the United States Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s process to evaluate licensee operational safety performance. A brief discussion of the transition in safety philosophy between the past predominantly design-construction phase of US nuclear power to the now predominantly operating reactors is included. The unique character of the US nuclear power industry is described to illustrate its licensee performance evaluation challenge. With this introduction, the process of licensee operational safety performance evaluation at the NRC is discussed. The process consists of combining the past Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) programme, newly revised, with a dedicated performance evaluation headquarters group and a series of reviews and evaluations involving various levels of NRC senior managers. The intent of the process is to retain and improve the SALP programme, while strengthening the process by expanding the scope of the evaluation and progressively focusing the attention of NRC senior management on plants of concern. The goal of the process is to anticipate the plants of concern before they can become a threat to the public health and safety. (author)

  17. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  18. Technological developments in real-time operational hydrologic forecasting in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlow, Michael D.

    1988-09-01

    The hydrologic forecasting service of the United States spans applications and scales ranging from those associated with the issuance of flood and flash warnings to those pertaining to seasonal water supply forecasts. New technological developments (underway in or planned by the National Weather Service (NWS) in support of the Hydrologic Program) are carried out as combined efforts by NWS headquarters and field personnel in cooperation with other organizations. These developments fall into two categories: hardware and software systems technology, and hydrometeorological analysis and prediction technology. Research, development, and operational implementation in progress in both of these areas are discussed. Cornerstones of an overall NWS modernization effort include implementation of state-of-the-art data acquisition systems (including the Next Generation Weather Radar) and communications and computer processing systems. The NWS Hydrologic Service will capitalize on these systems and will incorporate results from specific hydrologic projects including collection and processing of multivariate data sets, conceptual hydrologic modeling systems, integrated hydrologic modeling systems with meteorological interfaces and automatic updating of model states, and extended streamflow prediction techniques. The salient aspects of ongoing work in these areas are highlighted in this paper, providing some perspective on the future U.S. hydrologic forecasting service and its transitional period into the 1990s.

  19. Energy Management Strategy Based on Multiple Operating States for a Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell/Energy Storage DC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a great challenge for DC microgrids with stochastic renewable sources and volatility loads to achieve better operation performance. This study proposes an energy management strategy based on multiple operating states for a DC microgrid, which is comprised of a photovoltaic (PV array, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC system, and a battery bank. This proposed strategy can share the power properly and keep the bus voltage steady under different operating states (the state of charge (SOC of the battery bank, loading conditions, and PV array output power. In addition, a microgrids test platform is established. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy, the strategy is implemented in a hardware system and experimentally tested under different operating states. The experimental results illustrate the good performance of the proposed control strategy for the DC microgrid under different scenarios of power generation and load demand.

  20. 77 FR 31647 - Establishing Indicators to Determine Whether State Plan Operations are At Least as Effective as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Determine Whether State Plan Operations are At Least as Effective as Federal OSHA: Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) invites interested parties to...

  1. 78 FR 7428 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... the March 28, 2011 petition, submitted by the Louisiana Environmental Action Network (LEAN), Sierra..., 2011 to Noranda Alumina, LLC, for the operation of the alumina production plant located in Gramercy, St... production plant in Gramercy, St. James Parish, Louisiana for the following reasons: (1) The Title V Permit...

  2. 76 FR 43684 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    .... 112(j) for air toxics; and (VII) PSD requirements in regard to carbon dioxide emissions. On June 30... an operating permit issued by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE... PM emission limits (and fails to require the facility to sufficiently monitor fugitive PM emissions...

  3. THE CURRENT STATE OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS ABSORPTION IN ROMANIA THROUGH OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA GEORGIANA HOLT

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Operational Programme Environment (OP Environment contributes to the implementation of the 3rd priority of the National Development Plan 2007-2013, "Protecting and improving the environment," takinginto account the social, economic and environmental needs in Romania, so as to achieve sustainable impact onenvironment and stimulate economic development. From the international perspective, it is based on the EUSustainable Development Strategy and the 6th Environmental Action Programme. It is designed to contribute tothe achievement of the thematic priority of the National Strategic Reference Framework, namely thedevelopment of infrastructure at European standards.The OP Environment is fully consistent with the priorities established in the Strategic Guidelines forCohesion Cohesion Policy, especially those aimed at increasing the attractiveness of Member States, regionsand cities and to strengthen the synergies between environmental protection and economic growth.

  4. On the asymptotic number of edge states for magnetic Schrodinger operators

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, R L

    2006-01-01

    We consider a Schr\\"odinger operator $(h\\mathbf D -\\mathbf A)^2$ with a positive magnetic field $B=\\operatorname{curl}\\mathbf A$ in a domain $\\Omega\\subset\\R^2$. The imposing of Neumann boundary conditions leads to spectrum below $h\\inf B$. This is a boundary effect and it is related to the existence of edge states of the system. We show that the number of these eigenvalues, in the semi-classical limit $h\\to 0$, is governed by a Weyl-type law and that it involves a symbol on $\\partial\\Omega$. In the particular case of a constant magnetic field, the curvature plays a major role.

  5. Evaluation of the operational efficiency of pacifying police units in the state of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rosa Dias de Jesus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pacification Police Unit (UPP is a new model for public security and policing, aimed at ensuring local security and, above all, reduce, or even, extinguish violent crime linked to drug trafficking, and approach people and police. The purpose of this article is measuring the operational efficiency of all UPPs installed in the state of Rio de Janeiro by the beginning of 2011 by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. For this, it was used the CCR model – input-oriented – developed by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes, which allows an objective assessment of the overall efficiency, identifying the sources of inefficiencies and the needed targets to achieve the efficiency in each UPP. The results converge to a reduction of the amount of policemen in all communities out of the efficiency frontier.

  6. Analysis of the steady-state operation of vacuum systems for fusion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roose, T.R.; Hoffman, M.A.; Carlson, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A computer code named GASBAL was written to calculate the steady-state vacuum system performance of multi-chamber mirror machines as well as rather complex conventional multichamber vacuum systems. Application of the code, with some modifications, to the quasi-steady tokamak operating period should also be possible. Basically, GASBAL analyzes free molecular gas flow in a system consisting of a central chamber (the plasma chamber) connected by conductances to an arbitrary number of one- or two-chamber peripheral tanks. Each of the peripheral tanks may have vacuum pumping capability (pumping speed), sources of cold gas, and sources of energetic atoms. The central chamber may have actual vacuum pumping capability, as well as a plasma capable of ionizing injected atoms and impinging gas molecules and ''pumping'' them to a peripheral chamber. The GASBAL code was used in the preliminary design of a large mirror machine experiment--LLL's MX

  7. Control, data acquisition and remote participation for steady-state operation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, S.; Nagayama, Y.; Emoto, M.; Nakanishi, H.; Chikaraishi, H.; Imazu, S.; Iwata, C.; Kogi, Y.; Kojima, M.; Komada, S.; Kubo, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Mase, A.; Miyazawa, J.; Mutoh, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nonomura, M.; Ohsuna, M.; Saito, K.; Sakamoto, R.; Seki, T.; Shoji, M.; Tsuda, K.; Yoshida, M.

    2006-01-01

    Control, data acquisition, plasma monitoring and remote participation for steady state operation in the large helical device (LHD) are reviewed. By controlling the impedance matching of ICH, the plasma position and the electron density, high temperature plasma is confined for 1905s. The plasma parameters are monitored in real time. Data are continuously sampled by the YOKOGAWA WE7000 system and by the NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS CompactPCI system. Those data are managed by the object-oriented database system based on ObjectStore in distributed servers with mass storage. By using the multi protocol label switching-virtual private network (MPLS-VPN) technology, the local area network of LHD is expanded to the Japanese fusion community. This provides the remote participants with the same environment of the LHD control room

  8. Control, data acquisition and remote participation for steady-state operation in LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)]. E-mail: sudo@nifs.ac.jp; Nagayama, Y. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Emoto, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nakanishi, H. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Chikaraishi, H. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Imazu, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Iwata, C. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Kojima, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Komada, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kubo, S. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kumazawa, R. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Mase, A. [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Miyazawa, J. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Mutoh, T. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nakamura, Y. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nonomura, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ohsuna, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Saito, K. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Sakamoto, R.; Seki, T.; Shoji, M.; Tsuda, K.; Yoshida, M. [National Institute of Natural Sciences, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    Control, data acquisition, plasma monitoring and remote participation for steady state operation in the large helical device (LHD) are reviewed. By controlling the impedance matching of ICH, the plasma position and the electron density, high temperature plasma is confined for 1905s. The plasma parameters are monitored in real time. Data are continuously sampled by the YOKOGAWA WE7000 system and by the NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS CompactPCI system. Those data are managed by the object-oriented database system based on ObjectStore in distributed servers with mass storage. By using the multi protocol label switching-virtual private network (MPLS-VPN) technology, the local area network of LHD is expanded to the Japanese fusion community. This provides the remote participants with the same environment of the LHD control room.

  9. Modification of the Penn State Reactor to allow transverse and rotational core motion to increase operational versatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Daniel E.

    1994-01-01

    At Penn State the Nuclear Engineering students have the opportunity to perform experiments in reactor physics, work with reactor and radiation instrumentation, and operate a nuclear reactor. These activities are done at the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR), a General Atomics Mark III TRIGA reactor. Unfortunately this activity alone can not fully support the facility. The PSBR is mandated by Penn State to provide a portion of its operating budget by selling services to users outside as well as inside Penn State. In order to increase the marketability of PSBR an upgrade program was started to increase the quality and versatility of operation. The PSBR is the longest operating university reactor in the United States. The first phase of the upgrade program began in 1992. The quality of operation was increased by replacing a 1965 vintage console with a more reliable digital control and monitoring system. The present phase of the upgrade program is to increase the versatility of operation by modifying the reactor to allow transverse and rotational core motion. Adding two more degrees of motion to the reactor core increases the capability of the facility to meet the needs of present and future users. This upgrade is being financed by a grant from the Department of Energy and matching funds from Penn State. (author)

  10. Operating state distinction and operation control methods of the fuel cell stack; Nenryo denchi sutakku no unten jotai hanbetsu hoho oyobi unten seigyo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, M.; Nakajima, H.; Shiraishi, K. [Equosu Resarch Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-19

    In the operation of the fuel cell stack, output decrease is caused by surplus or deficient water content in part or whole of the fuel cell stack. The purpose of the invention is to provide operating state distinction and operation control methods, whereby the output abnormality is discovered in the early stage, and is quickly adjusted to the normal state. In accordance with the invention, time course voltage patterns of the cell block, composed of one or plural unit cells in the fuel cell stack that has solid oxide films as electrolytes, are classified by various operation conditions of the fuel cell, and stored in the memory in advance. Time course voltage patterns are measured by one unit cell or by the cell block; operation conditions are judged, compared and calculated while the measured time course voltage patterns and the patterns in the memory are compared; proper setting of operation conditions is selected; and command for adjusting to the setting is delivered to the unit cell or cell block in the fuel cell stack. 6 figs.

  11. Plutonium uranium extraction (PUREX) end state basis for interim operation (BIO) for surveillance and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DODD, E.N.

    1999-05-12

    This Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) was developed for the PUREX end state condition following completion of the deactivation project. The deactivation project has removed or stabilized the hazardous materials within the facility structure and equipment to reduce the hazards posed by the facility during the surveillance and maintenance (S and M) period, and to reduce the costs associated with the S and M. This document serves as the authorization basis for the PUREX facility, excluding the storage tunnels, railroad cut, and associated tracks, for the deactivated end state condition during the S and M period. The storage tunnels, and associated systems and areas, are addressed in WHC-SD-HS-SAR-001, Rev. 1, PUREX Final Safety Analysis Report. During S and M, the mission of the facility is to maintain the conditions and equipment in a manner that ensures the safety of the workers, environment, and the public. The S and M phase will continue until the final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) project and activities are begun. Based on the methodology of DOE-STD-1027-92, Hazards Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, the final facility hazards category is identified as hazards category This considers the remaining material inventories, form and distribution of the material, and the energies present to initiate events of concern. Given the current facility configuration, conditions, and authorized S and M activities, there are no operational events identified resulting in significant hazard to any of the target receptor groups (e.g., workers, public, environment). The only accident scenarios identified with consequences to the onsite co-located workers were based on external natural phenomena, specifically an earthquake. The dose consequences of these events are within the current risk evaluation guidelines and are consistent with the expectations for a hazards category 2

  12. Operating trends and performance of nuclear power plants in IAEA member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galori, F.

    1984-01-01

    The present status and short-term development of nuclear power programmes in IAEA member states is reviewed. A description of the IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) is given and the objectives for data collection and treatment are discussed. As indicated by the reports at the IAEA International Conference on Nuclear Power experience in 1982, there are considerable differences in the performances of nuclear power plants even within classes of plants which technically should be very similar and thus perform equally well. PRIS permist at least some preliminary conclusions about the reasons for differences to be drawn. It is becoming clear that reasons for good or bad performance must be sought in a number of factors including: type of plant (on-load/off-load refuelling, GCR, PHWR, LWR); age and vintage of plant; manufacturer of the main plant system; degree of standardization in plant and construction; competence of operating organization; regulatory climate. Analysis of the reported outages shows that major problems are: stress corrosion cracking in primary piping, also denting and wall thinning in tubes of steam generators; thermal fatigue cracking in the feedwater system and excessive errosion/corrosion problems in turbines. It is emphasized that international cooperation is important for creating an effective system for learning from operating experience

  13. Differences in liquor prices between control state-operated and license-state retail outlets in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aims to compare the average price of liquor in the United States between retail alcohol outlets in states that have a monopoly ('control' states) with those that do not ('licence' states). Design A cross-sectional study of brand-specific alcohol prices in the United States. Setting We determined the average prices in February 2012 of 74 brands of liquor among the 13 control states that maintain a monopoly on liquor sales at the retail level and among a sample of 50 license-state liquor stores, using their online-available prices. Measurements We calculated average prices for 74 brands of liquor by control vs. license state. We used a random effects regression model to estimate differences between control and license state prices – overall and by alcoholic beverage type. We also compared prices between the 13 control states. Findings The overall mean price for the 74 brands was $27.79 in the license states (95% confidence interval [CI], $25.26–$30.32) and $29.82 in the control states (95% CI, $26.98–$32.66). Based on the random effects linear regression model, the average liquor price was approximately two dollars lower (6.9% lower) in license states. Conclusions In the United States monopoly of alcohol retail outlets appears to be associated with slightly higher liquor prices. PMID:22934914

  14. Multiple-Pulse Operation and Bound States of Solitons in Passive Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Komarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results of our research on a multiple-pulse operation of passive mode-locked fiber lasers. The research has been performed on basis of numerical simulation. Multihysteresis dependence of both an intracavity energy and peak intensities of intracavity ultrashort pulses on pump power is found. It is shown that the change of a number of ultrashort pulses in a laser cavity can be realized by hard as well as soft regimes of an excitation and an annihilation of new solitons. Bound steady states of interacting solitons are studied for various mechanisms of nonlinear losses shaping ultrashort pulses. Possibility of coding of information on basis of soliton trains with various bonds between neighboring pulses is discussed. The role of dispersive wave emitted by solitons because of lumped intracavity elements in a formation of powerful soliton wings is analyzed. It is found that such powerful wings result in large bounding energies of interacting solitons in steady states. Various problems of a soliton interaction in passive mode-locked fiber lasers are discussed.

  15. Physical states and BRST operators for higher-spin W strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu-Xiao; Wei, Shao-Wen; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhang, Li-Jie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we mainly investigate the W 2,s M x W 2,s L system, in which the matter and the Liouville subsystems generate the W 2,s M and W 2,s L algebras, respectively. We first give a brief discussion of the physical states for the corresponding W strings. The lower states are given by freezing the spin-2 and spin-s currents. Then, introducing two pairs of ghost-like fields, we give the realizations of the W 1,2,s algebras. Based on these linear realizations, the BRST operators for the W 2,s algebras are obtained. Finally, we construct new BRST charges of the Liouville system for the W 2,s L strings at the specific values of the central charges c: c=-(22)/(5) for the W 2,3 L algebra, c=-24 for the W 2,4 L algebra and c=-2,-(286)/(3) for the W 2,6 L algebra, at which the corresponding W 2,s L algebras are singular. (orig.)

  16. Safety Evaluation Report related to the renewal of the operating license for the research reactor at Pennsylvania State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Pennsylvania State University for a renewal of Operating License R-2 to continue to operate the Pennsylvania State University Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located on the campus in University Park, Pennsylvania. On the basis of its technical review, the staff concludes that the reactor facility can continue to be operated by the university without endangering the health and safety of the public or the environment

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR FOR BUSINESS OPERATORS IN ROMANIA, MEMBER STATE OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MURESAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal responsibility represents an important component of social responsibility, together with ethical responsibility, ecological responsibility, economical responsibility and philanthropic responsibility. The integration of social responsibility into the activity of business operators in the Member states of European Union is pursued at European Union level. The article analyses the opinion of the Brasov city citizens, in the framework of a marketing research performed in 2015, as regards the possibility that legal instruments should influence a socially responsible behavior for public or private business operators. The aspects analysed for business operators in Romania can represent a model for other European Union states as well.

  18. Regional Distribution of Metals and C and N Stable Isotopes in the Epiphytic Ball Moss (Tillandsia Recurvata) at the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Garcia, A.; López-Veneroni, D.; Rojas, A.; Torres, A.; Sosa, G.

    2007-05-01

    As a part of the MILAGRO Field Campaign 2006, the influence of anthropogenic sources to metal air pollution in the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo State, was explored by biomonitoring techniques. This valley is a major industrial- agriculture area located in central Mexico. An oil refinery, an electrical power plant, several cement plants with open-pit mines, as well as intensive wastewater-based agricultural areas, all within a 50 km radius, are some of the most important local sources of particulate air pollution. The concentrations of 25 metals and elements were determined by ICP-AES (EPA 610C method) for triplicate composite samples of the "ball moss" (T. recurvata ) collected at 50 sites. In addition, the ratios of two stable isotopes ((13C/12C and 15N/14N) were determined by continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry in order to assess their potential as tracers for industrial emissions. Preliminary results showed high to very high average contents of several metals in the biomonitor compared to values from similar studies in other world regions, indicating a high degree of local air pollution. In contrast, most samples had Ag, As, Be, Se and Tl contents below detection levels (DL = 0.05 mg/kg of sample dry weight) indicating low levels of pollution by these metals. Metals such as Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, Li, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V and Zn concentrated the most at the South portion of the valley, where the Tepeji-Tula-Apaxco industrial corridor is located. A transect parallel to the along-wind direction (N-S) showed a higher concentration of metals farther away from the sources relative to a cross-wind transect, which is consistent with the eolian transport of metal-enriched particles. Regional distribution maps of metals in the biomonitor showed that Al, Ba, Fe, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti and V had higher levels at the industrial sampling sites; whereas K, Na and P were more abundant near to agriculture areas. Vanadium, a common element of crude oil, reflected better the influence from

  19. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  20. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  1. Major progress on tore supra toward steady state operation of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saoutic, Y.

    2003-01-01

    During winter 2000-2001, a major upgrade of the internal components of Tore Supra has been completed that increased the heat extraction capability to 25 MW in steady state. Operating Tore Supra in this new configuration has produced a wealth of new results. The highlights of the 2002 long duration discharges campaign are: 4 minutes 25 seconds long discharges with an integrated energy of 0.75 GJ, which is three time higher than the old Tore Supra world record; recharge of the primary transformer by Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) for about 1 minute; 4 minutes long LHCD pulses; 1 minute long Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) pulse (0.11 GJ of ICRH injected energy). Beyond the quantitative step, significant qualitative progress in the steady state nature of the discharge has been accomplished: contrary to the situation in the old Tore Supra configuration, the plasma density is perfectly controlled by active pumping over the overall shot duration. The duration of Tore Supra discharges is sufficient to allow the complete diffusion of the resistive current. Surprising new physics is revealed in such discharges when approaching zero loop voltage. Slow central electron temperature oscillations have been observed in a variety of situations. Such oscillations are not likely to be linked to any MHD instabilities and probably results from an interplay between current profile shape, LHCD power deposition and transport. Analysis of the temperature gradient in the core region shows a very interesting behaviour and the normalised temperature gradient length is compared to the critical thresholds. Finally, the performance of heating and current drive systems and the observations made of the interior of Tore Supra after the long duration discharges campaign are reported. (author)

  2. [Pharmacovigilance implementation and operational conditions in the pharmaceutical industry in São Paulo State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Márcia Sayuri Takamatsu; Romano-Lieber, Nicolina Silvana

    2007-01-01

    The development of new drugs and limitations of clinical trials have increased the likelihood of adverse drug events. Pharmacovigilance is essential to detect and evaluate adverse drug events, thereby reducing risks and avoiding excessive public health costs. This study focused on the pharmacovigilance programs in the pharmaceutical industry in São Paulo State, Brazil. Data were collected through questionnaires sent electronically to 105 companies, 41.9% of which responded. The main reason for implementing pharmacovigilance programs was to comply with legal requirements, while the main justification for its absence was production limited to herbal remedies, officinal products, and supplements. The article discusses the obstacles to program implementation, resources used, and characteristics of several such programs. (a) standardization is the reason for the increasing number of programs and reports, but more specific guidelines are needed; (b) results depend on multi-sector involvement; (c) customer service centers are an important source of reports; and (d) operation of the service requires only modest human and material resources.

  3. Optimization of 2‑Stage Turbocharged Gas SI Engine Under Steady State Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítek Oldřich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper deals with an optimization of a highly-turbocharged large-bore gas SI engine. Only steady state operation (constant engine speed and load is considered. The paper is mainly focused on theoretical potential of 2-stage turbocharging concept in terms of performance and limitation. The results are obtained by means of simulation using complex 0-D/ 1-D engine model including the control algorithm. Different mixture composition concepts are considered to satisfy different levels of NOx limit - fresh air mixed with external cooled EGR is supposed to be the right approach while optimal EGR level is to be found. Considering EGR circuit, 5 different layouts are tested to select the best design. As the engine control is relatively complex (2-sage turbocharger group, external EGR, compressor blow-by, controlled air excess, 5 different control means of boost pressure were considered. Each variant based on above mentioned options is optimized in terms of compressor/turbine size (swallowing capacity to obtain the best possible BSFC. The optimal variants are compared and general conclusions are drawn.

  4. Stable isotope estimates of evaporation: inflow and water residence time for lakes across the United States as a tool for national lake water quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope ratios of water (delta18O and delta2H) can be very useful in large-scale monitoring programs because water samples are easy to collect and isotope ratios integrate information about basic hydrologic processes such as evaporation as a percentage of inflow (E/I) and ...

  5. Nonclassicality Generated by Applying Hermite-Polynomials Photon-Added Operator on the Even/Odd Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Gang; Du, Jian-ming; Zhang, Wen-hai; Yu, Hai-jun

    2017-05-01

    We examine nonclassical properties of the quantum state generated by applying Hermite polynomials photon-added operator on the even/odd coherent state (HPECS/HPOCS). Explicit expressions for its nonclassical properties, such as quantum statistical properties and squeezing phenomenon, are obtained. It is interesting to find that the HPECS/HPOCS exhibits sub-Poissonian distribution, anti-bunching effects and negative values of the Wigner function. Thus, we confirm the HPPECS/HPPOCS is a new nonclassical state. Finally, we reveal that the HPPECS/HPPOCS is a novel intelligent state by its squeezing effects in position distribution and quadrature squeezing.

  6. Continuity of operations/continuity of government for state-level transportation organizations : brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    As a result of a federal requirement, all non-federal entities that own or operate critical : infrastructure are required to develop Continuity of Operations/Continuity of Government : (COOP/COG) Plans. Transportation is a critical infrastructure com...

  7. Development of a finite state machine for the automated operation of the LLRF control at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    2007-07-01

    The entry of digital signal processors in modern control systems not only allows for extended diagnostics compared to analog systems but also for sophisticated and tricky extensions of the control algorithms. With modern DSP- and FPGA-technology, the processing speed of digital systems is no longer inferior to analog systems in many applications. A higher degree of digitalization leads to an increased complexity of the systems and hence to higher requirements on their operators. The focus of research and development in the field of high frequency control has changed in the last few years and moved towards the direction of software development and complexity management. In the presented thesis, a frame for an automation concept of modern high frequency control systems is developed. The developed automation is based on the concept of finite state machines (FSM), which is established in industry for years. A flexible framework was developed, in which procedures communicate using standardized interfaces and can be exchanged easily. With that, the developer of high frequency control components as well as the operator on shift shall be empowered to improve and adapt the automation to changed conditions without special programming skills required. Along the automation concept a number of algorithms addressing various problems were developed which satisfy the needs of modern high frequency control systems. Among the developed and successfully tested algorithms are the calibration of incident and reflected wave of resonators without antennas, the fast adaptive compensation of repetitive errors, the robust estimation of the phase advance in the control loop and the latency adjustment for the rejection of instabilities caused by passband modes. During the development of the resonator theory, high value was set on the usability of the equation in algorithms for high frequency control. The usage of the common nomenclature of control theory emphasizes the underlying mathematical

  8. Development of a finite state machine for the automates operation of the LLRF control at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, A.

    2007-07-15

    The entry of digital signal processors in modern control systems not only allows for extended diagnostics compared to analog systems but also for sophisticated and tricky extensions of the control algorithms. With modern DSP- and FPGA-technology, the processing speed of digital systems is no longer inferior to analog systems in many applications. A higher degree of digitalization leads to an increased complexity of the systems and hence to higher requirements on their operators. The focus of research and development in the field of high frequency control has changed in the last few years and moved towards the direction of software development and complexity management. In the presented thesis, a frame for an automation concept of modern high frequency control systems is developed. The developed automation is based on the concept of finite state machines (FSM), which is established in industry for years. A flexible framework was developed, in which procedures communicate using standardized interfaces and can be exchanged easily. With that, the developer of high frequency control components as well as the operator on shift shall be empowered to improve and adapt the automation to changed conditions without special programming skills required. Along the automation concept a number of algorithms addressing various problems were developed which satisfy the needs of modern high frequency control systems. Among the developed and successfully tested algorithms are the calibration of incident and reflected wave of resonators without antennas, the fast adaptive compensation of repetitive errors, the robust estimation of the phase advance in the control loop and the latency adjustment for the rejection of instabilities caused by passband modes. During the development of the resonator theory, high value was set on the usability of the equation in algorithms for high frequency control. The usage of the common nomenclature of control theory emphasizes the underlying mathematical

  9. Gaussian and Non-Gaussian operations on non-Gaussian state: engineering non-Gaussianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivares Stefano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple photon subtraction applied to a displaced phase-averaged coherent state, which is a non-Gaussian classical state, produces conditional states with a non trivial (positive Glauber-Sudarshan Prepresentation. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that, despite its simplicity, this class of conditional states cannot be fully characterized by direct detection of photon numbers. In particular, the non-Gaussianity of the state is a characteristics that must be assessed by phase-sensitive measurements. We also show that the non-Gaussianity of conditional states can be manipulated by choosing suitable conditioning values and composition of phase-averaged states.

  10. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  11. Kansas State University: DOE/KEURP Site Operator Program. Year 4, fourth quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Kansas State University, in support of a DOE and Kansas Electric Utilities Research Program subject contract, continues to test, evaluate, demonstrate, and develop electric vehicle and infrastructure technology. K-State is operating two Soleq EVcort vehicles. During this reporting period both vehicles were brought back to full operational status after warranty service was completed by Soleq. Vehicle failures occurred due to three unrelated battery cable failures in addition to the replacement of one battery. Both vehicles are being operated on a routine basis. K-State, along with York Technical College, has established a relationship with Troy Design and Manufacturing (TDM) Redford, Michigan. K-State has ordered no less than four Ford Ranger electric trucks from TDM. K-State is involved in the steering committee that is monitoring and refining information to direct the design and testing of these new technology vehicles. TDM should become the first automotive manufacturer certified by one of the Big Three under their Quality Vehicle Manufacturer program. Kansas State University and the Kansas Electric Utility Research Program look forward to working with TDM on their new EV program.

  12. An Investigation of Catastrophic Failure in Solid-State Lamps Exposed to Harsh Environment Operational Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep; Sakalaukus, Peter; Davis, Lynn

    2015-07-06

    Today’s lighting technology is steadily becoming more energy efficient and less toxic to the environment since the passing of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) [1]. EISA has mandated a higher energy efficiency standard for lighting products and the phase out of the common incandescent lamp. This has led lighting manufacturers to pursue solid-state lighting (SSL) technologies for consumer lighting applications. However, two major roadblocks are hindering the transition process to SSL lamps: cost and quality. In order to cut cost, manufactures are moving towards cheaper packaging materials and a variety of package architecture construction techniques which may potentially erode the quality of the lamp and reduce its survivability in everyday applications. Typically, SSL lamps are given product lifetimes of over twenty years based off of the IES TM-21-11 lighting standard which does not include moisture effects or large operational temperatures [2]. A group of recently released off-the-shelf lamps have undergone a steady-state temperature humidity bias life test of 85°C/85%RH (85/85) to investigate the reliability in harsh environment applications. The lack of accelerated test methods for lamps to assess reliability prior to introduction into the marketplace does not exist in literature. There is a need for SSL physics based models for the assessment and prediction of a lamp’s lifetime which is being spearheaded by the DOE [3]. In order to be fully accepted in the marketplace, SSL lamps must be able to perform similarly to incandescent lamps in these environments, as well as live up to the lifetime claims of manufacturers. A lamp’s package architecture must be designed with performance factors in mind, as well as address some of the known and published package related failure mechanisms, such as carbonization of the encapsulant material, delamination, encapsulant yellowing, lens cracking, and phosphor thermal quenching [4]. Each failure

  13. United States Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office Environmental Compliance Handbook. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The Environment, Safety and Health Division (ESHD) of the Nevada Operations Office has prepared this Environmental Compliance Handbook for all users of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) facilities. The Handbook gives an overview of the important environmental laws and regulations that apply to the activities conducted by the Nevada Operations Office and other users of DOE/NV facilities in Nevada

  14. United States Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office Environmental Compliance Handbook. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Environment, Safety & Health Division (ESHD) of the Nevada Operations Office has prepared this Environmental Compliance Handbook for all users of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) facilities. The Handbook gives an overview of the important environmental laws and regulations that apply to the activities conducted by the Nevada Operations Office and other users of DOE/NV facilities in Nevada.

  15. How Can the United States Army Improve Human Intelligence in Peace Operations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, David

    2003-01-01

    .... These secondary collectors, such as the Military Police, Psychological Operations, Civil Affairs and Line Units conduct liaison with international and local police forces, host-government official...

  16. 33 CFR 125.53 - Requirements for credentials; certain vessels operating on navigable waters of the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for credentials; certain vessels operating on navigable waters of the United States (including the Great Lakes and Western Rivers). 125.53 Section 125.53 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  17. Studying bi-partite entangled state representations via the integration over ket-bra operators in -ordering or -ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-Yi; Lou, Sen-Yue

    2014-08-01

    For two particles' relative position and total momentum we have introduced the entangled state representation | η>, and its conjugate state | ξ>. In this work, for the first time, we study them via the integration over ket-bra operators in -ordering or -ordering, where -ordering means all Qs are to the left of all Ps and -ordering means all Ps are to the left of all Qs. In this way we newly derive -ordered (or -ordered) expansion formulas of the two-mode squeezing operator which can show the squeezing effect on both the two-mode coordinate and momentum eigenstates. This tells that not only the integration over ket-bra operators within normally ordered, but also within -ordered (or -ordered) are feasible and useful in developing quantum mechanical representation and transformation theory.

  18. Authorization procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations within the EC Member States, including supervision and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaducci, Sandro; Didier, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    This report is an updating of the report EUR 5284, Authorization procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations within the EEC Member States, prepared in 1974 by J.M. Didier and Associates. Recent developments regarding the authorization procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations have taken place in Italy (introduction of a site approval procedure) and in Denmark (adoption of an overall legislation on the subject, however not yet in force). With respect to supervision and control of nuclear installations during construction and operation, competences of, as well as their exercise by, supervisory authorities in all EC Member States, with the exception of Ireland, are also analysed in the current study

  19. History of Operations Research in the United States Army, Volume 1: 1942-1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-08

    Division also undertook operational sim- ulations of various air defense missiles, such as the Nike , Talos, and Hawk systems.349 Th e Strategy and...of ORO Work Program,” pp. 10, 13, Figure 12. 64As early as 1953, the advertisements for ORO employment in Th e Journal of the Operations Research

  20. Steady-state operation of tokamaks: Key physics and technology developments on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquinot, J.

    2005-01-01

    Important technological and physics issues related to long pulse operation required for a reactor are now being addressed in Tore Supra. experimental results in conditions where all the plasma facing components are actively cooled during pulses exceeding six minutes. Important physics issues related to continuous operation are observed in non inductively driven plasmas. (author)

  1. Relationships between stable fly infestation with some physical facility characteristics and sanitation practices in several dairy farms in the State of Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Vázquez, C; Ramos-Parra, M; Vitela-Mendoza, I; García-Vázquez, Z; Quintero-Martínez, M T

    2007-11-10

    The possible relationships between stable fly infestation with dairy farm facilities and sanitation practices were studied using path analysis. Twelve dairies located in four counties of Aguascalientes dairy region were selected. The dairies were monitored from May to November 2003. In each occasion, fly infestation, individual physical facility characteristics, and sanitation practices were recorded. In all, 11 independent variables were involved in the study and related variables were grouped together and analyzed in two blocks by path analysis for each one of five population events (begin of fly season, first peak, fluctuation, second peak and decrease). There were significant regression coefficients only in the second peak for two variables, the distance to the silos and the distance to the dung heap (r(2)=0.96 for the full model). Among the 11 variables examined in the study, none had a statistical significant indirect contribution to fly infestation; direct contribution was observed for distance to the silos and for distance to the dung heap variables. However, only the distance to the silos variable was significantly related to stable fly Infestation.

  2. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  3. Structural transformations and temperature state of rotating blades of E1893 alloy under operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigrova, G.D.; Rybnikov, A.I.; Kryukov, I.I. [Polzunov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The composition and quantity of different phase component of EI893 alloy after long term operation as base metal for rotating blades of gas turbines GT-6, GTN-9, GTK-10 and GT-100 types were studied. The obtained date were analysed with regard to the chemical composition of alloys and of initial condition of heat treatment. Data of metal phase analysis owned alter operation can provide the basis for evaluation of tempera field of rotating blades in the course of operation since structural condition of phase components and redistribution of alloying elements are being specified by temperature and in-service time. (orig.)

  4. Crossing the Last Three Feet: Organizational Integration of State Department Public Diplomacy and Psychological Operations Overseas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russell, Dale M

    2007-01-01

    .... This monograph will explore the efficacy of assigning a US military psychological operations officer to work in the Public Diplomacy section of select embassies to facilitate the Global War on Terrorism...

  5. State of Montana ITS/CVO business plan : intelligent transportation system commercial vehicle operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This plans purpose is to encourage coordinated, efficient and safe commercial vehicle operations throughout Montana, and to promote inter-agency and regional cooperation as ITS/CVO projects are developed and deployed. The Plan discusses Montana...

  6. The Operational Preparedness of United States Air Force Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists to Provide Trauma Anesthesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frank, Michael W

    1999-01-01

    ...) must expand their role while deployed and be skilled in the management of trauma. Treating traumatically injured patients in Air Force hospitals is limited while working outside of the operational theater...

  7. United States Special Operations Command Strategic Issues for the Long War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiley, Joseph T

    2006-01-01

    ...) as the supported combatant command in the Global War on Terrorism. However the scope of the national strategy is vastly beyond simply implementing a campaign plan for Special Operations Forces (SOF...

  8. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff's evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements

  9. High intensity radiated field external environments for civil aircraft operating in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    NAWCAD Patuxent River, Maryland, was tasked by the FAA to determine the High Intensity Radiated Field (HIRF) levels for civil aircraft operating in the U.S. The electromagnetic field survey will apply to civil aircraft seeking FAA certification under...

  10. High Intensity Radiated Field External Environments for Civil Aircraft Operating in the United States of America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heather, Frederick

    2002-01-01

    ... (FAR) Parts 23, 25, 27, and 29. The HIRF survey determined the Rotorcraft Severe, Fixed Wing Severe, Certification, and Normal Environments that civil aircraft may be exposed to while operating in the continental U.S...

  11. High Intensity Radiated Field External Environments for Civil Aircraft Operating in the United States of America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heather, Frederick

    1998-01-01

    ...) Parts 23, 25, 27, and 29. The HIRF survey determined the Rotorcraft Severe, Fixed Wing Severe, Certification, and Normal Environments that civil aircraft may be exposed to while operating in the continental U.S...

  12. Operationalizing the Interagency Coordination Mechanisms between State and Department of Defense for Stabilization and Reconstruction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    on the civil environment; monitor operations to minimize the negative impacts of both sides, to identify requirements for follow-on CA operations...PDAS Marcia Wong 58 Early Warning and Prevention (EWP) Director: Dou Planning ( PLN ) Director: Barbara Stephenson Best...strength of the model; the four tools are the CRSG assessment, the planning framework, the essential task matrix , and the metrics developed. The format

  13. Conduct and Support of Amphibious Operations from United States Submarines in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    operate at fleet speeds in advance of a battle fleet, the Navy‘s General Board determined that endurance and habitability were more important for long...Pacific operations addressed in this monograph. Source: Modified from West Point Atlas. http://www.dean.usma.edu/history/web03/ atlases /ww2%20pacific...Task Force. Source: Modified from West Point Atlas. http://www.dean.usma.edu/history/web03/ atlases /ww2%20europe/EuropeanTheaterGIF/WWIIEuro

  14. The United States’ Overseas Contingency Operations/Global War on Terror: A Military Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-21

    diplomatic efforts that became widely known as the Global War on Terror. Rebranded as the “Overseas Contingency Operations/Global War on Terror” by...Global War on Terror. Rebranded as the “Overseas Contingency Operations/Global War on Terror” by President Barack Obama in 2009, these efforts have had a...Relations highlights that when considered relative to previous wars, the percentage of U.S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) currently spent on defense

  15. A framework for synthesizing the United States Code in support of cyberspace operations

    OpenAIRE

    Stonehouse, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In recent years, federal agencies and organizations have witnessed their jurisdictions converge in a number of areas that support U.S. national security. For operations that rely heavily upon information technology, the complexity associated with clarifying statutory authority has been met with inconsistent responses. Attempts to comprehend the technological implications of these operations has been accompanied by a shift in seeing the...

  16. Comparing Non-Steady State Emissions under Start-Up and Shut-Down Operating Conditions with Steady State Emissions for Several Industrial Sectors: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwairia Obaid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the emissions of various industrial facilities under start-up, shut-down, and normal operations. The industries that have been investigated include power and/or heat generation, energy-from-waste generation, nuclear power generation, sulphuric acid production, ethylene production, petrochemical production, and waste incineration. The study investigated multiple facilities worldwide for each of these industrial categories. The different potential contaminants characteristic of each industry type have been investigated and the emissions of these contaminants under non-steady state have been compared to the steady state emissions. Where available, trends have been developed to identify the circumstances, i.e., the industrial sector and contaminant, under which the assessment and consideration of emissions from start-up and shut-down events is necessary for each industry. These trends differ by industrial sector and contaminant. For example, the study shows that sulphur dioxide (SO2 emissions should be assessed for the start-up operations of sulphuric acid production plants, but may not need to be assessed for the start-up operations of a conventional power generation facility. The trends developed as part of this research paper will help air permit applicants to effectively allocate their resources when assessing emissions related to non-steady state operations. Additionally, it will ensure that emissions are assessed for the worst-case scenario. This is especially important when emissions under start-up and shut-down operations have the potential to exceed enforceable emission limits. Thus, assessing emissions for the worst-case scenario can help in preventing the emissions from adversely impacting public health and the environment.

  17. Dual-Polarization Observations of Precipitation: State of the Art in Operational and Research Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, C. V.; Moisseev, D. N.; Baldini, L.; Bechini, R.; Cremonini, R.; Wolff, D. B.; Petersen, W. A.; Junyent, F.; Chen, H.; Beauchamp, R.

    2016-12-01

    Dual-polarization weather radars have been widely used for rainfall measurement applications and studies of the microphysical characteristics of precipitation. Ground-based, dual-polarization radar systems form the cornerstones of national severe weather warning and forecasting infrastructure in many developed countries. As a result of the improved performance of dual-polarization radars for these applications, large scale dual-polarization upgrades are being planned for India and China. In addition to national forecast and warning operations, dual-polarization radars have also been used for satellite ground validation activities. The operational Dual-Polarization radars in the US are mostly S band systems whereas in Europe are mostly C band systems. In addition a third class of systems is emerging in urban regions where networks of X band systems are being deployed operationally. There are successful networks planned or already deployed in big cities such as Dallas Fort Worth, Tokyo or Beijing. These X band networks are developing their own operational domain. In summary a large infrastructure in terms of user specified products and dual use of operational research applications are also emerging in these systems. This paper will discuss some of the innovative uses of the operational dual-polarization radar networks for research purposes, with references to calibration, hydrometeor classification and quantitative precipitation estimation. Additional application to the study of precipitation processes will also be discussed.

  18. Radioactivity computation of steady-state and pulsed fusion reactors operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaya, H.

    1994-11-01

    The International Thermonuclear Report (ITER) is expected to operate in a pulsed operational mode. Accurate radioactivity calculations, that take into account this mode of operation, are required in order to determine precisely the different safety aspects of ITER. The authors previous examined analytically the effect of pulsed operation in ITER and showed how it depends on the burn time, the dwell time, and the half-lives. That analysis showed also that for ITER's low duty factor, using the continuous operation assumption would considerably overestimate the radioactivities, for a wide range of half-lives. At the same time, the large improvements in the quality and the quantity of the decay and the cross-section data libraries has considerably increased the computation times of the radioactivity calculations. For both reasons it is imperative to seek different methods of solution that reduce the computational time and can be easily adopted to the treatment of the pulsed operation. In this work, they have developed algorithms based on several mathematical methods that were chosen based on their generality, reliability, stability, accuracy, and efficiency. These methods are the matrix Schuer decomposition, the eigenvector decomposition, and the Pade approximation for the matrix exponential functions

  19. Combined and controlled remote implementations of partially unknown quantum operations of multiqubits using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Anmin

    2007-01-01

    We propose and prove protocols of combined and controlled remote implementations of partially unknown quantum operations belonging to the restricted sets [A. M. Wang, Phys. Rev. A 74, 032317 (2006)] using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. We present the protocols in detail in the cases of one qubit, with two senders and with one controller, respectively. Then we study the variations of protocols with many senders, or with many controllers, or with both many senders and controllers using a multipartite GHZ state. Furthermore, we extend these protocols to the cases of multiqubits. Because our protocols have to request that the senders work together and transfer the information in turn or receive the repertoire of extra supercontrollers, or/and the controller(s) open the quantum channel and distribute the passwords in different ways, they definitely have the strong security in remote quantum information processing and communications. Moreover, the combined protocol with many senders is helpful to arrive at the power of remote implementations of quantum operations to the utmost extent in theory, since the different senders may have different operational resources and different operational rights in practice, and the controlled protocol with many controllers is able to enhance security and increase applications of remote implementations of quantum operations in engineering, since it has some common features in a controlled process

  20. Plant-wide quantitative assessment of a process industry system's operating state based on color-spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Sun; Jianmin, Gao; Zhiyong, Gao; Hongquan, Jiang; Xu, Gao

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a general theoretical framework to assess the operating state of a process industry system quantitatively based on meshing the theory of scientific data visualization and digital image processing. First, a series of color-spectrum, which represent the operating state of the system, is formed by mapping the monitor data set to a group of digital color images. Second, the common feature of color-spectrum, which is named benchmark-color-spectrum, is extracted as a standard of the normal state. Third, the abnormal degree can be quantified by calculating the difference of the benchmark-color-spectrum with observed color-spectrum. At last, a plant-wide operating state of the system in a period of time can be shown by plotting quantitative abnormal degree. Two case is included to illustrate the proposed method and its appropriateness. One is a general process industry system simulator named Tennessee Eastman Process. Another is an air compressor group which belongs to a real chemical plant.

  1. Notes on abattoir operations at Afor Ajala Mbaise, Imo State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afor Ajala abattoir in Imo State is an important economic centre in Nigeria. It is funded by Afor Ajala Meat Butchers Association (AMBA) and serves meat sellers and consumers within and outside Imo State. The safety and health of these consumers could be endangered if the meat processed in the abattoir is unwholesome.

  2. Loop quantization of the polarized Gowdy model on T{sup 3}: kinematical states and constraint operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Kinjal; Date, Ghanashyam [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, CIT Campus, Chennai-600 113 (India)], E-mail: kinjal@imsc.res.in, E-mail: shyam@imsc.res.in

    2008-07-21

    In this second paper on loop quantization of the Gowdy model, we introduce the kinematical Hilbert space on which appropriate holonomies and fluxes are well represented. The quantization of the volume operator and the Gauss constraint is straightforward. Imposition of the Gauss constraint can be done on the kinematical Hilbert space to select subspace of gauge-invariant states. We carry out the quantization of the Hamiltonian constraint making specific choices. Alternative choices are briefly discussed. It appears that to get spatial correlations reflected in the Hamiltonian constraint, one may have to adopt the so-called effective operator viewpoint.

  3. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial nea-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, Sandra M.

    1997-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste disposal standards and techniques in the United States have evolved significantly since the early 1960's. Six commercial LLW disposal facilities(Barnwell, Richland, Ward Valley, Sierra Blanca, Wake County and Boyd County) operated and proposed between 1962 and 1997. This report summarizes each site's design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. These new standards and mitigating efforts at closed facilities (Sheffield, Maxey Flats, Beatty and West Valley) have helped to ensure that the public has been safely protected from LLW. 15 refs

  4. Entropy Stable Summation-by-Parts Formulations for Compressible Computational Fluid Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Carpenter, M.H.

    2016-11-09

    A systematic approach based on a diagonal-norm summation-by-parts (SBP) framework is presented for implementing entropy stable (SS) formulations of any order for the compressible Navier–Stokes equations (NSE). These SS formulations discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy equality for smooth problems. They are also valid for discontinuous flows provided sufficient dissipation is added at shocks and discontinuities to satisfy an entropy inequality. Admissible SBP operators include all centred diagonal-norm finite-difference (FD) operators and Legendre spectral collocation-finite element methods (LSC-FEM). Entropy stable multiblock FD and FEM operators follows immediately via nonlinear coupling operators that ensure conservation, accuracy and preserve the interior entropy estimates. Nonlinearly stable solid wall boundary conditions are also available. Existing SBP operators that lack a stability proof (e.g. weighted essentially nonoscillatory) may be combined with an entropy stable operator using a comparison technique to guarantee nonlinear stability of the pair. All capabilities extend naturally to a curvilinear form of the NSE provided that the coordinate mappings satisfy a geometric conservation law constraint. Examples are presented that demonstrate the robustness of current state-of-the-art entropy stable SBP formulations.

  5. Closed-Form and Numerically-Stable Solutions to Problems Related to the Optimal Two-Impulse Transfer Between Specified Terminal States of Keplerian Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senent, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the paper presents some closed-form solutions to the optimal two-impulse transfer between fixed position and velocity vectors on Keplerian orbits when some constraints are imposed on the magnitude of the initial and final impulses. Additionally, a numerically-stable gradient-free algorithm with guaranteed convergence is presented for the minimum delta-v two-impulse transfer. In the second part of the paper, cooperative bargaining theory is used to solve some two-impulse transfer problems when the initial and final impulses are carried by different vehicles or when the goal is to minimize the delta-v and the time-of-flight at the same time.

  6. New operator-ordering identities and associative integration formulas of two-variable Hermite polynomials for constructing non-Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Hong-Yi; Wang Zhen

    2014-01-01

    For directly normalizing the photon non-Gaussian states (e.g., photon added and subtracted squeezed states), we use the method of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators to derive some new bosonic operator-ordering identities. We also derive some new integration transformation formulas about one- and two-variable Hermite polynomials in complex function space. These operator identities and associative integration formulas provide much convenience for constructing non-Gaussian states in quantum engineering. (general)

  7. Developing reliable safeguards seals for application verification and removal by State operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haddal, Risa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Once a geological repository has begun operations, the encapsulation and disposal of spent fuel will be performed as a continuous, industrial-scale series of processes, during which time safeguards seals will be applied to transportation casks before shipment from an encapsulation plant, and then verified and removed following receipt at the repository. These operations will occur approximately daily during several decades of Sweden's repository operation; however, requiring safeguards inspectors to perform the application, verification, and removal of every seal would be an onerous burden on International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) resources. Current IAEA practice includes allowing operators to either apply seals or remove them, but not both, so the daily task of either applying or verifying and removing would still require continuous presence of IAEA inspectors at one site at least. Of special importance is the inability to re-verify cask or canisters from which seals have been removed and the canisters emplaced underground. Successfully designing seals that can be applied, verified and removed by an operator with IAEA approval could impact more than repository shipments, but other applications as well, potentially reducing inspector burdens for a wide range of such duties.

  8. State and outlooks of remote handling and automation techniques use for industrial radioactive operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilloteau, R.; Le Guennec, R.; Dumond, S.

    1981-01-01

    Handling in reactors mainly concerns charging and discharging operations and inspection. Specific means are being developed for each operation, with an increasing degree of automation. This serves to reduce exposure of personnel. However, the development of these means conflicts in certain cases with the original plant design, which did not provide for remote maintenance. With regard to fuel reprocessing, handling at the processing level is becoming increasingly automated. The difficulties lie principally in maintenance and waste conditioning operations. These involve less specialized means than is the case with reactors and can only be automated to a limited extent, save in exceptional cases. The greatest progress will be achieved by laying down stringent maintenance principles and taking them into consideration at the design stage

  9. A Data Filter for Identifying Steady-State Operating Points in Engine Flight Data for Condition Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that automatically identifies and extracts steady-state engine operating points from engine flight data. It calculates the mean and standard deviation of select parameters contained in the incoming flight data stream. If the standard deviation of the data falls below defined constraints, the engine is assumed to be at a steady-state operating point, and the mean measurement data at that point are archived for subsequent condition monitoring purposes. The fundamental design of the steady-state data filter is completely generic and applicable for any dynamic system. Additional domain-specific logic constraints are applied to reduce data outliers and variance within the collected steady-state data. The filter is designed for on-line real-time processing of streaming data as opposed to post-processing of the data in batch mode. Results of applying the steady-state data filter to recorded helicopter engine flight data are shown, demonstrating its utility for engine condition monitoring applications.

  10. State Token Petri Net modeling method for formal verification of computerized procedure including operator's interruptions of procedure execution flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The Computerized Procedure System (CPS) is one of the primary operating support systems in the digital Main Control Room. The CPS displays procedure on the computer screen in the form of a flow chart, and displays plant operating information along with procedure instructions. It also supports operator decision making by providing a system decision. A procedure flow should be correct and reliable, as an error would lead to operator misjudgement and inadequate control. In this paper we present a modeling for the CPS that enables formal verification based on Petri nets. The proposed State Token Petri Nets (STPN) also support modeling of a procedure flow that has various interruptions by the operator, according to the plant condition. STPN modeling is compared with Coloured Petri net when they are applied to Emergency Operating Computerized Procedure. A converting program for Computerized Procedure (CP) to STPN has been also developed. The formal verification and validation methods of CP with STPN increase the safety of a nuclear power plant and provide digital quality assurance means that are needed when the role and function of the CPS is increasing.

  11. Operator state estimation for adaptive aiding in uninhabited combat air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher A.

    Chris Russell's research, sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory Human Effectiveness Directorate, demonstrated significant improvement of mission effectiveness using adaptive automation and the operator's mental workload in Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) missions. His work is the first example of closing the loop between the human and the machine by using mental workload based on physiological signals from the operator to adapt the system. Implementation of his research is being demonstrated in a variety of applications, including the Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicle control workstation, Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System, and the Objective Force Warrior Program.

  12. Enhancing State-of-the-art Multi-objective Optimization Algorithms by Applying Domain Specific Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishi, Newsha; Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    optimization problems where the environment does not change dynamically. For that reason, the requirement for convergence in static optimization problems is not as timecritical as for dynamic optimization problems. Most MOEAs use generic variables and operators that scale to static multi-objective optimization...... problem. The domain specific operators only encode existing knowledge about the environment. A comprehensive comparative study is provided to evaluate the results of applying the CONTROLEUM-GA compared to NSGAII, e-NSGAII and e- MOEA. Experimental results demonstrate clear improvements in convergence time...

  13. The Operational Preparedness of United States Air Force Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists to Provide Trauma Anesthesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frank, Michael W

    1999-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine the experience and training in trauma anesthesia of CRNAs in the United States Air Force, as well as their perceived value of this experience and training...

  14. THE ANALYSIS OF THE CONDITIONS OF AN EXISTING CONTROL SYSTEM OPERATION OF STATE SPECIAL TRANSPORT SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Stepanenko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the analysis of functioning conditions of existing management system of Derzhspetstranssluzhba (State Special Service of Transport is conducted with the purpose of improvement of its functioning efficiency.

  15. Mainstreaming climate change adaptation strategies into New York State Department of Transportation's operations : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    This study identifies climate change adaptation strategies and recommends ways of mainstreaming them into planned actions, including legislation, policies, programs and projects in all areas and at all levels within the New York State Department of T...

  16. Mainstreaming climate change adaptation strategies into New York State Department of Transportation's operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    This study identifies climate change adaptation strategies and recommends ways of mainstreaming them into planned actions, including legislation, policies, programs and projects in all areas and at all levels within the New York State Department of T...

  17. Efficient generation of random multipartite entangled states using time-optimal unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borras, A.; Majtey, A. P.; Casas, M.

    2008-08-01

    We review the generation of random pure states using a protocol of repeated two-qubit gates. We study the dependence of the convergence to states with Haar multipartite entanglement distribution. We investigate the optimal generation of such states in terms of the physical (real) time needed to apply the protocol, instead of the gate complexity point of view used in other works. This physical time can be obtained, for a given Hamiltonian, within the theoretical framework offered by the quantum brachistochrone formalism, the quantum analogue to the brachistochrone problem in classical mechanics [Carlini , Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060503 (2006)]. Using an anisotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian as an example, we find that different optimal quantum gates arise according to the optimality point of view used in each case. We also study how the convergence to random entangled states depends on different entanglement measures.

  18. State-of-the-art technologies for intrusion and obstacle detection for railroad operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This report provides an update on the state-of-the-art technologies with intrusion and obstacle detection capabilities for rail rights of way (ROW) and crossings. A workshop entitled Intruder and Obstacle Detection Systems (IODS) for Railroads Requir...

  19. GALILEO ORBITAL OPERATIONS SOLID STATE IMAGING RAW EDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set has been generated by NASA's Galileo Project in order to distribute the images acquired by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) camera to the scientists and...

  20. Potential effects of forestry operations and associated best management practices on riparian wildlife species in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke M. Warrington; W. Michael Aust; Scott M. Barrett; W. Mark Ford; M. Chad Bolding; Andy Dolloff

    2016-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service is considering the addition of 374 riparian and aquatic species in the southeastern United States to the federal Threated and Endangered Species List. This recommendation is a result of a 2011 petition, which recognized forest operations as having negative effects on 51 percent of the listed species, citing research conducted in the...

  1. New Two-Mode Canonical Operator Realization of Angular Momentum and Generalized Fractional Fourier Transformation Obtained via Entangled State Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-yi; Chen, Jun-hua; Low, Sen-yue

    2014-08-01

    By virtue of two mutually conjugate bipartite entangled state representations | η> and | ξ> (Fan and Klauder, Phys Rev A 49:704, 1994) we find new canonical operator realization (COR) of angular momentum. As its two applications, we point out that the COR helps to develop Schwinger bosonic realization theory, and can generalize the concept of FrFT, i.e., constructing new 2-dimensioanl fractional Fourier transformation with additivity.

  2. Solid-State High Power Radio Frequency Directed Energy Systems in Support of USMC Force Protection Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    discuss in one cohesive paper so this attempts to focus on just one possibility. Before that method is fully introduced, it may prove helpful to review...consider these SVBIED attacks as grand martyrdom operations that are easy paths to paradise . Terrorist leader Abu-Umar al-Baghdadi stated the following of...Casualties in Afghanistan and Iraq (NBER W16152) (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2010), 6. http://nber.org/ papers /w16152. 68

  3. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    According to the International Labour Organization, more than twenty million men, women and children around the world are currently believed to be...University, and second- ary education social studies teaching licensure from Pennsylvania State University. She currently holds a PhD Studentship...Department of Defense (DoD) of- ficial presupposed that in future complex operations, “Fifty percent of the U.S. force structure in a deployed

  4. THE STATE FINANCIAL CONTROL IN CONTEXT OF THE STRENGTHENING OF OPERABILITY OF BUDGETARY POLICY OF STIMULATION OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dyachenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the essence of state financial control as an important factor of strengthening of operability of budgetary policy of stimulation of the socio-economic development of regions is disclosed. The main institutions of control and their authority are defined; the instruments of control and levers of influence are indicated. It is marked the importance of the auditing of efficiency. The estimating index of the level of execution of the budgetary stimulative programs is offered.

  5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR FOR BUSINESS OPERATORS IN ROMANIA, MEMBER STATE OF EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Laura MURESAN

    2016-01-01

    Legal responsibility represents an important component of social responsibility, together with ethical responsibility, ecological responsibility, economical responsibility and philanthropic responsibility. The integration of social responsibility into the activity of business operators in the Member states of European Union is pursued at European Union level. The article analyses the opinion of the Brasov city citizens, in the framework of a marketing research performed in 2015, as regards th...

  6. SOSPO-SP: Secure Operation of Sustainable Power Systems Simulation Platform for Real-Time System State Evaluation and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Vancraeyveld, Pieter; Pedersen, Allan Henning Birger

    2014-01-01

    Measurement Units (PMUs) provides more information and enables wide-area monitoring with accurate timing. One of the challenges in the near future is converting the high quantity and quality of information provided by PMUs into useful knowledge about operational state of a global system. The use of real......-time simulation in closed-loop is essential to develop and validate new real-time applications of wide-area PMU data. This paper presents a simulation platform developed within the research project Secure Operation of Sustainable Power Systems (SOSPO). The SOSPO simulation platform (SOSPO-SP) functions...... in a closed-loop, integrating new real-time assessment methods to provide useful information to operators in power system control centers and to develop new control methodologies that handle emergency situations and avoid power system blackouts....

  7. Condition Monitoring for Roller Bearings of Wind Turbines Based on Health Evaluation under Variable Operating States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring (CM is used to assess the health status of wind turbines (WT by detecting turbine failure and predicting maintenance needs. However, fluctuating operating conditions cause variations in monitored features, therefore increasing the difficulty of CM, for example, the frequency-domain analysis may lead to an inaccurate or even incorrect prediction when evaluating the health of the WT components. In light of this challenge, this paper proposed a method for the health evaluation of WT components based on vibration signals. The proposed approach aimed to reduce the evaluation error caused by the impact of the variable operating condition. First, the vibration signal was decomposed into a set of sub-signals using variational mode decomposition (VMD. Next, the sub-signal energy and the probability distribution were obtained and normalized. Finally, the concept of entropy was introduced to evaluate the health condition of a monitored object to provide an effective guide for maintenance. In particular, the health evaluation for CM was based on a performance review over a range of operating conditions, rather than at a certain single operating condition. Experimental investigations were performed which verified the efficiency of the evaluation method, as well as a comparison with the previous method.

  8. 78 FR 19164 - Amendments to Compliance Certification Content Requirements for State and Federal Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... include owners and operators of emission sources in all industry groups that hold or apply for a title V... 2012.\\12\\ \\12\\ Region II part 71 permit issued to Turning Stone Casino Resort in Verona, New York, http... Treasure Island Resort & Casino in Red Wing, Minnesota. http://yosemite.epa.gov/r5/r5ard.nsf...

  9. Does the United States’ Strategic Mobility Program Support the Needs of Operational Commanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    engineering and humanitarian relief missions conducted by USSOUTHCOM in Cnetral American and the Carribean . 70 Ibid. 25 vessels with two berths of...Does the United States’ Strategic Mobility Program Support the Needs of Operational Commanders? A Monograph by MAJ Erik E. Hilberg United...per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and

  10. Operational fluid radwaste treatment technology - recent state and outlooks for optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lastovicka, Z.; Kreisl, I.; Taras, P.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the Dukovany NPP (EDU) order, IPRON a.s. performed in the year 1999 the 'Concept Study of Neutralization of Semi-Liquid RAW Originating in the EDU Processes'. This paper summarizes the conclusions of the Study while emphasizing the sludge and sorbent treatment under the conditions of Czech NPPs operating the VVER blocks. (author)

  11. Association of sleep habits with accidents and near misses in United States transportation operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin D; Patel, Sanjay R; Baur, Dorothee M; Edens, Edward; Sherry, Patrick; Malhotra, Atul; Kales, Stefanos N

    2014-05-01

    To explore sleep risk factors and their association with adverse events in transportation operators. Self-reported sleep-related behaviors were analyzed in transportation operators (drivers, pilots, and rail operators) aged 26 to 78 years who completed the National Sleep Foundation's 2012 "Planes, Trains, Automobiles, and Sleep" survey. Regression analyses were used to assess the associations of various sleep-related variables with the combined outcome of self-reported accidents and near misses. Age- and body mass-adjusted predictors of accidents/near misses included an accident while commuting (odds ratio [OR] = 4.6; confidence interval [CI], 2.1 to 9.8), driving drowsy (OR = 4.1; CI, 2.5 to 6.7), and Sheehan Disability Scale score greater than 15 (OR = 3.5; CI, 2.2 to 5.5). Sleeping more than 7 hours nightly was protective for accident/near misses (OR = 0.6; CI, 0.4 to 0.9). Recognized risk factors for poor sleep or excessive daytime sleepiness were significantly associated with self-reported near misses and/or accidents in transportation operators.

  12. Towards steady-state operational design for the data and PF control systems of the HT-7U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, J.R.; Zhu, L.; Wang, H.Z.; Ji, Z.S.; Wang, F.

    2003-01-01

    Fusion energy is an ultimate and inexhaustible source of energy for mankind and is expected to be obtained in controlled operation within this century. Among various possible candidates for fusion, the tokamak is presently the most qualified one, and since it uses superconducting magnetic coils, it will be adequate for steady-state operation. The HT-7U superconducting tokamak is a part of national project in China on fusion research, scheduled to become available on-line by the end of 2004 (Wan Y.X. and HT-7 and HT-7U Groups 2000 Overview of steady state operation of HT-7 and present status of the HT-7U project Nucl. Fusion 40 1057). The control system of the HT-7U is designed as a distributed control system (HT7UDCS), including many subsystems that provide the various functions of supervision, remote control, real-time monitoring, data acquisition and data handling. The major features of the HT-7U tokamak, which make long-pulse (∼1000 s) operation possible are the flexible poloidal field (PF) system, an auxiliary heating system, the current-driving system and a divertor system. In order to realize these features simultaneously, real-time data handling and analysis, along with a significant control capability is required. This paper discusses the design of the HT7UDCS. (author)

  13. Implementation of the Large-Scale Operations Management Test in the State of Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    a . - - - - - CANADA • LAKE OSOYOOS(1)I LAKE WHATCOM OKANIOGAN""" SAMAIS RRIERER z -. -.-.’ 00 Z -A ASHIER(O)N L o ~LAKE SAMMAMISH (4) 𔃻 o0 2 o.0...Locations of test sites on Lake Osoyoos, Okanogan River, Lake Whatcom , Lake Sammamish, and Sammamish River in the state of4 ] ’," Oroville, ~ ~~~Washington...c. Lake Whatcom - a 5029-acre natural lake located in What- com County in the northwestern portion of the state .3f Washington. It serves as the

  14. The state of disposal of wastes from nuclear power plants in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Toshiharu; Yoshida, Takeshi; Aoki, Yu

    2010-01-01

    We process gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in operation by exclusive facilities safely and appropriately, and make effects to reduce them reasonably. Some Low-level radioactive wastes generated from the NPPs have been disposed into the shallow land disposal site. We adapt safety and reasonable process to reduce the volume of them in the NPPs. For example, concentrated wastewater is reduced by pelletizing and making to the fine particle, and is packaged by solidifying to the drums. The produced waste packages are confirmed to the compatibility with the technological standard by voluntary inspection according to the law, and then are confirmed by JNES (Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization). Then waste packages are transported to the low-level Radioactive Waste Burial Center. We believe that it is important for decommissioning age in future to process and disposed steady of the radioactive wastes in NPPs in operation now. (author)

  15. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-10

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan`s purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner.

  16. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan's purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner

  17. Operation of a quantum dot in the finite-state machine mode: Single-electron dynamic memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymenko, M. V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Liège, B4000 Liège (Belgium); Klein, M. [The Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics and the Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Levine, R. D. [The Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics and the Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging and Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Remacle, F., E-mail: fremacle@ulg.ac.be [Department of Chemistry, University of Liège, B4000 Liège (Belgium); The Fritz Haber Center for Molecular Dynamics and the Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-07-14

    A single electron dynamic memory is designed based on the non-equilibrium dynamics of charge states in electrostatically defined metallic quantum dots. Using the orthodox theory for computing the transfer rates and a master equation, we model the dynamical response of devices consisting of a charge sensor coupled to either a single and or a double quantum dot subjected to a pulsed gate voltage. We show that transition rates between charge states in metallic quantum dots are characterized by an asymmetry that can be controlled by the gate voltage. This effect is more pronounced when the switching between charge states corresponds to a Markovian process involving electron transport through a chain of several quantum dots. By simulating the dynamics of electron transport we demonstrate that the quantum box operates as a finite-state machine that can be addressed by choosing suitable shapes and switching rates of the gate pulses. We further show that writing times in the ns range and retention memory times six orders of magnitude longer, in the ms range, can be achieved on the double quantum dot system using experimentally feasible parameters, thereby demonstrating that the device can operate as a dynamic single electron memory.

  18. Operation of a quantum dot in the finite-state machine mode: Single-electron dynamic memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klymenko, M. V.; Klein, M.; Levine, R. D.; Remacle, F.

    2016-01-01

    A single electron dynamic memory is designed based on the non-equilibrium dynamics of charge states in electrostatically defined metallic quantum dots. Using the orthodox theory for computing the transfer rates and a master equation, we model the dynamical response of devices consisting of a charge sensor coupled to either a single and or a double quantum dot subjected to a pulsed gate voltage. We show that transition rates between charge states in metallic quantum dots are characterized by an asymmetry that can be controlled by the gate voltage. This effect is more pronounced when the switching between charge states corresponds to a Markovian process involving electron transport through a chain of several quantum dots. By simulating the dynamics of electron transport we demonstrate that the quantum box operates as a finite-state machine that can be addressed by choosing suitable shapes and switching rates of the gate pulses. We further show that writing times in the ns range and retention memory times six orders of magnitude longer, in the ms range, can be achieved on the double quantum dot system using experimentally feasible parameters, thereby demonstrating that the device can operate as a dynamic single electron memory.

  19. Thinking Dangerously: Imagining United States Special Operations Command in the Post CT-World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-07

    skills SOCOM assembled to transform the nation’s SOF enter- prise to confront the terrorism threat. There is also a quiet acknowledgement that crucial...current and yet-to-be-developed SOF capabilities will be required for success. Relationship Entrepreneur Vision Building relationships for both allied...remain valid for certain SOF tribes. Tomorrow might require the addition or evo- lution of the operator with different skills and characteristics

  20. [Evaluating psychophysiologic adaptation state in operators of Bilibino nuclear power station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaeva, N A; Torubarov, F S; Denisova, E A; Zvereva, Z F; Koronotova, M A

    2014-01-01

    The study revealed that 60% operators of Bilibino nuclear power station suffer from psychosomatic diseases, 41.7% of them are assigned to occupational group of workers, and major part of the examinees with psychosomatic diseases (45.82%) are aged 41-50, high integral level ofpsychophysiologic adaptation is revealed in 5 examinees (12.5%), medium integral level--in 12 examinees (30%). Lower integral level of psychophysiologic adaptation manifested in decrease in psychophysiologic and physiologic levels.

  1. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  2. Authorities for Military Operations Against Terrorist Groups: The State of the Debate and Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    public interest. RAND’s publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. Support RAND Make a tax -deductible...activities by forc- ing terrorists to operate under extreme secrecy and making would-be recruits and supporters risk death to participate. In other words...intent on attacking the West. It is important not to overestimate the ability to describe the tax - onomy of terrorist enemies, however. For example

  3. An Analysis of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in United States Air Force Drone Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-17

    Genzel, 2012; Eschenko & Sara , 2008) that are deemed critical to the perfor- mance of USAF MQ-1 Predator/MQ-9 Reaper drone operators (Chappelle et al...the gold standard of PTSD assessment (e.g., the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Blake et al., 1995) was not administered. Furthermore, aside from...American Psychiatric Association. Blake , D. D., Weathers, F. W., Nagy, L. M., Kaloupek, D. G., Gusman, F. D., & Charney, D. S. (1995). The development of a

  4. Robust fault diagnosis of physical systems in operation. Ph.D. Thesis - Rutgers - The State Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy Hamilton

    1991-01-01

    Ideas are presented and demonstrated for improved robustness in diagnostic problem solving of complex physical systems in operation, or operative diagnosis. The first idea is that graceful degradation can be viewed as reasoning at higher levels of abstraction whenever the more detailed levels proved to be incomplete or inadequate. A form of abstraction is defined that applies this view to the problem of diagnosis. In this form of abstraction, named status abstraction, two levels are defined. The lower level of abstraction corresponds to the level of detail at which most current knowledge-based diagnosis systems reason. At the higher level, a graph representation is presented that describes the real-world physical system. An incremental, constructive approach to manipulating this graph representation is demonstrated that supports certain characteristics of operative diagnosis. The suitability of this constructive approach is shown for diagnosing fault propagation behavior over time, and for sometimes diagnosing systems with feedback. A way is shown to represent different semantics in the same type of graph representation to characterize different types of fault propagation behavior. An approach is demonstrated that threats these different behaviors as different fault classes, and the approach moves to other classes when previous classes fail to generate suitable hypotheses. These ideas are implemented in a computer program named Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems) and demonstrated for the domain of inflight aircraft subsystems, specifically a propulsion system (containing two turbofan systems and a fuel system) and hydraulic subsystem.

  5. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, S.M.

    1997-10-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, states are responsible for providing for disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) within their borders. LLW in the US is defined as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material resulting from the extraction of uranium from ore. Commercial waste includes LLW generated by hospitals, universities, industry, pharmaceutical companies, and power utilities. LLW generated by the country''s defense operations is the responsibility of the Federal government and its agency, the Department of Energy. The commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed in this report are located near: Sheffield, Illinois (closed); Maxey Flats, Kentucky (closed); Beatty, Nevada (closed); West Valley, New York (closed); Barnwell, South Carolina (operating); Richland, Washington (operating); Ward Valley, California, (proposed); Sierra Blanca, Texas (proposed); Wake County, North Carolina (proposed); and Boyd County, Nebraska (proposed). While some comparisons between the sites described in this report are appropriate, this must be done with caution. In addition to differences in climate and geology between sites, LLW facilities in the past were not designed and operated to today''s standards. This report summarizes each site''s design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The report includes: a description of waste characteristics; design and operational features; post closure measures and plans; cost and duration of site characterization, construction, and operation; recent related R and D activities for LLW treatment and disposal; and the status of the LLW system in the US

  6. The Role of the United States Military in Counterdrug Operations in the Year 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodges, Adele

    1997-01-01

    .... in doing this, he enrolled the use of many Federal agencies to include the military. The drug threat remains a threat to the United States as many countries abroad continue to depend on the income from illegal drug products for their livelihood...

  7. Solid Waste Processing. A State-of-the-Art Report on Unit Operations and Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Richard B.

    The importance and intricacy of the solid wastes disposal problem and the need to deal with it effectively and economically led to the state-of-the-art survey covered by this report. The material presented here was compiled to be used by those in government and private industry who must make or implement decisions concerning the processing of…

  8. Economic Optimization of Spray Dryer Operation using Nonlinear Model Predictive Control with State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Rawlings, James B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) for a complete spray drying plant with multiple stages. In the E-NMPC the initial state is estimated by an extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with noise covariances estimated by an autocovariance least s...

  9. Radioactivity computation of steady-state and pulsed fusion reactors operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaya, H.

    1994-06-01

    Different mathematical methods are used to calculate the nuclear transmutation in steady-state and pulsed neutron irradiation. These methods are the Schuer decomposition, the eigenvector decomposition, and the Pade approximation of the matrix exponential function. In the case of the linear decay chain approximation, a simple algorithm is used to evaluate the transition matrices

  10. 75 FR 38595 - Guidance to States Regarding Driver History Record Information Security, Continuity of Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... identifying information on the MPR at the CDLIS Central Site includes the name, date of birth, social security... responsibilities, and enterprise architecture. From this ISSP, the State should develop specific policies and... that focuses on restoring an organization's essential functions at an alternate site and performing...

  11. State-scale perspective on water use and production associated with oil and gas operations, Oklahoma, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kyle E

    2013-05-07

    A common goal of water and energy management is to maximize the supply of one while minimizing the use of the other, so it is important to understand the relationship between water use and energy production. A larger proportion of horizontal wells and an increasing number of hydraulically fractured well bores are being completed in the United States, and consequently increasing water demand by oil and gas operations. Management, planning, and regulatory decisions for water, oil, and gas are largely made at the state-level; therefore, it is necessary to aggregate water use and energy production data at the state-scale. The purpose of this paper is to quantify annual volumes of water used for completion of oil and gas wells, coproduced during oil and gas production, injected via underground injection program wells, and used in water flooding operations. Data from well completion reports, and tax commission records were synthesized to arrive at these estimates for Oklahoma. Hydraulic fracturing required a median fluid volume of 11,350 m(3) per horizontal well in Oklahoma. Median fluid volume (~15,774 m(3)) and volume per perforated interval (15.73 m(3) m(-1)) were highest for Woodford Shale horizontal wells. State-scale annual water use for oil and gas well completions was estimated to be up to 16.3 Mm(3) in 2011 or less than 1% of statewide freshwater use. Statewide annual produced water volumes ranged from 128.5 to 146.6 Mm(3), with gas wells yielding an estimated 72.4% of the total coproduced water. Volumes of water injected into underground injection control program wells ranged from 206.8 to 305.4 Mm(3), which indicates that water flooding operations may use up to 167.0 Mm(3) per year. State-scale water use estimates for Oklahoma could be improved by requiring oil and gas operators to supplement well completion reports with water use and water production data. Reporting of oil and gas production data by well using a unique identifier (i.e., API number) would also

  12. A parametric study of the steady-state operational characteristics of the Ohio State University natural circulation indirect-cycle, inherently safe boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aybar, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Ohio State University Inherently Safe Reactor (OSU-ISR) is a conceptual design for a 340-MW(electric) [1,000-MW(thermal)], natural circulation, indirect-cycle, small boiling water reactor. All the OSU-ISR primary loop components are housed within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV). The OSU-ISR performance has been investigated as a function of several design parameters in an attempt to better understand the interdependency among the system variables and hence to establish a knowledge base for the refinement of the conceptual design. The computational tool used in the study is a Dynamic Simulation for Nuclear Power Plants (DSNP) code whose predictions for the steady-state OSU-ISR performance compare favorably with RELAP5/MOD3 results for most of the operational characteristics of interest. The results show that (a) the key quantity that governs the OSU-ISR steady-state performance is the pressure difference between the primary and the secondary loops, (b) the magnitude of water-level swell (which occurs due to void formation in the core during operation and which affects the size of the steam separators that need to be used) can be more effectively controlled by varying the PCRV water level at cold shutdown rather than by varying the internal PCRV dimensions, (c) turbine inlet steam quality can be controlled without substantially affecting the other operational parameters by varying the secondary mass flow rate, and (d) the PCRV pressure and core exit steam quality are most sensitive to changes in the secondary loop pressure. The results also show that if there is a large drop in the secondary loop pressure (e.g., due to a steam line break), then although this pressure drop may induce a large drop in the PCRV pressure, the core flow, and hence core cooling capability, will not be appreciably affected

  13. 50 CFR Table 16 to Part 679 - Area Codes and Descriptions for Use With State of Alaska ADF&G Commercial Operator's Annual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shrimp Outer Cook Inlet Shrimp Dungeness Crab King Crab Tanner Crab Miscellaneous Shellfish Salmon HH H H... State of Alaska ADF&G Commercial Operator's Annual Report (COAR) 16 Table 16 to Part 679 Wildlife and... 16 to Part 679—Area Codes and Descriptions for Use With State of Alaska ADF&G Commercial Operator's...

  14. The big contradiction between the perturbation theory and the chaotic state. A detailed mathematical analysis indicates when the plasma is stable or unstable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Xaplanteris

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present manuscript enough observations and interpretations of three issues of Plasma Physics are presented. The first issue is linked to the common experimental confirmation of plasma waves which appear to be repeated in a standard way while there are also cases where plasma waves change to an unstable state or even to chaotic state. The second issue is associated with a mathematical analysis of the movement of a charged particle using the perturbation theory; which could be used as a guide for new researchers on similar issues. Finally, the suitability and applicability of the perturbation theory or the chaotic theory is presented. Although this study could be conducted on many plasma phenomena (e.g. plasma diffusion or plasma quantities (e.g. plasma conductivity, here it was decided this study to be conducted on plasma waves and particularly on drift waves. This was because of the significance of waves on the plasmatic state and especially their negative impact on the thermonuclear fusion, but also due to the long-time experience of the plasma laboratory of Demokritos on drift waves.

  15. Safety Evaluation Report related to the renewal of the operating license for the research reactor at Michigan State University (Docket No. 50-294)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Michigan State University (MSU) for a renewal of operating license number R-114 to continue to operate the TRIGA Mark I research reactor has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is owned and operated by the Michigan State University and is located on the campus of Michigan State University in East Lansing, Ingham County, Michigan. The staff concludes that the TRIGA reactor facility can continue to be operated by MSU without endangering the health and safety of the public

  16. Organizational structure and operation of defense/aerospace information centers in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, H. E.; Lushina, L. N.

    1983-01-01

    U.S. Government aerospace and defense information centers are addressed. DTIC and NASA are described in terms of their history, operational authority, information services provided, user community, sources of information collected, efforts under way to improve services, and external agreements regarding the exchange of documents and/or data bases. Contents show how DTIC and NASA provide aerospace/defense information services in support of U.S. research and development efforts. In a general introduction, the importance of scientific and technical information and the need for information centers to acquire, handle, and disseminate it are stressed.

  17. Kinetic insights over a PEMFC operating on stationary and oscillatory states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Andressa; Gonzalez, Ernesto R; Eiswirth, Markus

    2011-12-01

    Kinetic investigations in the oscillatory state have been carried out in order to shed light on the interplay between the complex kinetics exhibited by a proton exchange membrane fuel cell fed with poisoned H(2) (108 ppm of CO) and the other in serie process. The apparent activation energy (E(a)) in the stationary state was investigated in order to clarify the E(a) observed in the oscillatory state. The apparent activation energy in the stationary state, under potentiostatic control, rendered (a) E(a) ≈ 50-60 kJ mol(-1) over 0.8 V < E < 0.6 V and (b) E(a) ≈ 10 kJ mol(-1) at E = 0.3 V. The former is related to the H(2) adsorption in the vacancies of the surface poisoned by CO and the latter is correlated to the process of proton conductivity in the membrane. The dependence of the period-one oscillations on the temperature yielded a genuine Arrhenius dependence with two E(a) values: (a) E(a) around 70 kJ mol(-1), at high temperatures, and (b) E(a) around 10-15 kJ mol(-1), at lower temperatures. The latter E(a) indicates the presence of protonic mass transport coupled to the essential oscillatory mechanism. These insights point in the right direction to predict spatial couplings between anode and cathode as having the highest strength as well as to speculate the most likely candidates to promote spatial inhomogeneities. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. United States Army Counter Partisan Operations in Northern Virginia During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    destruction of the reserve brigade’s [supply] 18 Walter Coffee , The Civil War Months: A Month by Month...privileges of the prisoner of war.”57 The perceptions of senior Union leadership on partisan prisoners changed in 1864 when General Grant...CMH_Pub_73-3.pdf. Coffee , Walter. The Civil War Months: A Month by Month Compendium of the War Between the States. Bloomington: Author House, 2012

  19. Employment of a Dual Status Commander in a Multi-State Disaster Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    class 2016. These professionals and lifelong friends served as sounding boards when I was frustrated and provided encouragement to stay the course and...of Defense, Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2012), 5. 4 The...Handbook: Observations, Insights, and Lessons (Leavenworth, KS: Center for Army Lessons Learned , 2010), 44. 16 Title 10, United States Code-Armed Forces

  20. Continuous operation of four-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Takuto; Ono, Motoharu; Oguri, Yusuke; Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Hirano, Takuya; Kasai, Kenta; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2016-10-01

    We report on the development of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system that are based on discrete quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and homodyne detection of coherent states of light. We use a pulsed light source whose wavelength is 1550 nm and repetition rate is 10 MHz. The CV-QKD system can continuously generate secret key which is secure against entangling cloner attack. Key generation rate is 50 kbps when the quantum channel is a 10 km optical fiber. The CV-QKD system we have developed utilizes the four-state and post-selection protocol [T. Hirano, et al., Phys. Rev. A 68, 042331 (2003).]; Alice randomly sends one of four states {|+/-α⟩,|+/-𝑖α⟩}, and Bob randomly performs x- or p- measurement by homodyne detection. A commercially available balanced receiver is used to realize shot-noise-limited pulsed homodyne detection. GPU cards are used to accelerate the software-based post-processing. We use a non-binary LDPC code for error correction (reverse reconciliation) and the Toeplitz matrix multiplication for privacy amplification.

  1. 40 CFR 62.14423 - What are the qualification requirements for operators who do not participate in a State-approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the qualification requirements... Qualification § 62.14423 What are the qualification requirements for operators who do not participate in a State... requirements in § 62.14422; and (2) The operator must have either 6 months experience as an HMIWI operator, 6...

  2. Symptoms of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder in United States Air Force "drone" operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Wayne L; McDonald, Kent D; Prince, Lillian; Goodman, Tanya; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie N; Thompson, William

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study is to repeat a survey administered in 2010 to assess for changes in mental health among United States Air Force aircrew operating Predator/Reaper remotely piloted aircraft, also commonly referred to as "drones." Participants were assessed for self-reported sources of occupational stress, levels of clinical distress using the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. A total of 1,094 aircrew responded to the web-based survey composed of the commercially available standardized instruments mentioned above. The survey also contained nonstandardized items asking participants to report the main sources of their occupational stress, as well as questions addressing demographics and work-related characteristics. The estimated response rate to the survey was 49%. Study results reveal the most problematic self-reported stressors are operational: low manning, extra duties/administrative tasks, rotating shift work, and long hours. The results also reveal 10.72% of operators self-reported experiencing high levels of distress and 1.57% reported high levels of PTSD symptomology. The results are lower than findings from the 2010 survey and from soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Implications of the study and recommendations for United States Air Force line leadership and mental health providers are discussed. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. Diagnosis of Heat Exchanger Tube Failure in Fossil Fuel Boilers Through Estimation of Steady State Operating Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herszage, A.; Toren, M.

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of operating conditions for fossil fuel boiler heat exchangers is often required due to changes in working conditions, design modifications and especially for monitoring performance and failure diagnosis. Regular heat exchangers in fossil fuel boilers are composed of tube banks through which water or steam flow, while hot combustion (flue) gases flow outside the tubes. This work presents a top-down approach to operating conditions estimation based on field measurements. An example for a 350 MW unit superheater is thoroughly discussed. Integral calculations based on measurements for all unit heat exchangers (reheaters, superheaters) were performed first. Based on these calculations a scheme of integral conservation equations (lumped parameter) was then formulated at the single tube level. Steady state temperatures of superheater tube walls were obtained as a main output, and were compared to the maximum allowable operating temperatures of the tubes material. A combined lumped parameter - CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics, FLUENT code) approach constitutes an efficient tool in certain cases. A brief report of such a case is given for another unit superheater. We conclude that steady state evaluations based on both integral and detailed simulations are a valuable monitoring and diagnosis tool for the power generation industry

  4. Adaptive State Predictor Based Human Operator Modeling on Longitudinal and Lateral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2015-01-01

    Control-theoretic modeling of the human operator dynamic behavior in manual control tasks has a long and rich history. In the last two decades, there has been a renewed interest in modeling the human operator. There has also been significant work on techniques used to identify the pilot model of a given structure. The purpose of this research is to attempt to go beyond pilot identification based on collected experimental data and to develop a predictor of pilot behavior. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions of the pilot with an adaptive controller compensating during control surface failures. A general linear in-parameter model structure is used to represent a pilot. Three different estimation methods are explored. A gradient descent estimator (GDE), a least squares estimator with exponential forgetting (LSEEF), and a least squares estimator with bounded gain forgetting (LSEBGF) used the experiment data to predict pilot stick input. Previous results have found that the GDE and LSEEF methods are fairly accurate in predicting longitudinal stick input from commanded pitch. This paper discusses the accuracy of each of the three methods - GDE, LSEEF, and LSEBGF - to predict both pilot longitudinal and lateral stick input from the flight director's commanded pitch and bank attitudes.

  5. Authorization procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations within the EEC member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, J.M.

    1974-12-01

    For Belgium and Luxembourg, the authorization procedure varies according to the class in which the installation concerned falls (assigned according to the degree of hazard involved classes I, II or III). Moreover, separate authorizations are needed, one for construction and another for operation of class I and II installations. With respect to Germany also, two such separate authorizations are needed, but there is no specific procedure relating to the potential extent of hazard involved in the installation concerned. In France, the basic nuclear installations are subject to a special procedure. Furthermore, the construction and operation of these installations are also subject to two separate authorizations. While the latter two authorizations are required in Italy for the main nuclear installations, no system of classified installations exists according to extent of hazard involved. Similar legislation is applicable in the Netherlands. Neither does such a system of classified installations exist in the United Kingdom. Moreover, there is only one single authorization (the site licence), which is successively adapted during construction. On the other hand, in Denmark and Ireland, no detailed legislation has been developed on the subject

  6. Experimental and Model-based Analysis of the Steady-state and Dynamic Operating Behaviour of the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC)

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, T.

    2004-01-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) are analysed experimentally and theoretically with respect to their steady-state and dynamic operating behaviour. The current status (2003) of the DMFC is presented with special focus on basic principle, functional materials of which the DMFC consists and modeling and simulation approaches. An own laboratory scale DMFC design is presented, as well as a fully automated miniplant used for its operation under various steady-state and dynamic operating conditions...

  7. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  8. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  10. Critical Success for Kelantinies Constraction Operate Outside Kelantan State in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelnaser Omran

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysia construction industry has been experiencing boom and bust conditions in the past few decades. For example, the construction industry suffered three business cycle downturns in 1976-1978, 1984-1988 and 1997-1999. Furthermore in 1998 the industry contracted sharply by 23 percent and finally moderated to a further contraction of 5.6% percent in 1999. However, the industry has shown a small growth of 1 percent in 2000. With the higher public and private investment especially in infrastructure projects, education, health, and social infrastructure, the construction industry is expected to have grown bye 5 percent in year 2001 and forecasted to grow by 4.3 percent in 2002. With the expected growth in the industry, this will enhance the number of contracting firm in the industry. The contracting firm, which is also known as the ‘builder’, is defined as a supplier of services whose scope of work and engagement is determined by the requirements of the client (user of services formalized in the form of a contract document. The client engages a contractor through a tendering process, to construct and to complete the project in accordance with certain design, specification and period of completion at an agreed price. Despite the Malaysian Economics growth, Kelantan still lags behind because of political reason. Governed by an avowedly Islamic party, party selslam Malaysia (PAS, the past has been unable to attract vital foreign direct investment. This has led to poor project development in the state compared to other states in Malaysia. In order to succeed, Kelantanies contractor are driven to get jobs outside Kalantan. The most popular state is Selangor to the intense development demand.

  11. Data Processing And Machine Learning Methods For Multi-Modal Operator State Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Tristan A.

    2015-01-01

    This document is intended as an introduction to a set of common signal processing learning methods that may be used in the software portion of a functional crew state monitoring system. This includes overviews of both the theory of the methods involved, as well as examples of implementation. Practical considerations are discussed for implementing modular, flexible, and scalable processing and classification software for a multi-modal, multi-channel monitoring system. Example source code is also given for all of the discussed processing and classification methods.

  12. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix E: Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    the F-35A represents one of the priority defense programs for the U.S. The F-35 program was initiated in the early 1990s to provide the premier ...the case of a reservation, Indian tribe) land use plans, policies and controls for the area concerned. (See§ 1506.2(d).)" Section 1506.2(d) states...discuss the unreasonable alternative of carrying nuclear fuel around New York City by barge); cf Izaak Walton League of Am. v. Marsh, 655 F.2d 346, 372

  13. Automation of internal library operations in academic health sciences libraries: a state of the art report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefsheim, S F; Larson, R H; Bader, S A; Matheson, N W

    1982-01-01

    A survey of automated records management in the United States and Canada was developed to identify existing on-line library systems and technical expertise. Follow-up interviews were conducted with ten libraries. Tables compare the features and availability of four main frame and four minicomputer systems. Results showed: a trend toward vendor-supplied systems; little coordination of efforts among schools; current system developments generally on a universitywide basis; and the importance of having the cooperation of campus computer facilities to the success of automation efforts. PMID:7066571

  14. Influence of the Kozloduy NPP on the health state of personnel at a normal operation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakov, V.

    1995-01-01

    Medical observation of the Kozloduy NPP personnel has been carried out for 20 years (1974-1993). The general disease incidence with temporary incapacity of the Kozloduy workers is lower than the general data for the country and workers at thermal power stations in particular. No cases of radiation injuries have been registered. The level of cumulative radiation doses varies from 50 to 620 mSv for the full working period of the personnel. Data about dependence of peripheral blood indicators on the cumulative dose are presented. It is concluded that the health state of the Kozloduy personnel is very good and does not indicate any specific pathology. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the operating license for the research reactor at North Carolina State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) summarizes the findings of a safety review conducted by the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). The staff conducted this review in response to a timely application filed by North Carolina State University (the licensee or NCSU) for a 20-year renewal of Facility Operating License R-120 to continue to operate the NCSU PULSTAR research reactor. The facility is located in the Burlington Engineering Laboratory complex on the NCSU campus in Raleigh, North Carolina. In its safety review, the staff considered information submitted by the licensee (including past operating history recorded in the licensee`s annual reports to the NRC), as well as inspection reports prepared by NRC Region H personnel and first-hand observations. On the basis of this review, the staff concludes that NCSU can continue to operate the PULSTAR research reactor, in accordance with its application, without endangering the health and safety of the public. 16 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Switched-Capacitor Filter Optimization with Respect to Switch On-State Resistance and Features of Real Operational Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hospodka

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of a switched-capacitor filter, which implements a biquadratic section, is described in this paper. The aim of the optimization is to obtain a required magnitude frequency response of the filter. The optimization takes into account both one of the features of real switches - their on-state resistance, and the features of real operational amplifiers - finite voltage gain and finite unity-gain bandwidth. An optimal dynamic range is to be achieved as well. The differential evolution - a kind of evolutionary algorithms - is employed for the optimization. The filter is designed by the usual way with ideal switches and ideal operational amplifiers at first. The analysis of this filter with real switches and real operational amplifiers proves that there is a significant difference between its magnitude frequency response and the one with ideal components. Hence, the optimization is applied for finding component values so that the magnitude frequency response is as similar to the one with ideal components as possible. As for other main real features of operational amplifiers - input and output resistance - it is shown that their effect is small.

  17. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the operating license for the research reactor at North Carolina State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) summarizes the findings of a safety review conducted by the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR). The staff conducted this review in response to a timely application filed by North Carolina State University (the licensee or NCSU) for a 20-year renewal of Facility Operating License R-120 to continue to operate the NCSU PULSTAR research reactor. The facility is located in the Burlington Engineering Laboratory complex on the NCSU campus in Raleigh, North Carolina. In its safety review, the staff considered information submitted by the licensee (including past operating history recorded in the licensee's annual reports to the NRC), as well as inspection reports prepared by NRC Region H personnel and first-hand observations. On the basis of this review, the staff concludes that NCSU can continue to operate the PULSTAR research reactor, in accordance with its application, without endangering the health and safety of the public. 16 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Steady state operation of the first cryogenic column in a krypton separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Ammon, R.; Bumiller, W.; Hutter, E.; Neffe, G.

    1981-01-01

    Recent results obtained during the operation of the inactive test unit KRETA for the cryogenic separation of krypton from simulated reprocessing off-gases are presented. The first rectification column of this unit was modified by shortening its lower part from 18 to 8 practical plates and placing the feed point into the warmer, krypton-rich section. Two essential results were thus achieved: plugging by desubliming xenon was not observed even at xenon feed concentrations as high as 1 vol.-%; and, accumulation of oxygen was much lower than in the column version used previously, thus reducing the potential hazard by ozone formation drastically. The accumulation of methane, however, was found to be high, in agreement with calculations

  19. SOSPO-SP: Secure Operation of Sustainable Power Systems Simulation Platform for Real-Time System State Evaluation and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Vancraeyveld, Pieter; Pedersen, Allan Henning Birger

    2014-01-01

    New challenges are arising in managing power systems as these systems become more complex due to the use of high levels of distributed generation, mainly based on renewable energy sources, and due to the competitive environment within the power sector. At the same time, the use of Phasor...... Measurement Units (PMUs) provides more information and enables wide-area monitoring with accurate timing. One of the challenges in the near future is converting the high quantity and quality of information provided by PMUs into useful knowledge about operational state of a global system. The use of real......-time simulation in closed-loop is essential to develop and validate new real-time applications of wide-area PMU data. This paper presents a simulation platform developed within the research project Secure Operation of Sustainable Power Systems (SOSPO). The SOSPO simulation platform (SOSPO-SP) functions...

  20. Climate change and States security: an operational link to develop locally and on the medium term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taithe, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    The author first notices that climate change and environmental degradations induce new logics in international relationships, and then discusses how consequences of climate change can be factors of instability for States, and how to address them. He recalls and comments the main effects of climate change as they have been described in IPCC reports. He outlines limitations of conventional approaches in terms of direct and indirect impacts on States. Direct effects concern territories (for example, a modification of borders due to sea level rise or to erosion), populations (impact of extreme events on housing, on health) and the economy (more particularly the primary sector and high levels of adaptation costs). The author outlines the limitations of these global models, and proposes additional and corrective approaches: hybrid (regional and global) approaches, local and medium term-based approach (some natural resource management can be assessed and organised only locally). An appendix proposes a contribution of an IPCC work-group in which impacts, adaptation and vulnerabilities of the different regions of the world in front of climate changes are summarized

  1. {sup 14}C dating and stable carbon isotopes of soil organic matter in the Southeastern region of Sao Paulo State; e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mofatto, Milene; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Bendassoli, Jose Albertino; Leite, Acacio Zuniga [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mofatto@cena.usp.br; pessenda@cena.usp.br; Oliveira, Paulo de Oliveira [Universidade de Guarulhos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: paulo@bjd.com.br; Garcia, Ricardo Jose Francischetti [Herbario da Prefeitura Municipal de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: rjfgarcia@estadao.com.br

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this research is to characterize the isotopic composition ({sup 13}C, {sup 14}C) of soil organic matter (SOM) in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar-Nucleo Curucutu, Sao Paulo state, Southeastern Brazil. The isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) of SOM will be used as an indicator of vegetation types from the local ecosystems and {sup 14}C dating (humin fraction) used to determine the chronology. The results from SOM indicated vegetation changes in the last 10,000 years, where, a less dense vegetation occurred in the past, with C{sub 3} plant predominant and/or a mixture of C{sub 3} and C{sub 4}. (author)

  2. Co-existence of LiI and KI in filler-free, quasi-solid-state electrolyte for efficient and stable dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, S.; Thummalakunta, L. N. S. A.; Cook, C. A.; Peh, C. K. N.; Wong, A. S. W.; Ke, L.; Ho, G. W.

    A quasi-solid-state electrolyte employing a poly (ethylene oxide)/LiI system without a filler is evaluated. The electrolyte is optimized for various potassium iodide (KI) concentrations. The electrolyte containing 14.5 wt.% KI exhibits the highest conductivity (3.0 × 10 -3 S cm -1). An efficiency of 4.5% is achieved using this composition of the electrolyte. It is shown that the introduction of KI in a conventional PEO/I 2/LiI electrolyte system prevents the crystallization of the polymer matrix and enhances the ionic conductivity. The energy conversion efficiency of the device is further enhanced to 5.8% by incorporating a light-scattering layer.

  3. Thermally induced solid-state transformation of cimetidine. A multi-spectroscopic/chemometrics determination of the kinetics of the process and structural elucidation of one of the products as a stable N{sub 3}-enamino tautomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Natalia L.; Simonetti, Sebastian O.; Maggio, Rubén M.; Kaufman, Teodoro S., E-mail: kaufman@iquir-conicet.gov.ar

    2015-05-22

    Highlights: • Thermally stressed cimetidine above its melting point affords a stable N{sub 3} tautomer. • Multi-spectroscopic/chemometric approach developed to monitor tautomerization. • First combined use of NMR, UV and IR spectroscopies with chemometrics. • Solid cimetidine suffers first order degradation upon submission to dry heat. • Theoretical chemistry analysis confirmed the relative stability of cimetidine tautomer. - Abstract: Exposure of cimetidine (CIM) to dry heat (160–180 °C) afforded, upon cooling, a glassy solid containing new and hitherto unknown products. The kinetics of this process was studied by a second order chemometrics-assisted multi-spectroscopic approach. Proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopic data were jointly used, whereas multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was employed as the chemometrics method to extract process information. It was established that drug degradation follows a first order kinetics. One of the products was structurally characterized by mono- and bi-dimensional NMR experiments. It was found to be the N{sub 3}-enamino tautomer (TAU) of CIM, resulting from the thermal isomerization of the double bond of the cyanoguanidine moiety of the drug, from the imine form to its N{sub 3}-enamine state. The thus generated tautomer demonstrated to be stable for months in the glassy solid and in methanolic solutions. A theoretical study of CIM and TAU revealed that the latter is less stable; however, the energy barrier for tautomer interconversion is high enough, precluding the process to proceed rapidly at room temperature.

  4. Operating Quantum States in Single Magnetic Molecules: Implementation of Grover's Quantum Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrin, C.; Ferhat, A.; Ballou, R.; Klyatskaya, S.; Ruben, M.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Balestro, F.

    2017-11-01

    Quantum algorithms use the principles of quantum mechanics, such as, for example, quantum superposition, in order to solve particular problems outperforming standard computation. They are developed for cryptography, searching, optimization, simulation, and solving large systems of linear equations. Here, we implement Grover's quantum algorithm, proposed to find an element in an unsorted list, using a single nuclear 3 /2 spin carried by a Tb ion sitting in a single molecular magnet transistor. The coherent manipulation of this multilevel quantum system (qudit) is achieved by means of electric fields only. Grover's search algorithm is implemented by constructing a quantum database via a multilevel Hadamard gate. The Grover sequence then allows us to select each state. The presented method is of universal character and can be implemented in any multilevel quantum system with nonequal spaced energy levels, opening the way to novel quantum search algorithms.

  5. Algorithm development for safeguarding the Wendelstein 7-X divertor during steady state operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodatos, A.; Jakubowski, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Greuner, H.; Sunn Pedersen, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wurden, G.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The divertor of Wendelstein 7X is designed to withstand steady state heat fluxes of 10 MW/m{sup 2} and 15 MW/m{sup 2} transiently. However higher local heat fluxes are possible. 10 thermographic infrared (IR) observation systems will be installed to monitor the divertor and its center goal is the detection of overheated areas in real time. Besides an increased plasma heat flux, there are at least two potential causes of an elevated diverter surface temperature. First, redeposited eroded material forming surface layers with a poor thermal connection to the underlying water-cooled tiles. Second, delaminated CFC tiles will exhibit an elevated surface temperature relative to properly bonded tiles. Using the measured characteristic time scales for the thermal response, gained from experiments at GLADIS, we have concluded that it is possible to distinguish between healthy, delaminated, surface-coated and delaminated surface-coated tiles.

  6. Prestige-Seeking small states: Danish and Norwegian military contributions to U.S.-led Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Ringsmose, Jens; Saxi, Håkon Lunde

    2018-01-01

    their standing and prestige in Washington. Both governments regarded prestige as a form of soft power, which they could later convert into access, influence, and US support. Our findings are far from trivial. They make a theoretical contribution by demonstrating that small powers understand and seek prestige......In this article we broaden the conventional understanding of prestige and show that prestige-seeking played a major role in the Danish and Norwegian decisions to provide military support to post-Cold War US-led wars. Both countries made costly military contributions in the hope of increasing...... in ways that differ fundamentally from the ways great powers do. They also help to explain why smaller US allies made costly contributions to the Balkan, Afghan, Iraq, and Libyan wars at a time when there was no direct threat to their national security and their security dependence on the United States...

  7. Economic Optimization of Spray Dryer Operation using Nonlinear Model Predictive Control with State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Rawlings, James B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) for a complete spray drying plant with multiple stages. In the E-NMPC the initial state is estimated by an extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with noise covariances estimated by an autocovariance least...... squares method (ALS). We present a model for the spray drying plant and use this model for simulation as well as for prediction in the E-NMPC. The open-loop optimal control problem in the E-NMPC is solved using the single-shooting method combined with a quasi-Newton Sequential Quadratic programming (SQP......) algorithm and the adjoint method for computation of gradients. We evaluate the economic performance when unmeasured disturbances are present. By simulation, we demonstrate that the E-NMPC improves the profit of spray drying by 17% compared to conventional PI control....

  8. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the States of the co-operation council for the Arab States of the Gulf: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Alhyas

    Full Text Available The recent and ongoing worldwide expansion in prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM is a considerable risk to individuals, health systems and economies. The increase in prevalence has been particularly marked in the states of the Co-operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC, and these trends are set to continue. We aimed to systematically review the current prevalence of T2DM within these states, and also within particular sub-populations.We identified 27 published studies for review. Studies were identified by systematic database searches. Medline and Embase were searched using terms such as diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent, hyperglycemia, prevalence, epidemiology and Gulf States. Our search also included scanning reference lists, contacting experts and hand-searching key journals. Studies were judged against pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and where suitable for inclusion, data extraction and quality assessment was achieved using a specifically-designed tool. All studies where prevalence of diabetes was investigated were eligible for inclusion. The inclusion criteria required that the study population be of a GCC country, but otherwise all ages, sexes and ethnicities were included, resident and migrant populations, urban and rural, of all socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. No limitations on publication type, publication status, study design or language of publication were imposed. However, we did not include secondary reports of data, such as review articles without novel data synthesis.The prevalence of T2DM is an increasing problem for all GCC states. They may therefore benefit to a relatively high degree from co-ordinated implementation of broadly consistent management strategies. Further study of prevalence in children and in national versus expatriate populations would also be useful.

  9. 78 FR 5167 - BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ...By this Notice, the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), Department of Commerce is informing the public that it is conducting the mandatory survey titled Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States (BE-9). This mandatory survey is conducted under the authority of the International Investment and Trade in Services Survey Act (22 U.S.C. 3101-3108, as amended). This Notice constitutes legal notification to all United States persons (defined below) who meet the reporting requirements set forth in this Notice that they must respond to, and comply with, the survey. Reports are due 45 days after the end of each calendar quarter. The BE-9 survey forms and instructions are available on the BEA Web site at www.bea.gov/surveys/iussurv.htm.

  10. Impact of Commercial Motorcycle Operation on Urban Mobility in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi Oluwaseyi Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The significant of public transport of cities in many developing countries lies in the fundamental fact that mobility and accessibility are essential for economic growth and of necessity to provide efficient and effective movement for goods and services. The collapse of public intra-city transport system paved way for the rise of motorcycles as means of public transportation in Nigeria. This paper discusses the impact of commercial motorcycle operation as a means of urban transportation. Of the 200 questionnaires administered, 191 questionnaires were received for analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Secondary data was also sourced to serve as complement to the primary data, thus allowing for a robust research. Descriptive statistical tools such as percentages were adopted to present the socio - economic characteristics in the area. Findings showed that the majority of the users are adult between the aged 31 and 40 years. Most of them (53.8% are married and are fairly educated. Furthermore, it was recommended that the Nigerian government should provide employment opportunities for our teeming youth as this will go a long way in the reduction of number of youth who as a result of unemployment took to motorcycle riding business.

  11. Progress towards steady-state operation and real time control of internal transport barriers in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.; Becoulet, A.; Crisanti, F.

    2003-01-01

    In JET advanced tokamak research mainly focuses on plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs), generated by modifications of the current profile. The formerly developed optimised shear regime with low magnetic shear in the plasma center has been extended to deeply reversed magnetic shear configurations. High fusion performance with wide ITBs has been obtained transiently in deeply reversed magnetic shear configuration: H IPB98(y,2) ∼1.9, β N =2.4 at I p =2.5MA. At somewhat reduced performance electron and ion ITBs have been sustained in full current drive operation with 1MA of bootstrap current: H IPB98(y,2) ∼1, β N =1.7 at I p =2.0MA. The ITBs have been maintained up to 11s. This duration, much larger than the energy confinement time (37 times larger), is already approaching a current resistive time. New real-time measurements and feedback control algorithms have been developed and implemented in JET for successfully controlling the ITB dynamics and the current density profile in the highly non-inductive regime. (author)

  12. State-of-The-Art of Modeling Methodologies and Optimization Operations in Integrated Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhan; Zhang, Yongjun

    2017-08-01

    Rapid advances in low carbon technologies and smart energy communities are reshaping future patterns. Uncertainty in energy productions and demand sides are paving the way towards decentralization management. Current energy infrastructures could not meet with supply and consumption challenges, along with emerging environment and economic requirements. Integrated Energy System(IES) whereby electric power, natural gas, heating couples with each other demonstrates that such a significant technique would gradually become one of main comprehensive and optimal energy solutions with high flexibility, friendly renewables absorption and improving efficiency. In these global energy trends, we summarize this literature review. Firstly the accurate definition and characteristics of IES have been presented. Energy subsystem and coupling elements modeling issues are analyzed. It is pointed out that decomposed and integrated analysis methods are the key algorithms for IES optimization operations problems, followed by exploring the IES market mechanisms. Finally several future research tendencies of IES, such as dynamic modeling, peer-to-peer trading, couple market design, sare under discussion.

  13. Fundamental processes governing operation and degradation in state of the art P-OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Matthew; Asada, Kohei; Cass, Michael; Coward, Chris; King, Simon; Lee, Andrew; Pintani, Martina; Ramon, Miguel; Foden, Clare

    2010-05-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of operation and degradation of model fluorescent blue bilayer polymer organic light emitting diodes (P-OLED). Optical and electrical simulations of bilayer P-OLEDs are used to highlight the key material and device parameters required for efficient recombination and outcoupling of excitons. Mobility data for a model interlayer material poly (9,9-dioctylfluorene-N-(4-(2-butyl)phenyl)-diphenylamine) (TFB) and a model fluorescent blue light emitting material poly-(9,9'- dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N, N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'- phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (95:5 mol%) (F8-PFB random copoloymer), is shown to satisfy the key charge transport characteristics required to ensure exciton formation at the optimum location for efficient extraction of the light where μh (LEP) 90%) of the quenching sites produced. This highlights the importance of understanding these reversible phenomena in improving P-OLED lifetime and commercial adoption of the technology.

  14. Operational, professional, and business characteristics of radiology groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine, J H; Bansal, S

    1992-05-01

    To learn the main operational, professional, and business characteristics of U.S. radiology group practices, researchers at the American College of Radiology surveyed these groups. Major findings included the following: Approximately 30% of groups provide only diagnostic radiologic services, a similar percentage provides only radiation therapy for oncologic patients, and the remainder provides both types of services. Forty-one percent of groups practice only in hospitals, 11% practice only in an office, and 48% practice in both settings. Diagnostic-only practices average 10,000-12,000 procedures per full-time equivalent radiologist per year. Groups typically require new members to be part of the group for almost 3 years before they become full partners. Formal call schedules are nearly universal among radiology groups. Groups are becoming increasingly involved with health maintenance organizations and other "alternative delivery systems," but fee-for-service remains by far the dominant source of groups' revenue. Most studied characteristics of groups are changing relatively slowly, and trends are generally toward increasing formalization of arrangements.

  15. Work-related fatalities associated with tree care operations--United States, 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-24

    Workers in various industries and occupations are involved in the care and maintenance of trees, such as tree trimming, pruning, and removal. This work is recognized as having many safety hazards. Although previous analyses have involved subgroups of workers who perform this type of work, no analysis has focused on identifying injured workers from all industries and occupations that perform tree care operations. This report summarizes the characteristics of fatal occupational injuries, using data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) and a case series of fatality investigations conducted by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program. During 1992--2007, a total of 1,285 workers died while performing tree care and maintenance; 44% were trimming or pruning a tree when fatally injured. The most common causes of death were being struck by or against an object (42% of deaths), most commonly a tree or branch; falls to a lower level (34%); and electrocutions (14%). Most of the decedents (57%) worked for small establishments with 10 or fewer employees. Employers, trade and worker associations, and policymakers should take additional steps to improve the safety of workers involved in tree care, such as providing formal training to workers and ensuring that personal protective equipment (e.g., fall protection equipment) is used properly.

  16. COMPLEX EVALUATION OF THE STATE AND QUALITY OF RAILWAY STATION OPERATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Polishchuk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Improvement of existing methods for evaluation of condition and functioning quality of railway stations and development of the new ones in order to improve operation of railway stations. Methodology. During research the local, prognostic, aggregated and interactive analyses of condition and functioning quality of station infrastructure elements and train processing at the stations were applied. Local evaluations are obtained as the result of scheduled and off-schedule surveys. On the basis of local evaluations, aggregated evaluations of different generalization level are applied. Method for interactive evaluation is based on the analysis of compliance with train tables. Method of prognostic analysis applies the prehistory of evaluations obtained during previous surveys. Findings. Resulting from researches held, the complex determinative approach was proposed for evaluation of station sector of Ukrainian Railways. This approach allows determining comprehensive and objective notion about station, functioning quality and interaction between objects of station sector. Originality. Existing method for station infrastructure elements evaluation was improved. Proposed method for interactive evaluation allows performing continuous observation of station functioning quality between scheduled surveys. Practical value. Proposed methodology for complex evaluation may be applied to structural units of station sector of different hierarchy levels. Software developed allows navigating promptly over evaluation results and localizing drawbacks discovered.

  17. Operational accidents and radiation exposure experience within the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1943--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The occupational injury and fatality experience during 32 years of the development of the atomic energy industry under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineering District, is reviewed. Data are included on the cause of all accidents, including fires and transportation accidents, and the cost of AEC property damage. Fatalities of AEC and contractor personnel from all causes during the 32-year period totaled 321, of which 184 occurred in construction; 121 in AEC operations such as production, research, and services; and 16 in Government functions. There were 19,225 lost-time injuries attributable to all accidental causes, or a 32-year frequency rate of 2.75 based on the number of injuries per million man-hours. There were six deaths attributable to nuclear causes, thee of which were due to blast and flying missiles and three caused by whole-body radiation exposure. Forty-one workers were involved in lost-time radiation accidents, of whom 26 showed clinical manifestations attributable to radiation, resulting in permanent partial-disability of three workers and the loss of a digit by four workers, while the others did not develop evidence of radiation injury

  18. Regional operations research program for development of geothermal energy in the southwest United States. Final technical report, June 1977-August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlin, J.M.; Christ, R.; McDevitt, P.; Nowotny, K.; O' Dea, P.; Rao, C.R.; Swanberg, C.

    1979-01-01

    The efforts by the Core and State Teams in data acquisition, electric and non-electric economic studies, development of computer support functions and operations, and preparation of geothermal development scenarios are described. Team reports for the states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah are included in the appendices along with a summary of the state scenarios. (MHR)

  19. Operational Efficiency of Information Technology and Organizational Performance of State Universities and Colleges in Region VI, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson M. Lausa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years educational institutions have been investing increasingly substantial amount of money in integrating Information Technology (IT in the course of educational services delivery with the objective of improving operational efficiency and competitive advantage. The important role IT plays in educational institutions is unquestionable. It is regarded as a critical factor of innovation for growth and survival. The evaluation of the impact of this innovation in the educational system drives the researcher to undertake a study on Operational Efficiency of Information Technology and Organizational Performance of State Universities and Colleges (SUCs of Region VI, Philippines. Descriptive method was used utilizing a validated survey questionnaire which also involved the desk and field research conducted by a panel of two field researchers including the researcher himself covering selected SUCs of Region VI. Deans or department heads and faculty of the different colleges or departments, administrative and academic officials constitute the respondents of the study. Stratified proportional random sampling and purposive sampling were used in the study. Results of the study were viewed and analyzed using the Mean and the Pearson r Correlation Coefficient. Findings revealed that the operational efficiency of the SUCs of Region VI is moderately efficient while the majority of colleges/universities are performing moderately efficient. The study also revealed that the organizational performance of SUCs and the majority of colleges/universities are performing very satisfactory. Likewise, the findings also showed a significant relationship between the operational efficiency of information technology and organizational performance of SUCs. However, a significant relationship between operational efficiency and organizational performance of SUCs in instruction does not exist while a significant relationship exists in research, extension and

  20. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  1. Stable expression and replication of hepatitis B virus genome in an integrated state in a human hepatoma cell line transfected with the cloned viral DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurimoto, T.; Fujiyama, A.; Matsubara, K.

    1987-01-01

    A human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh6-c15) was transfected with a recombinant DNA molecule that consists of tandemly arranged hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome and a neomycin-resistant gene. One clone resistant to G-418 produces and releases surface antigen and e antigen into medium at a high level and accumulates core particles intracellularly. This clone has a chromosomally integrated set of the original recombinant DNA and produces a 3.5-kilobase transcript corresponding to the pregenome RNA as well as HBV DNAs in an extrachromosomal form. Most of these DNAs were in single-stranded or partially double-stranded form and were packaged in the intracellular core particles. In the medium, particles were detected that contained HBV DNA and were morphologically indistinguishable from Dane particles. These results demonstrate that the HBV genome in an integrated state acted as a template for viral gene expression and replication. The cells were maintained for more than 6 months without losing the ability to produce the extrachromosomal HBV DNA and Dane-like particles. Thus, the cells can be used as a model system for analyses of gene expression and DNA replication of HBV in human hepatocytes

  2. Stable expression and replication of hepatitis B virus genome in an integrated state in a human hepatoma cell line transfected with the cloned viral DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurimoto, T; Fujiyama, A; Matsubara, K

    1987-01-01

    A human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh6-c15) was transfected with a recombinant DNA molecule that consists of tandemly arranged hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome and a neomycin-resistant gene. One clone resistant to G-418 produces and releases surface antigen and e antigen into medium at a high level and accumulates core particles intracellularly. This clone has a chromosomally integrated set of the original recombinant DNA and produces a 3.5-kilobase transcript corresponding to the pregenome RNA as well as HBV DNAs in an extrachromosomal form. Most of these DNAs were in single-stranded or partially double-stranded form and were packaged in the intracellular core particles. In the medium, particles were detected that contained HBV DNA and were morphologically indistinguishable from Dane particles. These results demonstrate that the HBV genome in an integrated state acted as a template for viral gene expression and replication. The cells were maintained for more than 6 months without losing the ability to produce the extrachromosomal HBV DNA and Dane-like particles. Thus, the cells can be used as a model system for analyses of gene expression and DNA replication of HBV in human hepatocytes.

  3. Simulation of the elementary evolution operator with the motional states of an ion in an anharmonic trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ludovic; Vaeck, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, CP 160/09 Université Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Justum, Yves [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, UMR 8000 and CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Desouter-Lecomte, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, UMR 8000 and CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Département de Chimie, Université de Liège, Bât B6c, Sart Tilman B-4000, Liège (Belgium)

    2015-04-07

    Following a recent proposal of L. Wang and D. Babikov [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 064301 (2012)], we theoretically illustrate the possibility of using the motional states of a Cd{sup +} ion trapped in a slightly anharmonic potential to simulate the single-particle time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The simulated wave packet is discretized on a spatial grid and the grid points are mapped on the ion motional states which define the qubit network. The localization probability at each grid point is obtained from the population in the corresponding motional state. The quantum gate is the elementary evolution operator corresponding to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of the simulated system. The corresponding matrix can be estimated by any numerical algorithm. The radio-frequency field which is able to drive this unitary transformation among the qubit states of the ion is obtained by multi-target optimal control theory. The ion is assumed to be cooled in the ground motional state, and the preliminary step consists in initializing the qubits with the amplitudes of the initial simulated wave packet. The time evolution of the localization probability at the grids points is then obtained by successive applications of the gate and reading out the motional state population. The gate field is always identical for a given simulated potential, only the field preparing the initial wave packet has to be optimized for different simulations. We check the stability of the simulation against decoherence due to fluctuating electric fields in the trap electrodes by applying dissipative Lindblad dynamics.

  4. A quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a five-particle cluster state and classical XOR operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Song Danjie; Guo Xiaojing; Jing Bo

    2012-01-01

    In order to transmit secure messages, a quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a five-particle cluster state and classical XOR operation is presented. The five-particle cluster state is used to detect eavesdroppers, and the classical XOR operation serving as a one-time-pad is used to ensure the security of the protocol. In the security analysis, the entropy theory method is introduced, and three detection strategies are compared quantitatively by using the constraint between the information that the eavesdroppers can obtain and the interference introduced. If the eavesdroppers intend to obtain all the information, the detection rate of the original ping-pong protocol is 50%; the second protocol, using two particles of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair as detection particles, is also 50%; while the presented protocol is 89%. Finally, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed, and the analysis results indicate that the protocol in this paper is more secure than the other two. (authors)

  5. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  6. EMD-Based Methodology for the Identification of a High-Speed Train Running in a Gear Operating State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Bustos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient maintenance is a key consideration in systems of railway transport, especially in high-speed trains, in order to avoid accidents with catastrophic consequences. In this sense, having a method that allows for the early detection of defects in critical elements, such as the bogie mechanical components, is a crucial for increasing the availability of rolling stock and reducing maintenance costs. The main contribution of this work is the proposal of a methodology that, based on classical signal processing techniques, provides a set of parameters for the fast identification of the operating state of a critical mechanical system. With this methodology, the vibratory behaviour of a very complex mechanical system is characterised, through variable inputs, which will allow for the detection of possible changes in the mechanical elements. This methodology is applied to a real high-speed train in commercial service, with the aim of studying the vibratory behaviour of the train (specifically, the bogie before and after a maintenance operation. The results obtained with this methodology demonstrated the usefulness of the new procedure and allowed for the disclosure of reductions between 15% and 45% in the spectral power of selected Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs after the maintenance operation.

  7. EMD-Based Methodology for the Identification of a High-Speed Train Running in a Gear Operating State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Alejandro; Rubio, Higinio; Castejón, Cristina; García-Prada, Juan Carlos

    2018-03-06

    An efficient maintenance is a key consideration in systems of railway transport, especially in high-speed trains, in order to avoid accidents with catastrophic consequences. In this sense, having a method that allows for the early detection of defects in critical elements, such as the bogie mechanical components, is a crucial for increasing the availability of rolling stock and reducing maintenance costs. The main contribution of this work is the proposal of a methodology that, based on classical signal processing techniques, provides a set of parameters for the fast identification of the operating state of a critical mechanical system. With this methodology, the vibratory behaviour of a very complex mechanical system is characterised, through variable inputs, which will allow for the detection of possible changes in the mechanical elements. This methodology is applied to a real high-speed train in commercial service, with the aim of studying the vibratory behaviour of the train (specifically, the bogie) before and after a maintenance operation. The results obtained with this methodology demonstrated the usefulness of the new procedure and allowed for the disclosure of reductions between 15% and 45% in the spectral power of selected Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) after the maintenance operation.

  8. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the operating license for the Washington State University TRIGA reactor. Docket No. 50-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Washington State University (WSU) for a renewal of operating license number R-76 to continue to operate a research reactor has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is owned and operated by the Washington State University and is located on the WSU campus in Pullman, Whitman County, Washington. The staff concludes that the TRIGA reactor facility can continue to be operated by WSU without endangering the health and safety of the public

  9. Interface cloning and sharing: Interaction designs for conserving labor and maintaining state across 24X7 sensor operations teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, John H.; Reeves, Paul C.

    2017-05-01

    Processing remote sensing data is the epitome of computation, yet real-time collection systems remain human-labor intensive. Operator labor is consumed by both overhead tasks (cost) and value-added production (benefit). In effect, labor is taxed and then lost. When an operator comes on-shift, they typically duplicate setup work that their teammates have already performed many times. "Pass down" of state information can be difficult if security restrictions require total logouts and blank screens - hours or even days of valuable history and context are lost. As work proceeds, duplicative effort is common because it is typically easier for operators to "do it over" rather than share what others have already done. As we begin a major new system version, we are refactoring the user interface to reduce time and motion losses. Working with users, we are developing "click budgets" to streamline interface use. One basic function is shared clipboards to reduce the use of sticky notes and verbal communication of data strings. We illustrate two additional designs to share work: window copying and window sharing. Copying (technically, shallow or deep object cloning) allows any system user to duplicate a window and configuration for themselves or another to use. Sharing allows a window to have multiple users: shareholders with read-write functionality and viewers with read-only. These solutions would allow windows to persist across multiple shifts, with a rotating cast of shareholders and viewers. Windows thus become durable objects of shared effort and persistent state. While these are low-tech functions, the cumulative labor savings in a 24X7 crew position (525,000 minutes/year spread over multiple individuals) would be significant. New design and implementation is never free and these investments typically do not appeal to government acquisition officers with short-term acquisition-cost concerns rather than a long-term O and M (operations and maintenance) perspective. We

  10. Highly-stable and low-state-density Al2O3/GaN interfaces using epitaxial n-GaN layers grown on free-standing GaN substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneki, Shota; Ohira, Joji; Toiya, Shota; Yatabe, Zenji; Asubar, Joel T.; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2016-10-01

    Interface characterization was carried out on Al2O3/GaN structures using epitaxial n-GaN layers grown on free-standing GaN substrates with relatively low dislocation density (capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves at reverse bias, showing high-density interface states in the range of 1012 cm-1 eV-1. On the other hand, excellent C-V characteristics with negligible frequency dispersion were observed from the MOS sample after annealing under a reverse bias at 300 °C in air for 3 h. The reverse-bias-annealed sample showed state densities less than 1 × 1011 cm-1 eV-1 and small shifts of flat-band voltage. In addition, the C-V curve measured at 200 °C remained essentially similar compared with the room-temperature C-V curves. These results indicate that the present process realizes a stable Al2O3/GaN interface with low interface state densities.

  11. High rate partial-state-of-charge operation of VRLA batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    The world market for 12 V SLI batteries currently stands at around US$ 12 billion. The lack of a serious challenge from other battery types has allowed lead-acid products to serve this market exclusively, with minimal demand for product improvement through research and development, and a sharp competition has, over time, cut sales prices to commodity levels. The electrochemical storage of energy in automobiles now faces the possibility of a major change, in the form of the proposed 36/42 V electrical systems for vehicles that remain primarily powered by internal combustion engines, and of the hybrid electric vehicle. The duty cycle for these two applications sees the battery held at a partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) for most of its life and required to supply, and to accept, charge at unprecedented rates. The remarkable advances achieved with VRLA battery technology for electric vehicles during the past 8-10 years will be of only passing value in overcoming the challenges posed by high rate PSoC service in 36/42 V and HEV duty. This is because the failure modes seen in PSoC are quite different from those faced in EV (deep cycle) use. The replacement of the 12 V SLI will not take place rapidly. However, if the applications which take its place are to be satisfied by a lead-acid product (probably VRLA), rather than by a battery of a different chemistry, a program of development as successful as that mounted for deep cycle duty will be required. The present phase of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) R&D program has begun to shed light on those aspects of the function of a VRLA battery which currently limit its life in high rate PSoC duty. The program is also pursuing the several technologies which show promise of overcoming those limits, including multiple tab plate design, mass transport facilitation and minor component (both beneficial and detrimental impurity) management. This paper presents a brief review of the changes which are taking place in

  12. Implementation and Operational Research: CD4 Count Monitoring Frequency and Risk of CD4 Count Dropping Below 200 Cells Per Cubic Millimeter Among Stable HIV-Infected Patients in New York City, 2007–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiang; Torian, Lucia V.; Irvine, Mary; Harriman, Graham; Sepkowitz, Kent A.; Shepard, Colin W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The evidence has begun to mount for diminishing the frequency of CD4 count testing. To determine whether these observations were applicable to an urban US population, we used New York City (NYC) surveillance data to explore CD4 testing among stable patients in NYC, 2007–2013. Methods: We constructed a population-based retrospective open cohort analysis of NYC HIV surveillance data. HIV+ patients aged ≥13 years with stable viral suppression (≥1 viral load the previous year; all 90% among those with initial CD4 ≥350 cells per cubic millimeter, suggesting that limited CD4 monitoring in these patients is appropriate. PMID:26536317

  13. χ(2) Induced Non-Reciprocal Loss and/or Phase Shift for Unidirectional Operation of Ring Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Pedersen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Numerical modelling and experimental validation of sum-frequency mixing enforcing stable unidirectional operation of a diode pumped solid-state 1342 nm ring laser with improved stability toward feedback....

  14. Global Operational Remotely Sensed Evapotranspiration System for Water Resources Management: Case Study for the State of New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, G. H.; Fisher, J.; Magnuson, M.; John, L.

    2017-12-01

    An operational system to produce and disseminate remotely sensed evapotranspiration using the PT-JPL model and support its analysis and use in water resources decision making is being integrated into the New Mexico state government. A partnership between the NASA Western Water Applications Office (WWAO), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer (NMOSE) has enabled collaboration with a variety of state agencies to inform decision making processes for agriculture, rangeland, and forest management. This system improves drought understanding and mobilization, litigation support, and economic, municipal, and ground-water planning through interactive mapping of daily rates of evapotranspiration at 1 km spatial resolution with near real-time latency. This is facilitated by daily remote sensing acquisitions of land-surface temperature and near-surface air temperature and humidity from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on the Terra satellite as well as the short-term composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and albedo provided by MODIS. Incorporating evapotranspiration data into agricultural water management better characterizes imbalances between water requirements and supplies. Monitoring evapotranspiration over rangeland areas improves remediation and prevention of aridification. Monitoring forest evapotranspiration improves wildlife management and response to wildfire risk. Continued implementation of this decision support system should enhance water and food security.

  15. Force Modeling and State Propagation for Navigation and Maneuver Planning for the Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, C.; Griesbach, J.; Westphal, J.; Hawes, D.; Carrico, J.

    2013-09-01

    The state propagation accuracy resulting from different choices of gravitational force models and orbital perturbations is investigated for a pair of CubeSats flying in formation in low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate on-board state propagation is necessary to autonomously plan maneuvers and perform proximity operations and docking safely. The ability to perform high-precision navigation is made especially challenging by the limited computer processing power available on-board the spacecraft. Propagation accuracy is investigated both in terms of the absolute (chief) state and the relative (deputy relative to chief) state. Different perturbing effects are quantified and related directly to important mission factors such as maneuver accuracy, fuel use (mission lifetime), and collision prediction/avoidance (mission safety). The Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) program is to demonstrate rendezvous proximity operations (RPO), formation flying, and docking with a pair of 3U CubeSats. The program is sponsored by NASA Ames via the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) in support of its Small Spacecraft Technology Program (SSTP). The goal of the mission is to demonstrate complex RPO and docking operations with a pair of low-cost 3U CubeSat satellites using passive navigation sensors. The primary orbital perturbation affecting spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) is the Earth oblateness, or J2, perturbation. Provided that a spacecraft does not have an extremely high area-to-mass ratio or is not flying at a very low altitude, the effect of J2 will usually be greater than that of atmospheric drag, which will typically be the next largest perturbing force in LEO. After these perturbations, factors such as higher-order Earth gravitational parameters, third-body perturbations, and solar radiation pressure will follow in magnitude but will have much less noticeable effects than J2 and drag. For spacecraft formations, where relative dynamics and not

  16. Memorandum of Understanding on Surface Coal Mining Operations Resulting in Placement of Excess Spoil Fills in the Waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOU on Surface Coal Mining Operations establishes a process for improving coordination in the review of permit applications required for surface coal mining and reclamation in waters of the United States

  17. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  18. The highway and railroad operating environments for hazardous shipments in the United States - safer in the '90s?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saricks, C.L.; Tompkins, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper seeks to illuminate the status of transportation safety and risk for large-quantity shipments of spent commercial reactor fuel and mixed and hazardous wastes by examining road and rail accident and vehicular travel data from the mid-1990s. Of special interest are the effect of speed limit changes on controlled-access expressways (chiefly the Interstate Highway System) and the possible effect of season-to-season climatic variation on road transport. We found that improvements in railroad technology and infrastructure have created a safer overall operating environment for railroad freight shipments. We also found recent evidence of an increase in accident rates of heavy combination trucks in states that have raised highway speed limits. Finally, cold weather increases road transport risk, while conditions associated with higher ambient temperatures do not. This last finding is in contrast to rail transport, for which the literature associates both hot and cold temperature extremes with higher accident rates

  19. Vertex operators, semiclassical limit for soliton S-matrices and the number of bound states in Affine Toda Field Theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneipp, Marco A.C.

    1999-10-01

    Soliton time delays and the semiclassical limit for soliton S-matrices are calculated for non-simply laced Affine Toda Field Theories. The phase shift is written as a sum over bilinears on the soliton conserved charges. The results apply to any two solitons of any Affine Toda Field Theory. As a by-product, a general expression for the number of bound states and the values of the coupling in which the S-matrix can be diagonal are obtained. In order to arrive at these results, a vertex operator is constructed, in the principal gradation, for non-simply laced affine Lie algebras, extending the previous constructions for simply laced and twisted affine Lie algebras. (author)

  20. State and business co-operation in settling socio-economic issues: forward to sustainable development of ecologically unfavorable regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkirova, N. N.; Lessovaia, S. N.

    2018-01-01

    The complexity of socio-economic issues of mono-cities located in the ecologically unfavorable regions of Eurasia was disclosed. The economically strategic role of city-forming mining enterprises and their impact on ecological situation was revealed. The general conception of settling the socio-economic problems of mono-cities located in ecologically unfavorable regions was worked out. Various approached to the concentration of financial resources for economic and ecological sustainable development of the regions located on the north of Eurasia holding nature protection actions were submitted. Based on performed critical analysis of the positive international experience of ecological taxation some approaches to reforming current Russian system of ecological taxation were suggested. It was revealed that increasing the social responsibilities of business in the field of waste recycling, environmental protection and monitoring of ecological conditions of territories and state and business co-operation are the most efficient opportunities in settling socio-economic issues of ecologically unfavorable regions.