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Sample records for stable nanometer-sized prodrugs

  1. Fundamental science of nanometer-size clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcoxon, J.P.; Newcomer, P.P.; Samara, G.A.; Venturini, E.L.; Williamson, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    This research has produced a variety of monodisperse, nanometer-size clusters (nanoclusters for short), characterized their size and crystal structure and developed a scientific understanding of the size dependence of their physical properties. Of specific interest were the influence of quantum electronic confinement on the optical properties, magnetic properties, and dielectric properties. These properties were chosen both for their potential practical impact on various applications identified in the National Critical Technologies list (e.g., catalysis, information storage, sensors, environmental remediation, ...) as well as for their importance to the fundamental science of clusters. An Executive Summary provides a description of the major highlights.

  2. Nanometer sized structures grown by pulsed laser deposition

    KAUST Repository

    ElZein, Basma

    2015-10-01

    Nanometer sized materials can be produced by exposing a target to a laser source to remove material from the target and deposit the removed material onto a surface of a substrate to grow a thin film in a vacuum chamber

  3. Dynamics of a nanometer-sized uranyl cluster in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rene L.; Ohlin, C. Andre; Pellegrini, Kristi; Burns, Peter C.; Casey, William H.

    2013-01-01

    A class of uranyl peroxide clusters was discovered before as nanometer-sized ions that form spontaneously in aqueous solutions. The uranyl(VI) cluster investigated here is approximately 2 nm in diameter, contains 24 uranyl moieties, and 12 pyrophosphate units. NMR spectroscopy shows that the ion has two distinct forms that interconvert in milliseconds to seconds depending on the temperature and the size of the counterions. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Microscopic structure of nanometer-sized silica particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, T.; Aboshi, A.; Kohara, S.; Ohishi, Y.; Sakashita, M.; Aoki, K.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the structure of nanometer-sized silica particles called fumed silica, which is a synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide produced by burning silicon tetrachloride in an oxygen-hydrogen flame, using infrared and Raman spectroscopies and a high-energy x-ray diffraction method. It has been demonstrated that the structure of fumed silica is not identical to that of the normal bulk silica glass in terms especially of the distribution of the size of silica rings. Three- and four-membered rings are more frequent in fumed silica than in the bulk silica glass. It has also been shown that the network structure of fumed silica is more flexible than that of the bulk one, probably explaining the reason why fumed silica can accommodate a large number of three- and four-membered rings in the structure

  5. [Electronic and structural properties of individual nanometer-size supported metallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenberger, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under contract DOE-FCO2-84ER45162. During the past ten years, our study of electron emission from laser-illuminated field emission tips has taken on a broader scope by addressing problems of direct interest to those concerned with the unique physical and chemical properties of nanometer-size clusters. The work performed has demonstrated that much needed data can be obtained on individual nanometer-size clusters supported on a wide-variety of different substrates. The work was performed in collaboration with R.P. Andres in the School of Chemical Engineering at Purdue University. The Multiple Expansion Cluster Source developed by Andres and his students was essential for producing the nanometer-size clusters studied. The following report features a discussion of these results. This report provides a motivation for studying the properties of nanometer-size clusters and summarizes the results obtained

  6. [Electronic and structural properties of individual nanometer-size supported metallic clusters]. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifenberger, R.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under contract DOE-FCO2-84ER45162. During the past ten years, our study of electron emission from laser-illuminated field emission tips has taken on a broader scope by addressing problems of direct interest to those concerned with the unique physical and chemical properties of nanometer-size clusters. The work performed has demonstrated that much needed data can be obtained on individual nanometer-size clusters supported on a wide-variety of different substrates. The work was performed in collaboration with R.P. Andres in the School of Chemical Engineering at Purdue University. The Multiple Expansion Cluster Source developed by Andres and his students was essential for producing the nanometer-size clusters studied. The following report features a discussion of these results. This report provides a motivation for studying the properties of nanometer-size clusters and summarizes the results obtained.

  7. Nanometer size wear debris generated from ultra high molecular weight polyethylene in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapčíková, Monika; Šlouf, Miroslav; Dybal, Jiří; Zolotarevova, E.; Entlicher, G.; Pokorný, D.; Gallo, J.; Sosna, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 266, 1-2 (2009), s. 349-355 ISSN 0043-1648 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : ultra high molecular weight polyethylene * nanometer size wear debris * morphology of wear particles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.771, year: 2009

  8. Nanometer-sized emissions from municipal waste incinerators: A qualitative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David R., E-mail: david.r.johnson@ghd.com

    2016-12-15

    Municipal waste incinerators (MWI) are beneficial alternatives to landfills for waste management. A recent constituent of concern in emissions from these facilities is incidental nanometer-sized particles (INP{sub MWI}), i.e., particles smaller than 1 micrometer in size that may deposit in the deepest parts of the lungs, cross into the bloodstream, and affect different regions of the body. With limited data, the public may fear INP{sub MWI} due to uncertainty, which may affect public acceptance, regulatory permitting, and the increased lowering of air quality standards. Despite limited data, a qualitative risk assessment paradigm can be applied to determine the relative risk due to INP{sub MWI} emissions. This review compiles existing data on nanometer-sized particle generation by MWIs, emissions control technologies used at MWIs, emission releases into the atmosphere, human population exposure, and adverse health effects of nanometer-sized particles to generate a qualitative risk assessment and identify data gaps. The qualitative risk assessment conservatively concludes that INP{sub MWI} pose a low to moderate risk to individuals, primarily due to the lack of relevant toxicological data on INP{sub MWI} mixtures in ambient particulate matter.

  9. Obtaining of iron particles of nanometer size in a natural zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xingu C, E. G.

    2013-01-01

    The zeolites are aluminosilicates with cavities that can act as molecular sieve. Their crystalline structure is formed by tetrahedrons that get together giving place to a three-dimensional net, in which each oxygen is shared by two silicon atoms, being this way part of the tecto silicate minerals, its external and internal areas reach the hundred square meters for gram, they are located in a natural way in a large part of earth crust and also exist in a synthetic way. In Mexico there are different locations of zeolitic material whose important component is the clinoptilolite. In this work the results of three zeolitic materials coming from San Luis Potosi are shown, the samples were milled and sieved for its initial characterization, to know its chemical composition, crystalline phases, morphology, topology and thermal behavior before and after its homo-ionization with sodium chloride, its use as support of iron particles of nanometer size. The description of the synthesis of iron particles of nanometer size is also presented, as well as the comparison with the particles of nanometer size synthesized without support after its characterization. The characterization techniques used during the experimental work were: Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, specific area by means of BET and thermogravimetry analysis. (Author)

  10. Nanometer-size surface modification produced by single, low energy, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Atomically flat surfaces of insulators have been bombarded with low energy, highly charged ions to search for nanometer-size surface modifications. It is expected that the high electron deficiency of highly charged ions will capture and/or remove many of the insulator's localized electrons when impacting on an insulating surface. The resulting local electron deficiency is expected to locally disintegrate the insulator through a open-quotes Coulomb explosionclose quotes forming nanometer-size craters. Xe ions with charge states between 10+ and 45+ and kinetic energies between 0 and 10 keV/q were obtained from the KSU-CRYEBIS, a CRYogenic Electron Beam Ion Source and directed onto various insulating materials. Mica was favored as target material as atomically flat surfaces can be obtained reliably through cleaving. However, the authors observations with an atomic force microscope have shown that mica tends to defoliate locally rather than disintegrate, most likely due to the small binding forces between adjacent layers. So far the authors measurements indicate that each ion produces one blister if the charge state is sufficiently high. The blistering does not seem to depend very much on the kinetic energy of the ions

  11. Crystallographic, FTIR and optical property studies on Co doped ZnS nanometer-sized crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, V. D.; Huse, V. R.; Dole, B. N.

    2013-02-01

    Cobalt doped ZnS Semiconductor nanometer-sized crystals were synthesized by coprecipitation method at room temperature. The effect of Co doping on the structural and optical properties was investigated. XRD investigation shows Cobalt doped ZnS samples have cubic structure. The value of lattice constant of Co doped ZnS sample is greater than the pure ZnS sample. The average crystallite size was calculated by Scherrer's formula. It is found that the average crystallite size of the samples is ranging from 2-4 nm. Optical characterization of pure ZnS as well as Cobalt doped ZnS samples was carried out by UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is evident that the optical band of pure ZnS sample is smaller than that of the Co doped ZnS sample. The chemical species of the grown crystals were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  12. Mechanism of the superior mechanical strength of nanometer-sized metal single crystals revealed

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, N. D.

    2013-10-01

    Clear understanding of the superior mechanical strength of nanometer-sized metal single crystals is required to derive advanced mechanical components retaining such superiority. Although high quality studies have been reported on nano-crystalline metals, the superiority of small single crystals has neither been fundamentally explained nor quantified to this date. Here we present a molecular dynamics study of aluminum single crystals in the size range from 4.1 nm to 40.5 nm. We show that the ultimate mechanical strength deteriorates exponentially as the single crystal size increases. The small crystals superiority is explained by their ability to continuously form vacancies and to recover them. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Consolidation of nanometer-sized aluminum single crystals: Microstructure and defects evolutions

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, N. D.

    2014-04-01

    Deriving bulk materials with ultra-high mechanical strength from nanometer-sized single metalic crystals depends on the consolidation procedure. We present an accurate molecular dynamics study to quantify microstructure responses to consolidation. Aluminum single crystals with an average size up to 10.7 nm were hydrostatically compressed at temperatures up to 900 K and pressures up to 5 GPa. The consolidated material developed an average grain size that grew exponentially with the consolidation temperature, with a growth rate dependent on the starting average grain size and the consolidation pressure. The evolution of the microstructure was accompanied by a significant reduction in the concentration of defects. The ratio of vacancies to dislocation cores decreased with the average grain size and then increased after reaching a critical average grain size. The deformation mechanisms of poly-crystalline metals can be better understood in the light of the current findings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis of nanometer-sized fayalite and magnesium-iron(II) mixture olivines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kovarik, Libor; Zhang, Xin; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, Bernard Peter; Rosso, Kevin M.; Loring, John S.

    2018-04-01

    Olivines are divalent orthosilicates with important geologic, biological, and industrial significance and are typically comprised of mixtures of Mg2+ and Fe2+ ranging from forsterite (Mg2SiO4) to fayalite (Fe2SiO4). Investigating the role of Fe(II) in olivine reactivity requires the ability to synthesize olivines that are nanometer-sized, have different percentages of Mg2+ and Fe2+, and have good bulk and surface purity. This article demonstrates a new method for synthesizing nanosized fayalite and Mg-Fe mixture olivines. First, carbonaceous precursors are generated from sucrose, PVA, colloidal silica, Mg2+, and Fe3+. Second, these precursors are calcined in air to burn carbon and create mixtures of Fe(III)-oxides, forsterite, and SiO2. Finally, calcination in reducing CO-CO2 gas buffer leads to Fe(II)-rich olivines. XRD, Mössbauer, and IR analyses verify good bulk purity and composition. XPS indicates that surface iron is in its reduced Fe(II) form, and surface Si is consistent with olivine. SEM shows particle sizes predominately between 50 and 450 nm, and BET surface areas are 2.8-4.2 m2/g. STEM HAADF analysis demonstrates even distributions of Mg and Fe among the available M1 and M2 sites of the olivine crystals. These nanosized Fe(II)-rich olivines are suitable for laboratory studies with in situ probes that require mineral samples with high reactivity at short timescales.

  15. Graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor for nanometer-size on-chip temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banadaki, Yaser M.; Srivastava, Ashok; Sharifi, Safura

    2016-04-01

    Graphene has been extensively investigated as a promising material for various types of high performance sensors due to its large surface-to-volume ratio, remarkably high carrier mobility, high carrier density, high thermal conductivity, extremely high mechanical strength and high signal-to-noise ratio. The power density and the corresponding die temperature can be tremendously high in scaled emerging technology designs, urging the on-chip sensing and controlling of the generated heat in nanometer dimensions. In this paper, we have explored the feasibility of a thin oxide graphene nanoribbon (GNR) as nanometer-size temperature sensor for detecting local on-chip temperature at scaled bias voltages of emerging technology. We have introduced an analytical model for GNR FET for 22nm technology node, which incorporates both thermionic emission of high-energy carriers and band-to-band-tunneling (BTBT) of carriers from drain to channel regions together with different scattering mechanisms due to intrinsic acoustic phonons and optical phonons and line-edge roughness in narrow GNRs. The temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) of GNR FET-based temperature sensor shows approximately an order of magnitude higher TCR than large-area graphene FET temperature sensor by accurately choosing of GNR width and bias condition for a temperature set point. At gate bias VGS = 0.55 V, TCR maximizes at room temperature to 2.1×10-2 /K, which is also independent of GNR width, allowing the design of width-free GNR FET for room temperature sensing applications.

  16. Dendrimer Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya da Silva Santos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this review is to describe the importance of dendrimer prodrugs in the design of new drugs, presenting numerous applications of these nanocomposites in the pharmaceutical field. Therefore, the use of dendrimer prodrugs as carrier for drug delivery, to improve pharmacokinetic properties of prototype, to promote drug sustained-release, to increase selectivity and, consequently, to decrease toxicity, are just some examples of topics that have been extensively reported in the literature, especially in the last decade. The examples discussed here give a panel of the growing interest dendrimer prodrugs have been evoking in the scientific community.

  17. Cytomegalovirus protease targeted prodrug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabit, Hairat; Dahan, Arik; Sun, Jing; Provoda, Chester J; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Hilfinger, John H; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a prevalent virus that infects up to 90% of the population. The goal of this research is to determine if small molecular prodrug substrates can be developed for a specific HCMV encoded protease and thus achieve site-specific activation. HCMV encodes a 256 amino acid serine protease that is responsible for capsid assembly, an essential process for herpes virus production. The esterase activity of the more stable HCMV A143T/A144T protease mutant was evaluated with model p-nitrophenol (ONp) esters, Boc-Xaa-ONp (Ala, Leu, Ile, Val, Gln, Phe at the Xaa position). We demonstrate that the A143T/A144T mutant has esterase activity toward specific small ester compounds, e.g., Boc-L-Ala-ONp. Mono amino acid and dipeptide prodrugs of ganciclovir (GCV) were also synthesized and evaluated for hydrolysis by the A143T/A144T protease mutant in solution. Hydrolysis of these prodrugs was also evaluated in Caco-2 cell homogenates, human liver microsomes (HLMs), and rat and human plasma. For the selectivity potential of the prodrugs, the hydrolysis ratio was evaluated as a percentage of prodrug hydrolyzed by the HCMV protease over the percentages of prodrug hydrolyses by Caco-2 cell homogenates, HLMs, and human/rat plasma. A dipeptide prodrug of ganciclovir, Ac-l-Gln-l-Ala-GCV, emerged as a potential selective prodrug candidate. The results of this research demonstrate that targeting prodrugs for activation by a specific protease encoded by the infectious HCMV pathogen may be achievable.

  18. Efficient modification of Cu electrode with nanometer-sized copper tetracyanoquinodimethane for high performance organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chong-an; Yu, Gui; Liu, Yunqi; Guo, Yunlong; Wu, Weiping; Wei, Dacheng; Zhu, Daoben

    2008-05-07

    We report high performance organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with the modified Cu bottom-contact electrodes. Efficient modification of the Cu electrodes with nanometer-size copper tetracyanoquinodimethane (Cu-TCNQ) increases the electrode/organic layer contact area and reduces contact resistance. We investigated the effect of the Cu-TCNQ morphology on the device performance. The pentacene-based OFETs with the modified Cu bottom-contact electrodes exhibited high device performance. The field-effect mobility up to 0.31 cm(2)/V s was achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest device performance for the OFETs with the bottom Cu electrodes ever reported. Consequently, our results provide an effective approach to fabricate high performance and low-cost OFETs.

  19. Antiparkinson Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Serafina Cerasa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson`s disease (PD is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder whichinvolves the loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. Currenttherapy is essentially symptomatic, and L-Dopa (LD, the direct precursor of dopamine(DA, is the treatment of choice in more advanced stages of the disease. Substitutiontherapy with LD is, however, associated with a number of acute problems. The peripheralconversion of LD by amino acid decarboxylase (AADC to DA is responsible for thetypical gastrointestinal (nausea, emesis and cardiovascular (arrhythmia, hypotension sideeffects. To minimize the conversion to DA outside the central nervous system (CNS LD isusually given in combination with peripheral inhibitors of AADC (carbidopa andbenserazide. In spite of that, other central nervous side effects such as dyskinesia, on-offphenomenon and end-of-dose deterioration still remain. The main factors responsible forthe poor bioavailability and the wide range of inter- and intra-patient variations of plasmalevels are the drug’s physical-chemical properties: low water and lipid solubility, resultingin unfavourable partition, and the high susceptibility to chemical and enzymaticdegradation. In order to improve the bioavailability, the prodrug approach appeared to bethe most promising and some LD prodrugs have been prepared in an effort to solve theseproblems. We report here a review of progress in antiparkinson prodrugs, focusing onchemical structures mainly related to LD, DA and dopaminergic agonists.

  20. Investigation on etch characteristics of nanometer-sized magnetic tunnel junction stacks using a HBr/Ar plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ho; Xiao, Yu Bin; Kong, Seon Mi; Chung, Chee Won

    2011-07-01

    The etch characteristics of CoFeB magnetic films and magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ) stacks masked with Ti films were investigated using an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in a HBr/Ar gas mix. The etch rate, etch selectivity, and etch profile of the CoFeB films were obtained as a function of the HBr concentration. As the HBr gas was added to Ar, the etch rate of the CoFeB films, and the etch selectivity to the Ti hard mask, gradually decreased, but the etch profile of the CoFeB films was improved. The effects of the HBr concentration and etch parameters on the etch profile of the MTJ stacks with a nanometer-sized 70 x 100 nm2 pattern were explored. At 10% HBr concentration, low ICP RF power, and low DC-bias voltage, better etch profiles of the MTJ stacks were obtained without redeposition. It was confirmed that the protective layer containing hydrogen, and the surface bombardment of the Ar ions, played a key role in obtaining a steep sidewall angle in the etch profile. Fine-pattern transfer of the MTJ stacks with a high degree of anisotropy was achieved using a HBr/Ar gas chemistry.

  1. Simple and rapid spectrophotometric determination of trace titanium (IV) enriched by nanometer size zirconium dioxide in natural water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Fengying; Li Shunxing; Lin Luxiu; Cheng Liqing

    2009-01-01

    A novel method for preconcentration of Ti(IV) with nanometer size ZrO 2 and determination by spectrophotometry has been developed. Ti(IV) was selectively adsorbed on 300 mg ZrO 2 from 500 mL solution at pH 6.0, then eluted by 5 mL 11.3 mol L -1 HF. The eluent added was diantipyrylmethane (DAPM, as chromogenic reagent) and ascorbic acid (as masking agent), used for the analysis of Ti(IV) by measuring the absorbance at 390 nm with spectrophotometry, based on the chromogenic reaction between the Ti(IV) and DAPM. This method gave a concentration enhancement of 100 for 500 mL sample, eliminated the sizable interferences on direct determination with spectrophotometry. Detection limit (3σ, n = 11) of 0.1 μg L -1 was obtained. The method was applied to determine the concentration of Ti(IV) in river water and seawater and the analytical recoveries of Ti(IV) added to samples were 97.6-101.3%.

  2. PRODUCTION OF POLYANILINE COMPOSITE CONTAINING Fe2O3 AND CoO WITH NANOMETER SIZE USING HYDROXYPROPYLCELLULOSE AS A SURFACTANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSEIN EISAZADEH

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, composite of polyaniline containing Fe2O3 and CoO with nanometer size was synthesized by a chemical method using hydroxyl-propylcellulose as a surfactant. The characteristics of products such as morphology and conductivity were studied. The results indicate that, the morphology and conductivity of product are dependent on the surfactant, the type and concentration of metallic oxide.

  3. Obtaining of iron particles of nanometer size in a natural zeolite; Obtencion de particulas de hierro de tamano nanometrico en una zeolita natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xingu C, E. G.

    2013-07-01

    The zeolites are aluminosilicates with cavities that can act as molecular sieve. Their crystalline structure is formed by tetrahedrons that get together giving place to a three-dimensional net, in which each oxygen is shared by two silicon atoms, being this way part of the tecto silicate minerals, its external and internal areas reach the hundred square meters for gram, they are located in a natural way in a large part of earth crust and also exist in a synthetic way. In Mexico there are different locations of zeolitic material whose important component is the clinoptilolite. In this work the results of three zeolitic materials coming from San Luis Potosi are shown, the samples were milled and sieved for its initial characterization, to know its chemical composition, crystalline phases, morphology, topology and thermal behavior before and after its homo-ionization with sodium chloride, its use as support of iron particles of nanometer size. The description of the synthesis of iron particles of nanometer size is also presented, as well as the comparison with the particles of nanometer size synthesized without support after its characterization. The characterization techniques used during the experimental work were: Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, specific area by means of BET and thermogravimetry analysis. (Author)

  4. Development of the nano-dust analyzer (NDA) for detection and compositional analysis of nanometer-size dust particles originating in the inner heliosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, L; Auer, S; Gemer, A; Grün, E; Horanyi, M; Juhasz, A; Kempf, S; Malaspina, D; Mocker, A; Moebius, E; Srama, R; Sternovsky, Z

    2014-03-01

    A linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer is developed for the detection and chemical analysis of nanometer-sized particles originating near the Sun. Nano-dust particles are thought to be produced by mutual collisions between interplanetary dust particles slowly spiraling toward the Sun and are accelerated outward to high velocities by interaction with the solar wind plasma. The WAVES instruments on the two STEREO spacecraft reported the detection, strong temporal variation, and potentially high flux of these particles. Here we report on the optimization and the results from the detailed characterization of the instrument's performance using submicrometer sized dust particles accelerated to 8-60 km/s. The Nano Dust Analyzer (NDA) concept is derived from previously developed detectors. It has a 200 cm(2) effective target area and a mass resolution of approximately m/Δm = 50. The NDA instrument is designed to reliably detect and analyze nanometer-sized dust particles while being pointed close to the Sun's direction, from where they are expected to arrive. Measurements by such an instrument will determine the size-dependent flux of the nano-dust particles and its variations, it will characterize the composition of the nano-dust and, ultimately, it may determine their source. The flight version of the NDA instrument is estimated to be <5 kg and requires <10 W for operation.

  5. Prodrugs in Cardiovascular Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Tabrizian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Prodrugs are biologically inactive derivatives of an active drug intended to solve certain problems of the parent drug such as toxicity, instability, minimal solubility and non-targeting capabilities. The majority of drugs for cardiovascular diseases undergo firstpass metabolism, resulting in drug inactivation and generation of toxic metabolites, which makes them appealing targets for prodrug design. Since prodrugs undergo a chemical reaction to form the parent drug once inside the body, this makes them very effective in controlling the release of a variety of compounds to the targeted site. This review will provide the reader with an insight on the latest developments of prodrugs that are available for treating a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we will focus on several drug delivery methodologies that have merged with the prodrug approach to provide enhanced target specificity and controlled drug release with minimal side effects.

  6. Hypoxia-targeting antitumor prodrugs and photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhouen; Nishimoto, S.I.

    2006-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been identified as a key subject for tumor therapy, since hypoxic tumor cells show resistance to treatment of tumor tissues by radiotherapy, chemotherapy and phototherapy. For improvement of tumor radiotherapy, we have proposed a series of radiation-activated prodrugs that could selectively release antitumor agent 5-fluorouracil or 5-fluorodeoxyuridine under hypoxic conditions. Recently, we attempted to develop two families of novel hypoxia-targeting antitumor agents, considering that tumor-hypoxic environment is favorable to biological and photochemical reductions. The first family of prodrugs was derived from camptothecin as a potent topoisomerase I inhibitor and several bioreductive motifs. These prodrugs could be activated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase or DT-diaphorase to release free camptothecin, and thereby showed hypoxia-selective cytotoxictiy towards tumor cells. These prodrugs were also applicable to the real-time monitoring of activation and antitumor effect by fluorometry. Furthermore, the camptothecin-bioreductive motif conjugates was confirmed to show an oxygen-independent DAN photocleaving activity, which could overcome a drawback of back electron transfer occurring in the photosensitized one-electron oxidation of DNA. Thus, these camptothecin derivatives could be useful to both chemotherapy and phototherapy for hypoxic tumor cells. The second family of prodrugs harnessed UV light for cancer therapy, incorporating the antitumor agent 5-fluorourcil and the photolabile 2-nitrobenzyl chromophores. The attachment of a tumor-homing cyclic peptide CNGRC was also employed to construct the prototype of tumor-targeting photoactiaved antitumor prodrug. These novel prodrugs released high yield of 5-fluorourcil upon UV irradiation at λ ex =365 nm, while being quite stable in the dark. The photoactivation mechanism was also clarified by means of nanosecond laser flash photolysis. (authors)

  7. Current prodrug strategies for improving oral absorption of nucleoside analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youxi Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside analogues are first line chemotherapy in various severe diseases: AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome, cytomegalovirus infections, cancer, etc. However, many nucleoside analogues exhibit poor oral bioavailability because of their high polarity and low intestinal permeability. In order to get around this drawback, prodrugs have been utilized to improve lipophilicity by chemical modification of the parent drug. Alternatively, prodrugs targeting transporters present in the intestine have been applied to promote the transport of the nucleoside analogues. Valacyclovir and valganciclovir are two classic valine ester prodrugs transported by oligopeptide transporter 1. The ideal prodrug achieves delivery of a parent drug by attaching a non-toxic moiety that is stable during transport, but is readily degraded to the parent drug once at the target. This article presents advances of prodrug approaches for enhancing oral absorption of nucleoside analogues.

  8. Cyclization-activated Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Moreira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Many drugs suffer from an extensive first-pass metabolism leading to druginactivation and/or production of toxic metabolites, which makes them attractive targets forprodrug design. The classical prodrug approach, which involves enzyme-sensitive covalentlinkage between the parent drug and a carrier moiety, is a well established strategy toovercome bioavailability/toxicity issues. However, the development of prodrugs that canregenerate the parent drug through non-enzymatic pathways has emerged as an alternativeapproach in which prodrug activation is not influenced by inter- and intraindividualvariability that affects enzymatic activity. Cyclization-activated prodrugs have beencapturing the attention of medicinal chemists since the middle-1980s, and reached maturityin prodrug design in the late 1990s. Many different strategies have been exploited in recentyears concerning the development of intramoleculary-activated prodrugs spanning fromanalgesics to anti-HIV therapeutic agents. Intramolecular pathways have also a key role intwo-step prodrug activation, where an initial enzymatic cleavage step is followed by acyclization-elimination reaction that releases the active drug. This wor

  9. Study of the stability of the nanometer-sized oxides dispersed in ODS steels under ion irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescoat, M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Ferritic-Martensitic (FM) alloys are expected to play an important role as cladding materials in Generation IV sodium fast reactors operating in extreme temperature (400-500 C) and irradiation conditions (up to 200 dpa). Since nano-oxides give ODS steels their high temperature strength, the stability of these particles is an important issue. The present study evaluates the radiation response of nano-oxides by the use of in-situ and ex-situ ion irradiations performed on both Fe18Cr1W0,4Ti +0,3 Y 2 O 3 and Fe18Cr1W0,4Ti + 0.3 MgO ODS steels. In particular, the results showed that Y-Ti-O nano-oxides are quite stable under very high irradiation dose, namely 219 dpa at 500 C, and that the oxide interfacial structures are likely playing an important role on the behavior under irradiation (oxide stability and point defect recombination. (author) [fr

  10. Amino Acid Carbamates As Prodrugs Of Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarei, Andrea; Azzolini, Michele; La Spina, Martina; Zoratti, Mario; Paradisi, Cristina; Biasutto, Lucia

    2015-10-14

    Resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a plant polyphenol, has important drug-like properties, but its pharmacological exploitation in vivo is hindered by its rapid transformation via phase II conjugative metabolism. One approach to bypass this problem relies on prodrugs. We report here the synthesis, characterization, stability and in vivo pharmacokinetic behaviour of prodrugs of resveratrol in which the OH groups are engaged in an N-monosubstituted carbamate ester (-OC(O)NHR) linkage with a natural amino acid (Leu, Ile, Phe, Thr) to prevent conjugation and modulate the physicochemical properties of the molecule. We also report a convenient, high-yield protocol to obtain derivatives of this type. The new carbamate ester derivatives are stable at pH 1, while they undergo slow hydrolysis at physiological pH and hydrolyse with kinetics suitable for use in prodrugs in whole blood. After administration to rats by oral gavage the isoleucine-containing prodrug was significantly absorbed, and was present in the bloodstream as non-metabolized unaltered or partially deprotected species, demonstrating effective shielding from first-pass metabolism. We conclude that prodrugs based on the N-monosubstituted carbamate ester bond have the appropriate stability profile for the systemic delivery of phenolic compounds.

  11. Photoinduced non-linear optical effects in the ZnS-Al, In-Sn doped film-glass nanometer-sized interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kityk, I.V.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Ebothe, J.; El Hichou, A.; El Idrissi, B.; Addou, M.

    2002-01-01

    The effective nanometer-sized thin layer (about 1-2 nm) located between a crystalline ZnS film and glass substrate is studied here using photoinduced optical and second-order non-linear optical (second harmonic generation (SHG) and electrooptics effects) techniques. A photoinduced shift of the effective energy gap is found for the first time in ZnS films doped with the same amount (4 at.%) of different elements, namely, In, Al and Sn. The photoinduced second-order non-linear optical properties (linear electrooptics (LEO) and SHG) of the specimens show a good correlation with the corresponding features of the linear optical susceptibilities, particularly, the imaginary part of dielectric susceptibility near the absorption edge. The maximal response of the photoinduced signal is observed for the pump-probe delaying time of about 20 ps. The performed experimental measurements indicate that the observed effects are stimulated by two factors: the first one is connected with the interface potential gradients at the glass-ZnS film boarder; the second one is a consequence of the additional polarization due to the insertion of Al, In and Sn atoms. The observed phenomenon may be proposed as a sensitive tool for investigation of thin semiconducting-glass interface layer. Moreover, such nanolayers may be applied in quantum electronic devices

  12. Peri-Implant Endosseous Healing Properties of Dual Acid-Etched Mini-Implants with a Nanometer-Sized Deposition of CaP : A Histological and Histomorphometric Human Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; Albrektsson, Tomas; Hoffman, Maria; Johansson, Carina B.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this histological and histomorphometric study was to compare the early peri-implant endosseous healing properties of a dual acid-etched (DAE) surface (Osseotite (R), Implant Innovations Inc., Palm Beach Gardens, FL, USA) with a DAE surface modified with nanometer-sized calcium

  13. In situ trapping of As, Sb and Se hydrides on nanometer-sized ceria-coated iron oxide-silica and slurry suspension introduction to ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dados, A; Kartsiouli, E; Chatzimitakos, Th; Papastephanou, C; Stalikas, C D

    2014-12-01

    A procedure is developed for the analysis of sub-μg L(-1) levels of arsenic, antimony and selenium after preconcentration of their hydrides. The study highlights the capability of an aqueous suspension of a nanometer-sized magnetic ceria, in the presence of iodide, to function as a sorbent for the in situ trapping and preconcentration of the hydrides of certain metalloids. After extraction, the material is magnetically separated from the trapping solution and analyzed. A slurry suspension sampling approach with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) is employed for measurements, as the quantitative elution of the adsorbed metalloids is not feasible. The whole analytical procedure consists of five steps: (i) pre-reduction of As, Sb and Se, (ii) generation of the hydrides AsH3, SbH3 and SeH2, (iii) in situ collection in the trapping suspension of magnetic ceria, (iv) isolation of the particles by applying a magnetic field, and (v) measurement of As, Sb and Se concentrations using ICP-OES. Under the established experimental conditions, the efficiency of trapping accounted for 94 ± 2%, 89 ± 2% and 98 ± 3% for As, Sb and Se, respectively, signifying the effective implementation of the overall procedure. The applicability of the procedure has been demonstrated by analyzing tap and lake water and a reference material (soft drinking water). The obtained analytical figures of merit were satisfactory for the analysis of the above metalloids in natural waters by ICP-OES. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The preformulation stability studies of a proline prodrug of methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Ann; Wu, Zhiqian; Yuan, Xudong

    2012-07-01

    In order to reduce toxicity of methotrexate and improve bioavailability, permeability, and explore other delivery routes, a proline prodrug of methotrexate was synthesized and preformulation stability studies were conducted under accelerated conditions to assess compound liability and possible conversion to the parent drug. Forced degradation studies showed that the prodrug will degrade in the presence of water, acid, and heat (70 °C), generating the parent compound methotrexate. It was also found that this conversion is temperature dependent. In addition, the prodrug is extremely light and oxidative labile. Therefore, future formulation studies should be light protected and stabilized by a suitable antioxidant. It was also found that the prodrug is stable in the HPLC diluent, consisting of water and acetonitrile; stored bench-top and protected from light for up to two weeks.

  15. Macromolecular prodrugs of ribavirin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anton Allen Abbotsford; Zuwala, Kaja; Kryger, Mille

    2015-01-01

    -infection increasingly challenging. Herein we report the first design of macromolecular prodrugs (MP) with concurrent success in fighting HIV and alleviating hepatitis (liver inflammation). To achieve this, polymer compositions were systematically screened in a broad range of molar mass and content of ribavirin...

  16. Chemical and enzymatic stability of amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Sheeba Varghese; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the chemical and enzymatic stabilities of prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers in order to find a suitable linker for prodrugs of carboxylic acids with amino acids. l-Valine and l-phenylalanine prodrugs of model compounds (benzoic acid and phenyl acetic acid) containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers were synthesized. The hydrolysis rate profile of each compound was studied at physiologically relevant pHs (1.2, 4, 6 and 7.4). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing compounds was studied using Caco-2 homogenate as well as purified enzyme valacyclovirase. It was observed that the stability of the prodrugs increases with the linker length (propyl > ethyl > methyl). The model prodrugs were stable at acidic pH as compared to basic pH. It was observed that the prodrug with the aliphatic amino acid promoiety was more stable compared to its aromatic counterpart. The comparison between benzyl and the phenyl model compounds revealed that the amino acid side chain is significant in determining the stability of the prodrug whereas the benzyl or phenyl carboxylic acid had little or no effect on the stability. The enzymatic activation studies of propylene glycol linker prodrug in the presence of valacyclovirase and cell homogenate showed faster generation of the parent drug at pH 7.4. The half-life of prodrugs at pH 7.4 was more than 12 h, whereas in the presence of cell homogenate the half-lives were less than 1 h. Hydrolysis by Caco-2 homogenate generated the parent compound in two steps, where the prodrug was first converted to the intermediate, propylene glycol benzoate, which was then converted to the parent compound (benzoic acid). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing prodrugs by valacyclovirase showed hydrolysis of the amino acid ester part to generate the propylene glycol ester of model compound (propylene glycol benzoate) as the major product. The amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy

  17. Novel biotinylated lipid prodrugs of acyclovir for the treatment of herpetic keratitis (HK): transporter recognition, tissue stability and antiviral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Earla, Ravinder; Sirimulla, Suman; Bailey, Jake Brain; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2013-08-01

    Biotinylated lipid prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) were designed to target the sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) on the cornea to facilitate enhanced cellular absorption of ACV. All the prodrugs were screened for in vitro cellular uptake, interaction with SMVT, docking analysis, cytotoxicity, enzymatic stability and antiviral activity. Uptake of biotinylated lipid prodrugs of ACV (B-R-ACV and B-12HS-ACV) was significantly higher than biotinylated prodrug (B-ACV), lipid prodrugs (R-ACV and 12HS-ACV) and ACV in corneal cells. Transepithelial transport across rabbit corneas indicated the recognition of the prodrugs by SMVT. Average Vina scores obtained from docking studies further confirmed that biotinylated lipid prodrugs possess enhanced affinity towards SMVT. All the prodrugs studied did not cause any cytotoxicity and were found to be safe and non-toxic. B-R-ACV and B-12HS-ACV were found to be relatively more stable in ocular tissue homogenates and exhibited excellent antiviral activity. Biotinylated lipid prodrugs demonstrated synergistic improvement in cellular uptake due to recognition of the prodrugs by SMVT on the cornea and lipid mediated transcellular diffusion. These biotinylated lipid prodrugs appear to be promising drug candidates for the treatment of herpetic keratitis (HK) and may lower ACV resistance in patients with poor clinical response.

  18. Synthesis, Bioevaluation and Molecular Dynamic Simulation Studies of Dexibuprofen–Antioxidant Mutual Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Ashraf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dexibuprofen–antioxidant conjugates were synthesized with the aim to reduce its gastrointestinal effects. The esters analogs of dexibuprofen 5a–c were obtained by reacting its –COOH group with chloroacetyl derivatives 3a–c. The in vitro hydrolysis data confirmed that synthesized prodrugs 5a–c were stable in stomach while undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free dexibuprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2 suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to stomach than dexibuprofen. The anti-inflammatory activity of 5c (p < 0.001 is more significant than the parent dexibuprofen. The prodrug 5c produced maximum inhibition (42.06% of paw-edema against egg-albumin induced inflammation in mice. Anti-pyretic effects in mice indicated that prodrugs 5a and 5b showed significant inhibition of pyrexia (p < 0.001. The analgesic activity of 5a is more pronounced compared to other synthesized prodrugs. The mean percent inhibition indicated that the prodrug 5a was more active in decreasing the number of writhes induced by acetic acid than standard dexibuprofen. The ulcerogenic activity results assured that synthesized prodrugs produce less gastrointestinal adverse effects than dexibuprofen. The ex vivo antiplatelet aggregation activity results also confirmed that synthesized prodrugs are less irritant to gastrointestinal mucosa than the parent dexibuprofen. Molecular docking analysis showed that the prodrugs 5a–c interacts with the residues present in active binding sites of target protein. The stability of drug–target complexes is verified by molecular dynamic simulation study. It exhibited that synthesized prodrugs formed stable complexes with the COX-2 protein thus support our wet lab results. It is therefore concluded that the synthesized prodrugs have promising pharmacological activities with reduced gastrointestinal adverse effects than the parent drug.

  19. The dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine-feasibility of orally administrable nucleoside analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Borras Bermejo, Blanca; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-01-27

    Dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine were synthesized. Their chemical stability in buffers, enzymatic stability in cell homogenates, permeability in mouse intestinal membrane along with drug concentration in mouse plasma, and anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells were determined and compared to their parent drugs. Floxuridine prodrug was more enzymatically stable than floxuridine and the degradation from prodrug to parent drug works as the rate-limiting step. On the other hand, gemcitabine prodrug was less enzymatically stable than gemcitabine. Those dipeptide monoester prodrugs exhibited 2.4- to 48.7-fold higher uptake than their parent drugs in Caco-2, Panc-1, and AsPC-1 cells. Floxuridine and gemcitabine prodrugs showed superior permeability in mouse jejunum to their parent drugs and exhibited the higher drug concentration in plasma after in situ mouse perfusion. Cell proliferation assays in ductal pancreatic cancer cells, AsPC-1 and Panc-1, indicated that dipeptide prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine were more potent than their parent drugs. The enhanced potency of nucleoside analogs was attributed to their improved membrane permeability. The prodrug forms of 5¢-L-phenylalanyl-l-tyrosyl-floxuridine and 5¢-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosyl-gemcitabine appeared in mouse plasma after the permeation of intestinal membrane and the first-pass effect, suggesting their potential for the development of oral dosage form for anti-cancer agents.

  20. The Dipeptide Monoester Prodrugs of Floxuridine and Gemcitabine—Feasibility of Orally Administrable Nucleoside Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Tsume

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine were synthesized. Their chemical stability in buffers, enzymatic stability in cell homogenates, permeability in mouse intestinal membrane along with drug concentration in mouse plasma, and anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells were determined and compared to their parent drugs. Floxuridine prodrug was more enzymatically stable than floxuridine and the degradation from prodrug to parent drug works as the rate-limiting step. On the other hand, gemcitabine prodrug was less enzymatically stable than gemcitabine. Those dipeptide monoester prodrugs exhibited 2.4- to 48.7-fold higher uptake than their parent drugs in Caco-2, Panc-1, and AsPC-1 cells. Floxuridine and gemcitabine prodrugs showed superior permeability in mouse jejunum to their parent drugs and exhibited the higher drug concentration in plasma after in situ mouse perfusion. Cell proliferation assays in ductal pancreatic cancer cells, AsPC-1 and Panc-1, indicated that dipeptide prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine were more potent than their parent drugs. The enhanced potency of nucleoside analogs was attributed to their improved membrane permeability. The prodrug forms of 5¢-L-phenylalanyl-l-tyrosyl-floxuridine and 5¢-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosyl-gemcitabine appeared in mouse plasma after the permeation of intestinal membrane and the first-pass effect, suggesting their potential for the development of oral dosage form for anti-cancer agents.

  1. The Dipeptide Monoester Prodrugs of Floxuridine and Gemcitabine—Feasibility of Orally Administrable Nucleoside Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Bermejo, Blanca Borras; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2014-01-01

    Dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine were synthesized. Their chemical stability in buffers, enzymatic stability in cell homogenates, permeability in mouse intestinal membrane along with drug concentration in mouse plasma, and anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells were determined and compared to their parent drugs. Floxuridine prodrug was more enzymatically stable than floxuridine and the degradation from prodrug to parent drug works as the rate-limiting step. On the other hand, gemcitabine prodrug was less enzymatically stable than gemcitabine. Those dipeptide monoester prodrugs exhibited 2.4- to 48.7-fold higher uptake than their parent drugs in Caco-2, Panc-1, and AsPC-1 cells. Floxuridine and gemcitabine prodrugs showed superior permeability in mouse jejunum to their parent drugs and exhibited the higher drug concentration in plasma after in situ mouse perfusion. Cell proliferation assays in ductal pancreatic cancer cells, AsPC-1 and Panc-1, indicated that dipeptide prodrugs of floxuridine and gemcitabine were more potent than their parent drugs. The enhanced potency of nucleoside analogs was attributed to their improved membrane permeability. The prodrug forms of 5′-l-phenylalanyl-l-tyrosyl-floxuridine and 5′-l-phenylalanyl-l-tyrosyl-gemcitabine appeared in mouse plasma after the permeation of intestinal membrane and the first-pass effect, suggesting their potential for the development of oral dosage form for anti-cancer agents. PMID:24473270

  2. Drug Delivery by an Enzyme-Mediated Cyclization of a Lipid Prodrug with Unique Bilayer-Formation Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Lars; Peters, Günther H.j.; Madsen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Special delivery: Liposomal drug-delivery systems in which prodrugs are activated specifically by disease-associated enzymes have great potential for the treatment of severe diseases, such as cancer. A new type of phospholipid-based prodrug has the ability to form stable small unilamellar vesicle...... (see picture). Activation of the prodrug vesicles by the enzyme sPLA2 initiates a cyclization reaction, which leads to the release of the drug....

  3. Colon-specific prodrugs of 5-radioiodo-2`-deoxyuridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowska-Kortylewicz, J. [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kortylewicz, Z.P. [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Hoffman, D. [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Winoto, A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Lai, J. [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Dalrymple, G.V. [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1996-12-31

    Two glycoside-based prodrugs, {sup 125}IUdR-5`-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside and {sup 125}IUdR-5`-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside, were synthesized. This selection was dictated by the abundance of appropriate enzymes in the GI tract of mice and similar levels of {beta}-D-glycosidases in human and rodent large intestine. Studies to establish the ability of colonic microflora to release {sup 125}IUdR were conducted in vitro and in Swiss Webster mice. Both prodrugs released {sup 125}IUdR in the presence of the corresponding enzymes or the GI content homogenates in vitro, and in vivo. Luminal enzymes in the proximal and distal small intestine in mice degraded less than 10% of each prodrug whereas enzymes from the colonic/caecal lumen of mice released nearly 100% of {sup 125}IUdR. {sup 125}IUdR freed by bacterial glycosidases was stable in the GI content. No significant amounts of other metabolites or deiodination products were observed. Total radioactivity recovered as by-products was less than 10%. The efflux of prodrugs from the GI tract after oral administration in mice was slow and limited. Unlike {sup 125}IUdR, prodrugs were not dehalogenated in vivo as indicated by biodistribution and imaging studies. (orig.).

  4. Ketobemidone prodrugs for buccal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Bundgaard, H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of studies aiming at developing a ketobemidone prodrug suitable for buccal or sublingual administration, the potential impact of saliva enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of various ester prodrugs was assessed. The hydrolysis of three ketobemidone esters in human whole saliva, obtained under con...... in the mouth and their rate of disintegration were shown to have some influence on the rate of saliva secretion and hence on saliva esterase activity but not to an extent compromising the efficient buccal or sublingual delivery of the ketobemidone prodrugs....

  5. Flurbiprofen derivatives in Alzheimer's disease: synthesis, pharmacokinetic and biological assessment of lipoamino acid prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, Rosario; Pantò, Valentina; Salmaso, Stefano; Bersani, Sara; Pistarà, Venerando; Kepe, Vladimir; Barrio, Jorge R; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Flurbiprofen (FLU) lipophilic prodrugs with lipoamino acids (LAA) 6a- e were synthesized for brain delivery. Chemical and plasmatic stability of prodrugs 6a- e as well as pharmacokinetic distribution studies for the prodrugs 6b and 6d were carried out. FLU prodrugs 6a- e were compared to the parent drug for their ability to inhibit binding of [F-18]FDDNP to in vitro formed beta-amyloid protein (Abeta fibrils). FLU-LAA conjugates showed a typical prodrug stability profile, being stable in PBS at pH 7.4 and releasing the active drug in plasma. Compound 6d yielded a slow accumulation of FLU in the brain. In the in vitro inhibition assay, all prodrugs except for the prodrug with the longest alkyl side chain ( 6e) were effective as inhibitors of [F-18]FDDNP binding to Abeta fibrils with EC50 values in the 10-300 nM range. The different brain accumulation kinetics shown by FLU and its LAA conjugate 6d suggested a possible slow-releasing activity of FLU by these prodrugs in the brain or a differential pharmacological effect deserving further, detailed studies on their biodistribution and pharmacological profile.

  6. Prodrug Strategy in Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal Kelemen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prodrugs are chemically modified derivatives introduced in therapy due to their advantageous physico-chemical properties (greater stability, improved solubility, increased permeability, used in inactive form. Biological effect is exerted by the active derivatives formed in organism through chemical transformation (biotransformation. Currently, 10% of pharmaceutical products are used as prodrugs, nearly half of them being converted to active form by hydrolysis, mainly by ester hydrolysis. The use of prodrugs aims to improve the bioavailability of compounds in order to resolve some unfavorable characteristics and to reduce first-pass metabolism. Other objectives are to increase drug absorption, to extend duration of action or to achieve a better tissue/organ selective transport in case of non-oral drug delivery forms. Prodrugs can be characterized by chemical structure, activation mechanism or through the presence of certain functional groups suitable for their preparation. Currently we distinguish in therapy traditional prodrugs prepared by chemical derivatisation, bioprecursors and targeted delivery systems. The present article is a review regarding the introduction and applications of prodrug design in various areas of drug development.

  7. Colchicine prodrugs and codrugs: Chemistry and bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawanmeh, Abdullah A; Chong, Kwok Feng; Sarkar, Shaheen M; Bakar, Muntaz Abu; Othaman, Rizafizah; Khalid, Rozida M

    2018-01-20

    Antimitotic colchicine possesses low therapeutic index due to high toxicity effects in non-target cell. However, diverse colchicine analogs have been derivatized as intentions for toxicity reduction and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studying. Hybrid system of colchicine structure with nontoxic biofunctional compounds modified further affords a new entity in chemical structure with enhanced activity and selectivity. Moreover, nanocarrier formulation strategies have been used for colchicine delivery. This review paper focuses on colchicine nanoformulation, chemical synthesis of colchicine prodrugs and codrugs with different linkers, highlights linker chemical nature and biological activity of synthesized compounds. Additionally, classification of colchicine prodrugs based on type of conjugates is discussed, as biopolymers prodrugs, fluorescent prodrug, metal complexes prodrug, metal-labile prodrug and bioconjugate prodrug. Finally, we briefly summarized the biological importance of colchicine nanoformulation, colchicine prodrugs and codrugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Substrate mediated enzyme prodrug therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Fejerskov

    Full Text Available In this report, we detail Substrate Mediated Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (SMEPT as a novel approach in drug delivery which relies on enzyme-functionalized cell culture substrates to achieve a localized conversion of benign prodrug(s into active therapeutics with subsequent delivery to adhering cells or adjacent tissues. For proof-of-concept SMEPT, we use surface adhered micro-structured physical hydrogels based on poly(vinyl alcohol, β-glucuronidase enzyme and glucuronide prodrugs. We demonstrate enzymatic activity mediated by the assembled hydrogel samples and illustrate arms of control over rate of release of model fluorescent cargo. SMEPT was not impaired by adhering cells and afforded facile time - and dose - dependent uptake of the in situ generated fluorescent cargo by hepatic cells, HepG2. With the use of a glucuronide derivative of an anticancer drug, SN-38, SMEPT afforded a decrease in cell viability to a level similar to that achieved using parent drug. Finally, dose response was achieved using SMEPT and administration of judiciously chosen concentration of SN-38 glucuronide prodrug thus revealing external control over drug delivery using drug eluting surface. We believe that this highly adaptable concept will find use in diverse biomedical applications, specifically surface mediated drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  9. Preformulation studies of a prodrug of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumma, Sridhar; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Gul, Waseem; Repka, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Preformulation studies were performed on a hemiglutarate ester prodrug of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-HG), to facilitate the development of stable formulations by hot-melt methods. The various studies performed included solid-state thermal characterization, pKa, logP, aqueous and pH dependent solubility, pH stability and effect of moisture, temperature and oxygen on solid-state stability. A hot-melt method was utilized to fabricate THC-HG incorporated poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) matrices and the bioadhesive properties, release profiles and post-processing stability of these matrices were assessed as a function of the polymer molecular weight. The prodrug exhibited a T (g) close to 0 degrees C, indicating its amorphous nature. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a rapid weight loss after 170 degrees C. The prodrug exhibited a seven-fold higher aqueous solubility as compared to the parent drug (THC). Also, the solubility of the compound increased with increasing pH, being maximum at pH 8. The prodrug exhibited a v-shaped pH-rate profile, with the degradation rate minimum between pH 3 and 4. The moisture uptake and drug degradation increased with an increase in relative humidity. Solid-state stability indicated that the prodrug was stable at -18 degrees C but demonstrated higher degradation at 4 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C (51.6%, 74.5% and 90.1%, respectively) at the end of 3-months. THC-HG was found to be sensitive to the presence of oxygen. The release of the active from the polymeric matrices decreased, while bioadhesion increased, with an increase in molecular weight of PEO.

  10. Nanometer-sized ceria-coated silica-iron oxide for the reagentless microextraction/preconcentration of heavy metals in environmental and biological samples followed by slurry introduction to ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dados, A; Paparizou, E; Eleftheriou, P; Papastephanou, C; Stalikas, C D

    2014-04-01

    A slurry suspension sampling technique is developed and optimized for the rapid microextraction of heavy metals and analysis using nanometer-sized ceria-coated silica-iron oxide particles and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Magnetic-silica material is synthesized by a co-precipitation and sol-gel method followed by ceria coating through a precipitation. The large particles are removed using a sedimentation-fractionation procedure and a magnetic homogeneous colloidal suspension of ceria-modified iron oxide-silica is produced for microextraction. The nanometer-sized particles are separated from the sample solution magnetically and analyzed with ICP-OES using a slurry suspension sampling approach. The ceria-modified iron oxide-silica does not contain any organic matter and this probably justifies the absence of matrix effect on plasma atomization capacity, when increased concentrations of slurries are aspirated. The As, Be, Mo, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Sb, Se and V can be preconcentrated by the proposed method at pH 6.0 while Mn, Cd, Co and Ni require a pH ≥ 8.0. Satisfactory values are obtained for the relative standard deviations (2-6%), recoveries (88-102%), enrichment factors (14-19) and regression correlation coefficients as well as detectability, at sub-μg L(-1) levels. The applicability of magnetic ceria for the microextraction of metal ions in combination with the slurry introduction technique using ICP is substantiated by the analysis of environmental water and urine samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A New Classification of Prodrugs: Regulatory Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Meng Wu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many therapeutic agents are manufactured and administered in prodrug forms. In this paper, a new classification system for prodrugs is proposed to provide useful information about where in the body a prodrug is converted to the active drug. In this system, prodrugs are classified into Type I or Type II and the respective Subtypes IA, IB, IIA, IIB or IIC based on their sites of conversion into the final active drug form. For Type I prodrugs, conversion occurs intracellularly (e.g., antiviral nucleoside analogs, lipid-lowering statins, whereas conversion of Type II prodrugs occurs extracellularly, for examples in digestive fluids, systemic circulation or other extracellular body fluids (e.g., etoposide phosphate, valganciclovir, fosamprenavir. Type IA prodrugs refer to those that are converted at the cellular targets of therapeutic actions, whereas Type IB prodrugs’ conversion occurs in the primary metabolic tissues such as liver, gut, or lung. For Type II prodrugs, the conversion process could either take place extracellularly in the milieu of gastrointestinal fluids (Type IIA, in the systemic circulation and/or other systemic extracellular fluid compartments (Type IIB, or near therapeutical target cells (Type IIC. A prodrug may belong to multiple categories and be recognized as a Mixed-Type prodrug. For example a prodrug may be converted both in target cells and metabolic tissues such as liver (i.e., named as a Type IA/IB prodrug, or one converted in both GI fluids and systemic circulations (i.e., named as a Type IIA/IIB prodrug. The Mixed-Type compound can be further distinguished as a Parallel Mixed-Type or Sequential Mixed-Type prodrug depending on the conversion processes that proceed with, either in concurrent or in sequential steps. Because traditional analysis of drug actions has always been focused on the site of action and mode of action, the proposed classification of prodrugs based on cellular locations of conversion is in line with

  12. Substrate mediated enzyme prodrug therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Betina; Jarlstad Olesen, Morten T; Zelikin, Alexander N

    2017-01-01

    Substrate mediated enzyme prodrug therapy (SMEPT) is a biomedical platform developed to perform a localized synthesis of drugs mediated by implantable biomaterials. This approach combines the benefits and at the same time offers to overcome the drawbacks for traditional pill-based drug administra......Substrate mediated enzyme prodrug therapy (SMEPT) is a biomedical platform developed to perform a localized synthesis of drugs mediated by implantable biomaterials. This approach combines the benefits and at the same time offers to overcome the drawbacks for traditional pill-based drug...

  13. The development of orally administrable gemcitabine prodrugs with D-enantiomer amino acids: enhanced membrane permeability and enzymatic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Incecayir, Tuba; Song, Xueqin; Hilfinger, John M; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-04-01

    Gemcitabine prodrugs with D- and L-configuration amino acids were synthesized and their chemical stability in buffers, resistance to glycosidic bond metabolism, enzymatic activation, permeability in Caco-2 cells and mouse intestinal membrane, anti-proliferation activity in cancer cell were determined and compared to that of parent drug, gemcitabine. Prodrugs containing D-configuration amino acids were enzymatically more stable than ones with L-configuration amino acids. The activation of all gemcitabine prodrugs was 1.3-17.6-fold faster in cancer cell homogenate than their hydrolysis in buffer, suggesting enzymatic action. The enzymatic activation of amino acid monoester prodrugs containing D-configuration amino acids in cell homogenates was 2.2-10.9-fold slower than one of amino acid monoester prodrugs with L-configuration amino acids. All prodrugs exhibited enhanced resistance to glycosidic bond metabolism by thymidine phosphorylase compared to parent gemcitabine. Gemcitabine prodrugs showed superior the effective permeability in mouse jejunum to gemcitabine. More importantly, the high plasma concentration of d-amino acid gemcitabine prodrugs was observed more than one of L-amino acid gemcitabine prodrugs. In general, the 5'-mono-amino acid monoester gemcitabine prodrugs exhibited higher permeability and uptake than their parent drug, gemcitabine. Cell proliferation assays in AsPC-1 pancreatic ductal cell line indicated that gemcitabine prodrugs were more potent than their parent drug, gemcitabine. The transport and enzymatic profiles of 5'-D-valyl-gemcitabine and 5'-D-phenylalanyl-gemcitabine suggest their potential for increased oral uptake and delayed enzymatic bioconversion as well as enhanced uptake and cytotoxic activity in cancer cells, would facilitate the development of oral dosage form for anti-cancer agents and, hence, improve the quality of life for the cancer patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Photoreduction of 99Tc Pertechnetate by Nanometer-Sized Metal Oxides: New Strategies for Formation and Sequestration of Low-Valent Technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton-Pye, Benjamin P. [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States); Radivojevic, Ivana [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States); McGregor, Donna [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Graduate Center; Mbomekalle, Israel M. [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States); Lukens, Wayne W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Francesconi, Lynn C. [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Graduate Center

    2011-11-23

    Technetium-99 (99Tc)(β-max: 293.7 keV; t1/2: 2.1 x 105 years) is a byproduct of uranium-235 fission and comprises a large component of radioactive waste. Under aerobic conditions and in a neutral- basic environment, the pertechnetate anion (99TcO4-) is stable. 99TcO4- is very soluble, migrates easily through the environment and does not sorb well onto mineral surfaces, soils or sediments. This study moves forward a new strategy for the reduction of TcO4- and chemical incorporation of the reduced 99Tc into a metal oxide material. This strategy employs a single material, a polyoxometalate (POM), α2-[P2W17O61]10-, that can be photoactivated in the presence of 2-propanol to transfer electrons to TcO4- and incorporate the reduced 99Tc covalently into the α2- framework to form the TcVO species, TcVO(α2-P2W17O61)7-. This occurs via the formation of an intermediate species that slowly converts to TcVO(α2-P2W17O61)7-. EXAFS and XANES analysis and preliminary EPR analysis, suggests that the intermediate consists of a Tc(IV) α2- species where the 99Tc is likely bound to only 2 of the 4 W-O oxygen atoms in the α2-[P2W17O61]10- defect. This intermediate then oxidizes and converts to the 99TcVO(α2-P2W17O61)7- product. The reduction and incorporation of 99TcO4- was accomplished in a ''one pot'' reaction using both sunlight and UV irradiation, and monitored as a function of time

  15. Recent advances in macromolecular prodrugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Camilla Frich; Zelikin, Alexander N.

    2017-01-01

    Macromolecular prodrugs (MP) are high molar mass conjugates, typically carrying several copies of a drug or a drug combination, designed to optimize delivery of the drug, that is — its pharmacokinetics. From its advent several decades ago, design of MP has undergone significant development...

  16. Capping Drugs: Development of Prodrugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Capping Drugs: Development of Prodrugs. H Surya Prakash Rao. General Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 19-27. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/02/0019-0027 ...

  17. Improved Protease-Targeting and Biopharmaceutical Properties of Novel Prodrugs of Ganciclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kefeng; Xu, Hao; Hilfinger, John L; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Provoda, Chester J; Sabit, Hairat; Amidon, Gordon L

    2018-02-05

    The prodrug strategy has been frequently employed as a chemical approach for overcoming the disadvantages of existing parent drugs. In this report, we synthesized four monoester prodrugs of ganciclovir, an anticytomegalovirus drug, and demonstrated their potential advantages in protease-targeted activation and biopharmaceutical profiles over the parent compound. We demonstrated that these four prodrugs of ganciclovir, i.e., N-benzyloxycarbonyl-(L)-alanine-ganciclovir (CbzAlaGCV), N-benzyloxycarbonyl-(α,l)-aminobutyric acid-ganciclovir (CbzAbuGCV), N-acetyl-(l)-phenylalanine-(l)-alanine-ganciclovir (AcPheAlaGCV), and N-acetyl-(l)-phenylalanine-(α,l)-aminobutyric acid-ganciclovir (AcPheAbuGCV), are hydrolytically activated by the protease of human cytomegalovirus (hCMV), a serine protease that possesses intrinsic esterase activities. CbzAlaGCV and AcPheAlaGCV were found to be activated at a higher rate by the hCMV protease than CbzAbuGCV and AcPheAbuGCV. These ganciclovir prodrugs could potentially be targeted to selective activation by the hCMV protease which is only present at the viral infection sites, thereby achieving higher efficacy and lower systemic toxicity. The tissue stability, cellular uptake, and trans-epithelial transport of these ganciclovir prodrugs were also characterized. The N-acetylated dipeptide prodrugs of ganciclovir were found to be generally more stable than Cbz-amino acid prodrugs in various tissue matrices. Among the four prodrug candidates, AcPheAbuGCV was the most stable in human cell homogenates, plasma, and pooled liver microsomes. AcPheAbuGCV also possessed a superior cellular uptake profile and permeability across epithelial cell monolayers. Since the targeting and selective activation of a prodrug is determined by not only its rate of hydrolysis catalyzed by the hCMV protease target but also its biopharmaceutical properties, i.e., oral absorption and systemic availability, AcPheAbuGCV is considered the best overall candidate among

  18. Ocular pharmacokinetics of acyclovir amino acid ester prodrugs in the anterior chamber: evaluation of their utility in treating ocular HSV infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, Suresh; Gunda, Sriram; Hariharan, Sudharshan; Mitra, Ashim K

    2008-07-09

    To evaluate in vivo corneal absorption of the amino acid prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) using a topical well model and microdialysis in rabbits. Stability of L-alanine-ACV (AACV), L-serine-ACV (SACV), L-isoleucine-ACV (IACV), gamma-glutamate-ACV (EACV) and L-valine-ACV (VACV) prodrugs was evaluated in various ocular tissues. Dose-dependent toxicity of these prodrugs was also examined in rabbit primary corneal epithelial cell culture (rPCEC) using 96-well based cell proliferation assay. In vivo ocular bioavailability of these compounds was also evaluated with a combination of topical well infusion and aqueous humor microdialysis techniques. Among the amino acid ester prodrugs, SACV was most stable in aqueous humor. Enzymatic degradation of EACV was the least compared to all other prodrugs. Cellular toxicity of all the prodrugs was significantly less compared to trifluorothymidine (TFT) at 5mM. Absorption rate constants of all the compounds were found to be lower than the elimination rate constants. All the prodrugs showed similar terminal elimination rate constants (lambda(z)). SACV and VACV exhibited approximately two-fold increase in area under the curve (AUC) relative to ACV (pACV, respectively. Amino acid ester prodrugs of ACV were absorbed through the cornea at varying rates (ka) thereby leading to varying extents (AUC). The amino acid ester prodrug, SACV owing to its enhanced stability, comparable AUC and high concentration at last time point (Clast) seems to be a promising candidate for the treatment of ocular HSV infections.

  19. Lipid nanocarriers containing a levodopa prodrug with potential antiparkinsonian activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravani, Laura; Sarpietro, Maria Grazia; Esposito, Elisabetta; Di Stefano, Antonio; Sozio, Piera; Calcagno, Mariangela; Drechsler, Markus; Contado, Catia; Longo, Francesco; Giuffrida, Maria Chiara; Castelli, Francesco; Morari, Michele; Cortesi, Rita

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the production, characterization and in vivo activity of lipid nanocarriers (LN) containing a levodopa prodrug (LD-PD) with therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease. LD is the mainstay of the pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease. However, after a good initial response, motor fluctuations, dyskinesia and loss of efficacy, develop over time, partly due to oscillations in plasma and brain levels of the drug. LD-PD was produced with the aim of prolonging the pharmacological activity of LD. To improve solubility, and simultaneously provide a long lasting release and therapeutic efficacy, the prodrug was formulated in tristearin/lecithin LN. The obtained formulation was homogeneous in particle size and remained stable for up to 2months from preparation. For the three different tested LD concentrations, namely 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0mg/ml, the morphological characterization revealed no substantial differences between unloaded and LD-PD loaded LN. The calorimetric test showed an interaction between the lipid phase and the loaded prodrug. In vitro studies using the dialysis method and enzymatic degradation procedure showed that the LD-PD loaded LN provided a controlled prodrug release. Finally, two behavioural tests specific to akinesia (bar test) or akinesia/bradykinesia (drag test) performed in 6-hydroxydopamine hemilesioned mice (a model of Parkinson's disease) demonstrated that the LD-PD loaded LN attenuated parkinsonian disabilities, showing a slightly reduced maximal efficacy but a longer lasting action (up to 24h) than an equal dose of LD. We conclude that LD-PD loaded LN may represent a future LD formulation useful in Parkinson's disease therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Short implants with a nanometer-sized CaP surface provided with either a platform-switched or platform-matched abutment connection in the posterior region: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telleman, G; Meijer, H J A; Vissink, A; Raghoebar, G M

    2013-12-01

    To assess the performance of short nanorough implants (8.5 mm in length) provided with either a platform-matched or a platform-switched implant-abutment connection, placed in the resorbed posterior region of partially dentate patients. A total of 149 implants with a dual-acid surface and a discrete crystalline deposition of nanometer-sized CaP particles, with either a platform-matched (control) or a platform-switched implant-abutment connection (test) were placed (randomly assigned) in 92 patients. Follow-up visits were conducted 1 month and 1 year after placing the implant crown. Outcome measures were implant survival, radiographic peri-implant bone loss, clinical parameters, and patient's satisfaction. One year after loading, 6 of 76 implants in the control group (survival 92.1%) and 3 of 73 implants in the test group (survival 95.9%) were lost (P = 0.33). Radiographic bone loss around test implants (0.50 ± 0.53 mm) was significantly less than around control implants (0.74 ± 0.61 mm; P implant survival, clinical parameters, and patient's satisfaction, no significant differences were observed between test and control group. For teeth replacements in the resorbed posterior region of partially dentate patients, short implants with a platform-switched implant-abutment connection showed significantly less peri-implant bone loss after 1 year in function, while implant survival, clinical parameters, and patient's satisfaction were independent of the implant-abutment connection design. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Bambuterol: dose response study of a new terbutaline prodrug in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Laursen, L C; Madsen, F

    1986-01-01

    The bronchodilator activity and side-effects of treatment for 4 days with either 0.085, 0.170 or 0.34 mg/kg bambuterol b.i.d. (a prodrug of terbutaline) or 0.071 mg/kg terbutaline t.i.d. have been evaluated over 12 h, in a double-blind, randomized crossover trial in 19 asthmatic out-patients. Pla......The bronchodilator activity and side-effects of treatment for 4 days with either 0.085, 0.170 or 0.34 mg/kg bambuterol b.i.d. (a prodrug of terbutaline) or 0.071 mg/kg terbutaline t.i.d. have been evaluated over 12 h, in a double-blind, randomized crossover trial in 19 asthmatic out...... stable plasma levels of terbutaline, indicating that as a prodrug of terbutaline it might possibly be administered once daily with good antiasthmatic effect....

  2. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of new cyclophosphamide-based anticancer prodrugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Ki-Young.

    1993-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP,1) is a prodrug that is activated by hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase (MFO) catalyzed C[sub 4]-hydroxylation. The resulting 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (4-OH-CP) undergoes ring opening to aldophosphamide (Aldo), followed by generation of cytotoxic phosphoramide mustard (PDA,2) and acrolein by [beta]-elimination. The cytotoxic activity of CP is attributed to the aziridinium ion species derived from PDA that cross-links interstrand DNA. The aim of this research is to design, synthesize, and evaluate new cyclophosphamide-based alkylating agents to achieve improved therapeutic efficacy against neoplastic cells. Benzyl phosphoramide mustard (Benzyl PDA,4), 2.4-difluorobenzyl phosphoramide mustard (2,4-Difluorobenzyl PDA,5) and methyl phosphoramide mustard (Methyl PDA,6) were examined as lipophilic, chemically stable prodrugs of PDA (2). These phosphorodiamidic esters were designed to undergo biotransformation by hepatic microsomal enzymes to produce 2 without generation of acrolein and to be active against CP-resistant tumor cells. Several N-methyl-4-(alkylthio)cyclophosphamide derivatives were synthesized and examined as chemically stable, biooxidative prodrugs of 4-OH-CP, the activated species of CP. All of the prodrugs underwent N-demethylation in a time-dependent manner when incubated with rat hepatic microsomes, which resulted in formation of formaldehyde as well as alkylating species. Among the prodrugs, N-methyl-4-(diethyldithiocarbamoyl)cyclophosphamide (N-CH[sub 3]-4-DDTC-CP,15) showed exceptional in vitro cytotoxicity against 3T3 cells as well as against a panel of human tumor cell lines, with a particular sensitivity to leukemia and small cell lung cancer cell lines. Preliminary in vivo antitumor evaluation against L1210 leukemia in mice showed that all of the prodrugs were active.

  3. Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs as safer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: synthesis, pharmacological investigation, and computational molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zaman Ashraf,1,2 Alamgeer,3 Munazza Kanwal,1 Mubashir Hassan,2 Sahar Abdullah,3 Mamuna Waheed,3 Haseeb Ahsan,3 Song Ja Kim2 1Department of Chemistry, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan Abstract: Flurbiprofen–antioxidant mutual prodrugs were synthesized to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI effects associated with flurbiprofen. For reducing the GI toxicity, the free carboxylic group (–COOH was temporarily masked by esterification with phenolic –OH of natural antioxidants vanillin, thymol, umbelliferone, and sesamol. The in vitro hydrolysis of synthesized prodrugs showed that they were stable in buffer solution at pH 1.2, indicating their stability in the stomach. The synthesized prodrugs undergo significant hydrolysis in 80% human plasma and thus release free flurbiprofen. The minimum reversion was observed at pH 1.2, ­suggesting that prodrugs are less irritating to the stomach than flurbiprofen. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and ulcerogenic activities of prodrugs were evaluated. All the synthesized prodrugs significantly (P<0.001 reduced the inflammation against carrageenan and egg albumin-induced paw edema at 4 hours of study. The reduction in the size of the inflamed paw showed that most of the compounds inhibited the later phase of inflammation. The prodrug 2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl-2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-ylpropanoate (4b showed significant reduction in paw licking with percentage inhibition of 58%. It also exhibited higher analgesic activity, reducing the number of writhes with a percentage of 75%, whereas flurbiprofen showed 69% inhibition. Antipyretic activity was investigated using brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia model, and significant (P<0.001 reduction in rectal temperature was shown by all

  4. Ocular Pharmacokinetics of Acyclovir Amino Acid Ester Prodrugs in the Anterior Chamber: Evaluation of Their Utility in Treating Ocular HSV Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, Suresh; Gunda, Sriram; Hariharan, Sudharshan; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate in vivo corneal absorption of the amino acid prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) using a topical well model and microdialysis in rabbits. Methods Stability of L-Alanine-ACV (AACV), L-Serine-ACV (SACV), L-Isoleucine-ACV (IACV), γ-Glutamate-ACV (EACV) and L-Valine-ACV (VACV) prodrugs was evaluated in various ocular tissues. Dose dependent toxicity of these prodrugs was also examined in rabbit primary corneal epithelial cell culture (rPCEC) using 96-well based cell proliferation assay. In vivo ocular bioavailability of these compounds was also evaluated with a combination of topical well infusion and aqueous humor microdialysis techniques. Results Among the amino acid ester prodrugs, SACV was most stable in aqueous humor. Enzymatic degradation of EACV was the least compared to all other prodrugs. Cellular toxicity of all the prodrugs was significantly less compared to trifluorothymidine (TFT) at 5mM. Absorption rate constants of all the compounds were found to be lower than the elimination rate constants. All the prodrugs showed similar terminal elimination rate constants (λz). SACV and VACV exhibited approximately two fold increase in area under the curve (AUC) relative to ACV (p cornea at varying rates (ka) thereby leading to varying extents (AUC). The amino acid ester prodrug, SACV owing to its enhanced stability, comparable AUC, and high concentration at last time point (Clast) seems to be a promising candidate for the treatment of ocular HSV infections. PMID:18472234

  5. Targeted polysaccharide nanoparticle for adamplatin prodrug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Ying-Ming; Chen, Yong; Chen, Jia-Tong; Liu, Yu

    2013-12-12

    A series of conjugated hyaluronic acid particles (HAP), composed of a hydrophobic anticancer drug core and hydrophilic cyclodextrin/hyaluronic acid shell, were prepared through self-assembling and characterized by (1)H NMR titration, electron microscopy, zeta potential, and dynamic light-scattering experiments. The nanometer-sized HAP thus prepared was biocompatible and biodegradable and was well-recognized by the hyaluronic acid receptors overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells, which enabled us to exploit HAP as an efficient targeted delivery system for anticancer drugs. Indeed, HAP exhibited anticancer activities comparable to the commercial anticancer drug cisplatin but with lower side effects both in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Model prodrugs for the intestinal oligopeptide transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C U; Andersen, R; Brodin, Birger

    2001-01-01

    The human intestinal di/tri-peptide carrier, hPepT1, has been suggested as a target for increasing intestinal transport of low permeability compounds by creating prodrugs designed for the transporter. Model ester prodrugs using the stabilized dipeptides D-Glu-Ala and D-Asp-Ala as pro...... with a pH of approximately 6.0, but still release the model drug at the intercellular and blood pH of approximately 7.4. Even though benzyl alcohol is not a low molecular weight drug molecule, these results indicate that the dipeptide prodrug principle is a promising drug delivery concept. However......, the physico-chemical properties such as electronegativity, solubility, and log P of the drug molecule may also have an influence on the potential of these kinds of prodrugs. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the model drug electronegativity, estimated as Taft substitution parameter...

  7. Enhanced transdermal delivery of ketobemidone with prodrugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Fullerton, A.; Christrup, Lona Louring

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of achieving transdermal delivery of the opioid analgesic ketobemidone was assessed in human skin penetration studies in vitro using both ketobemidone itself and three carbonate ester prodrugs formed at the phenolic hydroxyl group. Whereas ketobemidone itself only showed a limited...... the feasibility of achieving transdermal delivery of ketobemidone based on the ready enzymatic conversion and the favourable skin penetration properties of the ester prodrugs which in turn are attributed to their high solubilities in both polar and apolar solvents....

  8. Pharmacokinetics of amino acid ester prodrugs of acyclovir after oral administration: interaction with the transporters on Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, Suresh; Jain, Ritesh; Kwatra, Deep; Hariharan, Sudharshan; Mitra, Ashim K

    2008-10-01

    In vivo systemic absorption of the amino acid prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) after oral administration was evaluated in rats. Stability of the prodrugs, L-alanine-ACV (AACV), L-serine-ACV (SACV), L-isoleucine-ACV (IACV), gamma-glutamate-ACV (EACV) and L-valine-ACV (VACV) was evaluated in various tissues. Interaction of these prodrugs with the transporters on Caco-2 cells was studied. In vivo systemic bioavailability of these prodrugs upon oral administration was evaluated in jugular vein cannulated rats. The amino acid ester prodrugs showed affinity towards various amino acid transporters as well as the peptide transporter on the Caco-2 cells. In terms of stability, EACV was most enzymatically stable compared to other prodrugs especially in liver homogenate. In oral absorption studies, ACV and AACV showed high terminal elimination rate constants (lambda(z)). SACV and VACV exhibited approximately five-fold increase in area under the curve (AUC) values relative to ACV (pACV. C(last(T)) (concentration at the last time point) of SACV was observed to be 0.18+/-0.06 microM in plasma which is two times better than VACV and three times better than ACV. Amino acid ester prodrugs of ACV were absorbed at varying amounts (C(max)) and eliminated at varying rates (lambda(z)) thereby leading to varying extents (AUC). The amino acid ester prodrug SACV owing to its enhanced stability, higher AUC and better concentration at last time point seems to be a promising candidate for the oral treatment of herpes infections.

  9. Prodrugs - Recent approvals and a glimpse of the pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Jarkko; Kärkkäinen, Jussi; Sloan, Kenneth B

    2017-11-15

    Prodrugs offer a versatile strategy to overcome flaws of viable drug candidates or clinically approved drugs. However, the strategic importance of prodrugs in the pharmaceutical industry has often been challenged, and prodrugs are often considered as the last option after lead optimization and when the selected drug candidate has faced significant pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic limitations. Based on recent success in marketed drugs, prodrug strategy should clearly be considered already in early stages of lead optimization. During the past five years or so, prodrugs have accounted for about 10% of all small molecular weight drugs that have come to the market. In 2015 alone, the FDA approved seven prodrugs, which gives a prodrug prevalence of over 20% among the small molecules or over 15% among the total amount of the FDA approved drugs that year. A great number of various prodrugs are also undergoing late stage clinical trials. The pharmaceutical industry will therefore continue to depend on prodrugs for the foreseeable future. In this review, we will present the state of the art in the design of the prodrugs launched by the FDA since 2015. We will also provide an overview of some interesting late stage clinical prodrug candidates. We hope this review will demonstrate potential of prodrug strategies and facilitates the use of prodrugs in drug discovery projects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Supramolecular curcumin-barium prodrugs for formulating with ceramic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalasanan, Kaladhar; Anupriya; Deepa, M K; Sharma, Chandra P

    2014-10-01

    A simple and stable curcumin-ceramic combined formulation was developed with an aim to improve curcumin stability and release profile in the presence of reactive ceramic particles for potential dental and orthopedic applications. For that, curcumin was complexed with barium (Ba(2+)) to prepare curcumin-barium (BaCur) complex. Upon removal of the unbound curcumin and Ba(2+) by dialysis, a water-soluble BaCur complex was obtained. The complex was showing [M+1](+) peak at 10,000-20,000 with multiple fractionation peaks of MALDI-TOF-MS studies, showed that the complex was a supramolecular multimer. The (1)H NMR and FTIR studies revealed that, divalent Ba(2+) interacted predominantly through di-phenolic groups of curcumin to form an end-to-end complex resulted in supramolecular multimer. The overall crystallinity of the BaCur was lower than curcumin as per XRD analysis. The complexation of Ba(2+) to curcumin did not degrade curcumin as per HPLC studies. The fluorescence spectrum was blue shifted upon Ba(2+) complexation with curcumin. Monodisperse nanoparticles with size less than 200dnm was formed, out of the supramolecular complex upon dialysis, as per DLS, and upon loading into pluronic micelles the size was remaining in similar order of magnitude as per DLS and AFM studies. Stability of the curcumin was improved greater than 50% after complexation with Ba(2+) as per UV/Vis spectroscopy. Loading of the supramloecular nanoparticles into pluronic micelles had further improved the stability of curcumin to approx. 70% in water. These BaCur supramolecule nanoparticles can be considered as a new class of prodrugs with improved solubility and stability. Subsequently, ceramic nanoparticles with varying chemical composition were prepared for changing the material surface reactivity in terms of the increase in, degradability, surface pH and protein adsorption. Further, these ceramic particles were combined with curcumin prodrug formulations and optimized the curcumin release

  11. Discovery of the hemifumarate and (alpha-L-alanyloxy)methyl ether as prodrugs of an antirheumatic oxindole: prodrugs for the enolic OH group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R P; Reiter, L A; Barth, W E; Campeta, A M; Cooper, K; Cronin, B J; Destito, R; Donahue, K M; Falkner, F C; Fiese, E F; Johnson, D L; Kuperman, A V; Liston, T E; Malloy, D; Martin, J J; Mitchell, D Y; Rusek, F W; Shamblin, S L; Wright, C F

    1996-01-05

    Ether, ester, and carbonate derivatives of the antirheumatic oxindole 1 were prepared and screened as potential prodrugs of 1. This effort led to the discovery of the (alpha-L-alanyloxy)-methyl ether and hemifumarate derivatives of 1 which deliver the drug efficiently into the circulation of test animals, are stable in the solid state, and possess good stability in solution at low pH as required to ensure gastric stability. Success in achieving acceptable bioavailabilities of 1 across species (rats, dogs, and monkeys) followed the inclusion of ionizable functionality within the promoiety to compensate for masking the polar enolic OH group of the free drug. However, the introduction of ionizable functionality was often associated with decreased stability, as demonstrated by the hemisuccinate, hemiadipate, hemisuberate, and alpha-amino ester derivatives of 1 which could not be isolated. A clear exception was the hemifumarate derivative of 1 which was not only isolable but actually more stable at neutral pH than the nonionizable ester analogues. The solution and solid state stability of the hemifumarate, together with its activity as a prodrug of 1, suggests that hemifumarate be considered as an alternative to hemisuccinate as a prodrug derivative for alcohols, particularly in situations where solution state stability is an issue.

  12. Modern Prodrug Design for Targeted Oral Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik Dahan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular information that became available over the past two decades significantly influenced the field of drug design and delivery at large, and the prodrug approach in particular. While the traditional prodrug approach was aimed at altering various physiochemical parameters, e.g., lipophilicity and charge state, the modern approach to prodrug design considers molecular/cellular factors, e.g., membrane influx/efflux transporters and cellular protein expression and distribution. This novel targeted-prodrug approach is aimed to exploit carrier-mediated transport for enhanced intestinal permeability, as well as specific enzymes to promote activation of the prodrug and liberation of the free parent drug. The purpose of this article is to provide a concise overview of this modern prodrug approach, with useful successful examples for its utilization. In the past the prodrug approach used to be viewed as a last option strategy, after all other possible solutions were exhausted; nowadays this is no longer the case, and in fact, the prodrug approach should be considered already in the very earliest development stages. Indeed, the prodrug approach becomes more and more popular and successful. A mechanistic prodrug design that aims to allow intestinal permeability by specific transporters, as well as activation by specific enzymes, may greatly improve the prodrug efficiency, and allow for novel oral treatment options.

  13. Long-Acting Diclofenac Ester Prodrugs for Joint Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Nina; Larsen, Susan Weng; Kristensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    A prodrug approach for local and sustained diclofenac action after injection into joints based on ester prodrugs having a pH-dependent solubility is presented. Inherent ester prodrug properties influencing the duration of action include their pH-dependent solubility and charge state, as well...... as susceptibility to undergo esterase facilitated hydrolysis. In this study, physicochemical properties and pH rate profiles of 3 diclofenac ester prodrugs differing with respect to the spacer carbon chain length between the drug and the imidazole-based promoiety were determined and a rate equation for prodrug...... degradation in aqueous solution in the pH range 1-10 was derived. In the pH range 6-10, the prodrugs were subject to parallel degradation to yield diclofenac and an indolinone derivative. The prodrug degradation was found to be about 6-fold faster in 80% (vol/vol) human plasma as compared to 80% (vol...

  14. New prodrugs of Adefovir and Cidofovir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, Tomáš; Andrei, G.; Dračínský, Martin; Holý, Antonín; Balzarini, J.; Snoeck, R.; Krečmerová, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 11 (2011), s. 3527-3539 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adefovir * cidofovir * antivirals * prodrugs * acyclic nucleoside phosphonate * phosphonate ester * in vitro evaluation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.921, year: 2011

  15. Design, Synthesis, and In Vitro Kinetics Study of Atenolol Prodrugs for the Use in Aqueous Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Karaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on DFT, MP2, and the density functional from Truhlar group (hybrid GGA: MPW1k calculations for an acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of nine Kirby’s N-alkylmaleamic acids and two atenolol prodrugs were designed. The calculations demonstrated that the amide bond cleavage is due to intramolecular nucleophilic catalysis by the adjacent carboxylic acid group and the rate-limiting step is determined based on the nature of the amine leaving group. In addition, a linear correlation of the calculated and experimental rate values has drawn credible basis for designing atenolol prodrugs that are bitterless, are stable in neutral aqueous solutions, and have the potential to release the parent drug in a sustained release manner. For example, based on the calculated B3LYP/6-31 G (d,p rates, the predicted t1/2 (a time needed for 50% of the prodrug to be converted into drug values for atenolol prodrugs ProD 1-ProD 2 at pH 2 were 65.3 hours (6.3 hours as calculated by GGA: MPW1K and 11.8 minutes, respectively. In vitro kinetic study of atenolol prodrug ProD 1 demonstrated that the t1/2 was largely affected by the pH of the medium. The determined t1/2 values in 1N HCl, buffer pH 2, and buffer pH 5 were 2.53, 3.82, and 133 hours, respectively.

  16. Prodrugs of Fluoro-Substituted Benzoates of EGC as Tumor Cellular Proteasome Inhibitors and Apoptosis Inducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Ping Dou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The most potent catechin in green tea is (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate [(-- EGCG], which, however, is unstable under physiological conditions. To discover more stable and more potent polyphenol proteasome inhibitors, we synthesized several novel fluoro-substituted (--EGCG analogs, named F-EGCG analogs, as well as their prodrug forms with all of -OH groups protected by acetate. We report that the prodrug form of one F-EGCG analog exhibited greater potency than the previously reported peracetate of (-- EGCG to inhibit proteasomal activity, suppress cell proliferation, and induce apoptosis in human leukemia Jurkat T cells, demonstrating the potential of these compounds to be developed into novel anti-cancer and cancer-preventive agents.

  17. Photoactivatable Caged Prodrugs of VEGFR-2 Kinase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pinchuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report on the design, synthesis, photokinetic properties and in vitro evaluation of photoactivatable caged prodrugs for the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR-2. Highly potent VEGFR-2 inhibitors 1 and 3 were caged by introduction of a photoremovable protecting group (PPG to yield the caged prodrugs 4 and 5. As expected, enzymatic and cellular proliferation assays showed dramatically diminished efficacy of caged prodrugs in vitro. Upon ultraviolet (UV irradiation of the prodrugs original inhibitory activity was completely restored and even distinctly reinforced, as was the case for the prodrug 4. The presented results are a further evidence for caging technique being an interesting approach in the protein kinase field. It could enable spatial and temporal control for the inhibition of VEGFR-2. The described photoactivatable prodrugs might be highly useful as biological probes for studying the VEGFR-2 signal transduction.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of intravitreal 5-fluorouracil prodrugs in silicone oil: experimental studies in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, C.; Steffansen, B.; Scherfig, E.

    2005-01-01

    ophthalmology, -Fluorouracil, prodrugs, controlled release, ocular drug delivery, proliferative vitreoretinopathy......ophthalmology, -Fluorouracil, prodrugs, controlled release, ocular drug delivery, proliferative vitreoretinopathy...

  19. Improvement of buccal delivery of morphine using the prodrug approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Jørgensen, A.; Christensen, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    relationship to the lipophilicity of the compounds. In the in vitro studies the optimal permeation was achieved for the prodrug morphine-3-propionate having a log P value of approximately 0.7. In contrast to that optimal in vivo absorption was obtained for the prodrug morphine-3-acetate having a log P value...... Improved by using ester prodrugs with higher lipophilicity than morphine itself. However, the enzymatic stability of the prodrugs in saliva also play an important role for the overall improvement in absorption properties....

  20. Legubicin a Tumor-Activated Prodrug for Breast Cancer Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Cheng

    2006-01-01

    .... We demonstrated that an inactive prototype doxorubicin derived prodrug incorporating a succinyl blocked substrate peptide removable by legumain was effectively activated and tumoricidal in human breast cancer models...

  1. Legubicin a Tumor-activated Prodrug for Breast Cancer Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Cheng

    2008-01-01

    .... We demonstrated that an inactive prototype doxorubicin derived prodrug incorporating a succinyl blocked substrate peptide removable by legumain was effectively activated and tumoricidal in human breast cancer models...

  2. Legubicin, a Tumor-Activated Prodrug for Breast Cancer Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Cheng

    2007-01-01

    .... We demonstrated that an inactive prototype doxorubicin derived prodrug incorporating a succinyl blocked substrate peptide removable by legumain was effectively activated and tumoricidal in human breast cancer models...

  3. Topical iontophoretic delivery of ionizable, biolabile aciclovir prodrugs: A rational approach to improve cutaneous bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Alberti, Ingo; Kalia, Yogeshvar N

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to investigate the topical iontophoretic delivery of a series of amino acid ester prodrugs of aciclovir (ACV-X, where ACV=aciclovir and X=Arg, Gly, Ile, Phe, Trp and Val) as a means to enhance cutaneous delivery of ACV. The newly synthesized prodrugs were characterized by (1)H NMR and high resolution mass spectrometry. Analytical methods using HPLC-UV were developed for their quantification and each method was validated. Investigation of solution stability as a function of pH showed that all ACV-X prodrugs were relatively stable in acid conditions at pH 2.0 and pH 5.5 for up to 8h but susceptible to extensive hydrolysis at pH 7.4 and under alkaline conditions (pH 10). No ACV-X hydrolysis was observed after contact for 2h with the external surface of porcine stratum corneum. However, there was significant hydrolysis following contact with the dermal surface of dermatomed porcine skin, in particular, for ACV-Arg. Passive transport of ACV and ACV-X prodrugs from aqueous solution after 2h was below the limit of detection. Iontophoresis of ACV at 0.5 mA/cm(2) for 2h led to modest ACV skin deposition (QDEP,ACV) of 4.6 ± 0.3 nmol/cm(2). In contrast, iontophoresis of ACV-X prodrugs under the same conditions produced order of magnitude increases in cutaneous deposition of ACV species, that is, QDEP,TOTAL=QDEP,ACV+QDEP,ACV-X. QDEP,TOTAL for ACV-Gly, ACV-Val, ACV-Ile, ACV-Phe, ACV-Trp and ACV-Arg was 412.8 ± 44.0, 358.8 ± 66.8, 434.1 ± 68.2, 249.8 ± 81.4, 156.1 ± 76.3, 785.9 ± 78.1 nmol/cm(2), respectively. The extent of bioconversion of ACV-X to ACV in the skin was high and the proportion of ACV present ranged from 81% to 100%. The skin retention ratio, a measure of the selectivity of ACV species for deposition over permeation after iontophoretic delivery of ACV-X prodrugs, was dependent on both the rate of transport and the susceptibility to hydrolysis of the prodrugs. Skin deposition of ACV and its six prodrugs were investigated further as a

  4. Prodrugs in site-selective delivery of radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowska-Kortylewicz, J.; Kortylewicz, Z. P.; Hoffman, D.; Dalrymple, G. V. [Omaha, Univ. of Nebraska (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology. J. Bruce Henriksen Lab.

    1997-06-01

    This paper reviews basic rules for the design of site-selective prodrugs and various modes of their activation with particular emphasis on the applications of prodrugs to targeted delivery of radiopharmaceuticals. Although many radiopharmaceuticals are ``targeted`` to specific tissues or organs, they will discuss only agents that are either chemically or metabolically transformed producing an active form that is retained by its target. Site-specific prodrugs of diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals are routine in the nuclear medicine applications but the instances of targeting of radiotherapeutic prodrugs are surprisingly rare. They have concentrated on their own efforts to design and synthesize site-selective prodrugs of 5-{sup [125}I]iodo-2`-deoxyuridine ({sup 125}IUdR) for cancer radiotherapy. The prodrugs of {sup 125}IUdR for targeted delivery include several derivatives with altered permeability, 3`, 5`- dioctanoyl, 3`, 5`-dioleoyl, 3`- and 5`-N-alkyl-dihydropyridyl, 3`- and 5`-N-dihydroisoquinolyl, and 3`- and 5`-N-alkyl-dihydroacridinyl esters of {sup 125}IUdR; polymeric and macromolecular prodrugs of {sup 125}IUdR for a carrier-mediated or local delivery; metabolically trapped {sup 125}IUdR prodrugs; and glycoconjugate prodrugs for oral colon-specific delivery of {sup 125}IU{sub D}R, {sup 125}IU{sub D}R-5`-{beta}-d-cellobioside, {sup 125}IU{sub D}R-5`-{beta}-d-glucopyranoside, {sup 125}IU{sub D}R-5`-{beta}-d-galactopyranoside and {sup 125}IU{sub D}R-5`-{beta}-d-glucoronide. They also describe prodrugs of several diagnostic agents in the context of the metabolic trapping as the primary targeting modality. For various diagnostic agents the prodrug target-associated enzymes are discussed and examples of the site.specific release of the active agent are given. A brief overview of an emerging role of residualizing labels in radioimmunotherapy is included.

  5. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Pharmacokinetic Study of Novel Liguzinediol Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Liguzinediol (LZDO ester prodrugs 3–5 were synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo for their potential use in prolonging the half-life of the parent drug LZDO (1a in vivo. Prodrugs 3–5 were found to display a potent positive inotropic effect on the myocardium, without the risk of arrhythmia. Prodrugs 3–5 rapidly underwent enzymatic hydrolysis to release the parent compound LZDO in 1–3 h in rat liver microsomes and rat plasma. The half-life of the parent compound was prolonged after intragastric administration of prodrug 3, which was found to be a superior prodrug candidate for increasing myocardial contractility.

  6. Characterization of novel anthracycline prodrugs activated by human beta-glucuronidase for use in antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houba, PHJ; Leenders, RGG; Boven, E; Scheeren, JW; Pinedo, HM; Haisma, HJ

    1996-01-01

    Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) alms at the specific activation of a prodrug by an enzyme-immuoconjugate localized in tumor tissue. The use of an enzyme of human origin is preferable in ADEPT because it might not be immunogenic when administered to patients. In the case of human

  7. Potential Development of Tumor-Targeted Oral Anti-Cancer Prodrugs: Amino Acid and Dipeptide Monoester Prodrugs of Gemcitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Drelich, Adam J; Smith, David E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2017-08-10

    One of the main obstacles for cancer therapies is to deliver medicines effectively to target sites. Since stroma cells are developed around tumors, chemotherapeutic agents have to go through stroma cells in order to reach tumors. As a method to improve drug delivery to the tumor site, a prodrug approach for gemcitabine was adopted. Amino acid and dipeptide monoester prodrugs of gemcitabine were synthesized and their chemical stability in buffers, resistance to thymidine phosphorylase and cytidine deaminase, antiproliferative activity, and uptake/permeability in HFF cells as a surrogate to stroma cells were determined and compared to their parent drug, gemcitabine. The activation of all gemcitabine prodrugs was faster in pancreatic cell homogenates than their hydrolysis in buffer, suggesting enzymatic action. All prodrugs exhibited great stability in HFF cell homogenate, enhanced resistance to glycosidic bond metabolism by thymidine phosphorylase, and deamination by cytidine deaminase compared to their parent drug. All gemcitabine prodrugs exhibited higher uptake in HFF cells and better permeability across HFF monolayers than gemcitabine, suggesting a better delivery to tumor sites. Cell antiproliferative assays in Panc-1 and Capan-2 pancreatic ductal cell lines indicated that the gemcitabine prodrugs were more potent than their parent drug gemcitabine. The transport and enzymatic profiles of gemcitabine prodrugs suggest their potential for delayed enzymatic bioconversion and enhanced resistance to metabolic enzymes, as well as for enhanced drug delivery to tumor sites, and cytotoxic activity in cancer cells. These attributes would facilitate the prolonged systemic circulation and improved therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine prodrugs.

  8. Prodrugs for the Treatment of Neglected Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Blau

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, World Health Organization (WHO and Medicins San Frontieres (MSF proposed a classification of diseases as global, neglected and extremely neglected. Global diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular and mental (CNS diseases represent the targets of the majority of the R&D efforts of pharmaceutical companies. Neglected diseases affect millions of people in the world yet existing drug therapy is limited and often inappropriate. Furthermore, extremely neglected diseases affect people living under miserable conditions who barely have access to the bare necessities for survival. Most of these diseases are excluded from the goals of the R&D programs in the pharmaceutical industry and therefore fall outside the pharmaceutical market. About 14 million people, mainly in developing countries, die each year from infectious diseases. From 1975 to 1999, 1393 new drugs were approved yet only 1% were for the treatment of neglected diseases [3]. These numbers have not changed until now, so in those countries there is an urgent need for the design and synthesis of new drugs and in this area the prodrug approach is a very interesting field. It provides, among other effects, activity improvements and toxicity decreases for current and new drugs, improving market availability. It is worth noting that it is essential in drug design to save time and money, and prodrug approaches can be considered of high interest in this respect. The present review covers 20 years of research on the design of prodrugs for the treatment of neglected and extremely neglected diseases such as Chagas’ disease (American trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis, malaria, sickle cell disease, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis.

  9. Development of macromolecular prodrug for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Quan, Ling-dong; Cui, Liao; Goldring, Steven R; Wang, Dong

    2012-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is considered to be one of the major public health problems worldwide. The development of therapies that target tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and co-stimulatory pathways that regulate the immune system have revolutionized the care of patients with RA. Despite these advances, many patients continue to experience symptomatic and functional impairment. To address this issue, more recent therapies that have been developed are designed to target intracellular signaling pathways involved in immunoregulation. Though this approach has been encouraging, there have been major challenges with respect to off-target organ side effects and systemic toxicities related to the widespread distribution of these signaling pathways in multiple cell types and tissues. These limitations have led to an increasing interest in the development of strategies for the macromolecularization of anti-rheumatic drugs, which could target them to the inflamed joints. This approach enhances the efficacy of the therapeutic agent with respect to synovial inflammation, while markedly reducing non-target organ adverse side effects. In this manuscript, we provide a comprehensive overview of the rational design and optimization of macromolecular prodrugs for treatment of RA. The superior and the sustained efficacy of the prodrug may be partially attributed to their Extravasation through Leaky Vasculature and subsequent Inflammatory cell-mediated Sequestration (ELVIS) in the arthritic joints. This biologic process provides a plausible mechanism, by which macromolecular prodrugs preferentially target arthritic joints and illustrates the potential benefits of applying this therapeutic strategy to the treatment of other inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrolysis and rearrangement of phthalamic acid derivatives and assessment of their potential as prodrug forms for amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Hans; Steffansen, Bente

    1990-01-01

    Although it is well-known that N-substituted phthalamic acid derivatives are readily hydrolyzed in acidic aqueous solution due to intramolecular catalysis by the neighbouring carboxy group, sparse information is available on the degradation behaviour in neutral solutions. A recent publication [5]....... It is concluded that phthalamic acid derivatives are too stable chemically and enzymatically to be considered as prodrug forms for primary or secondary amines....

  11. Hydrolysis and rearrangement of phthalamic acid derivatives and assessment of their potential as prodrug forms for amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, H; Steffansen, B

    1990-01-01

    ) and various other N-alkyl and N-aryl substituted phthalamic acid derivatives were examined with the primary aim of assessing their degradation rate at physiological pH. Whereas the compounds I and II were indeed found to be easily degraded in neutral aqueous solutions, the degradation was not due....... It is concluded that phthalamic acid derivatives are too stable chemically and enzymatically to be considered as prodrug forms for primary or secondary amines....

  12. Synthesis and Biophysical Characterization of Chlorambucil Anticancer Ether Lipid Prodrugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Palle Jacob; Christensen, Mikkel Stochkendahl; Ruysschaert, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis and biophysical characterization of four prodrug ether phospholipid conjugates are described. The lipids are prepared from the anticancer drug chlorambucil and have C16 and C18 ether chains with phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylglycerol headgroups. All four prodrugs have the ability...... to form unilamellar liposomes (86-125 nm) and are hydrolyzed by phospholipase A2, resulting in chlorambucil release. Liposomal formulations of prodrug lipids displayed cytotoxicity toward HT-29, MT-3, and ES-2 cancer cell lines in the presence of phospholipase A2, with IC50 values in the 8-36 μM range....

  13. Synergism of Selective Tumor Vascular Thrombosis and Protease Activated Prodrug

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Cheng

    2008-01-01

    ... by administration of protease-activated prodrug. The activation of coagulation cascade and tumor vascular thrombosis as well as the following activation of the thrombolytic pathways led to explosive amplification of serine protease cascades...

  14. Pro-Moieties of Antimicrobial Peptide Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eanna Forde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are a promising class of antimicrobial agents that have been garnering increasing attention as resistance renders many conventional antibiotics ineffective. Extensive research has resulted in a large library of highly-active AMPs. However, several issues serve as an impediment to their clinical development, not least the issue of host toxicity. An approach that may allow otherwise cytotoxic AMPs to be used is to deliver them as a prodrug, targeting antimicrobial activity and limiting toxic effects on the host. The varied library of AMPs is complemented by a selection of different possible pro-moieties, each with their own characteristics. This review deals with the different pro-moieties that have been used with AMPs and discusses the merits of each.

  15. Prodrug Approach for Increasing Cellular Glutathione Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cacciatore

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced glutathione (GSH is the most abundant non-protein thiol in mammalian cells and the preferred substrate for several enzymes in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant defense. It plays an important role in many cellular processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. GSH deficiency has been observed in aging and in a wide range of pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders and cystic fibrosis (CF, as well as in several viral infections. Use of GSH as a therapeutic agent is limited because of its unfavorable biochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Several reports have provided evidence for the use of GSH prodrugs able to replenish intracellular GSH levels. This review discusses different strategies for increasing GSH levels by supplying reversible bioconjugates able to cross the cellular membrane more easily than GSH and to provide a source of thiols for GSH synthesis.

  16. Ocular sustained release nanoparticles containing stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwala, Jwala; Boddu, Sai H S; Shah, Sujay; Sirimulla, Suman; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and characterize polymeric nanoparticles of appropriate stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir (L-valine-L-valine-ACV, L-valine-D-valine-ACV, D-valine-L-valine-ACV, and D-valine-D-valine-ACV) for the treatment of ocular herpes keratitis. Stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) were screened for bioreversion in various ocular tissues, cell proliferation, and uptake across the rabbit primary corneal epithelial cell line. Docking studies were carried out to examine the affinity of prodrugs to the peptide transporter protein. Prodrugs with optimum characteristics were selected for the preparation of nanoparticles using various grades of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Nanoparticles were characterized for the entrapment efficiency, surface morphology, size distribution, and in vitro release. Further, the effect of thermosensitive gels on the release of prodrugs from nanoparticles was also studied. L-valine-L-valine-ACV and L-valine-D-valine-ACV were considered to be optimum in terms of enzymatic stability, uptake, and cytotoxicity. Docking results indicated that L-valine in the terminal position increases the affinity of the prodrugs to the peptide transporter protein. Entrapment efficiency values of L-valine-L-valine-ACV and L-valine-D-valine-ACV were found to be optimal with PLGA 75:25 and PLGA 65:35 polymers, respectively. In vitro release of prodrugs from nanoparticles exhibited a biphasic release behavior with initial burst phase followed by sustained release. Dispersion of nanoparticles in thermosensitive gels completely eliminated the burst release phase. Novel nanoparticulate systems of dipeptide prodrugs of ACV suspended in thermosensitive gels may provide sustained delivery after topical administration.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and pharmacological evaluation of amide prodrugs of Flurbiprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Ashutosh; Veerasamy, Ravichandran; Jain, Prateek Kumar; Dixit, Vinod Kumar; Agrawal, Ram Kishor [Dr. H. S. Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar (India). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Research Lab.]. E-mail: dragrawal2001@yahoo.co.in

    2008-07-01

    Flurbiprofen (FB) suffers from the general side effects of NSAIDs, owing to presence of free carboxylic acid group. The study was aimed to retard the adverse effects of gastrointestinal origin. Ten prodrugs of FB were synthesized by amidation with ethyl esters of amino acids, namely, glycine, L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan, L-valine, L-isoleucine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-glutamic acid, L-aspartic acid and {beta} alanine. Purified synthesized prodrugs were characterized by m.p., TLC, solubility, partition coefficients, elemental analyses, UV, FTIR, NMR and MS. Synthesized prodrugs were subjected for bioavailability studies, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities and ulcerogenic index. Marked reduction of ulcerogenic index and comparable analgesic, antiinflammatory activities were obtained in all cases as compared to FB. Among synthesized prodrugs AR-9, AR-10 and AR-2 showing excellent pharmacological response and encouraging hydrolysis rate both in (Simulated Intestinal Fluid) SIF and in 80% human plasma. Prodrugs with increased aliphatic side chain length or introduction of aromatic substituent resulted in enhanced partition coefficient but diminished dissolution and hydrolysis rate. Such prodrugs can be considered for sustained release purpose. (author)

  18. Stimuli-responsive PEGylated prodrugs for targeted doxorubicin delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minghui; Qian, Junmin, E-mail: jmqian@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Xuefeng; Liu, Ting; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, stimuli-sensitive prodrugs have been extensively studied for the rapid “burst” release of antitumor drugs to enhance chemotherapeutic efficiency. In this study, a novel stimuli-sensitive prodrug containing galactosamine as a targeting moiety, poly(ethylene glycol)–doxorubicin (PEG–DOX) conjugate, was developed for targeting HepG2 human liver cancer cells. To obtain the PEG–DOX conjugate, both galactosamine-decorated poly(ethylene glycol) aldehyde (Gal-PEG-CHO) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) aldehyde (mPEG-CHO) were firstly synthesized and functionalized with dithiodipropionate dihydrazide (TPH) through direct reductive amination via Schiff's base formation, and then DOX molecules were chemically conjugated to the hydrazide end groups of TPH-functionalized Gal-/m-PEG chains via pH-sensitive hydrazone linkages. The chemical structures of TPH-functionalized PEG and PEG–DOX prodrug were confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR analysis. The PEG–DOX conjugate could self-assemble into spherical nanomicelles with a mean diameter of 140 nm, as indicated by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The drug loading content and loading efficiency in the prodrug nanomicelles were as high as 20 wt.% and 75 wt.%, respectively. In vitro drug release studies showed that DOX was released rapidly from the prodrug nanomicelles at the intracellular levels of pH and reducing agent. Cellular uptake and MTT experiments demonstrated that the galactosamine-decorated prodrug nanomicelles were more efficiently internalized into HepG2 cells via a receptor-mediated endocytosis process and exhibited a higher toxicity, compared with pristine prodrug nanomicelles. These results suggest that the novel Gal-PEG–DOX prodrug nanomicelles have tremendous potential for targeted liver cancer therapy. - Highlights: • A novel stimuli-responsive PEGylated prodrugs is synthesized. • PEGylated prodrugs can self-assemble into spherical nanoparticles (140 nm

  19. 1-Arylsulfonyl-2-(Pyridylmethylsulfinyl Benzimidazoles as New Proton Pump Inhibitor Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-moon Cho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available New arylsulfonyl proton pump inhibitor (PPI prodrug forms were synthesized. These prodrugs provided longer residence time of an effective PPI plasma concentration, resulting in better gastric acid inhibition.

  20. Prodrugs activated by reactive oxygen species for use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    Prodrugs activated predominantly or exclusively in inflammatory tissue, more particularly prodrugs of methotrexate and derivatives thereof, which are selectively activated by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in inflammatory tissues associated with cancer and inflammatory diseases, as well as method...

  1. Systemic and Brain Pharmacokinetics of Perforin Inhibitor Prodrugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gynther, Mikko; Pickering, Darryl S; Spicer, Julie

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported that by converting a perforin inhibitor into an l-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1)-utilizing prodrug its cellular uptake can be greatly increased. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo and brain pharmacokinetics of two perforin inhibitors and thei......We have recently reported that by converting a perforin inhibitor into an l-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1)-utilizing prodrug its cellular uptake can be greatly increased. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo and brain pharmacokinetics of two perforin inhibitors...... and their LAT1-utilizing prodrugs 1 and 2. In addition, the brain uptake mechanism and entry into primary mouse cortical neurons and astrocytes were evaluated. After 23 μmol/kg i.p. bolus injection, the prodrugs’ unbound area under the concentration curve in brain was 0.3 nmol/g × min, whereas the parent drugs...... could not reach the brain. The unbound brain concentrations of the prodrugs after 100 μM in situ mouse brain perfusion were 521.4 ± 46.9 and 126.9 ± 19.9 pmol/g for prodrugs 1 and 2, respectively. The combination of competing transporter substrates for LAT1, l-tryptophan, and for organic anion...

  2. Prodrug converting enzyme gene delivery by L. monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilgrim Sabine

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes is a highly versatile bacterial carrier system for introducing protein, DNA and RNA into mammalian cells. The delivery of tumor antigens with the help of this carrier into tumor-bearing animals has been successfully carried out previously and it was recently reported that L. monocytogenes is able to colonize and replicate within solid tumors after local or even systemic injection. Methods Here we report on the delivery of two prodrug converting enzymes, purine-deoxynucleoside phosphorylase (PNP and a fusion protein consisting of yeast cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (FCU1 into cancer cells in culture by L. monocytogenes. Transfer of the prodrug converting enzymes was achieved by bacterium mediated transfer of eukaryotic expression plasmids or by secretion of the proteins directly into the host cell cytosol by the infecting bacteria. Results The results indicate that conversion of appropriate prodrugs to toxic drugs in the cancer cells occured after both procedures although L. monocytogenes-mediated bactofection proved to be more efficient than enzyme secretion 4T1, B16 and COS-1 tumor cells. Exchanging the constitutively PCMV-promoter with the melanoma specific P4xTETP-promoter resulted in melanoma cell-specific expression of the prodrug converting enzymes but reduced the efficiencies. Conclusion These experiments open the way for bacterium mediated tumor specific activation of prodrugs in live animals with tumors.

  3. Conversion of the prodrug etoposide phosphate to etoposide in gastric juice and bile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deJong, RS; Slijfer, EAM; Uges, DRA; Mulder, NH; deVries, EGE

    1997-01-01

    Etoposide phosphate is a water-soluble prodrug of etoposide. It was expected that this prodrug could be used to overcome the solubility limitations and erratic bioavailability of oral etoposide. To investigate the possibility of prodrug conversion to etoposide within the gastrointestinal lumen,

  4. Hypoxia-Inducible Regulation of a Prodrug-Activating Enzyme for Tumor-Specific Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Shibata

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that tumor hypoxia could be exploited for cancer gene therapy. Using hypoxia-responsive elements derived from the human vascular endothelial growth factor gene, we have generated vectors expressing a bacterial nitroreductase. (20NTR gene that can activate the anticancer prodrug CB1954. Stable transfectants of human HT1080 tumor cells with hypoxia-inducible vectors were established with G418 selection. Hypoxic induction of NTR protein correlated with increased sensitivity to in vitro exposure of HT 1080 cells to the prodrug. Growth delay assays were performed with established tumor xenografts derived from the same cells to detect the in vivo efficacy of CB1954 conversion to its cytotoxic form. Significant antitumor effects were achieved with intraperitoneal injections of CB1954 both in tumors that express NTR constitutively or with a hypoxia-inducible promoter. In addition, respiration of 10% O2 increased tumor hypoxia in vivo and enhanced the antitumor effects. Taken together, these results demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible vectors may be useful for tumor-selective gene therapy, although the problem of delivery of the vector to the tumors, particularly to the hypoxic cells in the tumors, is not addressed by these studies.

  5. Stability and in vitro metabolism of dipeptide model prodrugs with affinity for the oligopeptide transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepist, E I; Kusk, T; Larsen, D H

    2000-01-01

    One approach to increase drug stability and to facilitate oral absorption of low bioavailability drugs may be to design oligopeptide ester prodrugs which are stable in the gastrointestinal tract, are transported via the oligopeptide transporter, and finally release the parent drug molecule......-Glu(OBzl)-Ala and Asp(OBzl)-Sar in aqueous solution and in relevant biological media and to compare these results with those of our previous study of D-Asp(OBzl)-Ala. Furthermore, the resulting aqueous stability and in vitro metabolism data are related to our previous affinity data to evaluate if Glu-Sar, D......-Glu-Ala, and Asp-Sar have potential as pro-moieties in these kinds of prodrugs. The degradation rates follow first-order kinetics, show maximun stability at pH 4-5 with maximum half-lives for Asp(OBzl)-Sar, Glu(OBzl)-Sar, and D-Glu(OBzl)-Ala of 115 h, 30 days and 152 days, respectively. The stability was dependent...

  6. Mefenamic acid conjugates based on a hydrophilic biopolymer hydroxypropylcellulose: novel prodrug design, characterization and thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.A.; Kausar, R.; Amin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Macromolecular prodrugs (MPDs) of mefenamic acid were designed onto a cellulose ether derivative hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as ester conjugates. Fabrication of HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates was achieved by using p-toluenesulfonyl chloride as carboxylic acid (a functional group in drug) activator at 80 degree C for 24 h under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction was preceded under homogeneous reaction conditions as HPC was dissolved before use in DMAc solvent. Imidazole was used as a base. Easy workup reactions resulted in good yields (55-65%) and degree of substitution (DS) of drug (0.37-0.99) onto HPC. The DS was calculated by acid-base titration after saponification and UV/Vis spectrophotometry after hydrolysis. DS by both of the methods was found in good agreement with each other. Aqueous and organic soluble novel prodrugs of mefenamic acid were purified and characterized by different spectroscopic and thermal analysis techniques. The initial, maximum and final degradation temperatures of HPC, mefenamic acid and HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates were drawn from thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative TG curves and compared to access relative thermal stability. The TG analysis has indicated that samples obtained were thermally more stable especially with increased stability of mefenamic acid in HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates. These novel MPDs of mefenamic acid (i.e., HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates) may have potential applications in pharmaceutically viable drug design due to wide range of solubility and extra thermal stability imparted after MPD formation. (author)

  7. Bioreducible mustards: a paradigm for hypoxia-selective prodrugs of diffusible cytotoxins (HPDCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, W A; Wilson, W R

    1993-06-01

    Existing hypoxia-selective cytotoxins (HSCs) are designed to kill only the hypoxic subpopulation in tumours, and to be used in conjunction with other therapies (e.g., radiation). A new class of drugs, hypoxia-activated prodrugs of diffusible cytotoxins (HPDCs) are proposed. These are designed to exploit, rather than merely deal with, tumour hypoxia, by releasing diffusible cytotoxins on bioreduction in hypoxic regions. Such diffusible cytotoxins are required to be much more cytotoxic than the parent prodrug, to be sufficiently stable (half lives from 0.1 to 10 min) to allow them to diffuse up to 200 microns from the hypoxic regions, and to be equally effective against all major tumour cell subpopulations, including non-cycling cells. Nitrogen mustards, which show little cell cycle specificity, which kill cells by a well-understood mechanism (DNA cross-links), and which have stabilities and reactivities able to be predictably controlled by structural variations, are proposed as suitable candidates fur such diffusible cytotoxins. Design parameters for two classes of potential HPDCs are discussed; nitro-deactivated aromatic mustards, and cobalt (III) complex-deactivated aliphatic mustards. Examples of both classes show greater cell-killing activity against intact compared with dissociated multi-cellular spheroids. This suggests they may indeed function as HPDCs, by penetrating to the hypoxic core of the spheroid and there releasing potent cytotoxins which diffuse out to kill surrounding cells at lower oxygen tensions.

  8. Bystander or No Bystander for Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam V. Patterson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT of cancer aims to improve the selectivity of chemotherapy by gene transfer, thus enabling target cells to convert nontoxic prodrugs to cytotoxic drugs. A zone of cell kill around gene-modified cells due to transfer of toxic metabolites, known as the bystander effect, leads to tumour regression. Here we discuss the implications of either striving for a strong bystander effect to overcome poor gene transfer, or avoiding the bystander effect to reduce potential systemic effects, with the aid of three successful GDEPT systems. This review concentrates on bystander effects and drug development with regard to these enzyme prodrug combinations, namely herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK with ganciclovir (GCV, cytosine deaminase (CD from bacteria or yeast with 5-fluorocytodine (5-FC, and bacterial nitroreductase (NfsB with 5-(azaridin-1-yl-2,4-dinitrobenzamide (CB1954, and their respective derivatives.

  9. New prodrugs based on phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCoss, M.

    1982-02-03

    A method is described for the preparation of defined, isomerically pure phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates as a prodrug in which the drug (araC) is attached to the phospholipid by a monophosphate linkage. Key intermediates in the process involve selective blocking and deblocking of the nucleoside derivative. These particular monophosphate-linked derivatives represent a new class of prodrug, which are useful by themselves or in combination with diphosphate linked derivatives. Several new compositions involving diphosphate linked derivatives are described in which the products are isomerically pure and having defined fatty acid chain lengths.

  10. Thapsigargin, origin, chemistry, structure-activity relationships and prodrug development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Thi Quynh Nhu; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2015-01-01

    inhibition of the pump afforded collapse of the calcium homeostasis and eventually apoptosis. Structure-activity relationships enabled design of an equipotent analogue containing a linker. Conjugation of a peptide, which only is a substrate for prostate specific antigen enabled design of a prodrug (G115......) targeted against prostate cancer. Conjugation to a peptide, which only is a substrate for prostate specific membrane antigen enabled development of a prodrug (G202), which is targeted towards a number of cancer diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. G202 has under the name of mipsagargin in clinical...

  11. GSH-Activated NIR Fluorescent Prodrug for Podophyllotoxin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajing; Zhu, Shaojia; Gu, Kaizhi; Guo, Zhiqian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Mingwei; Amin, Hesham M; Zhu, Weihong; Shi, Ping

    2017-09-06

    Theranostic prodrug therapy enables the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs with minimized adverse effects and real-time in situ monitoring of activation of the prodrugs. In this work, we report the synthesis and biological assessment of the near-infrared (NIR) prodrug DCM-S-PPT and its amphiphilic copolymer (mPEG-DSPE)-encapsulated nanoparticles. DCM-S-PPT is composed of podophyllotoxin (PPT) as the anticancer moiety and a dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran (DCM) derivative as the NIR fluorescent reporter, which are linked by a thiol-specific cleavable disulfide bond. In vitro experiments indicated that DCM-S-PPT has low cytotoxicity and that glutathione (GSH) can activate DCM-S-PPT resulting in PPT release and a concomitant significant enhancement in NIR fluorescence at 665 nm. After being intravenously injected into tumor-bearing nude mice, DCM-S-PPT exhibited excellent tumor-activated performance. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that mPEG-DSPE as a nanocarrier loaded with DCM-S-PPT (mPEG-DSPE/DCM-S-PPT) showed even greater tumor-targeting performance than DCM-S-PPT on account of the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Its tumor-targeting ability and specific drug release in tumors make DCM-S-PPT a promising prodrug that could provide a significant strategy for theranostic drug delivery systems.

  12. Amino Acid Ester Prodrugs of Nucleoside and Nucleotide Antivirals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krečmerová, Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 10 (2017), s. 818-833 ISSN 1389-5575 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200551201 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside analogues * antiherpetics * antiretrovirals * cidofovir * peptidomimetics * prodrugs Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.661, year: 2016

  13. Antiviral acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: New structures and prodrugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krečmerová, Marcela; Tichý, Tomáš; Pomeisl, Karel; Andrei, G.; Balzarini, J.; Snoeck, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2016), s. 37 [PharmaMed-2016. International Conference on Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry . 05.12.2016-07.12.2016, Dubai] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00522S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * prodrugs * antivirals * 5-azacytosine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  14. Novel Polymeric Prodrugs of Valproic Acid as Anti- Epilepsy Drugs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The release of VPA from polymeric prodrugs was studied using cellophane membrane dialysis bags containing aqueous buffer solutions (pH 1, 7 and 10) at 37 oC. The quantity of released drug was detected by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy. Results: 1H-NMR and elemental analyses data for calculating mole composition of ...

  15. Evaluation of diclofenac prodrugs for enhancing transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Shabbir; Li, Henan; Farhan, Nashid; Yan, Guang

    2014-03-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the approach of using diclofenac acid (DA) prodrugs for enhancing transdermal delivery. Methanol diclofenac ester (MD), ethylene glycol diclofenac ester (ED), glycerol diclofenac ester (GD) and 1,3-propylene glycol diclofenac ester (PD) were synthesized and evaluated for their physicochemical properties such as solubilities, octanol/water partition coefficients, stratum corneum/water partition coefficients, hydrolysis rates and bioconversion rates. In vitro fluxes across human epidermal membrane (HEM) in the Franz diffusion cell were determined on DA-, MD-, ED-, GD- and PD-saturated aqueous solutions. The formation of GD and ED led to the prodrugs with higher aqueous solubilities and lower partition coefficients than those of the parent drug. Prodrugs with improved aqueous solubility showed better fluxes across HEM in aqueous solution than that of the parent drug, with GD showing the highest aqueous solubility and also the highest flux. There is a linear relationship between the aqueous solubility and flux for DA, ED and PD, but GD and MD deviated from the linear line. Diclofenac prodrugs with improved hydrophilicity than the parent drug could be utilized for enhancing transdermal diclofenac delivery.

  16. Evaluation of Diclofenac Prodrugs for Enhancing Transdermal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Shabbir; Li, Henan; Farhan, Nashid; Yan, Guang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the approach of using diclofenac acid (DA) prodrugs for enhancing transdermal delivery. Methanol diclofenac ester (MD), ethylene glycol diclofenac ester (ED), glycerol diclofenac ester (GD), and 1,3-propylene glycol diclofenac ester (PD) were synthesized and evaluated for their physicochemical properties such as solubilities, octanol/water partition coefficients, stratum corneum/water partition coefficients, hydrolysis rates, and bioconversion rates. In vitro fluxes across human epidermal membrane (HEM) in Franz diffusion cell were determined on DA, MD, ED, GD, and PD saturated aqueous solutions. The formation of GD and ED led to the prodrugs with higher aqueous solubilities and lower partition coefficients than those of the parent drug. Prodrugs with improved aqueous solubility showed better fluxes across HEM in aqueous solution than that of the parent drug, with GD showing the highest aqueous solubility and also the highest flux. There is a linear relationship between the aqueous solubility and flux for DA, ED and PD, but GD and MD deviated from the linear line. Overall, diclofenac prodrugs with improved hydrophilicity than the parent drug could be utilized for enhancing transdermal diclofenac delivery. PMID:24517636

  17. PRODRUGS OF NON- STEROID ANTI - INFLAMMATORY AGENTS (NSAIDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to novel depot formulations (prodrugs) comprising an immobility promoting unit linked via an ester to an active pharmaceutical ingredient, i.a. common NSAIDs. The novel depot formulations are suitable for intra-articular injections and are soluble at slightly acidic p...

  18. Chemical Stability and Bioadhesive Properties of an Ester Prodrug of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Poly (Ethylene Oxide) Matrices: Effect of Formulation Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumma, Sridhar; Majumdar, Soumyajit; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Gul, Waseem; Repka, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to stabilize a novel hemiglutarate ester prodrug of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in polyethylene oxide (PEO) polymeric matrices produced by hot-melt fabrication, for systemic delivery of THC through the oral transmucosal route. For this purpose, the influence of pH modifiers and antioxidants employed as stabilizing agents in these matrices was investigated. Based on the stability studies, two final formulations were made, and the stability of the active was assessed in these systems. In addition, the bioadhesive properties of PEO matrices were studied as a function of bioadhesive polymer type and concentration, contact time, drug loading and wetting time. Of all of the polymers investigated, bioadhesion was highest with Carbopol® 971p. Bioadhesion increased with bioadhesive polymer concentration and wetting time to a certain level beyond which there was no further contribution. Both the contact time and drug loading influenced the bioadhesion. Severe degradation of the prodrug was observed during storage, even at room temperature (75% at the end of 3 months). Incorporation of the stabilizing agents in the PEO matrices reduced the degradation of the prodrug considerably. Citric acid was the most effective of all of the pH modifiers studied. Among the various antioxidants utilized, degradation was observed least in presence of BHT and ascorbic acid. Only 7.6% and 8.2% of prodrug degraded in these matrices, respectively, as compared to the PEO only matrices (59.4%) at the end of 3 months at 25 °C/60% RH. The prodrug was very stable in both of the final formulations at the end of the 3 months at 40 °C/75% RH. PMID:18652884

  19. Characterization of Pegylated Liposomal Mitomycin C Lipid-Based Prodrug (Promitil) by High Sensitivity Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohui; Patil, Yogita; Ohana, Patricia; Amitay, Yasmine; Shmeeda, Hilary; Gabizon, Alberto; Barenholz, Yechezkel

    2017-12-04

    The effect of a lipidated prodrug of mitomycin C (MLP) on the membrane of a pegylated liposome formulation (PL-MLP), also known as Promitil, was characterized through high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and cryo-TEM. The thermodynamic analysis demonstrated that MLP led to the formation of heterogeneous domains in the membrane plane of PL-MLP. MLP concentrated in prodrug-rich domains, arranged in high-ordered crystal-like structures, as suggested by the sharp and high enthalpy endotherm in the first heating scanning. After thiolytic cleavage of mitomycin C from MLP by dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment, the crystal-like prodrug domain disappears and a homogeneous membrane with stronger lipid interactions and higher phase transition temperature compared with the blank (MLP-free) liposomes is observed by DSC. In parallel, the rod-like discoid liposomes and the "kissing liposomes" seen by cryo-TEM in the PL-MLP formulation disappear, and liposome mean size and polydispersity increase after DTT treatment. Both MLP and the residual postcleavage lipophilic moiety of the prodrug increased the rigidity of the liposome membrane as indicated by DSC. These results confirm that MLP is inserted in the PL-MLP liposome membrane via its lipophilic anchor, and its mitomycin C moiety located mainly at the region of the phospholipid glycerol backbone and polar headgroup. We hypothesize that π-π stacking between the planar aromatic rings of the mitomycin C moieties leads to the formation of prodrug-rich domains with highly ordered structure on the PL-MLP liposome membrane. This thermodynamically stable conformation may explain the high stability of the PL-MLP formulation. These results also provide us with an interesting example of the application of high sensitivity DSC in understanding the composition-structure-behavior dynamics of liposomal nanocarriers having a lipid-based drug as pharmaceutical ingredient.

  20. Thiazolidine prodrugs of cysteamine and cysteine as radioprotective agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J.C.; Koch, K.E.; Detrick, S.R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The need for protection against the toxic effects of ionizing radiation comes from many different directions: occupational exposure, nuclear accidents, environmental sources and protection of normal tissue during the therapeutic irradiation of cancer. Sulfhydryl-containing compounds, including cysteamine and L-cysteine, have long been known to possess radioprotective properties, but their therapeutic utility is limited by their side effects at radioprotective doses. To avoid this drawback, thiazolidine prodrugs of cysteamine and L-cysteine were prepared by the condensation of each thiolamine with the aldose monosaccharides, D-ribose and D-glucose, producing RibCyst, GlcCyst, Rib-Cys and GlcCys. The prodrugs were designed to liberate the parent thiolamine nonenzymatically, after ring opening and hydrolysis, which is then available e to function as a radioprotective agent. Cysteamine`s inherent toxicity, measured using Chinese hamster V79 cells growing in culture, was completely eliminated, even at concentrations as high as 25 mM, by providing the thiolamine in the form of a prodrug. Good protection against radiation-induced lethality was demonstrated by the cysteamine prodrugs using a clonogenic assay. Protection against radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks, as measured by alkaline elution, was also shown by both RibCyst and GlcCyst; this activity was higher than that exhibited by either cysteamine or WR-1065. The L-cysteine prodrugs, RibCys and GlcCys, also possessed radioprotective abilities under most of the conditions studied. Protection against DNA damage was comparable between L-cystein, WR-1065 and RibCys. 42 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Metformin and Its Sulfenamide Prodrugs Inhibit Human Cholinesterase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of epidemiological and pathophysiological studies suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may predispose to Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The two conditions present similar glucose levels, insulin resistance, and biochemical etiologies such as inflammation and oxidative stress. The diabetic state also contributes to increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity, which is one of the factors leading to neurodegeneration in AD. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro the effects of metformin, phenformin, and metformin sulfenamide prodrugs on the activity of human AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE and establish the type of inhibition. Metformin inhibited 50% of the AChE activity at micromolar concentrations (2.35 μmol/mL, mixed type of inhibition and seemed to be selective towards AChE since it presented low anti-BuChE activity. The tested metformin prodrugs inhibited cholinesterases (ChE at nanomolar range and thus were more active than metformin or phenformin. The cyclohexyl sulfenamide prodrug demonstrated the highest activity towards both AChE (IC50 = 890 nmol/mL, noncompetitive inhibition and BuChE (IC50 = 28 nmol/mL, mixed type inhibition, while the octyl sulfenamide prodrug did not present anti-AChE activity, but exhibited mixed inhibition towards BuChE (IC50 = 184 nmol/mL. Therefore, these two bulkier prodrugs were concluded to be the most selective compounds for BuChE over AChE. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that biguanides present a novel class of inhibitors for AChE and BuChE and encourages further studies of these compounds for developing both selective and nonselective inhibitors of ChEs in the future.

  2. Long-Acting Diclofenac Ester Prodrugs for Joint Injection: Kinetics, Mechanism of Degradation, and In Vitro Release From Prodrug Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Nina; Larsen, Susan Weng; Kristensen, Jesper; Østergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Claus

    2016-10-01

    A prodrug approach for local and sustained diclofenac action after injection into joints based on ester prodrugs having a pH-dependent solubility is presented. Inherent ester prodrug properties influencing the duration of action include their pH-dependent solubility and charge state, as well as susceptibility to undergo esterase facilitated hydrolysis. In this study, physicochemical properties and pH rate profiles of 3 diclofenac ester prodrugs differing with respect to the spacer carbon chain length between the drug and the imidazole-based promoiety were determined and a rate equation for prodrug degradation in aqueous solution in the pH range 1-10 was derived. In the pH range 6-10, the prodrugs were subject to parallel degradation to yield diclofenac and an indolinone derivative. The prodrug degradation was found to be about 6-fold faster in 80% (vol/vol) human plasma as compared to 80% (vol/vol) human synovial fluid with 2-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl 2-(2-(2,6 dichlorophenyl)amino)phenylacetate being the poorest substrate toward enzymatic cleavage. The conversion and release of parent diclofenac from prodrug suspensions in vitro were studied using the rotating dialysis model. The results suggest that it is possible to alter and control dissolution and reconversion behavior of the diclofenac prodrugs, thus making the prodrug approach feasible for local and sustained diclofenac action after joint injection. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid on Cytochrome P450-Mediated Prodrug Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Miura

    Full Text Available Of late, numerous prodrugs are widely used for therapy. The hemeprotein cytochrome P450 (CYP catalyzes the activation of prodrugs to form active metabolites. Therefore, the activation of CYP function might allow the use of lower doses of prodrugs and decrease toxicity. We hypothesized that the addition of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a precursor in the porphyrin biosynthetic pathway, enhances the synthesis of heme, leading to the up-regulation of CYP activity. To test this hypothesis, we treated a human gastric cancer cell line with ALA and determined the effect on CYP-dependent prodrug activation. For this purpose, we focused on the anticancer prodrug tegafur, which is converted to its active metabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU mainly by CYP2A6. We show here that ALA increased CYP2A6-dependent tegafur activation, suggesting that ALA elevated CYP activity and potentiated the activation of the prodrug.

  4. Pharmacological Evaluation and Preliminary Pharmacokinetics Studies of a New Diclofenac Prodrug without Gastric Ulceration Effect

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Jean Leandro [UNESP; Moreira, Vanessa; Campos, Michel Leandro [UNESP; Chelucci, Rafael Consolin [UNESP; Barbieri, Karina Pereira [UNESP; Maggio de Castro Souto, Pollyana Cristina; Matsubara, Marcio Hideki; Teixeira, Catarina; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin [UNESP; Peccinini, Rosangela Goncalves [UNESP; Chin, Chung Man [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) therapy has been associated with several adverse effects such as gastric ulceration and cardiovascular events. Among the molecular modifications strategies, the prodrug approach is a useful tool to discover new safe NSAIDs. The 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)indolin-2-one is a diclofenac prodrug which demonstrated relevant anti-inflammatory properties without gastro ulceration effect. In addition, the prodrug decreases PGE(2) levels, COX-2 expres...

  5. Amino Acid Prodrugs: An Approach to Improve the Absorption of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor, Lopinavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitesh Patel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor systemic concentrations of lopinavir (LPV following oral administration occur due to high cellular efflux by P-glycoprotein (P-gp and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs and extensive metabolism by CYP3A4 enzymes. In this study, amino acid prodrugs of LPV were designed and investigated for their potential to circumvent efflux processes and first pass effects. Three amino acid prodrugs were synthesized by conjugating isoleucine, tryptophan and methionine to LPV. Prodrug formation was confirmed by the LCMS/MS and NMR technique. Interaction of LPV prodrugs with efflux proteins were carried out in P-gp (MDCK-MDR1 and MRP2 (MDCK-MRP2 transfected cells. Aqueous solubility studies demonstrated that prodrugs generate higher solubility relative to LPV. Prodrugs displayed higher stability under acidic conditions and degraded significantly with rise in pH. Uptake and transport data suggested that prodrugs carry significantly lower affinity towards P-gp and MRP2 relative to LPV. Moreover, prodrugs exhibited higher liver microsomal stability relative to LPV. Hence, amino acid prodrug modification might be a viable approach for enhancing LPV absorption across intestinal epithelial and brain endothelial cells which expresses high levels of P-gp and MRP2.

  6. Saliva-catalyzed hydrolysis of a ketobemidone ester prodrug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Bundgaard, H.

    1992-01-01

    Saliva enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis of ester prodrugs or drugs containing sensitive ester groups may be a limiting factor for the buccal absorption of such compounds. Using the isopropyl carbonate ester of ketobemidone as a model substance of a hydrolysis-sensitive prodrug the esterase activity...... of human saliva has been characterized as a function of various factors. The esterase activity was found to decrease rapidly upon storage of the saliva at 37°C. The activity increased with increasing pH in the range 4.5-7.4 and with increasing salivation flow rate up to a rate of 0.9 ml min. Under resting...... conditions, the flow rate was about 0.2 ml min which implied a greatly decreased esterase activity. The activity was highest after fasting and decreased after intake of a meal. The intraindividual variation in the saliva esterase activity was small whereas a larger interindividual variation was found....

  7. Application of Prodrugs to Inflammatory Diseases of the Gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Ebersole

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral delivery is the most common and preferred route of drug administrationalthough the digestive tract exhibits several obstacles to drug delivery including motilityand intraluminal pH profiles. The gut milieu represents the largest mucosal surfaceexposed to microorganisms with 1010-12 colony forming bacteria/g of colonic content.Approximately, one third of fecal dry matter is made of bacteria/ bacterial components.Indeed, the normal gut microbiota is responsible for healthy digestion of dietary fibers(polysaccharides and fermentation of short chain fatty acids such as acetate and butyratethat provide carbon sources (fuel for these bacteria. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBDresults in breakage of the mucosal barrier, an altered microbiota and dysregulated gutimmunity. Prodrugs that are chemically constructed to target colonic release or aredegraded specifically by colonic bacteria, can be useful in the treatment of IBD. Thisreview describes the progress in digestive tract prodrug design and delivery in light of gutmetabolic activities.

  8. Prodrugs of phosphonates and phosphates: crossing the membrane barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, Andrew J; Wiemer, David F

    2015-01-01

    A substantial portion of metabolism involves transformation of phosphate esters, including pathways leading to nucleotides and oligonucleotides, carbohydrates, isoprenoids and steroids, and phosphorylated proteins. Because the natural substrates bear one or more negative charges, drugs that target these enzymes generally must be charged as well, but small charged molecules can have difficulty traversing the cell membrane by means other than endocytosis. The resulting dichotomy has stimulated a great deal of effort to develop effective prodrugs, compounds that carry little or no charge to enable them to transit biological membranes, but able to release the parent drug once inside the target cell. This chapter presents recent studies on advances in prodrug forms, along with representative examples of their application to marketed and developmental drugs.

  9. Evaluation of Diclofenac Prodrugs for Enhancing Transdermal Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Shabbir; Li, Henan; Farhan, Nashid; Yan, Guang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the approach of using diclofenac acid (DA) prodrugs for enhancing transdermal delivery. Methanol diclofenac ester (MD), ethylene glycol diclofenac ester (ED), glycerol diclofenac ester (GD), and 1,3-propylene glycol diclofenac ester (PD) were synthesized and evaluated for their physicochemical properties such as solubilities, octanol/water partition coefficients, stratum corneum/water partition coefficients, hydrolysis rates, and bioconversion rates. ...

  10. Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase: an antiviral prodrug activating enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehler, Ulrika; Nelson, Cara H; Peterson, Larryn W; Provoda, Chester J; Hilfinger, John M; Lee, Kyung-Dall; McKenna, Charles E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-03-01

    Cidofovir (HPMPC) is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent, currently used to treat AIDS-related human cytomegalovirus retinitis. Cidofovir has recognized therapeutic potential for orthopox virus infections, although its use is hampered by its inherent low oral bioavailability. Val-Ser-cyclic HPMPC (Val-Ser-cHPMPC) is a promising peptide prodrug which has previously been shown by us to improve the permeability and bioavailability of the parent compound in rodent models (Eriksson et al., 2008. Molecular Pharmaceutics 5, 598-609). Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase was partially purified from Caco-2 cell homogenates and identified as a prodrug activating enzyme for Val-Ser-cHPMPC. The prodrug activation process initially involves an enzymatic step where the l-Valine residue is removed by puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase, a step that is bestatin-sensitive. Subsequent chemical hydrolysis results in the generation of cHPMPC. A recombinant puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase was generated and its substrate specificity investigated. The k(cat) for Val-pNA was significantly lower than that for Ala-pNA, suggesting that some amino acids are preferred over others. Furthermore, the three-fold higher k(cat) for Val-Ser-cHPMPC as compared to Val-pNA suggests that the leaving group may play an important role in determining hydrolytic activity. In addition to its ability to hydrolyze a variety of substrates, these observations strongly suggest that puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase is an important enzyme for activating Val-Ser-cHPMPC in vivo. Taken together, our data suggest that puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase makes an attractive target for future prodrug design.

  11. Cholesterylbutyrate Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as a Butyric Acid Prodrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mauro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterylbutyrate (Chol-but was chosen as a prodrug of butyric acid.Butyrate is not often used in vivo because its half-life is very short and therefore too largeamounts of the drug would be necessary for its efficacy. In the last few years butyric acid'santi-inflammatory properties and its inhibitory activity towards histone deacetylases havebeen widely studied, mainly in vitro. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs, whose lipid matrixis Chol-but, were prepared to evaluate the delivery system of Chol-but as a prodrug and totest its efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Chol-but SLNs were prepared using the microemulsionmethod; their average diameter is on the order of 100-150 nm and their shape is spherical.The antineoplastic effects of Chol-but SLNs were assessed in vitro on different cancer celllines and in vivo on a rat intracerebral glioma model. The anti-inflammatory activity wasevaluated on adhesion of polymorphonuclear cells to vascular endothelial cells. In thereview we will present data on Chol-but SLNs in vitro and in vivo experiments, discussingthe possible utilisation of nanoparticles for the delivery of prodrugs for neoplastic andchronic inflammatory diseases.

  12. Metronidazole citrate ester as the new prodrug of metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Dąbrowska-Maś

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made since 1960th to obtain ester prodrugs of metronidazole active moiety to be used for parenteral forms, with the same action against microorganisms. Until now there is not any ester prodrug marketed for this route of administration. The synthesis from metronidazole and citric acid of new ester prodrug of metronidazole with citric acid in a form of disodium salt and the way of purification were described. The structure of sodium metronidazole citrate was elucidated with IR, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. Also impurities present in this ester were identified using 1H NMR technique. Additionally, the solubility in water was measured as well as pH of 10% (w/w aqueous solution, and both values indicated that there is a possibility to obtain concentrated solutions for injection of neutral pH, even without need of buffering. Finally, the Ames assay using six tester strains S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and E. coli uvrA, [pKM101] shown weak genotoxic potential, comparable with metronidazole.

  13. Carrier-Mediated Prodrug Uptake to Improve the Oral Bioavailability of Polar Drugs: An Application to an Oseltamivir Analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incecayir, Tuba; Sun, Jing; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Xu, Hao; Gose, Tomoka; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi; Hilfinger, John; Lipka, Elke; Amidon, Gordon L

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to improve the intestinal mucosal cell membrane permeability of the poorly absorbed guanidino analogue of a neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir carboxylate (GOC) using a carrier-mediated strategy. Valyl amino acid prodrug of GOC with isopropyl-methylene-dioxy linker (GOC-ISP-Val) was evaluated as the potential substrate for intestinal oligopeptide transporter, hPEPT1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes heterologously expressing hPEPT1, and an intestinal mouse perfusion system. The diastereomers of GOC-ISP-Val were assessed for chemical and metabolic stability. Permeability of GOC-ISP-Val was determined in Caco-2 cells and mice. Diastereomer 2 was about 2 times more stable than diastereomer 1 in simulated intestinal fluid and rapidly hydrolyzed to the parent drug in cell homogenates. The prodrug had a 9 times-enhanced apparent permeability (P(app)) in Caco-2 cells compared with the parent drug. Both diastereomer exhibited high effective permeability (P(eff)) in mice, 6.32 ± 3.12 and 5.20 ± 2.81 × 10(-5) cm/s for diastereomer 1 and 2, respectively. GOC-ISP-Val was found to be a substrate of hPEPT1. Overall, this study indicates that the prodrug, GOC-ISP-Val, seems to be a promising oral anti-influenza agent that has sufficient stability at physiologically relevant pHs before absorption, significantly improved permeability via hPEPT1 and potentially rapid activation in the intestinal cells. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thiazolidinone prodrugs activated by reactive oxygen species for use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    Prodrugs activated predominantly or exclusively in inflammatory tissue, more particularly prodrugs of methotrexate and derivatives thereof, which are selectively activated by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in inflammatory tissues associated with cancer and inflammatory diseases, as well as method...

  15. Novel anthracycline-spacer-beta-glucuronide, -beta-glucoside, and -beta-galactoside prodrugs for application in selective chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, RGG; Damen, EWP; Bijsterveld, EJA; Scheeren, HW; Houba, PHJ; van der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Boven, E; Haisma, HJ

    A series of anthracycline prodrugs containing an immolative spacer was synthesized for application in selective chemotherapy. The prodrugs having the general structure anthracycline-spacer-beta-glycoside were designed to be activated by beta-glucuronidase or beta-galactosidase. Prodrugs with

  16. Paclitaxel prodrugs, method for preparation as well as their use in selective chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, Hendricus BA; Leenders, Ruben GG; Scheeren, Johan W; Haisma, Hidde J; de Vos, Dick

    1998-01-01

    A paclitaxel prodrug has a paclitaxel portion coupled to a cleavable N-(aliphatic or aromatic)-O-glycosyl carbamate spacer group, and can be administered orally, topically or by injection to provide an anti-tumor effect, the prodrug being activated by a hydrolizing enzyme, an endogeneous enzyme or

  17. Synthesis of supposed enone prodrugs of apomorphine and N-propyl-norapomorphine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Danyang; Venhuis, Bastiaan J.; Wikstrom, Hakan V.; Dijkstra, Durk

    2007-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the enone prodrug GMC-6650 acts as a highly efficient dopaminergic agonist. In vivo, this compound is bioactivated to its corresponding catecholamine, TL-334. The goal here was to investigate if this bioactivation also occurs for the supposed enone prodrug of

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of water-soluble poly(vinyl alcohol)-paclitaxel conjugate as a macromolecular prodrug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinoki, Atsufumi; Kaneo, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Tetsuro; Hosokawa, Yoshitsugu

    2008-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is an antitumor agent for the treatment of various human cancers. Cremophor EL and ethanol are used to formulate PTX in commercial injection solutions, because of its poor solubility in water. However, these agents cause severe allergic reaction upon intravenous administration. The aim of this study is to synthesize water-soluble macromolecular prodrugs of PTX for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy. Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA, 80 kDa), water-soluble synthetic polymer, was used as a drug carrier which is safe and stable in the body. The 2'-hydroxyl group of PTX was reacted with succinic anhydride and then carboxylic group of the succinyl spacer was coupled to PVA via ethylene diamine spacer, resulting the water-soluble prodrug of poly (vinyl alcohol)-paclitaxel conjugate (PVA-SPTX). The solubility of PTX was greatly enhanced by the conjugation to PVA. The release of PTX from the conjugate was accelerated at the neutral to basic conditions in in vitro release experiment. [ 125 I]-labeled PVA-SPTX was retained in the blood circulation for several days and was gradually distributed into the tumorous tissue after intravenous injection to the tumor-bearing mice. PVA-SPTX inhibited the growth of sarcoma 180 cells subcutaneously inoculated in mice. It was suggested that the water-solubility of PTX was markedly enhanced by the conjugation to PVA, and PVA-SPTX effectively delivered PTX to the tumorous tissue due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. (author)

  19. Pharmacological evaluation and preliminary pharmacokinetics studies of a new diclofenac prodrug without gastric ulceration effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jean Leandro Dos; Moreira, Vanessa; Campos, Michel Leandro; Chelucci, Rafael Consolin; Barbieri, Karina Pereira; de Castro Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio; Matsubara, Márcio Hideki; Teixeira, Catarina; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves; Chin, Chung Man

    2012-11-19

    Long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) therapy has been associated with several adverse effects such as gastric ulceration and cardiovascular events. Among the molecular modifications strategies, the prodrug approach is a useful tool to discover new safe NSAIDs. The 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)indolin-2-one is a diclofenac prodrug which demonstrated relevant anti-inflammatory properties without gastro ulceration effect. In addition, the prodrug decreases PGE(2) levels, COX-2 expression and cellular influx into peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan treatment. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have shown in vivo bioconversion of prodrug to diclofenac. This prodrug is a new nonulcerogenic NSAID useful to treat inflammatory events by long-term therapy.

  20. Pharmacological Evaluation and Preliminary Pharmacokinetics Studies of a New Diclofenac Prodrug without Gastric Ulceration Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Man Chin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs therapy has been associated with several adverse effects such as gastric ulceration and cardiovascular events. Among the molecular modifications strategies, the prodrug approach is a useful tool to discover new safe NSAIDs. The 1-(2,6-dichlorophenylindolin-2-one is a diclofenac prodrug which demonstrated relevant anti-inflammatory properties without gastro ulceration effect. In addition, the prodrug decreases PGE2 levels, COX-2 expression and cellular influx into peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan treatment. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have shown in vivo bioconversion of prodrug to diclofenac. This prodrug is a new nonulcerogenic NSAID useful to treat inflammatory events by long-term therapy.

  1. Targeted inhibition of hedgehog signaling by cyclopamine prodrugs for advanced prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Srinivas K.; Roy, Indrajit; Anchoori, Ravi K.; Fazli, Sarah; Maitra, Anirban; Beachy, Philip A.; Khan, Saeed R.

    2009-01-01

    A promising agent for use in prostate cancer therapy is the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway inhibitor, cyclopamine. This compound, however, has the potential for causing serious side effects in non-tumor tissues. To minimize these bystander toxicities, we have designed and synthesized two novel peptide-cyclopamine conjugates as prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-activated prodrugs for use against prostate cancer. These prodrugs were composed of cyclopamine coupled to one of two peptides (either HSSKLQ or SSKYQ) that can be selectively cleaved by PSA, converting the mature prodrug into an active Hedgehog inhibitor within the malignant cells. Of the two prodrugs, Mu-SSKYQ-Cyclopamine was rapidly hydrolyzed, with a half-life of 3.2 h, upon incubation with the PSA enzyme. Thus, modulating cyclopamine at the secondary amine with PSA-cleavable peptides is a promising strategy for developing prodrugs to target prostate cancer. PMID:18249125

  2. Prodrugs of gestodene for matrix-type transdermal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, R; Laurent, H; Günther, C; Riedl, J; Esperling, P; Täuber, U

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the transdermal absorption of the highly active progestin gestodene from matrix type transdermal delivery systems (TDDS) by formation of prodrugs with improved matrix solubility. Gestodene esters were synthesized via acylation of the drug with the respective carboxylic anhydrides. Subsequently TDDS were produced using the solvent cast method. Selected formulations were examined with in vitro diffusion experiments using skin of nude mice. One prodrug, gestodene caproate proved to be an oil at ambient temperature and showed a very high solubilty of over 10.5% in the TDDS matrix. Within in vitro penetration studies using those systems the prodrug exhibited a significantly higher transdermal penetration rate than gestodene from reference systems. Furthermore, the prodrug was hydrolyzed to the parent drug to a high extent during the passage of the skin. Designing prodrugs to the requirements of matrix TDDS is an efficient way of enhancing the transdermal drug flux rate.

  3. Substrate-Competitive Activity-Based Profiling of Ester Prodrug Activating Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Majmudar, Jaimeen D; Davda, Dahvid; Ghanakota, Phani; Kim, Ki H; Carlson, Heather A; Showalter, Hollis D; Martin, Brent R; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-09-08

    Understanding the mechanistic basis of prodrug delivery and activation is critical for establishing species-specific prodrug sensitivities necessary for evaluating preclinical animal models and potential drug-drug interactions. Despite significant adoption of prodrug methodologies for enhanced pharmacokinetics, functional annotation of prodrug activating enzymes is laborious and often unaddressed. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) describes an emerging chemoproteomic approach to assay active site occupancy within a mechanistically similar enzyme class in native proteomes. The serine hydrolase enzyme family is broadly reactive with reporter-linked fluorophosphonates, which have shown to provide a mechanism-based covalent labeling strategy to assay the activation state and active site occupancy of cellular serine amidases, esterases, and thioesterases. Here we describe a modified ABPP approach using direct substrate competition to identify activating enzymes for an ethyl ester prodrug, the influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. Substrate-competitive ABPP analysis identified carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) as an oseltamivir-activating enzyme in intestinal cell homogenates. Saturating concentrations of oseltamivir lead to a four-fold reduction in the observed rate constant for CES1 inactivation by fluorophosphonates. WWL50, a reported carbamate inhibitor of mouse CES1, blocked oseltamivir hydrolysis activity in human cell homogenates, confirming CES1 is the primary prodrug activating enzyme for oseltamivir in human liver and intestinal cell lines. The related carbamate inhibitor WWL79 inhibited mouse but not human CES1, providing a series of probes for analyzing prodrug activation mechanisms in different preclinical models. Overall, we present a substrate-competitive activity-based profiling approach for broadly surveying candidate prodrug hydrolyzing enzymes and outline the kinetic parameters for activating enzyme discovery, ester prodrug design, and

  4. The Medicinal Chemistry of Imidazotetrazine Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Moody

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Temozolomide (TMZ is the standard first line treatment for malignant glioma, reaching “blockbuster” status in 2010, yet it remains the only drug in its class. The main constraints on the clinical effectiveness of TMZ therapy are its requirement for active DNA mismatch repair (MMR proteins for activity, and inherent resistance through O6-methyl guanine-DNA methyl transferase (MGMT activity. Moreover, acquired resistance, due to MMR mutation, results in aggressive TMZ-resistant tumour regrowth following good initial responses. Much of the attraction in TMZ as a drug lies in its PK/PD properties: it is acid stable and has 100% oral bioavailability; it also has excellent distribution properties, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and there is direct evidence of tumour localisation. This review seeks to unravel some of the mysteries of the imidazotetrazine class of compounds to which TMZ belongs. In addition to an overview of different synthetic strategies, we explore the somewhat unusual chemical reactivity of the imidazotetrazines, probing their mechanisms of reaction, examining which attributes are required for an active drug molecule and reviewing the use of this combined knowledge towards the development of new and improved anti-cancer agents.

  5. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  6. The Flavin Reductase MsuE Is a Novel Nitroreductase that Can Efficiently Activate Two Promising Next-Generation Prodrugs for Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Laura K.; Storey, Mathew A. [School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Williams, Elsie M. [School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Victoria University Centre for Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Patterson, Adam V.; Smaill, Jeff B. [Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, University of Auckland, Grafton, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Copp, Janine N.; Ackerley, David F., E-mail: david.ackerley@vuw.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Victoria University Centre for Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2013-08-08

    Bacterial nitroreductase enzymes that can efficiently catalyse the oxygen-independent reduction of prodrugs originally developed to target tumour hypoxia offer great potential for expanding the therapeutic range of these molecules to aerobic tumour regions, via the emerging cancer strategy of gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT). Two promising hypoxia prodrugs for GDEPT are the dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and the nitrochloromethylbenzindoline prodrug nitro-CBI-DEI. We describe here use of a nitro-quenched fluorogenic probe to identify MsuE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a novel nitroreductase candidate for GDEPT. In SOS and bacteria-delivered enzyme prodrug cytotoxicity assays MsuE was less effective at activating CB1954 (a first-generation GDEPT prodrug) than the “gold standard” nitroreductases NfsA and NfsB from Escherichia coli. However, MsuE exhibited comparable levels of activity with PR-104A and nitro-CBI-DEI, and is the first nitroreductase outside of the NfsA and NfsB enzyme families to do so. These in vitro findings suggest that MsuE is worthy of further evaluation in in vivo models of GDEPT.

  7. Synthesis and Structural Analysis of Polyester Prodrugs of Norfloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waclaw Kolodziejski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-, three- and four-arm, star-shaped poly(ε-caprolactone andpoly(D,L-lactide homopolymers, and copolymers of ε-caprolactone with D,L-lactide weresynthesized via ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters in the presence of glycerol,penthaerythritol and poly(ethylene glycol as initiators and stannous octoate as a catalyst.Thus obtained oligomers were successfully used in the synthesis of novel macromolecularprodrugs of norfloxacin. The structures of the polymers and prodrugs were elucidated bymeans of MALDI-TOF MS, NMR and IR studies.

  8. Advanced Prodrug Strategies in Nucleoside and Non-Nucleoside Antiviral Agents: A Review of the Recent Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanadi Sinokrot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor pharmacokinetic profiles and resistance are the main two drawbacks from which currently used antiviral agents suffer, thus make them excellent targets for research, especially in the presence of viral pandemics such as HIV and hepatitis C. Methods: The strategies employed in the studies covered in this review were sorted by the type of drug synthesized into ester prodrugs, targeted delivery prodrugs, macromolecular prodrugs, other nucleoside conjugates, and non-nucleoside drugs. Results: Utilizing the ester prodrug approach a novel isopropyl ester prodrug was found to be potent HIV integrase inhibitor. Further, employing the targeted delivery prodrug zanamivir and valine ester prodrug was made and shown a sole delivery of zanamivir. Additionally, VivaGel, a dendrimer macromolecular prodrug, was found to be very efficient and is now undergoing clinical trials. Conclusions: Of all the strategies employed (ester, targeted delivery, macromolecular, protides and nucleoside analogues, and non-nucleoside analogues prodrugs, the most promising are nucleoside analogues and macromolecular prodrugs. The macromolecular prodrug VivaGel works by two mechanisms: envelope mediated and receptor mediated disruption. Nucleotide analogues have witnessed productive era in the recent past few years. The era of non-interferon based treatment of hepatitis (through direct inhibitors of NS5A has dawned.

  9. Synthesis and preliminary cytotoxicity study of a cephalosporin-CC-1065 analogue prodrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hong

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT is a promising new approach to deliver anticancer drugs selectively to tumor cells. In this approach, an enzyme is conjugated to a tumor-specific antibody. The antibody selectively localizes the enzyme to the tumor cell surface. Subsequent administration of a prodrug substrate of the enzyme leads to the enzyme-catalyzed release of the free drug at the tumor site. The free drug will destroy the tumor cells selectively, thus, reducing side effects. Results A CC-1065 analogue was conjugated to a cephalosporin affording prodrug 2. The prodrug and its corresponding free drug, 1, have IC50 values of 0.9 and 0.09 nM, respectively, against U937 leukemia cells in vitro. Conclusions For the first time, a prodrug comprised of a cephalosporin and a CC-1065 analogue has been synthesized. The preliminary in vitro studies show that the prodrug was 10-fold less toxic than the free drug. Prodrug 2 has the potential to be useful in cancer treatment using the ADEPT approach.

  10. Specificity of a prodrug-activating enzyme hVACVase: the leaving group effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Dahan, Arik; Walls, Zachary F; Lai, Longsheng; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-12-06

    Human valacyclovirase (hVACVase) is a prodrug-activating enzyme for amino acid prodrugs including the antiviral drugs valacyclovir and valganciclovir. In hVACVase-catalyzed reactions, the leaving group of the substrate corresponds to the drug moiety of the prodrug, making the leaving group effect essential for the rational design of new prodrugs targeting hVACVase activation. In this study, a series of valine esters, phenylalanine esters, and a valine amide were characterized for the effect of the leaving group on the efficiency of hVACVase-mediated prodrug activation. Except for phenylalanine methyl and ethyl esters, all of the ester substrates exhibited a relatively high specificity constant (k(cat)/K(m)), ranging from 850 to 9490 mM(-1)·s(-1). The valine amide Val-3-APG exhibited significantly higher K(m) and lower k(cat) values compared to the corresponding ester Val-3-HPG, indicating poor specificity for hVACVase. In conclusion, the substrate leaving group has been shown to affect both binding and specific activity of hVACVase-catalyzed activation. It is proposed that hVACVase is an ideal target for α-amino acid ester prodrugs with relatively labile leaving groups while it is relatively inactivate toward amide prodrugs.

  11. Macrophage mediated PCI enhanced gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Catherine E.; Zamora, Genesis; Kwon, Young J.; Berg, Kristian; Madsen, Steen J.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2015-03-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a photodynamic therapy-based approach for improving the delivery of macromolecules and genes into the cell cytosol. Prodrug activating gene therapy (suicide gene therapy) employing the transduction of the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) gene into tumor cells, is a promising method. Expression of this gene within the target cell produces an enzyme that converts the nontoxic prodrug, 5-FC, to the toxic metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). 5-FC may be particularly suitable for brain tumors, because it can readily cross the bloodbrain barrier (BBB). In addition the bystander effect, where activated drug is exported from the transfected cancer cells into the tumor microenvironment, plays an important role by inhibiting growth of adjacent tumor cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are frequently found in and around glioblastomas. Monocytes or macrophages (Ma) loaded with drugs, nanoparticles or photosensitizers could therefore be used to target tumors by local synthesis of chemo attractive factors. The basic concept is to combine PCI, to enhance the ex vivo transfection of a suicide gene into Ma, employing specially designed core/shell NP as gene carrier.

  12. ALA-Butyrate prodrugs for Photo-Dynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovitch, G.; Nudelman, A.; Ehenberg, B.; Rephaeli, A.; Malik, Z.

    2010-05-01

    The use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) administration has led to many applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in cancer. However, the hydrophilic nature of ALA limits its ability to penetrate the cells and tissues, and therefore the need for ALA derivatives became an urgent research target. In this study we investigated the activity of novel multifunctional acyloxyalkyl ester prodrugs of ALA that upon metabolic hydrolysis release active components such as, formaldehyde, and the histone deacetylase inhibitory moiety, butyric acid. Evaluation of these prodrugs under photo-irradiation conditions showed that butyryloxyethyl 5-amino-4-oxopentanoate (ALA-BAC) generated the most efficient photodynamic destruction compared to ALA. ALA-BAC stimulated a rapid biosynthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in human glioblastoma U-251 cells which resulted in generation of intracellular ROS, reduction of mitochondrial activity, leading to apoptotic and necrotic death of the cells. The apoptotic cell death induced by ALA / ALA-BAC followed by PDT equally activate intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signals and both pathways may occur simultaneously. The main advantage of ALA-BAC over ALA stems from its ability to induce photo-damage at a significantly lower dose than ALA.

  13. A prodrug approach to enhance azelaic acid percutaneous availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marabeh, Sara; Khalil, Enam; Khanfar, Mohammad; Al-Bakri, Amal G; Alzweiri, Muhammed

    2017-06-01

    Azelaic acid is a dicarboxylic acid compound used in treatment of acne vulgaris. However, high concentration (ca 20%) is needed to guarantee the drug availability in the skin. The latter increases the incidence of side effects such as local irritation. The prodrug strategy to enhance azelaic acid diffusion through skin was not reported before. Thus, a lipophilic prodrug of azelaic acid (diethyl azelate [DEA]) was synthesized and investigated to improve percutaneous availability of azelaic acid, with a subsequent full physical, chemical, and biological characterization. Expectedly, DEA exhibited a significant increase in diffusion compared to azelaic acid through silicone membrane. In contrast, the diffusion results through human stratum corneum (SC) displayed weaker permeation for DEA with expected retention in the SC. Therefore, a desorption study of DEA from SC was conducted to examine the reservoir behavior in SC. Results showed an evidence of sustained release behavior of DEA from SC. Consequently, enhancement of keratolytic effect is expected due to azelaic acid produced from enzymatic conversion of DEA released from SC.

  14. Identification of novel nitroreductases from Bacillus cereus and their interaction with the CB1954 prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenin, Vanessa V; Poornima, Paramasivan; Halliwell, Jennifer; Ball, Patrick; Robinson, George; Gwenin, Chris D

    2015-12-01

    Directed enzyme prodrug therapy is a form of cancer chemotherapy in which bacterial prodrug-activating enzymes, or their encoding genes, are directed to the tumour before administration of a prodrug. The prodrug can then be activated into a toxic drug at the tumour site, reducing off-target effects. The bacterial nitroreductases are a class of enzymes used in this therapeutic approach and although very promising, the low turnover rate of prodrug by the most studied nitroreductase enzyme, NfnB from Escherichia coli (NfnB_Ec), is a major limit to this technology. There is a continual search for enzymes with greater efficiency, and as part of the search for more efficient bacterial nitroreductase enzymes, two novel enzymes from Bacillus cereus (strain ATCC 14579) have been identified and shown to reduce the CB1954 (5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) prodrug to its respective 2'-and 4'-hydroxylamine products. Both enzymes shared features characteristic of the nitro-FMN-reductase superfamily including non-covalently associated FMN, requirement for the NAD(P)H cofactor, homodimeric, could be inhibited by Dicoumarol (3,3'-methylenebis(4-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one)), and displayed ping pong bi bi kinetics. Based on the biochemical characteristics and nucleotide alignment with other nitroreductase enzymes, one enzyme was named YdgI_Bc and the other YfkO_Bc. Both B. cereus enzymes had greater turnover for the CB1954 prodrug compared with NfnB_Ec, and in the presence of added NADPH cofactor, YfkO_Bc had superior cell killing ability, and produced mainly the 4'-hydroxylamine product at low prodrug concentration. The YfkO_Bc was identified as a promising candidate for future enzyme prodrug therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Design, Synthesis and Hydrolytic Behavior of Mutual Prodrugs of NSAIDs with Gabapentin Using Glycol Spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Najeh Alsaad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The free –COOH present in NSAIDs is thought to be responsible for the GI irritation associated with all traditional NSAIDs. Exploitation of mutual prodrugs is an approach wherein the NSAID is covalently bounded to a second pharmacologically active carrier/drug with the ultimate aim of reducing the gastric irritation. In this study some NSAIDs were conjugated with gabapentin via ester bonds using glycol spacers with the expectation of reducing gastric adverse effects and obtaining synergistic analgesic effects. The kinetics of ester hydrolysis were studied in two different non enzymatic buffer solutions at pH 1.2 and 7.4, as well as in 80% human plasma using HPLC with chloroform -methanol as mobile phase. Compounds 9a–c with ethylene glycol spacers showed significant stability at buffer solutions with half lives ranging from about 8–25 h, while the underwent a reasonable plasma hydrolysis (49%–88% in 2 h. Compound 9d with a propylene glycol spacer shows a higher rate of enzymatic hydrolysis than the corresponding ethylene glycol compound 9c. The result of compounds 9a-c indicate that these compounds may be stable during their passage through the GIT until reaching the blood circulation.

  16. Design, synthesis and hydrolytic behavior of mutual prodrugs of NSAIDs with gabapentin using glycol spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Monther Faisal; Alsaad, Hiba Najeh

    2012-10-12

    The free –COOH present in NSAIDs is thought to be responsible for the GI irritation associated with all traditional NSAIDs. Exploitation of mutual prodrugs is an approach wherein the NSAID is covalently bounded to a second pharmacologically active carrier/drug with the ultimate aim of reducing the gastric irritation. In this study some NSAIDs were conjugated with gabapentin via ester bonds using glycol spacers with the expectation of reducing gastric adverse effects and obtaining synergistic analgesic effects. The kinetics of ester hydrolysis were studied in two different non enzymatic buffer solutions at pH 1.2 and 7.4, as well as in 80% human plasma using HPLC with chloroform -methanol as mobile phase. Compounds 9a–c with ethylene glycol spacers showed significant stability at buffer solutions with half lives ranging from about 8–25 h, while the underwent a reasonable plasma hydrolysis (49%–88%) in 2 h. Compound 9d with a propylene glycol spacer shows a higher rate of enzymatic hydrolysis than the corresponding ethylene glycol compound 9c. The result of compounds 9a-c indicate that these compounds may be stable during their passage through the GIT until reaching the blood circulation.

  17. Buccal absorption of ketobemidone and various ester prodrugs in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Jorgensen, A.; Rasmussen, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    The buccal absorption of ketobemidone, a strong narcotic analgesic, and various carboxylate and carbonate ester prodrugs was studied in rats. The compounds were administered in the form of aqueous solutions of pH 7.4. The absolute bioavailability of ketobemidone following buccal dosing was 26......% whereas the bioavailability of ketobemidone following buccal administration of the prodrugs ranged from 37 to 98%. The highest bioavailability was obtained with the ethyl carbonate ester. An apparent parabolic correlation between bioavailability and lipophilicity of the compounds was seen. All esters were...... lipophilic prodrug may be a useful approach to improve the buccal delivery of this analgesic....

  18. Lipid conjugated prodrugs for enzyme-triggered liposomal drug delivery to tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2011-01-01

    For some time we have been developing novel enzyme-triggered prodrugs for drug delivery targeting cancer. The liposomal prodrugs take advantage of the EPR effect to localize to tumors and of the local over-expression of secretory phospholipase A2 in tumors. Compared to conventional liposomal drug...... delivery systems, our prodrug-lipid conjugates have two main advantages: 1) the drugs are covalently linked to the lipids and thus leakage is circumvented and 2) the lipophilic bilayer of the formulated liposomes effectively shields the drugs from the aqueous environment in vivo. Consequently, the strategy...

  19. Chimeric Enzyme/Prodrug Therapy as Novel Gene Therapy for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, David

    1997-01-01

    .... The selective expression of active CD44/CD chimeric protein potentially enables tumor-specific killing via the RNA metabolism of alternative splicing following administration of the prodrug 5-FC...

  20. Esterase-sensitive sulfur dioxide prodrugs inspired by modified Julia olefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Wang, Binghe

    2017-09-12

    Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is an endogenously produced gaseous molecule, and is emerging as a potential gasotransmitter. Herein, we describe the first series of esterase-sensitive prodrugs inspired by modified Julia olefination as SO 2 donors.

  1. Enhancing the intestinal membrane permeability of zanamivir: a carrier mediated prodrug approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sheeba Varghese; Gupta, Deepak; Sun, Jing; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2011-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to improve the membrane permeability and oral absorption of the poorly permeable anti-influenza agent, zanamivir. The poor oral bioavailability is attributed to the high polarity (cLogP ∼ -5) resulting from the polar and zwitterionic nature of zanamivir. In order to improve the permeability of zanamivir, prodrugs with amino acids were developed to target the intestinal membrane transporter, hPepT1. Several acyloxy ester prodrugs of zanamivir conjugated with amino acids were synthesized and characterized. The prodrugs were evaluated for their chemical stability in buffers at various pHs and for their transport and tissue activation by enzymes. The acyloxy ester prodrugs of zanamivir were shown to competitively inhibit [(3)H]Gly-Sar uptake in Caco-2 cells (IC(50): 1.19 ± 0.33 mM for L-valyl prodrug of zanamivir). The L-valyl prodrug of zanamivir exhibited ∼3-fold higher uptake in transfected HeLa/hPepT1 cells compared to wild type HeLa cells, suggesting, at least in part, carrier mediated transport by the hPepT1 transporter. Further, enhanced transcellular permeability of prodrugs across Caco-2 monolayer compared to the parent drug (P(app) = 2.24 × 10(-6) ± 1.33 × 10(-7) cm/s for L-valyl prodrug of zanamivir), with only parent zanamivir appearing in the receiver compartment, indicates that the prodrugs exhibited both enhanced transport and activation in intestinal mucosal cells. Most significantly, several of these prodrugs exhibited high intestinal jejunal membrane permeability, similar to metoprolol, in the in situ rat intestinal perfusion system, a system highly correlated with human jejunal permeability. In summary, this mechanistic targeted prodrug strategy, to enhance oral absorption via intestinal membrane carriers such as hPepT1, followed by activation to parent drug (active pharmaceutical ingredient or API) in the mucosal cell, significantly improves the intestinal epithelial cell permeability of zanamivir and has the

  2. Utilization of prodrugs to enhance the transdermal absorption of morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drustrup, J.; Fullerton, A.; Christrup, Lona Louring

    1991-01-01

    . The esters showed generally a higher water and lipid solubility than morphine and were also much more lipophilic than the parent drug in terms of octanol-buffer partition coefficients. Diffusion experiments in vitro using human skin samples showed that whereas morphine did not penetrate the skin to any...... measurable extent whether applied in the form of saturated solutions in water at pH 7.0 or in isopropyl myristate, the ester prodrugs showed a high penetrating capacity under the same conditions. Steady-state fluxes up to 35 μg morphine/cm per h were observed. For some esters essentially all of the amounts...... penetrated were present in the receptor phase as morphine. The study demonstrates the feasibility of achieving transdermal delivery of morphine based on the ready conversion and the favourable skin penetration properties of morphine esters which in turn are attributed to their combination of adequate water...

  3. A polymeric colchicinoid prodrug with reduced toxicity and improved efficacy for vascular disruption in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crielaard BJ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bart J Crielaard1, Steffen van der Wal1, Twan Lammers2, Huong Thu Le1, Wim E Hennink1, Raymond M Schiffelers1, Gert Storm1, Marcel HAM Fens11Department of Pharmaceutics, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany The first two authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: Colchicinoids are very potent tubulin-binding compounds, which interfere with microtubule formation, giving them strong cytotoxic properties, such as cell mitosis inhibition and induction of microcytoskeleton depolymerization. While this makes them promising vascular disrupting agents (VDAs in cancer therapy, their dose-limiting toxicity has prevented any clinical application for this purpose. Therefore, colchicinoids are considered attractive lead molecules for the development of novel vascular disrupting nanomedicine. In a previous study, a polymeric colchicinoid prodrug that showed favorable hydrolysis characteristics at physiological conditions was developed. In the current study, this polymeric colchicinoid prodrug was evaluated in vitro and in vivo for its toxicity and vascular disrupting potential. Cell viability studies with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, as an in vitro measure for colchicine activity, reflected the degradation kinetics of the prodrug accordingly. Upon intravenous treatment, in vivo, of B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice with colchicine or with the polymeric colchicinoid prodrug, apparent vascular disruption and consequent tumor necrosis was observed for the prodrug but not for free colchicine at an equivalent dose. Moreover, a five-times-higher dose of the prodrug was well tolerated, indicating reduced toxicity. These findings demonstrate that the polymeric colchicinoid prodrug has a substantially improved efficacy/toxicity ratio compared with that of colchicine, making it a promising VDA for cancer therapy

  4. Lipophilic prodrugs of apomorphine I: Preparation, characterisation, and in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis in biorelevant media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkar, Nrupa Nitin; Li, Boyang; Holm, René

    2015-01-01

    in biorelevant media before and after incorporating them into self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) for oral delivery. Two apomorphine diester prodrugs were synthesised: dilauroyl apomorphine (DLA) and dipalmitoyl apomorphine (DPA). The in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of diesters was performed using...... substrates of lipases present in pancreatin, and the degree of diester degradation can be controlled by selecting suitable lipid excipients. Therefore, diesters of apomorphine are promising prodrugs for oral delivery aiming at lymphatic transport....

  5. Hypoxia Activated Prodrugs: Factors Influencing Design and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dinghua; Miller, Graham H; Tranmer, Geoffrey K

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia in tumor cells is characterized by a lack of oxygen resulting from reduced blood supply to the surrounding tissue, and is a common characteristic of solid tumors as a consequence of rapid cell growth. Hypoxia in tumors is a predictor of both resistance to chemotherapy and of a metastatic/aggressive form of cancer, and as a result, development of cancer therapies which target hypoxia is of vital importance. One such targeting strategy is the development of hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) which can preferentially release chemotherapeutic agents within hypoxic tumor regions. This targeting strategy is accomplished by attaching a hypoxia activated trigger to a chemotherapeutic agent and under oxygen-poor conditions, the agent (effector) is released into the tumor, while remaining intact in normal tissue, and leaving non-hypoxic cells undamaged. Overall, this strategy can achieve an increased therapeutic benefit over conventional small molecule chemotherapeutic treatments by concentrating the drugs within hypoxic tumor environments, while simultaneously reducing the side-effects and toxicity issues that surround the systemic distribution of traditional drugs on normoxic cells. In this review, we will describe the factors that should be considered when designing an effective HAP, such as the mechanism of prodrug action, the elements that influence the rational design of HAP (i.e. reduction potential), and the activating enzymes of HAP. As part of this description, we will utilize select examples from the literature to reinforce these factors, and make a case for the intelligent design of new HAPs, leading to the development of novel hypoxia targeting chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. Assessment of the cellular internalization of thermolytic phosphorothioate DNA oligonucleotide prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Harsh V; Takeda, Kazuyo; Tami, Cecilia; Verthelyi, Daniela; Beaucage, Serge L

    2013-10-15

    The bioactivity of a CpG-containing phosphorothioate DNA oligonucleotide with thermolytic 2-(N-formyl-N-methylamino)ethyl (fma) thiophosphate groups in mice led us to investigate the parameters affecting the internalization of these thermosensitive DNA prodrugs in various cell lines. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analyses indicate that 5'-fluoresceinated fma-phosphorothioate DNA sequences are poorly internalized in Vero, HeLa and GC-2 cells. However, when four fma-thiophosphate groups of a 15-nucleotide long oligothymidylate prodrug are replaced with 3-(N,N-dimethylamino)prop-1-yl thiophosphate functions, internalization of the positively charged prodrug, under physiological conditions, increased fourfold in HeLa and 40-fold in Vero or GC-2 cells. No cytotoxic effects are observed in Vero cells even at an extracellular prodrug concentration of 50 μM over a period of 72 h. Confocal microscopy studies show that internalization of the positively charged oligothymidylate prodrug in Vero cells is time-dependent with early trafficking of the DNA sequence through endosomal vesicles and, eventually, to the nucleus of the cells. Thus, the incorporation of four 3-(N,N-dimethylamino)prop-1-yl thiophosphate groups into thermosentive fma-phosphorothioate DNA prodrugs is an attractive strategy for efficient cellular internalization of these nucleic acid-based drugs for potential therapeutic indications. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Chemical synthesis of an indomethacin ester prodrug and its metabolic activation by human carboxylesterase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masato; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Kashiwagi, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Fumiya; Yoshitsugu, Misaki; Haba, Masami; Hosokawa, Masakiyo

    2018-02-21

    It is necessary to consider the affinity of prodrugs for metabolic enzymes for efficient activation of the prodrugs in the body. Although many prodrugs have been synthesized with consideration of these chemical properties, there has been little study on the design of a structure with consideration of biological properties such as substrate recognition ability of metabolic enzymes. In this report, chemical synthesis and evaluation of indomethacin prodrugs metabolically activated by human carboxylesterase 1 (hCES1) are described. The synthesized prodrugs were subjected to hydrolysis reactions in solutions of human liver microsomes (HLM), human intestine microsomes (HIM) and hCES1, and the hydrolytic parameters were investigated to evaluate the hydrolytic rates of these prodrugs and to elucidate the substrate recognition ability of hCES1. It was found that the hydrolytic rates greatly change depending on the steric hindrance and stereochemistry of the ester in HLM, HIM and hCES1 solutions. Furthermore, in a hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by hCES1, the V max value of n-butyl thioester with chemically high reactivity was significantly lower than that of n-butyl ester. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolism evaluation of biomimetic prodrugs by in vitro models and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, Muriel; Khoury, Hania; Deroussent, Alain; Bosquet, Nathalie; Benech, Henri; Clayette, Pascal; Couvreur, Patrick; Vassal, Gilles; Paci, Angelo; Andrieux, Karine

    2009-09-11

    Glycerolipidic prodrug is an interesting concept to enhance lymphatic absorption of polar drugs intended to oral delivery such as didanosine (ddI). In order to improve ddI bioavailability, two didanosine glycerolipidic prodrugs, the phosphorylated (ProddIP) and the non-phosphorylated derivatives (ProddINP) were synthesized to follow triglyceride metabolism. The biomimetism approach of these prodrugs has been studied in vitro at two steps. First, liposomal formulation of each prodrug was incubated with a lipolysis model based on pancreatin and analysed using liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These experiments evidenced that both didanosine prodrugs were recognized by the lipases; as expected, they were cleaved at both positions sn-1 and sn-3 of glycerol. ProddIP was metabolised twice more rapidly than ProddINP suggesting an implication of some phospholipases in ProddIP degradation. Secondly, the detection of dideoxyadenosine triphosphate (ddA-TP) into HIV-1 infected cells after their incubation with ProddINP loaded liposomes evidenced their ability to release ddI that could penetrate into the cells and be metabolised by intracellular kinases. These results confirmed that the synthesized glycerolipidic prodrugs of didanosine could be investigated for a biomimetic approach with final aiming of increasing the drug oral bioavailability by enhancing intestinal absorption.

  9. New prodrugs of two pyrimidine acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: Synthesis and antiviral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krečmerová, Marcela; Dračínský, Martin; Snoeck, Robert; Balzarini, Jan; Pomeisl, Karel; Andrei, Graciela

    2017-09-01

    New 2,4-diamino-6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethoxy]pyrimidine (PMEO-DAPy) and 1-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]-5-azacytosine (PME-5-azaC) prodrugs were prepared with a pro-moiety consisting of carbonyloxymethyl esters (POM, POC), alkoxyalkyl esters, amino acid phosphoramidates and/or tyrosine. The activity of the prodrugs was evaluated in vitro against different virus families. None of the synthesized prodrugs demonstrated activity against RNA viruses but some of them proved active against herpesviruses [including herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)]. The bis(POC) and the bis(amino acid) phosphoramidate prodrugs of PMEO-DAPy inhibited herpesvirus replication at lower doses than the parent compound although the selectivity against HSV and VZV was only slightly improved compared to PMEO-DAPy. The mono-octadecyl ester of PME-5-azaC emerged as the most potent and selective PME-5-azaC prodrug against HSV, VZV and HCMV with EC 50 's of 0.15-1.12µM while PME-5-azaC only had marginal anti-herpesvirus activity. Although the bis(hexadecylamido-l-tyrosyl) and the bis(POM) esters of PME-5-azaC were also very potent anti-herpesvirus drugs, these were less selective than the mono-octadecyl ester prodrug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increasing oral absorption of polar neuraminidase inhibitors: a prodrug transporter approach applied to oseltamivir analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Varghese Gupta, Sheeba; Dahan, Arik; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-02-04

    Poor oral absorption is one of the limiting factors in utilizing the full potential of polar antiviral agents. The neuraminidase target site requires a polar chemical structure for high affinity binding, thus limiting oral efficacy of many high affinity ligands. The aim of this study was to overcome this poor oral absorption barrier, utilizing prodrug to target the apical brush border peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1). Guanidine oseltamivir carboxylate (GOCarb) is a highly active polar antiviral agent with insufficient oral bioavailability (4%) to be an effective therapeutic agent. In this report we utilize a carrier-mediated targeted prodrug approach to improve the oral absorption of GOCarb. Acyloxy(alkyl) ester based amino acid linked prodrugs were synthesized and evaluated as potential substrates of mucosal transporters, e.g., PEPT1. Prodrugs were also evaluated for their chemical and enzymatic stability. PEPT1 transport studies included [(3)H]Gly-Sar uptake inhibition in Caco-2 cells and cellular uptake experiments using HeLa cells overexpressing PEPT1. The intestinal membrane permeabilities of the selected prodrugs and the parent drug were then evaluated for epithelial cell transport across Caco-2 monolayers, and in the in situ rat intestinal jejunal perfusion model. Prodrugs exhibited a pH dependent stability with higher stability at acidic pHs. Significant inhibition of uptake (IC(50) 30-fold increase in affinity compared to GOCarb. The l-valyl prodrug exhibited significant enhancement of uptake in PEPT1/HeLa cells and compared favorably with the well-absorbed valacyclovir. Transepithelial permeability across Caco-2 monolayers showed that these amino acid prodrugs have a 2-5-fold increase in permeability as compared to the parent drug and showed that the l-valyl prodrug (P(app) = 1.7 × 10(-6) cm/s) has the potential to be rapidly transported across the epithelial cell apical membrane. Significantly, only the parent drug (GOCarb) appeared in the basolateral

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of S-acyl-3-thiopropyl prodrugs of N-phosphonoacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnard, Valérie; Leydet, Alain; Le Mellay, Véronique; Aubenque, Marielle; Morère, Alain; Montero, Jean-Louis

    2003-10-01

    The synthesis of new prodrugs of PALA characterised by the presence of S-acyl-3-thiopropyl, as enzyme-labile groups on the phosphonate moiety of PALA, is reported. The cytotoxic activities of PALA prodrugs were determined against human cell line (SW1573 lung carcinoma cells). A number of prodrugs bearing S-pivaloyl as acyl groups displayed cytotoxic activity in the same order of magnitude of PALA.

  12. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of JM6 in mice: JM6 is not a prodrug for Ro-61-8048.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beconi, Maria G; Yates, Dawn; Lyons, Kathryn; Matthews, Kim; Clifton, Steve; Mead, Tania; Prime, Michael; Winkler, Dirk; O'Connell, Catherine; Walter, Daryl; Toledo-Sherman, Leticia; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio; Dominguez, Celia

    2012-12-01

    Understanding whether regulation of tryptophan metabolites can ameliorate neurodegeneration is of high interest to investigators. A recent publication describes 3,4-dimethoxy-N-(4-(3-nitrophenyl)-5-(piperidin-1-ylmethyl)thiazol-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (JM6) as a novel prodrug for the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor 3,4-dimethoxy-N-(4-(3-nitrophenyl)thiazol-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (Ro-61-8048) that elicits therapeutic effects in mouse models of Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases (Cell 145:863-874, 2011). Our evaluation of the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of JM6 and Ro-61-8048 indicate instead that Ro-61-8048 concentrations in mouse plasma after JM6 administration originate from a Ro-61-8048 impurity (Ro-61-8048 oral dose alone or coadministered with 10 mg/kg JM6 to mice, the Ro-61-8048 areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) from 0 to infinity were similar (4300 and 4900 nM × h, respectively), indicating no detectable contributions of JM6 metabolism to the Ro-61-8048 AUCs. JM6 was stable in incubations under acidic conditions and Ro-61-8048 was not a product of JM6 metabolism in vitro (plasma, blood, or hepatic models). Species differences in the quantitative rate of oxidative metabolism indicate that major circulating JM6 metabolite(s) in mice are unlikely to be major in humans: JM6 is rapidly metabolized via the piperidyl moiety in mouse (forming an iminium ion reactive intermediate) but is slowly metabolized in human (in vitro), primarily via O-dealkylation at the phenyl ring. Our data indicate that JM6 is not a prodrug for Ro-61-8048 and is not a potent KMO inhibitor.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of N-Mannich based prodrugs of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin: In vitro anthelmintic and cytotoxic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Piplani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Prodrugs, the inert derivatives of existing drugs have successfully contributed to the modification of their physicochemical properties. The improved antimicrobial potential due to enhanced lipophilicity of some of the synthesized prodrugs of antibacterial agents by various schemes has already been reported. In the current study, synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of some more lipid based prodrugs/compounds of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin has been carried out. The synthesized prodrugs/compounds have been screened for anthelmintic activity using Indian earthworms and cytotoxic activity against human lung cancer cell lines A-549 employing sulforhodamine B (SRB assay method. The prodrugs FQF1, 6b, 6c, and 6k were found to possess promising anthelmintic activity due to improved partition coefficient. Growth of selected cells lines was found to decrease with increase in concentration of prodrugs as compared to parent drug. Prodrug, 6k having GI50 value 28.8, has been proved to be the most active among all the synthesized prodrugs. Results of present investigation reveal that some of the synthesized prodrugs/compounds were found to possess promising biological activity.

  14. Trimethyl Lock: A Stable Chromogenic Substrate for Esterases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald T. Raines

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available p-Nitrophenyl acetate is the most commonly used substrate for detecting thecatalytic activity of esterases, including those that activate prodrugs in human cells. Thissubstrate is unstable in aqueous solution, limiting its utility. Here, a stable chromogenicsubstrate for esterases is produced by the structural isolation of an acetyl ester andp-nitroaniline group using a trimethyl lock moiety. Upon ester hydrolysis, unfavorablesteric interactions between the three methyl groups of this o-hydroxycinnamic acidderivative encourage rapid lactonization to form a hydrocoumarin and releasep-nitroaniline. This “prochromophore” could find use in a variety of assays.

  15. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets, with a few more additions - with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers - exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the foree of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc. (orig.)

  16. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  17. Hypoxia targeting therapy with prodrug specifically stabilized and activated in hypoxic tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, S.K.; Ueda, T.; Harada, H.; Hiraoka, M.; Akagi, K.

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxia fraction in tumors is associated with increased metastasis and poor survival in patients suffering from malignant tumors such as the head and neck, cervical or breast cancers. Hypoxia can be a direct cause of therapeutic resistance because some drugs and radiation require oxygen to be maximally cytotoxic. Recently we have reported a novel hypoxia targeting prodrug, TOP3, which is a fusion protein, composed of HIV TAT protein transduction domain, a part of HIF1 α ODD domain, and Procaspase-3. TOP3 can be transferred into every cell both in vitro and in vivo but becomes stable only in hypoxic cells, in which TOP3 is activated and induces apoptosis. The application of this fusion protein to a tumor-bearing mouse resulted in significant suppression of the tumor growth and even in reduction of the tumor mass without any obvious side effects. The administrations of TOP3 in combination with a low dose of X-ray showed an additive antitumor effect on pancreatic tumor cells. Furthermore, we show that the rodent model of ascites generated by malignant cells provides an excellent platform of testing hypoxia targeting drugs, since it comprises homogeneous fluid with tumor cells surviving and proliferating under hypoxic condition. TOP3 induced apoptosis of AH130, rat ascites hepatoma cells, in vitro only under hypoxic but not normoxic condition. Intraperitoneal administration of TOP3 prolonged life span of the rats with AH130 derived malignant ascites. Sixty percent of the treated rats were cured of ascites without recurrence for more than six months, in contrast all untreated rats died within 20 days after tumor cell inoculation. These results strongly suggest that TOP3 would provide a new strategy for hypoxia targeting therapy and that the combination of TOP3 with radiotherapy or chemotherapy may provide a new strategy for annihilating malignant tumors

  18. Selection of suitable prodrug candidates for in vivo studies via in vitro studies; the correlation of prodrug stability in between cell culture homogenates and human tissue homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    To determine the correlations/discrepancies of drug stabilities between in the homogenates of human culture cells and of human tissues. Amino acid/dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine were chosen as the model drugs. The stabilities (half-lives) of floxuridine prodrugs in human tissues (pancreas, liver, and small intestine) homogenates were obtained and compared with ones in cell culture homogenates (AcPC-1, Capan-2, and Caco-2 cells) as well as human liver microsomes. The correlations of prodrug stability in human small bowel tissue homogenate vs. Caco-2 cell homogenate, human liver tissue homogenate vs. human liver microsomes, and human pancreatic tissue homogenate vs. pancreatic cell, AsPC-1 and Capan-2, homogenates were examined. The stabilities of floxuridine prodrugs in human small bowel homogenate exhibited the great correlation to ones in Caco-2 cell homogenate (slope = 1.0-1.3, r2 = 0.79-0.98). The stability of those prodrugs in human pancreas tissue homogenate also exhibited the good correlations to ones in AsPC-1 and Capan-2 cells homogenates (slope = 0.5-0.8, r2 = 0.58-0.79). However, the correlations of prodrug stabilities between in human liver tissue homogenates and in human liver microsomes were weaker than others (slope = 1.3-1.9, r2 = 0.07-0.24). The correlations of drug stabilities in cultured cell homogenates and in human tissue homogenates were compared. Those results exhibited wide range of correlations between in cell homogenate and in human tissue homogenate (r2 = 0.07 - 0.98). Those in vitro studies in cell homogenates would be good tools to predict drug stabilities in vivo and to select drug candidates for further developments. In the series of experiments, 5'-O-D-valyl-floxuridine and 5'-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosyl-floxuridine would be selected as candidates of oral drug targeting delivery for cancer chemotherapy due to their relatively good stabilities compared to other tested prodrugs.

  19. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  20. Delivery of Gemcitabine Prodrugs Employing Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Malfanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs were studied as vehicles for the delivery of the antitumoral drug gemcitabine (GEM and of its 4-(N-acyl derivatives, (4-(N-valeroyl-(C5GEM, 4-(N-lauroyl-(C12GEM and 4-(N-stearoyl-gemcitabine (C18GEM. The loading of the GEM lipophilic prodrugs on MSNs was explored with the aim to obtain both a physical and a chemical protection of GEM from rapid plasmatic metabolization. For this purpose, MSNs as such or with grafted aminopropyl and carboxyethyl groups were prepared and characterized. Then, their different drug loading capacity in relation to the nature of the functional group was evaluated. In our experimental conditions, GEM was not loaded in any MSNs, while C12GEM was the most efficiently encapsulated and employed for further evaluation. The results showed that loading capacity increased with the presence of functional groups on the nanoparticles; similarly, the presence of functional groups on MSNs’ surface influenced the drug release profile. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the different preparations was evaluated and data showed that C12GEM loaded MSNs are less cytotoxic than the free drug with an activity that increased with the incubating time, indicating that all these systems are able to release the drug in a controlled manner. Altogether, the results demonstrate that these MSNs could be an interesting system for the delivery of anticancer drugs.

  1. Synthesis, In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of the N-ethoxycarbonylmorpholine Ester of Diclofenac as a Prodrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal A. Jilani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The N-ethoxycarbonylmorpholine moiety was evaluated as a novel prodrug moiety for carboxylic acid containing drugs represented by diclofenac (1. Compound 2, the N-ethoxycarbonylmorpholine ester of diclofenac was synthesized and evaluated as a potential prodrug. The stability of the synthesized prodrug was evaluated in solutions of pH 1 and 7.4, and in plasma. The ester’s half lives were found to be 8 h, 47 h and 21 min in pH 1, pH 7.4 and plasma, respectively. Equimolar doses of diclofenac sodium and its synthesized prodrug were administered orally to a group of rabbits in a crossover study to evaluate their pharmacokinetic parameters. The prodrug 2 shows a similar rate and extent of absorption as the parent drug (1. The ulcerogenicity of the prepared prodrug was evaluated and compared with the parent drug. The prodrug showed less ulcerogenicity as detected by fewer number and smaller size of ulcers. In conclusion, the newly synthesized N-ethoxycarbonylmorpholine ester of diclofenac prodrug showed appropriate stability properties at different pHs, similar pharmacokinetic profile, and much less ulcerogenecity at the GIT compared to the parent drug diclofenac.

  2. A prodrug approach involving in situ depot formation to achieve localized and sustained action of diclofenac after joint injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thing, Mette; Ågårdh, Li; Larsen, Susan; Rasmussen, Rune; Pallesen, Jakob; Mertz, Nina; Kristensen, Jesper; Hansen, Martin; Østergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Claus Selch

    2014-12-01

    Long-acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations for intra-articular injection might be effective in the management of joint pain and inflammation associated sports injuries and osteoarthritis. In this study, a prodrug-based delivery system was evaluated. The synthesized diclofenac ester prodrug, a weak base (pKa 7.52), has relatively high solubility at low pH (6.5 mg mL(-1) at pH 4) and much lower solubility at physiological pH (4.5 μg mL(-1) at pH 7.4) at 37°C. In biological media including 80% (v/v) human synovial fluid (SF), the prodrug was cleaved to diclofenac mediated by esterases. In situ precipitation of the prodrug was observed upon addition of a concentrated slightly acidic prodrug solution to phosphate buffer or SF at pH 7.4. The degree of supersaturation accompanying the precipitation process was more pronounced in SF than in phosphate buffer. In the rotating dialysis cell model, a slightly acidic prodrug solution was added to the donor cell containing 80% SF resulting in a continuous appearance of diclofenac in the acceptor phase for more than 43 h after an initial lag period of 8 h. Detectable amounts of prodrug were found in the rat joint up to 8 days after knee injection of the acidic prodrug solution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  3. ESTER OF GLUCURONIDE PRODRUG OF ANTHRACYCLINE AND METHOD OF PREPARATION AND USE IN TUMOR-SELECTIVE CHEMOTHERAPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ABEN RENE WILHELMUS, MARIE; SCHEEREN JOHAN, WILHELM; CORNELISSEN JEROEN JOHANNES LAMBERTUS, MARIA; DE VOS, DICK; Haisma, Hidde

    2009-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an anthracycline prodrug useful as an antitumor agent and an efficient method for preparing the anthracycline prodrug. ;SOLUTION: A method in which protection of sugar hydroxy groups is not required in the final step (the coupling of the glucuronide spacer unit to

  4. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation of new synthesized prodrugs of 5-OH-DPAT for iontophoretic delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackaert, O. W.; De Graan, J.; Capancioni, R.; Della Pasqua, O. E.; Dijkstra, D.; Westerink, B. H.; Danhof, M.; Bouwstra, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of transdermal iontophoretic transport of 4 novel ester prodrugs of 5-OH-DPAT (glycine-, proline-, valine- and (beta-alanine-5-OH-DPAT) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Based on the chemical stability of the prodrugs, the best candidates were selected for in vitro transport

  5. Synthesis and biological activity of beta-glucuronyl carbamate-based prodrugs of paclitaxel as potential candidates for ADEPT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBont, DBA; Leenders, RGG; Haisma, HJ; vanderMeulenMuileman, [No Value; Scheeren, HW

    The syntheses of prodrugs of paclitaxel, which can be used in ADEPT in order to target paclitaxel towards tumor cells, are described. The prodrugs 1 and 2a,b consist of a spacer molecule connected via a carbamate linkage to a beta-glucuronic acid. The spacer molecule is also connected via an ester

  6. Prodrugs of purine and pyrimidine analogues for the intestinal di/tri-peptide transporter PepT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anne Engelbrecht; Friedrichsen, Gerda Marie; Sørensen, Arne Hagsten

    2003-01-01

    , novel L-Glu-Sar and D-Glu-Ala ester prodrugs of acyclovir and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-linked thymine were synthesized and their affinities for hPepT1 in Caco-2 cells were determined. Furthermore, the degradation of the prodrugs was investigated in various aqueous and biological media and compared...

  7. Novel Resveratrol-Based Aspirin Prodrugs: Synthesis, Metabolism, and Anticancer Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingdong; Fu, Junsheng; Shurlknight, Kelly L; Soroka, Dominique N; Hu, Yuhui; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sang, Shengmin

    2015-08-27

    Regular aspirin use has been convincingly shown to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. However, long-term use of aspirin leads to gastrotoxicity. Herein, we designed and synthesized a novel class of resveratrol-based aspirin prodrugs to simultaneously release aspirin and resveratrol to attenuate the side effects caused by aspirin. Prodrug RAH exerted enhanced anticancer activities which are better than a physical mixture of aspirin and resveratrol as well as each individually. Metabolism of RAH in mice showed that the majority of RAH is decomposed to release resveratrol and aspirin or salicylic acid either in the intestine or after absorption. Mechanistic studies demonstrate RAH inhibits cell cycle arrest through downregulation of cyclins and induces apoptosis by activation of caspase-3 in cancer cells. These findings highlighted the improved anticancer properties of resveratrol-based aspirin prodrugs. RAH may represent novel and safe alternatives of aspirin for the purpose of daily use in the future.

  8. A calorimetric study of phosphocholine membranes mixed with desmopressin and its diacylated prodrug derivative (DPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.B.; Frokjaer, S.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the water-soluble peptide, desmopressin (DDAVP) and its dipalmitoylated prodrug derivative (DPP) on the thermal behaviour of three different saturated phosphatidylcholine lipid membranes was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. For lipid membranes composed of dimyri......The influence of the water-soluble peptide, desmopressin (DDAVP) and its dipalmitoylated prodrug derivative (DPP) on the thermal behaviour of three different saturated phosphatidylcholine lipid membranes was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. For lipid membranes composed...... of dimyristoyl, dipalmitoyl and distearoyl phosphatidylcholines the addition of DDAVP at concentrations of up to 10 mol% resulted in an insignificant change in the thermodynamic phase behaviour. In contrast, the dipalmitoylated DPP prodrug caused major changes on the lipid membrane phase behaviour manifested...

  9. The application of prodrug-based nano-drug delivery strategy in cancer combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yanxiu; Ma, Yakun; Li, Lingbing

    2016-10-01

    Single drug therapy that leads to the multidrug resistance of cancer cells and severe side-effect is a thing of the past. Combination therapies that affect multiple signaling pathways have been the focus of recent active research. Due to the successful development of prodrug-based nano-drug delivery systems (P-N-DDSs), their use has been extended to combination therapy as drug delivery platforms. In this review, we focus specifically on the P-N-DDSs in the field of combination therapy including the combinations of prodrugs with different chemotherapeutic agents, other therapeutic agents, nucleic acid or the combination of different types of therapy (e.g. chemotherapy and phototherapy). The relevant examples of prodrug-based nanoparticulate drug delivery strategy in combination cancer therapy from the recent literature are discussed to demonstrate the feasibilities of relevant technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multifunctional 5-aminolevulinic acid prodrugs activating diverse cell-death pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovitch-Luria, Gili; Weitman, Michal; Nudelman, Abraham; Rephaeli, Ada; Malik, Zvi

    2012-06-01

    Herein we describe a series of multifunctional 5-aminolevulinic-acid (ALA) prodrugs for photodynamic dependent and independent cancer therapy (PDT). We studied the cell-death mechanisms in glioblastoma U251 cells treated with four ALA-prodrugs: (1) AlaAcBu, that releases ALA, acetaldehyde, and butyric acid; (2) AlaFaBu, that releases ALA, formaldehyde, and butyric acid; (3) AlaFaPi, that releases ALA, formaldehyde and pivalic acid (4) AlaAcPi that releases ALA, acetaldehyde and pivalic acid. We examined the light-activated and dark cell-death mechanisms of the active metabolites released from the prodrugs by unspecific cellular hydrolases. The active moieties accelerated biosynthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) due to upregulated porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) activity. AlaAcBu was found to be the superior prodrug for PDT due to its ability to induce the highest PpIX synthesis. Photo-irradiation of AlaAcBu-treated cells led to dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and reduction in the mitochondria metabolic activities; apoptosis and necrosis. Electron microscopy analyses of these cells revealed mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling, membrane blebbing, apoptotic bodies and necrotic cell rupture. The formaldehyde-releasing prodrugs AlaFaBu and AlaFaPi induced low PDT efficacy, moreover sequestering the formaldehyde with semicarbazide resulted in high PpIX synthesis, suggesting that formaldehyde inhibited its synthesis. ALA and AlaAcBu phototherapy resulted in a dramatic accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins due to reduced proteasome activity and expression. In conclusion, the PDT potency of the prodrugs was in the order: AlaAcBu, AlaAcPi > AlaFaBu ≥ ALA > AlaFaPi, and the superiority of AlaAcBu stems from lower molar concentrations of AlaAcBu and lower light intensity needed to activate cell death following PDT.

  11. Facile synthesis of the NNRTI microbicide MC-1220 and synthesis of its phosphoramidate prodrugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loksha, Yasser M; Pedersen, Erik B; La Colla, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    A facile and novel synthetic route to MC-1220 was achieved by condensation of 4,6-dichloro-N,N-5-trimethylpyrimidin-2-amine () with the sodium salt of 2,6-difluorophenylacetonitrile, followed by methylation and strong acidic hydrolysis. The prodrugs of MC-1220 were synthesized by reaction of chlo...... of chlorophosphoramidate derivatives () or α-acetobromoglucose with the sodium salt of MC-1220. The stability and anti-HIV-1 activity of phosphoramidate prodrugs turned out to be comparable to those of the parent drug MC-1220....

  12. A novel aspirin prodrug inhibits NFκB activity and breast cancer stem cell properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastrati, Irida; Litosh, Vladislav A.; Zhao, Shuangping; Alvarez, Manuel; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.; Frasor, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    Activation of cyclooxygenase (COX)/prostaglandin and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) pathways can promote breast tumor initiation, growth, and progression to drug resistance and metastasis. Thus, anti-inflammatory drugs have been widely explored as chemopreventive and antineoplastic agents. Aspirin (ASA), in particular, is associated with reduced breast cancer incidence but gastrointestinal toxicity has limited its usefulness. To improve potency and minimize toxicity, ASA ester prodrugs have been developed, in which the carboxylic acid of ASA is masked and ancillary pharmacophores can be incorporated. To date, the effects of ASA and ASA prodrugs have been largely attributed to COX inhibition and reduced prostaglandin production. However, ASA has also been reported to inhibit the NFκB pathway at very high doses. Whether ASA prodrugs can inhibit NFκB signaling remains relatively unexplored. A library of ASA prodrugs was synthesized and screened for inhibition of NFκB activity and cancer stem-like cell (CSC) properties, an important PGE2-and NFκB-dependent phenotype of aggressive breast cancers. Inhibition of NFκB activity was determined by dual luciferase assay, RT-QPCR, p65 DNA binding activity and Western blots. Inhibition of CSC properties was determined by mammosphere growth, CD44 + CD24 − immunophenotype and tumorigenicity at limiting dilution. While we identified multiple ASA prodrugs that are capable of inhibiting the NFκB pathway, several were associated with cytotoxicity. Of particular interest was GTCpFE, an ASA prodrug with fumarate as the ancillary pharmacophore. This prodrug potently inhibits NFκB activity without innate cytotoxicity. In addition, GTCpFE exhibited selective anti-CSC activity by reducing mammosphere growth and the CD44 + CD24 − immunophenotype. Moreover, GTCpFE pre-treated cells were less tumorigenic and, when tumors did form, latency was increased and growth rate was reduced. Structure-activity relationships for GTCpFE indicate

  13. Pharmacokinetics of intravitreal 5-flurouracil prodrugs in silicone oil. Experimental studies in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline S; Steffansen, Bente; Scherfig, Erik

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the in vivo pharmacokinetics of intravitreal 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) following tamponade with 5-FU prodrug silicone oil formulations. METHOD: Two different alkoxycarbonyl 5-FU prodrugs denoted C12 and C18 were synthesized and formulated as silicone oil suspensions. A total of 26...... vitreal 5-FU never reached 1 microg/ml during the 7 days these experiments lasted. A mathematical model is presented that can explain the measured data if the clearance of 5-FU from the vitreous water phase follows first order kinetics with a half-life of 20 min. CONCLUSION: These experiments...

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicate Ester Prodrugs and Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Block Copolymers for Formulation into Prodrug-Loaded Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Adam Richard

    Fine control of the physical and chemical properties of customized materials is a field that is rapidly advancing. This is especially critical in pursuits to develop and optimize novel nanoparticle drug delivery. Specifically, I aim to apply chemistry concepts to test the hypothesis "Silicate ester prodrugs of paclitaxel, customized to have the proper hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability, can be formulated with well-defined, biocompatible, amphiphilic block copolymers into nanoparticles that are effective drugs." Chapter 1 briefly describes the context and motivation of the scientific pursuits described in this thesis. In Chapter 2, a family of model silicate esters is synthesized, the hydrolysis rate of each compound is benchmarked, and trends are established based upon the steric bulk and leaving group ability of the silicate substituents. These trends are then applied to the synthesis of labile silicate ester prodrugs in Chapter 3. The bulk of this chapter focuses on the synthesis, hydrolysis, and cytotoxicity of prodrugs based on paclitaxel, a widely used chemotherapeutic agent. In Chapter 4, a new methodology for the synthesis of narrowly dispersed, "random" poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymers by a constant infusion of the glycolide monomer is detailed. Using poly(ethylene glycol) as a macroinitiator, amphiphilic block copolymers were synthesized. Co-formulating a paclitaxel silicate and an amphiphilic block copolymer via flash nanoprecipitation led to highly prodrug-loaded, kinetically trapped nanoparticles. Studies to determine the structure, morphology, behavior, and efficacy of these nanoparticles are described in Chapter 5. Efforts to develop a general strategy for the selective end-functionalization of the polyether block of these amphiphilic block copolymers are discussed in Chapter 6. Examples of this strategy include functionalization of the polyether with an azide or a maleimide. Finally, Chapter 7 provides an outlook for future development of

  15. Design of ester prodrugs to enhance oral absorption of poorly permeable compounds: challenges to the discovery scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Kevin; Webster, Robert; Gardner, Iain; Dack, Kevin

    2003-12-01

    Many drugs are administered at sites that are remote from their site of action. The most common route of drug delivery is the oral route. The optimal physicochemical properties to allow high transcellular absorption following oral administration are well established and include a limit on molecular size, hydrogen bonding potential and adequate lipophilicity. For many drug targets, synthetic strategies can be devised to balance the physicochemical properties required for high transcellular absorption and the SAR for the drug target. However, there are drug targets where the SAR requires properties at odds with good membrane permeability. These include a requirement for significant polarity and groups that exhibit high hydrogen bonding potential such as carboxylic acids and alcohols. In such cases, prodrug strategies have been employed. The rationale behind the prodrug strategy is to introduce lipophilicity and mask hydrogen bonding groups of an active compound by the addition of another moiety, most commonly an ester. An ideal ester prodrug should exhibit the following properties: 1). Weak (or no) activity against any pharmacological target, 2). Chemical stability across a pH range, 3). High aqueous solubility, 4). Good transcellular absorption, 5). Resistance to hydrolysis during the absorption phase, 6). Rapid and quantitative breakdown to yield high circulating concentrations of the active component post absorption. This paper will review the literature around marketed prodrugs and determine the most appropriate prodrug characteristics. In addition, it will examine potential Discovery approaches to optimising prodrug delivery and recommend a strategy for prosecuting an oral prodrug approach.

  16. Digital image processing of nanometer-size metal particles on amorphous substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, F.; Artal, P.; Bescos, J.; Heinemann, K.

    1989-01-01

    The task of differentiating very small metal aggregates supported on amorphous films from the phase contrast image features inherently stemming from the support is extremely difficult in the nanometer particle size range. Digital image processing was employed to overcome some of the ambiguities in evaluating such micrographs. It was demonstrated that such processing allowed positive particle detection and a limited degree of statistical size analysis even for micrographs where by bare eye examination the distribution between particles and erroneous substrate features would seem highly ambiguous. The smallest size class detected for Pd/C samples peaks at 0.8 nm. This size class was found in various samples prepared under different evaporation conditions and it is concluded that these particles consist of 'a magic number' of 13 atoms and have cubooctahedral or icosahedral crystal structure.

  17. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji

    2015-08-21

    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model.

  18. Improved Electrical Properties of Epoxy Resin With Nanometer-Sized Inorganic Fillers (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horwath, John C; Schweickart, Daniel L; Garcia, Guido; Klosterman, Donald; Galaska, Mary; Schrand, Amanda; Walko, Lawrence C

    2006-01-01

    .... Improvements in mechanical modulus or heat deflection temperature are often realized. These fillers may also improve some electrical properties such as corona endurance or dielectric breakdown voltage in polymers...

  19. Synthesis of Nanometer-Sized Poly (methyl methacrylate) Polymer Network by Gold Nanoparticle Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Ken; Hsieh, Shang-Yu; Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Dai, Bau-Tong

    2003-06-01

    Gold nanoparticle/polymer composites have been produced using a one-system polymer synthesis. The linear polymer, poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, MW = 15,000 g/mol) is applied for the stabilization of gold nanoparticles. The Fourier transfer infrared (FT-IR) analysis data and transition electron microscopy (TEM) image reveal that the core shell structure of gold/PMMA nanocomposite has been synthesized. The ratio of the concentration of the capping polymer material to the concentration of the gold precursor could control the sizes of gold nanoparticles. With specific concentration of the reductant, the core-shell nanostructure could be fluctuated in order. After heating treatment, the network structure of PMMA capped gold nanoparticles could be synthesized as confirmed by the TEM image. The result indicates that PMMA not only acts as the stabilizer, but also as the bridge of the neighboring gold nanoparticles.

  20. Thin Films Prepared from Nanometer Size TiO2 Absorbs Millimeter Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Yesil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorption of average 10 nm size TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on glass surfaces as a thin film using convective assembly technique and drop-casting is studied in the millimeter wave range from 26 GHz to 40 GHz. The millimeter wave responses of the fabricated samples were obtained using a vector network analyzer. Reflection properties of the prepared samples were also measured. Absorption and reflection of TiO2 nanoparticles were more pronounced between 35 GHz and 40 GHz compared to glass-only sample.

  1. Parallel nanogap fabrication with nanometer size control using III-V semiconductor epitaxial technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-MartInez, Ivan; Gonzalez, Yolanda; Briones, Fernando [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8 PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: ivan@imm.cnm.csic.es

    2008-07-09

    A nanogap fabrication process using strained epitaxial III-V beams is reported. The process is highly reproducible, allowing parallel fabrication and nanogap size control. The beams are fabricated from MBE-grown (GaAs/GaP)/AlGaAs strained heterostructures, standard e-beam lithography and wet etching. During the wet etching process, the relaxation of the accumulated stress at the epitaxial heterostructure produces a controlled beam breakage at the previously defined beam notch. After the breakage, the relaxed strain is proportional to the beam length, allowing nanogap size control. The starting structure is similar to a mechanically adjustable break junction but the stress causing the breakage is, in this case, built into the beam. This novel technique should be useful for molecular-scale electronic devices.

  2. Inorganic-Organic Molecules and Solids with Nanometer-Sized Pores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maverick, Andrew W

    2011-12-17

    We are constructing porous inorganic-organic hybrid molecules and solids, many of which contain coordinatively unsaturated metal centers. In this work, we use multifunctional ²-diketone ligands as building blocks to prepare extended-solid and molecular porous materials that are capable of reacting with a variety of guest molecules.

  3. Preparation of nanometer sized Mn doped Zn based oxides powder for DMS applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the size dependent DMS (Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor) behavior of Mn doped ZnO, the authors have systematically prepared a series of nanosized green powder based on Mn doped ZnO (Zn 1-x Mn x O, where x=0.02 - 0.1) materials using...

  4. Strong Plasmon Reflection at Nanometer-Size Gaps in Monolayer Graphene on SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Alexey B.; Chen, Jiaining; Nesterov, Maxim L.; Nikitin, Alexey Yu.; Thongrattanasiri, Sukosin; Alonso-Gonzalez, Pablo; Slipchenko, Tetiana M.; Speck, Florian; Ostler, Markus; Seyller, Thomas; Crassee, Iris; Koppens, Frank H. L.; Martin-Moreno, Luis; Garcia de Abajo, F. Javier; Hillenbrand, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    Tip-enhanced infrared near-field microscopy is used to study propagating plasmons in epitaxial quasi-free-standing monolayer graphene on silicon carbide. We observe that plasmons are strongly reflected at graphene gaps at the steps between the substrate terraces. For the step height of only 1.5 nm, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than the plasmon wavelength, the reflection signal reaches 20 percent of its value at graphene edges, and it approaches 0.5 for steps of 5 nm. We support this observation with extensive numerical simulations and give physical rationale for this intriguing phenomenon. Our work suggests that plasmon propagation in graphene-based circuits can be controlled using ultracompact nanostructures. J. Chen et al., Nano Lett., DOI: 10.1021/nl403622t (2013).

  5. Surface effects on ionic Coulomb blockade in nanometer-size pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroya; Iizuka, Hideo; Pershin, Yuriy V.; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2018-01-01

    Ionic Coulomb blockade in nanopores is a phenomenon that shares some similarities but also differences with its electronic counterpart. Here, we investigate this phenomenon extensively using all-atom molecular dynamics of ionic transport through nanopores of about one nanometer in diameter and up to several nanometers in length. Our goal is to better understand the role of atomic roughness and structure of the pore walls in the ionic Coulomb blockade. Our numerical results reveal the following general trends. First, the nanopore selectivity changes with its diameter, and the nanopore position in the membrane influences the current strength. Second, the ionic transport through the nanopore takes place in a hopping-like fashion over a set of discretized states caused by local electric fields due to membrane atoms. In some cases, this creates a slow-varying ‘crystal-like’ structure of ions inside the nanopore. Third, while at a given voltage, the resistance of the nanopore depends on its length, the slope of this dependence appears to be independent of the molarity of ions. An effective kinetic model that captures the ionic Coulomb blockade behavior observed in MD simulations is formulated.

  6. Plasmin-activated doxorubicin prodrugs containing a spacer reduce tumor growth and angiogenesis without systemic toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devy, L.; Groot, F.M.H. de; Blacher, S.; Hajitou, A.; Beusker, P.H.; Scheeren, J.W.; Foidart, J.M.; Noel, A.

    2004-01-01

    To generate doxorubicin (Dox) specifically at the tumor site, the chemotherapeutic agent was incorporated into a prodrug by linkage to a peptide specifically recognized by plasmin, which is overproduced in many cancers. ST-9905, which contains an elongated self-elimination spacer, is activated more

  7. Transdermal Delivery and Cutaneous Targeting of Antivirals using a Penetration Enhancer and Lysolipid Prodrugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diblíková, D.; Kopečná, M.; Školová, B.; Krečmerová, Marcela; Roh, J.; Hrabálek, A.; Vávrová, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2014), s. 1071-1081 ISSN 0724-8741 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0365 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonate antivirals * lysolipid prodrug * penetration enhancer * skin absorption * transdermal drug delivery Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.420, year: 2014

  8. Prodrugs of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), More Than Meets the Eye: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qandil, Amjad M.

    2012-01-01

    The design and the synthesis of prodrugs for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been given much attention by medicinal chemists, especially in the last decade. As a therapeutic group, NSAIDs are among the most widely used prescribed and over the counter (OTC) medications. The rich literature about potential NSAID prodrugs clearly shows a shift from alkyl, aryalkyl or aryl esters with the sole role of masking the carboxylic acid group, to more elaborate conjugates that contain carefully chosen groups to serve specific purposes, such as enhancement of water solubility and dissolution, nitric oxide release, hydrogen sulfide release, antioxidant activity, anticholinergic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory (AChEI) activity and site-specific targeting and delivery. This review will focus on NSAID prodrugs that have been designed or were, later, found to possess intrinsic pharmacological activity as an intact chemical entity. Such intrinsic activity might augment the anti-inflammatory activity of the NSAID, reduce its side effects or transform the potential therapeutic use from classical anti-inflammatory action to something else. Reports discussed in this review will be those of NO-NSAIDs, anticholinergic and AChEI-NSAIDs, Phospho-NSAIDs and some miscellaneous agents. In most cases, this review will cover literature dealing with these NSAID prodrugs from the year 2006 and later. Older literature will be used when necessary, e.g., to explain the chemical and biological mechanisms of action. PMID:23247285

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetics of two prodrugs of zidovudine in rabbits: enhanced levels of zidovudine in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, R H; Ferencz, N; Lertora, J J; Aggarwal, S K; George, W J; Agrawal, K C

    1993-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of two prodrugs of zidovudine (AZT), 1,4-dihydro-1-methyl-3-[(pyridylcarbonyl)oxy] ester and isoleucinyl ester (DPAZT and IAZT, respectively), were investigated in a rabbit model to determine their potential utility as drugs against human immunodeficiency virus. Drugs were administered by intravenous infusion over 5 min at doses equal to 10 mg of AZT per kg of body weight. The levels of the prodrugs and of released AZT in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. DPAZT disappeared rapidly from plasma, whereas IAZT maintained a sustained level in plasma for up to 4 h. The levels in plasma of AZT released from DPAZT were consistently lower than the levels of AZT released from IAZT or AZT itself. At 75 min after infusion of AZT, DPAZT, and IAZT, the CSF plasma AZT ratios were 0.23, 0.30, and 0.25, while the brain/CSF AZT ratios were 0.32, 0.63, and 0.64, respectively. These results indicate that the administration of each of the prodrugs produced a higher concentration of AZT in the brain than did the direct administration of AZT. Both prodrugs therefore may be superior to AZT itself with respect to achieving anti-human immunodeficiency virus concentrations within the central nervous system.

  10. Carbonate esters turn camptothecin-unsaturated fatty acid prodrugs into nanomedicines for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Kang, Tianyi; Wu, Yujiao; Chen, Yuwen; Zhu, Jiao; Gou, Maling

    2018-02-20

    We report that carbonate esters could turn hydrophobic camptothecin (CPT)-unsaturated fatty acid prodrugs into nanoaggregates in aqueous solution. The active CPT could be rapidly released once triggered by a reductive stimulus when a carbonate ester was combined with a disulfide bond, resulting in a potent in vivo antitumor activity.

  11. Enhanced Cellular Uptake and Pharmacokinetic Characteristics of Doxorubicin-Valine Amide Prodrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we synthesized the valine (Val-conjugated amide prodrug of doxorubicin (DOX by the formation of amide bonds between DOX and Val. The synthesis of the DOX-Val prodrug was identified by a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR assay. In the MCF-7 cells (human breast adenocarcinoma cell; amino acid transporter–positive cell, the cellular accumulation efficiency of DOX-Val was higher than that of DOX according to the flow cytometry analysis data. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM imaging, it was confirmed that DOX-Val as well as DOX was mainly distributed in the nucleus of cancer cells. DOX-Val was intravenously administered to rats at a dose of 4 mg/kg, and the plasma concentrations of DOX-Val (prodrug and DOX (formed metabolite were quantitatively determined. Based on the systemic exposure (represented as area under the curve (AUC values of DOX-Val (prodrug and DOX (formed metabolite, approximately half of DOX-Val seemed to be metabolized into DOX. However, it is expected that the remaining DOX-Val may exert improved cellular uptake efficiency in cancer cells after its delivery to the cancer region.

  12. Improved Synthesis of N-Benzylaminoferrocene-Based Prodrugs and Evaluation of Their Toxicity and Antileukemic Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daum, Steffen; Chekhun, Vasiliy F; Todor, Igor N; Lukianova, Natalia Yu; Shvets, Yulia V; Sellner, Leopold; Putzker, Kerstin; Lewis, Joe; Zenz, Thorsten; de Graaf, Inge A M; Groothuis, Geny M M; Casini, Angela; Zozulia, Oleksii; Hampel, Frank; Mokhir, Andriy

    2015-01-01

    We report on an improved method of synthesis of N-benzylaminoferrocene-based prodrugs and demonstrate its applicability by preparing nine new aminoferrocenes. Their effect on the viability of selected cancer cells having different p53 status was studied. The obtained data are in agreement with the

  13. Immunoliposomes bearing enzymes (immuno-enzymosomes) for site-specific activation of anticancer prodrugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, G; Vingerhoeds, MH; Crommelin, DJA; Haisma, HJ

    1997-01-01

    Immunoliposomes bearing anticancer prodrug activating enzymes (immuno-enzymosomes) are proposed for use in a two-phase approach to targeted chemotherapy of human cancer. In the first phase the tumor-specific immuno-enzymosomes are administered, and time is allowed for tumor localization and

  14. Orally bioavailable prodrugs of a hydroxamate-based glutamate carboxypeptidase II inhibitor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, Tomáš; Rais, R.; Vávra, Jan; Tenora, Lukáš; Monincová, Lenka; Dash, R.; Slusher, B.; Majer, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 284, Suppl 1 (2017), s. 344 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /42./ From Molecules to Cells and Back. 10.09.2017-14.09.2017, Jerusalem] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : glutamate carboxypeptidase II inhibitor * prodrugs Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  15. Bioactivation of morphine-3-propionate, a prodrug of morphine, in tissues from different species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, L.; Jørgensen, A.; Steffansen, B.

    1997-01-01

    The bioactivation of the morphine prodrug, morphine-3-propionate, has been evaluated by determination of the first-order hydrolysis rate in different tissue homogenates and blood fractions from various mammal species, including man. The hydrolysis rates were determined in whole blood, serum...

  16. Design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of Enone prodrugs : orally active precursors of catecholamines with antiparkinsonian activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Danyang

    2006-01-01

    Danyang Liu ontwierp en testte twee zogenaamde enone prodrugs, een nieuw type dopamine-agonisten. Haar resultaten wijzen erop dat verder onderzoek in deze richting werkbare perspectieven zou kunnen opleveren voor de ontwikkeling van een dopamine-agonist in de behandeling van de ziekte van Parkinson.

  17. Synthesis of prodrugs of anthracyclines and evaluation of their use in selective chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.G.G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the synthesis and biological evaluation of prodrugs of anthracycline anti-tumor antibiotics designed for use in selective chemotherapy. The severe side effects caused by conventional cancer chemotherapeutic agents arises from the lack of distinction between tumor and normal

  18. Upconverting nanovesicles for the activation of ruthenium anti-cancer prodrugs with red light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askes, S.H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium complexes are promising prodrugs in photoactivated chemotherapy (PACT): to prevent systemic therapeutic side-effects, a non-toxic version of the drug is introduced in the body and is only activated at the place of the tumor by means of visible light irradiation. However, most of these PACT

  19. ROS-activated anticancer prodrugs: a new strategy for tumor-specific damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaohua; Gandhi, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    Targeting tumor cells is an important strategy to improve the selectivity of cancer therapies. With the advanced studies in cancer biology, we know that cancer cells are usually under increased oxidative stress. The high level of reactive oxygen species in cancer cells has been exploited for developing novel therapeutic strategies to preferentially kill cancer cells. Our group, amongst others, have used boronic acids/esters as triggers for developing ROS-activated anticancer prodrugs that target cancer cells. The selectivity was achieved by combining a specific reaction between boronates and H2O2 with the efficient masking of drug toxicity in the prodrug via boronates. Prodrugs activated via ferrocene-mediated oxidation have also been developed to improve the selectivity of anticancer drugs. We describe how the strategies of ROS-activation can be used for further development of new ROS-targeting prodrugs, eventually leading to novel approaches and/or combined technology for more efficient and selective treatment of cancers. PMID:22900465

  20. Hyaluronic acid-coated, prodrug-based nanostructured lipid carriers for enhanced pancreatic cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhihe; Su, Jingrong; Li, Zhengrong; Zhan, Yuzhu; Ye, Decai

    2017-01-01

    Gemcitabine (GEM) and Baicalein (BCL) are reported to have anti-tumor effects including pancreatic cancer. Hyaluronic acid (HA) can bind to over-expressed receptors in various kinds of cancer cells. The aim of this study is to develop prodrugs containing HA, BCL and GEM, and construct nanomedicine incorporate GEM and BCL in the core and HA on the surface. This system could target the cancer cells and co-deliver the drugs. GEM-stearic acid lipid prodrug (GEM-SA) and hyaluronic acid-amino acid-baicalein prodrug (HA-AA-BCL) were synthesized. Then, GEM and BCL prodrug-based targeted nanostructured lipid carriers (HA-GEM-BCL NLCs) were prepared by the nanoprecipitation technique. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies of the NLCs were evaluated on AsPC1 pancreatic cancer cell line. In vivo anti-tumor effects were observed on the murine-bearing pancreatic cancer model. HA-GEM-BCL NLCs were effective in entering pancreatic cancer cells over-expressing HA receptors, and showed cytotoxicity of tumor cells in vitro. In vivo study revealed significant tumor growth inhibition ability of HA-GEM-BCL NLCs in murine pancreatic cancer model. It could be concluded that HA-GEM-BCL NLCs could be featured as promising co-delivery, tumor-targeted nanomedicine for the treatment of cancers.

  1. Lysosome-Targeting Amplifiers of Reactive Oxygen Species as Anticancer Prodrugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daum, S.; Reshetnikov, M.S.V.; Šíša, Miroslav; Dumych, T.; Lootsik, M. D.; Bilyy, R.; Bila, E.; Janko, C.; Alexiou, C.; Herrmann, M.; Sellner, L.; Mokhir, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 49 (2017), s. 15545-15549 ISSN 1433-7851 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : aminoferrocene * cancer * lysosomes * prodrugs * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 11.994, year: 2016

  2. Prodrugs available on the Brazilian pharmaceutical market and their corresponding bioactivation pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Parise Filho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to emphasize the importance of prodrug design to therapy, by examining examples available on the Brazilian pharmaceutical market. The principles of prodrug design are briefly discussed herein. Examples of prodrugs from many important therapeutic classes are shown and their advantages relative to the drugs they are derived from are also discussed. Considering the importance of these therapeutic classes, from both therapy and economic standpoints, prodrug design is a very valuable aspect in the research of new drugs and for the pharmaceutical industry as a whole.O objetivo do trabalho foi ressaltar a importância do planejamento de pró-fármacos para a terapia, por meio de exemplos disponíveis no mercado farmacêutico brasileiro. Os princípios da latenciação são sucintamente discutidos. Apresentam-se exemplos de pró-fármacos de muitas classes terapêuticas importantes e as vantagens relativas aos fármacos dos quais derivam são, também, discutidas. Considerando-se a importância dessas classes terapêuticas, tanto do aspecto terapêutico quanto do econômico, o planejamento de pró-fármacos representa aspecto de grande valor na busca de novos fármacos e na indústria farmacêutica como um todo.

  3. Lipoamino acid prodrugs of paclitaxel: synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation on human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, R; Paolino, D; Pantò, V; Pistară, V; Calvagno, M G; Russo, D; Puglisi, G; Fresta, M

    2009-03-01

    Lipophilic derivatives of the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) were prepared by means of its conjugation to lipoamino acid (LAA) residues, with the aim of increasing drug accumulation in tumor cells. PTX was linked to the methyl esters of norleucine (C6) or 2-aminodecanoic acid (C10). A succinic acid group was used as a spacer to link the 2'-hydroxyl group of PTX and the LAA residue, respectively by means of an ester and an amide bond. The in vitro anticancer activity of the prodrugs was tested on a human thyroid anaplastic cancer cell line (ARO). The intracellular uptake kinetics of free PTX and its prodrugs was assessed by HPLC. PTX-LAA prodrugs showed a noticeable cytotoxic activity against ARO cells at shorter incubation time (12 h) and lower doses (0.01-0.1 microM) than PTX. Intracellular accumulation experiments indicated an improvement of drug concentration inside these cells, related to the block of the cellular expulsion by means of multi drug resistance efflux complex and improved physicochemical features that allowed the greater passive cellular membrane permeation. The enhanced activity of PTX-LAA prodrugs, in terms of potency and onset of the effect, as well as the interesting intracellular accumulation data suggest that these compounds can be further tested as possible alternatives to PTX for the treatment of resistant cancer cells.

  4. Stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles for cancerous cells intracellular drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing, E-mail: zhangjing@zjut.edu.cn; Li, Mengfei [Zhejiang University of Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Yuan, Zhefan [Zhejiang University, Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (China); Wu, Dan; Chen, Jia-da; Feng, Jie, E-mail: fengjie@zjut.edu.cn [Zhejiang University of Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-10-15

    A novel type of stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles (MPPM) was fabricated for cancerous cells intracellular drug release. Deca-lysine sequence (K{sub 10}), a type of cell-penetrating peptide, was synthesized and terminated with azido-glycine. Then a new kind of molecule, alkyne modified doxorubicin (DOX) connecting through disulfide bond (DOX-SS-alkyne), was synthesized. After coupling via Cu-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click chemistry reaction, reduction-sensitive peptide-guided prodrug was obtained. Due to the amphiphilic property of the prodrug, it can assemble to form micelles. To prevent the nanocarriers from unspecific cellular uptake, the prodrug micelles were subsequently modified with 2,3-dimethyl maleic anhydride to obtain MPPM with a negatively charged outer shell. In vitro studies showed that MPPM could be shielded from cells under psychological environment. However, when arriving at mild acidic tumor site, the cell-penetrating capacity of MPPM would be activated by charge reversal of the micelles via hydrolysis of acid-labile β-carboxylic amides and regeneration of K{sub 10}, which enabled efficient internalization of MPPM by tumor cells as well as following glutathione- and protease-induced drug release inside the cancerous cells. Furthermore, since the guide peptide sequences can be accurately designed and synthesized, it can be easily changed for various functions, such as targeting peptide, apoptotic peptide, even aptamers, only need to be terminated with azido-glycine. This method can be used as a template for reduction-sensitive peptide-guided prodrug for cancer therapy.Graphical abstractA novel type of stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles (MPPM) was fabricated for selective drug delivery in cancerous cells. MPPM could be shielded from cells under psychological environment. However, when arriving at mild acidic tumor site, the cell-penetrating capacity of MPPM would

  5. Synthesis and Evaluation of Hydrogen Peroxide Sensitive Prodrugs of Methotrexate and Aminopterin for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peiró Cadahía, Jorge; Bondebjerg, Jon; Hansen, Christian A.

    2018-01-01

    A series of novel hydrogen peroxide sensitive prodrugs of methotrexate (MTX) and aminopterin (AMT) were synthesized and evaluated for therapeutic efficacy in mice with collagen induced arthritis (CIA) as a model of chronic rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The prodrug strategy selected is based on ROS...... assays. Selected candidates showed moderate to good solubility, high chemical and enzymatic stability, and therapeutic efficacy comparable to the parent drugs in the CIA model. Importantly, the prodrugs displayed the expected safer toxicity profile and increased therapeutic window compared to MTX and AMT...

  6. Synthesis, In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of the N-ethoxycarbonylmorpholine Ester of Diclofenac as a Prodrug

    OpenAIRE

    Jilani, Jamal; Idkaidek, Nasir; Alzoubi, Karem

    2014-01-01

    The N-ethoxycarbonylmorpholine moiety was evaluated as a novel prodrug moiety for carboxylic acid containing drugs represented by diclofenac (1). Compound 2, the N-ethoxycarbonylmorpholine ester of diclofenac was synthesized and evaluated as a potential prodrug. The stability of the synthesized prodrug was evaluated in solutions of pH 1 and 7.4, and in plasma. The ester’s half lives were found to be 8 h, 47 h and 21 min in pH 1, pH 7.4 and plasma, respectively. Equimolar doses of diclofenac...

  7. Design of optimized hypoxia-activated prodrugs using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Bettina Foehrenbacher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia contributes to resistance of tumors to some cytotoxic drugs and to radiotherapy, but can in principle be exploited with hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP. HAP in clinical development fall into two broad groups. Class I HAP (like the benzotriazine N-oxides tirapazamine and SN30000, are activated under relatively mild hypoxia. In contrast, Class II HAP (such as the nitro compounds PR-104A or TH-302 are maximally activated only under extreme hypoxia, but their active metabolites (effectors diffuse to cells at intermediate O2 and thus also eliminate moderately hypoxic cells. Here, we use a spatially resolved pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (SR-PK/PD model to compare these two strategies and to identify the features required in an optimal Class II HAP. The model uses a Green’s function approach to calculate spatial and longitudinal gradients of O2, prodrug and effector concentrations, and resulting killing in a digitized 3D tumor microregion to estimate activity as monotherapy and in combination with radiotherapy. An analogous model for a normal tissue with mild hypoxia and short intervesssel distances (based on a cremaster muscle microvessel network was used to estimate tumor selectivity of cell killing. This showed that Class II HAP offer advantages over Class I including higher tumor selectivity and greater freedom to vary prodrug diffusibility and rate of metabolic activation. The model suggests that the largest gains in class II HAP antitumor activity could be realized by optimizing effector stability and prodrug activation rates. We also use the model to show that diffusion of effector into blood vessels is unlikely to materially increase systemic exposure for realistic tumor burdens and effector clearances. However, we show that the tumor selectivity achievable by hypoxia-dependent prodrug activation alone is limited if dose-limiting normal tissues are even mildly hypoxic

  8. The Feasibility of Enzyme Targeted Activation for Amino Acid/Dipeptide Monoester Prodrugs of Floxuridine; Cathepsin D as a Potential Targeted Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon L. Amidon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of therapeutic efficacy for cancer agents has been a big challenge which includes the increase of tumor selectivity and the reduction of adverse effects at non-tumor sites. In order to achieve those goals, prodrug approaches have been extensively investigated. In this report, the potential activation enzymes for 5¢-amino acid/dipeptide monoester floxuridine prodrugs in pancreatic cancer cells were selected and the feasibility of enzyme specific activation of prodrugs was evaluated. All prodrugs exhibited the range of 3.0–105.7 min of half life in Capan-2 cell homogenate with the presence and the absence of selective enzyme inhibitors. 5¢-O-L-Phenylalanyl-L-tyrosyl-floxuridine exhibited longer half life only with the presence of pepstatin A. Human cathepsin B and D selectively hydrolized 5¢-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosylfloxuridine and 5¢-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-glycylfloxuridine compared to the other tested prodrugs. The wide range of growth inhibitory effect by floxuridine prodrugs in Capan-2 cells was observed due to the different affinities of prodrug promoieties to enyzmes. In conclusion, it is feasible to design prodrugs which are activated by specific enzymes. Cathepsin D might be a good candidate as a target enzyme for prodrug activation and 5¢-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosylfloxuridine may be the best candidate among the tested floxuridine prodrugs.

  9. The feasibility of enzyme targeted activation for amino acid/dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine; cathepsin D as a potential targeted enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L

    2012-03-26

    The improvement of therapeutic efficacy for cancer agents has been a big challenge which includes the increase of tumor selectivity and the reduction of adverse effects at non-tumor sites. In order to achieve those goals, prodrug approaches have been extensively investigated. In this report, the potential activation enzymes for 5'-amino acid/dipeptide monoester floxuridine prodrugs in pancreatic cancer cells were selected and the feasibility of enzyme specific activation of prodrugs was evaluated. All prodrugs exhibited the range of 3.0-105.7 min of half life in Capan-2 cell homogenate with the presence and the absence of selective enzyme inhibitors. 5'-O-L-Phenylalanyl-L-tyrosyl-floxuridine exhibited longer half life only with the presence of pepstatin A. Human cathepsin B and D selectively hydrolized 5'-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosylfloxuridine and 5'-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-glycylfloxuridine compared to the other tested prodrugs. The wide range of growth inhibitory effect by floxuridine prodrugs in Capan-2 cells was observed due to the different affinities of prodrug promoieties to enzymes. In conclusion, it is feasible to design prodrugs which are activated by specific enzymes. Cathepsin D might be a good candidate as a target enzyme for prodrug activation and 5'-O-L-phenylalanyl-L-tyrosylfloxuridine may be the best candidate among the tested floxuridine prodrugs.

  10. Discovery of Orally Available Prodrugs of the Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) Inhibitor 2-Phosphonomethylpentanedioic Acid (2-PMPA)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majer, Pavel; Jančařík, Andrej; Krečmerová, Marcela; Tichý, Tomáš; Tenora, Lukáš; Wozniak, K.; Wu, Y.; Pommier, E.; Ferraris, D.; Rais, R.; Slusher, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2016), s. 2810-2819 ISSN 0022-2623 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : glutamate carboxypeptidase II * glutamate * 2-PMPA * prodrug Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.259, year: 2016

  11. Nanostructured nanoparticles of self-assembled lipid pro-drugs as a route to improved chemotherapeutic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagnella, Sharon M.; Gong, Xiaojuan; Moghaddam, Minoo J.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Kimpton, Kathleen; Waddington, Lynne J.; Krodkiewska, Irena; Drummond, Calum J. (CSIRO/MSE); (CSIRO/LW)

    2014-09-24

    We demonstrate that oral delivery of self-assembled nanostructured nanoparticles consisting of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) lipid prodrugs results in a highly effective, target-activated, chemotherapeutic agent, and offers significantly enhanced efficacy over a commercially available alternative that does not self-assemble. The lipid prodrug nanoparticles have been found to significantly slow the growth of a highly aggressive mouse 4T1 breast tumour, and essentially halt the growth of a human MDA-MB-231 breast tumour in mouse xenografts. Systemic toxicity is avoided as prodrug activation requires a three-step, enzymatic conversion to 5-FU, with the third step occurring preferentially at the tumour site. Additionally, differences in the lipid prodrug chemical structure and internal nanostructure of the nanoparticle dictate the enzymatic conversion rate and can be used to control sustained release profiles. Thus, we have developed novel oral nanomedicines that combine sustained release properties with target-selective activation.

  12. Enzymatic Activation of Proteasome Inhibitor Prodrugs by Prostate-Specific Antigen as Targeted Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denmeade, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    ... significant toxicity, To achieve targeted cytotoxicity the TG analogs were converted to inactive prodrugs by coupling to a peptide carrier that is a substrate for the serine protease activity of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA...

  13. Redox-responsive core cross-linked prodrug micelles prepared by click chemistry for pH-triggered doxorubicin delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. T. Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A pH-triggered drug delivery system of degradable core cross-linked (CCL prodrug micelles was prepared by click chemistry. Doxorubicin conjugated block copolymers of azido functional poly(ethylene oxide-b-poly(glycidyl methacrylate were synthesized by the combination of RAFT polymerization, epoxide ring-opening reaction, and acid-cleavable hydrazone linkages. The CCL prodrug micelles were produced by the reaction of dipropargyl 3,3′-dithiodipropionate and dipropargyl adipate cross-linking agents with the azido groups of the micellar core via alkyne-azide click reaction, which were denoted as CCL/SS and CCL/noSS, respectively. The TEM images of CCL/SS prodrug micelles showed a spherical shape with the average diameter of 61.0 nm from water, and the shape was maintained with an increased diameter upon dilution with 5-fold DMF. The high DOX conjugation efficiency was 88.4%. In contrast to a very slow DOX release from CCL/SS prodrug micelles under the physiological condition (pH 7.4, the drug release is much faster (90% at pH 5.0 and 10 mM of GSH after 96 h. The cytotoxicity test and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis revealed that CCL/SS prodrug micelles had much enhanced intracellular drug release capability in HepG2 cells than CCL/noSS prodrug micelles.

  14. Prodrugs of purine and pyrimidine analogues for the intestinal di/tri-peptide transporter PepT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anne Engelbrecht; Friedrichsen, Gerda Marie; Sørensen, Arne Hagsten

    2003-01-01

    A general drug delivery approach for increasing oral bioavailability of purine and pyrimidine analogues such as acyclovir may be to link these compounds reversibly to stabilized dipeptide pro-moieties with affinity for the human intestinal di/tri-peptide transporter, hPepT1. In the present study......, novel L-Glu-Sar and D-Glu-Ala ester prodrugs of acyclovir and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-linked thymine were synthesized and their affinities for hPepT1 in Caco-2 cells were determined. Furthermore, the degradation of the prodrugs was investigated in various aqueous and biological media and compared...... to the corresponding hydrolysis of the prodrug valaciclovir. Affinity studies showed that the L-Glu-Sar prodrugs had high affinity for hPepT1 (K(i) approximately 0.2-0.3 mM), whereas the D-Glu-Ala prodrugs had poor affinity (K(i) approximately 50 mM). The pH-rate profiles of the prodrugs D-Glu[1-(2-hydroxyethyl...

  15. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  16. Fabrication of Reductive-Responsive Prodrug Nanoparticles with Superior Structural Stability by Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly and Functional Nanoscopic Platform for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Jian; Hong, Chun-Yan; Pan, Cai-Yuan

    2016-09-12

    A highly efficient strategy, polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) for fabrication of the polymeric drug delivery systems in cancer chemotherapy is reported. Diblock prodrug copolymer, PEG-b-P(MEO2MA-co-CPTM) was used as the macro-RAFT agent to fabricate prodrug nanoparticles through PISA. The advantages of fabricating intelligent drug delivery system via this approach are as following: (1) Simultaneous fulfillment of polymerization, self-assembly, and drug encapsulation in one-pot at relatively high concentration (100 mg/mL); (2) Almost complete monomer conversion allows direct application of the resultant prodrug nanoparticles without further purification; (3) Robust structures of the resultant prodrug nanoparticles, because the cross-linker was used as the comonomer, resulted in core-cross-linking simultaneously with the formation of the prodrug nanoparticles; (4) The drug content in the resultant prodrug nanoparticles can be accurately modulated just via adjusting the feed molar ratio of MEO2MA/CPTM in the synthesis of PEG-b-P(MEO2MA-co-CPTM). The prodrug nanoparticles with similar diameters but various drug contents were obtained using different prodrug macro-CTA. In consideration of the long-term biological toxicity, the prodrug nanoparticles with higher drug content exhibit more excellent anticancer efficiency due to that lower dosage of them are enough for effectively killing HeLa cells.

  17. Platinum(IV) prodrugs multiply targeting genomic DNA, histone deacetylases and PARP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zichen; Hu, Weiwei; Wang, Zhimei; Gou, Shaohua

    2017-12-01

    Several Pt(IV) prodrugs containing SAA, a histone deacetylases inhibitor, were designed and prepared for multiply targeting genomic DNA, histone deacetylases and PARP-1. The resulting Pt(IV) prodrug had significantly strong antiproliferative activity against the tested cancer cell lines, especially SAA1, derived from the conjugation of cisplatin and SAA, had potent ability to overcome cisplatin resistance. Under the combined action of DNA platination and inhibition of HDACs and PARP-1 activity, the cytotoxic activity of SAA1 was 174-fold higher than cisplatin against cisplatin-resistant SGC7901/CDDP cancer cells. The mechanism of action of SAA1 was preliminarily investigated, in which cellular uptake, cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as well as western blot analysis were made by treating SAA1 with SGC7901/CDDP cells. Besides, HDACs inhibition activity and PARP-1 enzyme inhibition of SAA1 were also studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel Prodrugs for Targeting Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radionuclides to Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. James Adelstein

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Most cancer therapeutics (chemo, radiation, antibody-based, anti-angiogenicare at best partially and/or temporarily effective. In general, the causes for failure can besummarized as: (i poor diffusion and/or nonuniform distribution of drug/prodrugmolecules in solid tumors; (ii high drug concentration and retention in normal tissues(leading to side effects; (iii requirement for plasma-membrane permeability and/orinternalization of drug/prodrug molecules; (iv low uptake of drug by tumor; (v lack ofretention of drug within tumor (most have gradient-driven reversible binding; and (vimultidrug resistance. We are developing an innovative technology that aims to surmountthese problems by actively concentrating and permanently entrapping radioimaging andradiotherapeutic prodrugs specifically within solid tumors. The approach will enablenoninvasive sensing (imaging and effective therapy of solid tumors, allowing tumordetection, diagnosis, and treatment to be closely coupled (personalized medicine.

  19. Acyclovir prodrug for the intestinal di/tri-peptide transporter PEPT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anne Engelbrecht; Christensen, Michael Søberg; Bagger, Morten Aavad

    2004-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the prodrug Glu(acyclovir)-Sar has a high affinity for PEPT1 in Caco-2 cells. However, affinity does not necessarily lead to translocation by the transporter which is necessary for achieving an increased oral bioavailability. Therefore i.v. and p.o. doses of Glu......(acyclovir)-Sar, acyclovir and valacyclovir were given to rats and the collected blood samples were analysed via LC-MS-MS. Furthermore, Caco-2 cell monolayers were exposed apically to Glu(acyclovir)-Sar, acyclovir, and valacyclovir and the concentration of drug and prodrugs in the cell extracts were determined and taken...... as a measure for intracellular accumulation. In addition, bi-directional transport studies of Glu(acyclovir)-Sar across Caco-2 cell monolayers and in vitro metabolism studies of Glu(acyclovir)-Sar in various media of rat origin were performed. For these purposes HPLC-UV analysis was applied. Oral...

  20. Copper-free click-chemistry platform to functionalize cisplatin prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rakesh K; McNitt, Christopher D; Popik, Vladimir V; Dhar, Shanta

    2014-06-02

    The ability to rationally design and construct a platform technology to develop new platinum(IV) [Pt(IV)] prodrugs with functionalities for installation of targeting moieties, delivery systems, fluorescent reporters from a single precursor with the ability to release biologically active cisplatin by using well-defined chemistry is critical for discovering new platinum-based therapeutics. With limited numbers of possibilities considering the sensitivity of Pt(IV) centers, we used a strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition approach to provide a platform, in which new functionalities can easily be installed on cisplatin prodrugs from a single Pt(IV) precursor. The ability of this platform to be incorporated in nanodelivery vehicle and conjugation to fluorescent reporters were also investigated. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Investigation of neighbour group effects in releasing of 5-aminosicylic acid from acrylic polymeric prodrugs

    OpenAIRE

    Babzadeh, Mirzaagha; Naserian, Sona

    2011-01-01

    Acrylic-type polymeric systems having degradable ester bonds linked to 5-ASA were synthesized and evaluated az materials for drug delivery. prodrugs. 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was linked to 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate by carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) to obtain metachryloyloxy propyl 5-amino salicylate. The resulting acrylic derivative of 5-ASA was copolymerized with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylat, methyl metacrylat and 2-ethylh hexyl acrylate (in 1:3 mole ratio) by free radical polymerization me...

  2. An alternative pathway to ribonucleoside β-hydroxyphosphonate analogues and related prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospital, Audrey; Meurillon, Maïa; Peyrottes, Suzanne; Périgaud, Christian

    2013-09-20

    Nucleoside β-(S)-hydroxyphosphonate analogues have recently proven to be interesting bioactive compounds as 5'-nucleotidase inhibitors. These derivatives were obtained in a pyrimidine series through an ex-chiral pool pathway or the stereoselective reduction of a β-ketophosphonate intermediate. Herein, an original synthesis of these compounds using nucleoside epoxide intermediates, containing either a pyrimidine or a purine as nucleobase, was explored and allowed the direct synthesis of the corresponding bis S-acyl-2-thioethyl (SATE) prodrugs.

  3. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV as a potential target for selective prodrug activation and chemotherapeutic action in cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Wolk, Omri; Yang, Peihua; Mittal, Sachin; Wu, Zhiqian; Landowski, Christopher P; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs is often offset by severe side effects attributable to poor selectivity and toxicity to normal cells. Recently, the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) was considered as a potential target for the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting chemotherapeutic drugs to DPPIV as a strategy to enhance their specificity. The expression profile of DPPIV was obtained for seven cancer cell lines using DNA microarray data from the DTP database, and was validated by RT-PCR. A prodrug was then synthesized by linking the cytotoxic drug melphalan to a proline-glycine dipeptide moiety, followed by hydrolysis studies in the seven cell lines with a standard substrate, as well as the glycyl-prolyl-melphalan (GP-Mel). Lastly, cell proliferation studies were carried out to demonstrate enzyme-dependent activation of the candidate prodrug. The relative RT-PCR expression levels of DPPIV in the cancer cell lines exhibited linear correlation with U95Av2 Affymetrix data (r(2) = 0.94), and with specific activity of a standard substrate, glycine-proline-p-nitroanilide (r(2) = 0.96). The significantly higher antiproliferative activity of GP-Mel in Caco-2 cells (GI₅₀ = 261 μM) compared to that in SK-MEL-5 cells (GI₅₀ = 807 μM) was consistent with the 9-fold higher specific activity of the prodrug in Caco-2 cells (5.14 pmol/min/μg protein) compared to SK-MEL-5 cells (0.68 pmol/min/μg protein) and with DPPIV expression levels in these cells. Our results demonstrate the great potential to exploit DPPIV as a prodrug activating enzyme for efficient chemotherapeutic drug targeting.

  4. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Studies ofAtenolol Derivatives with Enhanced Lipophilicity as Potential Prodrugs

    OpenAIRE

    Tabba, Hani D. [هاني الطباع وآخرون; Hassan, Mohamed A.; Hijawi, Ali S.; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    Atenolol, a selective pi-adrenoceptor blocking agent is characterized by its low bioavailability. A number of atenolol prodrugs were synthesized to improve its lipid solubility and hence bioavailability. These compounds included an oxazolidine-2-thione derivative (II), a l,4-oxazine-2,3-dione derivative (III), and a series of oxazolidine derivatives (IVa-m). The structure of each compound was characterized by elemental analysis, infrared (IR), protonnuclear magnetic resonance ( H-NMR), and ma...

  5. A prodrug approach to the use of coumarins as potential therapeutics for superficial mycoses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derry K Mercer

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses are fungal infections of the outer layers of the skin, hair and nails that affect 20-25% of the world's population, with increasing incidence. Treatment of superficial mycoses, predominantly caused by dermatophytes, is by topical and/or oral regimens. New therapeutic options with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. There is renewed interest in natural product-based antimicrobials as alternatives to conventional treatments, including the treatment of superficial mycoses. We investigated the potential of coumarins as dermatophyte-specific antifungal agents and describe for the first time their potential utility as topical antifungals for superficial mycoses using a prodrug approach. Here we demonstrate that an inactive coumarin glycone, esculin, is hydrolysed to the antifungal coumarin aglycone, esculetin by dermatophytes. Esculin is hydrolysed to esculetin β-glucosidases. We demonstrate that β-glucosidases are produced by dermatophytes as well as members of the dermal microbiota, and that this activity is sufficient to hydrolyse esculin to esculetin with concomitant antifungal activity. A β-glucosidase inhibitor (conduritol B epoxide, inhibited antifungal activity by preventing esculin hydrolysis. Esculin demonstrates good aqueous solubility (<6 g/l and could be readily formulated and delivered topically as an inactive prodrug in a water-based gel or cream. This work demonstrates proof-of-principle for a therapeutic application of glycosylated coumarins as inactive prodrugs that could be converted to an active antifungal in situ. It is anticipated that this approach will be applicable to other coumarin glycones.

  6. Synergistic penetration of ethosomes and lipophilic prodrug on the transdermal delivery of acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Wei, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Xin-An

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the lipophilic prodrug as a means of promoting acyclovir (ACV) that exhibited biphasic insolubility into the ethosomes for optimum skin delivery. Acyclovir Palmitate (ACV-C(16)) was synthesized as the lipophilic prodrug of ACV. The ethosomal system and the liposomal system bearing ACV or ACV-C(16) were prepared, respectively. The systems were characterized for shape, zeta potential value, particle size, and entrapment efficiency. Franz diffusion cells and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used for the percutaneous absorption studies. The results showed that the entrapment efficiency of ACV-C(16) ethosomes (87.75%) were much higher than that of ACV ethosomes (39.13%). The quantity of drug in the skin from ACV-C(16) ethosomes at the end of the 24 h transdermal experiment (622.89 microg/cm(2)) was 5.30 and 3.43 times higher than that from ACV-C(16) hydroalcoholic solution and ACV ethosomes, respectively. This study indicated that the binary combination of the lipophilic prodrug ACV-C(16) and the ethosomes synergistically enhanced ACV absorption into the skin.

  7. A Prodrug-doped Cellular Trojan Horse for the Potential Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Oren; Brennen, W. Nathaniel; Han, Edward; Rosen, David Marc; Musabeyezu, Juliet; Safaee, Helia; Ranganath, Sudhir; Ngai, Jessica; Heinelt, Martina; Milton, Yuka; Wang, Hao; Bhagchandani, Sachin H.; Joshi, Nitin; Bhowmick, Neil; Denmeade, Samuel R.; Isaacs, John T.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable advances in prostate cancer research, there is a major need for a systemic delivery platform that efficiently targets anti-cancer drugs to sites of disseminated prostate cancer while minimizing host toxicity. In this proof-of-principle study, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were loaded with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) that encapsulate the macromolecule G114, a thapsigargin-based prostate specific antigen (PSA)-activated prodrug . G114-particles (~950nm in size) were internalized by MSCs, followed by the release of G114 as an intact prodrug from loaded cells. Moreover, G114 released from G114 MP-loaded MSCs selectively induced death of the PSA-secreting PCa cell line, LNCaP. Finally, G114 MP-loaded MSCs inhibited tumor growth when used in proof-of-concept co-inoculation studies with CWR22 PCa xenografts, suggesting that cell-based delivery of G114 did not compromise the potency of this pro-drug in-vitro or in-vivo. This study demonstrates a potentially promising approach to assemble a cell-based drug delivery platform, which inhibits cancer growth in-vivo without the need of genetic engineering. We envision that upon achieving efficient homing of systemically infused MSCs to cancer sites, this MSC-based platform may be developed into an effective, systemic ‘Trojan Horse’ therapy for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to sites of metastatic PCa. PMID:27019026

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Microparticulate Drug Delivery Systems Composed of Macromolecular Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Machida

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Macromolecular prodrugs are very useful systems for achieving controlled drug release and drug targeting. In particular, various macromolecule-antitumor drug conjugates enhance the effectiveness and improve the toxic side effects. Also, polymeric micro- and nanoparticles have been actively examined and their in vivo behaviors elucidated, and it has been realized that their particle characteristics are very useful to control drug behavior. Recently, researches based on the combination of the concepts of macromolecular prodrugs and micro- or nanoparticles have been reported, although they are limited. Macromolecular prodrugs enable drugs to be released at a certain controlled release rate based on the features of the macromolecule-drug linkage. Micro- and nanoparticles can control in vivo behavior based on their size, surface charge and surface structure. These merits are expected for systems produced by the combination of each concept. In this review, several micro- or nanoparticles composed of macromolecule-drug conjugates are described for their preparation, in vitro properties and/or in vivo behavior.

  9. Prodrugs: a chemical method for targeting pharmacologically active compounds to the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donati, D.; De Magistris, E.; Messeri, T. [Glaxo Wellcome Medicines Research Centre, Verona (Italy)

    1999-11-01

    The diffusion of compounds from the blood into the brain is complicated by the presence of the Blood Brain Barrier, that is a membrane that segregates the brain interstitial fluid from the circulating blood. In designing drugs active in the central nervous system and able to cross the BBB, one can exploit endogenous active mechanisms, utilise proper delivery techniques or modify a chemical structure through the synthesis of proper prodrug derivatives. The application of the prodrug technology is discussed in detail in the present paper, with examples illustrating such an approach to a number of therapeutic areas. [Italiano] La diffusione di sostanze dal sangue all`interno del cervello puo` avvenire sia attraverso meccanismi attivi che passivi; la presenza della barriera ematoencefalica (BBB), che rende i vasi cerebrali meno permeabili ai diversi soluti, complica notevolmente tali processi di diffusione. Nella progettazione di nuovi farmaci attivi sul sistema nervoso centrale e capaci di attraversare la BBB, si puo` cercare di sfruttare i meccanismi di trasporto, sia attivi che passivi, utilizzare opportuni sistemi di rilascio, o, infine, modificare la struttura del principio attivo attraverso la sintesii di opportuni prodrug. Proprio quest`ultima tecnologia e` oggetto di discussione nel presente articolo, dove vengono presentati esempi di applicazione nell`ambito di diverse aree terapeutiche.

  10. Effects of liposomal encapsulation on the antioxidant activity of lipophilic prodrugs of idebenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, Rosario; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Campisi, Agata; Raciti, Giuseppina; Musumeci, Teresa; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2011-03-01

    Increasing the lipophilicity and/or amphiphilicity of drugs is a potential strategy to improve loading and retention in lipid-based carriers, such as liposomes or lipid nanoparticles. Idebenone (IDE), an antioxidant compound structurally related to coenzyme Q, or amphiphilic prodrugs of IDE with lipoamino acids, were loaded in neutral or negatively charged SUVET unilamellar liposomes to achieve a controlled release. Technological properties of these systems in the presence of loaded drugs were evaluated in terms of vesicle size, homogeneity, and surface charge, as well as in vitro drug release. The effect of liposomal carrier on the in vitro antioxidant activity of the prodrugs was evaluated from using different biochemical assays on murine astrocyte cultures. Although a good loading efficiency was obtained, liposomes were not able to release efficiently the encapsulated drugs, at least in the in vitro serum-free conditions used for the biological tests. However, in some cases, such as in the comet assay, encapsulation of IDE prodrugs in liposomes allowed for the improvement of their protective activity, compared to the free compounds, against the oxidative damage induced on cultured astrocytes. Experimental in vitro data suggested that the high affinity shown by these lipophilic IDE derivatives for the liposomal carriers negatively affect their biological activity.

  11. N-Monosubstituted Methoxy-oligo(ethylene glycol Carbamate Ester Prodrugs of Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mattarei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol with many interesting biological activities. Its pharmacological exploitation in vivo is, however, hindered by its rapid elimination via phase II conjugative metabolism at the intestinal and, most importantly, hepatic levels. One approach to bypass this problem relies on prodrugs. We report here the synthesis, characterization, hydrolysis, and in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior of resveratrol prodrugs in which the OH groups are engaged in an N-monosubstituted carbamate ester linkage. As promoiety, methoxy-oligo(ethylene glycol groups (m-OEG (CH3–[OCH2CH2]n– of defined chain length (n = 3, 4, 6 were used. These are expected to modulate the chemico-physical properties of the resulting derivatives, much like longer poly(ethylene glycol (PEG chains, while retaining a relatively low MW and, thus, a favorable drug loading capacity. Intragastric administration to rats resulted in the appearance in the bloodstream of the prodrug and of the products of its partial hydrolysis, confirming protection from first-pass metabolism during absorption.

  12. A unique highly hydrophobic anticancer prodrug self-assembled nanomedicine for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guolian; Jiang, Mengjuan; Xue, Peng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yongjun; Chen, Bo; He, Zhonggui

    2016-11-01

    In contrast with common thought, we generated highly hydrophobic anticancer prodrug self-assembled nanoparticles without the aid of surface active substances, based on the conjugation of docetaxel to d-α-tocopherol succinate. The reduction-sensitive prodrug was synthesized with a disulfide bond inserted into the linker and was compared with a control reduction-insensitive prodrug. The morphology and stability of self-assembled nanoparticles were investigated. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays showed that the reduction-sensitive nanoparticles had higher anticancer activity than the reduction-insensitive nanoparticles. The reduction-sensitive nanoparticles exhibited favorable in vivo antitumor activity and tolerance compared with docetaxel Tween80-containing formulation and the reduction-insensitive nanoparticles. Taken together, the unique nanomedicine demonstrated a number of advantages: (i) ease and reproducibility of preparation, (ii) high drug payload, (iii) superior stability, (iv) prolonged circulation, and (v) improved therapeutic effect. This highly reproducible molecular assembly strategy should motivate the development of new nanomedicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid delivery of diazepam from supersaturated solutions prepared using prodrug/enzyme mixtures: toward intranasal treatment of seizure emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Mamta; Winter, Tate; Lis, Lev; Georg, Gunda I; Siegel, Ronald A

    2014-05-01

    Current treatments for seizure emergencies, such as status epilepticus, include intravenous or rectal administration of benzodiazepines. While intranasal delivery of these drugs is desirable, the small volume of the nasal cavity and low drug solubility pose significant difficulties. Here, we prepared supersaturated diazepam solutions under physiological conditions and without precipitation, using a prodrug/enzyme system. Avizafone, a peptide prodrug of diazepam, was delivered with--Aspergillus oryzae (A.O.) protease, an enzyme identified from a pool of hydrolytic enzymes in assay buffer, pH 7.4 at 32°C. This enzyme converted avizafone to diazepam at supersaturated concentrations. In vitro permeability studies were performed at various prodrug/enzyme ratios using Madin-Darby canine kidney II-wild type (MDCKII-wt) monolayers, a representative model of the nasal epithelium. Monolayer integrity was examined using TEER measurement and the lucifer yellow permeability assay. Prodrug/drug concentrations were measured using HPLC. Enzyme kinetics with avizafone-protease mixtures revealed K(M) = 1,501 ± 232 μM and V(max) = 1,369 ± 94 μM/s. Prodrug-protease mixtures, when co-delivered apically onto MDCKII-wt monolayers, showed 2-17.6-fold greater diazepam flux (S = 1.3-15.3) compared to near-saturated diazepam (S = 0.7). Data for prodrug conversion upstream (apical side) and drug permeability downstream (basolateral side) fitted reasonably well to a previously developed in vitro two compartment pharmacokinetic model. Avizafone-protease mixtures resulted in supersaturated diazepam in less than 5 min, with the rate and extent of supersaturation determined by the prodrug/enzyme ratio. Together, these results suggest that an intranasal avizafone-protease system may provide a rapid and alternative means of diazepam delivery.

  14. Anticancer activities of emetine prodrugs that are proteolytically activated by the prostate specific antigen (PSA) and evaluation of in vivo toxicity of emetine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboye, Emmanuel S; Rosen, Marc D; Bakare, Oladapo; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2017-12-15

    Emetine is a small molecule protein synthesis inhibitor that is toxic to all cell types and therefore suitable for complete killing of all types of heterogeneous cancer cells within a tumor. It becomes significantly inactive (non-toxic) when derivatized at its N-2' secondary amine. This provides a strategy for targeting emetine to cancerous tumor without killing normal cells. In this report, PSA activatable peptide prodrugs of emetine were synthesized. To overcome steric hindrances and enhance protease specific cleavage, a 2-stage prodrug activation process was needed to release emetine in cancer cells. In this 2-stage process, emetine prodrug intermediates are coupled to PSA peptide substrate (Ac-His-Ser-Ser-Lys-Leu-Gln) to obtain the full prodrug. Both prodrug intermediates 10 (Ala-Pro-PABC-Emetine) and 14 (Ser-Leu-PABC-Emetine) were evaluated for kinetics of hydrolysis to emetine and potency [Where PABC = p-aminobenzyloxycarbonyl]. While both intermediates quantitatively liberate emetine when incubated under appropriate conditions, upon coupling of PSA substrate to give the full prodrugs, only prodrug 16, the prodrug obtained from 14 was hydrolyzable by PSA. Cytotoxicity studies in PSA producing LNCaP and CWR22Rv1 confirm the activation of the prodrug by PSA with an IC 50 of 75 nM and 59 nM respectively. The cytotoxicity of 16 is significantly reduced in cell lines that do not produce PSA. Further, in vivo toxicity studies are done on these prodrugs and other derivatives of emetine. The results show the significance of conformational modulation in obtaining safe emetine prodrugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pegylated liposomal mitomycin C prodrug enhances tolerance of mitomycin C: a phase 1 study in advanced solid tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golan, Talia; Grenader, Tal; Ohana, Patricia; Amitay, Yasmine; Shmeeda, Hilary; La-Beck, Ninh M; Tahover, Esther; Berger, Raanan; Gabizon, Alberto A

    2015-01-01

    Mitomycin C (MMC) has potent cytotoxicity but cumulative toxicity limits widespread use. In animals, pegylated liposomal mitomycin C lipid-based prodrug (PL-MLP) was well tolerated and more effective than free MMC. We evaluated PL-MLP in patients with advanced cancer. Twenty-seven patients were treated in escalating dose cohorts of 0.5–3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.15–1.03 mg/kg MMC) every 4 weeks for up to 12 cycles, unless disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. Pharmacokinetics were assessed during cycles 1 and 3. Per protocol maximum tolerated dose was not reached at 3.5 mg/kg. However, prolonged thrombocytopenia developed after repeated doses of 3 mg/kg or cumulative doses of 10–12 mg/kg. Dose-related grade 3 or higher adverse events included fatigue, anemia, and decreased platelets. C max and AUC 0-∞ increased linearly over the dose range 0.5–2.0 mg/kg, and greater than linearly from 2.5 to 3.5 mg/kg; there were no significant differences in clearance of MLP between cycles 1 and 3. Median t 1/2 was 23 h among dose cohorts, with no trend by dose or cycle. One patient had a partial response. Stable disease was observed in 10 patients across all dose levels. PL-MLP has a long circulation time, was well tolerated, and can be administered to heavily pretreated patients at a single dose of 3.0 mg/kg and cumulative dose of 10–12 mg/kg before development of prolonged thrombocytopenia; this is nearly threefold the equivalent dose of MMC tolerated historically. This formulation may be active in a variety of tumor types and is better tolerated than free MMC

  16. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  17. A Prodrug Approach Involving In Situ Depot Formation to Achieve Localized and Sustained Action of Diclofenac After Joint Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Mette; Agårdh, Li; Larsen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Long-acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations for intra-articular injection might be effective in the management of joint pain and inflammation associated sports injuries and osteoarthritis. In this study, a prodrug-based delivery system was evaluated. The synthesized diclofenac...... ester prodrug, a weak base (pKa 7.52), has relatively high solubility at low pH (6.5 mg mL(-1) at pH 4) and much lower solubility at physiological pH (4.5 μg mL(-1) at pH 7.4) at 37°C. In biological media including 80% (v/v) human synovial fluid (SF), the prodrug was cleaved to diclofenac mediated...... cell model, a slightly acidic prodrug solution was added to the donor cell containing 80% SF resulting in a continuous appearance of diclofenac in the acceptor phase for more than 43 h after an initial lag period of 8 h. Detectable amounts of prodrug were found in the rat joint up to 8 days after knee...

  18. Enhanced Absorption and Growth Inhibition with Amino Acid Monoester Prodrugs of Floxuridine by Targeting hPEPT1 Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon L. Amidon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid monoester prodrugs of floxuridine was synthesized and evaluated for the improvement of oral bioavailability and the feasibility of target drug delivery via oligopeptide transporters. All floxuridine 5′-amino acid monoester prodrugs exhibited PEPT1 affinity, with inhibition coefficients of Gly-Sar uptake (IC50 ranging from 0.7 – 2.3 mM in Caco-2 and 2.0 – 4.8 mM in AsPC-1 cells, while that of floxuridine was 7.3 mM and 6.3 mM, respectively. Caco-2 membrane permeabilities of floxuridine prodrugs (1.01 – 5.31 x 10-6 cm/sec and floxuridine (0.48 x 10-6 cm/sec were much higher than that of 5-FU (0.038 x 10-6 cm/sec. MDCK cells stably transfected with the human oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (MDCK/hPEPT1 exhibited enhanced cell growth inhibition in the presence of the prodrugs. This prodrug strategy offers great potential, not only for increased drug absorption but also for improved tumor selectivity and drug efficacy.

  19. Enhanced absorption and growth inhibition with amino acid monoester prodrugs of floxuridine by targeting hPEPT1 transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Vig, Balvinder S; Sun, Jing; Landowski, Christopher P; Hilfinger, John M; Ramachandran, Chandrasekharan; Amidon, Gordon L

    2008-06-28

    A series of amino acid monoester prodrugs of floxuridine was synthesized and evaluated for the improvement of oral bioavailability and the feasibility of target drug delivery via oligopeptide transporters. All floxuridine 5'-amino acid monoester prodrugs exhibited PEPT1 affinity, with inhibition coefficients of Gly-Sar uptake (IC50) ranging from 0.7 - 2.3 mM in Caco-2 and 2.0 - 4.8 mM in AsPC-1 cells, while that of floxuridine was 7.3 mM and 6.3 mM, respectively. Caco-2 membrane permeabilities of floxuridine prodrugs (1.01 - 5.31 x 10(-6 )cm/sec) and floxuridine (0.48 x 10(-6 )cm/sec) were much higher than that of 5-FU (0.038 x 10(-6) cm/sec). MDCK cells stably transfected with the human oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (MDCK/hPEPT1) exhibited enhanced cell growth inhibition in the presence of the prodrugs. This prodrug strategy offers great potential, not only for increased drug absorption but also for improved tumor selectivity and drug efficacy.

  20. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Brain-Targeted Thiamine Disulfide Prodrugs of Ampakine Compound LCX001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ampakine compounds have been shown to reverse opiate-induced respiratory depression by activation of amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA glutamate receptors. However, their pharmacological exploitations are hindered by low blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability and limited brain distribution. Here, we explored whether thiamine disulfide prodrugs with the ability of “lock-in” can be used to solve these problems. A series of thiamine disulfide prodrugs 7a–7f of ampakine compound LCX001 was synthesized and evaluated. The trials in vitro showed that prodrugs 7e, 7d, 7f possessed a certain stability in plasma and quickly decomposed in brain homogenate by the disulfide reductase. In vivo, prodrug 7e decreased the peripheral distribution of LCX001 and significantly increased brain distribution of LCX001 after i.v. administration. This compound showed 2.23- and 3.29-fold greater increases in the AUC0-t and MRT0-t of LCX001 in brain, respectively, than did LCX001 itself. A preliminary pharmacodynamic study indicated that the required molar dose of prodrug 7e was only one eighth that of LCX001 required to achieve the same effect in mice. These findings provide an important reference to evaluate the clinical outlook of ampakine compounds.

  1. A NEW APPLICATION FOR LIPOSOMES IN CANCER-THERAPY - IMMUNOLIPOSOMES BEARING ENZYMES (IMMUNO-ENZYMOSOMES) FOR SITE-SPECIFIC ACTIVATION OF PRODRUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VINGERHOEDS, MH; Haisma, Hidde; VANMUIJEN, M; VANDERIJT, RBJ; CROMMELIN, DJA; STORM, G

    1993-01-01

    We have tested a new type of immunoliposomes which may effectively mediate the targeting of enzymes to be used for site-specific prodrug activation (immuno-enzymosomes). The enzyme beta-glucuronidase, capable of activating the prodrug epirubicin-glucuronide (epi-glu), was coupled to the external

  2. Construction and characterization of a fusion protein of single-chain anti-CD20 antibody and human beta-glucuronidase for antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, HJ; Sernee, MF; Hooijberg, E; Brakenhoff, RH; van den Meulen-Mulleman, IH; Pinedo, HM; Boven, E

    1998-01-01

    The CD20 antigen is an attractive target for specific treatment of B-cell lymphoma. Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) aims at the specific activation of a nontoxic prodrug at the tumor site by an enzyme targeted by a tumor-specific antibody such as anti-CD20. We constructed a fusion

  3. A Smart Europium-Ruthenium Complex as Anticancer Prodrug: Controllable Drug Release and Real-Time Monitoring under Different Light Excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongguang; Xie, Chen; Lan, Rongfeng; Zha, Shuai; Chan, Chi-Fai; Wong, Wing-Yan; Ho, Ka-Lok; Chan, Brandon Dow; Luo, Yuxia; Zhang, Jing-Xiang; Law, Ga-Lai; Tai, William C S; Bünzli, Jean-Claude G; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2017-11-09

    A unique, dual-function, photoactivatable anticancer prodrug, RuEuL, has been tailored that features a ruthenium(II) complex linked to a cyclen-europium chelate via a π-conjugated bridge. Under irradiation at 488 nm, the dark-inactive prodrug undergoes photodissociation, releasing the DNA-damaging ruthenium species. Under evaluation-window irradiation (λ irr = one-photon 350 nm or two-photon 700 nm), the drug delivery process can be quantitatively monitored in real-time because of the long-lived red europium emission. Linear relationships between released drug concentration and ESI-MS or luminescence responses are established. Finally, the efficiency of the new prodrug is demonstrated both in vitro RuEuL anticancer prodrug over some existing ones and open the way for decisive improvements in multipurpose prodrugs.

  4. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  5. The role of bystander effects in the antitumor activity of the hypoxia-activated prodrug PR-104

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eFoehrenbacher

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation of prodrugs in tumors (e.g. by bioreduction in hypoxic zones has the potential to generate active metabolites that can diffuse within the tumor microenvironment. Such ‘bystander effects’ may offset spatial heterogeneity in prodrug activation but the relative importance of this effect is not understood. Here, we quantify the contribution of bystander effects to antitumor activity for the first time, by developing a spatially resolved pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (SR-PK/PD model for PR-104, a phosphate ester pre-prodrug that is converted systemically to the hypoxia-activated prodrug PR-104A. Using Green’s function methods we calculated concentrations of oxygen, PR-104A and its active metabolites, and resultant cell killing, at each point of a mapped three-dimensional tumor microregion. Model parameters were determined in vitro, using single cell suspensions to determine relationships between PR-104A metabolism and clonogenic cell killing, and multicellular layer cultures to measure tissue diffusion coefficients. LC-MS/MS detection of active metabolites in the extracellular medium following exposure of anoxic single cell and multicellular layers to PR-104A confirmed that metabolites can diffuse out of cells and through a tissue-like environment. The SR-PK/PD model estimated that bystander effects contribute 30% and 50% of PR-104 activity in SiHa and HCT116 tumors, respectively. Testing the model by modulating PR-104A-activating reductases and hypoxia in tumor xenografts showed overall clonogenic killing broadly consistent with model predictions. Overall, our data suggest that bystander effects are important in PR-104 antitumor activity, although their reach may be limited by macroregional heterogeneity in hypoxia and reductase expression in tumors. The reported computational and experimental techniques are broadly applicable to all targeted anticancer prodrugs and could be used to identify strategies for rational prodrug

  6. The Role of Bystander Effects in the Antitumor Activity of the Hypoxia-Activated Prodrug PR-104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foehrenbacher, Annika; Patel, Kashyap; Abbattista, Maria R.; Guise, Chris P.; Secomb, Timothy W.; Wilson, William R.; Hicks, Kevin O.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of prodrugs in tumors (e.g., by bioreduction in hypoxic zones) has the potential to generate active metabolites that can diffuse within the tumor microenvironment. Such “bystander effects” may offset spatial heterogeneity in prodrug activation but the relative importance of this effect is not understood. Here, we quantify the contribution of bystander effects to antitumor activity for the first time, by developing a spatially resolved pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (SR-PK/PD) model for PR-104, a phosphate ester pre-prodrug that is converted systemically to the hypoxia-activated prodrug PR-104A. Using Green’s function methods we calculated concentrations of oxygen, PR-104A and its active metabolites, and resultant cell killing, at each point of a mapped three-dimensional tumor microregion. Model parameters were determined in vitro, using single cell suspensions to determine relationships between PR-104A metabolism and clonogenic cell killing, and multicellular layer (MCL) cultures to measure tissue diffusion coefficients. LC-MS/MS detection of active metabolites in the extracellular medium following exposure of anoxic single cell suspensions and MCLs to PR-104A confirmed that metabolites can diffuse out of cells and through a tissue-like environment. The SR-PK/PD model estimated that bystander effects contribute 30 and 50% of PR-104 activity in SiHa and HCT116 tumors, respectively. Testing the model by modulating PR-104A-activating reductases and hypoxia in tumor xenografts showed overall clonogenic killing broadly consistent with model predictions. Overall, our data suggest that bystander effects are important in PR-104 antitumor activity, although their reach may be limited by macroregional heterogeneity in hypoxia and reductase expression in tumors. The reported computational and experimental techniques are broadly applicable to all targeted anticancer prodrugs and could be used to identify strategies for rational prodrug optimization. PMID

  7. Pulse radiolysis studies on the release of cytotoxins from electron affinic anticancer prodrugs following their one-electron reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.F.; Ware, D.C.; Denny, W.A.; Lee, H.; Tercel, M.; Wilson, W.R. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand)

    1996-12-31

    New approaches to killing chemoresistant and radioresistant hypoxic cells of solid tumours include the selective release of potent cytotoxins from relatively non-toxic prodrugs through reductive metabolism and/or radiolytic reduction. Central to these studies, is an understanding of the mechanism of cytotoxin release and the basis of hypoxia-selectivity, since such information can be used to design compounds of high potency against solid tumours. Pulse radiolysis studies can offer unique insights into these underlying mechanisms in aqueous solution through the determination of thermodynamic one-electron reduction potentials of the prodrugs, rate constants for the formation and spectral charaterization of one-electron reduced prodrugs, the kinetics release of the cytotoxins from one-electron reduced prodrugs and the influence of molecular oxygen on the obligate radical intermediates. A series of different triggers, which are found to vary greatly in the rate constant for release of the effectors upon one-electron reduction of the prodrugs, will be discussed. Release of effector from a prodrug does not solely depend upon the type of trigger but can also be dependent on the type of linker and released effector. For example, whereas fast quantitative release of the mustard effector mechlorethamine is seen from the quaternary nitroimidazole upon one electron reduction, release of N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl] acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA), requires a higher level of reduction of the same trigger. Release of cytotoxic ligands from metal complexes requires that the metal centre is reduced. When the metal centre is lower than DACA bound as a ligand, reduction is seen to occur solely on the ligand without release from the metal centre. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  8. Circumvention of P-gp and MRP2 mediated efflux of lopinavir by a histidine based dipeptide prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhirup; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2016-10-15

    This study was aimed to develop a novel Histidine-Leucine-Lopinavir (His-Leu-LPV) dipeptide prodrug and evaluate its potential for circumvention of P-gp and MRP2-mediated efflux of lopinavir (LPV) indicated for HIV-1 infection. His-Leu-LPV was synthesized following esterification of hydroxyl group of LPV and was identified by (1)H NMR and LCMS/MS techniques. Aqueous solubility, stability and cell cytotoxicity of prodrug was determined. Uptake and permeability studies were carried out using P-gp (MDCK-MDR1) and MRP2 (MDCK-MRP2) transfected cell lines. To further delineate prodrug uptake, prodrug interaction with influx transporters (PepT1 and PHT1) was determined. Enzymatic hydrolysis and reconversion of His-Leu-LPV to LPV was examined using Caco-2 cell homogenates. Aqueous solubility generated by the prodrug was markedly higher relative to unmodified LPV. Importantly, His-Leu-LPV displayed significantly lower affinity towards P-gp and MRP2 as evident from higher uptake and transport rates. [3H]-GlySar and [3H]-l-His uptake receded to approximately 30% in the presence of His-Leu-LPV supporting the PepT1/PHT1 mediated uptake process. A steady regeneration of LPV and Leu-LPV in Caco-2 cell homogenates indicated His-Leu-LPV undergoes both esterase and peptidase-mediated hydrolysis. Histidine based dipeptide prodrug approach can be an alternative strategy to improve LPV absorption across poorly permeable intestinal barrier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Poly(HEMA-Zidovudine) conjugate: a macromolecular pro-drug for improvement in the biopharmaceutical properties of the drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeraj, Agrawal; Chandrasekar, M J N; Sara, U V S; Rohini, A

    2011-05-01

    A macromolecular pro-drug of a known anti-viral agent Zidovudine (AZT) was synthesized and evaluated as a sustained drug delivery system. The pro-drug was synthesized by coupling the drug to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) through a succinic spacer to get a monomeric drug conjugate which was polymerized to obtain the polymeric pro-drug. The pro-drug was subjected for in-vitro drug release study in buffers of pH 1.2 and 7.4. The hydrolytic stability of the pro-drug to pepsin was assessed in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2) and to α-chymotrypsin in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 7.4). The results showed that the drug release from the polymeric backbone takes place in a sustained manner over a period of 24 h, and the amount of drug released was comparatively higher at pH 7.4. Plasmatic hydrolysis studies of succinylzidovudine showed nearly complete release of AZT. At all pH conditions in the presence and absence of α-chymotrypsin, AZT was released preferentially in comparison with the succinyl derivative. The in-vivo release studies in rabbits after oral administration of AZT conjugate demonstrated a sustained release of parent drug over a period of 24 h. The pro-drug provided a significant increase in the area under the plasma concentration time curve as compared to free drug and extended the plasma half-life from 1.06 h to 8.08 h. This study suggested that, after oral administration, the drug-polymer conjugate can release AZT for prolonged periods, thus improving the pharmacokinetics of AZT and decreasing the fluctuation in plasma drug levels that can lead to toxicity.

  10. The Design and Evaluation of an l-Dopa–Lazabemide Prodrug for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Hoon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available l-Dopa, the metabolic precursor of dopamine, is the treatment of choice for the symptomatic relief of the advanced stages of Parkinson’s disease. The oral bioavailability of l-dopa, however, is only about 10% to 30%, and less than 1% of the oral dose is estimated to reach the brain unchanged. l-Dopa’s physicochemical properties are responsible for its poor bioavailability, short half-life and the wide range of inter- and intrapatient variations of plasma levels. An l-dopa–lazabemide prodrug is proposed to overcome the problems associated with l-dopa absorption. Lazabemide is a monoamine oxidase (MAO-B inhibitor, a class of compounds that slows the depletion of dopamine stores in Parkinson’s disease and elevates dopamine levels produced by exogenously administered l-dopa. l-Dopa was linked at the carboxylate with the primary aminyl functional group of lazabemide via an amide, a strategy which is anticipated to protect l-dopa against peripheral decarboxylation and possibly also enhance the membrane permeability of the prodrug. Selected physicochemical and biochemical properties of the prodrug were determined and included lipophilicity (logD, solubility, passive diffusion permeability, pKa, chemical and metabolic stability as well as cytotoxicity. Although oral and i.p. treatment of mice with the prodrug did not result in enhanced striatal dopamine levels, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC levels were significantly depressed compared to saline, l-dopa and carbidopa/l-dopa treatment. Based on the results, further preclinical evaluation of the l-dopa–lazabemide prodrug should be undertaken with the aim of discovering prodrugs that may be advanced to the clinical stages of development.

  11. Telomerase activated thymidine analogue pro-drug is a new molecule targeting hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarocchi, Mirko; Polvani, Simone; Peired, Anna Julie; Marroncini, Giada; Calamante, Massimo; Ceni, Elisabetta; Rhodes, Daniela; Mello, Tommaso; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Quattrone, Alessandro; Luchinat, Claudio; Galli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although hepatectomy and transplantation have significantly improved survival, there is no effective chemotherapeutic treatment for HCC and its prognosis remains poor. Sustained activation of telomerase is essential for the growth and progression of HCC, suggesting that telomerase is a rational target for HCC therapy. Therefore, we developed a thymidine analogue pro-drug, acycloguanosyl-5′-thymidyltriphosphate (ACV-TP-T), which is specifically activated by telomerase in HCC cells and investigated its anti-tumour efficacy. Methods First, we verified in vitro whether ACV-TP-T was a telomerase substrate. Second, we evaluated proliferation and apoptosis in murine (Hepa1-6) and human (Hep3B, HuH7, HepG2) hepatic cancer cells treated with ACV-TP-T. Next, we tested the in vivo treatment efficacy in HBV transgenic mice that spontaneously develop hepatic tumours, and in a syngeneic orthotopic murine model where HCC cells were implanted directly in the liver. Results In vitro characterization provided direct evidence that the pro-drug was actively metabolized in liver cancer cells by telomerase to release the active form of acyclovir. Alterations in cell cycle and apoptosis were observed following in vitro treatment with ACV-TP-T. In the transgenic and orthotopic mouse models, treatment with ACV-TP-T reduced tumour growth, increased apoptosis, and reduced the proliferation of tumour cells. Conclusions ACV-TP-T is activated by telomerase in HCC cells and releases active acyclovir that reduces proliferation and induces apoptosis in human and murine liver cancer cells. This pro-drug holds a great promise for the treatment of HCC. PMID:24862448

  12. The alkylating prodrug J1 can be activated by aminopeptidase N, leading to a possible target directed release of melphalan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickström, Malin; Viktorsson, Kristina; Lundholm, Lovisa

    2010-01-01

    The alkylating prodrug of melphalan, J1 (melphalanyl-l-p-fluorophenylalanyl ethyl ester) is currently in early clinical trials. Preclinical studies have shown that J1-mediated cytotoxicity is dependent on hydrolytic activity of tumor cells. In this report we have analyzed potential peptidases...... and apoptotic signaling. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a role of APN in the activation of the melphalan prodrug J1 and subsequently, its cytotoxicity. Given that APN is shown to be overexpressed in several solid tumors our data suggest that J1 may be activated in a tumor selective manner....

  13. A comparison of the effects of two putative 5-hydroxytryptamine renal prodrugs in normal man.

    OpenAIRE

    Li Kam Wa, T C; Freestone, S; Samson, R R; Johnston, N R; Lee, M R

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of 1 h intravenous infusions of equimolar amounts of two putative 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) renal prodrugs, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP, 10 micrograms kg-1 min-1) and gamma-L-glutamyl-5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (glu-5-HTP, 16.6 micrograms kg-1 min-1) were examined in five healthy male volunteers in a randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. 2. Both compounds increased urinary excretion of 5-HT and there was greater extra-renal formation of 5-HT following 5-HTP administr...

  14. Lipases as Tools in the Synthesis of Prodrugs from Racemic 9-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyladenine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Krečmerová

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipases from Geotrichum candidum 4013 (extracellular lipase and cell-bound lipase were immobilized by adsorption on chitosan beads. The enzyme preparations were tested in the synthesis of ester prodrugs from racemic 9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyladenine in dimethylformamide with different vinyl esters (acetate, butyrate, decanoate, laurate, palmitate. The transesterification activities of these immobilized enzymes were compared with commercially available lipases (lipase from hog pancreas, Aspergillus niger, Candida antarctica, Pseudomonas fluorescens. Lipase from Candida antarctica was found to be the most efficient enzyme regarding chemical yield of the desired products, while transesterification by lipase from Aspergillus niger resulted in lower yields.

  15. [Application of phosphates and phosphonates prodrugs in drug research and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xun; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Lin-Xiang; Jiang, Hua-Liang; Liu, Hong

    2013-05-01

    Based on the character of the molecular structure, the prodrugs of phosphates and phosphonates were divided into two categories. The first is the drug which contained the phosphate group, introducing protected groups to increase lipophilicity and improve bioavailability. The other one is the drug which had no phosphate group, introducing the phosphate group into molecules to enhance the solubility, regulate the distribution coefficient and enhance the drug-like property. This review focuses on the application of phosphates and phosphonates in drug research and development based on improvement of physico-chemical property, drug safety and the pharmacokinetics.

  16. Spatiotemporal Control of Doxorubicin Delivery from “Stealth-Like” Prodrug Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Li; Schneider, Gregory F.; Campbell, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    In the treatment of cancer, targeting of anticancer drugs to the tumor microenvironment is highly desirable. Not only does this imply accurate tumor targeting but also minimal drug release en route to the tumor and maximal drug release once there. Here we describe high-loading, “stealth-like” doxorubicin micelles as a pro-drug delivery system, which upon light activation, leads to burst-like doxorbicin release. Through this approach, we show precise spatiotemporal control of doxorubicin delivery to cells in vitro. PMID:28937592

  17. Stability and in vitro metabolism of dipeptide model prodrugs with affinity for the oligopeptide transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepist, E I; Kusk, T; Larsen, D H

    2000-01-01

    into the blood circulation and/or by its site of action. In these kinds of prodrugs the ester linkage may be broken by pH dependent and/or enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the degradation mechanism and rate of the model compounds Glu(OBzl)-Sar, D......-Glu(OBzl)-Ala and Asp(OBzl)-Sar in aqueous solution and in relevant biological media and to compare these results with those of our previous study of D-Asp(OBzl)-Ala. Furthermore, the resulting aqueous stability and in vitro metabolism data are related to our previous affinity data to evaluate if Glu-Sar, D......-Glu-Ala, and Asp-Sar have potential as pro-moieties in these kinds of prodrugs. The degradation rates follow first-order kinetics, show maximun stability at pH 4-5 with maximum half-lives for Asp(OBzl)-Sar, Glu(OBzl)-Sar, and D-Glu(OBzl)-Ala of 115 h, 30 days and 152 days, respectively. The stability was dependent...

  18. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the novel antibacterial prodrug tedizolid phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Voon; Flanagan, Shawn; Fang, Edward; Dreskin, Howard J; Locke, Jeffrey B; Bartizal, Kenneth; Prokocimer, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a novel antibacterial prodrug with potent activity against Gram-positive pathogens. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the prodrug is rapidly converted by nonspecific phosphatases to the biologically active moiety tedizolid. Single oral dose radiolabeled (14)C-tedizolid phosphate kinetic studies in human subjects (100 µCi in 204 mg tedizolid phosphate free acid) confirmed a rapid time to maximum tedizolid concentration (Tmax, 1.28 hours), a long terminal half-life (10.6 hours), and a Cmax of 1.99 µg/ml. Metabolite analysis of plasma, fecal, and urine samples from rats, dogs, and humans confirmed that tedizolid is the only measurable metabolite in plasma after intravenous (in animals only) or oral administration and that tedizolid sulfate is the major metabolite excreted from the body. Excellent mass balance recovery was achieved and demonstrated that fecal excretion is the predominant (80-90%) route of elimination across species, primarily as tedizolid sulfate. Urine excretion accounted for the balance of drug elimination but contained a broader range of minor metabolites. Glucuronidation products were not detected. Similar results were observed in rats and dogs after both intravenous and oral administration. The tedizolid metabolites showed less potent antibacterial activity than tedizolid. The observations from these studies support once daily dosing of tedizolid phosphate and highlight important metabolism and excretion features that differentiate tedizolid phosphate from linezolid. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Tumor cell-specific prodrugs using arsonic acid-presenting iron oxide nanoparticles with high sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minehara, Hiroki; Narita, Asako; Naka, Kensuke; Tanaka, Kazuo; Chujo, Moeko; Nagao, Masaya; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2012-08-01

    We report the tumor cell-selective prodrugs based on the arsonic acid-presenting iron oxide nanoparticles. We synthesized the well-dispersed nanoparticles having arsonoacetic acid which is composed of the low toxic As(V) form. From the analyses of the reaction products, it is suggested that the reduction by dithiothreitol with arsonoacetic acid and the modified nanoparticles could generate the highly-toxic As(III) species. In the MTT assays, it was found that the cell viabilities of HeLaS3 and especially HepG2 were reduced in the presence of the modified nanoparticles. In contrast, a slight effect on viability was observed with primary mouse hepatocytes. The viabilities showed good agreements with the amounts of intracellular reduced glutathione concentrations. Furthermore, the valid concentrations of the modified nanoparticles for tumor-specific cytotoxicity were similar level in MRI measurements. These results indicate that arsonic acid-presenting nanoparticles should be a good platform for developing highly-sensitive tumor-specific prodrugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia induced cytosine deaminase expression in microencapsulated E. coli for enzyme-prodrug therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, Krishnamurthy V.; Ennis, Riley C.; Griswold, Karl E.; Gimi, Barjor

    2015-01-01

    Engineered bacterial cells that are designed to express therapeutic enzymes under the transcriptional control of remotely inducible promoters can mediate the de novo conversion of non-toxic prodrugs to their cytotoxic forms. In situ cellular expression of enzymes provides increased stability and control of enzyme activity as compared to isolated enzymes. We have engineered Escherichia coli (E. coli), designed to express cytosine deaminase at elevated temperatures, under the transcriptional control of thermo-regulatory λpL-cI857 promoter cassette which provides a thermal switch to trigger enzyme synthesis. Enhanced cytosine deaminase expression was observed in cultures incubated at 42 °C as compared to 30 °C, and enzyme expression was further substantiated by spectrophotometric assays indicating enhanced conversion of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil. The engineered cells were subsequently co-encapsulated with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in immunoprotective alginate microcapsules, and cytosine deaminase expression was triggered remotely by alternating magnetic field-induced hyperthermia. The combination of 5-fluorocytosine with AMF-activated microcapsules demonstrated tumor cell cytotoxicity comparable to direct treatment with 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Such enzyme-prodrug therapy, based on engineered and immunoisolated E. coli, may ultimately yield an improved therapeutic index relative to monotherapy, as AMF mediated hyperthermia might be expected to pre-sensitize tumors to chemotherapy under appropriate conditions. PMID:25820125

  1. Identification of P450 Oxidoreductase as a Major Determinant of Sensitivity to Hypoxia-Activated Prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Francis W; Young, Richard J; Shalev, Zvi; Vellanki, Ravi N; Wang, Jingli; Gu, Yongchuan; Joshi, Naveen; Sreebhavan, Sreevalsan; Weinreb, Ilan; Goldstein, David P; Moffat, Jason; Ketela, Troy; Brown, Kevin R; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Solomon, Benjamin; Rischin, Danny; Wilson, William R; Wouters, Bradly G

    2015-10-01

    Hypoxia is a prevalent feature of many tumors contributing to disease progression and treatment resistance, and therefore constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. Several hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) have been developed, including the phase III candidate TH-302 (evofosfamide) and the preclinical agent SN30000, which is an optimized analogue of the well-studied HAP tirapazamine. Experience with this therapeutic class highlights an urgent need to identify biomarkers of HAP sensitivity, including enzymes responsible for prodrug activation during hypoxia. Using genome-scale shRNA screens and a high-representation library enriched for oxidoreductases, we identified the flavoprotein P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR) as the predominant determinant of sensitivity to SN30000 in three different genetic backgrounds. No other genes consistently modified SN30000 sensitivity, even within a POR-negative background. Knockdown or genetic knockout of POR reduced SN30000 reductive metabolism and clonogenic cell death and similarly reduced sensitivity to TH-302 under hypoxia. A retrospective evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas showed heterogeneous POR expression and suggested a possible relationship between human papillomavirus status and HAP sensitivity. Taken together, our study identifies POR as a potential predictive biomarker of HAP sensitivity that should be explored during the clinical development of SN30000, TH-302, and other hypoxia-directed agents. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Anti-HIV therapy with AZT prodrugs: AZT phosphonate derivatives, current state and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandazhinskaya, Anastasiya; Matyugina, Elena; Shirokova, Elena

    2010-06-01

    AIDS, a disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus, was called 'plague of the twentieth century'. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), the first compound approved for the treatment of HIV, is still a mandatory component of treatment schemes. However, its toxicity stimulated a search for new agents. This review presents the history and current state of the design of AZT prodrugs based on its phosphonate derivatives. Although every effort was made to include as many AZT structures bearing phosphonate residues and demonstrate the variety they offer, we also concentrated on the studies performed in our laboratory. Special attention was also paid to AZT 5'-H-phosphonate (phosphazide, Nikavir) approved in the Russian Federation as a drug for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. The prodrug strategy applied to AZT phosphonate derivatives enriched chemistry, biology and medicine not only with new knowledge, methods and structures, but also with a new anti-HIV drug Nikavir. Currently, study of another phosphonate, AZT 5'-aminocarbonylphosphonate, is underway. Slow release of AZT following oral administration and penetration into cells, decreased toxicity and the lack of cumulative properties make the compounds of this group promising as extended-release forms of AZT.

  3. Prodrug for bioreductive activation-independent delivery of menahydroquinone-4: human liver enzymatic activation and its action in warfarin-poisoned human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, J; Karube, Y; Hanada, M; Matsunaga, K; Iwasaki, H

    1999-02-01

    The N,N-dimethylglycine esters of menahydroquinone-4 (1-mono, 1; 4-mono, 2; 1,4-bis, 3) were established in previous reports as prodrugs that could achieve the systemic bioreductive activation-independent delivery of menahydroquinone-4 (MKH), the active form of menaquinone-4 (MK-4), in rat. The present study was undertaken to investigate if the prodrugs could undergo cleavage to parent drug (MKH) by a human tissues enzyme catalyzed hydrolytic pathway, the mechanism of the prodrugs for vitamin K-dependent carboxylation in human liver and their action in the warfarin poisoned human liver. The hydrolysis of the esters was shown to be catalyzed by esterases located in human liver but not in human plasma. The susceptibility of the esters to undergo human liver esterase hydrolysis was affected by the esterified position: 1>2>3. By using a human liver microsomal test system, the stimulation of vitamin K-dependent carboxylation with the prodrugs was determined. The prodrug could stimulate the carboxylation activity in the absence of dithiothreitol, an artificial activator of the reductive activation pathway of MK-4. The carboxylation activity of the prodrug was strongly inhibited in the presence of eserine, an esterase inhibitor. The prodrug could also stimulate the carboxylase under warfarin-poisoned conditions, where the vitamin K cycle was strongly inhibited. The results confirmed that the prodrug could generate MKH in human liver (active site), and that the resultant MKH could act as a cofactor for the carboxylase without reductive activation processes of MK-4 to MKH. Such bioreductive activation-independent vitamin K-dependent carboxylation characteristic of the prodrug leads to enhanced pharmacological efficacy in the treatment of hypoprothrombinaemia induced in patients with coumarin and cephalosporin therapies.

  4. Smart activatable and traceable dual-prodrug for image-guided combination photodynamic and chemo-therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fang; Yuan, Youyong; Mao, Duo; Wu, Wenbo; Liu, Bin

    2017-11-01

    Activatable photosensitizers (PSs) and chemo-prodrugs are highly desirable for anti-cancer therapy to reduce systemic toxicity. However, it is difficult to integrate both together into a molecular probe for combination therapy due to the complexity of introducing PS, singlet oxygen quencher, chemo-drug, chemo-drug inhibitor and active linker at the same time. To realize activatable PS and chemo-prodrug combination therapy, we develop a smart therapeutic platform in which the chemo-prodrug serves as the singlet oxygen quencher for the PS. Specifically, the photosensitizing activity and fluorescence of the PS (TPEPY-SH) are blocked by the chemo-prodrug (Mitomycin C, MMC) in the probe. Meanwhile, the cytotoxicity of MMC is also inhibited by the electron-withdrawing acyl at the nitrogen position next to the linker. Upon glutathione activation, TPEPY-S-MMC can simultaneously release active PS and MMC for combination therapy. The restored fluorescence of TPEPY-SH is also used to report the activation for both PS and MMC as well as to guide the photodynamic therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and biological properties of prodrugs of (S)-3-(adenin-9-yl)-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propanoic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaiser, Martin Maxmilian; Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Dračínský, Martin; Lee, Y. J.; Tian, Y.; Janeba, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 108, Jan 27 (2016), s. 374-380 ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * (S)-CPMEA * antiviral * HCV * prodrugs Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.519, year: 2016

  6. Utilization of peptide carrier system to improve intestinal absorption: targeting prolidase as a prodrug-converting enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, J. P.; Hu, M.; Subramanian, P.; Mosberg, H. I.; Amidon, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of targeting prolidase as a peptide prodrug-converting enzyme has been examined. The enzymatic hydrolysis by prolidase of substrates for the peptide transporter L-alpha-methyldopa-pro and several dipeptide analogues without an N-terminal alpha-amino group (phenylpropionylproline, phenylacetylproline, N-benzoylproline, and N-acetylproline) was investigated. The Michaelis-Menten parameters Km and Vmax for L-alpha-methyldopa-pro are 0.09 +/- 0.02 mM and 3.98 +/- 0.25 mumol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, no hydrolysis of the dipeptide analogues without an N-terminal alpha-amino group is observed, suggesting that an N-terminal alpha-amino group is required for prolidase activity. These results demonstrate that prolidase may serve as a prodrug-converting enzyme for the dipeptide-type prodrugs, utilizing the peptide carrier for transport of prodrugs into the mucosal cells and prolidase, a cytosolic enzyme, to release the drug. However, a free alpha-amino group appears to be necessary for prolidase hydrolysis.

  7. Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): formulation design and optimization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J; Zhang, Yong; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Jay, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone.

  8. Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): Formulation design and optimization studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; Zhang, Yong; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Jay, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion.. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone. PMID:24047113

  9. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy Using Rabbit Cytochrome P450 4B1 in Murine Colon Adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Joo; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Kyeong Min; Woo, Kwang Sun; Chung, Wee Sup; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The conventional cancer therapy is chemotherapy, surgical resection and/or radiotherapy. Chemotherapy using cytotoxic drug has some problems with lack of tumor selectivity resulting in toxicity to normal tissues. To enhance the tumor selectivity of cytotoxic drug, the application of suicidal gene therapy technology was designed. Suicidal gene therapy is based on the expression in tumor cells of a gene encoding an enzyme that converts a non-toxic prodrug into a cytotoxic product. Representative suicidal genes are Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1- tk) and cytosine deaminase (cd). Recently, a new prodrug-converting enzyme based on rabbit cytochrome P450 4B1 gene (cyp4B1) has been reported for therapy of experimental brain tumor. This enzyme activates the prodrugs such as 4-ipomeanol (4-IM) and 2- aminoanthracene (2-AA) to highly reactive furane epoxide and unsaturated dialdehyde intermediate, respectively. DNA alkylation seems to be the main mechanism of cytotoxicity of these activated drugs. In this study, we isolated cyp4B1 cDNA from rabbit lung, transduced cyp4B1 expression vector into murine colon cancer cell, and then analyzed the cytotoxic properties of cyp4b1-activated 2-AA in cyp4B1 transduced cells to verify the cyp4B1 enzyme system for gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy.

  10. Gene Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy Using Rabbit Cytochrome P450 4B1 in Murine Colon Adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Joo; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Kyeong Min; Woo, Kwang Sun; Chung, Wee Sup; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2007-01-01

    The conventional cancer therapy is chemotherapy, surgical resection and/or radiotherapy. Chemotherapy using cytotoxic drug has some problems with lack of tumor selectivity resulting in toxicity to normal tissues. To enhance the tumor selectivity of cytotoxic drug, the application of suicidal gene therapy technology was designed. Suicidal gene therapy is based on the expression in tumor cells of a gene encoding an enzyme that converts a non-toxic prodrug into a cytotoxic product. Representative suicidal genes are Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1- tk) and cytosine deaminase (cd). Recently, a new prodrug-converting enzyme based on rabbit cytochrome P450 4B1 gene (cyp4B1) has been reported for therapy of experimental brain tumor. This enzyme activates the prodrugs such as 4-ipomeanol (4-IM) and 2- aminoanthracene (2-AA) to highly reactive furane epoxide and unsaturated dialdehyde intermediate, respectively. DNA alkylation seems to be the main mechanism of cytotoxicity of these activated drugs. In this study, we isolated cyp4B1 cDNA from rabbit lung, transduced cyp4B1 expression vector into murine colon cancer cell, and then analyzed the cytotoxic properties of cyp4b1-activated 2-AA in cyp4B1 transduced cells to verify the cyp4B1 enzyme system for gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy

  11. Enhanced Brain Delivery of 2-(Phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic Acid Following Intranasal Administration of Its gamma-Substituted Ester Prodrugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedelcovych, M.; Dash, R. P.; Tenora, Lukáš; Zimmermann, S. C.; Gadiano, A. J.; Garrett, C.; Alt, J.; Hollinger, K. R.; Pommier, E.; Jančařík, Andrej; Rojas, C.; Thomas, A. G.; Wu, Y.; Wozniak, K.; Majer, Pavel; Slusher, B. S.; Rais, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 10 (2017), s. 3248-3257 ISSN 1543-8384 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 2-PMPA * glutamate carboxypeptidase II * neurological disease * intranasal * pharmacokinetics * prodrugs Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 4.440, year: 2016

  12. Determination of dopaminergic prodrugs by high-performance liquid chromatography followed by post-column ion-pair extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, M; Moolenaar, Frits; Kluppel, A.C A; Dijkstra, D.; Meijer, D.K F; de Zeeuw, D

    1997-01-01

    One possibility to optimize the therapeutic application of dopaminergic compounds with a catechol function is the reversible protection of this moiety using a prodrug approach. Important features in this respect are a proper chemical stability in the gastrointestinal tract, an adequate release rate

  13. Synthesis and Properties of a New Water-Soluble Prodrug of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonist MSX-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa E. Müller

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The compound L-valine-3-{8-[(E-2-[3-methoxyphenylethenyl]-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine-3-yl}propyl ester hydrochloride (MSX-4 was synthesized as an aminoacid ester prodrug of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-2. It was found to bestable in artificial gastric acid, but readily cleaved by pig liver esterase.

  14. Lipases as Tools in the Synthesis of Prodrugs from Racemic 9-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl)adenine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabcová, Jana; Blažek, Jiří; Janská, Lucie; Krečmerová, Marcela; Zarevúcka, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 12 (2012), s. 13813-13824 ISSN 1420-3049 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200551203 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : lipase * transesterification * prodrug * immobilization of enzymes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.428, year: 2012

  15. Model prodrugs designed for the intestinal peptide transporter. A synthetic approach for coupling of hydroxy-containing compounds to dipeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, G M; Nielsen, C U; Steffansen, B

    2001-01-01

    The human peptide transporter, hPepT1, situated in the small intestine, may be exploited to increase absorption of drugs or model drugs by attaching them to a dipeptide, which is recognised by hPepT1. A synthetic protocol for this kind of model prodrugs was developed, in which model drugs...

  16. Amidate Prodrugs of 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)Ethyl]Adenine as Inhibitors of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin from Bordetella pertussis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídková, Markéta; Dvořáková, Alexandra; Tloušťová, Eva; Česnek, Michal; Janeba, Zlatko; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2014), s. 664-671 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Grant - others:OPPC(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Bordetella pertussis * adenylate cyclase toxin * ACT * inhibitors * PMEA * amidate prodrugs Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.476, year: 2014

  17. Design and synthesis of brain-targeted prodrugs of the glutamine antagonist 6-Diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tenora, Lukáš; Novotná, Kateřina; Monincová, Lenka; Jančařík, Andrej; Nedelcovych, M.; Alt, J.; Rais, R.; Slusher, B. S.; Majer, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 284, Suppl 1 (2017), s. 344 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /42./ From Molecules to Cells and Back. 10.09.2017-14.09.2017, Jerusalem] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 6-Diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine * prodrugs Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  18. Design and synthesis of brain-targeted prodrugs of the glutamine antagonist 6-Diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tenora, Lukáš; Novotná, Kateřina; Monincová, Lenka; Jančařík, Andrej; Gadiano, A. J.; Dash, R.; Rais, R.; Alt, J.; Slusher, B. S.; Majer, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 284, Suppl 1 (2017), s. 345 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /42./ From Molecules to Cells and Back. 10.09.2017-14.09.2017, Jerusalem] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 6-Diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine * prodrugs Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  19. Model prodrugs for the intestinal peptide transporter. a synthetic approach for coupling of hydroxy-containing compounds to dieptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, G; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Steffansen, Bente

    2001-01-01

    The human peptide transporter, hPepT1, situated in the small intestine, may be exploited to increase absorption of drugs or model drugs by attaching them to a dipeptide, which is recognised by hPepT1. A synthetic protocol for this kind of model prodrugs was developed, in which model drugs...

  20. Expanding Anti-Stokes Shifting in Triplet-Triplet Annihilation Upconversion for In Vivo Anticancer Prodrug Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, He; Huang, Kai; Yang, Jinyi; Han, Gang

    2017-11-13

    A strategy to expand anti-Stokes shifting from the far-red to deep-blue region in metal-free triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion (TTA-UC) is presented. The method is demonstrated by in vivo titration of the photorelease of an anticancer prodrug. This new TTA system has robust brightness and the longest anti-Stokes shift of any reported TTA system. TTA core-shell-structured prodrug delivery capsules that benefit from these properties were developed; they can operate with low-power density far-red light-emitting diode light. These capsules contain mesoporous silica nanoparticles preloaded with TTA molecules as the core, and amphiphilic polymers encapsulating anticancer prodrug molecules as the shell. When stimulated by far-red light, the intense TTA upconversion blue emission in the system activates the anticancer prodrug molecules and shows effective tumor growth inhibition in vivo. This work paves the way to new organic TTA upconversion techniques that are applicable to in vivo photocontrollable drug release and other biophotonic applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The enzymatic degradation and transport of leucine-enkephalin and 4-imidazolidinone enkephalin prodrugs at the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, L.; Bak, A.; Friis, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the stability in and transport across a cell culture model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is investigated for leucine-enkephalin (Leu-enkephalin) and four 4-imidazolidinone prodrugs of Leu-enkephalin. The results show that Leu-enkephalin is degraded in the cell culture model...

  2. Comparison of two self-assembled macromolecular prodrug micelles with different conjugate positions of SN38 for enhancing antitumor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Yi Liu,1 Hongyu Piao,1 Ying Gao,1 Caihong Xu,2 Ye Tian,1 Lihong Wang,1 Jinwen Liu,1 Bo Tang,1 Meijuan Zou,1 Gang Cheng1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Food Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38, an active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11, is a remarkably potent antitumor agent. The clinical application of SN38 has been extremely restricted by its insolubility in water. In this study, we successfully synthesized two macromolecular prodrugs of SN38 with different conjugate positions (chitosan-(C10-OHSN38 and chitosan-(C20-OHSN38 to improve the water solubility and antitumor activity of SN38. These prodrugs can self-assemble into micelles in aqueous medium. The particle size, morphology, zeta potential, and in vitro drug release of SN38 and its derivatives, as well as their cytotoxicity, pharmacokinetics, and in vivo antitumor activity in a xenograft BALB/c mouse model were studied. In vitro, chitosan-(C10-OHSN38 (CS-(10sSN38 and chitosan-(C20-OHSN38 (CS-(20sSN38 were 13.3- and 25.9-fold more potent than CPT-11 in the murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line CT26, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC0–24 of SN38 after intravenously administering CS-(10sSN38 and CS-(20sSN38 to Sprague Dawley rats was greatly improved when compared with CPT-11 (both P<0.01. A larger AUC0–24 of CS-(20sSN38 was observed when compared to CS-(10sSN38 (P<0.05. Both of the novel self-assembled chitosan-SN38 prodrugs demonstrated superior anticancer activity to CPT-11 in the CT26 xenograft BALB/c mouse model. We have also investigated the differences between these macromolecular prodrug micelles with regards to enhancing the antitumor activity of SN38. CS-(20sSN38 exhibited better in vivo antitumor activity than CS-(10sSN38 at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg (P<0

  3. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  4. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  5. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  6. Effect of ion pairing on in vitro transcorneal permeability of a Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol prodrug: potential in glaucoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingorani, Tushar; Gul, Waseem; Elsohly, Mahmoud; Repka, Michael A; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate and improve the in vitro transcorneal permeability characteristics of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) through prodrug derivatization and formulation approaches. In vitro corneal permeability of THC and its hemisuccinate (THC-HS) and hemiglutarate (THC-HG) ester prodrugs and WIN 55-212-2 (WIN), a synthetic cannabinoid, was determined using isolated rabbit cornea. The formulations studied included hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HPβCD) or randomly methylated beta cyclodextrin (RMβCD), as well as prodrug-ion-pair complexes with l-arginine or tromethamine. Corneal permeability of WIN was found to be two-fold higher than THC in the presence of HPβCD. THC-HS and THC-HG exhibited pH-dependent permeability. In the presence of HPβCD, at pH 5 (donor solution pH), both prodrugs exhibited six-fold higher permeability compared with THC. However, permeability of the prodrugs was about three-fold lower than that of THC at pH 7.4. RMβCD, at pH 7.4, led to a significant improvement in permeability. Formation of ion-pair complexes markedly improved the solubility and permeability of THC-HG (sevenfold and threefold greater permeability compared with THC and WIN, respectively) at pH 7.4. The in vitro results demonstrate that the use of an ion-pair complex of THC-HG could be an effective strategy for topical delivery of THC. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Interaction of dipeptide prodrugs of saquinavir with multidrug resistance protein-2 (MRP-2): evasion of MRP-2 mediated efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ritesh; Agarwal, Sheetal; Mandava, Nanda Kishore; Sheng, Ye; Mitra, Ashim K

    2008-10-01

    Saquinavir (SQV), the first protease inhibitor approved by FDA to treat HIV-1 infection. This drug is a well-known substrate for multidrug resistance protein-2 (MRP-2). The objective of this study was to investigate whether derivatization of SQV to dipeptide prodrugs, valine-valine-saquinavir (Val-Val-SQV) and glycine-valine-saquinavir (Gly-Val-SQV), targeting peptide transporter can circumvent MRP-2 mediated efflux. Uptake and transport studies were carried out across MDCKII-MRP2 cell monolayers to investigate the interaction of SQV and its prodrugs with MRP-2. In situ single pass intestinal perfusion experiments in rat jejunum were performed to calculate intestinal absorption rate constants and permeabilities of SQV, Val-Val-SQV and Gly-Val-SQV. Uptake studies demonstrated that the prodrugs have significantly lower interaction with MRP-2 relative to SQV. Transepithelial transport of Val-Val-SQV and Gly-Val-SQV across MDCKII-MRP2 cells exhibited an enhanced absorptive flux and reduced secretory flux as compared to SQV. Intestinal perfusion studies revealed that synthesized prodrugs have higher intestinal permeabilities relative to SQV. Enhanced absorption of Val-Val-SQV and Gly-Val-SQV relative to SQV can be attributed to their translocation by the peptide transporter in the jejunum. In the presence of MK-571, a MRP family inhibitor, there was a significant increase in the permeabilities of SQV and Gly-Val-SQV indicating that these compounds are probably substrates for MRP-2. However, there was no change in the permeability of Val-Val-SQV with MK-571 indicating lack of any interaction of Val-Val-SQV with MRP-2. In conclusion, peptide transporter targeted prodrug modification of MRP-2 substrates may lead to shielding of these drug molecules from MRP-2 efflux pumps.

  8. Potential of amino acid/dipeptide monoester prodrugs of floxuridine in facilitating enhanced delivery of active drug to interior sites of tumors: a two-tier monolayer in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Hilfinger, John M; Amidon, Gordon L

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the advantages of amino acid/dipeptide monoester prodrugs for cancer treatments by assessing the uptake and cytotoxic effects of floxuridine prodrugs in a secondary cancer cell monolayer following permeation across a primary cancer cell monolayer. The first Capan-2 monolayer was grown on membrane transwell inserts; the second monolayer was grown at the bottom of a plate. The permeation of floxuridine and its prodrugs across the first monolayer and the uptake and cell proliferation assay on secondary layer were sequentially determined. All floxuridine prodrugs exhibited greater permeation across the first Capan-2 monolayer than the parent drug. The correlation between uptake and growth inhibition in the second monolayer with intact prodrug permeating the first monolayer suggests that permeability and enzymatic stability are essential for sustained action of prodrugs in deeper layers of tumors. The correlation of uptake and growth inhibition were vastly superior for dipeptide prodrugs to those obtained with mono amino acid prodrugs. Although a tentative general overall correlation between intact prodrug and uptake or cytotoxic action was obtained, it appears that a mixture of floxuridine prodrugs with varying beneficial characteristics may be more effective in treating tumors.

  9. Fabrication of Hyperbranched Block-Statistical Copolymer-Based Prodrug with Dual Sensitivities for Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Luping; Wang, Yunfei; Zhang, Xianshuo; Ma, Liwei; Wang, Baoyan; Ji, Xiangling; Wei, Hua

    2018-01-17

    Dendrimer with hyperbranched structure and multivalent surface is regarded as one of the most promising candidates close to the ideal drug delivery systems, but the clinical translation and scale-up production of dendrimer has been hampered significantly by the synthetic difficulties. Therefore, there is considerable scope for the development of novel hyperbranched polymer that can not only address the drawbacks of dendrimer but maintain its advantages. The reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer self-condensing vinyl polymerization (RAFT-SCVP) technique has enabled facile preparation of segmented hyperbranched polymer (SHP) by using chain transfer monomer (CTM)-based double-head agent during the past decade. Meanwhile, the design and development of block-statistical copolymers has been proven in our recent studies to be a simple yet effective way to address the extracellular stability vs intracellular high delivery efficacy dilemma. To integrate the advantages of both hyperbranched and block-statistical structures, we herein reported the fabrication of hyperbranched block-statistical copolymer-based prodrug with pH and reduction dual sensitivities using RAFT-SCVP and post-polymerization click coupling. The external homo oligo(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (OEGMA) block provides sufficient extracellularly colloidal stability for the nanocarriers by steric hindrance, and the interior OEGMA units incorporated by the statistical copolymerization promote intracellular drug release by facilitating the permeation of GSH and H + for the cleavage of the reduction-responsive disulfide bond and pH-liable carbonate link as well as weakening the hydrophobic encapsulation of drug molecules. The delivery efficacy of the target hyperbranched block-statistical copolymer-based prodrug was evaluated in terms of in vitro drug release and cytotoxicity studies, which confirms both acidic pH and reduction-triggered drug release for inhibiting proliferation of He

  10. Nanoprodrugs of NSAIDs: Preparation and Characterization of Flufenamic Acid Nanoprodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Seop Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated that hydrophobic derivatives of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDflufenamic acid (FA, can be formed into stable nanometer-sized prodrugs (nanoprodrugs that inhibit the growth of glioma cells, suggesting their potential application as anticancer agent. We synthesized highly hydrophobic monomeric and dimeric prodrugs of FA via esterification and prepared nanoprodrugs using spontaneous emulsification mechanism. The nanoprodrugs were in the size range of 120 to 140 nm and physicochemically stable upon long-term storage as aqueous suspension, which is attributed to the strong hydrophobic interaction between prodrug molecules. Importantly, despite the highly hydrophobic nature and water insolubility, nanoprodrugs could be readily activated into the parent drug by porcine liver esterase, presenting a potential new strategy for novel NSAID prodrug design. The nanoprodrug inhibited the growth of U87-MG glioma cells with IC50 of 20 μM, whereas FA showed IC50 of 100 μM, suggesting that more efficient drug delivery was achieved with nanoprodrugs.

  11. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  12. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  13. The ProTide Prodrug Technology: From the Concept to the Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehellou, Youcef; Rattan, Hardeep S; Balzarini, Jan

    2017-08-24

    The ProTide technology is a prodrug approach developed for the efficient intracellular delivery of nucleoside analogue monophosphates and monophosphonates. In this approach, the hydroxyls of the monophosphate or monophosphonate groups are masked by an aromatic group and an amino acid ester moiety, which are enzymatically cleaved-off inside cells to release the free nucleoside monophosphate and monophosphonate species. Structurally, this represents the current end-point of an extensive medicinal chemistry endeavor that spans almost three decades. It started from the masking of nucleoside monophosphate and monophosphonate groups by simple alkyl groups and evolved into the sophisticated ProTide system as known today. This technology has been extensively employed in drug discovery, and it has already led to the discovery of two FDA-approved (antiviral) ProTides. In this work, we will review the development of the ProTide technology, its application in drug discovery, and its role in the improvement of drug delivery and efficacy.

  14. Carbamates as Potential Prodrugs and a New Warhead for HDAC Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina King

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We designed and synthesized carbamates of the clinically-approved HDAC (histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA in order to validate our previously-proposed hypothesis that these carbamates might serve as prodrugs for hydroxamic acid containing HDAC inhibitors. Biochemical assays proved our new compounds to be potent inhibitors of histone deacetylases in vitro, and they also showed antiproliferative effects in leukemic cells. These results, as well as stability analysis led to the suggestion that the intact carbamates are inhibitors of histone deacetylases themselves, representing a new zinc-binding warhead in HDAC inhibitor design. This suggestion was further supported by the synthesis and evaluation of a carbamate derivative of the HDAC6-selective inhibitor bufexamac.

  15. Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA as a Prodrug in Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Golab

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aminolevulinic acid (ALA is an endogenous metabolite normally formed in the mitochondria from succinyl-CoA and glycine. Conjugation of eight ALA molecules yields protoporphyrin IX (PpIX and finally leads to formation of heme. Conversion of PpIX to its downstream substrates requires the activity of a rate-limiting enzyme ferrochelatase. When ALA is administered externally the abundantly produced PpIX cannot be quickly converted to its final product - heme by ferrochelatase and therefore accumulates within cells. Since PpIX is a potent photosensitizer this metabolic pathway can be exploited in photodynamic therapy (PDT. This is an already approved therapeutic strategy making ALA one of the most successful prodrugs used in cancer treatment.

  16. Discovery of an L-alanine ester prodrug of the Hsp90 inhibitor, MPC-3100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Ho; Tangallapally, Rajendra; Kim, In Chul; Trovato, Richard; Parker, Daniel; Patton, J Scott; Reeves, Leslie; Bradford, Chad; Wettstein, Daniel; Baichwal, Vijay; Papac, Damon; Bajji, Ashok; Carlson, Robert; Yager, Kraig M

    2015-11-15

    Various types of Hsp90 inhibitors have been and continue to undergo clinical investigation. One development candidate is the purine-based, synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor 1 (MPC-3100), which successfully completed a phase I clinical study. However, further clinical development of 1 was hindered by poor solubility and consequent formulation issues and promoted development of a more water soluble prodrug. Towards this end, numerous pro-moieties were explored in vitro and in vivo. These studies resulted in identification of L-alanine ester mesylate, 2i (MPC-0767), which exhibited improved aqueous solubility, adequate chemical stability, and rapid bioconversion without the need for solubilizing excipients. Based on improved physical characteristics and favorable PK and PD profiles, 2i mesylate was selected for further development. A convergent, scalable, chromatography-free synthesis for 2i mesylate was developed to support further clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  18. Identification of oxidized protein hydrolase as a potential prodrug target in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoldrick, Christopher A; Jiang, Yu-Lin; Paromov, Victor; Brannon, Marianne; Krishnan, Koyamangalath; Stone, William L

    2014-01-01

    Esterases are often overexpressed in cancer cells and can have chiral specificities different from that of the corresponding normal tissues. For this reason, ester prodrugs could be a promising approach in chemotherapy. In this study, we focused on the identification and characterization of differentially expressed esterases between non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. Cellular lysates from LNCaP, DU 145, and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines, tumorigenic RWPE-2 prostate epithelial cells, and non-tumorigenic RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells were separated by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (n-PAGE) and the esterase activity bands visualized using α-naphthyl acetate or α-naphthyl-N-acetylalaninate (ANAA) chiral esters and Fast Blue RR salt. The esterases were identified using nanospray LC/MS-MS tandem mass spectrometry and confirmed by Western blotting, native electroblotting, inhibition assays, and activity towards a known specific substrate. The serine protease/esterase oxidized protein hydrolase (OPH) was overexpressed in COS-7 cells to verify our results. The major esterase observed with the ANAA substrates within the n-PAGE activity bands was identified as OPH. OPH (EC 3.4.19.1) is a serine protease/esterase and a member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family. We found that LNCaP lysates contained approximately 40% more OPH compared to RWPE-1 lysates. RWPE-2, DU145 and PC3 cell lysates had similar levels of OPH activity. OPH within all of the cell lysates tested had a chiral preference for the S-isomer of ANAA. LNCaP cells were stained more intensely with ANAA substrates than RWPE-1 cells and COS-7 cells overexpressing OPH were found to have a higher activity towards the ANAA and AcApNA than parent COS-7 cells. These data suggest that prodrug derivatives of ANAA and AcApNA could have potential as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of prostate cancer tumors that overexpress OPH

  19. Formation Rate-Limited Pharmacokinetics of Biologically Active Epoxy Transformers of Prodrug Treosulfan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romański, Michał; Kasprzyk, Anna; Karbownik, Agnieszka; Szałek, Edyta; Główka, Franciszek K

    2016-05-01

    A prodrug treosulfan (TREO) is being evaluated in clinical trials as a myeloablative agent before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The active derivatives of TREO, monoepoxide (EBDM), and diepoxide (DEB) are formed in a pH-dependent nonenzymatic reaction. The aim of the study was to investigate pharmacokinetics of the TREO epoxy transformers in a rabbit model and explain the causes of low plasma concentrations of EBDM and DEB observed in patients receiving high-dose TREO before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. New Zealand white rabbits (n = 5 per cohort) received an intravenous infusion of TREO (group I), injection of DEB (group II), and injection of a solution containing EBDM (group III). When EBDM and DEB were administered to the rabbits, they underwent a very rapid elimination (half-life 0.069 and 0.046 h) associated with a high systemic clearance (10.0 and 14.0 L h(-1) kg(-1)). After administration of TREO, the t1/2 of EBDM was statistically equal to the t1/2 of the prodrug (1.6 h). To conclude, after administration of TREO, its epoxy transformers demonstrate a formation-limited elimination. Then EBDM and DEB have the same elimination half-life as TREO, but the levels of EBDM and DEB in the body, including plasma, are much lower than TREO on account of their inherently high clearance. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acycloguanosyl 5'-thymidyltriphosphate, a thymidine analogue prodrug activated by telomerase, reduces pancreatic tumor growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polvani, Simone; Calamante, Massimo; Foresta, Valeria; Ceni, Elisabetta; Mordini, Alessandro; Quattrone, Alessandro; D'Amico, Massimo; Luchinat, Claudio; Bertini, Ivano; Galli, Andrea

    2011-02-01

    Gemcitabine is the standard of care for metastatic and nonresectable pancreatic tumors. Phase II and III trials have not demonstrated efficacy of recently developed reagents, compared with gemcitabine alone; new chemotherapic agents are needed. Ninety percent of pancreatic tumors have telomerase activity, and expression correlates with tumor stage. We developed a thymidine analogue prodrug, acycloguanosyl 5'-thymidyltriphosphate (ACV-TP-T), that is metabolized by telomerase and releases the active form of acyclovir. We investigated the antitumor efficacy of ACV-TP-T in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated proliferation and apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1, MiaPaca2, BxPc3, PL45, and Su.86.86) incubated with ACV-TP-T. The presence of ACV-TP-T and its metabolite inside the cells were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In vivo efficacy was evaluated in nude mice carrying PANC-1 or MiaPaca2 pancreatic xenograft tumors. The prodrug of ACV-TP-T was actively metabolized inside pancreatic cancer cells into the activated form of acyclovir; proliferation was reduced, apoptosis was increased, and the cell cycle was altered in pancreatic cancer incubated with ACV-TP-T, compared with controls. Administration of ACV-TP-T to mice reduced growth, increased apoptosis, and reduced proliferation and vascularization of pancreatic xenograft tumors. ACV-TP-T, a thymidine analogue that is metabolized by telomerase and releases the active form of acyclovir, reduces proliferation and induces apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro and pancreatic xenograft tumors in mice. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In Vitro and Clinical Evaluations of the Drug-Drug Interaction Potential of a Metabotropic Glutamate 2/3 Receptor Agonist Prodrug with Intestinal Peptide Transporter 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Y Anne; Long, Amanda J; Annes, William F; Witcher, Jennifer W; Knadler, Mary Pat; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun A; Mitchell, Malcolm I; Leese, Phillip; Hillgren, Kathleen M

    2017-02-01

    Despite peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) being responsible for the bioavailability for a variety of drugs, there has been little study of its potential involvement in drug-drug interactions. Pomaglumetad methionil, a metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist prodrug, utilizes PEPT1 to enhance absorption and bioavailability. In vitro studies were conducted to guide the decision to conduct a clinical drug interaction study and to inform the clinical study design. In vitro investigations determined the prodrug (LY2140023 monohydrate) is a substrate of PEPT1 with K m value of approximately 30 µM, whereas the active moiety (LY404039) is not a PEPT1 substrate. In addition, among the eight known PEPT1 substrates evaluated in vitro, valacyclovir was the most potent inhibitor (IC 50 = 0.46 mM) of PEPT1-mediated uptake of the prodrug. Therefore, a clinical drug interaction study was conducted to evaluate the potential interaction between the prodrug and valacyclovir in healthy subjects. No effect of coadministration was observed on the pharmacokinetics of the prodrug, valacyclovir, or either of their active moieties. Although in vitro studies showed potential for the prodrug and valacyclovir interaction via PEPT1, an in vivo study showed no interaction between these two drugs. PEPT1 does not appear to easily saturate because of its high capacity and expression in the intestine. Thus, a clinical interaction at PEPT1 is unlikely even with a compound with high affinity for the transporter. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  2. Pharmacologic Studies of a Prodrug of Mitomycin C in Pegylated Liposomes (Promitil(®)): High Stability in Plasma and Rapid Thiolytic Prodrug Activation in Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Yasmine; Shmeeda, Hilary; Patil, Yogita; Gorin, Jenny; Tzemach, Dina; Mak, Lidia; Ohana, Patricia; Gabizon, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Pegylated liposomal (PL) mitomycin C lipid-based prodrug (MLP) has recently entered clinical testing. We studied here the preclinical pharmacology of PL-MLP. The stability, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and other pharmacologic parameters of PL-MLP were examined. Thiolytic cleavage of MLP and release of active mitomycin C (MMC) were studied using dithiothreitol (DTT), and by incubation with tissue homogenates. MLP was incorporated in the bilayer at 10% molar ratio with nearly 100% entrapment efficiency, resulting in a formulation with high plasma stability. In vitro, DTT induced cleavage of MLP with predictable kinetics, generating MMC and enhancing pharmacological activity. A long circulation half-life of MLP (10-15 h) was observed in rodents and minipigs. Free MMC is either extremely low or undetectable in plasma. However, urine from PL-MLP injected rats revealed delayed but significant excretion of MMC indicating in vivo activation of MLP. Studies in mice injected with H3-cholesterol radiolabeled PL-MLP demonstrated relatively greater tissue levels of H3-cholesterol than MLP. MLP levels were highest in tumor and spleen, and very low or undetectable in liver and lung. Rapid cleavage of MLP in various tissues, particularly in liver, was shown in ex-vivo experiments of PL-MLP with tissue homogenates. PL-MLP was less toxic in vivo than equivalent doses of MMC. Therapeutic studies in C26 mouse tumor models demonstrated dose-dependent improved efficacy of PL-MLP over MMC. Thiolytic activation of PL-MLP occurs in tissues but not in plasma. Liposomal delivery of MLP confers a favorable pharmacological profile and greater therapeutic index than MMC.

  3. Production of dispersed nanometer sized YAG powders from alkoxide, nitrate and chloride precursors and spark plasma sintering to transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, M., E-mail: m.suarez@cinn.e [Departamento de Materiales Nanoestructurados, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain); Fernandez, A. [Fundacion ITMA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428, Llanera (Spain); Menendez, J.L.; Torrecillas, R. [Departamento de Materiales Nanoestructurados, Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Principado de Asturias - Consejo superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain)

    2010-03-18

    Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) was synthesized from different starting materials, i.e., alkoxide, nitrate and chloride precursors. The conversion steps from the precursors to crystalline YAG were studied by Raman spectroscopy. Dispersed YAG powders were formed at a relatively low temperature, around 800 {sup o}C by the chlorides route, whereas alkoxide precursors needed firing over 900 {sup o}C and nitrates even over 1100 {sup o}C. Lyophilized YAG gel was sintered to transparency by the spark plasma sintering method at 1500 {sup o}C with in-line transmittances close to 60% at 680 nm and over 80% in the infrared range.

  4. Production of dispersed nanometer sized YAG powders from alkoxide, nitrate and chloride precursors and spark plasma sintering to transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, M.; Fernandez, A.; Menendez, J.L.; Torrecillas, R.

    2010-01-01

    Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) was synthesized from different starting materials, i.e., alkoxide, nitrate and chloride precursors. The conversion steps from the precursors to crystalline YAG were studied by Raman spectroscopy. Dispersed YAG powders were formed at a relatively low temperature, around 800 o C by the chlorides route, whereas alkoxide precursors needed firing over 900 o C and nitrates even over 1100 o C. Lyophilized YAG gel was sintered to transparency by the spark plasma sintering method at 1500 o C with in-line transmittances close to 60% at 680 nm and over 80% in the infrared range.

  5. Study of shale reservoir nanometer-sized pores in Member 1 of Shahejie Formation in JX area, Liaozhong sag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yong; Zhang, Yu; Wen, Yiming

    2018-02-01

    The microscopic pore structure is the key of the shale reservoir study; however, traditional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods cannot identify the irregular morphology caused by mechanical polishing. In this work, Scanning Electron Microscopy combined argon ion polishing technology was taken to study the characteristics of shale reservoir pores of Member 1 of Shahejie Formation (E3s1) located in JX1-1 area of Liaozhong Sag. The results show that pores between clay platelets, intraplatelet pores within clay aggregates and organic-matter pores are very rich in the area and with good pore connectivity, so these types of pores are of great significance for oil-gas exporation. Pores between clay platelets are formed by directional or semi-directional contact between edge and surface, edge and edge or surface and surface of laminated clay minerals, whose shapes are linear, mesh, and irregular with the size of 500 nm to 5 μm. The intraplatelet pores within clay aggregates are formed in the process of the transformation and compaction of clay minerals, whose shapes are usually linear with the width of 30 to 500 nm and the length of 2 to 50 μm. The organic-matter pores are from the process of the conversion from organic matters to the hydrocarbon under thermal evolution, whose shapes are gneissic, irregular, pitted and elliptical with the size of 100 nm to 2 μm. This study is of certain guiding significance to selecting target zones, evaluating resource potential and exploring & developing of shale gas in this region.

  6. Alkali metal ion storage properties of sulphur and phosphorous molecules encapsulated in nanometer size carbon cylindrical pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Ishii

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the physical and chemical stabilities of sulfur and phosphorus molecules encapsulated in a mesoporous carbon (MPC and two kinds of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs having different cylindrical pore diameters. The sublimation temperatures of sulfur molecules encapsulated in MPC and the two kinds of SWCNTs were measured by thermo-gravimetric measurements. It was found that the sublimation temperature of sulfur molecules encapsulated in SWCNTs having mean tube diameter of 1.5 nm is much higher than any other molecules encapsulated in larger pores. It was also found that the capacity fading of lithium-sulfur battery can be diminished by encapsulation of sulfur molecules in SWCNTs. We also investigated the electrochemical properties of phosphorus molecules encapsulated in SWCNTs (P@SWCNTs. It was shown that P@SWCNT can adsorb and desorb both Li and Na ions reversibly.

  7. Micrometer- and nanometer-sized platinum group nuggets in micrometeorites from deep-sea sediments of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; Parashar, K.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    released in the troposphere could contain fractionated PGNs in large numbers. Keywords: cosmic spherules, platinum group element, nuggets, parent body, chondrites, impact craters 2    INTRODUCTION Micrometeorite flux on the Earth is estimated... of the parent body, angle of entry, entry velocity, and the physical properties of the incoming particle (Brownlee 1985). Three broad micrometeorite types have been recognized: S-type, I-type and the G-type. All the three could have the same parent body - a...

  8. Nanometer size 3d–4d and 3d–5d substitutional clusters: Promising candidates for magnetic storageapplications

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-05-01

    Spin-polarized density-functional calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC) have been performed for FemRhn and FemPtn clusters having N=m+n,N≤19 atoms. The spin magnetic moments, orbital magnetic moments, and the magnetic anisotropy energies have been determined. A significant enhancement of magnetic anisotropy energies is found by the substitutional nanoalloying of Fe with Rh and Pt atoms. We obtained a remarkable non-monotonous dependence of the MAE as a function of Fe content, i.e., upon going from pure Fe to pure Rh and Pt. The substitutional nanoalloying boost the magnetic anisotropy energies by creating significant cluster symmetry lowerings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Simulation of Auger electron emission from nanometer-size gold targets using the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incerti, S., E-mail: sebastien.incerti@tdt.edu.vn [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Suerfu, B.; Xu, J. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Ivantchenko, V. [Ecoanalytica, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geant4 Associates International Ltd, Hebden Bridge (United Kingdom); Mantero, A. [SWHARD srl, via Greto di Cornigliano 6r, 16152 Genova (Italy); Brown, J.M.C. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Bernal, M.A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Francis, Z. [Université Saint Joseph, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Beirut (Lebanon); Karamitros, M. [Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Tran, H.N. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-04-01

    A revised atomic deexcitation framework for the Geant4 general purpose Monte Carlo toolkit capable of simulating full Auger deexcitation cascades was implemented in June 2015 release (version 10.2 Beta). An overview of this refined framework and testing of its capabilities is presented for the irradiation of gold nanoparticles (NP) with keV photon and MeV proton beams. The resultant energy spectra of secondary particles created within and that escape the NP are analyzed and discussed. It is anticipated that this new functionality will improve and increase the use of Geant4 in the medical physics, radiobiology, nanomedicine research and other low energy physics fields.

  10. Complex flow and reflection of evanescent waves from a nanometer-sized hole in a cylindrical waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, T I; Lebedev, V S

    2008-07-01

    The results of the theoretical studies on the leakage of the optical radiation through a truncated waveguide with a subwavelength-sized exit hole are reported. We develop a self-consistent approach for the description of the fields behavior by taking into account the transformation of the initial wave into all possible modes, which appear due to the influence of the exit aperture. Our approach allows us to evaluate the amplitude reflection coefficient for the initial evanescent wave and to establish its relationship with the impedance of an infinite waveguide and the impedance of the exit aperture coupling a truncated waveguide with a free space. We determine the complex flow through the exit hole and the transmission coefficient to the far-field zone and express them through the reflection coefficient. Special attention in the work is paid to the evaluation of specific dependencies of the reflection and transmission coefficients on the ratio of the aperture radius to the light wavelength, on the dielectric constants of the waveguide core and the surrounding matter, and on the type of the waveguide mode. It is demonstrated that in the case of a metallic matter at the exit of a waveguide there is a strong resonance enhancement in the amplitude of the reflected wave and in the resulting amplitude of the tangential component of the electric field.

  11. Effect of the Butyrate Prodrug Pivaloyloxymethyl Butyrate (AN9) on a Mouse Model for Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jonathan D; Butchbach, Matthew E R

    2016-11-29

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an early-onset motor neuron disease that leads to loss of muscle function. Butyrate (BA)-based compounds markedly improve the survival and motor phenotype of SMA mice. In this study, we examine the protective effects of the BA prodrug pivaloyloxymethyl butyrate (AN9) on the survival of SMNΔ7 SMA mice. Oral administration of AN9 beginning at PND04 almost doubled the average lifespan of SMNΔ7 SMA mice. AN9 treatment also increased the growth rate of SMNΔ7 SMA mice when compared to vehicle-treated SMNΔ7 SMA mice. In conclusion, BA prodrugs like AN9 have ameliorative effects on SMNΔ7 SMA mice.

  12. The synthesis of amphipathic prodrugs of 1,2-diol drugs with saccharide conjugates by high regioselective enzymatic protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Jing; Chen, Zhichun; Han, Chengyou; Lin, Xianfu

    2007-02-15

    A facile, high regioselective enzymatic synthesis approach for the preparation of amphipathic prodrugs with saccharides of mephenesin and chlorphenesin was developed. Firstly, transesterification of two drugs with divinyl dicarboxylates with different carbon chain length was performed under the catalysis of Candida antarctica lipase acrylic resin and Lipozyme in anhydrous acetone at 50 degrees C, respectively. A series of lipophilic derivatives with vinyl groups of mephenesin and chlorphenesin were prepared. The influences of different organic solvents, enzyme sources, reaction time, and the acylation reagents on the synthesis of vinyl esters were investigated. And then, protease-catalyzed high regioselective acylation of D-glucose and D-mannose with vinyl esters of mephenesin and chlorphenesin gave drug-saccharide derivatives in good yields. The studies of lipophilicity and hydrolysis in vitro of prodrugs verified that drug-saccharide derivatives had amphipathic properties, and both lipophilic and amphipathic drug derivatives had obvious controlled release characteristics.

  13. A New Look at the Most Successful Prodrugs for Active Vitamin D (D Hormone: Alfacalcidol and Doxercalciferol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Kubodera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alfacalcidol (1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 has been widely used since 1981 as a prodrug for calcitriol (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the treatment of hypocalcemia, chronic renal failure, hypoparathyroidism and osteoporosis. More recently, doxercalciferol (1α-hydroxyvitamin D2 has been used since 1999 as a prodrug for 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Currently, six forms of vitamin D are known. They range from vitamin D2 to vitamin D7 and are distinguished by their differing side chains. Only vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 have been found to be biologically active based on the elucidation of activation pathways. Alfacalcidol and osteoporosis/doxercalciferol and secondary hyperparathyroidism are discussed, with a new look at old compounds including their practical syntheses.

  14. Radiation- and Photo-induced Activation of 5-Fluorouracil Prodrugs as a Strategy for the Selective Treatment of Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei-ichi Nishimoto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU is used widely as an anticancer drug to treat solid cancers, such as colon, breast, rectal, and pancreatic cancers, although its clinical application is limited because 5-FU has gastrointestinal and hematological toxicity. Many groups are searching for prodrugs with functions that are tumor selective in their delivery and can be activated to improve the clinical utility of 5-FU as an important cancer chemotherapeutic agent. UV and ionizing radiation can cause chemical reactions in a localized area of the body, and these have been applied in the development of site-specific drug activation and sensitization. In this review, we describe recent progress in the development of novel 5-FU prodrugs that are activated site specifically by UV light and ionizing radiation in the tumor microenvironment. We also discuss the chemical mechanisms underlying this activation.

  15. Studies on tissue distribution of scutellarin and methyl polyethylene glycol (mPEG-scutellarin prodrug in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was to determine tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of mPEG-scutellarin prodrug (7e, a chemical entity previously shown to have a beneficial effect in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. After injecting scutellarin or prodrug 7e, the concentrations of scutellarin and 7e in tissues were determined and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The results showed that the distribution of scutellarin in tissues was enhanced by PEGylation. The distribution of 7e in brain was approximately 2.1-fold higher than that of scutellarin, indicating that PEGylation increased the brain penetration of scutellarin. We conclude that 7e could exert more effective protection on cerebral I/R injury in mice. This study also provided a simple and convenient strategy to identify novel drugs with potential protective function for I/R injury in mice.

  16. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  17. Transcorneal permeation of L- and D-aspartate ester prodrugs of acyclovir: delineation of passive diffusion versus transporter involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Soumyajit; Hingorani, Tushar; Srirangam, Ramesh; Gadepalli, Rama Sarma; Rimoldi, John M; Repka, Michael A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of amino acid transporters in the transcorneal permeation of the aspartate (Asp) ester acyclovir (ACV) prodrug. Physicochemical characterization, solubility and stability of acyclovir L-aspartate (L-Asp-ACV) and acyclovir D-aspartate (D-Asp-ACV) were studied. Transcorneal permeability was evaluated across excised rabbit cornea. Solubility of L-Asp-ACV and D-Asp-ACV were about twofold higher than that of ACV. The prodrugs demonstrated greater stability under acidic conditions. Calculated pK(a) and logP values for both prodrugs were identical. Transcorneal permeability of L-Asp-ACV (12.1 +/- 1.48 x 10(-6) cm/s) was fourfold higher than D-Asp-ACV (3.12 +/- 0.36 x 10(-6) cm/s) and ACV (3.25 +/- 0.56 x 10(-6) cm/s). ACV generation during the transport process was minimal. L-Asp-ACV transport was sodium and energy dependent but was not inhibited by glutamic acid. Addition of BCH, a specific B(0,+) and L amino acid transporter inhibitor, decreased transcorneal L-Asp-ACV permeability to 2.66 +/- 0.21 x 10(-6) cm/s. L-Asp-ACV and D-Asp-ACV did not demonstrate significant difference in stability in ocular tissue homogenates. The results demonstrate that enhanced transport of L-Asp-ACV is as a result of corneal transporter involvement (probably amino acid transporter B(0,+)) and not as a result of changes in physicochemical properties due to prodrug derivatization (permeability of D-Asp-ACV and ACV were not significantly different).

  18. Disposition kinetics of a dipeptide ester prodrug of acyclovir and its metabolites following intravenous and oral administrations in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Talluri, Ravi S.; Gaudana, Ripal; Hariharan, Sudharshan; Jain, Ritesh; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the disposition kinetics of valine-valine–acyclovir (VVACV), a dipeptide ester prodrug of acyclovir following intravenous and oral administrations in rat. A validated LC-MS/MS analytical method was developed for the analysis VVACV, Valine-Acyclovir (VACV), and Acyclovir (ACV) using a linear Ion Trap Quadrupole. ACV was administered orally for comparison purpose. In the VVACV group, both blood and urine samples and in the ACV group only blood samples wer...

  19. Bioavailability of Aciclovir after Oral Administration of Aciclovir and Its Prodrug Valaciclovir to Patients with Leukopenia after Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrimsdottir, Hlif; Gruber, Astrid; Palm, Carina; Grimfors, Gunnar; Kalin, Mats; Eksborg, Staffan

    2000-01-01

    The median bioavailabilities of aciclovir after administration of aciclovir and its prodrug valaciclovir were 21.5 and 70.1%, respectively, in 12 patients with malignant hematological diseases with leukopenia after chemotherapy. The interindividual variations of the bioavailability were 48.5 and 21.0% after administration of aciclovir and valaciclovir, respectively. Neither the bioavailability nor the interindividual variation of area under the concentration-time curve of oral aciclovir or valaciclovir differed from that reported in healthy volunteers. PMID:10602752

  20. Stability, metabolism and transport of D-Asp(OBzl)-Ala--a model prodrug with affinity for the oligopeptide transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, B; Lepist, E I; Taub, M E

    1999-01-01

    model. The aqueous stability studies show water, general buffer, as well as specific acid and base catalysis of D-Asp(OBzl)-Ala. The degradation of the model prodrug was independent of ionic strength. The half-lives in rat jejunal fluid and homogenate were >3 h. In human gastric and intestinal fluids...... jejunal oligopeptide transporter, since the stability in the intestinal homogenate and fluids was rather high (t1/2>2.3 h)....

  1. A paclitaxel prodrug with bifunctional folate and albumin binding moieties for both passive and active targeted cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lingling; Zhuo, Xin; Zhang, Fuwu; Dai, Yunlu; Zhu, Guizhi; Yung, Bryant C; Fan, Wenpei; Zhai, Kefeng; Jacobson, Orit; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Ma, Ying; Gao, Guizhen; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2018-01-01

    Folate receptor (FR) has proven to be a valuable target for chemotherapy using folic acid (FA) conjugates. However, FA-conjugated chemotherapeutics still have low therapeutic efficacy accompanied with side effects, resulting from complications such as short circulation half-life, limited tumor delivery, as well as high kidney accumulation. Herein, we present a novel FA-conjugated paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug which was additionally conjugated with an Evans blue (EB) derivative for albumin binding. The resulting bifunctional prodrug prolonged blood circulation, enhanced tumor accumulation, and consequently improved tumor therapeutic efficacy. Methods: Fmoc-Cys(Trt)-OH was coupled onto PTX at the 7'-OH position for further synthesis of ester prodrug FA-PTX-EB. The targeting ability was investigated using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The pharmacokinetics of this bifunctional compound was also studied. Meanwhile, cell viability was evaluated in normal cells and three cancer cell lines by MTT assay. In vivo therapeutic effect was tested on FR-α overexpressing MDA-MB-231 tumor model. Results: Compared with free PTX, the FA-PTX, PTX-EB and FA-PTX-EB prodrugs increased circulation half-life in mice from 2.19 to 3.82, 4.41, and 7.51 h, respectively. Pharmacokinetics studies showed that the FA-PTX-EB delivered more PTX to tumors than FA-PTX and free PTX. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that FA-EB-conjugated PTX induced potent antitumor activity. Conclusion: FA-PTX-EB showed prolonged blood circulation, enhanced drug accumulation in tumors, higher therapeutic index, and lower side effects than either free PTX or monofunctional FA-PTX and EB-PTX. The results support the potential of using EB for the development of long-acting therapeutics.

  2. Excited-State Dynamics of the Thiopurine Prodrug 6-Thioguanine: Can N9-Glycosylation Affect Its Phototoxic Activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan Ashwood; Steffen Jockusch; Carlos E. Crespo-Hernández

    2017-01-01

    6-Thioguanine, an immunosuppressant and anticancer prodrug, has been shown to induce DNA damage and cell death following exposure to UVA radiation. Its metabolite, 6-thioguanosine, plays a major role in the prodrug’s overall photoreactivity. However, 6-thioguanine itself has proven to be cytotoxic following UVA irradiation, warranting further investigation into its excited-state dynamics. In this contribution, the excited-state dynamics and photochemical properties of 6-thioguanine are studie...

  3. Preclinical Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of an Oral Amide Prodrug of Gemcitabine Designed to Deliver Prolonged Systemic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Dow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Gemcitabine is an intravenously administered nucleoside analog chemotherapeutic agent. The ability to deliver this agent as an oral drug would allow greater flexibility of administration and patient convenience; however, attempts have been fraught with high first-pass metabolism and potential intestinal toxicity. Alternatively, an amide prodrug of gemcitabine (LY2334737 was discovered, which is able to avoid the extensive first-pass metabolism that occurs following administration of gemcitabine. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to evaluate the hydrolysis and pharmacokinetics of LY2334737 and its downstream metabolites. In mice, rats, and dogs, the prodrug is absorbed largely intact across the intestinal epithelium and delivers LY2334737 to systemic circulation. The hydrolysis of LY2334737 is relatively slow, resulting in sustained release of gemcitabine in vivo. In vitro experiments identified carboxylesterase 2 (CES2 as a major enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of LY2334737, but with relatively low intrinsic clearance. Following hydrolysis of the prodrug, gemcitabine is cleared predominantly via the formation of its inactive metabolite dFdU. Both biliary and renal excretion was responsible for the elimination of LY2334737 and its metabolites in both mice and dogs.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of an Aspirin-fumarate Prodrug that Inhibits NFκB Activity and Breast Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrati, Irida; Delgado-Rivera, Loruhama; Georgieva, Gergana; Thatcher, Gregory R J; Frasor, Jonna

    2017-01-18

    Inflammation is a cancer hallmark that underlies cancer incidence and promotion, and eventually progression to metastasis. Therefore, adding an anti-inflammatory drug to standard cancer regiments may improve patient outcome. One such drug, aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), has been explored for cancer chemoprevention and anti-tumor activity. Besides inhibiting the cyclooxygenase 2-prostaglandin axis, ASA's anti-cancer activities have also been attributed to nuclear factor ĸB (NFĸB) inhibition. Because prolonged ASA use may cause gastrointestinal toxicity, a prodrug strategy has been implemented successfully. In this prodrug design the carboxylic acid of ASA is masked and additional pharmacophores are incorporated. This protocol describes how we synthesized an aspirin-fumarate prodrug, GTCpFE, and characterized its inhibition of the NFĸB pathway in breast cancer cells and attenuation of the cancer stem-like properties, an important NFĸB-dependent phenotype. GTCpFE effectively inhibits the NFĸB pathway in breast cancer cell lines whereas ASA lacks any inhibitory activity, indicating that adding fumarate to ASA structure significantly contributes to its activity. In addition, GTCpFE shows significant anti-cancer stem cell activity by blocking mammosphere formation and attenuating the cancer stem cell associated CD44 + CD24 - immunophenotype. These results establish a viable strategy to develop improved anti-inflammatory drugs for chemoprevention and cancer therapy.

  5. [Synthesis of colon-specific prodrug of indomethacin and its inhibitory effect on liver metastasis from colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ning-fu; Yang, Li-qun; Chen, Ru-fu; Cai, Xiang; Li, Le-qun; Li, Zhi-hua; Zhou, Quan-bo; Zhou, Jia-jia; Jiang, Zhi-peng

    2010-03-01

    To develop a colon-specific prodrug of Indomethacin microbially triggered, carry out in vitro/in vivo evaluation of drug release, and appraise its inhibitory effect on liver metastasis from colon cancer. Indomethacin prodrugs were synthesized and characterized by FTIR and NMR, and dissolution test simulating gastrointestinal tract was employed to screen the colon-specific prodrug. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of portal vein and peripheral blood in Sprague-Dawley rats was studied. Lastly, the inhibitory effect on liver metastasis from colon cancer in nude mice was observed. The chemical structure characterized by FTIR and NMR demonstrated that six kinds of indomethacin-block-amylose with different drug loading (IDM-AM-1-6) were synthesized, among which IDM-AM-3 was degraded 1.3%, 9.3% and 95.3%, respectively, in simulated gastric fluid for 4 h, small intestine for 6 h, and colon for 36 h. The pharmacokinetic test of IDM-AM-3 showed that absorption was delayed significantly (P IDM regarding to portal vein. Additionally, its AUC(0-t) in peripheral blood was remarkably lower than that in Portal vein (P IDM (P IDM-AM-3 possesses advantage of sustained release in portal vein providing some experimental basis for colon-specific delivery system applied to sustained release in the portal vein.

  6. Enzyme-functionalized vascular grafts catalyze in-situ release of nitric oxide from exogenous NO prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihong; Lu, Yaxin; Qin, Kang; Wu, Yifan; Tian, Yingping; Wang, Jianing; Zhang, Jimin; Hou, Jingli; Cui, Yun; Wang, Kai; Shen, Jie; Xu, Qingbo; Kong, Deling; Zhao, Qiang

    2015-07-28

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule in cardiovascular system, and the sustained release of NO by endothelial cells plays a vital role in maintaining patency and homeostasis. In contrast, lack of endogenous NO in artificial blood vessel is believed to be the main cause of thrombus formation. In this study, enzyme prodrug therapy (EPT) technique was employed to construct a functional vascular graft by immobilization of galactosidase on the graft surface. The enzyme-functionalized grafts exhibited excellent catalytic property in decomposition of the exogenously administrated NO prodrug. Localized and on-demand release of NO was demonstrated by in vitro release assay and fluorescent probe tracing in an ex vivo model. The immobilized enzyme retained catalytic property even after subcutaneous implantation of the grafts for one month. The functional vascular grafts were implanted into the rat abdominal aorta with a 1-month monitoring period. Results showed effective inhibition of thrombus formation in vivo and enhancement of vascular tissue regeneration and remodeling on the grafts. Thus, we create an enzyme-functionalized vascular graft that can catalyze prodrug to release NO locally and sustainably, indicating that this approach may be useful to develop new cell-free vascular grafts for treatment of vascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  8. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  9. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  10. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  11. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  12. The stable subgroup graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Tolue

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce stable subgroup graph associated to the group $G$. It is a graph with vertex set all subgroups of $G$ and two distinct subgroups $H_1$ and $H_2$ are adjacent if $St_{G}(H_1\\cap H_2\

  13. Combined enzyme/prodrug treatment by genetically engineered AT-MSC exerts synergy and inhibits growth of MDA-MB-231 induced lung metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuskova, Miroslava; Kozovska, Zuzana; Toro, Lenka; Durinikova, Erika; Tyciakova, Silvia; Cierna, Zuzana; Bohovic, Roman; Kucerova, Lucia

    2015-04-09

    Metastatic spread of tumor cells remains a serious problem in cancer treatment. Gene-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy mediated by tumor-homing genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) represents a promising therapeutic modality for elimination of disseminated cells. Efficacy of gene-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy can be improved by combination of individual systems. We aimed to define the combination effect of two systems of gene therapy mediated by MSC, and evaluate the ability of systemically administered genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells to inhibit the growth of experimental metastases derived from human breast adenocarcinoma cells MDA-MB-231/EGFP. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSC) were retrovirally transduced with fusion yeast cytosine deaminase::uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CD::UPRT) or with Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk). Engineered MSC were cocultured with tumor cells in the presence of prodrugs 5-fluorocytosin (5-FC) and ganciclovir (GCV). Combination effect of these enzyme/prodrug approaches was calculated. SCID/bg mice bearing experimental lung metastases were treated with CD::UPRT-MSC, HSVtk-MSC or both in combination in the presence of respective prodrug(s). Treatment efficiency was evaluated by EGFP-positive cell detection by flow cytometry combined with real-time PCR quantification of human cells in mouse organs. Results were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical examination. We demonstrated various extent of synergy depending on tested cell line and experimental setup. The strongest synergism was observed on breast cancer-derived cell line MDA-MB-231/EGFP. Systemic administration of CD::UPRT-MSC and HSVtk-MSC in combination with 5-FC and GCV inhibited growth of MDA-MB-231 induced lung metastases. Combined gene-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy mediated by MSC exerted synergic cytotoxic effect and resulted in high therapeutic efficacy in vivo.

  14. Propylene glycol-linked amino acid/dipeptide diester prodrugs of oleanolic acid for PepT1-mediated transport: synthesis, intestinal permeability, and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Feng; Gao, Yahan; Wang, Meng; Fang, Lei; Ping, Qineng

    2013-04-01

    In our previous studies, ethylene glycol-linked amino acid diester prodrugs of oleanolic acid (OA), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class IV drug, designed to target peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) have been synthesized and evaluated. Unlike ethylene glycol, propylene glycol is of very low toxicity in vivo. In this study, propylene glycol was used as a linker to further compare the effect of the type of linker on the stability, permeability, affinity, and bioavailability of the prodrugs of OA. Seven diester prodrugs with amino acid/dipeptide promoieties containing L-Val ester (7a), L-Phe ester (7b), L-Ile ester (7c), D-Val-L-Val ester (9a), L-Val-L-Val ester (9b), L-Ala-L-Val ester (9c), and L-Ala-L-Ile ester (9d) were designed and successfully synthesized. In situ rat single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) model was performed to screen the effective permeability (P(eff)) of the prodrugs. P(eff) of 7a, 7b, 7c, 9a, 9b, 9c, and 9d (6.7-fold, 2.4-fold, 1.24-fold, 1.22-fold, 4.15-fold, 2.2-fold, and 1.4-fold, respectively) in 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid buffer (MES) with pH 6.0 showed significant increase compared to that of OA (p propylene glycol-linked amino acid/dipeptide diester prodrugs showed better stability, permeability, affinity, and bioavailability. In conclusion, propylene glycol-linked amino acid/dipeptide diester prodrugs of OA may be suitable for PepT1-targeted prodrugs of OA to improve the oral bioavailability of OA.

  15. A glutathione-responsive sulfur dioxide polymer prodrug as a nanocarrier for combating drug-resistance in cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Liu, Wanguo; Yang, Huailin; Zhang, Peng; Xiao, Chunsheng; Chen, Xuesi

    2018-02-03

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer remains a significant challenge for curing cancer by chemotherapy. In this work, a kind of glutathione (GSH)-responsive polymer prodrug of SO 2 was designed and synthesized, which presented synergistic effect with doxorubicin (DOX) for combating MCF-7 ADR human breast cancer cell. Firstly, a small molecular prodrug of SO 2 , N-(3-azidopropyl)-2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonamide (AP-DNs), was chemically conjugated onto the side chain of methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (γ-propargyl-l-glutamate) (mPEG-PPLG) block copolymer to generate an amphiphilic polymer prodrug of SO 2 , mPEG-PLG (DNs). The obtained mPEG-PLG (DNs) prodrug could self-assemble into micelles in aqueous media and release SO 2 rapidly in response to thiol compounds. Then, DOX was loaded into mPEG-PLG (DNs) nanoparticles with ultrahigh drug-loading efficiency (97.3%). In vitro drug release tests indicated that the DOX-loaded nanoparticles could simultaneously release SO 2 and DOX by GSH triggering. Moreover, the effective cellular uptake of the DOX-loaded nanoparticles and subsequent intracellular release of SO 2 and DOX were verified by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM) analyses. The released SO 2 could promote the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in tumor cells, which thereby resulted in oxidative damages of cancer cells, together with restoration of MCF-7 ADR cells sensitivity to DOX. As a result, the released DOX and SO 2 showed synergistic therapeutic effect against MCF-7 ADR cells. In vivo antitumor evaluation further indicated that, compared with free DOX, the DOX-loaded nanoparticles exhibited better antitumor effect in a MCF-7 ADR-xenografted nude mice model while had lower system toxicity. Overall, we demonstrated, for the first time, that a SO 2 polymer prodrug, acting as a stimuli-responsive nanocarrier to codeliver DOX, can efficiently inhibit the proliferation of MDR tumor cells, which may offer a new weapon

  16. Targeting of pegylated liposomal mitomycin-C prodrug to the folate receptor of cancer cells: Intracellular activation and enhanced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Yogita; Amitay, Yasmine; Ohana, Patricia; Shmeeda, Hilary; Gabizon, Alberto

    2016-03-10

    Mitomycin C (MMC) is a powerful anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-tumor antibiotic, often active against multidrug resistant cells. Despite a broad spectrum of antitumor activity, MMC clinical use is relatively limited due to its fast clearance and dose-limiting toxicity. To exploit the potential antitumor activity of MMC and reduce its toxicity we have previously developed a formulation of pegylated liposomes with a lipophilic prodrug of MMC (PL-MLP), activated by endogenous reducing agents which are abundant in the tumor cell environment in the form of different thiols. PL-MLP has minimal in vitro cytotoxicity unless reducing agents are added to the cell culture to activate the prodrug. In the present study, we hypothesized that targeting PL-MLP via folate receptors will facilitate intracellular activation of prodrug and enhance cytotoxic activity without added reducing agents. We grafted a lipophilic folate conjugate (folate-PEG(5000)-DSPE) to formulate folate targeted liposomes (FT-PL-MLP) and examined in vitro cell uptake and cytotoxic activity in cancer cell lines with high folate receptors (HiFR). 3H-cholesterol-hexadecyl ether (3H-Chol)-radiolabeled liposomes were prepared to study liposome-cell binding in parallel to cellular uptake of prodrug MLP. 3H-Chol and MLP cell uptake levels were 4-fold and 9-fold greater in KB HiFR cells when FT-PL-MLP is compared to non-targeted PL-MLP liposomes. The cytotoxic activity of FT-PL-MLP liposomes was significantly increased up to ~5-fold compared with PL-MLP liposomes in all tested HiFR expressing cell lines. The enhanced uptake and intracytoplasmic liposome delivery was confirmed by confocal fluorescence studies with Rhodamine-labeled liposomes. In vivo, no significant differences in pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were observed when PL-MLP was compared to FT-PL-MLP by the intravenous route. However, when liposomes were directly injected into the peritoneal cavity of mice with malignant ascites of J6456 Hi

  17. Paclitaxel-2'-Ethylcarbonate prodrug can circumvent P-glycoprotein-mediated cellular efflux to increase drug cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanino, Tadatoshi; Nawa, Akihiro; Kondo, Eisaku; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Daikoku, Tohru; Tsurumi, Tatsuya; Luo, Chenhong; Nishiyama, Yukihiro; Takayanagi, Yuki; Nishimori, Katuhiko; Ichida, Seiji; Wada, Tetsuyuki; Miki, Yasuyoshi; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether 2'-ethylcarbonate-linked paclitaxel (TAX-2'-Et) circumvents P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated cellular efflux and cytotoxicity enhanced by TAX-2'-Et activation within human culture cells transfected with a rabbit liver carboxylesterase (Ra-CES) cDNA. TAX-2'-Et transport was characterized in a human colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2) and paclitaxel (TAX)-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells (SKOV3/TAX60). Expression of P-gp, multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2 and Ra-CES was detected by Western blotting. Cytotoxicity against Ra-CES-expressing cells and cellular amount of TAX produced were determined by MTT assay and using HPLC, respectively. Unlike rhodamine123 and TAX, TAX-2'-Et did not exhibit polarized transport in the Caco-2 cells in the absence or presence of verapamil. P-gp levels were expressed much higher in the SKOV3/ TAX60 cells than in the Caco-2 cells. MRP2 protein was not detectable in the SKOV3/TAX60 cells. Uptake by the SKOV3/TAX60 cells was similar in quantity to the amount internalized by P-gp-negative SKOV3 cells. In the SKOV3/TAX60 cells, cellular uptake of TAX-2'-Et was not altered regardless of the absence or presence of verapamil. The cytotoxicity to the untransfected SKOV3 cells induced by TAX-2'-Et was significantly lower than that induced by TAX. In the Ra-CES-expressing SKOV3 line, the EC50 value of TAX (10.6 nM) was approximately four-fold higher than that of TAX-2'-Et (2.5 nM). Transfection of Ra-CES into another TAX-resistant ovarian carcinoma cells (KOC-7c) conferred a high level of TAX-2'-Et cytotoxicity via prodrug activation. The intracellular levels of TAX produced from TAX-2'-Et in the Ra-CES-positive KOC-7c cells significantly increased compared with the levels seen in exposure of the untransfected KOC-7c cells to TAX. TAX-2'-Et can circumvent P-gp-associated cellular efflux of TAX. TAX-2'-Et is converted into TAX by the Ra-CES, supporting its potential use as a theoretical GDEPT strategy

  18. Discovery and preclinical development of a novel prodrug conjugate of mesalamine with eicosapentaenoic acid and caprylic acid for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Mahesh; Sunil Kumar, K B; Palanichamy, Sivanesan; Rampal, Ashok

    2016-11-01

    Mesalamine (5-ASA) is one of the drugs indicated as first line therapy in ulcerative colitis for induction and maintenance of remission. Sulfasalazine and formulations of 5-ASA (pH-dependent and controlled release formulations) were developed to minimize the systemic absorption and maximize the delivery of the mesalamine to colon. Although, its efficacy and safety is well documented there are approximately 30% nonresponders to 5-ASA therapy. This necessitates the need for novel therapeutic options to improve the efficacy and safety of the currently available 5-ASA therapy. CLX-103 is a novel, patented prodrug molecular conjugate of mesalamine, eicosapentaenoic acid and caprylic acid designed to offer incremental benefits over the currently approved 5-ASA formulations. Results of in vitro and in vivo studies showed that CLX-103, was stable in simulated gastric fluid, but undergoes enzymatic hydrolysis in the small/large intestines to release the active moiety. Our data also showed that the active moiety is retained in the targeted intestinal tissues (ileum and colon) over a longer period of time in relation to sulfasalazine. The in vitro data supports the observed in vivo plasma kinetics of 5-ASA characterized by longer T max , low C max after the oral administration of CLX-103. Efficacy study of CLX-103 in acute dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse colitis model showed improved potency measured as Disease Activity Index (DAI) and histological scores in the colon as compared to sulfasalazine. These findings indicate that CLX-103 could offer a differentiated drug product which is more efficacious and safer than the currently approved 5-ASA formulations in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  20. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  1. Dinitroglyceryl and diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolated nitric oxide donor ester prodrugs of aspirin, indomethacin and ibuprofen: synthesis, biological evaluation and nitric oxide release studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, Khaled R A; Chowdhury, Morshed Alam; Dong, Ying; Das, Dipankar; Yu, Gang; Velázquez, Carlos A; Suresh, Mavanur R; Knaus, Edward E

    2009-06-01

    A new group of hybrid nitric oxide (NO) releasing anti-inflammatory (AI) ester prodrugs (NONO-NSAIDs) wherein a 1,3-dinitrooxy-2-propyl (12a-c), or O(2)-acetoxymethyl-1-[2-(methyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (14a-c), NO-donor moiety is directly attached to the carboxylic acid group of aspirin, indomethacin or ibuprofen were synthesized. NO release from the dinitrooxypropyl, or diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate, ester prodrugs was increased substantially upon incubation in the presence of l-cysteine (12a-c) or rat serum (14a-c). The ester prodrugs (12a-c, 14a-c), which did not inhibit the COX-1 isozyme, exhibited modest inhibitory activity against the COX-2 isozyme. The NONO-NSAIDs 12a-c and 14a-c exhibited in vivo AI activity that was similar to that exhibited by the parent drug aspirin, indomethacin or ibuprofen when the same oral dose (micromol/kg) was administered. These similarities in oral potency profiles suggest these NONO-NSAIDs act as classical prodrugs that require metabolic activation by esterase-mediated hydrolysis. Hybrid NO-donor/anti-inflammatory prodrugs of this type (NONO-NSAIDs) offer a potential drug design concept targeted toward the development of anti-inflammatory drugs with reduced adverse gastrointestinal effects.

  2. Prodrugs of Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines: From Library Synthesis to Evaluation as Potential Anticancer Agents in an Orthotopic Glioblastoma Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignaroli, Giulia; Iovenitti, Giulia; Zamperini, Claudio; Coniglio, Federica; Calandro, Pierpaolo; Molinari, Alessio; Fallacara, Anna Lucia; Sartucci, Andrea; Calgani, Alessia; Colecchia, David; Mancini, Andrea; Festuccia, Claudio; Dreassi, Elena; Valoti, Massimo; Musumeci, Francesca; Chiariello, Mario; Angelucci, Adriano; Botta, Maurizio; Schenone, Silvia

    2017-07-27

    Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines are potent protein kinase inhibitors with promising antitumor activity but suboptimal aqueous solubility, consequently worth being further optimized. Herein, we present the one-pot two-step procedure for the synthesis of a set of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine prodrugs (1a-8a and 9a-e) with higher aqueous solubility and enhanced pharmacokinetic and therapeutic properties. ADME studies demonstrated for the most promising prodrugs a better aqueous solubility, a favorable hydrolysis in human and murine serum, and an increased ability to cross cell membranes with respect to the parental drugs, explaining their better 24 h in vitro cytotoxicity against human glioblastoma U87 cell line. Finally, the 4-4a couple of drug/prodrug was also evaluated in vivo, revealing a profitable pharmacokinetic profile of the prodrug associated with a good efficacy. The application of the prodrug approach demonstrated to be a successful strategy for improving aqueous solubility of the parental drugs, determining a positive impact also in their biological efficacy.

  3. Hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 decreased survival rate of canine lymphoma cells under hypoxic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroki; Lai, Yu-Chang; Tateno, Morihiro; Setoguchi, Asuka; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Nakaichi, Munekazu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Miura, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that hypoxic stimulation enhances growth potentials of canine lymphoma cells by activating hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and that the hypoxia-activated prodrug (TH-302) inhibits growth potentials in the cells. We investigated how hypoxic culture affects the growth rate, chemoresistance, and invasiveness of canine lymphoma cells and doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant lymphoma cells, and influences of TH-302 on survival rate of the cells under hypoxic conditions. Our results demonstrated that hypoxic culture upregulated the expression of HIF-1α and its target genes, including ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and survivin, and enhanced the growth rate, DOX resistance, and invasiveness of the cells. Additionally, TH-302 decreased the survival rate of the cells under hypoxic condition. Our studies suggest that hypoxic stimulation may advance the tumorigenicity of canine lymphoma cells, favoring malignant transformation. Therefore, the data presented may contribute to the development of TH-302-based hypoxia-targeting therapies for canine lymphoma.

  4. Theranostic Liposomes with Hypoxia-Activated Prodrug to Effectively Destruct Hypoxic Tumors Post-Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liangzhu; Cheng, Liang; Dong, Ziliang; Tao, Danlei; Barnhart, Todd E; Cai, Weibo; Chen, Meiwan; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-01-24

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a noninvasive cancer therapeutic method triggered by light, would lead to severe tumor hypoxia after treatment. Utilizing a hypoxia-activated prodrug, AQ4N, which only shows toxicity to cancer cells under hypoxic environment, herein, a multipurpose liposome is prepared by encapsulating hydrophilic AQ4N and hydrophobic hexadecylamine conjugated chlorin e6 (hCe6), a photosensitizer, into its aqueous cavity and hydrophobic bilayer, respectively. After chelating a 64 Cu isotope with Ce6, the obtained AQ4N- 64 Cu-hCe6-liposome is demonstrated to be an effective imaging probe for in vivo positron emission tomography, which together with in vivo fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging uncovers efficient passive homing of those liposomes after intravenous injection. After being irradiated with the 660 nm light-emitting diode light, the tumor bearing mice with injection of AQ4N-hCe6-liposome show severe tumor hypoxia, which in turn would trigger activation of AQ4N, and finally contributes to remarkably improved cancer treatment outcomes via sequential PDT and hypoxia-activated chemotherapy. This work highlights a liposome-based theranostic nanomedicine that could utilize tumor hypoxia, a side effect of PDT, to trigger chemotherapy, resulting in greatly improved efficacy compared to conventional cancer PDT.

  5. A Prodrug of Two Approved Drugs, Cisplatin and Chlorambucil, for Chemo War Against Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rakesh K; Wen, Ru; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Dhar, Shanta

    2017-04-01

    Cancer cells maintain normal mitochondrial glutathione as one of the defense mechanisms to inhibit mitochondrial membrane polarization and hence apoptosis. A combinational therapeutic modality Platin-Cbl, a prodrug of FDA-approved chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin and chlorambucil (Cbl), was synthesized and characterized to explore the potential of this compound to initiate chemo war on cancer cells using the active drugs, cisplatin and Cbl, when delivered to the cellular power house mitochondrion using a targeted nanoparticle designed to get associated with this organelle. Platin-Cbl demonstrated significantly high cytotoxic activity across a number of tumor cell lines as well as in a cisplatin-resistant cancer cell line compared with cisplatin or its mixture with Cbl suggesting its unique potency in cisplatin-resistant tumors. A mitochondria-targeted nanoparticle formulation of Platin-Cbl allowed for its efficacious mitochondrial delivery. In vitro studies documented high potency of Platin-Cbl nanoparticle formulations. Cisplatin-resistant cells upon treatment with Platin-Cbl were still able to manage energy production to a certain extent via fatty acid pathway; the advantage of using T-Platin-Cbl-NP is that this nanoparticle treatment causes impairment of all metabolic pathways in cisplatin-resistant cells forcing the cells to undergo efficient apoptosis. This study highlights a combination of several beneficial effects for a cascade of events to overcome resistance associated with single drug therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(4); 625-36. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Manageable cytotoxicity of nanocapsules immobilizing D-amino acid oxidase via exogenous administration of nontoxic prodrug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Yingchun; Fu, Jingke

    2014-02-01

    D-Amino acid oxidase (DAO), which could catalyze generation of hydrogen peroxide with strong oxidbility and cytotoxicity, has become of interest as a biocatalyst for therapeutic treatments. Herein we report that amino-functional hollow mesoporous silica with large pore size (10.27 nm) and positively charged surface effectively immobilize DAO with negative charge. The adsorption, activity and stability of DAO are demonstrated to depend mainly on the amino-functionalization of surface. Significant cancer cell killing effect is observed when the cells are treated by the nanocapsules entrapping DAO together with D-alanine, showing distinct dose-dependency on concentration of the nanocapsules entrapping DAO or D-alanine. Nevertheless, the toxicity is completely neutralized by the addition of catalase, and anti-tumor effect is not observed when either the nanocapsules entrapping DAO or D-alanine is applied alone. The results indicate that cytotoxicity of the nanocapsules entrapping DAO could be managed by exogenous administration of nontoxic prodrug to tumor tissue, due to the stereoselectivity of DAO and the scarcity of its substrates in mammalian organisms. Thus, the method might be exploited as a potential treatment for cancer therapy.

  7. Effective platinum(IV) prodrugs conjugated with lonidamine as a functional group working on the mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Chen, Feihong; Hu, Weiwei; Gou, Shaohua

    2018-03-01

    Platinum-based anticancer drugs are one of the most widely used anticancer chemotherapeutics in oncology. Lonidamine (LND) could increase the response of human tumor cells to platinum(II) drugs in preclinical studies by working on the mitochondria. Herein, five platinum(IV) prodrugs conjugated with their potentiator LND are prepared, and most of the target complexes achieve improved anticancer activities compared with their platinum(II) precursors. Notably, Pt(NH 3 ) 2 (LND)Cl 3 (complex 1) derived from cisplatin achieve significantly improved anticancer activities against LNCaP cells and could trigger cancer cell death via an apoptotic pathway and the cell cycle arrest mainly at S phases. And the induction of apoptosis by complex 1 in LNCaP cells is closely associated with mitochondrial function disruption and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Moreover, it is possessed of the ability to overcome cisplatin-resistance. Further research revealed that complex 1 could be easily reduced to release its platinum(II) precursor and axial ligand by ascorbic acid. All the results provid evidence to support the design strategy of conjugating platinum complexes with its potentiator to improve their anticancer effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Glutathione S-conjugates as prodrugs to target drug-resistant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E. Ramsay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are continuously exposed to xenobiotics. The major phase of enzymatic detoxification in many species is the conjugation of activated xenobiotics to reduced glutathione (GSH catalyzed by the glutathione-S-transferase (GST. It has been reported that some compounds, once transformed into glutathione S-conjugates, enter the mercapturic acid pathway whose end products are highly reactive and toxic for the cell responsible for their production. The cytotoxicity of these GSH conjugates depends essentially on GST and γ-glutamyl transferases (γGT, the enzymes which initiate the mercapturic acid synthesis pathway. Numerous studies support the view that the expression of GST and γGT in cancer cells represents an important factor in the appearance of a more aggressive and resistant phenotype. High levels of tumor GST and γGT expression were employed to selectively target tumor with GST- or γGT-activated drugs. This strategy, explored over the last two decades, has recently been successful using GST-activated nitrogen mustard (TLK286 and γGT-activated arsenic-based (GSAO and Darinaparsin prodrugs confirming the potential of GSH-conjugates as anticancer drugs.

  9. Glycosystems in nanotechnology: Gold glyconanoparticles as carrier for anti-HIV prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Chiodo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic approach for the treatment of HIV infection is based on the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, a cocktail of antiretroviral drugs. Notwithstanding HAART has shown different drawbacks like toxic side effects and the emergence of viral multidrug resistance. Nanotechnology offers new tools to improve HIV drug treatment and prevention. In this scenario, gold nanoparticles are an interesting chemical tool to design and prepare smart and efficient drug-delivery systems. Here we describe the preparation and antiviral activity of carbohydrate-coated gold nanoparticles loaded with anti-HIV prodrug candidates. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors abacavir and lamivudine have been converted to the corresponding thiol-ending ester derivatives and then conjugated to ~3 nm glucose-coated gold nanoparticles by means of “thiol-for-thiol” ligand place exchange reactions. The drugs-containing glyconanoparticles were characterized and the pH-mediated release of the drug from the nanoparticle has been determined. The antiviral activity was tested by evaluating the replication of NL4-3 HIV in TZM-bl infected cells. The proof-of-principle presented in this work aims to introduce gold glyconanoparticles as a new multifunctional drug-delivery system in the therapy against HIV.

  10. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Liguzinediol Mono- and Dual Ester Prodrugs as Promising Inotropic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potent positive inotropic effect, together with the relatively low safety risk of liguzinediol (LZDO, relative to currently available inotropic drugs, has prompted us to intensively research and develop LZDO as a potent positive inotropic agent. In this study, to obtain LZDO alternatives for oral chronic administration, a series of long-chain fatty carboxylic mono- and dual-esters of LZDO were synthesized, and preliminarily evaluated for physicochemical properties and bioconversion. Enhanced lipophilic properties and decreased solubility of the prodrugs were observed as the side chain length increased. All esters showed conspicuous chemical stability in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. Moreover, the enzymatic hydrolysis of esters in human plasma and human liver microsomes confirmed that the majority of esters were converted to LZDO, with release profiles that varied due to the size and structure of the side chain. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies following oral administration of monopivaloyl (M5, monodecyl (M10 and monododecyl (M12 esters demonstrated the evidently extended half-lives relative to LZDO dosed alone. In particular the monopivaloyl ester M5 exhibited an optimal pharmacokinetic profile with appropriate physiochemical characteristics.

  11. Cisplatin Prodrug-Conjugated Gold Nanocluster for Fluorescence Imaging and Targeted Therapy of the Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fangyuan; Feng, Bing; Yu, Haijun; Wang, Dangge; Wang, Tingting; Liu, Jianping; Meng, Qingshuo; Wang, Siling; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Theranostic nanomedicine has emerged as a promising modality for cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we report the fabrication of fluorescence gold nanoclusters (GNC) conjugated with a cisplatin prodrug and folic acid (FA) (FA-GNC-Pt) for fluorescence imaging and targeted chemotherapy of breast cancer. The physio-chemical properties of FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles are thoroughly characterized by fluorescence/UV-Vis spectroscopic measurement, particle size and zeta-potential examination. We find that FA-modification significantly accelerated the cellular uptake and increased the cytotoxicity of GNC-Pt nanoparticles in murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. Fluorescence imaging in vivo using 4T1 tumor bearing nude mouse model shows that FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles selectively accumulate in the orthotopic 4T1 tumor and generate strong fluorescence signal due to the tumor targeting effect of FA. Moreover, we demonstrate that FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles significantly inhibit the growth and lung metastasis of the orthotopically implanted 4T1 breast tumors. All these data imply a good potential of the GNC-based theranostic nanoplatform for fluorescence tumor imaging and cancer therapy.

  12. Crystal structure of quinone reductase 2 in complex with cancer prodrug CB1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yue; Buryanovskyy, Leonid; Zhang, Zhongtao

    2005-10-14

    CB1954 is a cancer pro-drug that can be activated through reduction by Escherichia coli nitro-reductases and quinone reductases. Human quinone reductase 2 is very efficient in the activation of CB1954, approximately 3000 times more efficient than human QR1 in terms of k(cat)/K(m). We have solved the three-dimensional structure of QR2 in complex with CB1954 to a nominal resolution of 1.5A. The complex structure indicates the essentiality of the two nitro groups: one nitro group forms hydrogen bonds with the side-chain of Asn161 of QR2 to hold the other nitro group in position for the reduction. We further conclude that residue 161, an Asn in QR2 and a His in QR1, is critical in differentiating the substrate specificities of these two enzymes. Mutation of Asn161 to His161 in QR2 resulted in the total loss of the enzymatic activity towards activation of CB1954, whereas the rates of reduction towards menadione are not altered.

  13. Voltammetric behavior of nitrofurazone and its hydroxymethyl prodrug with potential anti-Chagas activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La-Scalea, Mauro Aquiles [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: scalea@usp.br; Menezes, Carla Maria de Souza; Ferreira, Elizabeth Igne [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Juliao, Murilo Sergio da Silva [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraju, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Man Chin Chung [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Serrano, Silvia Helena Pires [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2005-07-15

    Chagas' disease is a serious health problem for Latin America. The situation is worsened by the lack of efficient chemotherapy. The two available commercial drugs, benznidazole and nifurtimox, are more effective in the acute phase of the disease. Nitrofurazone is active against Trypanosoma cruzi, however its high toxicity precludes its current use in parasitosis. Hydroxymethyl nitrofurazone is a prodrug of nitrofurazone. It is more active against Trypanosoma cruzi than nitrofurazone, besides being less toxic. This work shows the voltammetric behavior of nitrofurazone and a comparison with those of metronidazole and chloramphenicol using cyclic, linear sweep and differential pulse voltammetries. For these drugs also the prediction of the diffusion coefficients using Wilke-Chang equation was performed. The reduction of nitrofurazone is pH-dependent and in acidic medium the hydroxylamine derivative, involving four electrons, is the principal product formed. In aqueous-alkaline medium and with a glassy carbon electrode pre-treatment the reduction of nitrofurazone occurs in two steps, the first involving one electron to form the nitro-radical anion and the second corresponding to the hydroxylamine derivative formation. Hydroxymethyl nitrofurazone presented the same voltammetric behavior and electroactivity, indicating that the molecular modification performed in nitrofurazone did not change its capacity to be reduced. A brief discussion regarding the differences in biological activity between the two compounds is also presented. (author)

  14. Molecular Basis of Prodrug Activation by Human Valacyclovirase, an [alpha]-Amino Acid Ester Hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Longsheng; Xu, Zhaohui; Zhou, Jiahai; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L. (Michigan)

    2008-07-08

    Chemical modification to improve biopharmaceutical properties, especially oral absorption and bioavailability, is a common strategy employed by pharmaceutical chemists. The approach often employs a simple structural modification and utilizes ubiquitous endogenous esterases as activation enzymes, although such enzymes are often unidentified. This report describes the crystal structure and specificity of a novel activating enzyme for valacyclovir and valganciclovir. Our structural insights show that human valacyclovirase has a unique binding mode and specificity for amino acid esters. Biochemical data demonstrate that the enzyme hydrolyzes esters of {alpha}-amino acids exclusively and displays a broad specificity spectrum for the aminoacyl moiety similar to tricorn-interacting aminopeptidase F1. Crystal structures of the enzyme, two mechanistic mutants, and a complex with a product analogue, when combined with biochemical analysis, reveal the key determinants for substrate recognition; that is, a flexible and mostly hydrophobic acyl pocket, a localized negative electrostatic potential, a large open leaving group-accommodating groove, and a pivotal acidic residue, Asp-123, after the nucleophile Ser-122. This is the first time that a residue immediately after the nucleophile has been found to have its side chain directed into the substrate binding pocket and play an essential role in substrate discrimination in serine hydrolases. These results as well as a phylogenetic analysis establish that the enzyme functions as a specific {alpha}-amino acid ester hydrolase. Valacyclovirase is a valuable target for amino acid ester prodrug-based oral drug delivery enhancement strategies.

  15. Tumor-activated prodrug (TAP)-conjugated nanoparticles with cleavable domains for safe doxorubicin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Daniela; Biondi, Marco; Yu, Hui; Belli, Valentina; Falanga, Andrea P; Cantisani, Marco; Galdiero, Stefania; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-03-01

    A major issue in chemotherapy is the lack of specificity of many antitumor drugs, which cause severe side effects and an impaired therapeutic response. Here we report on the design and characterization of model tumor activated prodrug-conjugated polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles (TAP-NPs) for the release of doxorubicin (Dox) triggered by matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP2) enzyme, which is overexpressed in the extracellular matrix of tumors. In particular, TAP-NPs were produced by attaching Dox to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) through two MMP2-cleavable enzymes. The resulting adduct was then tethered to PS NPs. Results showed that Dox release was actually triggered by MMP2 cleavage and was dependent on enzyme concentration, with a plateau around 20 nM. Furthermore, significant cell cytotoxicity was observed towards three cell lines only in the presence of MMP2, but not in cells without enzyme pre-treatment, even after NP internalization by cells. These findings indicate the potential of TAP-NPs as suitable nanocarriers for an on demand, tumor--specific delivery of antitumor drugs after the response to an endogenous stimulus. Further advancements will focus on the translation of this production technology to biodegradable systems for the safe transport of cytotoxic drug to tumor tissues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Extremely potent orally active benzo[g]quinoline analogue of the dopaminergic prodrug : 6-(N,N-Di-n-propyl)amino-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-2H-naphthalen-1-one

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, DY; Wikstrom, HV; Dijkstra, D; de Vries, JB; Venhuis, BJ

    2006-01-01

    Enone prodrugs of dopaminergic catecholamines represent a new type of prodrug in the research area of dopamine agonists. Here, we demonstrate the first benzo[g]quinoline-derived enone that induces potent dopamine agonist effects similar to arninotetralin-derived enones. Significant effects of (-)-4

  17. Relative contributions of presystemic and systemic peptidases to oral exposure of a novel metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist (LY404039) after oral administration of prodrug pomaglumetad methionil (LY2140023).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annes, William F; Long, Amanda; Witcher, Jennifer W; Ayan-Oshodi, Mosun A; Knadler, Mary Pat; Zhang, Wei; Mitchell, Malcolm I; Cornelissen, Karen; Hall, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Pomaglumetad methionil (LY2140023) is the prodrug of a novel metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist (LY404039) being investigated for the treatment of schizophrenia. Using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and an intravenous (i.v.) radiolabeled tracer approach, the absolute bioavailability of the prodrug and the extent of its conversion to active moiety (LY404039) were estimated at presystemic (intestinal/first pass) and systemic sites after simultaneous oral and i.v. dosing in healthy subjects. The mean absolute bioavailability of prodrug (80 mg oral) was 0.68. On the basis of these data and a previous radiolabeled mass balance study in which no prodrug was recovered in feces, we concluded that 0.32 of the dose is converted to active drug in the intestinal tract. The fraction of prodrug converted to active moiety was approximately 1, indicating complete conversion of the prodrug that reaches the systemic circulation to the active moiety. Prodrug (80 mg oral and 100 μg i.v.) and active moiety (100 μg i.v.) were well tolerated in healthy subjects. Thus, the absolute bioavailability of prodrug LY2140023 and the fraction converted presystemically and systemically to active moiety LY404039 were estimated simultaneously using radiolabeled tracer microdosing and AMS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Prolonged naproxen joint residence time after intra-articular injection of lipophilic solutions comprising a naproxen glycolamide ester prodrug in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Mette; Lu, Yi; Agårdh, Li

    2013-01-01

    time. Two oils, medium-chain triglycerides and castor oil, differing with respect to viscosity were tested. After intra-articular administration of oil prodrug solutions, a significant increase in the time to maximum naproxen serum concentration from around 40 to 245min, an increase in the MRTj from......Intra-articular injection of oil solutions of lipophilic prodrugs that rapidly degrade to their parent compound in synovial fluid may constitute a feasible approach to increase the joint residence time of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In this in vivo study, oil solutions of the N......,N-diethyl glycolamide ester prodrug of naproxen (16mg/ml) were injected into the rat knee joint by dosing 6μl formulation per 100g body weight. The sustained release properties were compared to those of intra-articularly injected aqueous and oil solutions of naproxen by monitoring the naproxen serum concentrations over...

  19. A phase I trial of PR-104, a pre-prodrug of the bioreductive prodrug PR-104A, given weekly to solid tumour patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amies Karen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phosphate ester PR-104 is rapidly converted in vivo to the alcohol PR-104A, a nitrogen mustard prodrug that is metabolised to hydroxylamine (PR-104H and amine (PR-104M DNA crosslinking agents by one-electron reductases in hypoxic cells and by aldo-keto reductase 1C3 independently of oxygen. In a previous phase I study using a q 3 week schedule of PR-104, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD was 1100 mg/m2 and fatigue, neutropenic fever and infection were dose-limiting. The primary objective of the current study was to determine the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT and MTD of weekly PR-104. Methods Patients with advanced solid tumours received PR-104 as a 1-hour intravenous infusion on days 1, 8 and 15 every 28 days with assessment of pharmacokinetics on cycle 1 day 1. Twenty-six patients (pts were enrolled (16 male/10 female; median age 58 yrs, range 30 to 70 yrs who had received a median of two prior chemotherapy regimens (range, 0 to 3 for melanoma (8 pts, colorectal or anal cancer (3 pts, NSCLC (3 pts, sarcoma (3 pts, glioblastoma (2 pts, salivary gland tumours (2 pts or other solid tumours (5 pts. PR-104 was administered at 135 mg/m2 (3 pts, 270 mg/m2 (6 pts, 540 mg/m2 (6 pts, 675 mg/m2 (7 pts and 900 mg/m2 (4 pts for a median of two treatment cycles (range, 1 to 7 cycles and five infusions (range, 1 to 18 per patient. Results Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs during cycle one included grade four thrombocytopenia at 540 mg/m2 (1 of 6 pts and grade four thrombocytopenia and neutropenia at 900 mg/m2 (2 of 4 pts. At an intermediate dose of 675 mg/m2, there were no DLTs among a total of seven patients given 12 treatment cycles but all experienced moderate to severe (grade 2 to 4 haematological toxicity. Thrombocytopenia was delayed in its onset and nadir, and its recovery was protracted and incomplete in many patients. There were no complete or partial tumour responses. PR-104-induced thrombocytopenia and neutropenia correlated with

  20. Absence of rapid selection for acyclovir or penciclovir resistance following suboptimal oral prodrug therapy of HSV-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacon Teresa H

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acyclovir (ACV resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV isolates can be readily selected in animal infection models receiving suboptimal ACV treatment, however no comparative studies of the emergence of resistance following suboptimal treatment with valacyclovir (VCV or famciclovir (FCV, the prodrugs of acyclovir and penciclovir, respectively, have been reported. Methods Mice (n = 30 were infected with HSV type 1 or 2 in the ear pinnae and administered oral prodrugs at one fifth a dose previously shown to be effective. To select and amplify drug-resistant HSV, a total of seven consecutive in vivo passages with suboptimal treatment were performed for each virus sample and progeny virus from each passage was characterized by the plaque reduction (PRA and plating efficiency assays (PEA. Results No drug-resistant HSV-2 and only a single drug-resistant HSV-1 variant were identified. Virus recovered from the first three sequential passages of this HSV-1 sample was susceptible by PRA, although the proportion of resistant virus recovered gradually increased upon passage. The resistant HSV-1 phenotype was confirmed by PRA after four sequential passages in mice. Unexpectedly, this in vivo-selected drug-resistant HSV-1 failed to yield an infection completely refractory to treatment in subsequent passages. Conclusions Sub-optimal therapy of immunocompetent mice with either VCV or FCV did not readily select for HSV-mutants resistant to either ACV or PCV, suggesting that selection of resistance with either prodrug remains difficult using this system. Futhermore, this study suggests that the PEA may represent a useful adjunct to the PRA for monitoring alterations in the proportion of drug-resistant virus even when no change in IC50 is apparent.

  1. A New Pro-Prodrug Aminoacid-Based for Trans-Ferulic Acid and Silybin Intestinal Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Trombino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the preparation and characterization of a pro-prodrug able to simultaneously transport silybin, a drug possessing various pharmacological effects, and trans-ferulic acid, a known antioxidant. More specifically, l-phenylalanine-N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl prop-2-en-O-(2R,3R-3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-((2R,3R-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-2-(hydroxymethyl-2,3-dihydro-benzo-(1,4-dioxin-6-ylcroman-4-one was synthesized by using the aminoacid l-phenylalanine (l-Phe as carrier. Indeed, l-Phe is characterized by an intrinsic chemical reactivity due to the presence of an amino group, placed on the chiral center, and of a carboxylic group. The synthesis has been characterized first by adding silybin by means of carboxylic group and then, with the aim to confer antioxidant properties to this new carrier, by linking trans-ferulic acid to l-Phe via amino group. The so obtained derivative was then characterized by FT-IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopies. Furthermore, its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in rat liver microsomes, was evaluated. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging effect, was also assessed. The release of silybin and trans-ferulic acid was determined in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids over the time. The results showed that the covalent bond between both (i silybin; or (ii trans-ferulic acid and the amino acid was degraded by enzymatic reactions. In addition, the pro-prodrug, showed strong antioxidant and scavenger activities. Due to these properties, this new pro-prodrug could be applied for the treatment of intestinal pathologies and it might improve the therapeutic potential of silybin which is strongly limited by its low solubility.

  2. In vivo evaluation of lipid-based formulations for oral delivery of apomorphine and its diester prodrugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkar, Nrupa Nitin; Holm, René; Yang, Mingshi

    2016-01-01

    administered (0.24mmol/kg) to rats as: DLA-o/w emulsion, DPA-o/w emulsion, apomorphine-o/w emulsion, apomorphine aqueous suspension, DLA-Maisine, DLA-soybean oil, DLA-self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), and DLA-w/o emulsion. The o/w and w/o emulsion consisted of Maisine 35-1 emulsified with water...... apomorphine micellar solubilization in intestinal fluids. A combination of prodrug strategy and lipid-based formulations facilitated a higher and prolonged absorption of apomorphine from its diester prodrugs....

  3. Discovery of 2-Pyridinone Aminals: A Prodrug Strategy to Advance a Second Generation of HIV-1 Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raheem, Izzat T.; Walji, Abbas M.; Klein, Daniel; Sanders, John M.; Powell, David A.; Abeywickrema, Pravien; Barbe, Guillaume; Bennet, Amrith; Clas, SophieDorothee; Dubost, David; Embrey, Mark; Grobler, Jay; Hafey, Michael J.; Hartingh, Timothy J.; Hazuda, Daria J.; Miller, Michael D.; Moore, Keith P.; Pajkovic, Natasa; Patel, Sangita; Rada, Vanessa; Rearden, Paul; Schreier, John D.; Sisko, John; Steele, Thomas G.; Truchon, Jean-François; Wai, John; Xu, Min; Coleman, Paul J. (Merck)

    2015-10-22

    The search for new molecular constructs that resemble the critical two-metal binding pharmacophore required for HIV integrase strand transfer inhibition represents a vibrant area of research within drug discovery. Here we present the discovery of a new class of HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors based on the 2-pyridinone core of MK-0536. These efforts led to the identification of two lead compounds with excellent antiviral activity and preclinical pharmacokinetic profiles to support a once-daily human dose prediction. Dose escalating PK studies in dog revealed significant issues with limited oral absorption and required an innovative prodrug strategy to enhance the high-dose plasma exposures of the parent molecules.

  4. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  5. Thiopurine Prodrugs Mediate Immunosuppressive Effects by Interfering with Rac1 Protein Function*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Young; Wey, Michael; Umutesi, Hope G.; Sun, Xiangle; Simecka, Jerry; Heo, Jongyun

    2016-01-01

    6-Thiopurine (6-TP) prodrugs include 6-thioguanine and azathioprine. Both are widely used to treat autoimmune disorders and certain cancers. This study showed that a 6-thioguanosine triphosphate (6-TGTP), converted in T-cells from 6-TP, targets Rac1 to form a disulfide adduct between 6-TGTP and the redox-sensitive GXXXXGK(S/T)C motif of Rac1. This study also showed that, despite the conservation of the catalytic activity of RhoGAP (Rho-specific GAP) on the 6-TGTP-Rac1 adduct to produce the biologically inactive 6-thioguanosine diphosphate (6-TGDP)-Rac1 adduct, RhoGEF (Rho-specific GEF) cannot exchange the 6-TGDP adducted on Rac1 with free guanine nucleotide. The biologically inactive 6-TGDP-Rac1 adduct accumulates in cells because of the ongoing combined actions of RhoGEF and RhoGAP. Because other Rho GTPases, such as RhoA and Cdc42, also possess the GXXXXGK(S/T)C motif, the proposed mechanism for the inactivation of Rac1 also applies to RhoA and Cdc42. However, previous studies have shown that CD3/CD28-stimulated T-cells contain more activated Rac1 than other Rho GTPases such as RhoA and Cdc42. Accordingly, Rac1 is the main target of 6-TP in activated T-cells. This explains the T-cell-specific Rac1-targeting therapeutic action of 6-TP that suppresses the immune response. This proposed mechanism for the action of 6-TP on Rac1 performs a critical role in demonstrating the capability to design a Rac1-targeting chemotherapeutic agent(s) for autoimmune disorders. Nevertheless, the results also suggest that the targeting action of other Rho GTPases in other organ cells, such as RhoA in vascular cells, may be linked to cytotoxicities because RhoA plays a key role in vasculature functions. PMID:27189938

  6. Preclinical Evaluation of Promitil, a Radiation-Responsive Liposomal Formulation of Mitomycin C Prodrug, in Chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Xi; Warner, Samuel B.; Wagner, Kyle T.; Caster, Joseph M. [Laboratory of Nano- and Translational Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Carolina Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence, Carolina Institute of Nanomedicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Zhang, Tian [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Ohana, Patricia [Lipomedix Pharmaceuticals, Jerusalem (Israel); Gabizon, Alberto A. [Lipomedix Pharmaceuticals, Jerusalem (Israel); Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem (Israel); Wang, Andrew Z., E-mail: zawang@med.unc.edu [Laboratory of Nano- and Translational Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Carolina Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence, Carolina Institute of Nanomedicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of radiation on in vitro drug activation and release of Promitil, a pegylated liposomal formulation of a mitomycin C (MMC) lipid-based prodrug; and examine the efficacy and toxicity of Promitil with concurrent radiation in colorectal cancer models. Methods and Materials: Promitil was obtained from Lipomedix Pharmaceuticals (Jerusalem, Israel). We tested the effects of radiation on release of active MMC from Promitil in vitro. We next examined the radiosensitization effect of Promitil in vitro. We further evaluated the toxicity of a single injection of free MMC or Promitil when combined with radiation by assessing the effects on blood counts and in-field skin and hair toxicity. Finally, we compared the efficacy of MMC and Promitil in chemoradiotherapy using mouse xenograft models. Results: Mitomycin C was activated and released from Promitil in a controlled-release profile, and the rate of release was significantly increased in medium from previously irradiated cells. Both Promitil and MMC potently radiosensitized HT-29 cells in vitro. Toxicity of MMC (8.4 mg/kg) was substantially greater than with equivalent doses of Promitil (30 mg/kg). Mice treated with human-equivalent doses of MMC (3.3 mg/kg) experienced comparable levels of toxicity as Promitil-treated mice at 30 mg/kg. Promitil improved the antitumor efficacy of 5-fluorouracil–based chemoradiotherapy in mouse xenograft models of colorectal cancer, while equitoxic doses of MMC did not. Conclusions: We demonstrated that Promitil is an attractive agent for chemoradiotherapy because it demonstrates a radiation-triggered release of active drug. We further demonstrated that Promitil is a well-tolerated and potent radiosensitizer at doses not achievable with free MMC. These results support clinical investigations using Promitil in chemoradiotherapy.

  7. Estradiol prodrugs (EP) for efficient oral estrogen treatment and abolished effects on estrogen modulated liver functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, W; Wyrwa, R; Ahmed, G; Meece, F; Nair, H B; Santhamma, B; Killeen, Z; Schneider, B; Meister, R; Schubert, H; Nickisch, K

    2017-01-01

    Oral compared to parenteral estrogen administration is characterized by reduced systemic but prominent hepatic estrogenic effects on lipids, hemostatic factors, GH-/IGF I axis, angiotensinogen. In order to avoid such adverse metabolic effects of oral treatment, estradiol (E2) prodrugs (EP) were designed which bypass the liver tissue as inactive molecules. Carbone17-OH sulfonamide [-O 2 -NH 2 ] substituted esters of E2 (EC508, others) were synthesized and tested for carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) binding. CA II in erythrocytes is thought to oppose extraction of EP from portal vein blood during liver passage. Ovariectomized (OVX, day minus 14) rats were orally treated once daily from day 1-3. Sacrifice day 4. Uteri were dissected and weighed. Cholesterol fractions and angiotensinogen were determined in plasma. Oral E2 and ethinyl estradiol (EE) generated dose related uterine growth and important hepatic estrogenic effects. EP induced uterine growth at about hundred-fold lower doses. This was possible with almost absent effects on plasma cholesterol or angiotensinogen. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies with EC508 used intravenous and oral administration in male rats. Resulting blood levels revealed complete oral bioavailability. Further high blood- but low plasma concentrations indicated erythrocyte binding of EC508 in vivo as potential mechanism of low extraction at liver passage. Very high systemic estrogenicity combined with markedly lower or absent adverse hepatic estrogenic effects is evidence for a systemic release of E2 from sulfonamide EP. In conclusion, tested oral EP bypass the liver in erythrocytes furnishing systemic estradiol at hydrolysis. This mechanism avoids the hepatic estrogenic impact of conventional oral estrogen therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamin E Phosphate Nucleoside Prodrugs: A Platform for Intracellular Delivery of Monophosphorylated Nucleosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Daifuku

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E phosphate (VEP nucleoside prodrugs are designed to bypass two mechanisms of tumor resistance to therapeutic nucleosides: nucleoside transport and kinase downregulation. Certain isoforms of vitamin E (VE have shown activity against solid and hematologic tumors and result in chemosensitization. Because gemcitabine is one of the most common chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer, it was used to demonstrate the constructs utility. Four different VE isoforms were conjugated with gemcitabine at the 5′ position. Two of these were δ-tocopherol-monophosphate (MP gemcitabine (NUC050 and δ-tocotrienol-MP gemcitabine (NUC052. NUC050 was shown to be able to deliver gemcitabine-MP intracellularly by a nucleoside transport independent mechanism. Its half-life administered IV in mice was 3.9 h. In a mouse xenograft model of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC NCI-H460, NUC050 at a dose of 40 mg/kg IV qwk × 4 resulted in significant inhibition to tumor growth on days 11–31 (p < 0.05 compared to saline control (SC. Median survival was 33 days (NUC050 vs. 25.5 days (SC ((hazard ratio HR = 0.24, p = 0.017. Further, NUC050 significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to historic data with gemcitabine at 135 mg/kg IV q5d × 3 on days 14–41 (p < 0.05. NUC052 was administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg IV qwk × 2 followed by 50 mg/kg qwk × 2. NUC052 resulted in inhibition to tumor growth on days 14–27 (p < 0.05 and median survival was 34 days (HR = 0.27, p = 0.033. NUC050 and NUC052 have been shown to be safe and effective in a mouse xenograft of NSCLC.

  9. Targeted Chemo-Photodynamic Combination Platform Based on the DOX Prodrug Nanoparticles for Enhanced Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Huang, Fan; Ren, Chunhua; Yang, Lijun; Liu, Jianfeng; Cheng, Zhen; Chu, Liping; Liu, Jinjian

    2017-04-19

    Chemo-photodynamic combination therapy has been received widespread attention in cancer treatment due to its excellent characteristics, such as reducing the adverse side effects of chemo-drugs and improving the therapeutic effects for various cancers. In this study, RGD and DOX was conjugated to PEG by thiol-ene addition and Schiff's base reaction, respectively, to prepare the targeted and pH-sensitive antitumor prodrug nanoparticles (RGD-PEG-DOX NPs, RGD-NPs). Subsequently, the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) was encapsulated into RGD-NPs, thus obtaining a simple and efficient chemo-photodynamic combination platform (RGD-PEG-DOX/Ce6 NPs, RGD-NPs/Ce6). This nanoparticle possessed high drug loading property of both the chemo-drug and photosensitizer and could simultaneously release them under the mild acidic microenvironment of cancer cells, which was expected to realize the synchronization therapy of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Compared with free DOX and Ce6, RGD-NPs/Ce6 could significantly improve the cellular uptake capacities of DOX and Ce6, resulting in the increased contents of ROS in cancer cells and effective cytotoxicity for tumor cells (MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells) upon a laser radiation. The in vivo experiment showed that RGD-NPs/Ce6 displayed superior tumor targeting, accumulation, and retention ability than the other groups (free DOX, free Ce6 and NPs/Ce6), and thus significantly enhancing the antitumor effect in vivo with a laser radiation. In addition, the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX was thoroughly wiped out after being loaded and delivered by the nanoparticles according to the pathological analysis. Therefore, the targeted chemo-photodynamic combination therapeutic platform may be a promising candidate for enhanced cancer therapy.

  10. Nitric oxide-releasing prodrug triggers cancer cell death through deregulation of cellular redox balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Maciag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available JS-K is a nitric oxide (NO-releasing prodrug of the O2-arylated diazeniumdiolate family that has demonstrated pronounced cytotoxicity and antitumor properties in a variety of cancer models both in vitro and in vivo. The current study of the metabolic actions of JS-K was undertaken to investigate mechanisms of its cytotoxicity. Consistent with model chemical reactions, the activating step in the metabolism of JS-K in the cell is the dearylation of the diazeniumdiolate by glutathione (GSH via a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The resulting product (CEP/NO anion spontaneously hydrolyzes, releasing two equivalents of NO. The GSH/GSSG redox couple is considered to be the major redox buffer of the cell, helping maintain a reducing environment under basal conditions. We have quantified the effects of JS-K on cellular GSH content, and show that JS-K markedly depletes GSH, due to JS-K's rapid uptake and cascading release of NO and reactive nitrogen species. The depletion of GSH results in alterations in the redox potential of the cellular environment, initiating MAPK stress signaling pathways, and inducing apoptosis. Microarray analysis confirmed signaling gene changes at the transcriptional level and revealed alteration in the expression of several genes crucial for maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis, as well as cell proliferation and survival, including MYC. Pre-treating cells with the known GSH precursor and nucleophilic reducing agent N-acetylcysteine prevented the signaling events that lead to apoptosis. These data indicate that multiplicative depletion of the reduced glutathione pool and deregulation of intracellular redox balance are important initial steps in the mechanism of JS-K's cytotoxic action.

  11. Dual delivery systems based on polyamine analog BENSpm as prodrug and gene delivery vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu

    -SS-BEN) capable of intracellular release of BENSpm using thiolytically sensitive dithiobenzyl carbamate linker. Similar activity on SSAT enzyme induction by Lipo-SS-BEN compared with BENSpm free drug verified the success of this prodrug design. Biodegradability of Lipo-SS-BEN contributed to decreased toxicity compared with nondegradable control LipoBEN. However, decreased enhancement of TRAIL activity was observed for Lipo-SS-BEN when compared with BENSpm, indicating that the lipid-related toxicity diminished the synergism. In addition, compared with LipoBEN and DOTAP, decreased transfection efficiency of Lipo-SS-BEN demonstrated instability of Lipo-SS-BEN in extracellular environment. In order to design a dual delivery vector with reduced vector toxicity and improved linker stability, we employed dendritic polyglycerol (PG) as a safe carrier backbone, onto which BENSpm was conjugated through carbamate linkage (PG-BEN). Polymers with norspermine (PG-Nor) shell and amine-terminated PG (PG-NH2) were synthesized as controls. The BENSpm dual vector PG-BEN demonstrated superior gene delivery function, and showed decreased toxicity compared with the control polymers. However, compared with BENSpm, which depleted all natural polyamines, PG-BEN only down-regulated intracellular putrescine levels. In addition, no free BENSpm was detected in PG-BEN treated cells. These results suggested that in order to take full advantage of BENSpm anticancer activity, alternative linker chemistry needs to be further explored. We then incorporated bis(2-hydroxyethyl) disulfide as a self-immolative linker to synthesize polymer prodrugs of BENSpm (DSS-BEN). The proposed mechanism of BENSpm release from DSS-BEN contains two steps: disulfide bond is first cleaved in the reducing intracellular space, then the intermediate further undergoes slow intramolecular cyclization to release free BENSpm. Cell line-dependent BENSpm release after DSS-BEN treatment was observed using HPLC analysis, demonstrating the

  12. A dexamethasone prodrug reduces the renal macrophage response and provides enhanced resolution of established murine lupus nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yuan

    Full Text Available We evaluated the ability of a macromolecular prodrug of dexamethasone (P-Dex to treat lupus nephritis in (NZB × NZWF1 mice. We also explored the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of this prodrug. P-Dex eliminated albuminuria in most (NZB × NZWF1 mice. Furthermore, P-Dex reduced the incidence of severe nephritis and extended lifespan in these mice. P-Dex treatment also prevented the development of lupus-associated hypertension and vasculitis. Although P-Dex did not reduce serum levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies or glomerular immune complexes, P-Dex reduced macrophage recruitment to the kidney and attenuated tubulointerstitial injury. In contrast to what was observed with free dexamethasone, P-Dex did not induce any deterioration of bone quality. However, P-Dex did lead to reduced peripheral white blood cell counts and adrenal gland atrophy. These results suggest that P-Dex is more effective and less toxic than free dexamethasone for the treatment of lupus nephritis in (NZB × NZWF1 mice. Furthermore, the data suggest that P-Dex may treat nephritis by attenuating the renal inflammatory response to immune complexes, leading to decreased immune cell infiltration and diminished renal inflammation and injury.

  13. Efficacy of DA-7218, a new oxazolidinone prodrug, in the treatment of experimental actinomycetoma produced by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-González, Nelly Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; de Torres, Noemi Waksman; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Said-Fernandez, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Choi, Sung-Hak; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2008-01-11

    Two recently synthesized oxazolidinones: (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-hydroxymethyloxazolidin-2-one (DA-7157) and its corresponding pro-drug (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl) methyl disodium phosphate (DA-7218), have shown very good activity against several Gram positive bacteria, including Nocardia and Mycobacterium. In the present work we evaluated the therapeutic in vivo effects of DA-7218 on Nocardia brasiliensis. We first determined the plasma concentration of the prodrug in BALB/c mice using several doses and then tested its activity in an in vivo experimental actinomycetoma murine model. At the end of treatment, there was a statistically significant difference between the three drug receiving groups (25, 12.5 and 5 mg/kg) and the control group(saline solution) (p=0.001), proving that DA-7218 is effective for the treatment of experimental murine actinomycetoma. This compound could be a potential option for patients affected with mycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis.

  14. Efficacy of DA-7218, a New Oxazolidinone Prodrug, in the Treatment of Experimental Actinomycetoma Produced by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Vera-Cabrera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two recently synthesized oxazolidinones: (R-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl-pyridin-5-yl-3-fluorophenyl-5-hydroxymethyloxazolidin-2-one (DA-7157 and itscorresponding pro-drug (R-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl-pyridin-5-yl-3-fluorophenyl-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl methyl disodium phosphate (DA-7218, have shown very goodactivity against several Gram positive bacteria, including Nocardia and Mycobacterium. Inthe present work we evaluated the therapeutic in vivo effects of DA-7218 on Nocardiabrasiliensis. We first determined the plasma concentration of the prodrug in BALB/c miceusing several doses and then tested its activity in an in vivo experimental actinomycetomamurine model. At the end of treatment, there was a statistically significant differencebetween the three drug receiving groups (25, 12.5 and 5 mg/kg and the control group(saline solution (p=0.001, proving that DA-7218 is effective for the treatment of experimental murine actinomycetoma. This compound could be a potential option forpatients affected with mycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis.

  15. Disposition kinetics of a dipeptide ester prodrug of acyclovir and its metabolites following intravenous and oral administrations in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talluri, Ravi S; Gaudana, Ripal; Hariharan, Sudharshan; Jain, Ritesh; Mitra, Ashim K

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the disposition kinetics of valine-valine-acyclovir (VVACV), a dipeptide ester prodrug of acyclovir following intravenous and oral administrations in rat. A validated LC-MS/MS analytical method was developed for the analysis VVACV, Valine-Acyclovir (VACV), and Acyclovir (ACV) using a linear Ion Trap Quadrupole. ACV was administered orally for comparison purpose. In the VVACV group, both blood and urine samples and in the ACV group only blood samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. The LLOQ for ACV, VACV, and VVACV were 10, 10, and 50 ng/ml, respectively. Relevant pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analyses of data with WinNonlin. Following i.v. administration of VVACV, AUC(0-inf) (min*µM) values for VVACV, VACV, and ACV were 55.06, 106, and 466.96, respectively. The AUC obtained after oral administration of ACV was 178.8. However, following oral administration of VVACV, AUC(0-inf) values for VACV and ACV were 89.28 and 810.77, respectively. Thus the exposure of ACV obtained following oral administration of VVACV was almost 6-fold higher than ACV. This preclinical pharmacokinetic data revealed that VVACV has certainly improved the oral bioavailability of ACV and is an effective prodrug for oral delivery of ACV.

  16. Extracellular palladium-catalysed dealkylation of 5-fluoro-1-propargyl-uracil as a bioorthogonally activated prodrug approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jason T; Dawson, John C; Macleod, Kenneth G; Rybski, Witold; Fraser, Craig; Torres-Sánchez, Carmen; Patton, E Elizabeth; Bradley, Mark; Carragher, Neil O; Unciti-Broceta, Asier

    2014-01-01

    A bioorthogonal organometallic reaction is a biocompatible transformation undergone by a synthetic material exclusively through the mediation of a non-biotic metal source; a selective process used to label biomolecules and activate probes in biological environs. Here we report the in vitro bioorthogonal generation of 5-fluorouracil from a biologically inert precursor by heterogeneous Pd(0) catalysis. Although independently harmless, combined treatment of 5-fluoro-1-propargyl-uracil and Pd(0)-functionalized resins exhibits comparable antiproliferative properties to the unmodified drug in colorectal and pancreatic cancer cells. Live-cell imaging and immunoassay studies demonstrate that the cytotoxic activity of the prodrug/Pd(0)-resin combination is due to the in situ generation of 5-fluorouracil. Pd(0)-resins can be carefully implanted in the yolk sac of zebrafish embryos and display excellent biocompatibility and local catalytic activity. The in vitro efficacy shown by this masking/activation strategy underlines its potential to develop a bioorthogonally activated prodrug approach and supports further in vivo investigations.

  17. Mesenchymal stromal cells retrovirally transduced with prodrug-converting genes are suitable vehicles for cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďuriniková, E; Kučerová, L; Matúšková, M

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) possess a set of several fairly unique properties which make them ideally suitable both for cellular therapies and regenerative medicine. These include: relative ease of isolation, the ability to differentiate along mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal lineages in vitro and the ability to be extensively expanded in culture without a loss of differentiative capacity. MSC are not only hypoimmunogenic, but they mediate immunosuppression upon transplantation, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory properties. They are able to home to damaged tissues, tumors, and metastases following systemic administration. The ability of homing holds big promise for tumor-targeted delivery of therapeutic agents. Viruses are naturally evolved vehicles efficiently transferring their genes into host cells. This ability made them suitable for engineering vector systems for the delivery of genes of interest. MSC can be retrovirally transduced with genes encoding prodrug-converting genes (suicide genes), which are not toxic per se, but catalyze the formation of highly toxic metabolites following the application of a nontoxic prodrug. The homing ability of MSC holds advantages compared to virus vehicles which display many shortcomings in effective delivery of the therapeutic agents. Gene therapies mediated by viruses are limited by their restricted ability to track cancer cells infiltrating into the surrounding tissue, and by their low migratory capacity towards tumor. Thus combination of cellular therapy and gene delivery is an attractive option - it protects the vector from immune surveillance, and supports targeted delivery of a therapeutic gene/protein to the tumor site.

  18. Enhancing the intestinal absorption of molecules containing the polar guanidino functionality: a double-targeted prodrug approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-01-28

    A prodrug strategy was applied to guanidino-containing analogues to increase oral absorption via hPEPT1 and hVACVase. l-Valine, l-isoleucine, and l-phenylalanine esters of [3-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl]guanidine (3-HPG) were synthesized and evaluated for transport and activation. In HeLa/hPEPT1 cells, Val-3-HPG and Ile-3-HPG exhibited high affinity to hPEPT1 (IC(50): 0.65 and 0.63 mM, respectively), and all three l-amino acid esters showed higher uptake (2.6- to 9-fold) than the parent compound 3-HPG. Val-3-HPG and Ile-3-HPG demonstrated remarkable Caco-2 permeability enhancement, and Val-3-HPG exhibited comparable permeability to valacyclovir. In rat perfusion studies, Val-3-HPG and Ile-3-HPG permeabilities were significantly higher than 3-HPG and exceeded/matched the high-permeability standard metoprolol, respectively. All the l-amino acid 3-HPG esters were effectively activated in HeLa and Caco-2 cell homogenates and were found to be good substrates of hVACVase (k(cat)/K(m) in mM(-1) x s(-1): Val-3-HPG, 3370; Ile-3-HPG, 1580; Phe-3-HPG, 1660). In conclusion, a prodrug strategy is effective at increasing the intestinal permeability of polar guanidino analogues via targeting hPEPT1 for transport and hVACVase for activation.

  19. Design and in vitro evaluation of self-assembled indometacin prodrug nanoparticles for sustained/controlled release and reduced normal cell toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyan; Pan, Zhou; Song, Liang; Zhang, Yanmei; Li, Yang; Hou, Zhenqing; Lin, Changjian

    2017-12-01

    Despite the great efficacy of indomethacin (IND) as an anti-inflammatory agent, its clinical translation has been obstructed by the water insolubility, severe side effects, and exceedingly low bioavailability. Indomethacin prodrug-based nanoparticles (NPs) combining the strengths of both nanotechnology and prodrugs that might overcome this crucial problem are presented. Here, using the carbodiimide-mediated couple reaction, IND was conjugated to clinically approved poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymer via peptide linkage that was cleavaged in the presence of cathepsin B, which was significantly induced after inflammatory. The synthesized IND-PEG-IND conjugate was characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, 1H NMR, XRD, and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. For its intrinsic amphiphilic property, the IND prodrug self-assembled into NPs in aqueous solution and served two roles-as an anti-inflammatory prodrug and a drug carrier. The constructed IND-PEG-IND NPs had naoscaled particle size of approximately 80 nm, negative surface, spherical shape, good water-dispersity, and high and fixed drug-loading content of 20.1 wt%. In addition, IND-PEG-IND NPs demonstrated sustained and cathepsin B-controlled drug release behavior. More importantly, IND-PEG-IND NPs significantly reduced the acute totoxicity agaist normal osteoblast cells and displayed the more potent anti-inflammatory effect against macrophage cells compared to the free IND. Taken together, the nanoprodrug might exhibit increased potency for nanomedicine-prospective therapeutic use in clinical treatement of implant inflammatory diseases.

  20. A fully human anti-Ep-CAM scFv-beta-glucuronidase fusion protein for selective chemotherapy with a glucuronide prodrug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, E; Oosterhoff, D; van der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Huls, GA; Gerritsen, WR; Haisma, HJ; Pinedo, HM

    2002-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against tumour-associated antigens could be useful to deliver enzymes selectively to the site of a tumour for activation of a non-toxic prodrug. A completely human fusion protein may be advantageous for repeated administration, as host immune responses may be avoided. We have

  1. Computational modeling and in-vitro/in-silico correlation of phospholipid-based prodrugs for targeted drug delivery in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Markovic, Milica; Keinan, Shahar; Kurnikov, Igor; Aponick, Aaron; Zimmermann, Ellen M.; Ben-Shabat, Shimon

    2017-11-01

    Targeting drugs to the inflamed intestinal tissue(s) represents a major advancement in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this work we present a powerful in-silico modeling approach to guide the molecular design of novel prodrugs targeting the enzyme PLA2, which is overexpressed in the inflamed tissues of IBD patients. The prodrug consists of the drug moiety bound to the sn-2 position of phospholipid (PL) through a carbonic linker, aiming to allow PLA2 to release the free drug. The linker length dictates the affinity of the PL-drug conjugate to PLA2, and the optimal linker will enable maximal PLA2-mediated activation. Thermodynamic integration and Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (WHAM)/Umbrella Sampling method were used to compute the changes in PLA2 transition state binding free energy of the prodrug molecule (ΔΔGtr) associated with decreasing/increasing linker length. The simulations revealed that 6-carbons linker is the optimal one, whereas shorter or longer linkers resulted in decreased PLA2-mediated activation. These in-silico results were shown to be in excellent correlation with experimental in-vitro data. Overall, this modern computational approach enables optimization of the molecular design of novel prodrugs, which may allow targeting the free drug specifically to the diseased intestinal tissue of IBD patients.

  2. N-4-Acyl derivatives as lipophilic prodrugs of cidofovir and its 5-azacytosine analogue, (S)-HPMP-5-azaC: Chemistry and antiviral activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krečmerová, Marcela; Pohl, Radek; Masojídková, Milena; Balzarini, J.; Snoeck, R.; Andrei, G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 10 (2014), s. 2896-2906 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI4/625 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonate * antivirals * 5-azacytosine * prodrug Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2014

  3. Selective Activation of Adenosine A2A Receptors on Immune Cells by a CD73-Dependent Prodrug Suppresses Joint Inflammation in Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flogel, U.; Burghoff, S.; Lent, P.L.E.M. van; Temme, S.; Galbarz, L.; Ding, Z.; El-Tayeb, A.; Huels, S.; Bonner, F.; Borg, N. van den; Jacoby, C.; Muller, C.E.; Berg, W.B. van den; Schrader, J.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) agonists are both highly effective anti-inflammatory agents and potent vasodilators. To separate these two activities, we have synthesized phosphorylated A(2A)R agonists (prodrugs) that require the presence of ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) to become activated. In the

  4. Modification of concomitant drug release from oil vehicles using drug-prodrug combinations to achieve sustained balanced analgesia after joint installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Mette; Jensen, Sabrine Smedegaard; Larsen, Claus Selch

    2012-01-01

    Intra-articular injection of two drugs in a sustained drug delivery system combining the use of lipophilic solution with the prodrug approach may provide efficient and prolonged postoperative pain treatment after arthroscopic procedures. In the present study, the concomitant release of N,N-diethy......Intra-articular injection of two drugs in a sustained drug delivery system combining the use of lipophilic solution with the prodrug approach may provide efficient and prolonged postoperative pain treatment after arthroscopic procedures. In the present study, the concomitant release of N......,N-diethyl glycolamide ester of naproxen and ropivacaine from an oil vehicle consisting of medium-chain triglycerides were investigated in vitro. The release into both phosphate buffer and 80% (v/v) synovial fluid at pH 7.4 was examined in two dialysis membrane-based release models. The ester prodrug exhibited high...... solubility in medium-chain triglyceride, a high partition coefficient and was rapidly converted to naproxen in synovial fluid. Compared to naproxen, the release of the prodrug from the oil was sustained. In synovial fluid, the reconversion to naproxen resulted in faster release compared to that observed...

  5. A novel and efficient one-pot synthesis of symmetrical diamide (bis-amidate) prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates and evaluation of their biological activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Dračínský, Martin; Votruba, Ivan; Zídek, Zdeněk; Bahador, G.; Stepan, G.; Cihlar, T.; Mackman, R.; Holý, Antonín; Janeba, Zlatko

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 9 (2011), s. 3748-3754 ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : prodrugs * phosphonodiamides * bis-amidates * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * GS-9219 Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.346, year: 2011

  6. Synthesis and antiviral activities of hexadecyloxypropyl prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates containing guanine or hypoxanthine and a (S)-HPMP or PEE acyclic moiety

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, Tomáš; Andrei, G.; Snoeck, R.; Balzarini, J.; Dračínský, Martin; Krečmerová, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 55, Sep (2012), s. 307-314 ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0108; GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antivirals * prodrugs * acyclic nucleoside phosphonate * phosphonate ester Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.499, year: 2012

  7. TRANSDERMAL ADMINISTRATION OF THE DOPAMINE AGONIST N-0437 AND 7 ESTER PRODRUGS - COMPARISON WITH ORAL-ADMINISTRATION IN THE 6-OHDA TURNING MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DENDAAS, [No Value; TEPPER, PG; ROLLEMA, H; HORN, AS

    1990-01-01

    The potent and selective D2-agonist N-0437 [2-(N-propyl-N-2-thienylethylamino)-5-hydroxytetralin] undergoes considerable first-pass metabolism after oral administration due to glucuronidation of the phenolic group. In an attempt to improve its bioavailability, seven ester prodrugs of N-0437 were

  8. The Moderating Role of Parental Monitoring on the Influence of Peer Pro-Drug Norms on Alcohol and Cigarette Use among Adolescents in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, David; Castillo, Jason T.; Ayón, Cecilia; Blanchard, Kelly N.

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized data drawn from a study of 980 adolescents living in Tijuana, Mexico, in February 2009 to examine whether parental monitoring had a moderating impact on the influence of peer pro-drug norms on lifetime and past-30-day alcohol and cigarette use among a group of adolescents living along the United States-Mexico border. The…

  9. TXA709, an FtsZ-Targeting Benzamide Prodrug with Improved Pharmacokinetics and Enhanced In Vivo Efficacy against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Malvika; Mark, Lilly; Zhang, Yongzheng; Parhi, Ajit K; Lyu, Yi Lisa; Pawlak, Joan; Saravolatz, Stephanie; Saravolatz, Louis D; Weinstein, Melvin P; LaVoie, Edmond J; Pilch, Daniel S

    2015-08-01

    The clinical development of FtsZ-targeting benzamide compounds like PC190723 has been limited by poor drug-like and pharmacokinetic properties. Development of prodrugs of PC190723 (e.g., TXY541) resulted in enhanced pharmaceutical properties, which, in turn, led to improved intravenous efficacy as well as the first demonstration of oral efficacy in vivo against both methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Despite being efficacious in vivo, TXY541 still suffered from suboptimal pharmacokinetics and the requirement of high efficacious doses. We describe here the design of a new prodrug (TXA709) in which the Cl group on the pyridyl ring has been replaced with a CF3 functionality that is resistant to metabolic attack. As a result of this enhanced metabolic stability, the product of the TXA709 prodrug (TXA707) is associated with improved pharmacokinetic properties (a 6.5-fold-longer half-life and a 3-fold-greater oral bioavailability) and superior in vivo antistaphylococcal efficacy relative to PC190723. We validate FtsZ as the antibacterial target of TXA707 and demonstrate that the compound retains potent bactericidal activity against S. aureus strains resistant to the current standard-of-care drugs vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid. These collective properties, coupled with minimal observed toxicity to mammalian cells, establish the prodrug TXA709 as an antistaphylococcal agent worthy of clinical development. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Polymorphs and prodrugs and salts (oh my!: an empirical analysis of "secondary" pharmaceutical patents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Kapczynski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While there has been much discussion by policymakers and stakeholders about the effects of "secondary patents" on the pharmaceutical industry, there is no empirical evidence on their prevalence or determinants. Characterizing the landscape of secondary patents is important in light of recent court decisions in the U.S. that may make them more difficult to obtain, and for developing countries considering restrictions on secondary patents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We read the claims of the 1304 Orange Book listed patents on all new molecular entities approved in the U.S. between 1988 and 2005, and coded the patents as including chemical compound claims (claims covering the active molecule itself and/or one of several types of secondary claims. We distinguish between patents with any secondary claims, and those with only secondary claims and no chemical compound claims ("independent" secondary patents. We find that secondary claims are common in the pharmaceutical industry. We also show that independent secondary patents tend to be filed and issued later than chemical compound patents, and are also more likely to be filed after the drug is approved. When present, independent formulation patents add an average of 6.5 years of patent life (95% C.I.: 5.9 to 7.3 years, independent method of use patents add 7.4 years (95% C.I.: 6.4 to 8.4 years, and independent patents on polymorphs, isomers, prodrug, ester, and/or salt claims add 6.3 years (95% C.I.: 5.3 to 7.3 years. We also provide evidence that late-filed independent secondary patents are more common for higher sales drugs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Policies and court decisions affecting secondary patenting are likely to have a significant impact on the pharmaceutical industry. Secondary patents provide substantial additional patent life in the pharmaceutical industry, at least nominally. Evidence that they are also more common for best-selling drugs is consistent with accounts of

  11. Expansion of human γδ T cells for adoptive immunotherapy using a bisphosphonate prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Murata-Hirai, Kaoru; Iwasaki, Masashi; Matsumoto, Kenji; Hayashi, Kosuke; Kumagai, Asuka; Nada, Mohanad H; Wang, Hong; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Kamitakahara, Hiroshi; Okamura, Haruki; Sugie, Tomoharu; Minato, Nagahiro; Toi, Masakazu; Morita, Craig T

    2018-03-01

    Cancer immunotherapy with human γδ T cells expressing Vγ2Vδ2 T cell receptor (also termed Vγ9Vδ2) has shown promise because of their ability to recognize and kill most types of tumors in a major histocombatibility complex (MHC) -unrestricted fashion that is independent of the number of tumor mutations. In clinical trials, adoptive transfer of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells has been shown to be safe and does not require preconditioning. In this report, we describe a method for preparing highly enriched human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells using the bisphosphonate prodrug, tetrakis-pivaloyloxymethyl 2-(thiazole-2-ylamino)ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (PTA). PTA stimulated the expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 cells to purities up to 99%. These levels were consistently higher than those observed after expansion with zoledronic acid, the most commonly used stimulator for clinical trials. Cell numbers also averaged more than those obtained with zoledronic acid and the expanded Vγ2Vδ2 cells exhibited high cytotoxicity against tumor cells. The high purity of Vγ2Vδ2 cells expanded by PTA increased engraftment success in immunodeficient NOG mice. Even low levels of contaminating αβ T cells resulted in some mice with circulating human αβ T cells rather than Vγ2Vδ2 cells. Vγ2Vδ2 cells from engrafted NOG mice upregulated CD25 and secreted tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ in response to PTA-treated tumor cells. Thus, PTA expands Vγ2Vδ2 T cells to higher purity than zoledronic acid. The high purities allow the successful engraftment of immunodeficient mice without further purification and may speed up the development of allogeneic Vγ2Vδ2 T cell therapies derived from HLA-matched normal donors for patients with poor autologous Vγ2Vδ2 T cell responses. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  12. Polymorphs and Prodrugs and Salts (Oh My!): An Empirical Analysis of “Secondary” Pharmaceutical Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background While there has been much discussion by policymakers and stakeholders about the effects of “secondary patents” on the pharmaceutical industry, there is no empirical evidence on their prevalence or determinants. Characterizing the landscape of secondary patents is important in light of recent court decisions in the U.S. that may make them more difficult to obtain, and for developing countries considering restrictions on secondary patents. Methodology/Principal Findings We read the claims of the 1304 Orange Book listed patents on all new molecular entities approved in the U.S. between 1988 and 2005, and coded the patents as including chemical compound claims (claims covering the active molecule itself) and/or one of several types of secondary claims. We distinguish between patents with any secondary claims, and those with only secondary claims and no chemical compound claims (“independent” secondary patents). We find that secondary claims are common in the pharmaceutical industry. We also show that independent secondary patents tend to be filed and issued later than chemical compound patents, and are also more likely to be filed after the drug is approved. When present, independent formulation patents add an average of 6.5 years of patent life (95% C.I.: 5.9 to 7.3 years), independent method of use patents add 7.4 years (95% C.I.: 6.4 to 8.4 years), and independent patents on polymorphs, isomers, prodrug, ester, and/or salt claims add 6.3 years (95% C.I.: 5.3 to 7.3 years). We also provide evidence that late-filed independent secondary patents are more common for higher sales drugs. Conclusions/Significance Policies and court decisions affecting secondary patenting are likely to have a significant impact on the pharmaceutical industry. Secondary patents provide substantial additional patent life in the pharmaceutical industry, at least nominally. Evidence that they are also more common for best-selling drugs is consistent with accounts of active

  13. Polymorphs and prodrugs and salts (oh my!): an empirical analysis of "secondary" pharmaceutical patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Amy; Park, Chan; Sampat, Bhaven

    2012-01-01

    While there has been much discussion by policymakers and stakeholders about the effects of "secondary patents" on the pharmaceutical industry, there is no empirical evidence on their prevalence or determinants. Characterizing the landscape of secondary patents is important in light of recent court decisions in the U.S. that may make them more difficult to obtain, and for developing countries considering restrictions on secondary patents. We read the claims of the 1304 Orange Book listed patents on all new molecular entities approved in the U.S. between 1988 and 2005, and coded the patents as including chemical compound claims (claims covering the active molecule itself) and/or one of several types of secondary claims. We distinguish between patents with any secondary claims, and those with only secondary claims and no chemical compound claims ("independent" secondary patents). We find that secondary claims are common in the pharmaceutical industry. We also show that independent secondary patents tend to be filed and issued later than chemical compound patents, and are also more likely to be filed after the drug is approved. When present, independent formulation patents add an average of 6.5 years of patent life (95% C.I.: 5.9 to 7.3 years), independent method of use patents add 7.4 years (95% C.I.: 6.4 to 8.4 years), and independent patents on polymorphs, isomers, prodrug, ester, and/or salt claims add 6.3 years (95% C.I.: 5.3 to 7.3 years). We also provide evidence that late-filed independent secondary patents are more common for higher sales drugs. Policies and court decisions affecting secondary patenting are likely to have a significant impact on the pharmaceutical industry. Secondary patents provide substantial additional patent life in the pharmaceutical industry, at least nominally. Evidence that they are also more common for best-selling drugs is consistent with accounts of active "life cycle management" or "evergreening" of patent portfolios in the

  14. Rapid conversion of the ester prodrug abiraterone acetate results in intestinal supersaturation and enhanced absorption of abiraterone: in vitro, rat in situ and human in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappaerts, Jef; Geboers, Sophie; Snoeys, Jan; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intestinal disposition of abiraterone acetate, an ester prodrug of the anticancer agent abiraterone. Stability of the prodrug and solubility and dissolution characteristics of both abiraterone and abiraterone acetate were monitored in vitro. Moreover, the in vivo intraluminal concentrations of abiraterone and abiraterone acetate upon intake of one tablet of 250 mg abiraterone acetate were assessed in healthy volunteers. The intestinal absorption resulting from the intraluminal behavior of the ester prodrug was determined using the rat in situ intestinal perfusion technique with mesenteric blood sampling. Simulated and aspirated human intestinal fluids of the fasted state were used as solvent systems. Upon incubation of abiraterone acetate in human intestinal fluids in vitro, rapid hydrolysis of the prodrug was observed, generating abiraterone concentrations largely exceeding the apparent solubility of abiraterone, suggesting the existence of intestinal supersaturation. These findings were confirmed in vivo, by intraluminal sampling of duodenal fluids upon oral intake of an abiraterone acetate tablet by healthy volunteers. Rat in situ intestinal perfusion experiments performed with suspensions of abiraterone and abiraterone acetate in human intestinal fluids of the fasted state revealed significantly higher flux values upon perfusion with the prodrug than with abiraterone. Moreover, rat in situ intestinal perfusion with abiraterone acetate suspensions in simulated fluids of the fasted state in presence or absence of esterases demonstrated that increased hydrolytic activity of the perfusion medium was beneficial to the intestinal absorption of abiraterone. In conclusion, the rapid hydrolysis of abiraterone acetate in the intraluminal environment appears to result in fast and extensive generation of abiraterone supersaturation, creating a strong driving force for abiraterone absorption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. GSH Induced Controlled Release of Levofloxacin from a Purpose-Built Prodrug: Luminescence Response for Probing the Drug Release in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Suman; Ramu, Vadde; Taye, Nandaraj; Mogare, Devraj G; Yeware, Amar M; Sarkar, Dhiman; Reddy, D Srinivasa; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Das, Amitava

    2016-09-21

    Fluoroquinolones are third-generation broad spectrum bactericidal antibiotics and work against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Levofloxacin (L), a fluoroquinolone, is widely used in anti-infective chemotherapy and treatment of urinary tract infection and pneumonia. The main pathogen for urinary tract infections is Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for pneumonia, predominantly a lower respiratory tract infection. Poor permeability of L leads to the use of higher dose of this drug and excess drug in the outer cellular fluid leads to central nervous system (CNS) abnormality. One way to counter this is to improve the lipophilicity of the drug molecule, and accordingly, we have synthesized two new Levofloxacin derivatives, which participated in the spatiotemporal release of drug via disulfide bond cleavage induced by glutathione (GSH). Recent studies with Streptococcus mutants suggest that it is localized in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the normal lower respiratory tract and the effective [GSH] in ELF is ∼430 μM. E. coli typically cause urinary tract infections and the concentration of GSH in porcine bladder epithelium is reported as 0.6 mM for a healthy human. Thus, for the present study we have chosen two important bacteria (Gram + ve and Gram - ve), which are operational in regions having high extracellular GSH concentration. Interestingly, this supports our design of new lipophilic Levofloxacin based prodrugs, which released effective drug on reaction with GSH. Higher lipophilicity favored improved uptake of the prodrugs. Site specific release of the drug (L) could be achieved following a glutathione mediated biochemical transformation process through cleavage of a disulfide bond of these purpose-built prodrugs. Further, appropriate design helped us to demonstrate that it is possible also to control the kinetics of the drug release from respective prodrugs. Associated luminescence enhancement helps in probing the

  16. A polymeric prodrug of 5-fluorouracil-1-acetic acid using a multi-hydroxyl polyethylene glycol derivative as the drug carrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Li

    Full Text Available Macromolecular prodrugs obtained by covalently conjugating small molecular drugs with polymeric carriers were proven to accomplish controlled and sustained release of the therapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Polyethylene glycol (PEG has been extensively used due to its low toxicity, low immunogenicity and high biocompatibility. However, for linear PEG macromolecules, the number of available hydroxyl groups for drug coupling does not change with the length of polymeric chain, which limits the application of PEG for drug conjugation purposes. To increase the drug loading and prolong the retention time of 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu, a macromolecular prodrug of 5-Fu, 5-fluorouracil-1 acid-PAE derivative (5-FA-PAE was synthesized and tested for the antitumor activity in vivo.PEG with a molecular weight of 38 kDa was selected to synthesize the multi-hydroxyl polyethylene glycol derivative (PAE through an addition reaction. 5-fluorouracil-1 acetic acid (5-FA, a 5-Fu derivative was coupled with PEG derivatives via ester bond to form a macromolecular prodrug, 5-FA-PAE. The in vitro drug release, pharmacokinetics, in vivo distribution and antitumor effect of the prodrug were investigated, respectively.The PEG-based prodrug obtained in this study possessed an exceedingly high 5-FA loading efficiency of 10.58%, much higher than the maximum drug loading efficiency of unmodified PEG with the same molecular weight, which was 0.98% theoretically. Furthermore, 5-FA-PAE exhibited suitable sustained release in tumors.This study provides a new approach for the development of the delivery to tumors of anticancer agents with PEG derivatives.

  17. Dynamical attraction to stable processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Albert M.; Talet, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We apply dynamical ideas within probability theory, proving an almost-sure invariance principle in log density for stable processes. The familiar scaling property (self-similarity) of the stable process has a stronger expression, that the scaling flow on Skorokhod path space is a Bernoulli flow. We prove that typical paths of a random walk with i.i.d. increments in the domain of attraction of a stable law can be paired with paths of a stable process so that, after applying a non-random regula...

  18. Poly(L-histidine-tagged 5-aminolevulinic acid prodrugs: new photosensitizing precursors of protoporphyrin IX for photodynamic colon cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson RP

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Renjith P Johnson,1* Chung-Wook Chung,2* Young-Il Jeong,2 Dae Hwan Kang,2 Hongsuk Suh,3 Il Kim,11WCU Centre for Synthetic Polymer Bioconjugate Hybrid Materials, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan, 2National Research and Development Center for Hepatobiliary Cancer, Pusan National University, Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Gyeongnam, 3Department of Chemistry and Chemistry Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Pusan, Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA and its derivatives have been widely used in photodynamic therapy. The main drawback associated with ALA-based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT and ALA fluorescence diagnosis results from the hydrophilic nature of ALA and lack of selectivity for tumor versus nontumor cells. The application of certain triggers, such as pH, into conventional sensitizers for controllable 1O2 release is a promising strategy for tumor-targeted treatment.Methods: A series of pH-sensitive ALA-poly(L-histidine [p(L-Hisn] prodrugs were synthesized via ring opening polymerization of 1-benzyl-N-carboxy-L-histidine anhydride initiated by the amine hydrochloride group of ALA itself. As an alternative to ALA for PDT, the synthesized prodrugs were used to treat a cultured human colon cancer HCT116 cell line under different pH conditions. The effect of ALA-p(L-Hisn derivatives was evaluated by monitoring the fluorescence intensity of protoporphyrin IX, and measuring the cell survival rate after suitable light irradiation.Results: The cytotoxicity and dark toxicity of ALA and synthesized ALA-p(L-His derivatives in HEK293T and HCT116 cells in the absence of light at pH 7.4 and 6.8 shows that the cell viability was relatively higher than 100%. ALA-p(L-Hisn showed high phototoxicity and selectivity in different pH conditions compared with ALA alone. Because the length of the histidine chain increases in the ALA

  19. Utilizing native fluorescence imaging, modeling and simulation to examine pharmacokinetics and therapeutic regimen of a novel anticancer prodrug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing-Hung; Endsley, Aaron N.; Green, Carol E.; Matin, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Success of cancer prodrugs relying on a foreign gene requires specific delivery of the gene to the cancer, and improvements such as higher level gene transfer and expression. Attaining these objectives will be facilitated in preclinical studies using our newly discovered CNOB-GDEPT, consisting of the produrg: 6-chloro-9-nitro-5-oxo-5H-benzo-(a)-phenoxazine (CNOB) and its activating enzyme ChrR6, which generates the cytotoxic product 9-amino-6-chloro-5H-benzo[a]phenoxazine-5-one (MCHB). MCHB is fluorescent and can be noninvasively imaged in mice, and here we investigated whether MCHB fluorescence quantitatively reflects its concentration, as this would enhance its reporter value in further development of the CNOB-GDEPT therapeutic regimen. PK parameters were estimated and used to predict more effective CNOB administration schedules. CNOB (3.3 mg/kg) was injected iv in mice implanted with humanized ChrR6 (HChrR6)-expressing 4T1 tumors. Fluorescence was imaged in live mice using IVIS Spectrum, and quantified by Living Image 3.2 software. MCHB and CNOB were quantified also by LC/MS/MS analysis. We used non-compartmental model to estimate PK parameters. Phoenix WinNonlin software was used for simulations to predict a more effective CNOB dosage regimen. CNOB administration significantly prolonged mice survival. MCHB fluorescence quantitatively reflected its exposure levels to the tumor and the plasma, as verified by LC/MS/MS analysis at various time points, including at a low concentration of 2 ng/g tumor. The LC/MS/MS data were used to estimate peak plasma concentrations, exposure (AUC 0-24 ), volume of distribution, clearance and half-life in plasma and the tumor. Simulations suggested that the CNOB-GDEPT can be a successful therapy without large increases in the prodrug dosage. MCHB fluorescence quantifies this drug, and CNOB can be effective at relatively low doses. MCHB fluorescence characteristics will expedite further development of CNOB-GDEPT by, for example

  20. Chemo-Enzymatic Synthesis of Ester-Linked Docetaxel-Monosaccharide Conjugates as Water-Soluble Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoji Kubota

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new docetaxel prodrugs, i.e., 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glycopyranosides, which contain ester-linked monosaccharides, were synthesized by a chemo-enzymatic procedure involving enzymatic transglycosylations with lactase, b-galactosidase, or b-xylosidase. The water-solubility of 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glucopyranoside was 52-fold higher than that of docetaxel. 7-Propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-xylopyranoside were effectively hydrolyzed by the relevant enzyme(s of human cancer cells to release docetaxel, whereas 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-galactopyranoside was relatively resistant under similar conditions. 7-Propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-xylopyranoside showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells, whereas 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-galactopyranoside exerted low cytotoxicity.

  1. A Novel Doxorubicin Prodrug with GRP78 Recognition and Nucleus-Targeting Ability for Safe and Effective Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guo-Bin; Sun, Junqing; Yang, Peng; Li, Binchun; Gao, Ying; Li, Zhuoyu

    2018-01-02

    Glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (GRP78) has become an attractive and novel target for tumor therapy. Design and construction of powerful delivery systems that could efficiently transport doxorubicin (DOX) to a tumor-cell nucleus remains a formidable challenge for improving the tumor therapeutic index and mitigating side effects to normal tissues. Herein, a novel doxorubicin prodrug (NDP) with GRP78 recognition and nucleus-targeting ability was synthesized by a facile chemical route. NDP exhibited an enhanced antiproliferative activity against colorectal cancer cells and could efficiently enter the cell nucleus. Furthermore, it is inspiring to note that NDP displayed a much stronger inhibitory efficacy against the growth of colorectal cancer xenografts in nude mice than free DOX and showed superior in vivo safety. Together, the work provides a novel GRP78 and nucleus-targeting strategy, and the NDP holds great promise to be used as a potent and safe chemotherapeutic agent.

  2. Dominant negative selection of vaccinia virus using a thymidine kinase/thymidylate kinase fusion gene and the prodrug azidothymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, Georg W.; Mayrhofer, Josef; Gritschenberger, Werner; Falkner, Falko G.

    2005-01-01

    The Escherichia coli thymidine kinase/thymidylate kinase (tk/tmk) fusion gene encodes an enzyme that efficiently converts the prodrug 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) into its toxic triphosphate derivative, a substance which stops DNA chain elongation. Integration of this marker gene into vaccinia virus that normally is not inhibited by AZT allowed the establishment of a powerful selection procedure for recombinant viruses. In contrast to the conventional vaccinia thymidine kinase (tk) selection that is performed in tk-negative cell lines, AZT selection can be performed in normal (tk-positive) cell lines. The technique is especially useful for the generation of replication-deficient vaccinia viruses and may also be used for gene knock-out studies of essential vaccinia genes

  3. Identification of a Potent Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Pan Inhibitor Displaying a Strategic Carboxylic Acid Group and Development of Its Prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirali, Tracey; Ciraolo, Elisa; Aprile, Silvio; Massarotti, Alberto; Berndt, Alex; Griglio, Alessia; Serafini, Marta; Mercalli, Valentina; Landoni, Clarissa; Campa, Carlo Cosimo; Margaria, Jean Piero; Silva, Rangel L; Grosa, Giorgio; Sorba, Giovanni; Williams, Roger; Hirsch, Emilio; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2017-09-21

    Activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is a key signaling event in cancer, inflammation, and other proliferative diseases. PI3K inhibitors are already approved for some specific clinical indications, but their systemic on-target toxicity limits their larger use. In particular, whereas toxicity is tolerable in acute treatment of life-threatening diseases, this is less acceptable in chronic conditions. In the past, the strategy to overcome this drawback was to block selected isoforms mainly expressed in leukocytes, but redundancy within the PI3K family members challenges the effectiveness of this approach. On the other hand, decreasing exposure to selected target cells represents a so-far unexplored alternative to circumvent systemic toxicity. In this manuscript, we describe the generation of a library of triazolylquinolones and the development of the first prodrug pan-PI3K inhibitor. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Biotin-Pt (IV)-indomethacin hybrid: A targeting anticancer prodrug providing enhanced cancer cellular uptake and reversing cisplatin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiwei; Fang, Lei; Hua, Wuyang; Gou, Shaohua

    2017-10-01

    A Pt(IV) prodrug (2) composed of cancer-targeting biotin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in the axial positions of the six-coordinated octahedral geometry derived from cisplatin was developed, which could be highly accumulated in cancer cells more than normal ones and activated by endogenous reducing molecules to release cisplatin and indomethacin moieties simultaneously to inhibit tumor progression synergistically. In vitro assays revealed that 2 exhibited significantly selective inhibition to the tested cancer cell lines and sensitivity to cisplatin resistant cancer cells. Moreover, 2 presented cyclooxygenases inhibition properties to reduce tumor-associated inflammation, reduced the invasiveness of the highly aggressive PC-3 cells, and disrupted capillary-like tube formation in EA.hy926 cells. In all, this study offers a new strategy to enhance sensitivity and reduce toxicity of cisplatin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Resolution of Cullen’s sign in patient with metastatic melanoma responding to hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen J. Weiss

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cullen’s sign, ecchymosis of the subcutaneous periumbilical tissue often described in association with non-malignant conditions such as ruptured ectopic pregnancy or acute pancreatitis, has been reported in malignancies involving the abdomen. In melanoma, hematoma-like metastasis has been observed and can resolve with an effective therapy. We observed resolution of Cullen’s sign (probably hematoma-like metastasis in a patient with metastatic melanoma. The patient was participating in a phase I clinical trial and treated with TH-302, a hypoxia-activated prodrug. After 2 months on study, complete resolution of Cullen’s sign resolved in concert with extracranial response in lung, liver, and lymph node metastases. Based on the dramatic extracranial response to this investigational agent, additional patients with metastatic melanoma without evidence of brain metastasis were treated on study with TH-302.

  6. Cutaneous biodistribution of ionizable, biolabile aciclovir prodrugs after short duration topical iontophoresis: Targeted intraepidermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Zahui, Tiphaine; Alberti, Ingo; Kalia, Yogeshvar N

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to determine the cutaneous biodistribution of aciclovir (ACV), that is, the amount of drug as a function of depth within the skin following topical iontophoretic administration of amino acid ester prodrugs of ACV (ACV-X, where X=Arg, Ile or Val). The results were compared to those obtained with marketed formulations of aciclovir and penciclovir (PCV), and following topical iontophoresis of ACV. Quantification of molecules as a function of position in the skin was achieved by snap-freezing and cryotoming skin samples to obtain coarse or fine lamellae with a thickness of either 100 μm or 20 μm. The molecules--ACV, ACV-X or PCV--were extracted and quantified by validated UHPLC-MS/MS analytical methods. Passive delivery of ACV or PCV from marketed cream and ointment formulations after application for 60 min resulted in modest cutaneous deposition (QDEP,ACV and QDEP,PCVACV and PCV were found mainly in the stratum corneum or superficial viable epidermis. The levels in the deeper skin layers (100-200 μm), corresponding to the basal epidermis and adjacent area, where the virus would be found, were negligible. In contrast, iontophoresis of ACV-Ile or ACV-Arg for only 10 min at 0.25 mA/cm(2) resulted in much greater deposition of ACV species at the same skin depths (100-200 μm): for ACV-Ile - QDEP,ACV and QDEP,ACV-Ile were 17.2 ± 6.9 nmol/cm(2) and 8.2 ± 1.3 nmol/cm(2), respectively; in the case of ACV-Arg there was complete bioconversion and only ACV was recovered (QDEP,ACV was 41.2 ± 9.2 nmol/cm(2)). In the higher resolution biodistribution studies, with 20 μm lamellae, short duration iontophoresis at 0.25 mA/cm(2) for only 5 min of ACV-Arg or ACV-Ile still enabled considerable amounts of ACV species to be delivered to the basal epidermis and neighboring layers (QDEP,ACV was 4.0 ± 1.6 nmol/cm(2) and 6.1 ± 1.7 nmol/cm(2), respectively). Iontophoresis of ACV under the same conditions resulted in negligible ACV deposition in these layers

  7. "Bottom-Up" Construction of Hyperbranched Poly(prodrug-co-photosensitizer) Amphiphiles Unimolecular Micelles for Chemo-Photodynamic Dual Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei; Wang, Nan; Jin, Xin; Zhu, Xinyuan

    2017-10-25

    Despite the great advantages of chemo-photodynamic combination therapy, tedious synthesis steps and laborious purification procedures make the fabrication of chemo-photodynamic combined therapeutic platforms rather difficult. In this study, we develop a facile "bottom-up" strategy to fabricate hyperbranched poly(prodrug-co-photosensitizer) amphiphiles, h-P(CPTMA-co-BYMAI)-b-POEGMA (hPCBE), for chemo-photodynamic dual therapy. The easily prepared hPCBE possess a bottom-up-constructed hydrophobic core h-P(CPTMA-co-BYMAI) (hPCB) direct copolymerized from reduction-responsive CPT prodrug monomer (CPTMA) and boron dipyrromethene-based photosensitizer monomer (BYMAI), as well as a biocompatible shell polymerized from hydrophilic monomers. Because of the covalently interconnected core-shell structure, hPCBE exists as unimolecular micelles in aqueous solution and exhibits excellent structural stability under dilution condition. The hPCBE micelles can be effectively internalized by MCF-7 cells and release CPT triggered by the reductive milieu. In addition, photosensitizer moieties embedded in the hPCB core could generate singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) effectively under irradiation, endowing hPCBE with the boosting of chemotherapeutic efficacy. As compared to the single chemotherapy of hyperbranched polyprodrug amphiphiles h-PCPTMA-b-POEGMA (hPCE) and photodynamic therapy of hyperbranched polyphotosensitizer amphiphiles h-PBYMAI-b-POEGMA (hPBE), hPCBE shows higher in vitro cytotoxicity. We expect that our approach will further boost research on the design of multifunctional drug delivery systems via the facile "bottom-up" strategy.

  8. In vivo SPECT imaging of [¹²³I]-labeled pentamidine pro-drugs for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis, pharmacokinetics, and bioavailability studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Björn; Zhao, Yi; Lützen, Ulf; Culman, Juraj; Clement, Bernd; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2014-12-30

    Pentamidine is an effective antiparasitic agent and approved drug for the treatment of African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). However, pentamidine suffers from poor orally bioavailability and lacks central nervous system (CNS) delivery. Therefore its applicability is limited to intravenous or intramuscular treatment of the first stage of the African trypanosomiasis. For this reason, several new pentamidine pro-drugs have been developed with the aim of providing improved orally availability and CNS penetration. this work aims to measure and to compare the distribution, bioavailability, and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier of [(123)I]-labeled pentamidine and its pro-drugs, N,N'-dihydroxypentamidine and N,N'‑bis(succinyloxy) pentamidine, using SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) after intravenously and per orally administration in rats. a total of 60 male Sprague Dawley rats were examined. Each [(123)I]-labeled substance (n=3) was applied to 12 rats (n=6 i.v. and n=6 orally). In two additional test series both [(123)I]iodopentamidine (n=6) and N,N'-bis(succinyloxy)-[(123)I]iodopentamidine (n=6) were administered orally together with the non-radioactive homologues. To evaluate the in vivo stability of the labeled compounds, [(123)I]NaI solution was administered intravenously (n=6) and orally (n=6). In vivo SPECT images were acquired after 30 min, 4h, and 24h and blood samples were taken over 24h. The SPECT images were fusioned with previously acquired magnetic resonance images. After the last SPECT the rats were perfused, sacrificed and the organ γ-radiation levels were determined with a γ-counter. Analysis and quantification of the reconstructed SPECT images was performed using the region of interest technique. the data showed a highly improved oral bioavailability of the [(123)I]-labeled pro-drugs compared to [(123)I]-labeled pentamidine. While [(123)I]iodopentamidine was mainly renally eliminated the pro-drugs were primarily

  9. The In-Situ One-Step Synthesis of a PDC Macromolecular Pro-Drug and the Fabrication of a Novel Core-Shell Micell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cui-Yun; Yang, Sa; Li, Zhi-Ping; Huang, Can; Ning, Qian; Huang, Wen; Yang, Wen-Tong; He, Dongxiu; Sun, Lichun

    2016-01-01

    The development of slow release nano-sized carriers for efficient antineoplastic drug delivery with a biocompatible and biodegradable pectin-based macromolecular pro-drug for tumor therapy has been reported in this study. Pectin-doxorubicin conjugates (PDC), a macromolecular pro-drug, were prepared via an amide condensation reaction, and a novel amphiphilic core-shell micell based on a PDC macromolecular pro-drug (PDC-M) was self-assembled in situ, with pectin as the hydrophilic shell and doxorubicin (DOX) as the hydrophobic core. Then the chemical structure of the PDC macromolecular pro-drug was identified by both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR), and proved that doxorubicin combined well with the pectin and formed macromolecular pro-drug. The PDC-M were observed to have an unregularly spherical shape and were uniform in size by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average particle size of PDC-M, further measured by a Zetasizer nanoparticle analyzer (Nano ZS, Malvern Instruments), was about 140 nm. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were 57.82% ± 3.7% (n = 3) and 23.852% ±2.3% (n = 3), respectively. The in vitro drug release behaviors of the resulting PDC-M were studied in a simulated tumor environment (pH 5.0), blood (pH 7.4) and a lysosome media (pH 6.8), and showed a prolonged slow release profile. Assays for antiproliferative effects and flow cytometry of the resulting PDC-M in HepG2 cell lines demonstrated greater properties of delayed and slow release as compared to free DOX. A cell viability study against endothelial cells further revealed that the resulting PDC-M possesses excellent cell compatibilities and low cytotoxicities in comparison with that of the free DOX. Hemolysis activity was investigated in rabbits, and the results also demonstrated that the PDC-M has greater compatibility in comparison with free DOX. This shows that the resulting PDC-M can ameliorate the

  10. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an MRE? Is an MRE shelf stable? What foods are packaged in retort packages? What is aseptic ... type of package is used for aseptic processing? What foods are packaged in aseptic packages? Can I microwave ...

  11. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  12. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Tedizolid Following Oral Administration: Single and Multiple Dose, Effect of Food, and Comparison of Two Solid Forms of the Prodrug

    OpenAIRE

    Flanagan, Shawn D; Bien, Paul A; Muñoz, Kelly A; Minassian, Sonia L; Prokocimer, Philippe G

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics (PK) of tedizolid were examined after oral administration of tedizolid phosphate disodium (TPD), including the effect of food on PK. The relative bioavailability of TPD to the free acid tedizolid phosphate was determined to bridge the results of these and other studies to the solid form of the prodrug selected for further development. Design Randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind single- and multiple-ascending dose studies and ran...

  14. "Protective Effects of Some Azo Derivatives of 5-aminosalicylic Acid and Their Pegylated Prodrugs on Acetic Acid-induced Rat Colitis "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Garjani

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The protective and anti-inflammatory effects of azo and azo-linked polymeric prodrugs of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA on acetic acid induced colitis in rats were investigated. Three azo prodrugs; 4,4 -dihydroxy-azobenzene-3-carboxilic acid (azo compound I, 4-hydroxy-azobenzene-3,4-dicarboxilic acid (azo compound II, 4,4-dihydroxy-3-formyl-azobenzene-3-carboxylic acid (azo compound III and their polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 derivatives were synthesized. Rats were pretreated orally (1 hour prior to induction of colitis with sulfasalazin (300 mg/kg, azo compounds I, II, III and polyethylene glycol conjugates of azo compounds II and III in doses which had the same amount of 5-ASA as sulfasalazin contains. The colonic damage was examined 24 hours later and characterized by gross microscopic injury and colonic edema. Among prodrugs only azo compound III (215 mg/kg produced a significant (p<0.01 protective effect against colonic injury comparable with sulfasalazin. Doubling the dose (430 mg/kg showed more anti-colitis effects. Polyethylene glycol conjugate of azo compounds II and III also showed reduction in the extent of the cell death and tissue disorganization similar to sulfasalazin. While neither sulfasalazin, nor azo compound II and its PEG polymer produced anti-edema effects, both azo compound III and its PEG polymer decreased colon edema significantly (p<0.05. Histological examinations also indicated a marked reduction in tissue injury and inhibition in neutrophil infiltration in rats treated with azo compound III and PEG conjugates of azo compounds II and III. Results of this investigation provide experimental evidence supporting new cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-edema properties of the azo derivatives of 5-ASA and their PEGylated prodrugs.

  15. Structure of a mutant human purine nucleoside phosphorylase with the prodrug, 2-fluoro-2-deoxyadenosine and the cytotoxic drug, 2-fluoroadenine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshar, Sepideh; Sawaya, Michael R.; Morrison, Sherie L.; (UCLA); (HHMI); (UCL)

    2009-06-30

    A double mutant of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (hDM) with the amino acid mutations Glu201Gln:Asn243Asp cleaves adenosine-based prodrugs to their corresponding cytotoxic drugs. When fused to an anti-tumor targeting component, hDM is targeted to tumor cells, where it effectively catalyzes phosphorolysis of the prodrug, 2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (F-dAdo) to the cytotoxic drug, 2-fluoroadenine (F-Ade). This cytotoxicity should be restricted only to the tumor microenvironment, because the endogenously expressed wild type enzyme cannot use adenosine-based prodrugs as substrates. To gain insight into the interaction of hDM with F-dAdo, we have determined the crystal structures of hDM with F-dAdo and F-Ade. The structures reveal that despite the two mutations, the overall fold of hDM is nearly identical to the wild type enzyme. Importantly, the residues Gln201 and Asp243 introduced by the mutation form hydrogen bond contacts with F-dAdo that result in its binding and catalysis. Comparison of substrate and product complexes suggest that the side chains of Gln201 and Asp243 as well as the purine base rotate during catalysis possibly facilitating cleavage of the glycosidic bond. The two structures suggest why hDM, unlike the wild-type enzyme, can utilize F-dAdo as substrate. More importantly, they provide a critical foundation for further optimization of cleavage of adenosine-based prodrugs, such as F-dAdo by mutants of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

  16. Synthesis of ester prodrugs of 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2,6-diaminopurine (HPMPDAP) as anti-poxvirus agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krečmerová, Marcela; Holý, Antonín; Andrei, G.; Pomeisl, Karel; Tichý, Tomáš; Břehová, Petra; Masojídková, Milena; Dračínský, Martin; Pohl, Radek; Laflamme, G.; Naesens, L.; Hui, H.; Cihlař, T.; Neyts, J.; De Clercq, E.; Balzarini, J.; Snoeck, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 19 (2010), s. 6825-6837 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA MŠk(CZ) ME10040 Grant - others:NIH(US) 1UC1 AI062540-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : phosphonates * prodrugs * poxvirus * herpes virus * bioterrorism Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.207, year: 2010

  17. Acetal-Linked Paclitaxel Polymeric Prodrug Based on Functionalized mPEG-PCL Diblock Polymer for pH-Triggered Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinglei Zhai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The differences in micro-environment between cancer cells and the normal ones offer the possibility to develop stimuli-responsive drug-delivery systems for overcoming the drawbacks in the clinical use of anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel, doxorubicin, and etc. Hence, we developed a novel endosomal pH-sensitive paclitaxel (PTX prodrug micelles based on functionalized poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (mPEG-PCL diblock polymer with an acid-cleavable acetal (Ace linkage (mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX. The mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX5 with a high drug content of 23.5 wt % was self-assembled in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, 10 mM into nanosized micelles with an average diameter of 68.5 nm. The in vitro release studies demonstrated that mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX5 micelles was highly pH-sensitive, in which 16.8%, 32.8%, and 48.2% of parent free PTX was released from mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX5 micelles in 48 h at pH 7.4, 6.0, and 5.0, respectively. Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide (MTT assays suggested that the pH-sensitive PTX prodrug micelles displayed higher therapeutic efficacy against MCF-7 cells compared with free PTX. Therefore, the PTX prodrug micelles with acetal bond may offer a promising strategy for cancer therapy.

  18. Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Promoter-Containing Retroviral Promoter Conversion Vectors for Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy are Functional in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Klein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene directed-enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT is an approach for sensitization of tumor cells to an enzymatically activated, otherwise nontoxic, prodrug. Cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1 metabolizes the prodrugs cyclophosphamide (CPA and ifosfamide (IFA to produce the cytotoxic substances phosphoramide mustard and isophosphoramide mustard as well as the byproduct acrolein. We have constructed a retroviral promoter conversion (ProCon vector for breast cancer GDEPT. The vector allows expression of CYP2B1 from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV promoter known to be active in the mammary glands of transgenic animals. It is anticipated to be used for the generation of encapsulated viral vector producing cells which, when placed inside or close to a tumor, will act as suppliers of the therapeutic CYP2B1 protein as well as of the therapeutic vector itself. The generated vector was effectively packaged by virus producing cells and allowed the production of high levels of enzymatically active CYP2B1 in infected cells which sensitized them to killing upon treatment with both IFA and CPA. Determination of the respective IC50 values demonstrated that the effective IFA dose was reduced by sixteen folds. Infection efficiencies in vivo were determined using a reporter gene-bearing vector in a mammary cancer cell-derived xenograft tumor mouse model.

  19. Acyloxymethyl as a drug protecting group. Part 6: N-acyloxymethyl- and N-[(aminocarbonyloxy)methyl]sulfonamides as prodrugs of agents containing a secondary sulfonamide group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Moreira, R; Iley, J

    2000-04-01

    Tertiary N-acyloxymethyl- and N-[(aminocarbonyloxy)methyl]sulfonamides were synthesised and evaluated as novel classes of potential prodrugs of agents containing a secondary sulfonamide group. The chemical and plasma hydrolyses of the title compounds were studied by HPLC. Tertiary N-acyloxymethylsulfonamides are slowly and quantitatively hydrolysed to the parent sulfonamide in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer, with half-lives ranging from 20 h, for 7d, to 30 days, for 7g. Quantitative formation of the parent sulfonamide also occurs in human plasma, the half-lives being within 0.2-2.0 min for some substrates. The rapid rate of hydrolysis can be ascribed to plasma cholinesterase, as indicated by the complete inhibition observed at [eserine] = 0.10 mM. These results suggest that tertiary N-acyloxymethylsulfonamides are potentially useful prodrugs for agents containing a secondary sulfonamide group, especially with pKa sulfonamides 7h-j do not liberate the parent sulfonamide either in aqueous buffers or in human plasma and thus appear to be unsuitable for development as sulfonamide prodrugs.

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of mutual azo prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid linked to 2-phenylbenzoxazole-2-yl-5-acetic acid in ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilani JA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jamal A Jilani,1 Maha Shomaf,2 Karem H Alzoubi3 1Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 2Department of Pathology, Jordan University, Amman, Jordan; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan Abstract: In this study, the syntheses of 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid, (an analogue of a known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAID] and 5-[4-(benzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acidphenylazo]-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (a novel mutual azo prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid [5-ASA] are reported. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed using infrared (IR, hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, and mass spectrometry (MS spectroscopy. Incubation of the azo compound with rat cecal contents demonstrated the susceptibility of the prepared azo prodrug to bacterial azoreductase enzyme. The azo compound and the 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid were evaluated for inflammatory bowel diseases, in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNB-induced colitis in rats. The synthesized diazo compound and the 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid were found to be as effective as 5-aminosalicylic acid for ulcerative colitis. The results of this work suggest that the 4-aminophenylbenzoxazol-2-yl-5-acetic acid may represent a new lead for treatment of ulcerative colitis. Keywords: benzoxazole acetic acid, azo prodrug, colon drug delivery

  1. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

  2. The Hydrolysis of Diclofenac Esters: Synthetic Prodrug Building Blocks for Biodegradable Drug-Polymer Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Finnin, Joshua; Tait, Cassandra; Quirk, Stephen; Chekhtman, Igor; Donohue, Andrew C; Ng, Sarah; D'Souza, Asha; Tait, Russell; Prankerd, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Degradation reactions on diclofenac-monoglycerides (3a,b), diclofenac-(p-hydroxybenzoate)-2-monoglyceride (3c), diclofenac (1), and diclofenac lactam (4) were performed at 37 °C in isotonic buffer solutions (apparent pH range 1-8) containing varying concentrations of acetonitrile (ACN). The concentration remaining of each analyte was measured versus time. Diclofenac-monoglycerides and diclofenac-(p-hydroxybenzoate)-2-monoglyceride (3c) were both found to undergo facile and complete hydrolysis in pH 7.4 isotonic phosphate buffer/10% ACN. Under mildly acidic, neutral or alkaline conditions, diclofenac-(p-hydroxybenzoate)-2-monoglyceride (3c) had the fastest hydrolysis rate (t1/2 = 3.23 h at pH 7.4), with simultaneous formation of diclofenac lactam (4) and diclofenac (1). Diclofenac-monoglycerides (3a,b) hydrolyzed more slowly under the same conditions, to again yield both diclofenac (1) and diclofenac lactam (4). There was also transesterification of diclofenac-2-monoglyceride (3b) to its regioisomer, diclofenac-1-monoglyceride (3a) across the pH range. Diclofenac was shown to be stable in neutral or alkaline conditions but cyclized to form the lactam (4) in acidic conditions. Conversely, the lactam (4) was stable under acidic conditions but was converted to an unknown species under alkaline or neutral conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  4. Monitoring of stable glaucoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Holtzer-Goor (Kim); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T. Plochg; E. van Sprundel (Esther)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA high workload for ophthalmologists and long waiting lists for patients challenge the organization of ophthalmic care. Tasks that require less specialized skills, like the monitoring of stable (well controlled) glaucoma patients could be substituted from ophthalmologists to other

  5. HDAC inhibition amplifies gap junction communication in neural progenitors: Potential for cell-mediated enzyme prodrug therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zahidul; Akhtar, Monira; Asklund, Thomas; Juliusson, Bengt; Almqvist, Per M.; Ekstroem, Tomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Enzyme prodrug therapy using neural progenitor cells (NPCs) as delivery vehicles has been applied in animal models of gliomas and relies on gap junction communication (GJC) between delivery and target cells. This study investigated the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on GJC for the purpose of facilitating transfer of therapeutic molecules from recombinant NPCs. We studied a novel immortalized midbrain cell line, NGC-407 of embryonic human origin having neural precursor characteristics, as a potential delivery vehicle. The expression of gap junction protein connexin 43 (C x 43) was analyzed by western blot and immunocytochemistry. While C x 43 levels were decreased in untreated differentiating NGC-407 cells, the HDAC inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB) increased C x 43 expression along with increased membranous deposition in both proliferating and differentiating cells. Simultaneously, Ser 279/282-phosphorylated form of C x 43 was declined in both culture conditions by 4-PB. The 4-PB effect in NGC-407 cells was verified by using HNSC.100 human neural progenitors and Trichostatin A. Improved functional GJC is of imperative importance for therapeutic strategies involving intercellular transport of low molecular-weight compounds. We show here an enhancement by 4-PB, of the functional GJC among NGC-407 cells, as well as between NGC-407 and human glioma cells, as indicated by increased fluorescent dye transfer

  6. Corrosion-Activated Chemotherapeutic Function of Nanoparticulate Platinum as a Cisplatin Resistance-Overcoming Prodrug with Limited Autophagy Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsien-Jen; Wu, Te-Haw; Chien, Chih-Te; Tu, Hai-Wei; Cha, Ting-Shan; Lin, Shu-Yi

    2016-11-01

    Despite nanoparticulate platinum (nano-Pt) has been validated to be acting as a platinum-based prodrug for anticancer therapy, the key factor in controlling its cytotoxicity remains to be clarified. In this study, it is found that the corrosion susceptibility of nano-Pt can be triggered by inducing the oxidization of superficial Pt atoms, which can kill both cisplatin-sensitive/resistance cancer cells. Direct evidence in the oxidization of superficial Pt atoms is validated to observe the formation of platinum oxides by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity is originated from the dissolution of nano-Pt followed by the release of highly toxic Pt ions during the corrosion process. Additionally, the limiting autophagy induction by nano-Pt might prevent cancer cells from acquiring autophagy-related drug resistance. With such advantages, the possibility of further autophagy-related drug resistance could be substantially reduced or even eliminated in cancer cells treated with nano-Pt. Moreover, nano-Pt is demonstrated to kill cisplatin-resistant cancer cells not only by inducing apoptosis but also by inducing necrosis for pro-inflammatory/inflammatory responses. Thus, nano-Pt treatment might bring additional therapeutic benefits by regulating immunological responses in tumor microenvironment. These findings support the idea that utilizing nano-Pt for its cytotoxic effects might potentially benefit patients with cisplatin resistance in clinical chemotherapy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Antiproliferative and Pro-apoptotic Activities of a Novel Resveratrol Prodrug Against Jurkat CD4+ T-Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhahn, Katrin; Handler, Norbert; Loebsch, Silvia; Schmetterer, Klaus; Steiner, Guenter; Kloesch, Burkhard; Erker, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, possesses many beneficial health properties but its therapeutic application is limited due to its low water solubility and instability against oxidative processes. To improve the stability and lipophilicity of the natural compound, we synthesized a resveratrol prodrug, termed FEHH4-1. In the present study, we compared the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of resveratrol with FEHH4-1 on Jurkat T-cells. Cell proliferation and viability were monitored by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide assay, annexin-V/7-amino-actinomycin D staining and western blot. To induce interleukin-2 (IL2) expression, cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/phytohemagglutinin. IL2 production was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IL2 promoter activity was studied by a Jurkat T-cell line containing an IL2 promoter luciferase reporter construct. Both polyphenols inhibited proliferation, induced apoptotic cell death and blocked IL2 synthesis in Jurkat T-cells. Most importantly, FEHH4-1 was three-to four-times more potent than resveratrol. FEHH4-1 had improved antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic potential against Jurkat T-cells compared to resveratrol. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. NO-NSAIDs. Part 3: nitric oxide-releasing prodrugs of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhade, Namdev; Pathan, Asif Rahimkhan; Halder, Somnath; Karwa, Manoj; Dhiman, Mini; Pamidiboina, Venu; Gund, Machhindra; Deshattiwar, Jagannath Janardhan; Mali, Sunil Vasantrao; Deshmukh, Nitin Janardanrao; Senthilkumar, Subrayan Palanisamy; Gaikwad, Parikshit; Tipparam, Santhosh Goud; Mudgal, Jayesh; Dutta, Milan Chandra; Burhan, Aslam Usmangani; Thakre, Gajanan; Sharma, Ankur; Deshpande, Shubhada; Desai, Dattatraya Chandrakant; Dubash, Nauzer Pervez; Jain, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Somesh; Nemmani, Kumar Venkata Subrahmanya; Satyam, Apparao

    2012-01-01

    In continuation of our efforts to discover novel nitric oxide-releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) as potentially "Safe NSAIDs," we report herein the design, synthesis and evaluation of 21 new NO-NSAIDs of commonly used NSAIDs such as aspirin, diclofenac, naproxen, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, sulindac, ibuprofen and indomethacin. These prodrugs have NO-releasing disulfide linker attached to a parent NSAID via linkages such as an ester (compounds 9-16), a double ester (compounds 17-24), an imide (compounds 25-30) or an amide (compounds 31-33). Among these NO-NSAIDs, the ester-containing NO-aspirin (9), NO-diclofenac (10), NO-naproxen (11), and the imide-containing NO-aspirin (25), NO-flurbiprofen (27) and NO-ketoprofen (28) have shown promising oral absorption, anti-inflammatory activity and NO-releasing property, and also protected rats from NSAID-induced gastric damage. NO-aspirin compound 25, on further co-evaluation with aspirin at equimolar doses, exhibited comparable dose-dependent pharmacokinetics, inhibition of gastric mucosal prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) synthesis and analgesic properties to those of aspirin, but retained its gastric-sparing properties even after doubling its oral dose. These promising NO-NSAIDs could therefore represent a new class of potentially "Safe NSAIDs" for the treatment of arthritic pain and inflammation.

  9. Catalase-loaded cisplatin-prodrug-constructed liposomes to overcome tumor hypoxia for enhanced chemo-radiotherapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Song, Xuejiao; Liang, Chao; Yi, Xuan; Song, Guosheng; Chao, Yu; Yang, Yu; Yang, Kai; Feng, Liangzhu; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-09-01

    Aiming at improved therapeutic efficacies, the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (chemo-radiotherapy) has been widely studied and applied in clinic. However, the hostile characteristics of tumor microenvironment such as hypoxia often limit the efficacies in both types of cancer therapies. Herein, catalase (CAT), an antioxidant enzyme, is encapsulated inside liposomes constituted by cisplatin (IV)-prodrug-conjugated phospholipid, forming CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome for enhanced chemo-radiotherapy of cancer. After being loaded inside liposomes, CAT within CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome shows retained and well-protected enzyme activity, and is able to trigger decomposition of H 2 O 2 produced by tumor cells, so as to produce additional oxygen for hypoxia relief. As the result, treatment of CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome induces the highest level of DNA damage in cancer cells after X-ray radiation compared to the control groups. In vivo tumor treatment further demonstrates a remarkably improved therapeutic outcome in chemo-radiotherapy with such CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome nanoparticles. Hence, an exquisite type of liposome-based nanoparticles is developed in this work by integrating cisplatin-based chemotherapy and catalase-induced tumor hypoxia relief together for combined chemo-radiotherapy with great synergistic efficacy, promising for clinical translation in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A new class of radiation-activating antitumor prodrugs releasing 5-fluorodeoxyuridine: synthesis, reactivity and biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, S.; Zhou, L.; Mori, M.; Hatta, H.; Nishimoto, S. [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Shibamoto, Y. [Kyoto Univ., Institute for Frontier Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    A number of 3-substituted 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (5-FdUrd) derivatives (1-6) were synthesized to evaluate their radiation reactivity and biological activity as a new class of prodrugs that can be radiation-activated to release 5-FdUrd. The compounds 2-6 bearing substituents with a 2-oxo group underwent radiolytic reduction to release 5-FdUrd in considerably high yields under anoxic conditions, while the compound 1 without 2-oxo substituent was inactive in releasing 5-FdUrd. The cytotoxicities of 2-6 toward P388 T cells of mouse leukemia were less than 5-FdUrd, as indicated by an MTT assay. The apparent cytotoxicities were significantly enhanced by X-irradiation under hypoxic conditions. A conclusion was that 2-6 have no antitumor effect in contrast to 5-FdUrd, but can potentiate the effect of cancer radiotherapy by releasing a cell-killing component 5-FdUrd. (author)

  11. In vitro antiviral characteristics of HIV-1 attachment inhibitor BMS-626529, the active component of the prodrug BMS-663068.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Gong, Yi-Fei; McAuliffe, Brian; Dicker, Ira; Ho, Hsu-Tso; Zhou, Nannan; Eggers, Betsy; Lin, Pin-Fang; Ray, Neelanjana; Wind-Rotolo, Megan; Zhu, Li; Majumdar, Antara; Stock, David; Lataillade, Max; Hanna, George J; Matiskella, John D; Ueda, Yasutsugu; Wang, Tao; Kadow, John F; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Krystal, Mark

    2012-07-01

    BMS-663068 is the phosphonooxymethyl prodrug of BMS-626529, a novel small-molecule attachment inhibitor that targets HIV-1 gp120 and prevents its binding to CD4(+) T cells. The activity of BMS-626529 is virus dependent, due to heterogeneity within gp120. In order to better understand the anti-HIV-1 spectrum of BMS-626529 against HIV-1, in vitro activities against a wide variety of laboratory strains and clinical isolates were determined. BMS-626529 had half-maximal effective concentration (EC(50)) values of 6 log(10), with half-maximal effective concentration values in the low pM range against the most susceptible viruses. The in vitro antiviral activity of BMS-626529 was generally not associated with either tropism or subtype, with few exceptions. Measurement of the binding affinity of BMS-626529 for purified gp120 suggests that a contributory factor to its inhibitory potency may be a relatively long dissociative half-life. Finally, in two-drug combination studies, BMS-626529 demonstrated additive or synergistic interactions with antiretroviral drugs of different mechanistic classes. These results suggest that BMS-626529 should be active against the majority of HIV-1 viruses and support the continued clinical development of the compound.

  12. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization of Pronetupitant, a prodrug of the neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist Netupitant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzza, Chiara; Rizzi, Anna; Malfacini, Davide; Molinari, Stefano; Giuliano, Claudio; Lovati, Emanuela; Pietra, Claudio; Calo', Girolamo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacological activity of Pronetupitant, a novel compound designed to act as prodrug of the NK1 antagonist Netupitant. In receptor binding experiments Pronetupitant displayed high selectivity for the NK1 receptor. In a calcium mobilization assay performed on CHONK1 cells Pronetupitant (100 nM, 15 min preincubation) behaved as an NK1 antagonist more potent than Netupitant (pK(B) 8.72 and 7.54, respectively). In the guinea pig ileum bioassay Pronetupitant antagonized the contractile effect of SP showing a similar potency as Netupitant (pK(B)≈9). Similar results were obtained with 5 min preincubation time while at 2 min only Pronetupitant produced significant effects. In vivo in mice the intrathecal injection of 0.1 nmol SP elicited the typical scratching, biting and licking (SBL) nociceptive response. This effect of SP was dose dependently (0.1-10 mg/kg) antagonized by Pronetupitant given intravenously 2 h before the peptide. Superimposable results were obtained using Netupitant. Pharmacokinetic studies performed in rats demonstrate that Pronetupitant, after i.v. administration, is quickly (few minutes) and completely converted to Netupitant. Collectively the present results indicated that Pronetupitant acts in vitro as selective NK1 antagonist more potent than Netupitant. However based on the short half-life measured for Pronetupitant in rats, the in vivo action of Pronetupitant can be entirely interpreted as due to its conversion to Netupitant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the "steal" phenomenon on the efficacy of hypoxia activated prodrug TH-302 in pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate M Bailey

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas are desmoplastic and hypoxic, both of which are associated with poor prognosis. Hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs are specifically activated in hypoxic environments to release cytotoxic or cytostatic effectors. TH-302 is a HAP that is currently being evaluated in a Phase III clinical trial in pancreatic cancer. Using animal models, we show that tumor hypoxia can be exacerbated using a vasodilator, hydralazine, improving TH-302 efficacy. Hydralazine reduces tumor blood flow through the "steal" phenomenon, in which atonal immature tumor vasculature fails to dilate in coordination with normal vasculature. We show that MIA PaCa-2 tumors exhibit a "steal" effect in response to hydralazine, resulting in decreased tumor blood flow and subsequent tumor pH reduction. The effect is not observed in SU.86.86 tumors with mature tumor vasculature, as measured by CD31 and smooth muscle actin (SMA immunohistochemistry staining. Combination therapy of hydralazine and TH-302 resulted in a reduction in MIA PaCa-2 tumor volume growth after 18 days of treatment. These studies support a combination mechanism of action for TH-302 with a vasodilator that transiently increases tumor hypoxia.

  14. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  15. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  16. Effectiveness of nanometer-sized extracellular matrix layer-by-layer assembled films for a cell membrane coating protecting cells from physical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Atsushi; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2013-06-18

    In recent approaches to tissue engineering, cells face various stresses from physical, chemical, and environmental stimuli. For example, coating cell membranes with nanofilms using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly requires many cycles of centrifugation, causing physical (gravity) stress. Damage to cell membranes can cause the leakage of cytosol molecules or sometimes cell death. Accordingly, we evaluated the effectiveness of LbL films prepared on cell membranes in protecting cells from physical stresses. After two steps of LbL assembly using Tris-HCl buffer solution without polymers or proteins (four centrifugation cycles including washing), hepatocyte carcinoma (HepG2) cells showed extremely high cell death and the viability was ca. 15%. Their viability ultimately decreased to 6% after 9 steps of LbL assembly (18 cycles of centrifugation), which is the typical number of steps involved in preparing LbL nanofilms. However, significantly higher viability (>85%) of HepG2 cells was obtained after nine steps of LbL assembly employing fibronectin (FN)-gelatin (G) or type IV collagen (Col IV)-laminin (LN) solution combinations, which are typical components of an extracellular matrix (ECM), to fabricate 10-nm-thick LbL films. When LbL films of synthetic polymers created via electrostatic interactions were employed instead of the ECM films described above, the viability of the HepG2 cells after the same nine steps slightly decreased to 61%. The protective effects of LbL films were strongly dependent on their thickness, and the critical thickness was >5 nm. Surprisingly, a high viability of over 85% was achieved even under extreme physical stress conditions (10,000 rpm). We evaluated the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during the LbL assembly processes to clarify the protective effect, and a reduction in LDH leakage was clearly observed when using FN-G nanofilms. Moreover, the LbL films do not inhibit cell growth during cell culturing, suggesting that these coated cells can be useful for other experiments. LbL nanofilm coatings, especially ECM nanofilm coatings, will be important techniques for protecting cell membranes from physical stress during tissue engineering.

  17. Bioavailability of diazepam after intramuscular injection of its water-soluble prodrug alone or with atropine–pralidoxime in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbara, C; Rousseau, JM; Turcant, A; Lallement, G; Comets, E; Bardot, I; Clair, P; Diquet, B

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the relative bioavailability of diazepam after administration of diazepam itself or as a water-soluble prodrug, avizafone, in humans. Experimental approach: The study was conducted in an open, randomized, single-dose, three-way, cross-over design. Each subject received intramuscular injections of avizafone (20 mg), diazepam (11.3 mg) or avizafone (20 mg) combined with atropine (2 mg) and pralidoxime (350 mg) using a bi-compartmental auto-injector (AIBC). Plasma concentrations of diazepam were quantified using a validated LC/MS–MS assay, and were analysed by both a non-compartmental approach and by compartmental modelling. Key results: The maximum concentration (Cmax) of diazepam after avizafone injection was higher than that obtained after injection of diazepam itself (231 vs. 148 ng·mL−1), while area under the curve (AUC) values were equal. Diazepam concentrations reached their maximal value faster after injection of avizafone. Injection of avizafone with atropine–pralidoxime (AIBC) had no effect on diazepam Cmax and AUC, but the time to Cmax was increased, relative to avizafone injected alone. According to the Akaike criterion, the pharmacokinetics of diazepam after injection as a prodrug was best described as a two-compartment with zero-order absorption model. When atropine and pralidoxime were injected with avizafone, the best pharmacokinetic model was a two-compartment with a first-order absorption model. Conclusion and implications: Diazepam had a faster entry to the general circulation and achieved higher Cmax after injection of prodrug than after the parent drug. Administration of avizafone in combination with atropine and pralidoxime by AIBC had no significant effect on diazepam AUC and Cmax. PMID:19681868

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Stereoisomeric Dipeptide Prodrugs of Acyclovir Following Intravenous and Oral Administrations in Rats: A Study Involving In vivo Corneal Uptake of Acyclovir Following Oral Dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S.Talluri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To delineate the plasma pharmacokinetics and determine the corneal uptake of valine based stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. Pharmacokinetics of ACV, L-valine-acyclovir (LACV, L-valine- D-valine-acyclovir (LDACV and D-valine-L-valine acyclovir (DLACV prodrugs were delineated. These compounds were administered intravenously as a bolus via jugular vein cannula and orally by gavage. Samples were purified by protein precipitation method and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Pertinent pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by using WinNonlin. Corneal uptake studies of LDACV and LACV were studied following oral administration. Results: Following i.v. administration, the area under the curve (AUC in µM*min of generated ACV was in the order of LACV › LDACV › DLACV indicating their rate of metabolism. The AUC values of total drug obtained in the systemic circulation after oral administration LACV and LDACV were 1077.93 ± 236.09 and 1141.76 ± 73.67 µM*min, respectively. DLACV exhibited poor oral absorption. Cmax (µM and AUC of the intact prodrug obtained in the systemic circulation following oral administration of LDACV were almost 4–5 times higher than LACV. Moreover, concentrations achieved in the cornea after oral administration of LDACV were almost two times of LACV. Conclusions: LDACV increased both the oral bioavailability and subsequent in vivo corneal uptake of ACV. Hence, LDACV can be considered as the most promising drug candidate for delivery of ACV, in treatment of both genital herpes and ocular herpes keratitis after oral administration.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Stereoisomeric Dipeptide Prodrugs of Acyclovir Following Intravenous and Oral Administrations in Rats: A Study Involving In vivo Corneal Uptake of Acyclovir Following Oral Dosing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talluri, Ravi S.; Gaudana, Ripal; Hariharan, Sudharshan; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To delineate the plasma pharmacokinetics and determine the corneal uptake of valine based stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) in rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. Pharmacokinetics of ACV, L-valine-acyclovir (LACV), L-valine-D-valine-acyclovir (LDACV) and D-valine-L-valine acyclovir (DLACV) prodrugs were delineated. These compounds were administered intravenously as a bolus via jugular vein cannula and orally by gavage. Samples were purified by protein precipitation method and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Pertinent pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by using WinNonlin. Corneal uptake studies of LDACV and LACV were studied following oral administration. Results Following i.v. administration, the area under the curve (AUC) in μM*min of generated ACV was in the order of LACV > LDACV > DLACV indicating their rate of metabolism. The AUC values of total drug obtained in the systemic circulation after oral administration LACV and LDACV were 1077.93 ± 236.09 and 1141.76 ± 73.67 μM*min, respectively. DLACV exhibited poor oral absorption. Cmax (μM) and AUC of the intact prodrug obtained in the systemic circulation following oral administration of LDACV were almost 4–5 times higher than LACV. Moreover, concentrations achieved in the cornea after oral administration of LDACV were almost two times of LACV. Conclusions LDACV increased both the oral bioavailability and subsequent in vivo corneal uptake of ACV. Hence, LDACV can be considered as the most promising drug candidate for delivery of ACV, in treatment of both genital herpes and ocular herpes keratitis after oral administration. PMID:23861607

  20. Pharmacokinetics of Stereoisomeric Dipeptide Prodrugs of Acyclovir following Intravenous and Oral Administrations in Rats: A study Involving in vivo corneal Uptake of Acyclovir following Oral Dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Talluri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To delineate the plasma pharmacokinetics and determine the corneal uptake of valine based stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV in rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. Pharmacokinetics of ACV, L-valine-acyclovir (LACV, L-valine-D-valine-acyclovir (LDACV and D-valine-L-valine acyclovir (DLACV prodrugs were delineated. These compounds were administered intravenously as a bolus via jugular vein cannula and orally by gavage. Samples were purified by protein precipitation method and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Pertinent pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by using WinNonlin. Corneal uptake studies of LDACV and LACV were studied following oral administration. Results Following i.v. administration, the area under the curve (AUC in μM*min of generated ACV was in the order of LACV > LDACV > DLACV indicating their rate of metabolism. The AUC values of total drug obtained in the systemic circulation after oral administration LACV and LDACV were 1077.93 ± 236.09 and 1141.76 ± 73.67 μM*min, respectively. DLACV exhibited poor oral absorption. C max (μM and AUC of the intact prodrug obtained in the systemic circulation following oral administration of LDACV were almost 4–5 times higher than LACV. Moreover, concentrations achieved in the cornea after oral administration of LDACV were almost two times of LACV. Conclusions LDACV increased both the oral bioavailability and subsequent in vivo corneal uptake of ACV Hence, LDACV can be considered as the most promising drug candidate for delivery of ACV, in treatment of both genital herpes and ocular herpes keratitis after oral administration.

  1. Small Neutral Amino Acid Ester Prodrugs of Acyclovir Targeting Amino Acid Transporters on the Cornea: Possible Antiviral Agents against Ocular HSV-1 Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katragadda Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the affinity and permeability patterns of the amino acid ester prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV, L-alanine-ACV (AACV, L-serine-ACV (SACV, L-serine-succinate-ACV (SSACV and L-cysteine-ACV (CACV on rabbit primary corneal epithelial cell culture (rPCEC and on rabbit cornea. Amino acid prodrugs of acyclovir, AACV, SACV, SSACV and CACV were synthesized in our laboratory. Chemical hydrolysis in aqueous buffer, enzymatic hydrolysis in corneal homogenates and transport across freshly excised rabbit cornea of these prodrugs were studied. SSACV inhibited the uptake of [ 3 H] L-alanine on rPCEC and across the intact rabbit cornea. Lineweaver-Burk plot transformation revealed competitive inhibition between L-alanine and SSACV. In corneal tissue homogenate, the half lives of SSACV, SACV and CACV (t 1/2 were observed to be 3.5 ± 0.4, 9.2 ± 0.6 and 1.8 ± 0.1 hr respectively, whereas AACV was readily converted to the active parent drug acyclovir exhibiting complete degradation before 5 min. Interestingly translocation of SACV across cornea was inhibited in the presence of 5 mM arginine (~51%, a specific substrate for cationic transport system and in presence of BCH (~38%, a substrate specific for large neutral amino acid transport system (LAT or cationic and neutral amino acid transport system (B 0,+ . SACV exhibited higher permeability across cornea along with excellent antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and varicella-zoster virus (VZV in comparison to ACV. Recognition by multiple transporters, stability in corneal homogenate and changes in physico-chemical properties contributed to the increased permeability of SACV across cornea.

  2. Docking Simulations and QM/MM Studies between Isoniazid Prodrug, Catalase-Peroxidase (KatG and S315T Mutant from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. F. da Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoniazid (INH, an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis (TB, is a prodrug requiring activation by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis KatG (mtKatG. In the present work, theoretical calculations were carried out to locate the most energetically-favorable INH–KatG interaction modes using the experimental structure of a wild type and mutant mtKatG active site. The S315T mutation significantly affects the ability of the enzyme to convert INH to isonicotinic acid in vitro. The results showed that significant changes occur in the INH binding pattern when serine is replaced by threonine.

  3. A novel class of antitumor prodrug, 1-(2'-oxopropyl)-5-fluorouracil (OFU001), that releases 5-fluorouracil upon hypoxic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibamoto, Yuta [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Frontier Medical Sciences; Zhou, Ling; Hatta, Hiroshi; Mori, Mayuko; Nishimoto, Sei-ichi

    2000-04-01

    We have been developing prodrugs of anticancer agents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) that are activated by irradiation under hypoxic conditions via one-electron reduction. Among them, OFU001 [1-(2'-oxopropyl)-5-fluorouracil] is a prototype radiation-activated prodrug. In this study, we investigated the radiation chemical reactivity and the biological effects of OFU001. This prodrug is presumed to release 5-FU through incorporation of hydrated electrons into the antibonding {sigma}{sup *} orbital of the C(1')-N(1) bond. Hydrated electrons are active species derived from radiolysis of water, but are readily deactivated by O{sub 2} into superoxide anion radicals (O{sub 2}{sup -}{center_dot}) under conditions of aerobic irradiation. Therefore, 5-FU release occurs highly specifically upon irradiation under hypoxic conditions. OFU001 dissolved in phosphate buffer released 5-FU with a G-value (mol number of molecules that are decomposed or produced by 1 J of absorbed radiation energy) of 1.9 x 10{sup -7} mol/J following hypoxic irradiation, while the G-value for 5-FU release was 1.0 x 10{sup -8} mol/J following aerobic irradiation. However, the G-values for decomposition of OFU001 were almost the same, i.e., 3.4 x 10{sup -7} mol/J following hypoxic irradiation and 2.5 x 10{sup -7} mol/J following aerobic irradiation. When hypoxically irradiated (7.5-30 Gy) OFU001 was added to murine SCCVII cells for 1-24 h, a significant cell-killing effect was observed. The degree of this cytotoxicity was consistent with that of authentic 5-FU at the corresponding concentrations. On the other hand, cytotoxicity was minimal when the cells were treated with aerobically irradiated or unirradiated OFU001. This compound had no radiosensitizing effect against SCCVII cells under either aerobic or hypoxic conditions when the drug was removed immediately after irradiation. Since hypoxia is generally most marked in tumors and irradiation is applied at the tumor site, this concept of

  4. Molecular modeling of the voltammetric oxidation at a glassy carbon electrode of the antimalarial drug primaquine and its prodrugs succinylprimaquine and maleylprimaquine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La-Scalea, Mauro A. [Lapen, Laboratorio de Planejamento e Sintese de Quimioterapicos Potencialmente Ativos Contra Endemias Tropicais, Departamento de Farmacia, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bl. 13 sup., 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: scalea@usp.br; Menezes, Carla M.S. [Lapen, Laboratorio de Planejamento e Sintese de Quimioterapicos Potencialmente Ativos Contra Endemias Tropicais, Departamento de Farmacia, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bl. 13 sup., 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: casmenezes@yahoo.com; Matsutami, Guilherme C. [Lapen, Laboratorio de Planejamento e Sintese de Quimioterapicos Potencialmente Ativos Contra Endemias Tropicais, Departamento de Farmacia, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bl. 13 sup., 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Polli, Michelle C. [Lapen, Laboratorio de Planejamento e Sintese de Quimioterapicos Potencialmente Ativos Contra Endemias Tropicais, Departamento de Farmacia, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bl. 13 sup., 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Serrano, Silvia H.P. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748 Bl. 2 sup., 05508-90 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ferreira, Elizabeth I. [Lapen, Laboratorio de Planejamento e Sintese de Quimioterapicos Potencialmente Ativos Contra Endemias Tropicais, Departamento de Farmacia, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bl. 13 sup., 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-15

    The 8-aminoquinoline primaquine (PQ) is the only antimalarial drug used as tissue schizonticide and relapsing malaria. Antichagasic activity was also reported. Nevertheless, as it also shows serious side effects, prodrugs such as succinyl and maleyl derivatives have been proposed to decrease its toxicity. Although PQ mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated, the promotion of oxidative stress is an advanced hypothesis that could explain its activity in both plasmodia and trypanosome parasites. The oxidation of PQ and its prodrugs, maleylprimaquine (MPQ) and succinylprimaquine (SPQ), was studied by cyclic voltammetry using glassy carbon electrode. All compounds were oxidized in aqueous medium, with the charge transfer process being pH-dependent in acidic medium and pH-independent in a weak basic medium, being the neutral form more easily oxidized. This indicated that the protonation of the nitrogen atoms displays a determinant role in the voltammetric oxidation, being both prodrugs more easily oxidized than PQ protonated forms, in the order: SPQ < MPQ < PQ. For a better understanding of this behavior, a molecular modeling study was performed using the AM1 semi-empirical method from Spartan 04 for Linux (v.119, Wavefunction Inc.). The medium pH showed to be fundamental not only to the electronic density of the quinoline ring but also to the rearrangement of the nitrogen side chain. The electronic density of primaquine non-protonated quinoline ring is higher than that in its protonated and diprotonated species. Also, the use of prodrugs and the degree of saturation of the carriers (maleic or succinic acid) interfere with this feature. SPQ and MPQ have a slight increase in the quinoline electronic density in comparison to PQ. Nevertheless, the carrier in the side chain of SPQ is closer to the quinoline ring than it is in MPQ, which accounts for the higher electronic density in the former. The most significant effect occurs in the correspondent protonated

  5. Stable Hemiaminals: 2-Aminopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecień

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stable hemiaminals can be obtained in the one-pot reaction between 2-aminopyrimidine and nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives. Ten new hemiaminals have been obtained, six of them in crystal state. The molecular stability of these intermediates results from the presence of both electron-withdrawing nitro groups as substituents on the phenyl ring and pyrimidine ring, so no further stabilisation by intramolecular interaction is required. Hemiaminal molecules possess a tetrahedral carbon atom constituting a stereogenic centre. As the result of crystallisation in centrosymmetric space groups both enantiomers are present in the crystal structure.

  6. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  7. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  8. Melatonin-sulforaphane hybrid ITH12674 induces neuroprotection in oxidative stress conditions by a 'drug-prodrug' mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Javier; Buendia, Izaskun; Parada, Esther; Navarro, Elisa; Rada, Patricia; Cuadrado, Antonio; López, Manuela G; García, Antonio G; León, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a major problem afflicting ageing populations; however, there are no effective treatments to stop their progression. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are common factors in their pathogenesis. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is the master regulator of oxidative stress, and melatonin is an endogenous hormone with antioxidative properties that reduces its levels with ageing. We have designed a new compound that combines the effects of melatonin with Nrf2 induction properties, with the idea of achieving improved neuroprotective properties. Compound ITH12674 is a hybrid of melatonin and sulforaphane designed to exert a dual drug-prodrug mechanism of action. We obtained the proposed hybrid in a single step. To test its neuroprotective properties, we used different in vitro models of oxidative stress related to neurodegenerative diseases and brain ischaemia. ITH12674 showed an improved neuroprotective profile compared to that of melatonin and sulforaphane. ITH12674 (i) mediated a concentration-dependent protective effect in cortical neurons subjected to oxidative stress; (ii) decreased reactive oxygen species production; (iii) augmented GSH concentrations in cortical neurons; (iv) enhanced the Nrf2-antioxidant response element transcriptional response in transfected HEK293T cells; and (v) protected organotypic cultures of hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation and re-oxygenation from stress by increasing the expression of haem oxygenase-1 and reducing free radical production. ITH12674 combines the signalling pathways of the parent compounds to improve its neuroprotective properties. This opens a new line of research for such hybrid compounds to treat neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. MR Imaging Biomarkers to Monitor Early Response to Hypoxia-Activated Prodrug TH-302 in Pancreatic Cancer Xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Zhang

    Full Text Available TH-302 is a hypoxia-activated prodrug known to activate selectively under the hypoxic conditions commonly found in solid tumors. It is currently being evaluated in clinical trials, including two trials in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas (PDAC. The current study was undertaken to evaluate imaging biomarkers for prediction and response monitoring of TH-302 efficacy in xenograft models of PDAC. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE and diffusion weighted (DW magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were used to monitor acute effects on tumor vasculature and cellularity, respectively. Three human PDAC xenografts with known differential responses to TH-302 were imaged prior to, and at 24 h and 48 hours following a single dose of TH-302 or vehicle to determine if imaging changes presaged changes in tumor volumes. DW-MRI was performed at five b-values to generate apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC maps. For DCE-MRI, a standard clinically available contrast reagent, Gd-DTPA, was used to determine blood flow into the tumor region of interest. TH-302 induced a dramatic decrease in the DCE transfer constant (Ktrans within 48 hours after treatment in the sensitive tumors, Hs766t and Mia PaCa-2, whereas TH-302 had no effect on the perfusion behavior of resistant SU.86.86 tumors. Tumor cellularity, estimated from ADC, was significantly increased 24 and 48 hours after treatment in Hs766t, but was not observed in the Mia PaCa-2 and SU.86.86 groups. Notably, growth inhibition of Hs766t was observed immediately (day 3 following initiation of treatment, but was not observed in MiaPaCa-2 tumors until 8 days after initiation of treatment. Based on these preclinical findings, DCE-MRI measures of vascular perfusion dynamics and ADC measures of cell density are suggested as potential TH-302 response biomarkers in clinical trials.

  10. Layer-by-layer nanoparticles co-loading gemcitabine and platinum (IV prodrugs for synergistic combination therapy of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang R

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rongrong Zhang, Yun Ru, Yiping Gao, Jinyin Li, Shilong Mao Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Xuhui District Central Hospital, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University Xuhui Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Cisplatin plus gemcitabine (GEM is a standard regimen for the first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The aim of this study was to prepare biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric prodrugs and construct nanoparticles (NPs with layer-by-layer (LbL technique. Methods: Platinum (Pt (IV complex with a carboxyl group was conjugated to the amino group of chitosan (CH, resulting in a CH-Pt conjugation with positive charge. GEM with amino group was conjugated to the carboxyl group of hyaluronic acid (HA, resulting in a HA-GEM conjugation with negative charge. Novel LbL NPs consisting of the CH-Pt core and the HA-GEM layer, named as HA-GEM/CH-Pt NPs, were constructed. The physicochemical properties of the HA-GEM/CH-Pt NPs were investigated. In vitro cytotoxicity against human non-small lung cancer cells (NCl-H460 cells was investigated, and in vivo antitumor efficiency was evaluated on mice bearing NCl-H460 cells xenografts. Results: HA-GEM/CH-Pt NPs have a size of about 187 nm, a zeta potential value of -21 mV and high drug encapsulation efficiency of 90%. The drug release of HA-GEM/CH-Pt NPs exhibited a sustained behavior. HA-GEM/CH-Pt NPs could significantly enhance in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor effect against lung cancer animal model compared to the single-drug-loaded NPs and free drug solutions. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the HA-GEM/CH-Pt NPs might be a promising system for the synergetic treatment of lung carcinoma. Keywords: lung cancer, combination chemotherapy, cisplatin, gemcitabine, layer-by-layer technology

  11. Assessment of mazindane, a pro-drug form of mazindol, in assays used to define cocaine treatment agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, William J; Kelly, Lawrence

    2003-01-05

    The current studies compared mazindane (5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,3-dihydro-5H-imidazo [2,1a] isoindole) hydrogen sulfate, a water soluble pro-drug of mazindol (5-(4-chlorophenyl-2,3-dihydro-5H-imidazo [2,1-a] isoindol-5-ol), with mazindol in assays used to define cocaine treatment agents. Both compounds enhanced motor activity (LMA) in Swiss Webster mice with ED(50) values of 2.5 mg/kg i.p. for mazindane and 3.9 mg/kg i.p. for mazindol. At 25 mg/kg mazindane displayed toxic effects and death while mazindol was effect/death free at 50 mg/kg. In Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate cocaine from saline both compounds fully substituted for cocaine with mazindane being fourfold more potent in the total session (0.33 vs. 1.3 mg/kg i.p.) and first reinforcer (0.29 vs. 1.2 mg/kg i.p). Complete substitution was observed in rhesus monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine from saline with ED(50) values for mazindane (0.134 mg/kg i.m.) and mazindol (0.119 mg/kg i.m.). Mazindol exhibited little or no activity at 10(-5) M in inhibiting radioligand binding at 14 neurotransmitter sites while mazindane gave weak activity at the histamine H(1) and 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT(3) sites. These results demonstrate that mazindane could be a useful alternative to mazindol as a pharmacological tool because of its similar profile of activity and enhanced water solubility.

  12. Melatonin, a potent agent in antioxidative defense: Actions as a natural food constituent, gastrointestinal factor, drug and prodrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandi-Perumal SR

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melatonin, originally discovered as a hormone of the pineal gland, is also produced in other organs and represents, additionally, a normal food constituent found in yeast and plant material, which can influence the level in the circulation. Compared to the pineal, the gastrointestinal tract contains several hundred times more melatonin, which can be released into the blood in response to food intake and stimuli by nutrients, especially tryptophan. Apart from its use as a commercial food additive, supraphysiological doses have been applied in medical trials and pure preparations are well tolerated by patients. Owing to its amphiphilicity, melatonin can enter any body fluid, cell or cell compartment. Its properties as an antioxidant agent are based on several, highly diverse effects. Apart from direct radical scavenging, it plays a role in upregulation of antioxidant and downregulation of prooxidant enzymes, and damage by free radicals can be reduced by its antiexcitatory actions, and presumably by contributions to appropriate internal circadian phasing, and by its improvement of mitochondrial metabolism, in terms of avoiding electron leakage and enhancing complex I and complex IV activities. Melatonin was shown to potentiate effects of other antioxidants, such as ascorbate and Trolox. Under physiological conditions, direct radical scavenging may only contribute to a minor extent to overall radical detoxification, although melatonin can eliminate several of them in scavenger cascades and potentiates the efficacy of antioxidant vitamins. Melatonin oxidation seems rather important for the production of other biologically active metabolites such as N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK, which have been shown to also dispose of protective properties. Thus, melatonin may be regarded as a prodrug, too. AMK interacts with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, conveys protection to mitochondria

  13. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  14. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  15. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  16. Uses of stable isotopes in fish ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of fish tissues (other than otoliths) for stable isotope ratios can provide substantial information on fish ecology, including physiological ecology. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon frequently are used to determine the mix of diet sources for consumers. Stable i...

  17. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  18. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  19. Theory of stable allocations II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Shapley provided the fundamental theoretical contribution to this field of research, whereas Roth, a professor at the Harvard University in Boston, developed and upgraded these theoretical investigations by applying them to the American market of medical doctors. Namely, their research helps explain the market processes at work, for instance, when doctors are assigned to hospitals, students to schools and human organs for transplant to recipients.

  20. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  1. Acyloxymethyl as a drug protecting group. Part 7: Tertiary sulfonamidomethyl ester prodrugs of benzylpenicillin: chemical hydrolysis and anti-bacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iley, J; Barroso, H; Moreira, R; Lopes, F; Calheiros, T

    2000-07-01

    Tertiary sulfonamidomethyl esters of benzylpenicillin (4) were synthesised and evaluated as a new class of potential prodrugs for beta-lactam antibiotics. Their hydrolysis in aqueous buffers was studied by HPLC and reveal a U-shaped pH rate profile with a pH-independent process extending from ca. pH 2 to ca. pH 10. This pathway is characterised by kinetic data that are consistent with a unimolecular mechanism involving rate-limiting iminium ion formation and penicillinoate expulsion. Benzylpenicillin and the corresponding sulfonamide are the ultimate products detected and isolated, indicating that beta-lactam ring opening is much slower than ester hydrolysis. As expected from the high reactivity, benzylpenicillin esters (4) displayed similar in vitro antibacterial activity to benzylpenicillin itself. Compared to the benzylpenicillin derivatives, sulfonamidomethyl esters of benzoic, clofibric and valproic acids display a much higher stability, giving rise to a Brønsted beta1g value of -0.96 and suggesting that tertiary sulfonamidomethyl esters may be useful prodrugs for carboxylic acid drugs with pKa > 4.

  2. Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of the pH-Dependent Activation (Epoxidation) of Prodrug Treosulfan Including the Reaction Inhibition in a Borate Buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romański, Michał; Ratajczak, Whitney; Główka, Franciszek

    2017-07-01

    A prodrug treosulfan (T) undergoes a pH-dependent activation to epoxide derivatives. The process seems to involve an intramolecular Williamson reaction (IWR) but clear kinetic evidence is lacking. Moreover, a cis-diol system present in the T structure is expected to promote complexation with boric acid. As a result, the prodrug epoxidation would be inhibited; however, this phenomenon has not been investigated. In this article, the effect of pH on the kinetics of T conversion to its monoepoxide was studied from a mechanistic point of view. Also, the influence of boric acid on the reaction kinetics was examined. The rate constants observed for the activation of T (k obs ) in acetate, phosphate, and carbonate buffers satisfied the equation logk obs  = -7.48 + 0.96 pH. The reaction was inhibited in the excess of boric acid over T, and the k obs decreased with increasing borate buffer concentration. The experimental results were consistent with the inhibition model that included the formation of a tetrahedral, anionic T-boric acid monoester. To conclude, in nonborate buffers, the T activation to (2S,3S)-1,2-epoxybutane-3,4-diol 4-methanesulfonate follows IWR mechanism. A borate buffer changes the reaction kinetics and complicates kinetic analysis. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure of ThiM from Vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway of Staphylococcus aureus - Insights into a novel pro-drug approach addressing MRSA infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drebes, Julia; Künz, Madeleine; Windshügel, Björn; Kikhney, Alexey G.; Müller, Ingrid B.; Eberle, Raphael J.; Oberthür, Dominik; Cang, Huaixing; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Wrenger, Carsten

    2016-03-01

    Infections caused by the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are today known to be a substantial threat for global health. Emerging multi-drug resistant bacteria have created a substantial need to identify and discover new drug targets and to develop novel strategies to treat bacterial infections. A promising and so far untapped antibiotic target is the biosynthesis of vitamin B1 (thiamin). Thiamin in its activated form, thiamin pyrophosphate, is an essential co-factor for all organisms. Therefore, thiamin analogous compounds, when introduced into the vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway and further converted into non-functional co-factors by the bacterium can function as pro-drugs which thus block various co-factor dependent pathways. We characterized one of the key enzymes within the S. aureus vitamin B1 biosynthetic pathway, 5-(hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole kinase (SaThiM; EC 2.7.1.50), a potential target for pro-drug compounds and analyzed the native structure of SaThiM and complexes with the natural substrate 5-(hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole (THZ) and two selected substrate analogues.

  4. Effect of alginate microencapsulation on the catalytic efficiency and in vitro enzyme-prodrug therapeutic efficacy of cytosine deaminase and of recombinant E. coli expressing cytosine deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, Michael G; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V; Chen, Zhihang; Bhujwalla, Zaver M; Griswold, Karl E; Gimi, Barjor

    2016-02-01

    Cytosine deaminase (CD) catalyses the enzymatic conversion of the non-toxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the potent chemotherapeutic form, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Intratumoral delivery of CD localises chemotherapy dose while reducing systemic toxicity. Encapsulation in biocompatible microcapsules immunoisolates CD and protects it from degradation. We report on the effect of alginate encapsulation on the catalytic and functional activity of isolated CD and recombinant E. coli engineered to express CD (E. coli(CD)). Alginate microcapsules containing either CD or Escherichia coli(CD) were prepared using ionotropic gelation. Conversion of 5-FC to 5-FU was quantitated in unencapsulated and encapsulated CD/E. coli(CD) using spectrophotometry, with a slower rate of conversion observed following encapsulation. Both encapsulated CD/5-FC and E. coli(CD)/5-FC resulted in cell kill and reduced proliferation of 9 L rat glioma cells, which was comparable to direct 5-FU treatment. Our results show that encapsulation preserves the therapeutic potential of CD and E. coli(CD) is equally effective for enzyme-prodrug therapy.

  5. Dipeptide model prodrugs for the intestinal oligopeptide transporter. Affinity for and transport via hPepT1 in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C U; Andersen, R; Brodin, Birger

    2001-01-01

    -moieties for benzyl alcohol have been shown to maintain affinity for hPepT1. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if modifications of the benzyl alcohol model drug influence the corresponding D-Glu-Ala and D-Asp-Ala model prodrugs' affinity for hPepT1 in Caco-2 cells. A second aim...... was to investigate the transepithelial transport and hydrolysis parameters for D-Asp(BnO)-Ala and D-Glu(BnO)-Ala across Caco-2 cell monolayers. In the present study, all investigated D-Asp-Ala and D-Glu-Ala model prodrugs retained various degrees of affinity for hPepT1 in Caco-2 cells. These affinities are used....... Transepithelial transport studies performed using Caco-2 cells of D-Asp(BnO)-Ala and D-Glu(BnO)-Ala showed that the K(m) for transepithelial transport was not significantly different for the two compounds. The maximal transport rate of the carrier-mediated flux component does not differ between the two model...

  6. Combining the FtsZ-Targeting Prodrug TXA709 and the Cephalosporin Cefdinir Confers Synergy and Reduces the Frequency of Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Malvika; Mark, Lilly; Parhi, Ajit K; LaVoie, Edmond J; Pilch, Daniel S

    2016-07-01

    Combination therapy of bacterial infections with synergistic drug partners offers distinct advantages over monotherapy. Among these advantages are (i) a reduction of the drug dose required for efficacy, (ii) a reduced potential for drug-induced toxicity, and (iii) a reduced potential for the emergence of resistance. Here, we describe the synergistic actions of the third-generation oral cephalosporin cefdinir and TXA709, a new, FtsZ-targeting prodrug that we have developed with improved pharmacokinetics and enhanced in vivo efficacy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) relative to earlier agents. We show that the active product of TXA709 (TXA707) acts synergistically with cefdinir in vitro against clinical isolates of MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), and linezolid-resistant S. aureus (LRSA). In addition, relative to TXA707 alone, the combination of TXA707 and cefdinir significantly reduces or eliminates the detectable emergence of resistance. We also demonstrate synergy in vivo with oral administration of the prodrug TXA709 and cefdinir in mouse models of both systemic and tissue (thigh) infections with MRSA. This synergy reduces the dose of TXA709 required for efficacy 3-fold. Viewed as a whole, our results highlight the potential of TXA709 and cefdinir as a promising combination for the treatment of drug-resistant staphylococcal infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Drug-DNA adducts as biomarkers for metabolic activation of the nitro-aromatic nitrogen mustard prodrug PR-104A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornetta, Alessia; Deng, Kai-Cheng Kieren; Danielli, Sara; Liyanage, H D Sarath; Sturla, Shana J; Wilson, William R; Gu, Yongchuan

    2018-04-07

    PR-104A is a clinical-stage nitrogen mustard prodrug that is activated for DNA alkylation by reduction of a nitro group to the corresponding hydroxylamine (PR-104H) or amine (PR-104M). Metabolic reduction is catalysed by flavoreductases such as cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) under hypoxia, or by aldo-ketoreductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) independently of hypoxia. The unstable reduced metabolites are challenging to measure in biological samples, and biomarkers of the metabolic activation of PR-104A have not been used in the clinical evaluation of PR-104 to date. Here, we employ a selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assay for DNA crosslinks to assess the capacity of human cancer cells to bioactivate PR-104A. We also test whether the more abundant DNA monoadducts could be used for the same purpose. DNA monoadducts and crosslinks from PR-104A itself, and from its reduced metabolites, accumulated over 4 h in AKR1C3-expressing TF1 erythroleukaemia cells under hypoxia, whereas intracellular concentrations of unstable PR-104H and PR-104M reached steady state within 1 h. We then varied rates of PR-104A reduction by manipulating hypoxia or reductase expression in a panel of cell lines, in which AKR1C3 and POR were quantified by targeted proteomics. Hypoxia or reductase overexpression induced large increases in PR-104A sensitivity (inhibition of proliferation), DNA damage response (γH2AX formation), steady-state concentrations of PR-104H/M and formation of reduced drug-DNA adducts but not DNA adducts retaining the dinitro groups of PR-104A. The fold-change in the sum of PR-104H and PR-104M correlated with the fold-change in reduced crosslinks or monoadducts (R 2  = 0.87 for both), demonstrating their potential for assessing the capacity of cancer cells to bioactivate PR-104A. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Excited-State Dynamics of the Thiopurine Prodrug 6-Thioguanine: Can N9-Glycosylation Affect Its Phototoxic Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Ashwood

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available 6-Thioguanine, an immunosuppressant and anticancer prodrug, has been shown to induce DNA damage and cell death following exposure to UVA radiation. Its metabolite, 6-thioguanosine, plays a major role in the prodrug’s overall photoreactivity. However, 6-thioguanine itself has proven to be cytotoxic following UVA irradiation, warranting further investigation into its excited-state dynamics. In this contribution, the excited-state dynamics and photochemical properties of 6-thioguanine are studied in aqueous solution following UVA excitation at 345 nm in order to provide mechanistic insight regarding its photochemical reactivity and to scrutinize whether N9-glycosylation modulates its phototoxicity in solution. The experimental results are complemented with time-dependent density functional calculations that include solvent dielectric effects by means of a reaction-field solvation model. UVA excitation results in the initial population of the S2(ππ* state, which is followed by ultrafast internal conversion to the S1(nπ* state and then intersystem crossing to the triplet manifold within 560 ± 60 fs. A small fraction (ca. 25% of the population that reaches the S1(nπ* state repopulates the ground state. The T1(ππ* state decays to the ground state in 1.4 ± 0.2 μs under N2-purged conditions, using a 0.2 mM concentration of 6-thioguanine, or it can sensitize singlet oxygen in 0.21 ± 0.02 and 0.23 ± 0.02 yields in air- and O2-saturated solution, respectively. This demonstrates the efficacy of 6-thioguanine to act as a Type II photosensitizer. N9-glycosylation increases the rate of intersystem crossing from the singlet to triplet manifold, as well as from the T1(ππ* state to the ground state, which lead to a ca. 40% decrease in the singlet oxygen yield under air-saturated conditions. Enhanced vibronic coupling between the singlet and triplet manifolds due to a higher density of vibrational states is proposed to be responsible for the observed

  9. 2-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids as prodrugs of L-cysteine. Protection of mice against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, H.T.; Goon, D.J.; Muldoon, W.P.; Zera, R.T.

    1984-05-01

    A number of 2-alkyl- and 2-aryl-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids were evaluated for their protective effect against hepatotoxic deaths produced in mice by LD/sub 90/ doses of acetaminophen. 2(RS)-Methyl-, 2(RS)-n-propyl-, and 2(RS)-n- pentylthiazolidine -4(R)-carboxylic acids (compounds 1b,d,e, respectively) were nearly equipotent in their protective effect based on the number of surviving animals at 48 h as well as by histological criteria. 2(RS)-Ethyl-, 2(RS)-phenyl-, and 2(RS)-(4-pyridyl)thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids (compounds 1c,f,g) were less protective. The enantiomer of 1b, viz., 2(RS)- methylthiazolidine -4(S)-carboxylic acid (2b), was totally ineffective in this regard. Thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acid (1a), but not its enantiomer, 2a, was a good substrate for a solubilized preparation of rat liver mitochondrial proline oxidase (K/sub m/ 1.1 x 10(-4) M; V/sub max/ . 5.4 mumol min-1 (mg of protein)-1). Compound 1b was not a substrate for proline oxidase but dissociated to L-cysteine in this system. At physiological pH and temperature, the hydrogens on the methyl group of 1b underwent deuterium exchange with solvent D/sub 2/O (k1 . 2.5 X 10(-5) s), suggesting that opening of the thiazolidine ring must have taken place. Indeed, 1b labeled with /sup 14/C in the 2 and methyl positions was rapidly metabolized by the rat to produce /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, 80% of the dose being excreted in this form in the expired air after 24 h. It is suggested that these 2-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids are prodrugs of L-cysteine that liberate this sulfhydryl amino acid in vivo by nonenzymatic ring opening, followed by solvolysis.

  10. Stable Treemaps via Local Moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, Max; Speckmann, Bettina; Verbeek, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Treemaps are a popular tool to visualize hierarchical data: items are represented by nested rectangles and the area of each rectangle corresponds to the data being visualized for this item. The visual quality of a treemap is commonly measured via the aspect ratio of the rectangles. If the data changes, then a second important quality criterion is the stability of the treemap: how much does the treemap change as the data changes. We present a novel stable treemapping algorithm that has very high visual quality. Whereas existing treemapping algorithms generally recompute the treemap every time the input changes, our algorithm changes the layout of the treemap using only local modifications. This approach not only gives us direct control over stability, but it also allows us to use a larger set of possible layouts, thus provably resulting in treemaps of higher visual quality compared to existing algorithms. We further prove that we can reach all possible treemap layouts using only our local modifications. Furthermore, we introduce a new measure for stability that better captures the relative positions of rectangles. We finally show via experiments on real-world data that our algorithm outperforms existing treemapping algorithms also in practice on either visual quality and/or stability. Our algorithm scores high on stability regardless of whether we use an existing stability measure or our new measure.

  11. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  12. Prodrug-activating Gene Therapy with Rabbit Cytochrome P450 4B1/4-Ipomeanol or 2-Aminoanthracene System in Glioma Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Sung Joo; Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Yong Jin; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    We determined the cytotoxic properties of cytochrome P450 4B1 (CYP4B1) activated 4-ipomeanol (4-ipo) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) in rat glioma to verify the CYP4B1/4-ipo or 2-AA system for prodrug-activating gene therapy. The cyp4B1 cDNA was cloned into pcDNA3.1/ Hygro from rabbit lung total RNA (pcDAN-cyp4B1). Lentiviral vector encoding firefly luciferase (fLuc) was infected into C6 (rat glioma), and the fLuc-expressing cell was selected (C6-L). After transfection with pcDNA-cyp4B1 vector into C6-L, the single clone expressing cyp4B1 gene was selected (C6-CL). Prodrug for various concentrations of 4-ipo or 2-AA was treated for 72 h and 96 h. The cell survival rate of C6-CL was determined using MTT assay and trypan-blue dye exclusion methods. By RT-PCR analysis, fLuc and CYP4B1 expression was detected in C6-CL, but not in C6. MTT assay and trypan-blue dye exclusion showed that IC'5'0 of C6-CL was 0.3 mM and <0.01 mM after 4-ipo or 2-AA treatment at 96 h or 72 h exposure, respectively. Cell survivals of C6-CL were more rapidly reduced after treatment with 4-ipo or 2-AA than those of C6-L cells. The cell survival rate with MTT and trypan-blue dye exclusion assay was well correlated with fLuc activity in C6-CL cells. Conclusions CYP4B1-based prodrug-activating gene therapy may have the potential to treat glioma and the cytotoxic effects of CYP4B1 enzyme activated 4-ipo or 2-AA in C6, and could be clearly determined by bioluminescent activity in C6-CL.

  13. Novel prodrug PRX-P4-003, selectively activated by gut enzymes, may reduce the risk of iatrogenic addiction and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sandeep T; Bihovsky, Ron H; Smith, Steven A; Potter, William Z; Stella, Valentino J

    2018-03-02

    Prescription stimulants are vulnerable to oral and parenteral abuse. Intravenous forms of abuse may be most detrimental due to an enhanced risk of dependence, overdose, and infectious diseases. Our objective was to discover an orally active prodrug of a stimulant that would not be easily converted to its parent when injected, thus hindering intravenous abuse. Following an initial analysis of stimulant structures, the fencamfamine isomer [(-)-FCF; (N-ethyl-3-phenylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-amine)] was chosen as a parent drug due to its favorable biochemical properties. Subsequently, PRX-P4-003 {(-)-N-(Octadecanoyloxymethoxycarbonyl)-N-ethyl-3-phenylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-amine} qualified for further development. Experimental testing of PRX-P4-003 included radioligand binding assays, stability studies, and rodent pharmacokinetic and locomotor assays. Prodrug PRX-P4-003 is a pharmacologically inactive, hydrophobic compound, whereas its parent (-)-FCF is a dopamine reuptake inhibitor with weaker effects on norepinephrine reuptake (K i  = 0.07 and 0.80 μM, respectively). PRX-P4-003 is metabolized to (-)-FCF in simulated intestinal fluid (with pancreatin) but not in simulated gastric fluid (with pepsin). Finally, PRX-P4-003 shows a significant oral but no intravenous increase in locomotion, correlating with its pharmacokinetics by these different routes of administration. PRX-P4-003 is a novel prodrug stimulant enzymatically activated in the gut. Our data suggest a pancreatic, lipase-based mechanism of activation and as only 1% of this enzyme is found in the systemic circulation, PRX-P4-003 is unlikely to be bioactive if injected intravenously. Enzymatic release of (-)-FCF is needed prior to its systemic absorption, which may discourage oral abuse (e.g., by chewing). PRX-P4-003 is being developed for apathy in Alzheimer's disease and binge eating disorder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  15. Biologically oriented organic sulfur chemistry. 22. 2-(3-chloropropyl)-5-chloropentanol as a prototype for synthesis of functionalized polysulfides and prodrugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, G.T.; Field, L.

    1982-01-01

    A synthetic approach based on 2-(3-chloropropyl)-5-chloropentanol is reported that permits synthesis of trisulfides containing either Cl or four other groups. The carbinol 5 was prepared by converting diethyl bis-(3-chloropropyl)malonate with Me/sub 3/SiI to the malonic acid, which was decarboxylated (with some remediable lactonization to followed by reduction. The carbinol 5 was converted via the triflate to a thiosulfonate, which thioalkylated Na/sub 2/S to give a trisulfide containing four Cl atoms. Replacement of the four Cl atoms of the carbinol 5 with PhCh/sub 2/S groups, followed by formation of the tosylate (the triflate polymerized) and then of the thiosulfonate, permitted synthesis of a tetrakis(benzylthio) trisulfide that illustrates tetrafunctionalization. Several intermediates are potential progenitors of prodrugs, although an effort to use bis(quaternary ammonium salts) prepared from 5 in this way was unpromising owing (chiefly) to very sparing solubilities.

  16. Quercetin and its derivatives: synthesis, pharmacological uses with special emphasis on anti-tumor properties and prodrug with enhanced bio-availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirpara, Ketan V; Aggarwal, Pawan; Mukherjee, Amrita J; Joshi, Narendra; Burman, Anand C

    2009-02-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. American Cancer Society reported 12 million new cases of malignancy diagnosed worldwide in 2007, with 7.6 million people dying from the disease. Plant-derived molecules have played an important role in cancer chemotherapy. Many cytotoxic plant-derived molecules such as vinblastine, vincristine, navelbine, etoposide, teniposide, taxol, taxotere, topotecan and irinotecan have been approved as anticancer drugs. Flavonoids, a plant-derived molecule has shown to regulate proliferation and cell death pathways leading to cancer. Some Flavonoids have already entered in clinical trials, among them Quercetin is emerging as prospective anticancer drug candidates and its prodrug QC12 has entered in phase-I clinical studies. In this review authors have tried to cover in brief but comprehensive way, the chemistry related to synthesis and uses of "Quercetin & its derivatives" with special emphasis on the anticancer properties.

  17. The engineered thymidylate kinase (TMPK/AZT enzyme-prodrug axis offers efficient bystander cell killing for suicide gene therapy of cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeya Sato

    Full Text Available We previously described a novel suicide (or 'cell fate control' gene therapy enzyme/prodrug system based on an engineered variant of human thymidylate kinase (TMPK that potentiates azidothymidine (AZT activation. Delivery of a suicide gene sequence into tumors by lentiviral transduction embodies a cancer gene therapy that could employ bystander cell killing as a mechanism driving significant tumor regression in vivo. Here we present evidence of a significant bystander cell killing in vitro and in vivo mediated by the TMPK/AZT suicide gene axis that is reliant on the formation of functional gap-junctional intercellular communications (GJICs. Potentiation of AZT activation by the engineered TMPK expressed in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3, resulted in effective bystander killing of PC-3 cells lacking TMPK expression--an effect that could be blocked by the GJIC inhibitor, carbenoxolone. Although GJICs are mainly formed by connexins, a new family of GJIC molecules designated pannexins has been recently identified. PC-3 cells expressed both connexin43 (Cx43 and Pannexin1 (Panx1, but Panx1 expression predominated at the plasma membrane, whereas Cx43 expression was primarily localized to the cytosol. The contribution of bystander effects to the reduction of solid tumor xenografts established by the PC-3 cell line was evaluated in an animal model. We demonstrate the contribution of bystander cell killing to tumor regression in a xenograft model relying on the delivery of expression of the TMPK suicide gene into tumors via direct intratumoral injection of recombinant therapeutic lentivirus. Taken together, our data underscore that the TMPK/AZT enzyme-prodrug axis can be effectively utilized in suicide gene therapy of solid tumors, wherein significant tumor regression can be achieved via bystander effects mediated by GJICs.

  18. Chemotherapy of second stage human African trypanosomiasis: comparison between the parenteral diamidine DB829 and its oral prodrug DB868 in vervet monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Thuita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness ranks among the most neglected tropical diseases based on limited availability of drugs that are safe and efficacious, particularly against the second stage (central nervous system [CNS] of infection. In response to this largely unmet need for new treatments, the Consortium for Parasitic Drug Development developed novel parenteral diamidines and corresponding oral prodrugs that have shown cure of a murine model of second stage HAT. As a rationale for selection of one of these compounds for further development, the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of intramuscular (IM active diamidine 2,5-bis(5-amidino-2-pyridylfuran (DB829; CPD-0802 and oral prodrug2,5-bis[5-(N-methoxyamidino-2-pyridyl]furan (DB868 were compared in the vervet monkey model of second stage HAT. Treatment was initiated 28 days post-infection of monkeys with T. b. rhodesiense KETRI 2537. Results showed that IM DB829 at 5 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days, 5 mg/kg/day every other day for 5 doses, or 2.5 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days cured all monkeys (5/5. Oral DB868 was less successful, with no cures (0/2 at 3 mg/kg/day for 10 days and cure rates of 1/4 at 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days and 20 mg/kg/day for 10 days; in total, only 2/10 monkeys were cured with DB868 dose regimens. The geometric mean plasma Cmax of IM DB829 at 5 mg/kg following the last of 5 doses was 25-fold greater than that after 10 daily oral doses of DB868 at 20 mg/kg. These data suggest that the active diamidine DB829, administered IM, should be considered for further development as a potential new treatment for second stage HAT.

  19. Red Light Activation of Ru(II Polypyridyl Prodrugs via Triplet-Triplet Annihilation Upconversion: Feasibility in Air and through Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven H. C. Askes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion (TTA-UC is a promising photophysical tool to shift the activation wavelength of photopharmacological compounds to the red or near-infrared wavelength domain, in which light penetrates human tissue optimally. However, TTA-UC is sensitive to dioxygen, which quenches the triplet states needed for upconversion. Here, we demonstrate not only that the sensitivity of TTA-UC liposomes to dioxygen can be circumvented by adding antioxidants, but also that this strategy is compatible with the activation of ruthenium-based chemotherapeutic compounds. First, red-to-blue upconverting liposomes were functionalized with a blue-light sensitive, membrane-anchored ruthenium polypyridyl complex, and put in solution in presence of a cocktail of antioxidants composed of ascorbic acid and glutathione. Upon red light irradiation with a medical grade 630 nm PDT laser, enough blue light was produced by TTA-UC liposomes under air to efficiently trigger full activation of the Ru-based prodrug. Then, the blue light generated by TTA-UC liposomes under red light irradiation (630 nm, 0.57 W/cm2 through different thicknesses of pork or chicken meat was measured, showing that TTA-UC still occurred even beyond 10 mm of biological tissue. Overall, the rate of activation of the ruthenium compound in TTA-UC liposomes using either blue or red light (1.6 W/cm2 through 7 mm of pork fillet were found comparable, but the blue light caused significant tissue damage, whereas red light did not. Finally, full activation of the ruthenium prodrug in TTA-UC liposomes was obtained under red light irradiation through 7 mm of pork fillet, thereby underlining the in vivo applicability of the activation-by-upconversion strategy.

  20. Sulfur mustard induced mast cell degranulation in mouse skin is inhibited by a novel anti-inflammatory and anticholinergic bifunctional prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurie B; Composto, Gabriella M; Perez, Roberto M; Kim, Hong-Duck; Casillas, Robert P; Heindel, Ned D; Young, Sherri C; Lacey, Carl J; Saxena, Jaya; Guillon, Christophe D; Croutch, Claire R; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Heck, Diane E

    2017-11-07

    Sulfur mustard (SM, bis(2-chloroethyl sulfide) is a potent vesicating agent known to cause skin inflammation, necrosis and blistering. Evidence suggests that inflammatory cells and mediators that they generate are important in the pathogenic responses to SM. In the present studies we investigated the role of mast cells in SM-induced skin injury using a murine vapor cup exposure model. Mast cells, identified by toluidine blue staining, were localized in the dermis, adjacent to dermal appendages and at the dermal/epidermal junction. In control mice, 48-61% of mast cells were degranulated. SM exposure (1.4g/m 3 in air for 6min) resulted in increased numbers of degranulated mast cells 1-14days post-exposure. Treatment of mice topically with an indomethacin choline bioisostere containing prodrug linked by an aromatic ester-carbonate that targets cyclooxygenases (COX) enzymes and acetylcholinesterase (1% in an ointment) 1-14days after SM reduced skin inflammation and injury and enhanced tissue repair. This was associated with a decrease in mast cell degranulation from 90% to 49% 1-3days post SM, and from 84% to 44% 7-14days post SM. These data suggest that reduced inflammation and injury in response to the bifunctional indomethacin prodrug may be due, at least in part, to abrogating mast cell degranulation. The use of inhibitors of mast cell degranulation may be an effective strategy for mitigating skin injury induced by SM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.